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Sample records for stable kr xe

  1. Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2013-08-27

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

  2. HXeI and HXeH in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices: experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng; Niimi, Keisuke; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Tsuge, Masashi; Nakayama, Akira; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2015-02-07

    Experimental and theoretical studies of HXeI and HXeH molecules in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices are presented. HXeI exhibits the H-Xe stretching bands at 1238.0 and 1239.0 cm(-1) in Ar and Kr matrices, respectively, that are blue-shifted from the HXeI band observed in a Xe matrix (1193 cm(-1)) by 45 and 46 cm(-1). These shifts are larger than those observed previously for HXeCl (27 and 16 cm(-1)) and HXeBr (37 and 23 cm(-1)); thus, the matrix effect is stronger for less stable molecules. The results for HXeI are qualitatively different from all previous results on noble-gas hydrides with respect to the frequency order between Ar and Kr matrices. For previously studied HXeCl, HXeBr, and HXeCCH, the H-Xe stretching frequency is reliably (by >10 cm(-1)) higher in an Ar matrix than in a Kr matrix. In contrast, the H-Xe stretching frequency of HXeI in an Ar matrix is slightly lower than that in a Kr matrix. HXeH absorbs in Ar and Kr matrices at 1203.2 and 1192.1 cm(-1) (the stronger band for a Kr matrix), respectively. These bands are blue-shifted from the stronger band of HXeH in a Xe matrix (1166 cm(-1)) by 37 and 26 cm(-1), and this frequency order is the same as observed for HXeCl, HXeBr, and HXeCCH but different from HXeI. The present hybrid quantum-classical simulations successfully describe the main experimental findings. For HXeI in the 〈110〉 (double substitution) site, the order of the H-Xe stretching frequencies (ν(Xe) matrices from a Xe matrix are well predicted (30 and 34 cm(-1)). Both in the theory and experiment, the order of the H-Xe stretching frequencies differs from the case of HXeCl, which suggests the adequate theoretical description of the matrix effect. For HXeH in the 〈100〉 (single substitution) site, the order of the frequencies is ν(Xe) matrices with respect to a Xe matrix (36 and 23 cm(-1)) are in a good agreement with the experiments. The present calculations predict an increase of the H-Xe stretching frequencies in the noble-gas matrices

  3. Chalcogenide Aerogels as Sorbents for Noble Gases (Xe, Kr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S; Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Chun, Jaehun; Riley, Brian J; Thallapally, Praveen K; Trikalitis, Pantelis N; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2017-10-04

    High-surface-area molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) and antimony sulfide (SbSx) chalcogels were studied for Xe/Kr gas separation. The intrinsic soft Lewis basic character of the chalcogel framework is a unique property among the large family of porous materials and lends itself to a potential new approach toward the selective separation of Xe over Kr. Among these chalcogels, MoSx shows the highest Xe and Kr uptake, reaching 0.69 mmol g(-1) (1.05 mmol cm(-3)) and 0.28 mmol g(-1) (0.42 mmol cm(-3)) respectively, at 273 K and 1 bar. The corresponding isosteric heat of adsorption at zero coverage (Qst(0)) is 22.8 and 18.6 kJ mol(-1) and both are the highest among the selected chalcogels. The IAST (10:90) Xe/Kr selectivity at 273 K for MoSx is 6.0, whereas for SbSx chalcogels, it varies in the range 2.0-2.8. The higher formal charge of molybdenum, Mo(4+), in MoSx versus that of antimony, Sb(3+), in SbSx coupled with its larger atomic size could induce higher polarizability in the MoSx framework and therefore higher Xe/Kr selectivity.

  4. Chalcogenide Aerogels as Sorbents for Noble Gases (Xe, Kr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Spanopoulos, Ioannis [Department; Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Trikalitis, Pantelis N. [Department; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States

    2017-02-03

    High surface MoSx and SbSx chalcogels were studied for Xe/Kr gas separation. The intrinsic soft character of the chalcogel framework is a unique property among the large family of porous materials and offers a potential new approach towards the selective separation of Xe over Kr. Among these chalcogels, MoSx shows the highest Xe and Kr uptake, reaching 0.69 mmol g-1 (1.05 mmol cm-3) and 0.28 mmol g-1 (0.42 mmol cm-3) respectively, at 273 K and 1 bar. The corresponding isosteric heat of adsorption at zero coverage (Qst0) is 22.8 and 18.6 kJ mol-1 and both are the highest among the selected chalcogels. The IAST (10:90) Xe/Kr selectivity at 273 K for MoSx is 6.0 while for SbSx chalcogels varies in the range 2.0-2.8. The higher formal charge of molybdenum, Mo4+, in MoSx versus that of antimony, Sb3+, in SbSx coupled with its larger atomic size could induce higher polarizability in the MoSx framework and therefore higher Xe/Kr selectivity.

  5. Kr/Xe Separation over a Chabazite Zeolite Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui; Zong, Zhaowang; Elsaidi, Sameh K.; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Carreon, Moises A.

    2016-08-10

    Cryogenic distillation, the current conventional technology to separate Krypton and Xenon from air, and from nuclear reprocessing technologies, is an energy-intensive and expensive process. Membrane technology could potentially make this challenging industrial separation less energy intensive and economically viable. We demonstrate that chabazite zeolite SAPO-34 membranes effectively separated Kr/Xe gas mixtures at industrially relevant compositions. Control over membrane thickness and average crystal size led to industrial range permeances and high separation selectivities. Specifically, SAPO-34 membranes can separate Kr/Xe mixtures with Kr permeances as high as 361.4 GPU and separation selectivities of 34.8 for molar compositions close to typical concentrations of these two gases in air. In addition, SAPO-34 membranes separated Kr/Xe mixtures with Kr permeances as high as 525.7 GPU and separation selectivities up to 45.1 for molar compositions as might be encountered in nuclear reprocessing technologies. Molecular sieving and differences in diffusivities were identified as the dominant separation mechanisms.

  6. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, Paul [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Naduvalath, Balakrishnan [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Czerwinski, Ken [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas – surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  7. Xe/Kr Selectivity Measurements using AgZ-PAN at Various Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In preparation for planned FY-15 Xe/Kr multi-column testing, a series of experiments were performed to determine the selectivity of Xe over Kr using the silver converted mordenite-polyacrylonitrile (AgZ-PAN) sorbent. Results from these experiments will be used for parameter selection guidelines to define test conditions for Kr gas capture purity evaluations later this year. The currently configured experimental test bed was modified by installing a new cooling apparatus to permit future multi-column testing with independent column temperature control. The modified test bed will allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents. Selectivity experiments were run at temperatures of 295, 250 and 220 K. Two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv Xe, 150 ppmv Kr in either a He or an air balance were used. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivity was calculated using Xe and Kr capacity determinations. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr of 72 were calculated at room temperature (295 K) using the feed gas with a He balance and 34 using the feed gas with an air balance. As the test temperatures were decreased the selectivity of Xe over Kr also decreased due to an increase in both Xe and Kr capacities. At 220 K, the sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr were 22 using the feed gas with a He balance and 28 using the feed gas with an air balance. The selectivity results indicate that AgZ-PAN used in the first column of a multi-column configuration will provide adequate partitioning of Xe from Kr in the tested temperature range to produce a more pure Kr end product for collection.

  8. Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) Membranes for Kr/Xe Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting; Feng, Xuhui; Elsaidi, Sameh K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Carreon, Moises A.

    2017-01-30

    Herein, we demonstrate that a prototypical type of metal organic framework, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8), in membrane form, can effectively separate Kr/Xe gas mixtures at industrially relevant compositions. The best membranes separated Kr/Xe mixtures with average Kr permeances as high as 1.5 × 10-8 ± 0.2 mol/m2 s Pa and average separation selectivities of 14.2 ± 1.9 for molar feed compositions corresponding to Kr/Xe ratio encountered typically in air. Molecular sieving, competitive adsorption, and differences in diffusivities were identified as the prevailing separation mechanisms. These membranes potentially represent a less-energy-intensive alternative to cryogenic distillation, which is the benchmark technology used to separate this challenging gas mixture. To our best knowledge, this is the first example of any metal organic membrane composition displaying separation ability for Kr/Xe gas mixtures.

  9. Development and design of a multi-column experimental setup for Kr/Xe separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As a precursor to FY-15 Kr/Xe separation testing, design modifications to an existing experimental setup are warranted. The modifications would allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents prepared using an INL patented process. A new cooling apparatus capable of achieving test temperatures to -40° C and able to house a newly designed Xe column was acquired. Modifications to the existing setup are being installed to allow for multi-column testing and gas constituent analyses using evacuated sample bombs. The new modifications will allow for independent temperature control for each column enabling a plethora of test conditions to be implemented. Sample analyses will be used to evaluate the Xe/Kr selectivity of the AgZ-PAN sorbent and determine the Kr purity of the effluent stream following Kr capture using the HZ-PAN sorbent.

  10. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Removal of Xe and Kr from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-08-07

    Removal of Xenon (Xe) and Krypton (Kr) from in parts per million (ppm) levels were demonstrated for the first time using two well known metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC. Results of an activated carbon were also included for comparison. Ni/DOBDC has higher Xe/Kr selectivities than those of the activated carbon. Moreover, results show that the Ni/DOBDC and HKUST-1 can selectively adsorb Xe and Kr from air even at 1000 ppm concentration. This shows a promising future for MOFs in a radioactive nuclides separation from spent fuel.

  11. Mutual Neutralization of Atomic Rare-Gas Cations (Ne+, Ar+, Kr+, Xe+) with Atomic Halide Anions (Cl-, Br-, I-)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-07

    gas cations (Ne+, Ar+, Kr+, Xe+) with halide anions (Cl−, Br−, I−), comprising both mutual neutralization (MN) and transfer ionization. No rate...OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 140, 044304 (2014) Mutual neutralization of atomic rare-gas cations (Ne+, Ar+, Kr+, Xe+) with atomic halide anions (Cl−, Br−, I... cations (Ne+, Ar+, Kr+, Xe+) with halide anions (Cl−, Br−, I−), comprising both mutual neutralization (MN) and transfer ionization. No rate coefficients

  12. Anionic chemistry of noble gases: formation of Mg-NG (NG = Xe, Kr, Ar) compounds under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Mao-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Brgoch, Jakoah; Spera, Frank; Jackson, Matthew G; Kresse, Georg; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2015-11-11

    While often considered to be chemically inert, the reactivity of noble gas elements at elevated pressures is an important aspect of fundamental chemistry. The discovery of Xe oxidation transformed the doctrinal boundary of chemistry by showing that a complete electron shell is not inert to reaction. However, the reductive propensity, i.e., gaining electrons and forming anions, has not been proposed or examined for noble gas elements. In this work, we demonstrate, using first-principles electronic structure calculations coupled to an efficient structure prediction method, that Xe, Kr, and Ar can form thermodynamically stable compounds with Mg at high pressure (≥125, ≥250, and ≥250 GPa, respectively). The resulting compounds are metallic and the noble gas atoms are negatively charged, suggesting that chemical species with a completely filled shell can gain electrons, filling their outermost shell(s). Moreover, this work indicates that Mg2NG (NG = Xe, Kr, Ar) are high-pressure electrides with some of the electrons localized at interstitial sites enclosed by the surrounding atoms. Previous predictions showed that such electrides only form in Mg and its compounds at very high pressures (>500 GPa). These calculations also demonstrate strong chemical interactions between the Xe 5d orbitals and the quantized interstitial quasiatom (ISQ) orbitals, including the strong chemical bonding and electron transfer, revealing the chemical nature of the ISQ.

  13. Independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes for the photofission of heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gangrskij, Y P; Mishinskij, G V; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Szoelloes, O; Zhemenik, V I

    2002-01-01

    Presented are the yields of primary fission fragments (produced in the process of the rupture of the nucleus) of Kr (A = 87- 93) and Xe (A 148-143) for the photofission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U and sup 2 sup 4 sup 4 Pu, which were measured using Bremsstrahlung from a microtron, the energy of accelerated electrons being 25 MeV. A technique was used that includes transportation of fragments escaped from the target with a gas flow through a capillary and the condensation of Kr and Xe inert gases in a cryostat at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Fragments of all the other elements were retained with a filter at the entrance of the capillary. Kr and Xe isotopes were identified by the gamma spectra of their daughter products. The mass number distributions are obtained of the independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes, which are compared with the similar characteristics for the fission induced by thermal and fast neutrons; the charge shifts for the fragments under study relative to the unchanged...

  14. Cryogenics free production of hyperpolarized 129Xe and 83Kr for biomedical MRI applications☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Six, Joseph S.; Lilburn, David M.L.; Stupic, Karl F.; Dorkes, Alan C.; Shaw, Dominick E.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative to cryogenic gas handling, hyperpolarized (hp) gas mixtures were extracted directly from the spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process through expansion followed by compression to ambient pressure for biomedical MRI applications. The omission of cryogenic gas separation generally requires the usage of high xenon or krypton concentrations at low SEOP gas pressures to generate hp 129Xe or hp 83Kr with sufficient MR signal intensity for imaging applications. Two different extraction schemes for the hp gasses were explored with focus on the preservation of the nuclear spin polarization. It was found that an extraction scheme based on an inflatable, pressure controlled balloon is sufficient for hp 129Xe handling, while 83Kr can efficiently be extracted through a single cycle piston pump. The extraction methods were tested for ex vivo MRI applications with excised rat lungs. Precise mixing of the hp gases with oxygen, which may be of interest for potential in vivo applications, was accomplished during the extraction process using a piston pump. The 83Kr bulk gas phase T1 relaxation in the mixtures containing more than approximately 1% O2 was found to be slower than that of 129Xe in corresponding mixtures. The experimental setup also facilitated 129Xe T1 relaxation measurements as a function of O2 concentration within excised lungs. PMID:24135800

  15. Cryogenics free production of hyperpolarized 129Xe and 83Kr for biomedical MRI applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Six, Joseph S; Lilburn, David M L; Stupic, Karl F; Dorkes, Alan C; Shaw, Dominick E; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    As an alternative to cryogenic gas handling, hyperpolarized (hp) gas mixtures were extracted directly from the spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process through expansion followed by compression to ambient pressure for biomedical MRI applications. The omission of cryogenic gas separation generally requires the usage of high xenon or krypton concentrations at low SEOP gas pressures to generate hp (129)Xe or hp (83)Kr with sufficient MR signal intensity for imaging applications. Two different extraction schemes for the hp gasses were explored with focus on the preservation of the nuclear spin polarization. It was found that an extraction scheme based on an inflatable, pressure controlled balloon is sufficient for hp (129)Xe handling, while (83)Kr can efficiently be extracted through a single cycle piston pump. The extraction methods were tested for ex vivo MRI applications with excised rat lungs. Precise mixing of the hp gases with oxygen, which may be of interest for potential in vivo applications, was accomplished during the extraction process using a piston pump. The (83)Kr bulk gas phase T1 relaxation in the mixtures containing more than approximately 1% O2 was found to be slower than that of (129)Xe in corresponding mixtures. The experimental setup also facilitated (129)Xe T1 relaxation measurements as a function of O2 concentration within excised lungs. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Initial proof-of-principle for near room temperature Xe and Kr separation from air with MOFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strachan, Denis M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-06-06

    Materials were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of Xenon and krypton from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. During FY 2012, Three Metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated in greater detail for the removal and storage of Xe and Kr from air at room temperature. Our breakthrough measurements on Nickel based MOF could capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe from Air (40 ppm Kr, 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.9% Ar, 0.03% CO2). Similarly, the selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by changing the temperature in another MOF. Also for the first time we estimated the cost of the metal organic frameworks in bulk.

  17. Theoretical prediction of noble gas inserted halocarbenes: FNgCX (Ng = Kr, and Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, and I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Pragya; Ghosh, Ayan; Roy, Banasri; Ghanty, Tapan K.

    2017-09-01

    A new series of neutral noble gas inserted compounds involving halocarbenes, mainly, FNgCX (Ng = Kr, and Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, and I) has been predicted through various ab initio quantum chemical techniques such as MP2, DFT, CCSD(T) and MRCI. The structure, stabilities, charge distribution, harmonic vibrational frequencies and topological properties of these compounds have been investigated. It is found that the predicted species are energetically stable with respect to all the plausible 2-body and 3-body dissociation pathways, with the exception of the 2-body channel that leads to the global minimum products (FCX + Ng). Despite this, existence of finite barrier heights indicates that these compounds are kinetically stable with respect to global minimum products. The computational results indicate that it might be possible to prepare and characterize the most stable singlet state of FNgCX molecules under cryogenic conditions through suitable experimental technique(s).

  18. Molecular hydrogen and catalytic combustion in the production of hyperpolarized 83Kr and 129Xe MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicola J; Hill-Casey, Fraser; Stupic, Karl F; Six, Joseph S; Lesbats, Clémentine; Rigby, Sean P; Fraissard, Jacques; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2016-03-22

    Hyperpolarized (hp) (83)Kr is a promising MRI contrast agent for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases affecting the surface of the respiratory zone. However, the distinct physical properties of (83)Kr that enable unique MRI contrast also complicate the production of hp (83)Kr. This work presents a previously unexplored approach in the generation of hp (83)Kr that can likewise be used for the production of hp (129)Xe. Molecular nitrogen, typically used as buffer gas in spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP), was replaced by molecular hydrogen without penalty for the achievable hyperpolarization. In this particular study, the highest obtained nuclear spin polarizations were P =29% for(83)Kr and P= 63% for (129)Xe. The results were reproduced over many SEOP cycles despite the laser-induced on-resonance formation of rubidium hydride (RbH). Following SEOP, the H2 was reactively removed via catalytic combustion without measurable losses in hyperpolarized spin state of either (83)Kr or (129)Xe. Highly spin-polarized (83)Kr can now be purified for the first time, to our knowledge, to provide high signal intensity for the advancement of in vivo hp (83)Kr MRI. More generally, a chemical reaction appears as a viable alternative to the cryogenic separation process, the primary purification method of hp(129)Xe for the past 2 1/2 decades. The inherent simplicity of the combustion process will facilitate hp (129)Xe production and should allow for on-demand continuous flow of purified and highly spin-polarized (129)Xe.

  19. Solubility and partitioning of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in minerals and synthetic basaltic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C. L.; Drake, M. J.; Hagee, B. E.; Bernatowicz, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The solubilities of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe gases were measured in natural samples of anorthite, diopside, forsterite, spinel, and synthetic basaltic melts, the samples which represent equilibrium pairs in the Fo-An-Di-SiO2 system. Results show that, in natural minerals, the solubilities of these gases increase with increasing atomic number. In contrast, the solubilities of noble gases in the synthetic basaltic melts decreased with increasing atomic number. The partition coefficients increased with increasing atomic number for all mineral/melt pairs.

  20. Constraining the recent history of the perennially ice-covered Lake Bonney, East Antarctica using He, Kr and Xe concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Chris M.; Castro, Maria Clara; Kenig, Fabien; Doran, Peter T.

    2017-07-01

    Lake Bonney is a perennially ice-covered lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDVs) that has long been studied in order to provide constraints on the paleoclimate of West Antarctica. The lake is divided into two lobes, West Lake Bonney (WLB) and East Lake Bonney (ELB) that are separated by a narrow ridge. The two lobes currently receive surface melt water during austral summers from glacier-fed ephemeral streams and this meltwater enters the lake via a narrow ring, or moat, of liquid water that forms around the lake during summer. The West Lobe also receives water from direct input of melt water from Taylor glacier and saline water from irregular subglacial discharge. Here, we combine previously published He data from Lake Bonney with new Kr and Xe concentration data to examine the signatures of water recharge via the seasonal moat and these data are used to constrain a model for He, Kr and Xe transport within both WLB and ELB over about the last 5000-6000 yrs. A detailed numerical simulation is presented that combines diffusive transport of noble gases within the stratified water column of Lake Bonney, along with ice ablation at the top of the ice cover, partitioning of noble gases between water and ice, plus exchange of noble gases between WLB and ELB. Results strongly suggest that open moats have only operated for about 2-3 centuries within the last millennium. These results are corroborated by the high concentration of He, especially within WLB, which points to a history of ice cover with no open moats operating for both lobes for at least about 5 millennia. In addition, the distribution of He, Kr and Xe suggest that a significant rise of the water level of Lake Bonney associated with a warmer period may have been interrupted by a roughly 4-5 century long cold period during which the moats were not large enough to allow air saturated water into the lake, with this cold period ending about one century ago. In addition, during this cold period, there is evidence for

  1. Continuous Measurements of Dissolved Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe Ratios with a Field-Deployable Gas Equilibration Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Cara C; Stanley, Rachel H R; Lott, Dempsey E

    2016-03-15

    Noble gases dissolved in natural waters are useful tracers for quantifying physical processes. Here, we describe a field-deployable gas equilibration mass spectrometer (GEMS) that provides continuous, real-time measurements of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe mole ratios in natural waters. Gas is equilibrated with a membrane contactor cartridge and measured with a quadrupole mass spectrometer, after in-line purification with reactive metal alloy getters. We use an electron energy of 35 V for Ne to eliminate isobaric interferences, and a higher electron energy for the other gases to improve sensitivity. The precision is 0.7% or better and 1.0% or better for all mole ratios when the instrument is installed in a temperature-controlled environment and a variable-temperature environment, respectively. In the lab, the accuracy is 0.9% or better for all gas ratios using air as the only calibration standard. In the field (and/or at greater levels of disequilbrium), the accuracy is 0.7% or better for Ne/Kr, Ne/Ar, and Ar/Kr, and 2.5% or better for Ne/Xe, Ar/Xe, and Kr/Xe using air as the only calibration standard. The field accuracy improves to 0.6% or better for Ne/Xe, Ar/Xe, and Kr/Xe when the data is calibrated using discrete water samples run on a laboratory-based mass spectrometer. The e-folding response time is 90-410 s. This instrument enables the collection of a large number of continuous, high-precision and accuracy noble gas measurements at substantially reduced cost and labor compared to traditional methods.

  2. Matrix effect on vibrational frequencies: Experiments and simulations for HCl and HNgCl (Ng = Kr and Xe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Räsänen, Markku; Lignell, Antti; Khriachtchev, Leonid, E-mail: leonid.khriachtchev@helsinki.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 (Finland); Gerber, R. Benny [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 (Finland); Department of Physical Chemistry, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel and Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2014-03-07

    We study the environmental effect on molecules embedded in noble-gas (Ng) matrices. The experimental data on HXeCl and HKrCl in Ng matrices is enriched. As a result, the H−Xe stretching bands of HXeCl are now known in four Ng matrices (Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe), and HKrCl is now known in Ar and Kr matrices. The order of the H−Xe stretching frequencies of HXeCl in different matrices is ν(Ne) < ν(Xe) < ν(Kr) < ν(Ar), which is a non-monotonous function of the dielectric constant, in contrast to the “classical” order observed for HCl: ν(Xe) < ν(Kr) < ν(Ar) < ν(Ne). The order of the H−Kr stretching frequencies of HKrCl is consistently ν(Kr) < ν(Ar). These matrix effects are analyzed theoretically by using a number of quantum chemical methods. The calculations on these molecules (HCl, HXeCl, and HKrCl) embedded in single Ng{sup ′} layer cages lead to very satisfactory results with respect to the relative matrix shifts in the case of the MP4(SDQ) method whereas the B3LYP-D and MP2 methods fail to fully reproduce these experimental results. The obtained order of frequencies is discussed in terms of the size available for the Ng hydrides in the cages, probably leading to different stresses on the embedded molecule. Taking into account vibrational anharmonicity produces a good agreement of the MP4(SDQ) frequencies of HCl and HXeCl with the experimental values in different matrices. This work also highlights a number of open questions in the field.

  3. Understanding the adsorption mechanism of noble gases Kr and Xe in CPO-27-Ni, CPO-27-Mg, and ZIF-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdysyuk, O V; Adams, F; Liermann, H-P; Spanopoulos, I; Trikalitis, P N; Hirscher, M; Morris, R E; Duncan, M J; McCormick, L J; Dinnebier, R E

    2014-11-21

    An experimental study of Xe and Kr adsorption in metal-organic frameworks CPO-27-Ni, CPO-27-Mg, and ZIF-8 was carried out. In situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction experiments allowed precise determination of the adsorption sites and sequence of their filling with increasing of gas pressure at different temperatures. Structural investigations were used for interpretation of gas adsorption measurements.

  4. Adsorption properties of fission gases Xe and Kr on pristine and doped graphene: A first principle DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhappilly, Tijo; Ghanty, Tapan K.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2017-07-01

    Graphene has excellent adsorption properties due to large surface area and has been used in applications related to gas sorption and separation. The separation of radioactive noble gases using graphene is an interesting area of research relevant to nuclear waste management. Radioactive noble gases Xe and Kr are present in the off-gas streams from nuclear fission reactors and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The entrapment of these volatile fission gases is important in the context of nuclear safety. The separation of Xe from Kr is extremely difficult, and energy intensive cryogenic distillation is generally employed. Physisorption based separation techniques using porous materials is a cost effective alternative to expensive cryogenic distillation. Thus, adsorption of noble gases on graphene is relevant for fundamental understanding of physisorption process. The properties of graphene can be tuned by doping and incorporation of defects. In this regard, we study the binding affinity of Xe and Kr in pristine and doped graphene sheets. We employ first principle calculations using density functional theory, corrected for dispersion interactions. The structural parameters obtained from the current study show excellent agreement with the available theoretical and experimental observations on similar systems. Noble gas adsorption energies on pristine graphene match very well with the available literature. Our results show that the binding energy of fission gases Xe and Kr on graphene can be considerably improved through doping the lattice with a heteroatom.

  5. The weak covalent bond in NgAuF (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe): A challenge for subsystem density functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyhan, S.M.; Gotz, A.W.; Jacob, C.R.; Visscher, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have assessed the accuracy of a representative set of currently available approximate kinetic-energy functionals used within the frozen-density embedding scheme for the NgAuF (Ng=Ar, Kr, Xe) molecules, which we partitioned into a Ng and a AuF subsystem. Although it is weak, there is a covalent

  6. Impact parameter moments for ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe by protons, considering different initial states and impact energies

    CERN Document Server

    Miraglia, J E

    2016-01-01

    Tables of ab-initio total cross sections, probabilities at zero impact parameter, and impact parameter moments are presented concerning the ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe by proton impact in the energy range (0.1-10) MeV. Calculations correspond to the continuum distorted wave eikonal initial state approximation (CDW-EIS) for energies up to 1MeV, and to the first Born approximation for larger energies. Results displayed in the tables are disaggregated for the different initial bound states, considering all shells for Ne and Ar, L-M-N shells of Kr and M-N-O shells of Xe. Our inner-shell ionization cross sections are compared with the available experimental data and with the ECPSSR results.

  7. A first-principles study of He, Xe, Kr and O incorporation in thorium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Daroca, D., E-mail: pdaroca@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Llois, A.M. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    Thorium-based materials are currently being investigated in relation with their potential utilization in Generation-IV reactors as nuclear fuels. Understanding the incorporation of fission products and oxygen is very important to predict the behavior of nuclear fuels. A first approach to this goal is the study of the incorporation energies and stability of these elements in the material. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we calculate the incorporation energies of He, Xe, Kr and O atoms in Th and C vacancy sites, in tetrahedral interstitials and in Schottky defects along the 〈1 1 1〉 and 〈1 0 0〉 directions. We also analyze atomic displacements, volume modifications and Bader charges. This kind of results for ThC, to the best authors’ knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. This should deal as a starting point towards the study of the complex behavior of fission products in irradiated ThC.

  8. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed Using CaSDB MOF for Xe/Kr Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Processing of spent nuclear fuel produces off-gas from which several volatile radioactive components must be separated for further treatment or storage. As part of the Off-gas Sigma Team, parallel research at INL and PNNL has produced several promising sorbents for the selective capture of xenon and krypton from these off-gas streams. In order to design full-scale treatment systems, sorbents that are promising on a laboratory scale must be proven under process conditions to be considered for pilot and then full-scale use. To that end, a bench-scale multi-column system with capability to test multiple sorbents was designed and constructed at INL. This report details bench-scale testing of CaSDB MOF, produced at PNNL, and compares the results to those reported last year using INL engineered sorbents. Two multi-column tests were performed with the CaSDB MOF installed in the first column, followed with HZ-PAN installed in the second column. The CaSDB MOF column was placed in a Stirling cryocooler while the cryostat was employed for the HZ-PAN column. Test temperatures of 253 K and 191 K were selected for the first column while the second column was held at 191 K for both tests. Calibrated volume sample bombs were utilized for gas stream analyses. At the conclusion of each test, samples were collected from each column and analyzed for gas composition. While CaSDB MOF does appear to have good capacity for Xe, the short time to initial breakthrough would make design of a continuous adsorption/desorption cycle difficult, requiring either very large columns or a large number of smaller columns. Because of the tenacity with which Xe and Kr adhere to the material once adsorbed, this CaSDB MOF may be more suitable for use as a long-term storage solution. Further testing is recommended to determine if CaSDB MOF is suitable for this purpose.

  9. A Simulation Study of the Fundamental Vibrational Shifts of HCl Diluted in Ar, Kr, and Xe: Anharmonic Corrections Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have calculated the vibrational solvent shifts of the fundamental bands of HCl diluted in Ar, Kr, and Xe solutions at different thermodynamic conditions by means of the molecular dynamics technique and a model for the isotropic part of the interaction depending on the vibration. The theoretical vibrational shifts, which were compared with the available experimental data, have been determined by considering both, the usual linear Buckingham terms and the nonlinear anharmonic corrections, and the latter omitted in a previous work for the HCl in Ar and Kr. We have found that the Buckingham contributions dominate the solvent shifts of the fundamental bands of HCl in Ar, Kr, and Xe, although the anharmonic shifts’ present significant greater values than those obtained previously for N2 diluted in liquid Ar and pure liquid N2, both at normal conditions. We have analyzed the solvent shifts influence of the linear and quadratic (in the vibrational coordinate oscillator-bath interaction terms and also the Dunham intramolecular potential effects on the anharmonic contributions.

  10. Superficial Velocity Effects on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN for Kr/Xe Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Nearly all previous testing of HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN was conducted at the same flow rate in order to maintain consistency among tests. This testing was sufficient for sorbent capacity determinations, but did not ensure that sorbents were capable of functioning under a range of flow regimes. Tests were conducted on both HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN at superficial velocities between 20 and 700 cm/min. For HZ-PAN, Kr capacity increased from 60 mmol/kg to 110 mmol/kg as superficial velocity increased from 21 to 679 cm/min. Results for AgZ-PAN were similar, with capacity ranging from 72 to 124 mmol/kg over the same range of superficial. These results are promising for scaling up to process flows, demonstrating flexibility to operate in a broad range of superficial velocities while maintaining sorbent capacity. While preparing for superficial velocity testing it was also discovered that AgZ-PAN Xe capacity, previously observed to diminish over time, could be recovered with increased desorption temperature. Further, a substantial Xe capacity increase was observed. Previous room temperature capacities in the range of 22-25 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN were increased to over 60 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN. While this finding has not yet been fully explored to optimize activation and desorption temperatures, it is encouraging.

  11. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed for Xe/Kr Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lyon, Kevin Lawrence [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)ry

    2015-08-31

    Previous research studies have shown that INL-developed engineered form sorbents are capable of capturing both Kr and Xe from various composite gas streams. The previous experimental test bed provided single column testing for capacity evaluations over a broad temperature range. To advance research capabilities, the employment of an additional column to study selective capture of target species to provide a defined final gas composition for waste storage was warranted. The second column addition also allows for compositional analyses of the final gas product to provide for final storage determinations. The INL krypton capture system was modified by adding an additional adsorption column in order to create a multi-column test bed. The purpose of this modification was to investigate the separation of xenon from krypton supplied as a mixed gas feed. The extra column was placed in a Stirling Ultra-low Temperature Cooler, capable of controlling temperatures between 190 and 253K. Additional piping and valves were incorporated into the system to allow for a variety of flow path configurations. The new column was filled with the AgZ-PAN sorbent which was utilized as the capture medium for xenon while allowing the krypton to pass through. The xenon-free gas stream was then routed to the cryostat filled with the HZ-PAN sorbent to capture the krypton at 191K. Selectivities of xenon over krypton were determined using the new column to verify the system performance and to establish the operating conditions required for multi-column testing. Results of these evaluations verified that the system was operating as designed and also demonstrated that AgZ-PAN exhibits excellent selectivity for xenon over krypton in air at or near room temperature. Two separation tests were performed utilizing a feed gas consisting of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton with the balance being made up of air. The AgZ-PAN temperature was held at 295 or 253K while the HZ-PAN was held at 191K for both

  12. Mutual neutralization of atomic rare-gas cations (Ne(+), Ar(+), Kr(+), Xe(+)) with atomic halide anions (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Nicholas S; Miller, Thomas M; Johnsen, Rainer; Viggiano, Albert A

    2014-01-28

    We report thermal rate coefficients for 12 reactions of rare gas cations (Ne(+), Ar(+), Kr(+), Xe(+)) with halide anions (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)), comprising both mutual neutralization (MN) and transfer ionization. No rate coefficients have been previously reported for these reactions; however, the development of the Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry technique makes it possible to measure the difference of the rate coefficients for pairs of parallel reactions in a Flowing Afterglow-Langmuir Probe apparatus. Measurements of 18 such combinations of competing reaction pairs yield an over-determined data set from which a consistent set of rate coefficients of the 12 MN reactions can be deduced. Unlike rate coefficients of MN reactions involving at least one polyatomic ion, which vary by at most a factor of ∼3, those of the atom-atom reactions vary by at least a factor 60 depending on the species. It is found that the rate coefficients involving light rare-gas ions are larger than those for the heavier rare-gas ions, but the opposite trend is observed in the progression from Cl(-) to I(-). The largest rate coefficient is 6.5 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1) for Ne(+) with I(-). Rate coefficients for Ar(+), Kr(+), and Xe(+) reacting with Br2 (-) are also reported.

  13. Measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 as undisturbed tracers for the representing of atmospheric transport after disposal of radioactivity from nuclear facilities; Messungen von Kr-85 und Xe-133 als ungestoerte Tracer zur Darstellung atmosphaerischer Transportvorgaenge nach Freisetzung von Radioaktivitaet aus kerntechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T. [Deutscher Wetterdienst (Germany); Salvamoser, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Isotopen-, Gas- und Umweltuntersuchungen (IGU), Woerthsee (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Meteorological Service) operates since 1996 a sampling and measurement device for the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 in Offenbach. These measurements are embedded in the German Measurement and Information System for Monitoring Environmental Radioactivity (Integriertes Mess- und Informationssystem zur Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet in der Umwelt, IMIS) [1]. In addition to these measurements the DWD is sampling rare gases in Potsdam and since 2014 in Trier in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection, BfS). In the frame of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)-program of the WMO the DWD operated a sampling station at the Zugspitze (Schneefernerhaus) from 1999 to 2005. This location at the Zugspitze is well suited for the observation of long distance transport of Kr-85 in the higher atmosphere. The DWD in Offenbach operates a complex analytical system for the measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 since 1998. This system consists of sampling with first enrichment, second enrichment, gas chromatographic separation and preparation of Krypton and Xenon and measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133. Using the example Fukushima, it is shown, that the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 are well undisturbed tracers for atmospheric transport in case of a nuclear accident or routine nuclear reprocessing plants. Measurements of Xe-133, I-131, Cs-137 and Kr-85 are correlated with source and atmospheric transport to the sampling sites at Offenbach and Potsdam.

  14. Single-shot measurement of subpicosecond KrF pulse width by three-photon fluorescence of the XeF visible transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarukura, N; Watanabe, M; Endoh, A; Watanabe, S

    1988-11-01

    The intensity of the XeF C-A transition induced by a subpicosecond KrF laser is shown to have a cubic dependence on KrF laser intensity. The third-order autocorrelation technique for measuring the duration of a single KrF subpicosecond pulse has been developed utilizing this visible transition. A pulse width of 220 fsec was successfully measured with a high contrast of ~10. The visible fluorescence is more useful to researchers than vacuum-UV fluorescences. Furthermore, this simple technique may be applied over a wide UV wavelength region from 204 to 306 nm.

  15. Inner-shell spectroscopy and exchange interaction of Rydberg electrons bound by singly and doubly charged Kr and Xe atoms in small clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, Masanari; Hatsui, Takaki; Setoyama, Hiroyuki; Ruehl, Eckart [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Kosugi, Nobuhiro, E-mail: kosugi@ims.ac.j [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Surface-site resolved Kr 3d{sub 5/2}{sup -1}5p and 3d{sub 5/2}{sup -1}6p and Xe 4d{sub 5/2}{sup -1}6p and 4d{sub 5/2}{sup -1}7p Rydberg excited states in small van der Waals Kr and Xe clusters with a mean size of = 15 are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface-site resolved Kr 4s{sup -2}5p, 4s{sup -2}6p, and 4s{sup -1}4p{sup -1}5p shakeup-like Rydberg states in small Kr clusters are investigated by resonant Auger electron spectroscopy. The exchange interaction of the Rydberg electron with the surrounding atoms and the induced polarization of the surrounding atoms in the singly and doubly ionized atoms are deduced from the experimental spectra to analyze different surface-site contributions in small clusters, assuming that the corner, edge, face, and bulk sites have 3, 5-6, 8, and 12 nearest neighbor atoms. These energies are almost proportional to the number of the nearest neighbor atoms. The present analysis indicates that small Kr and Xe clusters with = 15 have an average or mixture structure between the fcc-like cubic and icosahedron-like spherical structures.

  16. Detection of the primary scintillation light from dense Ar, Kr and Xe with novel photosensitive gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Carlson, P J; Francke, T; Pavlopoulos, P; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F

    2002-01-01

    The detection of primary scintillation light in combination with the charge or secondary scintillation signals is an efficient technique to determine the events t=0 as well as particle / photon separation in large mass TPC detectors filled with noble gases and/or condensed noble gases. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that costly photo-multipliers could be replaced by cheap novel photosensitive gaseous detectors: wire counters, GEMs or glass capillary tubes coupled with CsI photocathodes. We have performed systematic measurements with Ar, Kr and Xe gas at pressures in the range of 1-50 atm as well as some preliminary measurements with liquid Xe and liquid Ar. With the gaseous detectors we succeeded in detecting scintillation light produced by 22 keV X-rays with an efficiency of close to 100%. We also detected the scintillation light produced by bs (5 keV deposit energy) with an efficiency close to 25%. Successful detection of scintillation from 22 keV gammas open new experimental possibilities not only ...

  17. ns2np4 (n = 4, 5) lone pair triplets whirling in M*F2E3 (M* = Kr, Xe): Stereochemistry and ab initio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Jean; Matar, Samir F.

    2017-02-01

    The stereochemistry of ns2np4 (n = 4, 5) lone pair LP characterizing noble gas Kr and Xe (labeled M*) in M*F2 difluorides is examined within coherent crystal chemistry and ab initio visualizations. M*2+ in such oxidation state brings three lone pairs (E) and difluorides are formulated M*F2E3. The analyses use electron localization function (ELF) obtained within density functional theory calculations showing the development of the LP triplets whirling {E3} quantified in the relevant chemical systems. Detailed ELF data analyses allowed showing that in α KrF2E3 and isostructural XeF2E3 difluorides the three E electronic clouds merge or hybridize into a torus and adopt a perfect gyration circle with an elliptical section, while in β KrF2 the network architecture deforms the whole torus into an ellipsoid shape. Original precise metrics are provided for the torus in the different compounds under study. In KrF2 the geometric changes upon β → α phase transition is schematized and mechanisms for the transformation with temperature or pressure are proposed. The results are further highlighted by electronic band structure calculations which show similar features of equal band gaps of 3 eV in both α and β KrF2 and a reorganization of frontier orbitals due to the different orientations of the F-Kr-F linear molecule in the two tetragonal structures.

  18. Rate constants for collisional quenching of NO (A(2)Σ(+), v = 0) by He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and infrared emission accompanying rare gas and impurity quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Julian; Hancock, Gus

    2014-06-14

    The quenching rates of NO (A(2)Σ(+), v = 0) with He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe have been studied at room temperature by measurements of the time dependence of the fluorescence decay following laser excitation. The rates are slow, with upper limits of rate constants determined as between 1.2 and 2.0 × 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), considerably lower than those reported before in the literature. Such slow rates can be markedly influenced by impurities such as O2 and H2O which have quenching rate constants close to gas kinetic values. Time resolved Fourier transform infrared emission has been used to observe the products of the quenching processes with the rare gases and with impurities. For He, Ne Ar and Kr there is no difference within experimental error of the populations in NO (X(2)Π v ≥ 2) produced with and without rare gas present, but the low quantum yields of such quenching (of the order of 5% for an atmosphere of rare gas) preclude quantitative information on the quantum states being obtained. For quenching by Xe the collisional formation of electronically excited Xe atoms dominates the emission at early times. Vibrationally excited NO (X(2)Π, v) and products of reactive quenching are observed in the presence of O2 and H2O.

  19. Vapor equilibrium data for the systems Ar--N/sub 2/, Kr--Ar, Kr--N/sub 2/, and Xe--Kr, as well as the liquidus lines of solid xenon and of solid krypton in liquid air component mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastera, S.J.

    1977-01-15

    The knowledge of vapor-liquid equilibrium data of real gas mixtures makes possible a precise design of a low temperature distillation system. The noble gas isotopes Kr and Xe are formed as a result of nuclear fission. They reach the off-gas, where they must be separated by cryogenic methods, among others, in order to reduce radiological contamination of the environment. Consequently, an equilibrium apparatus was constructed inhouse, which worked according to a dynamical measurement method. The following low temperature measurements were performed with this apparatus: (1) to test the apparatus with the Ar--N/sub 2/ system, at temperatures of 80, 85, 90, 95, and 100 degrees K; (2) with the Kr--Ar system, at temperatures of 115, 116.5, 120, and 125 degrees K; (3) with the Kr--N/sub 2/ system, at temperatures of 100, 105, at 110 degrees K in the N/sub 2/-rich existence range of the liquid phase above the solubility limit, and at temperatures of 115, 120, and 125 degrees K in the entire concentration range. No data at all were previously known about this important system. (4) In the Xe-Kr system, at temperatures of 150, 155, and 160 degrees K, in the Kr-rich liquid existence range above the solubility limit, and at the temperature steps 165, 166, and 170 degrees in the entire concentration range. The consistency of the equilibrium data thus determined was tested with the computer program SYMFIT. These measurements were completed by determining the solubility limits (= liquidus lines) of solid Kr in a liquid Kr--Ar mixture or in a liquid Kr--N/sub 2/ mixture, as well as the solubility limit of solid Xe in a liquid Xe--Kr mixture. The measurement points for the liquidus lines were associated with the respective pressure and respective temperature over the entire concentration range. The experimentally determined data are displayed on tables and graphs. The utilized measurement equipment, with its glass equilibrium cell, is described.

  20. Solubility of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in a basalt melt in the range 1250-1600/sup 0/C. Geochemical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, A.; Weber, H.; Braun, O.

    1986-03-01

    The solubility constant of Henry's law has been experimentally determined in a tholeiitic basalt melt. Equilibrium with air, a noble gas mix, and various mixtures of the two permitted us to assess the validity of Henry's law under 1 bar ambient pressure in the temperature range 1250-1600/sup 0/C. Mass spectrometric analyses of quenched products yield solubilities decreasing with increasing atomic size as: 56(11.), 25(3.), 5.9(0.9), 3.0(0.7) and 1.7(0.4) in units of 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 3/ STP/g-bar (with standard deviation) for He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe, respectively (1400/sup 0/C). Partial pressures were varied by factors between 100 and 2 x 10/sup 4/. The data permit calculation of the distribution of noble gases between melt and coexisting vesicles. Comparison with data obtained on MORB glasses shows that He, Ne, and Ar display an equilibrium distribution while Kr and Xe in the vesicle-free glass are probably below analytical detection. The strong fractionation effects implied by the very different solubilities can explain most of the variations observed in MORB-glasses for He/Ne and He/Ar ratios.

  1. Desorption Kinetics of Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, O2, CO, Methane, Ethane, and Propane from Graphene and Amorphous Solid Water Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. Scott; May, Robert A.; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-03-03

    The desorption kinetics for Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, O2, CO, methane, ethane, and propane from grapheme covered Pt(111) and amorphous solid water (ASW) surfaces are investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The TPD spectra for all of the adsorbates from graphene have well-resolved first, second, third, and multi- layer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent the zero-order desorption for all of the adsorbates. An Arrhenius analysis is used to obtain desorption energies and prefactors for desorption from graphene for all of the adsorbates. In contrast, the leading desorption edges for the adsorbates from ASW do not align (for coverages < 2 ML). The non-alignment of TPD leading edges suggests that there are multiple desorption binding sites on the ASW surface. Inversion analysis is used to obtain the coverage dependent desorption energies and prefactors for desorption from ASW for all of the adsorbates.

  2. Important technological problems with stable operation of electron beam pumped KrF excimer laser amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Wei Yi; Hu Feng Ming; Shan Yu Sheng; Wang Nai Yan

    2002-01-01

    Some important technological problems with stable operation of the two-side electron beam pumped main amplifier used in the 'Heaven-1' high power KrF excimer laser system are described. They are the problems of the electric breakdown of the insulator support for water dielectric transmission lines, anode foil installation of large area electron beam diode, shape of Hibachi ribs that contact the pressure foil, and formation of diode post pulses and their damage to the anode foil and cathode emitter. Emphasis is put on the effect of different main-switch breakdown times on diode post pulses and the determination of the optimal breakdown time

  3. Quasimolecular emission near the Xe(5p 56s 1,3 P 1 - 5p 6 1 S 0) and Kr (4p 55s 1,3 P 1 - 4p 6 1 S 0) resonance lines induced by collisions with He atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, O. S.; Devdariani, A. Z.; Grigorian, G. M.; Lednev, M. G.; Zagrebin, A. L.

    2017-02-01

    This study is devoted to the theoretical investigation of the quasimolecular emission of Xe*-He and Kr*-He collision pairs near the Xe (5p 56s 1,3 P 1 - 5p 6 1 S 0) and Kr (4p 55s 1,3 P 1 - 4p 6 1 S 0) resonance atomic lines. The potential curves of the quasimolecules Xe(5p 56s) + He and Kr(4p 55s) + He have been obtained with the use of the effective Hamiltonian and pseudopotential methods. Based on these potential curves the processes of quasimolecular emission of Xe*+He and Kr*+He mixtures have been considered and the spectral distributions I(ħΔω) of photons emitted have been obtained in the framework of quasistatic approximation.

  4. Vibrational energy and bimolecular reactions: Enhancement of the electron transfer derived product channels for quenching of Xe(3P2) and Kr(3P2) atoms by CFnCl4 - n, C2FnCl6 - n, and CF3CFClCF2Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczynski, R.; Setser, D. W.; Slagle, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The yields of XeCl(B,C) and KrCl(B,C) from the reactions of Xe(3P2) and Kr(3P2) metastable atoms with chlorofluoromethanes and chlorofluoroethanes are enhanced by the addition of vibrational energy to the molecule. The reactions were studied in a fast flow reactor with He or Ar carrier gas; vibrational energy was added to the molecules by multiphoton absorption from a CO2 laser pulse at fluences of 0.2-1.0 J cm-2. The enhancement of the XeCl(B,C) or KrCl(B,C) product was observed by monitoring the B-X fluorescence intensity in real time following excitations by the CO2 laser. Enhancement factors are reported for reactions with CF2Cl2, CFCl3, CF3CFCl2, CF2ClCF2Cl, CF2ClCFCl2, and CF3CFClCF2Cl; survey experiments are presented to demonstrate enhancement of XeCl* and XeBr* from vibrationally excited CF2BrCl and CF3CH2Br. The decay times of the XeCl(B) and KrCl(B) signals provide information about the relaxation rates of the vibrationally excited CFnCl4-n and C2FnCl6-n molecules. In order to have a reliable reference, the total quenching rate constants and the branching fractions for XeCl(B,C) and KrCl(B,C) formation for 300 K conditions also were measured for most of the compounds; the branching fraction for XeCl* formation form CF3CCl3 is large for a polyatomic molecule.

  5. Crystallographic Studies of Xe And Kr Binding Within the Large Internal Cavity of Cytochrome Ba(3) From Thermus Thermophilus: Structural Analysis And Role of Oxygen Transport Channels in the Heme-Cu Oxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, V.M.; Chen, Y.; Fee, J.A.; Stout, C.D.

    2009-05-26

    Cytochrome ba{sub 3} is a cytochrome c oxidase from the plasma membrane of Thermus thermophilus and is the preferred terminal enzyme of cellular respiration at low dioxygen tensions. Using cytochrome ba{sub 3} crystals pressurized at varying conditions under Xe or Kr gas, and X-ray data for six crystals, we identify the relative affinities of Xe and Kr atoms for as many as seven distinct binding sites. These sites track a continuous, Y-shaped channel, 18--20 {angstrom} in length, lined by hydrophobic residues, which leads from the surface of the protein where two entrance holes, representing the top of the Y, connect the bilayer to the {alpha}{sub 3}-Cu{sub B} center at the base of the Y. Considering the increased affinity of O{sub 2} for hydrophobic environments, the hydrophobic nature of the channel, its orientation within the bilayer, its connection to the active site, its uniform diameter, its virtually complete occupation by Xe, and its isomorphous presence in the native enzyme, we infer that the channel is a diffusion pathway for O{sub 2} into the dinuclear center of cytochrome ba{sub 3}. These observations provide a basis for analyzing similar channels in other oxidases of known structure, and these structures are discussed in terms of mechanisms of O{sub 2} transport in biological systems, details of CO binding to and egress from the dinuclear center, the bifurcation of the oxygen-in and water-out pathways, and the possible role of the oxygen channel in aerobic thermophily.

  6. MCNPX CALCULATIONS OF SPECIFIC ABSORBED FRACTIONS IN SOME ORGANS OF THE HUMAN BODY DUE TO APPLICATION OF 133Xe, 99mTc and 81mKr RADIONUCLIDES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Z; Krstic, D; Nikezic, D; Ros, J M Gomez; Ferrari, P

    2017-09-23

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate treatment doses with wide spread used radionuclides 133Xe, 99mTc and 81mKr. These different radionuclides are used in perfusion or ventilation examinations in nuclear medicine and as indicators for cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The objective of this work was to estimate the specific absorbed fractions in surrounding organs and tissues, when these radionuclides are incorporated in the lungs. For this purpose a voxel thorax model has been developed and compared with the ORNL phantom. All calculations and simulations were performed by means of the MCNP5/X code. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Modified Lennard-Jones Potentials with a Reduced Temperature-Correction Parameter for Calculating Thermodynamic and Transport Properties: Noble Gases and Their Mixtures (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kyo Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-parameter Lennard-Jones (12-6 potential function is proposed to calculate thermodynamic property (second virial coefficient and transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe and their mixtures at low density. Empirical modification is made by introducing a reduced temperature-correction parameter τ to the Lennard-Jones potential function for this purpose. Potential parameters (σ, ε, and τ are determined individually for each species when the second virial coefficient and viscosity data are fitted together within the experimental uncertainties. Calculated thermodynamic and transport properties are compared with experimental data by using a single set of parameters. The present study yields parameter sets that have more physical significance than those of second virial coefficient methods and is more discriminative than the existing transport property methods in most cases of pure gases and of gas mixtures. In particular, the proposed model is proved with better results than those of the two-parameter Lennard-Jones (12-6 potential, Kihara Potential with group contribution concepts, and other existing methods.

  8. CDW-EIS calculations for multiple ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe by the impact of H{sup +} and He{sup +}, including post-collisional electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, C C; Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y FIsica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montenegro, E C, E-mail: mclaudia@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-08-28

    We present theoretical single to quintuple ionization cross sections for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe bombarded by H{sup +} and He{sup +}. Post-collisional contributions due to Auger-like processes are taken into account using recent photoionization data. The present continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) and first Born approximation results are compared with the experimental data available in the energy range of 50-10 000 keV amu{sup -1} for H{sup +} on Ne and Ar, and 50-1000 keV amu{sup -1} for the other cases. In general, the combination of the CDW-EIS with the post-collisional branching ratios describes well the multiple ionization data above 300 keV amu{sup -1}, showing a clear tendency to coalesce with the first Born approximation at high energies. The surprising result of this work is the good performance of the first Born approximation which describes rather well the experimental data of double and triple ionization, even in the intermediate energy range (50-300 keV amu{sup -1}), where direct ionization is the dominant contribution.

  9. Fast and stable gratings inscription in POFs made of different materials with pulsed 248 nm KrF laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A.F.; Min, R.; Leal, A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents fiber Bragg grating (FBG) inscription with a pulsed 248 nm UV KrF laser in polymer optical fibers (POFs) made of different polymers, namely polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), cyclic-olefin polymer and co-polymer, and Polycarbonate. The inscribed gratings and the corresponding...... is more than 130 times. In addition, a reflectivity and a bandwidth close to or higher than the ones with the 325 nm laser were obtained. The polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (POFBGs) inscribed with the 248 nm laser setup present high stability with small variations in their central wavelength...

  10. High-power, highly stable KrF laser with a 4-kHz pulse repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, V M; El' tsov, A V; Khristoforov, O B [State Research Center of Russian Federation ' Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research' , Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    An electric-discharge KrF laser (248 nm) with an average output power of 300 W is developed and studied. A number of new design features are related to the use of a laser chamber based on an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic tube. A high power and pulse repetition rate are achieved by using a volume discharge with lateral preionisation by the UV radiation of a creeping discharge in the form of a homogeneous plasma sheet on the surface of a plane sapphire plate. Various generators for pumping the laser are studied. The maximum laser efficiency is 3.1%, the maximum laser energy is 160 mJ pulse{sup -1}, and the pulse duration at half maximum is 7.5 ns. In the case of long-term operation at a pulse repetition rate of 4 kHz and an output power of 300 W, high stability of laser output energy (σ ≤ 0.7%) is achieved using an all-solid-state pump system. (lasers)

  11. High-power, highly stable KrF laser with a 4-kHz pulse repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, V. M.; El'tsov, A. V.; Khristoforov, O. B.

    2015-08-01

    An electric-discharge KrF laser (248 nm) with an average output power of 300 W is developed and studied. A number of new design features are related to the use of a laser chamber based on an Al2O3 ceramic tube. A high power and pulse repetition rate are achieved by using a volume discharge with lateral preionisation by the UV radiation of a creeping discharge in the form of a homogeneous plasma sheet on the surface of a plane sapphire plate. Various generators for pumping the laser are studied. The maximum laser efficiency is 3.1%, the maximum laser energy is 160 mJ pulse-1, and the pulse duration at half maximum is 7.5 ns. In the case of long-term operation at a pulse repetition rate of 4 kHz and an output power of 300 W, high stability of laser output energy (σ <= 0.7%) is achieved using an all-solid-state pump system.

  12. Noria: A Highly Xe-Selective Nanoporous Organic Solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Rahul S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia Missouri 65211 United States; Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States; Banerjee, Debasis [Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States; Simon, Cory M. [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley California 94720 United States; Atwood, Jerry L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia Missouri 65211 United States; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States

    2016-07-05

    The successful mass-implementation of nuclear energy requires reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) to mitigate harmful radioactive waste. Volatile radionuclides such as Xe and Kr evolve into off-gas streams of UNF reprocessing facilities in parts per million concentrations; their capture and successive safe handing is essential from a regulatory point of view. As radioactive Xe has a short half-life, this captured Xe could be sold in the chemical market. Energy-intensive, expensive, and hazardous cryogenic distillation is the current benchmark process to capture and separate radioactive Xe and Kr from air. Thus, a cost-effective, alternative technology for the separation of Xe and Kr and their capture from air is of significant importance. Thus far, nanoporous materials, such as aluminosilicate zeolites, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and porous organic molecules have shown promise for an adsorption-based separation process at room temperature. Herein, we report the selective Xe uptake in a crystalline porous organic oligomeric molecule, noria, and its structural analogue, PgC-noria, under ambient conditions. The selectivity of noria towards Xe arises from its tailored pore size and small cavities, which allows a directed non-bonding interaction of Xe atoms with a large number of carbon atoms of the noria molecular wheel in a confined space.

  13. Production of {sup 85}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebiger, Stefan; Slavkovska, Zuzana; Reifarth, Rene; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Thomas, Benedikt [Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Giesen, Ulrich [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Heil, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Plag, Ralf [Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Neutron capture and β{sup -}-decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at {sup 85}Kr, which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore an essential tool to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. A {sup 85}Kr sample can be produced via the irradiation of a stable, metallic {sup 82}Se sample with α-beam. The gas stays trapped inside selenium as long as the temperature remains below 50 {sup circle} C. Fulfilling this temperature limit during the irradiation is one of the main technical difficulties during the production of {sup 85}Kr. Since the corresponding production cross sections are not known well enough, an experiment was performed at the PTB in Braunschweig, Germany. Various α-induced reactions on natural selenium were studied via the activation technique, and the preliminary results are presented.

  14. XeF(2) coordination to a halogen center; Raman spectra (n = 1, 2) and X-ray crystal structures (n = 2) of [BrOF(2)][AsF(6)].nXeF(2) and [XOF(2)][AsF(6)] (X = Cl, Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, David S; Casalis de Pury, Jonathan J; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J; Silvi, Bernard

    2010-07-19

    The syntheses and structural characterizations of the [XOF(2)][AsF(6)] (X = Cl, Br) salts and the XeF(2) adduct-salts, [BrOF(2)][AsF(6)].nXeF(2) (n = 1, 2), are described. Although the [XOF(2)][AsF(6)] salts have been known for some time, their crystal structures had not been reported until the present study. The crystal structure of [BrOF(2)][AsF(6)] shows a positional disorder among the oxygen atom and the fluorine atoms. Both ClOF(2)(+) and BrOF(2)(+) have pseudo-octahedral coordination with a primary tripodal coordination sphere consisting of an oxygen atom and two fluorine atoms and a secondary coordination sphere consisting of three long contacts to fluorine atoms of different AsF(6)(-) anions. The low-temperature Raman spectra of [XOF(2)][AsF(6)] have been assigned on the basis of the crystal structures and with the aid of quantum-chemical calculations using [XOF(2)][AsF(6)](3)(2-) as a model for the crystallographic environment of XOF(2)(+). Several examples of XeF(2) coordinated through fluorine to transition metal centers are known, but no crystallographically characterized examples of XeF(2) coordinated to a nonmetal center other than xenon are known. The complex cation salts, [BrOF(2)][AsF(6)].nXeF(2) (n = 1, 2), were synthesized, and their Raman spectra have been assigned with the aid of quantum-chemical calculations. Although the structure of [BrOF(2)][AsF(6)].2XeF(2) is similar to that of the recently reported krypton analogue, notable differences occur. The contact distances between bromine and the fluorine atoms of NgF(2) (Ng = Kr, Xe) are shorter in [BrOF(2)][AsF(6)].2XeF(2) than in the KrF(2) analogue, which is attributed to the more polar natures of the Xe-F bonds. Unlike [BrOF(2)][AsF(6)].2KrF(2), which has been shown in the prior study to be stable in HF solution at room temperature, [BrOF(2)][AsF(6)].2XeF(2) enters into a dissociative equilibrium in which fluoride ion abstraction by BrOF(2)(+) occurs to give Xe(2)F(3)(+) and BrOF(3). The ELF

  15. DFT Study on the Co-Xe Bond in the HCo(CO3Xe Adduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Kégl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-xenon interaction has been studied in hydrido-cobalt-carbonyl complexes by means of density functional methods. The method of choice has been selected after testing various functionals including dispersion correction on the bond dissociation enthalpy of Xe in the Cr(CO5Xe adduct. In general, the long range corrected versions of popular gradient-corrected functionals performed well. In particular, LC-mPWPW91 resulted in a perfect match with available experimental data; therefore this functional was selected for the computation of HCo(CO3Xe adducts. For HCo(CO3Xe two isomers have been located; the structure with CS symmetry has proved to be more stable by 5.3 kcal/mol than the C3V adduct in terms of free energy. The formation of HCo(CO3Xe is, however, endergonic by 3.5 kcal/mol for the CS isomer.

  16. Ultra-stable implanted 83Rb/83mKr electron sources for the energy scale monitoring in the KATRIN experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zboril, M.; Beck, M.; Bonn, J.; Dragoun, O.; Jakubek, J.; Johnston, K.; Kovalik, A.; Otten, E.W.; Schlösser, K.; Slezak, M.; Spalek, A.; Thümmler, T.; Venos, D.; Zemlicka, J.; Weinheimer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The KATRIN experiment aims at the direct model-independent determination of the average electron neutrino mass via the measurement of the endpoint region of the tritium beta decay spectrum. The electron spectrometer of the MAC-E filter type is used, requiring very high stability of the electric filtering potential. This work proves the feasibility of implanted 83Rb/83mKr calibration electron sources which will be utilised in the additional monitor spectrometer sharing the high voltage with the main spectrometer of KATRIN. The source employs conversion electrons of 83mKr which is continuously generated by 83Rb. The K-32 conversion line (kinetic energy of 17.8 keV, natural line width of 2.7 eV) is shown to fulfill the KATRIN requirement of the relative energy stability of +/-1.6 ppm/month. The sources will serve as a standard tool for continuous monitoring of KATRIN's energy scale stability with sub-ppm precision. They may also be used in other applications where the precise conversion lines can be separated fr...

  17. Post-irradiation analysis of an ISOLDE lead-bismuth target: Stable and long-lived noble gas nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leya, I., E-mail: Ingo.Leya@space.unibe.ch [University of Bern, Space Science and Planetology, Bern (Switzerland); Grimberg, A. [University of Bern, Space Science and Planetology, Bern (Switzerland); Isotope Geochemistry, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); David, J.-C. [CEA/Saclay, Irfu/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Schumann, D.; Neuhausen, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Zanini, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 117, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Noah, E. [University of Geneva, Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    We measured the isotopic concentrations of long-lived and stable He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotopes in a sample from a lead-bismuth eutectic target irradiated with 1.0 and 1.4 GeV protons. Our data indicate for most noble gases nearly complete release with retention fractions in the range of percent or less. Higher retention fractions result from the decay of long-lived radioactive progenitors from groups 1, 2, or 7 of the periodic table. From the data we can calculate a retention fraction for {sup 3}H of 2–3%. For alkaline metals we find retention fractions of about 10%, 30%, and 50% for Na, Rb, and Cs, respectively. For the alkaline earth metal Ba we found complete retention. Finally, the measured Kr and Xe concentrations indicate that there was some release of the halogens Br and I during and/or after the irradiation.

  18. 3c/4e [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding competes with ω-bonding in noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; Y = F, Cl, Br, I): a NBO/NRT perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiqiu; Li, Hong; Weinhold, Frank; Chen, Dezhan

    2016-03-21

    Noble-gas hydrides HNgY are frequently described as a single ionic form (H-Ng)(+)Y(-). We apply natural bond orbital (NBO) and natural resonance theory (NRT) analyses to a series of noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; Y = F, Cl, Br, I) to gain quantitative insight into the resonance bonding of these hypervalent molecules. We find that each of the studied species should be better represented as a resonance hybrid of three leading resonance structures, namely, H-Ng(+ -):Y (I), H:(- +)Ng-Y (II), and H^Y (III), in which the "ω-bonded" structures I and II arise from the complementary donor-acceptor interactions nY → σ*HNg and nH → σ*NgY, while the "long-bond" ([small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type) structure III arises from the nNg → [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]*HY/[small sigma, Greek, circumflex]HY interaction. The bonding for all of the studied molecules can be well described in terms of the continuously variable resonance weightings of 3c/4e ω-bonding and [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding motifs. Furthermore, we find that the calculated bond orders satisfy a generalized form of "conservation of bond order" that incorporates both ω-bonding and long-bonding contributions [viz., (bHNg + bNgY) + bHY = bω-bonding + blong-bonding = 1]. Such "conservation" throughout the title series implies a competitive relationship between ω-bonding and [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding, whose variations are found to depend in a chemically reasonable manner on the electronegativity of Y and the outer valence-shell character of the central Ng atom. The calculated bond orders are also found to exhibit chemically reasonable correlations with bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and bond dissociation energies, in accord with Badger's rule and related empirical relationships. Overall, the results provide electronic principles and chemical insight that may prove useful in the rational design of noble-gas hydrides of

  19. XeCl Avalanche discharge laser employing Ar as a diluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Robert C.

    1981-01-01

    A XeCl avalanche discharge exciplex laser which uses a gaseous lasing starting mixture of: (0.2%-0.4% chlorine donor/2.5%-10% Xe/97.3%-89.6% Ar). The chlorine donor normally comprises HCl but can also comprise CCl.sub.4 BCl.sub.3. Use of Ar as a diluent gas reduces operating pressures over other rare gas halide lasers to near atmospheric pressure, increases output lasing power of the XeCl avalanche discharge laser by 30% to exceed KrF avalanche discharge lasing outputs, and is less expensive to operate.

  20. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebiger Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  1. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebiger, Stefan; Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh; Couture, Aaron; Krtička, Milan; Mosby, Shea; Reifarth, René; O'Donnell, John; Rusev, Gencho; Ullmann, John; Weigand, Mario; Wolf, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Neutron capture and β- -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  2. Clinical utility and reliability of sup(81m)Kr SPECT images applied to posterior circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Takashi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Karasawa, Jun (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    The instrument used in this study has a sensitivity of 28,000 counts/mCi/cm/sup 3/ for sup(99m)Tc and a spatial resolution of approximately 20mm full width at a half-maximum. The tomographic images were obtained by the continuous infusion of sup(81m)Kr at the base of the ascending aorta. Material was subsequently studied in 49 cases that met the conditions of: 1) obstructive vertebrobasilar system lesions (8 cases), 2) no ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (10), or 3) ischemic cerebrovascular disorders in anterior circulation (31). The reproducibility, as studied in 20 cases, was satisfactory. 6 cases were compared with a stable Xe CT CBF map that had regional depressions similar to those of the sup(81m)Kr SPECT images. In the 2nd group, 8 of the 10 cases showed a mild laterality on cerebellar perfusion images obtained by SPECT, as did 29 of the 31 in the 3rd group; among them, 2 cases with a recently completed stroke revealed a marked depression in the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere to the side of the hemiplegia. Cases of the lst group showed generally depressed perfusion images of the brain stem or cerebellum, and the low-density areas of X-ray CT were comparable to the lower perfusional regions on SPECT. The authors concluded that posterior perfusion images obtained by sup(81m)Kr SPECT were affected by occlusive vertebrobasilar-system lesions as well as by carotid-system lesions and cerebellar functions, and that this method for evaluating hemodynamics will be of much more clinical use in repeated studies to demonstrate the changes in posterior ciculation in course or by some loadings with subclinical characteristics, for this paper includes the first report on cerebellar functional images, though it is restricted by the low-spatial resolution from defining the architecture of the posterior fossa in detail.

  3. Alt koster 10 kr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2014-01-01

    Jeg havde engang en elev, som fortalte, at når han gik i byen for at købe ind, så var det nemt at beregne, om han havde nok penge med i byen. Han sagde bare, at alle varerne kun kostede 10 kr. Det kan lyde som lidt af en tilsnigelse, så klassen og jeg besluttede at undersøge om hans metode virkede....

  4. The origin of the background radioactive isotope Xe-127 in the sample of Xe enriched in Xe-124

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilyuk, Yu M; Kazalov, V V; Kuzminov, V V; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Tekueva, D A; Yakimenko, S P

    2015-01-01

    The results of investigation of Xe-127 radioactive isotope production in the xenon sample enriched in Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128 are presented. The isotope is supposed to be the source of the background events in the low-background experiment on search for 2K-capture of Xe-124. In this work we consider two channels of Xe-127 production: the neutron knock-out from Xe-128 nucleus by cosmogenic muons and the neutron capture by Xe-126 nucleus. For the first channel the upper limit of the cross section of Xe-127 production was found to be sigma >= 0.007 barn at 95\\% C.L. For the second channel the value obtained for the cross section was found to be equal to sigma =(2.74+-0.4) barn, which coincides well, within the statistical error, with reference value.

  5. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Pablos, J L de [Departamento de Fusion y Particulas Elementales, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F [Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Williart, A [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2002-11-28

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV.

  6. The influence of Kr, CO2, and iso-C4H8 admixtures on the time of the formation of a stable flame front in mixtures of natural gas and isobutylene with oxygen and hydrogen with air under initiation with a spark discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, N. M.; Seplyarskii, B. S.; Chernysh, V. I.; Tsvetkov, G. I.

    2010-05-01

    High-speed color filming was used to study laminar spherical flame propagation at the initial stage in preliminarily mixed stoichiometric mixtures of natural gas and isobutylene with oxygen containing krypton and carbon dioxide and in hydrogen-air mixtures at atmospheric pressure in a bomb with a constant volume. Under experimental conditions ( T 0 = 298 K, p 0 = 100 torr, spark discharge energy E 0 = 0.91 J), the dilution of mixtures with Kr and CO2 increased the time of formation of a stable flame front by more than 10 times. The introduction of a small chemically active admixture (1.2% isobutylene) into a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and air sharply increased the time of formation of a stable flame front, which was evidence of an important role played by the chemical mechanism of the reaction in the formation of the combustion field.

  7. Air-Xe enrichments in Elk Hills oil field gases: role of water in migration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, T.; Kennedy, B. M.

    1999-04-01

    Hydrocarbons from the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR#1), Bakersfield, CA, are enriched in heavy noble gases. The 132Xe/ 36Ar ratios are as high as ˜576 times the ratio in air and represent the largest relative Xe-enrichments ever observed in terrestrial fluids. The Xe isotopic composition is indistinguishable from air. We show that these samples cannot be explained by equilibration of oil with air saturated water and secondary enrichment via a Rayleigh distillation gas stripping process. Based on laboratory studies of others with potential petroleum source rocks, we believe the source of this enriched heavy noble gas component was adsorbed air initially trapped in/on the source rocks that was expelled and mixed with the hydrocarbons during expulsion and primary migration. Kr and Xe enrichments decrease with increasing 36Ar concentration. We propose a model in which an initial Kr-Xe-enriched hydrocarbon becomes diluted with noble gases extracted from air saturated groundwater during expulsion, migration, and storage. The model generates an integrated water/hydrocarbon ratio for the production fluid which indicates a minimal role for water in hydrocarbon expulsion and migration. The results are interpreted to provide time/geometrical constraints on the mechanisms by which hydrocarbons can migrate as a separate phase.

  8. Milestone Report - M4FT-15OR03120218 - A Literature Search on the Effects of the Decay of 85Kr to 85Rb on Long-term Storage Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B [ORNL

    2015-10-01

    Reprocessing of UNF that has been out of the reactor for less than about 50 y requires the removal of 85Kr from the process off-gas streams. This is needed despite the relatively small amount of that isotope in the combined Xe and Kr inventory (Table 1). The decay of 85Kr to 85Rb presents challenges to the materials that will potentially be used to remove and store the Kr recovered from the off-gas. To address some of these problems, a thorough literature survey was completed, and the results of that analysis are summarized in this document.

  9. The Krásná Hora, Milešov, and Příčovy Sb-Au ore deposits, Bohemian Massif: mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and stable isotope constraints on the deposit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Matěj; Zachariáš, Jiří

    2017-04-01

    The Krásná Hora-Milešov and Příčovy districts (Czech Republic) are the unique examples of Sb-Au subtype orogenic gold deposits in the Bohemian Massif. They are represented by quartz-stibnite veins and massive stibnite lenses grading into low-grade, disseminated ores in altered host rocks. Gold postdates the stibnite and is often replaced by aurostibite. The ore zones are hosted by hydrothermally altered dikes of lamprophyres (Krásná Hora-Milešov) or are associated with local strike-slip faults (Příčovy). Formation of Sb-Au deposits probably occurred shortly after the main gold-bearing event (348-338 Ma; Au-only deposits) in the central part of the Bohemian Massif. Fluid inclusion analyses suggest that stibnite precipitated at 250 to 130 °C and gold at 200 to 130 °C from low-salinity aqueous fluids. The main quartz gangue hosting the ore precipitated from the same type of fluid at about 300 °C. Early quartz-arsenopyrite veins are not associated with the Sb-Au deposition and formed from low-salinity, aqueous-carbonic fluid at higher pressure and temperature ( 250 MPa, 400 °C). The estimated oxygen isotope composition of the ore-bearing fluid (4 ± 1‰ SMOW; based on post-ore calcite) suggests its metamorphic or mixed magmatic-metamorphic origin and excludes the involvement of meteoric water. Rapid cooling of warm hydrothermal fluids reacting with "cold" host rock was probably the most important factor in the formation of both stibnite and gold.

  10. The Krásná Hora, Milešov, and Příčovy Sb-Au ore deposits, Bohemian Massif: mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and stable isotope constraints on the deposit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Matěj; Zachariáš, Jiří

    2018-02-01

    The Krásná Hora-Milešov and Příčovy districts (Czech Republic) are the unique examples of Sb-Au subtype orogenic gold deposits in the Bohemian Massif. They are represented by quartz-stibnite veins and massive stibnite lenses grading into low-grade, disseminated ores in altered host rocks. Gold postdates the stibnite and is often replaced by aurostibite. The ore zones are hosted by hydrothermally altered dikes of lamprophyres (Krásná Hora-Milešov) or are associated with local strike-slip faults (Příčovy). Formation of Sb-Au deposits probably occurred shortly after the main gold-bearing event (348-338 Ma; Au-only deposits) in the central part of the Bohemian Massif. Fluid inclusion analyses suggest that stibnite precipitated at 250 to 130 °C and gold at 200 to 130 °C from low-salinity aqueous fluids. The main quartz gangue hosting the ore precipitated from the same type of fluid at about 300 °C. Early quartz-arsenopyrite veins are not associated with the Sb-Au deposition and formed from low-salinity, aqueous-carbonic fluid at higher pressure and temperature ( 250 MPa, 400 °C). The estimated oxygen isotope composition of the ore-bearing fluid (4 ± 1‰ SMOW; based on post-ore calcite) suggests its metamorphic or mixed magmatic-metamorphic origin and excludes the involvement of meteoric water. Rapid cooling of warm hydrothermal fluids reacting with "cold" host rock was probably the most important factor in the formation of both stibnite and gold.

  11. Interactions between xenon and phospholipid bicelles studied by 2H/ 129Xe/ 131Xe NMR and optical pumping of nuclear spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Newberry, Caitlin; Saha, Indrajit; Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Whiting, Nicholas; Goodson, Boyd M.

    2006-02-01

    The interactions between xenon and DMPC/DHPC bicelles ( q = 3.5%, 7.5% w/v) were studied via 2H, 129Xe, 131Xe, and optically enhanced 129Xe NMR. The chemical shifts, linewidths, and quadrupolar couplings of the xenon/bicelle NMR signals were correlated with different regions of the bicellar phase diagram. The addition of xenon (<70 mM) was observed to reduce the temperature-onset of bicelle alignment by several degrees, in quantitative agreement with effects previously observed with chloroform; however, the stable liquid-crystalline range was not significantly reduced. Preliminary laser-polarized xenon/bicelle studies yielded 129Xe T1 values of ˜120 s, long enough to permit a variety of planned experiments.

  12. Wavelengths and energy levels of Xe V and Xe VI obtained by collision-based spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, M.O. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Phys.; Gonzalez, A.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Investigacion Basica; Hallin, R. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Phys.; Heijkenskjoeld, F. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Phys.; Nystroem, B. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; O`Sullivan, G. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Physics; Weber, C. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Phys.; Waennstroem, A. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Phys.

    1996-03-01

    We have utilized collision-based spectroscopy to investigate the spectra of Xe V and Xe VI. The radiation emitted following electron capture by 50 keV Xe{sup 5+} and 60 keV Xe{sup 6+} ions impinging on a He (Ar) gas target has been recorded in the 350-6000 (1200-2500) A wavelength region. A number of new energy levels of Xe V and Xe VI have been established from lines identified by us. In particular, we have observed and identified transitions from the 5s{sup 2}5p4f (5s{sup 2}4f) configuration of Xe V (Xe VI). The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. (orig.).

  13. 124Xe(n,γ125Xe and 124Xe(n,2n123Xe measurements for National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhike Megha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section for the 124Xe(n,γ125Xe reaction has been measured for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, the 124Xe(n,2n123Xe reaction has been studied between threshold and 14.8 MeV. The results of these measurements provide sensitive diagnostic tools for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in Deuterium-Tritium (DT capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  14. 136Xe enrichment through cryogenic distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, H. O.; Bottenus, D. R.; Clayton, C.; Stephenson, D.; TeGrotenhuis, W.

    2017-09-01

    The next generation of 136Xe neutrinoless double beta decay experiments will require on the order of 5 tons of enriched 136Xe. By estimating the relative volatilities of the xenon isotopes and using standard chemical engineering techniques we explore the feasibility of using cryogenic distillation to produce 5 tons of 80% enriched 136Xe in 5-6 years. With current state-of-the-art distillation column packing materials we can estimate the total height of a traditional cryogenic distillation column. We also report on how Micro Channel Distillation may reduce the overall size of a distillation system for 136Xe production.

  15. Ti12Xe: A twelve-coordinated Xe-containing molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Junjian; Xu, Wenwu; Zhu, Beien; Gao, Yi

    2017-08-01

    A twelve-coordinated Xe-containing molecule Ti12Xe has been predicted by DFT calculations with quasi-icosahedral symmetry. Structural and NBO analyses show the chemical bonding exists between the central Xe atom and peripheral Ti atoms, which leads to the high stability of the molecule to a considerable degree. First principle molecular dynamics simulations further reveal the particularly high thermal stability of Ti12Xe up to 1500 K. This unique species may disclose new physics and chemistry of xenon element and stir interest in the Xe-transition metal cluster physics and chemistry.

  16. Wavelengths and energy levels of Xe VII and Xe VIII obtained by collision-based spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, M.O. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Gonzalez, A.M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Basica; Hallin, R. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Heijkenskjoeld, F. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Hutton, R. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Langereis, A. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Nystroem, B. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; O`Sullivan, G. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Physics; Waennstroem, A. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    1995-01-01

    The Xe VII and Xe VIII spectra have been investigated by collision-based spectroscopy. The radiation emitted following electron capture by 10q keV Xe{sup q+} ions (q = 6-8) impinging on a He (Ar) gas target has, with some exceptions, been recorded in the 350-8000 (1200-2500) A wavelength region. The xenon ions were provided by the Uppsala University ECR ion source. Many of the observed, previously unreported spectral lines have been identified. In total, nine new energy levels of Xe VII and Xe VIII have been established, of which two are tentative. The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. (orig.).

  17. IR spectra of halothane-acetone complex in liquefied noble gases (Kr and Xe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikova, S. M.; Rutkowski, K. S.; Rospenk, M.

    2017-07-01

    IR absorption spectra of solutions of halothane (C2HBrClF3) and acetone ((CD3)2CO) mixtures in liquefied noble gases (krypton and xenon) have been recorded and analyzed. Bands due to weak hydrogenbonded complexes are identified. The complex-formation enthalpy is estimated in a series of temperature experiments on the change in the total intensity of the bands due to monomers and complexes. Second-order bands are found, which are assigned to the first overtone of stretching vibration CH of halothane and the Raman band related to simultaneous excitation of stretching vibration CH of halothane and stretching vibration CO of acetone. The results of ab initio calculation performed within the MP2/6-311++G(d, p) approximation are used to analyze the spectroscopic data.

  18. Multi-Column Xe/Kr Separation with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Previous multi-column xenon/krypton separation tests have demonstrated the capability of separating xenon from krypton in a mixed gas feed stream. The results of this initial testing with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN indicated that an excellent separation of xenon from krypton could be achieved. Building upon these initial results, a series of additional multi-column testing were performed in FY-16. The purpose of this testing was to scale up the sorbent beds, test a different composition of feed gas and attempt to improve the accuracy of the analysis of the individual capture columns’ compositions. Two Stirling coolers were installed in series to perform this testing. The use of the coolers instead of the cryostat provided two desired improvements, 1) removal of the large dilution due to the internal volume of the cryostat adsorption chamber, and 2) ability to increase the sorbent bed size for scale-up. The AgZ-PAN sorbent, due to its xenon selectivity, was loaded in the first column to capture the xenon while allowing the krypton to flow through and be routed to a second column containing the HZ-PAN for capture and analysis. The gases captured on both columns were sampled with evacuated sample bombs and subsequently analyzed via GC-MS for both krypton and xenon. The results of these tests can be used to develop the scope of future testing and analysis using this test bed for demonstrating the capture and separation of xenon and krypton using sorbents, for demonstrating desorption and regeneration of the sorbents, and for determining compositions of the desorbed gases. They indicate a need for future desorption studies in order to better quantify co-adsorbed species and final krypton purity.

  19. Kinetic analysis of rare gas metastable production and optically pumped Xe lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyanov, A. V.; Kochetov, I. V.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Azyazov, V. N.; Heaven, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    Optically pumped all-rare-gas lasers use metastable rare gas atoms as the lasing species in mixtures with He or Ar buffer gas. The metastables are generated in a glow discharge, and we report model calculations for the optimal production of Ne*, Ar*, Kr* and Xe*. Discharge efficiency was estimated by solving the Boltzmann equation. Laser efficiency, gain and output power of the CW optically pumped Xe laser were assessed as functions of heavier rare gas content, pressure, optical pump intensity and the optical path length. It was found that, for efficient operation the heavier rare gas content has to be of the order of one percent or less, and the total pressure—in the range 0.3–1.5 atm. Output power and specific discharge power increase approximately linearly with pump intensity over the output range from 300–500 W cm‑2. Ternary mixtures Xe:Ar:He were found to be the most promising. Total laser efficiency was found to be nearly the same for pumping the 2p8 or 2p9 state, reaching 61%–70% for a pump intensity of ~720 W cm‑2 when the Xe fraction was in the range 0.001 ÷ 0.01 and Ar fraction—0.1 ÷ 0.5. However, when the 2p8 state was pumped, the maximum total efficiency occurred at larger pressures than for pumping of the 2p9 state. The discharge power density required to sustain a sufficient Xe* number density was in the range of tens of watts per cubic centimeter for 50% Ar in the mixture.

  20. Inner-shell photoionization and core-hole decay of Xe and XeF$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, Stephen H; Picón, Antonio; Lehmann, C Stefan; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F

    2015-01-01

    Photoionization cross sections and partial ion yields of Xe and XeF$_2$ from Xe 3d$_{5/2}$, Xe 3d$_{3/2}$, and F 1s subshells in the 660--740 eV range are compared to explore effects of the F ligands. The Xe 3d - $\\epsilon$f continuum shape resonances dominate the photoionization cross sections of both the atom and molecule, but prominent resonances appear in the XeF$_2$ cross section due to nominal excitation of Xe 3d and F 1s electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), a delocalized anti-bonding MO. The subshell ionization thresholds, the LUMO resonance energies and their oscillator strengths are calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster methods. Several charge states and fragment ions are produced from the atom and molecule due to alternative decay pathways from the inner-shell holes. Total and partial ion yields vary in response to the shape resonances and LUMO resonances. Previous calculations and measurements of atomic Xe 3d core-hole decay channels and our calculated results for XeF$_...

  1. Infrared scintillation in liquid Ar and Xe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressi, G; Carugno, G.; Conti, E; Iannuzzi, D; Meneguzzo, AT

    2000-01-01

    Infrared emission induced by ionizing particle has been observed in liquid Ar and liquid Xe. The phenomenon seems to be similar to the one recently observed in dense noble gases. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reactivity of Xe with ice at extreme P-T conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanloup, C.; Hochlaf, M.; Maynard-Casely, H.; Gregoryanz, E.; Mezouar, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water is an important component of terrestrial and giant planets so that any reactivity with Xe at depth would have strong consequences on our knowledge of planetary dynamics as it heavily relies on Xe isotopes geochemistry. The chemistry of ‘noble gas’ have seen fascinating experimental and theoretical advances during the last twenty years as highlighted by review papers (1,2). Noble gas chemistry proceeds essentially by photosynthesis of precursors in a low-temperature noble-gas matrix. The pressure variable has seldom been investigated as a mean to enforce Xe to bond other elements (3). Xe is among the gases that stabilize clathrate hydrates through van der Waals interactions. Xe hydrates are stable up to 2.5 GPa, before dissociating into Xe plus ice VII (4). However, the chemistry of water with solid Xe has been successfully explored by UV photolysis (5,6). Those findings plus our own results on the stability of Xe oxides in the terrestrial crust (7) let us envisage that the chemistry of Xe with oxygen at extreme conditions could be flourishing. We have thus explored the reactivity of Xe with water up to 80 GPa by using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell combined with in situ x-ray diffraction measurements. Formation of a compound is indeed observed at conditions that could occur in the interiors of ice-rich giant planets Uranus and Neptune. To complement the x-ray diffraction data, ab initio calculations have been carried out to determine the molecular structure of the new found compound. These resuts hence add another example of noble gas sequestration in giant planets, as recently proposed for Ne (8). References: 1. W. Grochala, Chem. Soc. Rev. 1632, 36 (2007). 2. R. B. Gerber, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem., 55, 55 (2004). 3. A. I. Katz and V. A. Apkarian, J. Phys. Chem., 94, 6671-6678 (1990). 4. C. Sanloup et al., PNAS 99, 25 (2002). 5. M. Pettersson et al., Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 505, 729 (1999). 6. L. Khriachtchev et al., JACS 130, 6114 (2008). 7. C. Sanloup et

  3. Complexes of the noble gases with H3O+: a theoretical investigation on Ng(H3O+) (Ng = He-Xe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borocci, Stefano; Cecchi, Patrizio; Giordani, Maria; Grandinetti, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and binding energies (Bes) of the Ng(H(3)O(+)) complexes (Ng = He-Xe) were investigated at the coupled cluster level of theory, and their bonding situation was assayed by various methods of bonding analysis. The effects of Ng on H(3)O(+) progressively increase from He to Xe, and only He can be regarded as an essentially "innocent" ligand. The binding energies also increase in the same periodic order, and are by far dominated by the "noncovalent" ion-induced dipole interaction arising from the H(3)O(+)-induced polarization of Ng. For Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, this term has a larger contribution from the p orbital lying on the bond axis, and two smaller contributions from the p orbitals perpendicular to the bond axis. For the heaviest Ar(H(3)O(+)), Kr(H(3)O(+)), and Xe(H(3)O(+)), BE also has a "covalent" component, which is ascribed to the relatively-appreciable charge transfer from Ng to H(3)O(+).

  4. Stark broadening parameter tables for Kr VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a semiclassical approach, we have calculated electron−, proton−, and He III−impact line widths and shifts for 6 Kr VIII multiplets as a function of temperature and perturber density.

  5. Dmitri Krõmovi valem / Maris Johannes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johannes, Maris, 1959-

    2011-01-01

    Dmitri Krõmovi lavastuste ("Söör Vantes. Donki Hot", "Kaelkirjaku surm", "Katerina uned", "Oksjon", "Oopus nr. 7") retrospektiiv rahvusvahelisel festivalil "Talveöö unenägu" 27.-31. XII Tallinna Linnateatris

  6. Theoretical EUV spectrum of near Pd-like Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, A

    2003-01-01

    The EUV spectrum of multiple charged Xe ion is theoretically investigated. The strong emission in the 11 nm band is attributed to 4d-4f transitions of Xe sup 7 sup + to Xe sup 1 sup 8 sup +. The 4d-5p transition of Xe sup 1 sup 0 sup + contributes to the emission in the 13.5 nm band from low density plasma. (author)

  7. Modulation of ERG channels by XE991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Calloe, Kirstine; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known to be stan...

  8. High power Ar-Xe laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, W.J.; Gielkens, S.W.A.; Tskhai, V.N.; Peters, P.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The discharge conditions of the multi-atmospheric e-beam sustained Ar-Xe laser are investigated. It is observed that the quasi-stationary period of a laser pulse depends on the e-beam current, the discharge power deposition and the gas density. The laser efficiency can be as high as 8%. The pulse

  9. “No-spin” states and low-lying structures in 130Xe and 136Xe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic neutron scattering on solid 130XeF2 and 136XeF2 targets was utilized to populate excited levels in 130Xe and 136Xe. When calculating nuclear matrix elements vital to the understanding of double-beta decay, it is important to have a clear understanding of the low-lying level structure of both the parent and daughter nucleus. Of particular relevance to double-beta decay searches are the assignments of 0+ states. We show here that in the case of 130Xe there are several discrepancies in the adopted level structure. We found that one previous 0+ candidate level (1590 keV can be ruled out and assigned two additional candidates (2223 and 2242 keV. In 136Xe we question the previous assignment of a 0+ level at 2582 keV. Excitation function and angular distribution measurements were utilized to make spin and parity assignments of levels and place new transitions.

  10. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  11. Alternativ behandling og kræft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Guidelines Network, SIGN, er de inkluderede reviews kvalitetsvurderet og de fundne effekter bedømt efter 4 evidensniveauer.  Resultater: Ti reviews omhandler manipulativ og kropsbaseret praksis, og heraf er fem med høj kvalitet. Det mest konsistente resultat er, at massage signifikant reducerer angst hos...... kræftpatienter (evidens A). Ydermere findes effekt af massage mod depression, smerter og kvalme. Ingen reviews finder skadelige virkninger af massage, og forestillingen om, at massage kan sprede kræft, afkræftes af nyere forskning. Konklusion: Massage er en sikker terapi at kombinere med konventionel...... at differentiere effekten i forhold til typen af massage, kræftformen eller sygdomsstadie. Udgivelsesdato: 29 jan 2010...

  12. Hydraulically conductive fractures and their properties in boreholes KR4 and KR7 - KR10 at Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellae, P.; Tammisto, E.; Ahokas, H. [JP-Fintact Oy (Finland)

    2004-05-01

    As part of the program for the final disposal of the nuclear fuel waste, Posiva Oy investigates the prevailing hydrological conditions at the Olkiluoto island. Hydraulic properties of fractures are of interest for the groundwater flow modelling and for planning of grouting and analysis of leakages etc. The detailed flow logging with 0.5 m test interval and made in 10 cm steps is used for exact depth determination of hydraulically conductive fractures or fracture zones. Together with borehole wall images flow logging provides possibilities to detect single conductive fractures. The results of flow logging are combined to the fracture data and other rock properties. Boreholes KR4, KR7, KR8, KR9 and KR10 have been selected as pilot holes. The conductive fractures were recognised from the images primarily based on a visible flow traces along the image. In most of the cases of measured flow, no visible flow traces were seen in the image. In these cases the most probable fracture(s) to conduct the flow were picked using the single point resistance measurements as supportive information. In order to be able to analyse the properties of the hydraulically conductive fractures, the fractures in the mineralogical/drilling report corresponding to the ones picked from the borehole wall image were identified. The combination was done based on matching the depth, intersection angle and other fracture properties (reported large aperture or thickness etc.). The results from boreholes KR7 and KR8 were checked also from the core sample. According to the results the hydraulically conductive fractures/zones could be distinguished from the borehole wall images in most cases. An important phase in the work is to calibrate the depth of the image and the flow logging with the sample length. Checking results from the core samples is essential in order to reliably correlate the borehole wall fractures to the core sample mappings. The hydraulic conductivity is clearly higher in the upper part

  13. Kr atoms and their clustering in zeolite A

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, W T; Jung, K J; Heo, N H

    2001-01-01

    The positions of Kr atoms encapsulated in the molecular-dimensioned cavities of fully dehydrated zeolite A of unit-cell composition Cs sub 3 Na sub 8 HSi sub 1 sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 2 O sub 4 sub 8 (Cs sub 3 -A) have been determined. Cs sub 3 -A was exposed to 1025 atm of krypton gas at 400 .deg. C for four days, followed by cooling at pressure to encapsulate Kr atoms. The resulting crystal structure of Cs sub 3 -A(6Kr) (a=12.247(2) A, R sub 1 =0.078, and R sub 2 =0.085) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques in the cubic space group Pm3m at 21(1) .deg. C and 1 atm. In the crystal structure of Cs sub 3 -A(6Kr), six Kr atoms per unit cell are distributed over three crystallographically distinct positions: each unit cell contains one Kr atom at Kr(1) on a threefold axis in the sodalite unit, three at Kr(2) opposite four-rings in the large cavity , and two at Kr(3) on threefold axes in the large cavity . Relatively strong interactions of Kr atoms at Kr(1) and Kr(3) with Na sup + ions of ...

  14. Medical Isotope Program: O-18, C-13, and Xe-129 Final Report CRADA No. TC-2043-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibner, K. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fought, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    This was a collaborative effort between the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Spectra Gases, Inc., to develop new and cheaper sources of Oxgyen-18 (O-18), Carbon-13 (C-13), and Xenon-129 (Xe-129), and to develop new applications of these stable medical isotopes in medicine resulting in a substantial increase in stable isotopes that are important to human health sciences.

  15. Results of sampling and analysis of groundwater from multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaeae, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 between spring 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program (OMO) during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1 (151.2-156.8 m, 311.2-336.8 m and 524.4-528.4 m), OL-KR3 (242.6-253.2 m), OL-KR5 (277.2-284.6 m and 457.2-476.2 m), OL-KR9 (468.2-482.2 m), OL-KR11 (597.5-628.1 m) and OLKR12 (363-368 m). The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's (1967) classification, the collected groundwater samples represent either the borehole water type Na-Cl (OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OLK-R1/ T/311.2-336.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.6 m, OL-KR11/ T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m) or Na-Ca-Cl (OL-KR1/T/524.4- 528.4 m, OL-KR5/T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m). The groundwater samples from OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6- 253.2 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.2 m, OL-KR11/T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m were brackish (1000 mg/L < TDS < 10000 mg/L) according to Davis's (1964) TDS classification. Other samples (OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m), were saline (TDS> 10000 mg/L). Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes were seen between samplings done at the different times. Only the groundwater sampled from OL-KR1/T/311.2-336.8 m had significant changes in its chemical composition during the reference period, but also in OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T

  16. 136 Xe enrichment through cryogenic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Henning O.; Bottenus, Daniel R.; Clayton, Christopher K.; Stephenson, David E.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2017-09-01

    The next generation of 136Xe neutrinoless double beta decay experiments will require on the order of 5 tons of enriched 136Xe. By estimating the relative volatilities of the xenon isotopes and using standard chemical engineering techniques we explore the feasibility of using cryogenic distillation to produce 5 tons of 80% enriched 136Xe in 5-6 years. With current state-of-the-art distillation column packing materials we can estimate the total height of a traditional cryogenic distillation column. We also, report on how Micro Channel Distillation may reduce the overall size of a distillation system for 136Xe production.

  17. Low energy γ- γ and e -- γ PAC measurements using APDs and the probe nuclei 83Rb(83Kr) and 83 m Kr(83Kr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenz, M.; Vianden, R.

    2016-12-01

    In the field of Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) are rarely used, despite their favourable properties for fast counting purposes at low energies. This work demonstrates their application in combination with a simple and cheap custom build voltage sensitive preamplifier module. Using the PAC nuclei 83Rb(83Kr) and 83mKr(83Kr), the time resolution of the set-up is analysed and the feasibility of precise timing measurements is shown.

  18. Kr photoionized plasma induced by intense extreme ultraviolet pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnik, A., E-mail: andrzej.bartnik@wat.edu.pl; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00–908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-04-15

    Irradiation of any gas with an intense EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation beam can result in creation of photoionized plasmas. The parameters of such plasmas can be significantly different when compared with those of the laser produced plasmas (LPP) or discharge plasmas. In this work, the photoionized plasmas were created in a krypton gas irradiated using an LPP EUV source operating at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The Kr gas was injected into the vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV radiation pulses. The EUV beam was focused onto a Kr gas stream using an axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector. The resulting low temperature Kr plasmas emitted electromagnetic radiation in the wide spectral range. The emission spectra were measured either in the EUV or an optical range. The EUV spectrum was dominated by emission lines originating from Kr III and Kr IV ions, and the UV/VIS spectra were composed from Kr II and Kr I lines. The spectral lines recorded in EUV, UV, and VIS ranges were used for the construction of Boltzmann plots to be used for the estimation of the electron temperature. It was shown that for the lowest Kr III and Kr IV levels, the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions were not fulfilled. The electron temperature was thus estimated based on Kr II and Kr I species where the partial LTE conditions could be expected.

  19. HP-Xe to go: Storage and Transportation of Hyperpolarized 129-Xe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repetto, M.; Zimmer, S.; Almendinger, F.; Blümler, P.; Doll, M.; Grasdijk, J.O.; Heil, W.; Jungmann, K.; Karpuk, S.; Krause, H.-J.; Offenhaeusser, A.; Schmidt, U.; Sobolev, Y.; Willmann, L.

    2016-01-01

    Recently the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-129Xe was significantly improved by using uncoated and Rb-free storage vessels of GE180 glass. For these cells, a simple procedure was established to obtain reproducible wall relaxation times of about 18 h. Then the limiting

  20. 129 Xe chemical shift in human blood and pulmonary blood oxygenation measurement in humans using hyperpolarized 129 Xe NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norquay, Graham; Leung, General; Stewart, Neil J; Wolber, Jan; Wild, Jim M

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the dependency of the 129 Xe-red blood cell (RBC) chemical shift on blood oxygenation, and to use this relation for noninvasive measurement of pulmonary blood oxygenation in vivo with hyperpolarized 129 Xe NMR. Hyperpolarized 129 Xe was equilibrated with blood samples of varying oxygenation in vitro, and NMR was performed at 1.5 T and 3 T. Dynamic in vivo NMR during breath hold apnea was performed at 3 T on two healthy volunteers following inhalation of hyperpolarized 129 Xe. The 129 Xe chemical shift in RBCs was found to increase nonlinearly with blood oxygenation at 1.5 T and 3 T. During breath hold apnea, the 129 Xe chemical shift in RBCs exhibited a periodic time modulation and showed a net decrease in chemical shift of ∼1 ppm over a 35 s breath hold, corresponding to a decrease of 7-10 % in RBC oxygenation. The 129 Xe-RBC signal amplitude showed a modulation with the same frequency as the 129 Xe-RBC chemical shift. The feasibility of using the 129 Xe-RBC chemical shift to measure pulmonary blood oxygenation in vivo has been demonstrated. Correlation between 129 Xe-RBC signal and 129 Xe-RBC chemical shift modulations in the lung warrants further investigation, with the aim to better quantify temporal blood oxygenation changes in the cardiopulmonary vascular circuit. Magn Reson Med 77:1399-1408, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Toward calculations of the 129Xe chemical shift in Xe@C60 at experimental conditions: relativity, correlation, and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Michal; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha

    2008-03-27

    We calculate the 129Xe chemical shift in endohedral Xe@C60 with systematic inclusion of the contributing physical effects to model the real experimental conditions. These are relativistic effects, electron correlation, the temperature-dependent dynamics, and solvent effects. The ultimate task is to obtain the right result for the right reason and to develop a physically justified methodological model for calculations and simulations of endohedral Xe fullerenes and other confined Xe systems. We use the smaller Xe...C6H6 model to calibrate density functional theory approaches against accurate correlated wave function methods. Relativistic effects as well as the coupling of relativity and electron correlation are evaluated using the leading-order Breit-Pauli perturbation theory. The dynamic effects are treated in two ways. In the first approximation, quantum dynamics of the Xe atom in a rigid cage takes advantage of the centrosymmetric potential for Xe within the thermally accessible distance range from the center of the cage. This reduces the problem of obtaining the solution of a diatomic rovibrational problem. In the second approach, first-principles classical molecular dynamics on the density functional potential energy hypersurface is used to produce the dynamical trajectory for the whole system, including the dynamic cage. Snapshots from the trajectory are used for calculations of the dynamic contribution to the absorption 129Xe chemical shift. The calculated nonrelativistic Xe shift is found to be highly sensitive to the optimized molecular structure and to the choice of the exchange-correlation functional. Relativistic and dynamic effects are significant and represent each about 10% of the nonrelativistic static shift at the minimum structure. While the role of the Xe dynamics inside of the rigid cage is negligible, the cage dynamics turns out to be responsible for most of the dynamical correction to the 129Xe shift. Solvent effects evaluated with a polarized

  2. The thermal neutron scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terburg, B.P.

    1992-05-01

    The availability of 27 1 STP krypton-86 gas, an isotope with unknown thermal neutron scattering cross section, was an excellent occasion to determine the (bound atom) scattering cross section and its coherent part by application of the neutron transmission method and neutron interferometry. The transmission method was applied in a diffractometer, a Larmor spectrometer and a TOF-spectrometer. In addition to {sup 86}Kr also natural krypton ({sup n}Kr) was used for sample in the diffractometer. The diffractometer measurements result in bound atom scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub s}=8.92(46) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub s}=7.08(95) b for {sup n}Kr. The Larmor transmission measurements lead to a final result {sigma}{sub s}=8.44(9) b for {sup 86}Kr. In the TOF-spectrometer the wavelength-dependent total cross section of water was determined. Coherent neutron scattering lengths were determined using the neutron interferometry method with a skew symmetric neutron interferometer. Scans with {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr led to b{sub c}=8.07(26) fm for {sup 86}Kr and 7.72(33) fm for {sup n}Kr, corresponding to coherent scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub c}=8.18(53) b and 7.49(64) b respectively. Due to the large errors in the bound atom scattering cross section and coherent scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr, the incoherent cross section of both gases, {sigma}{sub i} = 0 within its inaccuracy, {sigma}{sub i}=0.26(54) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub i}=0.41(1.15) b for {sup n}Kr. (orig.).

  3. Development of co-located 129Xe and 131Xe nuclear spin masers with external feedback scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kojima, S.; Funayama, C.; Tanaka, S.; Inoue, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Gladkov, A.; Takamine, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Ohtomo, Y.; Hirao, C.; Chikamori, M.; Hikota, E.; Suzuki, T.; Tsuchiya, M.; Furukawa, T.; Yoshimi, A.; Bidinosti, C. P.; Ino, T.; Ueno, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Yoshinaga, N.; Sakemi, Y.; Asahi, K.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the operation of co-located 129Xe and 131Xe nuclear spin masers with an external feedback scheme, and discuss the use of 131Xe as a comagnetometer in measurements of the 129Xe spin precession frequency. By applying a correction based on the observed change in the 131Xe frequency, the frequency instability due to magnetic field and cell temperature drifts are eliminated by two orders of magnitude. The frequency precision of 6.2 μHz is obtained for a 104 s averaging time, suggesting the possibility of future improvement to ≈ 1 nHz by improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the observation.

  4. ETUDE STRUCTURELLE ET SPECTRES D’ABSORPTION DE Kr3+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A CHIKHAOUI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Le présent travail, qui comporte deux étapes, est une étude théorique de l'agrégat de Krypton chargé une fois (Kr3+. La première étape est l'étude structurelle de Kr3+. L'hamiltonien modèle est développé dans le cadre de la méthode D.I.M (Diatomics In Molecules. Les résultats obtenus montrent que Kr3+ est linéaire. La profondeur du puits attractif De est égale  à 0.29 eV par rapport à la dissociation en Kr2+ + Kr pour une distance d'équilibre Re = 5.496 u.a. Ce résultat est en bon accord avec la valeur expérimentale qui vaut 0.27 eV. La deuxième étape est l'étude thermodynamique et spectroscopique de Kr3+. Les résultats obtenus montrent que le spectre vertical de Kr3+ linéaire comporte trois pics situés dans le domaine du visible à 625nm, 551nm et 466nm. L'analyse statistique des populations de charges atomiques montre que Kr3+ subit une isomérisation qui le ramène à une configuration de type ( Kr2+ ...Kr ou à une configuration plus probable de type  (Kr+...Kr2 .

  5. Intense ultrashort laser-Xe cluster interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.; Whitney, K. G.; Petrova, Tz. B.; Petrov, G. M.

    2012-09-01

    -shell, n = 4 electrons are striped from a xenon atom in less than a femtosecond. Because of the abundance of these ground states, large numbers of n = 2, inner-shell hole states and large population inversions can be created when the Ni-like ground states are photo- or collisionally ionized. Once the M-shell is entered, tunneling ionization slows down as does collisional ionization due to the fall in ion density as the cluster expands. Moreover, as the cluster density goes down, our combined MD and ID calculations show that so do the calculated population inversions. Thus, our calculations do not support the initial experimental data interpretations in which the measured gains have been associated with double holes in more highly ionized stages of xenon (Xe32+, Xe34+, Xe35+, and Xe37+), which our calculations suggest would require laser intensities in excess of 1.5 × 1020 W/cm2, for a 248 nm, ˜250 fs laser pulse focused in a gas of xenon clusters. At laser intensities used in the experiment, such ionization stages would be reached, but only later in time when cluster densities have fallen by several orders of magnitude from their initial values to values where pumping rates are too low and gains cannot be generated.

  6. Mass-resolved two-photon and photoelectron spectra of ArXe in the region of Xe* 7p, 6p', 6d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakcheeva, L P; Serdobintsev, P Yu; Belyaeva, A A; Shevkunov, I A; Melnikov, A S; Nakozina, A A; Pastor, A A; Khodorkovskii, M A

    2013-11-07

    The two photon resonant, three photon ionization spectra of ArXe were recorded in the spectral region of 88,500-90,100 cm(-1). Seven new molecular band progressions dissociating to ArXe* → Ar(1)S0 + Xe* 7p[1/2]0, Xe* 7p[3/2]2, Xe* 6p'[3/2]2, Xe* 6p'[1/2]1, Xe* 6p'[1/2]0 have been selected and analyzed. The molecular constants for the excited states of ArXe* of these vibrational progressions were determined in the approximation of the anharmonic oscillator, the Morse potential and the Franck-Condon principle. The photoelectron spectra were recorded by several excited electronic-vibrational transitions of ArXe, the dissociation channels of the excited molecules were determined and extra information about the electron structure of the excited molecular states was obtained.

  7. A condensed {sup 83m}Kr calibration source for the KATRIN experiment; Eine kondensierte {sup 83m}Kr-Kalibrationsquelle fuer das KATRIN-Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrick, Beatrix

    2009-02-09

    A calibration source of condensed {sup 83m}Kr was built and tested within the frame of this thesis. The energy of the K-32-conversion electrons is fixed due to the energy of the nuclear transition and the binding energy of the K-shell electrons and for that reason it is provided with a natural stability. Alternatively to tritium measurements in the main beamline of the KATRIN experiment and permanently and synchronously at a another MAC-E-Filter (Monitor Spectrometer) this stable electron line can be used as an indicator of the stability of the HV-measurement and spectrometer conditions. {sup 83m}Kr is a short living gas with a halflife of T{sub 1/2}=1.83 h. To allow a long term monitoring the gas was condensed onto a graphite plate (HOPG). Due to the presence of the substrate the measured line position of the conversion electrons is changed. On the one hand side the work function of the substrate enters, on the other hand side the charge distribution in the substrate recorders itself under the influence of the final state of the conversion process (mirror charge). This leads to an additional binding energy of the {sup 83m}Kr{sup +}, which is transfered to the kinetic energy of the emitted electron. Both the work function and the binding energy of the final state is modified by the presence of residual gas, which is thereby the main cause of instabilities. The aim of this doctoral thesis was to define a film preparation method which leads to a reproducible energy of the conversion electrons. Therefore three methods were tested: cleaning of the substrate with a) a resister by heating, b) by laser ablation and c) preparing a fresh preplating made of stable krypton. Without ablation an ongoing pollution of the substrate appeared which shifted the line position. With ablation 19 films were prepared over the period of one month which showed a stability of 1 ppm. Thereby together with the selection of the cleanest films whose substrate was cleaned by heating, a longterm

  8. Hyperpolarized Xe MR imaging of alveolar gas uptake in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackary I Cleveland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the central physiological functions of the lungs is to transfer inhaled gases from the alveoli to pulmonary capillary blood. However, current measures of alveolar gas uptake provide only global information and thus lack the sensitivity and specificity needed to account for regional variations in gas exchange. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we exploit the solubility, high magnetic resonance (MR signal intensity, and large chemical shift of hyperpolarized (HP (129Xe to probe the regional uptake of alveolar gases by directly imaging HP (129Xe dissolved in the gas exchange tissues and pulmonary capillary blood of human subjects. The resulting single breath-hold, three-dimensional MR images are optimized using millisecond repetition times and high flip angle radio-frequency pulses, because the dissolved HP (129Xe magnetization is rapidly replenished by diffusive exchange with alveolar (129Xe. The dissolved HP (129Xe MR images display significant, directional heterogeneity, with increased signal intensity observed from the gravity-dependent portions of the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: The features observed in dissolved-phase (129Xe MR images are consistent with gravity-dependent lung deformation, which produces increased ventilation, reduced alveolar size (i.e., higher surface-to-volume ratios, higher tissue densities, and increased perfusion in the dependent portions of the lungs. Thus, these results suggest that dissolved HP (129Xe imaging reports on pulmonary function at a fundamental level.

  9. Structure of high spin states of 76Kr and 78Kr nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Following a fully self-consistent cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (CHFB) approach with a pairing+quadrupole+hexadecapole model interaction Hamiltonian the structure of the yrast states of 76,78Kr nuclei is studied up to angular momentum = 24. Evolution of the shape with spin, and rotation alignment of proton as well ...

  10. Relativistic Coulomb excitation of {sup 88}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschner, Kevin; Blazhev, Andrey; Jolie, Jan; Warr, Nigel; Wendt, Andreas [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Collaboration: PreSPEC-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Within the scope of the PreSPEC campaign we performed a Coulomb-excitation experiment to determine absolute E2 transition strengths to 2{sup +} states in the radioactive nucleus {sup 88}Kr. The aim of our studies was to identify the one quadruple-phonon mixed-symmetry 2{sub MS}{sup +} state in order to extend our knowledge on these states to lighter N = 52 isotones and to track their evolution over different proton shells. The investigated ions were provided through projectile fission of a 650 MeV {sup 238}U beam on a primary target consisting of 0.6 g/cm{sup 2} {sup 9}Be and subsequent separation and identification of the reaction products via the FRS at GSI. The secondary target consisted of 0.4 g/cm{sup 2} {sup 197}Au. De-exciting γ radiation was detected by the PreSPEC array, consisting of 15 EUROBALL Cluster detectors. The Lund-York-Cologne-CAlorimeter LYCCA was used for particle identification after the secondary target. Absolute transition strengths of the transitions depopulating the 2{sup +}{sub 3} state in {sup 88}Kr which suggest the mixed symmetric character of this state are presented and discussed within the systematics of the N = 52 isotones.

  11. Descriptive study of the 122Xe and 123Xe isotopes using the IBM-1 and IBFM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudher, Hussein H.; Hasan, Ali K.; Sharrad, Fadhil I.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the positive parity low-spin states for 122Xe and 123Xe have been investigated using the interacting boson mode-l and the interacting boson-fermion mode-l, respectively. The energy levels and reduced transition probabilities B(E2) have been calculated. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data. It is in good agreement with the experimental data. The contour plot of the potential energy surface shows that the 122Xe nucleus is deformed and has γ-unstable-like characters.

  12. 129Xe chemical shift in human blood and pulmonary blood oxygenation measurement in humans using hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Norquay, G.; Leung, G; Stewart, N J; Wolber, J.; Wild, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the dependency of the 129Xe?red blood cell (RBC) chemical shift on blood oxygenation, and to use this relation for noninvasive measurement of pulmonary blood oxygenation in vivo with hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR. Methods Hyperpolarized 129Xe was equilibrated with blood samples of varying oxygenation in vitro, and NMR was performed at 1.5 T and 3 T. Dynamic in vivo NMR during breath hold apnea was performed at 3 T on two healthy volunteers following inhalation of hyperpolarized...

  13. Development of a compact and reliable repetitively pulsed Xe Cl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ionized XeCl(Xenon Chloride) excimer laser is described. The laser uses discharge pumped C–C charge transfer excitation. A compact gas circulation loop was adopted to achieve high repetition rate operation. The laser generates optical ...

  14. Top Site Adsorption for Xe on Cu(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyller, Thomas; Caragiu, Mellita; Diehl, Renee; Kaukasoina, Petri; Lindroos, Matti

    1998-03-01

    A low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) study of Cu(111)-(√3x√3)R30^o-Xe at 50 K indicates that Xe atoms occupy the adsorption sites on top of Cu atoms. The equilibrium Xe-Cu interlayer spacing is 3.60 Åand the spacings of the top three Cu layers are essentially bulk-like. The Xe-Cu spacing corresponds closely to the distances obtained from a hard-sphere packing model, and is significantly longer than the spacing obtained for the same geometry of Xe/Ru(0001)(B. Narloch and D. Menzel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 270 (1997) 163.). Top-site adsorption was not expected for Xe on Cu(111) since it is very weakly adsorbed, and van der Waals bonding would favor hollow-site adsorption. This result will be discussed in the context of earlier studies of anticorrugated scattering potentials(J. F. Annett and R. Haydock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(1984)838; M. Petersen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(1996)995.). This research is supported by NSF-DMR-9629715.

  15. Analysis results of PAVE sampling of groundwaters from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaa, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Four groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 with pressurised water sampling equipment (PAVE) between summer 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study is a part of Olkiluoto's monitoring programme (OMO). This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the open boreholes OL-KR2/328.5-330.5 m, OL-KR7/275.5- 289.5 m, OL-KR13/362-365 m and OL-KR15/241-245 m. The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's ( 1967) classification, all ground water samples represent the borehole water type Na-Cl. All ground water samples were brackish ( 1000 mg/L < TDS < 1 0000 mg/L) according to Davis's ( 1964) TDS classification. Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes have occurred between samplings. Other parameters, with couple of particular exceptions, have a downward trend, but bicarbonate concentration has increased in all boreholes. Concentrations of main parameters have changed most in OL-KR7 and OL-KR13 waters. Gas analyses results have not changed significantly, but increased carbon dioxide concentration is noticed in gas analysis results also. (orig.)

  16. Relativistic Coulomb excitation of 88Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschner, K.; Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.; Warr, N.; Boutachkov, P.; Bednarczyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Algora, A.; Ameil, F.; Bentley, M. A.; Brambilla, S.; Braun, N.; Camera, F.; Cederkäll, J.; Corsi, A.; Danchev, M.; DiJulio, D.; Fahlander, C.; Gerl, J.; Giaz, A.; Golubev, P.; Górska, M.; Grebosz, J.; Habermann, T.; Hackstein, M.; Hoischen, R.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Mǎrginean, N.; Merchán, E.; Möller, T.; Naqvi, F.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Nociforo, C.; Pietralla, N.; Pietri, S.; Podolyák, Zs.; Prochazka, A.; Reese, M.; Reiter, P.; Rudigier, M.; Rudolph, D.; Sava, T.; Schaffner, H.; Scruton, L.; Taprogge, J.; Thomas, T.; Weick, H.; Wendt, A.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the systematics of mixed-symmetry states in N =52 isotones, a relativistic Coulomb excitation experiment was performed during the PreSPEC campaign at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung to determine E 2 transition strengths to 2+ states of the radioactive nucleus 88Kr. Absolute transition rates could be measured towards the first and third 2+ states. For the latter a mixed-symmetry character is suggested on the basis of the indication for a strong M 1 transition to the fully symmetric 21+ state, extending the knowledge of the N =52 isotones below Z =40 . A comparison with the proton-neutron interacting boson model and shell-model predictions is made and supports the assignment.

  17. LASER PHYSICS: Determination of the absolute quantum efficiency of the luminescence of Xe2Cl* in Cl2-Xe mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, V. S.; Kanaev, A. V.; Mikheev, L. D.

    1987-07-01

    The composition dependences of the absolute quantum efficiency of the luminescence of the Xe2Cl* trimer, emitting in the blue-green part of the spectrum, were determined for Cl2-Xe mixtures excited at the wavelength of 137.2 nm. A high (up to 100%) efficiency of trimer formation observed under optical excitation conditions makes media of this kind promising for laser applications.

  18. Krüppel homolog (Kr h) is a dosage-dependent modifier of gene expression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolenskaya, E V; Frolov, M V; Birchler, J A

    2000-04-01

    A lethal mutation in the Krüppel homolog (Kr h) was isolated in screens of P-element insertion mutations for modifiers of white gene expression. The mutation occurs in the 5' untranslated region of the Kr h gene and causes a lightening of the eye colour for several alleles of white due to a decrease in white steady-state mRNA levels at pupal stages. Two related genes, scarlet and brown, were significantly affected as well in early pupae. Genetic analysis of different white alleles suggests that enhancer sequences are necessary for interaction with KR H. Thus, the Kr h gene is a member of the dosage-dependent hierarchy effective upon white.

  19. Completion of Kr-81 and Kr-85 Analysis Development for Hydrogeology and Testing its Validity by Assessing Aquifer Recharge Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thonnard, Norbert

    2007-04-28

    Summary The overall objective was to complete the development of a RIMS-based analytical technique to determine the concentration of the rare krypton radioisotopes, 81Kr and 85Kr, in samples of interest to the geoscience and planetary science community The key to RIMS is the use of tunable lasers to selectively and efficiently excite by resonant photon absorption atomic states unique to the chosen element. Ionization of the specified element can then occur while excluding all other constituents of the sample, bringing detection limits down to the single-atom level. Combining RIMS with several steps of isotopic enrichment makes detection of a rare isotope, such as 81Kr, feasible. A complete process for groundwater samples consists of starting with (1) collecting the groundwater sample, (2) degassing the water sample, (3) separating Kr from the recovered gases, (4 & 5) two isotopic enrichments reducing interfering isotopes by >109, and (6) detecting the rare krypton isotope using RIMS in a time-of-flight system. Required water sample size is 20 liters for 81Kr and 10 to 3 liters for 85Kr. Weak links in the above steps were to be identified and rectified. Most of the troublesome issues were resolved, but unfortunately, two key difficulties could not be resolved with the available resources, so the overall, final goal of completing a suite of measurements was not achieved. In spite of this, valuable collaborations were established to demonstrate the value of 81Kr and 85Kr measurements in two critical applications, the future site of a nuclear waste repository, where high efficiency 81Kr measurements would allow groundwater dating of low-yield formations, and a multi-method analysis of potential contamination inflow into a large municipal water system, where the simplicity of interpretation of 85Kr measurements could become a valuable future interpretive tool. Therefore, samples were collected anyway, and processing started using the working parts of the method, so that

  20. Hyperpolarized (129)Xe T (1) in oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M. S.; Balamore, D.; Kacher, D. F.; Venkatesh, A. K.; Jolesz, F. A.

    2000-01-01

    The viability of the new technique of hyperpolarized (129)Xe MRI (HypX-MRI) for imaging organs other than the lungs depends on whether the spin-lattice relaxation time, T(1), of (129)Xe is sufficiently long in the blood. In previous experiments by the authors, the T(1) was found to be strongly dependent upon the oxygenation of the blood, with T(1) increasing from about 3 s in deoxygenated samples to about 10 s in oxygenated samples. Contrarily, Tseng et al. (J. Magn. Reson. 1997; 126: 79-86) reported extremely long T(1) values deduced from an indirect experiment in which hyperpolarized (129)Xe was used to create a 'blood-foam'. They found that oxygenation decreased T(1). Pivotal to their experiment is the continual and rapid exchange of hyperpolarized (129)Xe between the gas phase (within blood-foam bubbles) and the dissolved phase (in the skin of the bubbles); this necessitated a complicated analysis to extract the T(1) of (129)Xe in blood. In the present study, the experimental design minimizes gas exchange after the initial bolus of hyperpolarized (129)Xe has been bubbled through the sample. This study confirms that oxygenation increases the T(1) of (129)Xe in blood, from about 4 s in freshly drawn venous blood, to about 13 s in blood oxygenated to arterial levels, and also shifts the red blood cell resonance to higher frequency. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Abbreviations used BOLD blood oxygen level dependent NOE nuclear overhouses effect PO(2) oxygen partial pressure RBC red blood cells RF radio frequency SNR signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) mediates juvenile hormone action during metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Chieka; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Riddiford, Lynn M

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) given at pupariation inhibits bristle formation and causes pupal cuticle formation in the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster due to its prolongation of expression of the transcription factor Broad (BR). In a microarray analysis of JH-induced gene expression in abdominal integument, we found that Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) was up-regulated during most of adult development. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that Kr-h1 up-regulation began at 10h after puparium formation (APF), and Kr-h1 up-regulation occurred in imaginal epidermal cells, persisting larval muscles, and larval oenocytes. Ectopic expression of Kr-h1 in abdominal epidermis using T155-Gal4 to drive UAS-Kr-h1 resulted in missing or short bristles in the dorsal midline. This phenotype was similar to that seen after a low dose of JH or after misexpression of br between 21 and 30 h APF. Ectopic expression of Kr-h1 prolonged the expression of BR protein in the pleura and the dorsal tergite. No Kr-h1 was seen after misexpression of br. Thus, Kr-h1 mediates some of the JH signaling in the adult abdominal epidermis and is upstream of br in this pathway. We also show for the first time that the JH-mediated maintenance of br expression in this epidermis is patterned and that JH delays the fusion of the imaginal cells and the disappearance of Dpp in the dorsal midline.

  2. The I-Pu-Xe age of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, T. D.; Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Rb-Sr analyses of some lunar samples which indicate that the Moon is close to the age of primitive meteorites are only reliable to within about 100 m.y. A potentially more precise chronometer is the I-Pu-Xe system. I129 has a 17 m.y. halflife and decays to Xe129; Pu244, with an 82 m.y. halflife, produces Xe131 to Xe136 in fission. The I129/Pu244 ratio has a halflife of 21 m.y. Xenon retention for the Earth could have begun as late as the event that gave birth to the Moon. For the Moon, it is hard to imagine that xenon retention could have begun before re-accretion of the fissioned (and initially dispersed?) material, particularly if that material got hot enough to account for the depletion of the volatile elements. Thus, if fission model are correct, xenon retention in the Earth certainly began no later than in the Moon, and possibly began earlier. Therefore, the I-Pu-Xe system is only marginally consistent with a fission origin. If further study confirms that the I/U ratio of the Moon is .01 or less, or if gas-rich lunar highland breccias with higher ratios of I129 to Pu244 are found, it would be difficult to explain the results in an earth-fission model of lunar origin.

  3. High-Pressure Reactivity of Kr and F2—Stabilization of Krypton in the +4 Oxidation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Kurzydłowski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the synthesis of the first krypton compound, several other Kr-bearing connections have been obtained. However, in all of them krypton adopts the +2 oxidation state, in contrast to xenon which forms numerous compounds with an oxidation state as high as +8. Motivated by the possibility of thermodynamic stabilization of exotic compounds with the use of high pressure (exceeding 1 GPa = 10 kbar, we present here theoretical investigations into the chemistry of krypton and fluorine at such large compression. In particular we focus on krypton tetrafluoride, KrF4, a molecular crystal in which krypton forms short covalent bonds with neighboring fluorine atoms thus adopting the +4 oxidation state. We find that this hitherto unknown compound can be stabilized at pressures below 50 GPa. Our results indicate also that, at larger compressions, a multitude of other KrmFn fluorides should be stable, among them KrF which exhibits covalent Kr–Kr bonds. Our results set the stage for future high-pressure synthesis of novel krypton compounds.

  4. A high volume, batch mode {sup 129}Xe polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojna-Pelczar, Anna, E-mail: anna.wojna.pelczar@mail.muni.cz [Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic); Formerly: Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland); Pałasz, Tadeusz [Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland)

    2017-06-01

    Numerous designs of optical gas polarizers have been proposed, broadening possible applications of the hyperpolarized gases as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. We present a home–made {sup 129}Xe polarizer based on the spin exchange optical pumping method. The polarizer operates under 1 bar of the gas mixture (at the maximum temperature of 160 °C) in a high volume optical cell (5025 cm{sup 3}). Approximately 100 cm{sup 3} of {sup 129}Xe polarized at 1.50±0.37% is produced in a single cycle of polarization. Operation under standard pressure imposes polarization transfer mainly via van der Waals molecules, resulting in the efficient spin exchange between rubidium and {sup 129}Xe atoms. The design, construction and operation of the polarizer are described in details.

  5. Electrical conductivity and water sampling measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J. [Poyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland); Lamminmaeki, T.

    2012-06-15

    Fracture-specific water sampling and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed in drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55 at the Olkiluoto investigation site between July 2011 and November 2011. The measurements were conducted using Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) with a configuration for water sampling. The purpose of the measurements was to obtain information on the geochemical properties of the groundwater. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements and samplings. The main point in the investigation programme was water sampling, the incidental measurements were carried out for controlling the quality of the sampling. Flow and single point resistance (SPR) measurements were performed in order to locate the target fractures for sampling. During sampling at a target fracture the flow rate, electrical conductivity and temperature of the flowing water were also monitored. (orig.)

  6. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A Viable Functional Lung Imaging Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO2) by observation of 129Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO2 by observation of 129Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO2 that accounts for both traditional T1 decay from pO2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output. PMID:17890035

  7. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 in 2009 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, H. [Geopros Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with HTU-equipment in drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2009 and 2010. The total length of the borehole OL-KR19 is 544,34 m, 241,80 m of which was covered by 121 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR45 is 1023,30 m long and 63 similar tests were made in it covering 126,00 m of the hole and OL-KR46 600,10 m long, 151 tests made covering 301,35 m. The measured sections are around the depths of the planned repository. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  8. Negative heat capacities in central Xe+Sn reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Neindre, N.; Bougault, R.; Gulminelli, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS, ISMRA et Universite, 14 - Caen (France)] [and others

    2000-02-01

    In this study the fluctuation method is applied to the 32-50 A.MeV Xe + Sn central collisions detected with the INDRA multidetector. This method based on kinetic energy fluctuations allows the authors to provide information on the liquid gas phase transition in nuclear multifragmentation. In the case of Xe + Sn central reactions a divergence in the total heat capacity is observed. This divergence corresponds to large fluctuations on the detected fragment partitions. A negative heat capacity branch is measured and so tends to confirm the observation of a first order phase transition in heavy-ion collisions. (A.C.)

  9. Design Concepts of Emergency Response Robot Platform K-R2D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sun Young; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    From the analysis for various mobile robots competed in DARPA Robotics Challenge, there are some drawbacks in using two or four legs because bipedal locomotion is not yet suitable for maintaining stability and quadrupedal locomotion is difficult to go through narrow aisles. Motivated by the above observations, we propose a K-R2D2 robot platform with three legs arranged in the form of a triangle like as R2-D2 robot which is a fictional robot character in the Star Wars movies. This robot has 3 legs with tracks in each sole of the leg. It is statically stable since there are three contact points to ground. In addition, three legs are also possible to design a structure walking stairs that can expand and contract in the vertical direction. This paper has presented the conceptual design, it is developed on the purpose of quick response instead of emergent workers to the extreme conditions disasters. This robot is emergency response robot platform KR2D2 with three legs, which is statically stable to walk or wheel depending on the terrains and move quickly as possible as on uneven terrain or stairs.

  10. Determination of electron impact ionization and excitation coefficients in He-Xe gas mixtures. He-Xe kongo gas ni okeru denshi shototsu denri keisu oyobi reiki keisu no sokutei to kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Tachibana, K. (Kyoto Inst. of Technology, Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-03-20

    The rare gas discharge gives a stable discharge and light emission characteristics at low temperature in comparison with the discharge of the vapor of such a metal as Hg. The present barrier for the commercialization of the color PDP lies in the lower level of its emission intensity and efficiency in comparison with that of CRT. In this report, an electron impact ionization coefficient in a gas mixture and an electron impact excitation coefficient for a XeIs {sub 4} level were analyzed using a Boltzmann equation by means of a steady state Townsend method using a drift tube. By comparing both, the elementary process in the gas mixture is investiagted to discuss the respective contributions for the effective ionization coefficient and the excitation coefficient. As a result, it was found that the ionization process in the He-Xe gas mixture could be described by the processes of direct ionization of Xe and He, and an indirect ionization (Penning effect) by an active helium. 37 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Fourier photospectroscopy of Xe-C{sub 60} through a Xe 4d resonance window: theory versus recent experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Aakash B; Chakraborty, Himadri S, E-mail: himadri@nwmissouri.edu [Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri 64468 (United States)

    2011-10-14

    The photoionization cross section of endohedral Xe-C{sub 60} over a Xe 4d giant resonance energy region, calculated in the time-dependent local density approximation, is compared with recent measurements (Kilcoyne et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 213001). An analysis based on the Fourier transforms of oscillatory cross sections is performed to derive a number of inherent similarities between the prediction and the data, including a large beating-type oscillation and several others of intermediate size. Results stress the need for more accurate measurements to access the wealth of information about the geometry of the system. (fast track communication)

  12. Constraints on the timing of the Moon-forming giant impact from MORB Xe isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-12-01

    As Earth accreted, volatiles were delivered by accreting material and lost by degassing and impact-driven ejection to space. The Moon-forming giant impact initiated the final catastrophic outgassing and bulk volatile ejection event on the early Earth. I-Pu-U-Xe systematics provide a powerful tool to probe degassing of the early Earth. Radiogenic 129Xe was produced by β-decay of the extinct nuclide 129I (t1/2 = 15.7 Ma) in the first ~90 Myr of Earth history. Fissiogenic 131Xe, 132Xe, 134Xe, 136Xe were produced in distinct, characteristic proportions by the fission of extinct short-lived 244Pu (t1/2 = 80.0 Myr) and extant long-lived 238U (t1/2 = 4.468 Gyr). Here we present radiogenic and fission Xe data in basalts from the Southwest Indian Ridge, and discuss them with other mantle-derived samples to shed light on early Earth volatile accretion and loss. Based on the ratio of radiogenic 129Xe to plutogenic 136Xe determined for the MORB source, we calculate an I-Pu-Xe closure age for the upper mantle of ~44-70 Myr after the start of the Solar System. The closure age should correspond to the end of catastrophic mantle outgassing during accretion, and thus constrains the age of the last giant impact (LGI). Our closure age is significantly older than previous Xe closure age determinations of ~100 Myr, and is also older than some direct radiometric ages of lunar crustal samples. In order to explore the effects of accretion timescales, partial early retention of Xe, and degassing associated with long-term mantle processing on Xe closure age, we develop a new model of I-Pu-U-Xe systematics. We find that for LGI's between ~35 and 70 Myr after the start of the Solar System, we are able to satisfy constraints on I-Pu-U-Xe systematics simultaneously without invoking partial retention of Xe prior to the last giant impact. For LGI's after ~80 Myr, partial retention of Xe prior to the LGI is required. Non-zero early retention of Xe is necessary to explain the budgets of primordial

  13. Investigation of triaxiality in 54122-128Xe isotopes in the framework of sdg-IBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Ranjbar, Z.; Fouladi, N.; Ghapanvari, M.

    In this paper, a transitional interacting boson model (IBM) Hamiltonian in both sd-(IBM) and sdg-IBM versions based on affine SU(1, 1) Lie algebra is employed to describe deviations from the gamma-unstable nature of Hamiltonian along the chain of Xe isotopes. sdg-IBM Hamiltonian proposed a better interpretation of this deviation which cannot be explained in the sd-boson models. The nuclei studied have well-known γ bands close to the γ-unstable limit. The energy levels, B(E2) transition rates and signature splitting of the γ -vibrational band are calculated via the affine SU(1,1) Lie algebra. An acceptable degree of agreement was achieved based on this procedure. It is shown that in these isotopes the signature splitting is better reproduced by the inclusion of sdg-IBM. In none of them, any evidence for a stable, triaxial ground state shape is found.

  14. Dynamical LEED study of Pt(111)-(3×3)R30°-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyller, Th.; Caragiu, M.; Diehl, R. D.; Kaukasoina, P.; Lindroos, M.

    1999-10-01

    Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) studies of Pt(111)-(3×3)R30°-Xe at 80 K and 110 K indicate that the Xe adsorption site is on top of the Pt atoms with a Xe-Pt distance of 3.4 Å. The substrate structure is essentially unrelaxed with respect to the bulk. These results contrast with an earlier spin-polarized LEED study which indicated that hollow sites are occupied in this structure. The low-coordination-site geometry for Xe is discussed in the context of earlier studies of Xe adsorption.

  15. 129Xe chemical shift in human blood and pulmonary blood oxygenation measurement in humans using hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norquay, Graham; Leung, General; Stewart, Neil J.; Wolber, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the dependency of the 129Xe‐red blood cell (RBC) chemical shift on blood oxygenation, and to use this relation for noninvasive measurement of pulmonary blood oxygenation in vivo with hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR. Methods Hyperpolarized 129Xe was equilibrated with blood samples of varying oxygenation in vitro, and NMR was performed at 1.5 T and 3 T. Dynamic in vivo NMR during breath hold apnea was performed at 3 T on two healthy volunteers following inhalation of hyperpolarized 129Xe. Results The 129Xe chemical shift in RBCs was found to increase nonlinearly with blood oxygenation at 1.5 T and 3 T. During breath hold apnea, the 129Xe chemical shift in RBCs exhibited a periodic time modulation and showed a net decrease in chemical shift of ∼1 ppm over a 35 s breath hold, corresponding to a decrease of 7–10 % in RBC oxygenation. The 129Xe‐RBC signal amplitude showed a modulation with the same frequency as the 129Xe‐RBC chemical shift. Conclusion The feasibility of using the 129Xe‐RBC chemical shift to measure pulmonary blood oxygenation in vivo has been demonstrated. Correlation between 129Xe‐RBC signal and 129Xe‐RBC chemical shift modulations in the lung warrants further investigation, with the aim to better quantify temporal blood oxygenation changes in the cardiopulmonary vascular circuit. Magn Reson Med 77:1399–1408, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:27062652

  16. Samoubojstvo u prosudbi kršćanske etike

    OpenAIRE

    BIŠKUP, Marijan

    2002-01-01

    S problemom samoubojstva bavi se više znanstvenih disciplina, a ovdje se o samoubilačkom postupku govori s aspekta kršćanske etike. Sveto pismo, temelj kršćanske etike, navodi više samoubilačkih postupaka: slučaj kralja Šaula (1 Sam 31, 3-5), Davidova savjetnika Ahitofela (2 Sam 17, 23), svećenika Razisa (2 Mak 14, 41-46), apostola Jude Iškariotskoga (Mt 27, 5). O nekima od tih postupaka biblijski pisci govore sa simpatijama. Uza sve to neophodno je kazati da je židovsko-kršćanska tradicij...

  17. Radionuclide venography using continuous Kr-18 m infusion: preliminary note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, H R; Vandevivere, J; Guillaume, M; Niethammer, T; Sergeysels, R

    1981-10-01

    Continuous infusion of Kr-81m presents important advantages compared to the commonly used radionuclides for venography. High count rates can be accumulated, and a high resolution collimator can be employed to ensure good quality images. The study can be repeated immediately and multiple views can be performed until a satisfactory result is obtained. The production of radionuclide from a Rb-81--Kr-81m generator suitable for intravenous infusion is almost the same as that which is suitable for ventilation. The same generator can first be used for venography and then for ventilation imaging to complete the work-up patients suspected of having thromboembolic disease.

  18. Radionuclide venography using continuous Kr-81 m infusion: preliminary note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, H.R.; Vandevivere, J.; Guillaume, M.; Niethammer, T.; Sergeysels, R.

    1981-10-01

    Continuous infusion of Kr-81m presents important advantages compared to the commonly used radionuclides for venography. High count rates can be accumulated, and a high resolution collimator can be employed to ensure good quality images. The study can be repeated immediately and multiple views can be performed until a satisfactory result is obtained. The production of radionuclide from a Rb-81--Kr-81m generator suitable for intravenous infusion is almost the same as that which is suitable for ventilation. The same generator can first be used for venography and then for ventilation imaging to complete the work-up patients suspected of having thromboembolic disease.

  19. Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a rep-rated multibeam KrF laser driver design for the 500kJ Inertial Fusion test Facility (FTF) recently proposed by NRL, then models its optical pulse shaping capabilities using the ORESTES laser kinetics code. It describes a stable and reliable iteration technique for calculating the required precompensated input pulse shape that will achieve the desired output shape, even when the amplifiers are heavily saturated. It also describes how this precompensation technique could be experimentally implemented in real time on a reprated laser system. The simulations show that this multibeam system can achieve a high fidelity pulse shaping capability, even for a high gain shock ignition pulse whose final spike requires output intensities much higher than the ˜4MW/cm2 saturation levels associated with quasi-cw operation; i.e., they show that KrF can act as a storage medium even for pulsewidths of ˜1ns. For the chosen pulse, which gives a predicted fusion energy gain of ˜120, the simulations predict the FTF can deliver a total on-target energy of 428kJ, a peak spike power of 385TW, and amplified spontaneous emission prepulse contrast ratios IASE/Ilaser.

  20. Dmitri Krõmovist on saanud vaatemängumeister / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Vene lavastaja Dmitri Krõmovist ja tema lavastusest "Söör Vantes. Donki Hot" (Anatoli Vassiljevi Teater Draamakunstikool. Dmitri Krõmovi loomelaboratoorium), mida etendatakse festivalil "Talveöö unenägu 2006"

  1. Luminescence characteristics of Xe{sub 2}Cl excimer molecules under pumping the dense Xe-CCl{sub 4} gas mixtures with a pulsed electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mis' kevich, A I; Jinbo, Guo [National Research Nuclear University ' Moscow Engineering Physics Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-31

    Temporal and spectral characteristics of the luminescence of dense Xe-CCl{sub 4} gas mixtures of different composition, excited by a 5-ns pulsed electron beam, were measured. The energy of the electrons amounted to 150 keV and the electron beam current pulse amplitude was 5 A. The gas mixtures were used containing Xe (38-700 Torr) and CCl{sub 4} (0.03-0.3 Torr). The studies were performed within the wavelength range 200-1200 nm using a MAYA-2000Pro diffraction grating spectrometer and a RIGOL DS 5022 ME fast digital oscilloscope. The luminescence lifetimes of the excimer molecules XeCl* (band with {lambda}{sub max} = 308 nm) and Xe{sub 2}Cl* (band with {lambda}{sub max} = 486 nm) were measured, as well as the constants of quenching by the components of the gas mixture for Xe{sub 2}Cl* molecules. A model of plasma-chemical processes for dense Xe-CCl{sub 4} gas mixtures with a very low content of the CCl{sub 4} donor is proposed. It is shown that in such 'poor' mixtures Xe{sub 2}Cl* molecules are mainly produced as a result of recombination of the Xe{sub 2}{sup +} and Cl{sup -} ions. (active media)

  2. Observation of a large parity nonconserving analyzing power in Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, J.J.; Snow, W.M.; Bowman, J.D.; Cain, B.; Crawford, B.E.; Delheij, P.P.; Hartman, R.D.; Haseyama, T.; Keith, C.D.; Knudson, J.N.; Komives, A.; Leuschner, M.; Lowie, L.Y.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Penttilae, S.I.; Postma, H.; Rich, D.; Roberson, N.R.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sharapov, E.I.; Stephenson, S.L.; Yen, Y.F.; Yuan, V.W. [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27706 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan)]|[North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)]|[University of Technology, P.O. Box 5064, 2600 GA Delft (The Netherlands)]|[Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow, Region (Russia)

    1996-06-01

    A large parity nonconserving longitudinal analyzing power was discovered in polarized-neutron transmission through Xe. An analyzing power of 4.3{plus_minus}0.2{percent} was observed in a {ital p}-wave resonance at {ital E}{sub {ital n}}=3.2 eV. The measurement was performed with a liquid Xe target of natural isotopic abundance that was placed in the polarized epithermal neutron beam, flight path 2, at the Manuel Lujan Neutron Science Center. This apparatus was constructed by the TRIPLE Collaboration, and has been used for studies of parity symmetry in compound nuclear resonances. Part of the motivation of the experiment was to discover a nucleus appropriate for a sensitive test of time-reversal invariance in polarized-neutron transmission. The large analyzing power of the observed resonance may make it possible to design a test of time reversal invariance using a polarized-Xe target. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Differential elastic scattering of CCl/sub 4/ by Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbio, S.M.; Sherrod, W.D.

    1979-02-15

    The differential elastic scattering cross section for CCl/sub 4/+Kr at 0.0857 eV collision energy has been measured. The experimental result resolves the low frequency rainbow structure and has been interpreted using the semiquantal method. An intermolecular potential has been recovered from the calculation and is discussed.

  4. Difference flow and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Hurmerinta, E.; Ripatti, K. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head of fractures/fractured zones in drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B at the Olkiluoto investigation site between January 2011 and September 2011. The measuring programme employed was the same in all drillholes. The applied section lengths of the flow guide were either 2 m and 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section length. The measurements were carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. The transmissivity and hydraulic head of zones were calculated from the flow and pressure results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with the flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fractures into the drillhole. The drillhole flow (flow along the drillhole) was measured in conjunction with drillhole EC measurements. (orig.)

  5. Standard test method for K-R curve determination

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance to fracture of metallic materials under Mode I loading at static rates using either of the following notched and precracked specimens: the middle-cracked tension M(T) specimen or the compact tension C(T) specimen. A K-R curve is a continuous record of toughness development (resistance to crack extension) in terms of KR plotted against crack extension in the specimen as a crack is driven under an increasing stress intensity factor, K. 1.2 Materials that can be tested for K-R curve development are not limited by strength, thickness, or toughness, so long as specimens are of sufficient size to remain predominantly elastic to the effective crack extension value of interest. 1.3 Specimens of standard proportions are required, but size is variable, to be adjusted for yield strength and toughness of the materials. 1.4 Only two of the many possible specimen types that could be used to develop K-R curves are covered in this method. 1.5 The test is app...

  6. Anomalous behaviour of transition probabilities in75Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoda, S.; Wood, J. L.; Eberth, J.; Busch, J.; Liebchen, M.; Mylaeus, T.; Schmal, N.; Sefzig, R.; Teichert, W.; Wiosna, M.

    1990-12-01

    Two collective bands of75Kr have been extended up to spin 21/2 using the compound reactions64Zn(14N, p2 n)75Kr and50Cr(28Si, 2 pn)75Kr. Spins and parities were assigned from neutron-gated γ-ray angular distributions and excitation functions using the OSIRIS anti-Compton spectrometer. The bands are interpreted to be built on the well-deformed Nilsson states: [442] 5/2 and [301] 3/2. Energies for both bands and the order of magnitude of the mixing ratios in the f 5/2 band can be reproduced within the single-particle-plus-rotor model, while the experimental Q(I→I-1)/ Q(I→I-2) ratios, deduced from mixing ratios and branching ratios, exhibit large deviations by a factor 4 to 6 from theoretical values (which are around one). An explanation of this effect may be found by treating the two rotational bands each as a result of mixing between rotational bands of oblate and prolate states; thus explaining the large difference between B( E2, I→I-1) and B( E2, I →I-2) in the bands of75Kr.

  7. Anomalous behaviour of transition probabilities in sup 75 Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoda, S.; Eberth, J.; Busch, J.; Liebchen, M.; Mylaeus, T.; Schmal, N.; Sefzig, R.; Teichert, W.; Wiosna, M. (Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernphysik); Wood, J.L. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (USA). School of Physics)

    1990-08-01

    Two collective bands of {sup 75}Kr have been extended up to spin 21/2 using the compound reactions {sup 64}Zn({sup 14}N, p2n){sup 75}Kr and {sup 50}Cr({sup 28}Si, 2pn){sup 75}Kr. Spins and parities were assigned from neutron-gated {gamma}-ray angular distributions and excitation functions using the OSIRIS anti-Compton spectrometer. The bands are interpreted to be built on the well-deformed Nilsson states: (442) 5/2 and (301) 3/2. Energies for both bands and the order of magnitude of the mixing ratios in the f{sub 5/2} band can be reproduced within the single-particle-plus-rotor model, while the experimental Q(I{yields}I-1)/Q(I{yields}I-2) ratios, deduced from mixing ratios and branching ratios, exhibit large deviations by a factor 4 to 6 from theoretical values (which are around one). An explanation of this effect may be found by treating the two rotational bands each as a result of mixing between rotational bands of oblate and prolate states; thus explaining the large difference between B(E2, I{yields}I-1) and B(E2, I{yields}I-2) in the bands of {sup 75}Kr. (orig.).

  8. [Mg(XeF(2))(n)()](AsF(6))(2) (n = 4, 2): first compounds of magnesium with XeF(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramsek, Melita; Benkic, Primoz; Zemva, Boris

    2004-01-26

    The reaction between Mg(AsF(6))(2) and XeF(2) in anhydrous HF (aHF) at room temperature yields two compounds with XeF(2) bonded directly to the Mg(2+) cation: [Mg(XeF(2))(4)](AsF(6))(2); [Mg(XeF(2))(2)](AsF(6))(2). The 1:4 compound is obtained with excess XeF(2) while the 1:2 compound is prepared from stoichiometric amounts of Mg(AsF(6))(2) and XeF(2). [Mg(XeF(2))(4)](AsF(6))(2) crystallizes in an orthorhombic crystal system, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 8.698(15) A, b = 14.517(15) A, c = 15.344(16) A, V = 1937(4) A(3), and Z = 4. The octahedral coordination sphere of Mg consists of one fluorine atom from each of the four XeF(2) molecules and two fluorine atoms from the two AsF(6) units. [Mg(XeF(2))(2)](AsF(6))(2) crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system, space group Pbam, with a = 8.9767(10) A, b = 15.1687(18) A, c = 5.3202(6) A, V = 724.42(14) A(3), and Z = 2. The octahedral coordination sphere consists of two fluorine atoms, one from each of the two XeF(2) molecules and four fluorine atoms from the four bridging AsF(6) units.

  9. Exploring the Nature of Silicon-Noble Gas Bonds in H3SiNgNSi and HSiNgNSi Compounds (Ng = Xe, Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Pan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio and density functional theory-based computations are performed to investigate the structure and stability of H3SiNgNSi and HSiNgNSi compounds (Ng = Xe, Rn. They are thermochemically unstable with respect to the dissociation channel producing Ng and H3SiNSi or HSiNSi. However, they are kinetically stable with respect to this dissociation channel having activation free energy barriers of 19.3 and 23.3 kcal/mol for H3SiXeNSi and H3SiRnNSi, respectively, and 9.2 and 12.8 kcal/mol for HSiXeNSi and HSiRnNSi, respectively. The rest of the possible dissociation channels are endergonic in nature at room temperature for Rn analogues. However, one three-body dissociation channel for H3SiXeNSi and one two-body and one three-body dissociation channels for HSiXeNSi are slightly exergonic in nature at room temperature. They become endergonic at slightly lower temperature. The nature of bonding between Ng and Si/N is analyzed by natural bond order, electron density and energy decomposition analyses. Natural population analysis indicates that they could be best represented as (H3SiNg+(NSi− and (HSiNg+(NSi−. Energy decomposition analysis further reveals that the contribution from the orbital term (ΔEorb is dominant (ca. 67%–75% towards the total attraction energy associated with the Si-Ng bond, whereas the electrostatic term (ΔEelstat contributes the maximum (ca. 66%–68% for the same in the Ng–N bond, implying the covalent nature of the former bond and the ionic nature of the latter.

  10. Present status of the {sup 129}Xe comagnetometer development for neutron EDM measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, M., E-mail: mihara@vg.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Masuda, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Matsuta, K. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Kawasaki, S.; Watanabe, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Hatanaka, K.; Matsumiya, R. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    A {sup 129}Xe comagnetometer designed for the measurement of neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) as precisely as 1 × 10{sup −27}e cm is presented. Highly nuclear spin polarized {sup 129}Xe are introduced into an EDM cell where the {sup 129}Xe spin precession is detected by means of the two-photon transition. The geometric phase effect (GPE) which generates the false nEDM was quantitatively discussed and the systematic error of nEDM from the GPE was estimated considering the buffer-gas suppression due to Xe atomic collisions. Research and development are in progress to construct the {sup 129}Xe comagnetometer with a field sensitivity of 0.3 fT. At present, about 70 % nuclear spin polarized {sup 129}Xe atoms have been obtained in a spin exchange opitial pumping cell, that are in the process of being transferred into the EDM cell via a cold trap.

  11. Nanoscale topographic pattern formation on Kr{sup +}-bombarded germanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkinson, Joy C.; Madi, Charbel S.; Aziz, Michael J. [Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The nanoscale pattern formation of Ge surfaces uniformly irradiated by Kr{sup +} ions was studied in a low-contamination environment at ion energies of 250 and 500 eV and at angles of 0 Degree-Sign through 80 Degree-Sign . The authors present a phase diagram of domains of pattern formation occurring as these two control parameters are varied. The results are insensitive to ion energy over the range covered by the experiments. Flat surfaces are stable from normal incidence up to an incidence angle of {theta} = 55 Degree-Sign from normal. At higher angles, the surface is linearly unstable to the formation of parallel-mode ripples, in which the wave vector is parallel to the projection of the ion beam on the surface. For {theta} {>=} 75 Degree-Sign the authors observe perpendicular-mode ripples, in which the wave vector is perpendicular to the ion beam. This behavior is qualitatively similar to those of Madi et al. for Ar{sup +}-irradiated Si but is inconsistent with those of Ziberi et al. for Kr{sup +}-irradiated Ge. The existence of a window of stability is qualitatively inconsistent with a theory based on sputter erosion [R. M. Bradley and J. M. Harper, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2390 (1988)] and qualitatively consistent with a model of ion impact-induced mass redistribution [G. Carter and V. Vishnyakov, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17647 (1996)] as well as a crater function theory incorporating both effects [S. A. Norris et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 276 (2011)]. The critical transition angle between stable and rippled surfaces occurs 10 Degree-Sign -15 Degree-Sign above the value of 45 Degree-Sign predicted by the mass redistribution model.

  12. Evolution of topological order in Xe films on a quasicrystal surface

    OpenAIRE

    Curtarolo, Stefano; Setyawan, Wahyu; Ferralis, Nicola; Diehl, Renee D.; Cole, Milton W.

    2005-01-01

    We report results of the first computer simulation studies of a physically adsorbed gas on a quasicrystalline surface, Xe on decagonal Al-Ni-Co. The grand canonical Monte Carlo method is employed, using a semi-empirical gas-surface interaction, based on conventional combining rules, and the usual Lennard-Jones Xe-Xe interaction. The resulting adsorption isotherms and calculated structures are consistent with the results of LEED experimental data. The evolution of the bulk film begins in the s...

  13. Solid-state NMR spectroscopic study of coordination compounds of XeF(2) with metal cations and the crystal structure of [Ba(XeF(2))(5)][AsF(6)](2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Michael; Hazendonk, Paul; Iuga, Adriana; Nieboer, Jared; Tramsek, Melita; Goreshnik, Evgeny; Zemva, Boris; Zheng, Shaohui; Autschbach, Jochen

    2007-07-23

    The coordination compounds [Mg(XeF(2))(2)][AsF(6)](2), [Mg(XeF(2))(4)][AsF(6)](2), [Ca(XeF(2))(2.5)][AsF(6)](2), [Ba(XeF(2))(3)][AsF(6)](2), and [Ba(XeF(2))(5)][AsF(60](2) were characterized by solid-state (19)F and (129)Xe magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. The (19)F and (129)Xe NMR data of [Mg(XeF(2))(2)][AsF(6)](2), [Mg(XeF(2)(4)][AsF(6)](2), and [Ca(XeF(2))(2.5)][AsF(6)](2) were correlated with the previously determined crystal structures. The isotropic (19)F chemical shifts and (1)J((129)Xe-(19)F) coupling constants were used to distinguish the terminal and bridging coordination modes of XeF(2). Chemical-shift and coupling-constant calculations for [Mg(XeF(2))(4)][AsF(6)](2) confirmed the assignment of terminal and bridging chemical-shift and coupling-constant ranges. The NMR spectroscopic data of [Ba(XeF(2))(3)][AsF(6)](2) and [Ba(XeF(2))(5)][AsF(6)](2) indicate the absence of any terminal XeF(2) ligands, which was verified for [Ba(XeF(2))(5)][AsF(6)](2) by its X-ray crystal structure. The adduct [Ba(XeF(2))(5)][AsF(6)](2) crystallizes in the space group Fmmm, with a = 11.6604(14) Angstrom, b = 13.658(2) Angstrom, c = 13.7802(17) Angstrom, V = 2194.5(5) Angstrom(3) at -73 degrees C, Z = 4, and R = 0.0350 and contains two crystallographically independent bridging XeF(2) molecules and one nonligating XeF(2) molecule. The AsF(6-) anions in [Mg(XeF(2))(4)][AsF(6)](2), [Ca(XeF(2))(2.5)][AsF(6)](2), [Ba(XeF(2))(3)][AsF(6)](2), and [Ba(XeF(2))(5)][AsF(6)](2) were shown to be fluxional with the fluorines-on-arsenic being equivalent on the NMR time scale, emulating perfectly octahedral anion symmetry.

  14. En etisk diskussion af screening for kræftsygdomme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Laurs Sørensen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I 2007 gennemførte forbundskansler Angela Merkel en sundhedsreform der blandt andet indebærer, at tyske borgere ikke frit kan afgøre, om de vil deltage i forebyggende programmer, da et fravalg kan medføre økonomiske konsekvenser. Hermed udvider den tyske stat sin ret til at gribe ind i borgernes liv, når det handler om sekundær forebyggelse, fx i form af screening for kræftsygdomme. Dette kan være problematisk da den bedst tilgængelige evidens viser at tre igangværende kræftscreeningsprogrammer ikke kun har gavnlige virkninger, men også betydelige skadelige virkninger. Formålet med denne undersøgelse var at undersøge, hvilke holdninger eksperter, politikere og sundhedsmyndigheder i Danmark har til tvang og/eller belønning i forbindelse med screening for kræftsygdomme, og om de ville støtte eller fraråde en tysk model i det danske sundhedsvæsen.Der blev foretaget enkeltinterviews med strategisk udvalgte eksperter. Interviewene blev transskriberet og analyseret med en fænomenologisk analysemetode, og derefter analyseret og diskuteret i forhold til utilitaristisk og deontologisk etik, samt evidensen vedrørende de tre eksisterende kræftscreeningsprogrammer i Danmark.Alle informanterne var kritiske over for det tyske forslag. Til gengæld blev forholdet mellem de gavnlige og skadelige virkninger af kræftscreening vurderet meget forskelligt. Manglen på enighed, uklare udtalelser og ikke-stringent terminologi bestyrkede vor konklusion; at det danske sundhedsvæsen for det første ikke bør følge den tyske kurs og, for det andet, at man bør være kritisk over for implementering af screeningsprogrammer for kræftsygdomme. Hvis forebyggende initiativer kan være mere til skade end gavn, bør de altid overvejes nøje i lyset af sundhedsvæsnets oprindelige intention om at hjælpe og beskytte det enkelte menneske.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1712

  15. Targeted Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using MS2-Based 129 Xe NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Keunhong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Netirojjanakul, Chawita [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Munch, Henrik K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sun, Jinny [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Finbloom, Joel A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physical Biosciences Division; Pines, Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Francis, Matthew B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2016-07-25

    Targeted, selective, and highly sensitive 129Xe NMR nanoscale biosensors have been synthesized using a spherical MS2 viral capsid, Cryptophane A molecules, and DNA aptamers. The biosensors showed strong binding specificity toward targeted lymphoma cells (Ramos line). Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR signal contrast and hyper-CEST 129Xe MRI image contrast indicated its promise as highly sensitive hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR nanoscale biosensor for future applications in cancer detection in vivo.

  16. Moralni vidici kršćanskog braka

    OpenAIRE

    KEŠINA, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    U ovom radu autor analizira moralne vidike kršćanskog braka, koji je sakramentalna ustanova preuzeta u otajstvo saveza Boga sa svojim narodom. U prvom poglavlju govori se općenito o Božjem planu s čovjekom, a taj plan je ljubav. U drugom se raspravlja o sakramentu ženidbe i njegovim učincima. Bračna ljubav nužno zahtijeva jedinstvo, nerazrješivost i vjernost u uzajamnom darivanju. U trećem poglavlju riječ je o regulaciji rađanja. Sa stajališta kršćanskog morala svaki čin kojemu je svr...

  17. Project for detecting the double beta decay of136Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, M.; Sasaki, S.; Tawara, H.

    1992-10-01

    For detecting the nuclear double beta decay of136Xe, a liquid-xenon positive-ion collector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer are under development for detecting the decay product136Ba. Two sets of lasers are used with the mass spectrometer. An Nd-YAG laser is used for sampling136Ba from the surface of the positive-ion collector electrode, and a dye laser pumped by an Nd-YAG laser is used for the selective ionization of136Ba. The principle of measurements as well as the experimental apparatus and procedures are described in detail, together with our future plans.

  18. Shape determination in Coulomb excitation of $^{72}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Kruecken, R; Paul, E S; Wadsworth, R; Heenen, P

    Nuclei with oblate shapes at low spins are very special in nature because of their rarity. Both theoretical and experimental shape co-existence studies in the mass 70 region for near proton drip-line nuclei suggest $^{72}$Kr to be the unique case with oblate low-lying and prolate high-lying levels. However, there is no direct experimental evidence in the literature to date for the oblate nature predicted for the first 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr. We propose to determine the sign of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of this state via the re-orientation effect in a low-energy Coulomb excitation measurement. In the inelastic excitation of the 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr beam of 3.1 MeV/u with an intensity of 800 pps at REX-ISOLDE impinging on $^{104}$Pd target, the re-orientation effect plays a significant role. The cross section measurement for the 2$^+$ state should thus allow the model-independent determination of the sign of the quadrupole moment unambiguously and will shed light on the co-existing prolate and o...

  19. Energy-Transfer Kinetics Driven by Midinfrared Amplified Spontaneous Emission after Two-Photon Excitation from Xe (s0) to the Xe (6p[1/2]0) State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Guan, Yafu; Liu, Dong; Xia, Xusheng; Gai, Baodong; Hu, Shu; Guo, Jingwei; Sang, Fengting; Jin, Yuqi

    2017-05-11

    In optically pumped laser systems, rare gas lasers (RGLs) are a field of great interest for researchers. Gas laser regimes with metastable Ne, Ar, and Kr atoms have been investigated, while studies of RGLs based on metastable Xe are sparse. In this work, when a strong excitation laser (2.92 mJ/pulse, 7.44 × 105 W/cm2) was applied to excite Xe atoms from the ground state to the 6p[1/2]0 state, an interesting phenomenon emerged: An intense fluorescence of 980 nm (6p[1/2]1-6s[3/2]2) was produced. However, when the energy of excitation laser was decreased to 0.50 mJ/pulse (1.27 × 105 W/cm2), the fluorescence of 980 nm became very weak. Besides, lifetime and decay rate constant of the 6p[1/2]0 state under the condition of E = 2.92 mJ are significantly different from either those measured by other groups or those of E = 0.50 mJ. These phenomena indicate that the high energy of excitation laser should trigger some new kinetic mechanisms. Further works identified that the new kinetic mechanism is the MIR ASE of 3408 nm (6p[1/2]0-6s'[1/2]1). The mechanisms are proposed as follows. Substantial 6p[1/2]0 atoms are produced by laser excitation. Then, the ASE of 3408 nm (6p[1/2]0-6s'[1/2]1) is quickly produced to populate substantial 6s'[1/2]1 atoms. The 6s'[1/2]1 atoms can readily arrive at the 6p[1/2]1 states through collision by virtue of the small energy difference (84 cm-1) and high collision rate constant of the transition from the 6s'[1/2]1 state to the 6p[1/2]1 state. As a result, the intense fluorescence of 980 nm is generated.

  20. The I-Xe System in Lodranites Suggests Impact-related Rapid Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, S. A.; Whitby, J. A.; Busfield, A.; Holland, G.; Busemann, H.; Gilmour, J. D.

    2009-03-01

    The I-Xe system of three lodranites has been investigated. Two metal and one silicate separate from GRA 95209 gave ages consistent with each other (and the I-Xe age of Acapulco feldspar), suggesting the parent material underwent a period of rapid cooling.

  1. ETV Report:Siemens Model H-4XE-HO Open Channel UV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Siemens Barrier Sunligt H-4XE-HO UV System was completed at the UV Validation and Research Center of New York (UV Center), located in Johnstown, NY. The H-4XE System utilizes 16 high-output, low-pressure lamps oriented horizontally and parallel to the...

  2. Hot expanding source in 50 A.MeV Xe+Sn central reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, N.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Laforest, R.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Lecolley, J.F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Bacri, Ch.O. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bisquer, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; and others

    1996-09-01

    Evidence are presented for a radial collective motion of the fragments emitted during the multifragmentation of a single source formed in central collisions of the quasi symmetric Xe+Sn system at 50 A.MeV. The experiment was performed using a {sup 129}Xe beam at the GANIL facility. (K.A.). 24 refs.

  3. Adsorption geometry of Cu( 1 1 0 )-(12 × 2)-14Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiu, M.; Seyller, Th.; Diehl, R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Low-energy electron diffraction was used to study the adsorption geometry of Xe on Cu(1 1 0). At low temperatures, a higher-order commensurate (12 × 2) structure can be formed that consists of rows of Xe atoms aligned along the direction of the rows on Cu(1 1 0), and having a spacing between the rows equal to the Cu row spacing. A dynamical LEED study of this structure at 20 K indicates that the rows of Xe atoms are localized on top of the Cu substrate rows. The lateral registry of the Xe rows along the Cu rows includes 2 Xe atoms per (12 × 2) unit cell in atop positions above Cu atoms, with the others in lower-symmetry sites. The average Xe-Cu interlayer spacing is 3.3 ± 0.1 Å and there is a small degree (0.1 Å) of vertical rumple in both the overlayer and the top substrate layer. The substrate surface with adsorbed Xe has essentially the same relaxation as the clean surface. The analysis of the adatom vibrations in this structure indicates that the isotropically-averaged rms vibration amplitude is 0.2 Å for Xe, while that of the top-layer Cu atoms is 0.04 Å.

  4. Functional effects of the KCNQ modulators retigabine and XE991 in the rat urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Frederik; Svalø, Julie; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2010-01-01

    concentrations of the KCNQ((2-5)) selective positive modulator, retigabine or with the KCNQ((1-5)) negative modulator XE991. Retigabine experiments were repeated in the presence of 10microM XE991. Retigabine reduced both the contractility and the overall tonus of bladder tissue independent of the mode...

  5. Control of the UV flux of a XeCl dielectric barrier discharge excilamp through its current variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquet, H; Bhosle, S; Diez, R; Cousineau, M; Djibrillah, M; Le Thanh, D; Dagang, A N; Zissis, G

    2012-02-28

    The efficiency of the electrical power transfer to the gas mixture of a XeCl dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exciplex lamp is analysed. An equivalent circuit model of the DBD is considered. It is shown that the excilamp power can be controlled by applying current to the lamp. This highly desired property is ensured by means of a specific power supply topology, whose concepts and design are discussed. The experimental prototype of a current-mode converter operating in the pulsed regime at pulse repetition rate of 50 kHz is presented and its capability to control the amount of energy transferred during each current pulse is demonstrated. The capability of this power supply to maintain specific operating conditions for the DBD lamp, with a very stable behaviour (even at a very low current, in the regime of a single discharge channel), is illustrated. The experimental results of a combined use of this converter and a XeCl excilamp are presented. The influence of the supply parameters on the 308-nm XeCl excilamp is analysed. The shape of the UV pulse of the lamp is experimentally shown to be similar to that of the current, which actually flows into the gas mixture. The UV radiation power is demonstrated to be tightly correlated to the current injected into the gas and controlled by the available degrees of freedom offered by the power supply. The measured UV output characteristics and performance of the system are discussed. Time resolved UV imaging of a XeCl DBD excilamp is used to analyse the mechanisms involved in the production of exciplexes at various power supply regimes. It is shown that a pulsed voltage source leads to formation of short high intensity UV peaks, while current pulses lead to formation of sustained discharge filaments. Based on the results of modelling of the above-mentioned operation conditions, the two power supply regimes are compared and analysed from the point of view of the UV power and radiative control.

  6. MARMOT simulations of Xe segregation to grain boundaries in UO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Anders D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory; Casillas, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Millett, Paul [Idaho National Laboratory; Vyas, Shyam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uberuaga, Blas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nerikar, Pankaj [IBM

    2012-06-20

    Diffusion of Xe and U in UO{sub 2} is controlled by vacancy mechanisms and under irradiation the formation of mobile vacancy clusters is important. We derive continuum thermodynamic and diffusion models for Xe and U in UO{sub 2} based on the vacancy and cluster diffusion mechanisms established from recent density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Segregation of defects to grain boundaries in UO{sub 2} is described by combining the diffusion model with models of the interaction between Xe atoms and vacancies with grain boundaries derived from separate atomistic calculations. The diffusion and segregation models are implemented in the MOOSE/MARMOT (MBM) finite element (FEM) framework and we simulate Xe redistribution for a few simple microstructures. In this report we focus on segregation to grain boundaries. The U or vacancy diffusion model as well as the coupled diffusion of vacancies and Xe have also been implemented, but results are not included in this report.

  7. Programming A Molecular Relay for Ultrasensitive Biodetection through 129 Xe NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanfei [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Roose, Benjamin W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Philbin, John P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Doman, Jordan L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Dmochowski, Ivan J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA

    2015-12-21

    We reported a supramolecular strategy for detecting specific proteins in complex media by using hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR. A cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6])-based molecular relay was programmed for three sequential equilibrium conditions by designing a two-faced guest (TFG) that initially binds CB[6] and blocks the CB[6]–Xe interaction. Moreover, the protein analyte recruits the TFG and frees CB[6] for Xe binding. TFGs containing CB[6]- and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-binding domains were synthesized in one or two steps. X-ray crystallography confirmed TFG binding to Zn2+ in the deep CAII active-site cleft, which precludes simultaneous CB[6] binding. The molecular relay was reprogrammed to detect avidin by using a different TFG. Finally, Xe binding by CB[6] was detected in buffer and in E. coli cultures expressing CAII through ultrasensitive 129Xe NMR spectroscopy.

  8. Observation of top-site adsorption for Xe on Cu(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyller, Th.; Caragiu, M.; Diehl, R. D.; Kaukasoina, P.; Lindroos, M.

    1998-07-01

    A low-energy electron diffraction study of Cu(111)-(√3×√3)R30°-Xe at 50 K indicates that Xe atoms occupy the top sites. The equilibrium Xe-Cu interlayer spacing is 3.60±0.08 Å and the spacings of the three top Cu layers are essentially bulk-like. The Xe-Cu spacing agrees well with estimates based on hard-sphere packing. Top-site adsorption for Xe on Cu(111) was unexpected on the basis of previous experimental and theoretical results for noble gas adsorption on metal surfaces. This result is discussed in the light of earlier studies of physisorbed atoms, anticorrugated potentials in He-atom scattering, and possible links to alkali metal adsorption.

  9. Dynamical LEED study of Pd(111)-((3)×(3))R30°-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiu, M.; Seyller, Th.; Diehl, R. D.

    2002-11-01

    A low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) study of Pd(111)-((3)×(3))R30°-Xe at 77 K indicates that the Xe adsorption site is on top of the Pd atoms. The Xe-Pd bond length is 3.07 Å+/-0.06 Å. The substrate structure is essentially unrelaxed from the bulk structure. These results contrast with an earlier spin-polarized LEED study, which indicated that hollow sites are occupied in this structure. The low-coordination-site geometry for Xe on Pd(111) is discussed in the context of earlier experimental studies and recent density functional theory results for Xe adsorption on metal surfaces.

  10. Low energy γ- γ and e{sup −}- γ PAC measurements using APDs and the probe nuclei {sup 83}Rb({sup 83}Kr) and {sup 83m}Kr({sup 83}Kr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenz, M., E-mail: arenz@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Vianden, R., E-mail: vianden@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Universität Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    In the field of Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) are rarely used, despite their favourable properties for fast counting purposes at low energies. This work demonstrates their application in combination with a simple and cheap custom build voltage sensitive preamplifier module. Using the PAC nuclei {sup 83}Rb({sup 83}Kr) and {sup 83m}Kr({sup 83}Kr), the time resolution of the set-up is analysed and the feasibility of precise timing measurements is shown.

  11. The electronic spectrum of CUONg(4) (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe): New insights in the interaction of the CUO molecule with noble gas matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecmer, P.; van Lingen, H.; Gomes, A.S.P.; Visscher, L.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic spectrum of the CUO molecule was investigated with the IHFSCC-SD (intermediate Hamiltonian Fock-space coupled cluster with singles and doubles) method and with TD-DFT (time-dependent density functional theory) employing the PBE and PBE0 exchange-correlation functionals. The importance

  12. Many-body effects on the structures and stability of Ba{sup 2+}Xe{sub n} (n = 1–39, 54) clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdessalem, Kawther, E-mail: kawtherabdessalem@yahoo.fr; Habli, Héla; Ghalla, Houcine [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Yaghmour, Saud Jamil [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Calvo, Florent [University of Grenoble Alpes, LIPHY, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CNRS, LIPHY, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Oujia, Brahim [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-10-21

    The structures and relative stabilities of mixed Ba{sup 2+}Xe{sub n} (n = 1–39, 54) clusters have been theoretically studied using basin-hopping global optimization. Analytical potential energy surfaces were constructed from ab initio or experimental data, assuming either purely additive interactions or including many-body polarization effects and the mutual contribution of self-consistent induced dipoles. For both models the stable structures are characterized by the barium cation being coated by a shell of xenon atoms, as expected from simple energetic arguments. Icosahedral packing is dominantly found, the exceptional stability of the icosahedral motif at n = 12 being further manifested at the size n = 32 where the basic icosahedron is surrounded by a dodecahedral cage, and at n = 54 where the transition to multilayer Mackay icosahedra has occurred. Interactions between induced dipoles generally tend to decrease the Xe-Xe binding, leading to different solvation patterns at small sizes but also favoring polyicosahedral growth. Besides attenuating relative energetic stability, many-body effects affect the structures by expanding the clusters by a few percents and allowing them to deform more.

  13. Gamma spectroscopy of fission fragments using a Eurogam multidetector: search of octupolar relations in the neutron rich Xe isotopes; Spectroscopie gamma des fragments de fission a l`aide du multidetecteur Eurogam: recherche des correlations octupolaires dans les isotopes du Xe riches en neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentaleb, M.

    1995-06-01

    A search for octupole deformation in neutron rich Xe isotopes has been conducted through gamma-ray of secondary fragments produced in the spontaneous fission of {sup 248} Cm. The spectrometer consisted of Eurogam 1 array and a set of LEPS detectors. Clean one-dimensional spectra were extracted from a cubic data array and gated matrices. This technique enabled the construction of level schemes for Xe isotopes with masses ranging from 138 to 144. None of the level schemes exhibit an alternating parity quasimolecular band, a feature usually encountered in nuclei with stable octupole deformation. For several isotopes, structures are observed in the level schemes which indicates that the nuclei are octupole soft. (author). 48 refs., 52 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Core drilling of boreholes ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3, ONK-KR4 and ONK-PVA1 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted am application for the Decision in Principle (the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki) to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. The investigation programme on the influence of grouting in ground-water chemistry will be started by Posiva. The programme consists of long-term and short-term effects of grouting and the influence of grouting at different distances from the tunnel on groundwater conditions. As a part of this Suomen Malmi oy (Smoy) core drilled four boreholes in ONKALO. The identification numbers of thee boreholes are ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3 and ONK-KR4. An additional borehole ONK-PVA1 was core drilled for long-term monitoring purposes in a place where no grouting is planned to be done.The diameter of the borehole sis 75.7 mm A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. The volume of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded as well as the pressure of the drilling water. The objective of these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 16 m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 11 dm{sup 3} in boreholes. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instrument EMS. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fractures are most common type of fractures. The average fracture frequency of the boreholes varies from 0.6 to 3.1 pcs/m. The average RQD

  15. Nošu krātuve

    OpenAIRE

    Āre, Elvijs

    2016-01-01

    „Nošu Krātuve” ir tīmekļa vietne, kas piedāvā mērķa auditorijai apspriest ar mūziku saistītas ziņas un jaunumus vietnes forumā un pievienot glabāšanai informāciju pa mūzikas autoriem, kā arī glabāt, apskatīt autoru sarakstīto mūziku un mūzikas aranžējumus.

  16. 129 Xe NMR Relaxation-Based Macromolecular Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Muller D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dao, Phuong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jeong, Keunhong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Slack, Clancy C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Vassiliou, Christophoros C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Finbloom, Joel A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Francis, Matthew B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physical Biosciences Division; Pines, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-07-29

    A 129Xe NMR relaxation-based sensing approach is reported on that exploits changes in the bulk xenon relaxation rate induced by slowed tumbling of a cryptophane-based sensor upon target binding. The amplification afforded by detection of the bulk dissolved xenon allows sensitive detection of targets. The sensor comprises a xenon-binding cryptophane cage, a target interaction element, and a metal chelating agent. Xenon associated with the target-bound cryptophane cage is rapidly relaxed and then detected after exchange with the bulk. Here we show that large macromolecular targets increase the rotational correlation time of xenon, increasing its relaxation rate. Upon binding of a biotin-containing sensor to avidin at 1.5 μM concentration, the free xenon T2 is reduced by a factor of 4.

  17. Possible Odd Parity State in {sup 128}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, L. [Department of Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Malmskog, S.G. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-07-15

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 {+-} 0.05, 526.5 {+-} 0.5, 742.4 {+-}1.0, 969.0 {+-} 1.0, and 1136.5 {+-}2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in {sup 128}Xe at 1579 {+-} 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 {+-} 0.3 of the ({beta}{sup -} feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0{sup +} level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration.

  18. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  19. Stable isotope

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the study suggest that there are two main carbon pathways for plankton and nekton in the Kariega estuary, carbon derived from the eelgrass and its associated epiphytes and carbon which has its origins in the salt marsh riparian vegetation and zooplankton. Keywords: stable isotope analysis; temperate estuary; ...

  20. Study of Electric Monopole Transitions in $^{76,78}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the run at ISOLDE performed last August we completed the study of the decay properties of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $ ^{76, 78, 80}$Kr by measuring the lifetime of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $^{76}$Kr. This was done by applying the $\\beta \\gamma\\gamma$ (t) fast timing method to the $\\beta^{+} $-decay of $^{76}$Rb. For the first time the method was applied to proton-rich nuclei at ISOLDE. This required some special modifications of the experimental set-up previously used for the case of $\\beta^{-}$-decay due to the presence of intense annihilation radiation. The experiment has been successful and enough data have been collected for the determination of the lifetime. The analysis is in progress. From a very preliminary estimate it would appear that the lifetime value falls in the range 20-60 ps. Combining this value with the previously measured ratio \\[\\frac{B(E0; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 0^{+}_{1})}{B(E2; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 2^{+}_{1})}\\] It is possible to extract an estimate of the monopole transition...

  1. Characterization of lead nanoparticles formed by Shewanella sp. KR-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chien-Liang; Yen, Jui-Hung, E-mail: sonny@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Department of Agricultural Chemistry (China)

    2016-01-15

    The bacterial strain KR-12 was isolated from river sediment in northeast Taiwan. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that it belongs to the genus Shewanella. The strain can accumulate lead (Pb) and form Pb nanoparticles (PbNPs) on exposure to Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and sodium formate in HEPES buffer. On transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the KR-12-formed PbNPs were spherical in shape and ranged from 3 to 8 nm. The PbNPs formed a line or curved pattern on bacteria. In addition, one or more pilus-like structures elongated from the bacteria. In contrast, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and other bacteria could not form PbNPs pattern or pilus-like structure under the same conditions. High-resolution TEM combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that these PbNPs primarily contained Pb and had an amorphous structure. This is the first report of the biosynthesis of PbNPs by a Shewanella species.

  2. Estudio y modelamiento del robot KUKA KR 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Faber Archila Diaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo despliega el estudio y modelamiento del robot KUKA KR 6, del laboratorio de robótica de la Universidad Federal de Río de Janeiro UFRJ, presenta el modelo CAD, los modelos cinemáticos directo e inverso y el modelo dinámico, en el modelo cinemático directo se utilizan matrices homogéneas; para su obtención, en el modelo cinemático inverso se utiliza el método de la ecuación cuadrática, en el modelo dinámico se usan las ecuaciones de Euler; Lagrange, empleando matrices homogéneas y teniendo en cuenta los efectos inerciales por medio del tensor de inercias, el cual se determinó con la ayuda de herramientas CAD, también se presenta el jacobiano del manipulador, necesario para el control cinemático. El trabajo se plantea como la primera etapa, para el control del robot KUKA KR 6, y propone la implementación del modelo cimemático inverso en un DSP de la familia Texas Instruments, analizando su desempeño.

  3. Trampoline motions in Xe-graphite(0 0 0 1) surface scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Hashinokuchi, Michihiro; Sawabe, Kyoichi; Maruyama, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Shobatake, Kosuke

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated Xe scattering from the graphite(0 0 0 1) surface at hyperthermal incident energies using a molecular beam-surface scattering technique and molecular dynamics simulations. For all incident conditions, the incident Xe atom conserves the momentum parallel to the surface and loses approximately 80% of the normal incident energy. The weak interlayer potential of graphite disperses the deformation over the wide range of a graphene sheet. The dynamic corrugation induced by the collision is smooth even at hyperthermal incident energy; the graphene sheet moves like a trampoline net and the Xe atom like a trampoliner.

  4. 124-134Xe Izotopları için Triaxiall RMF Hesaplamaları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay BAYRAM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Özet. Bu çalışmada çift-çift 124-134Xe çekirdekleri için Relativistik Ortalama Alan (RMF Modeli kullanılarak taban durum nükleer özellik hesaplamaları yapılmıştır. Bu çekirdekler için RMF+DDM2 etkileşmesi ile taban durum bağlanma enerjileri için deneysel değerlere çok yakın sonuçlar elde edilmiştir. Triaxiall simetriye dayalı hesaplamalar yapılarak 124-134Xe izotop zincirinde izotopların taban durum şekilleri üzerine bir analizde sunulmaktadır. Özellikle deneysel olarak 130Xe çekirdeğinin E(5 simetrisine sahip kritik nokta çekirdeği olduğu iddia edilmektedir. Bu bağlamda Xe izotopları için RMF modeli çerçevesinde elde edilen potansiyel enerji yüzeyleri (PES kullanılarak E(5 simetrili çekirdek taraması yapılmıştır. Çift-çift 124-134Xe izotopları için izotop zinciri boyunca şekil evrimi detaylıca tartışılmıştır.Anahtar kelimeler: RMF modeli, Bağlanma enerjisi, Xe izotopları, PES, E(5 simetrisi Abstract. In this study, ground-state nuclear properties of even-even 124-134Xe nuclei have been calculated by using Relativistic Mean Field (RMF model. By using RMF+DDM2 interaction the ground-state binding energies of these nuclei have been predicted as very close to experimental values. Also, an analizing on the ground-state shape of 124-134Xe isotopes is presented by using calculations based on triaxiall symmetry. In particular, 130Xe nuclei has been pointed out as possible critical point nuclei with E(5 symmetry from experimental studies. For this reason, by using potential energy surfaces (PES of 124-134Xe nuclei obtained from RMF model, scanning for E(5 symmetry in this isotopic chain has been done. For even-even 124-134Xe nuclei, shape evolution has been discussed in detail.Keywords: RMF model, Binding energy, Xe isotopes, PES, E(5 symmetry

  5. Gain measurements of the Ca-Xe charge exchange system. [for UV lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, C. J.; Chubb, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Charge-exchange-pumped Ca(+) was studied for possible positive laser gain at 370.6 and 315.9 nm using an Xe MPD arc as the Xe(+) source. The present paper describes the MPD arc, the calcium injection system, the diagnostics for gain, and spontaneous emission measurements and results. No positive gain measurements were observed. A small Xe-Ca charge exchange cross section compared to He-metal laser systems charge exchange cross sections is the most probable reason why the result was negative.

  6. I-Pu-Xe dating and the relative ages of the earth and moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, T. D.; Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Taylor, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The ages of the earth and moon as determined by various chronometric systems are discussed with primary emphasis placed on the development of an I-Pu-Xe chronometer. Data on excess fission xenon are reviewed with attention given to the strengths and weaknesses of the assumptions required for lunar I-Pu-Xe chronometry. Using I-Pu-Xe dating, it is estimated that the retention of excess fission xenon in lunar samples began no more than 63 + or - 42 m.y. after the time of primitive meteorite formation.

  7. Bedrock model of the Olkiluoto site, KR5 sub-volume, version 2002/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaittinen, T.; Hellae, P.; Nummela, J.; Tammisto, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Paulamaeki, S. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Front, K. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-03-15

    Posiva Oy carries out investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site in SW Finland. An underground research facility, ONKALO, will be built on the site for the detailed characterisation of the planned repository host rock as well as for testing and demonstration purposes. The bedrock model is a descriptive site model, combining the results of all geological, geophysical, and hydrogeological investigations, which have been carried out on Olkiluoto island. The bedrock model version 2002/1 covers the sub-volume near borehole KR5 in the north-western part of the investigation site, which is considered a candidate location for the surface entrance of the access tunnel to the ONKALO. The content of the bedrock model has been modified since the previous bedrock model version 2001/2. Version 2001/2 consisted of a lithological model and a structural model, whereas version 2002/1 contains lithological, structural, and hydrogeological models. In the structural model version 2002/1, the structural intersections shown are determined according the results of the preliminary structural geological drill core study. The hydrogeological model is comparable with the version 2001/2 structural model though the definitions of structures have been modified. The most significant change was to remove the results of the multivariate analysis of the borehole data from the definitions of structural intersections. The lithological model has not been updated in this version. Modelling has been focused on new boreholes KR19, KR19B, KR20, KR20B, and KR21. Also, structures intersecting borehole KR5 have been updated. In the structural model, the continuation of structures to the other boreholes was not contemplated except structure R9 to borehole KR1. In the hydrogeological model, structures intersecting boreholes KR1, KR2, and KR6 or locating close to them have been taken into account, but a comprehensive update of these structures has not

  8. Kræftstamceller - på jagt efter ondets rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Malene Krag; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Dahlgaard, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Ny forskning har vist, at visse former for kræft kan udspringe af nogle enkelte celler, der deler flere egenskaber med stamceller. Forskerne arbejder nu på at identificere kræftstamcellerne for at ramme netop disse med nye behandlinger. Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  9. Talveöö fookuses on Dmitri Krõmov / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    27.-31. dets.-ni Tallinna Linnateatri egiidi all toimuvast festivalist "Talveöö unenägu". Näeb Moskvas teatrikunstnikuna alustanud Dmitri Krõmovi lavastusi "Söör Vantes. Donki Hot", "Kaelkirjaku surm", "Katerina uned", Oksjon", "Oopus nr. 7". Dmitri Krõmovist

  10. Shape evolution in 76, 78Kr nuclei at high spins in tilted axis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A two-dimensional tilted axis cranking Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (CHFB) calculation is performed for 76Kr and 78Kr nuclei up to high spins = 30 employing a pairing-plus-quadrupole (PPQ) model interaction Hamiltonian. Intricate details of the evolution of single particle structures and shapes as a function of spin have ...

  11. Shape evolution in 76,78Kr nuclei at high spins in tilted axis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHFB) calculation is performed for 76Kr and 78Kr nuclei up to high spins J = 30 employing a pairing-plus-quadrupole (PPQ) model interaction Hamiltonian. Intricate details of the evolution of single particle structures and shapes as a function of spin ...

  12. Paulos Silentiarios' heksametre til genindvielsen af Hagia Sophia i 562 e.Kr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian; Christensen, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Indledning, tekst og metrisk oversættelse af Paulos Silentiarios digt skrevet til Hagia Sophia-katedralens geninvielse i år 562 e.Kr. Udgivelsesdato: Maj 2009......Indledning, tekst og metrisk oversættelse af Paulos Silentiarios digt skrevet til Hagia Sophia-katedralens geninvielse i år 562 e.Kr. Udgivelsesdato: Maj 2009...

  13. Analytical method of Kr-85 determination, using cryogenic concentration and separation and liquid scintillation counting; Desarrollo del metodo de concentracion y se paracion criogenica cromatografica y medida radiactiva por centelleo liquido de Kr-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M. C.; Perez, M. M.; Grau, A.

    1983-07-01

    The method used in the Laboratory of the JEN for the determination of Kr-85 levels in gaseous effluents of nuclear power and in the atmosphere is described. Samples of air, collected in metallic cylinders, are introduced into a gas-solid chromatographic separation system which resolves Kr from the other air components. The separated Kr ia dissolved in a toluene based scintillation cocktail, and the Kr-85 content is determined by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

  14. Theoretical Study of the NMR Chemical Shift of Xe in Supercritical Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacerda Junior, Evanildo Gomes; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Mikkelsen, Kurt Valentin

    2018-01-01

    In this work we investigate the level of theory necessary for reproducing the non-linear variation of the 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift with the density of Xe in supercritical conditions. In detail we study how the 129Xe chemical shift depends under these conditions...... on electron correlation, relativistic and many-body effects. The latter are included using a sequential-QM/MM methodology, in which a classical MD simulation is performed first and the chemical shift is then obtained as an average of quantum calculations of 250 MD snapshots conformations carried out for Xen...... this approach we obtain very good agreement with the experimental data, showing that the chemical shift of 129Xe in supercritical conditions is very well described by cluster calculations at the HF level, with small contributions from relativistic and electron correlation effects....

  15. Ni containing solid Kr bubbles studied with neutron depolarization and small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, R.; Rekveldt, M.T. (Interfacultair Reactor Inst., Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

    1991-07-01

    Neutron depolarization (ND) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on Ni containing solid Kr bubbles are presented and discussed. The aim of the measurements is to study the effect of the Kr bubbles on the local magnetization. For the first time ND measurements in relatively large fields up to 80kA/m could be performed. However, the ND results do not yield information about the Kr bubbles. The SANS patterns at applied fields larger than 400kA/m are isotropic and are in agreement with a high fraction of small (radius {approx equal} 1.5nm) Kr bubbles. Also a small fraction of larger (radius > or approx. 15nm) Kr bubbles or other nuclear inhomogeneities is likely to be present. The magnetic scattering is in agreement with a local magnetization which is affected by the demagnetization fields of these inhomogeneities. (orig.).

  16. Conserved function of the Krüppel gap gene in the blowfly Lucilia sericata, despite anterior shift of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, O; Douglas, D; Baumgartner, S

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether expression patterns of segmentation genes found in Drosophila melanogaster can be scaled to pattern larger insects, we studied the expression of the Krüppel (Kr) gene in the blowfly Lucilia sericata. Compared with Drosophila Kr, L. sericata Kr showed an unexpected 10% shift of expression towards the anterior pole. Furthermore, expression domains not found in D. melanogaster were present at the blastoderm stage of L. sericata. To compare Kr activity and function, we employed RNA interference-mediated gene silencing. We found Kr phenotypes in L. sericata comparable with those observed in D. melanogaster, demonstrating that L. sericata Kr functions as a gap gene as it does in Drosophila. Our results show that, despite an anterior shift in expression, Kr function has remained conserved during the evolution of the blowflies. © 2010 Lund University. Insect Molecular Biology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Adsorptive separation of xenon/krypton mixtures using a zirconium-based metal-organic framework with high hydrothermal and radioactive stabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Joon; Yoon, Tae-Ung; Kim, Ah-Reum; Kim, Seo-Yul [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ho; Hwang, Young Kyu [Research Group for Nanocatalyst, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeon, Jei-Won [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Youn-Sang, E-mail: mowbae@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The separation of xenon/krypton mixtures is important for both environmental and industrial purposes. The potential of three hydrothermally stable MOFs (MIL-100(Fe), MIL-101(Cr), and UiO-66(Zr)) for use in Xe/Kr separation has been experimentally investigated. From the observed single-component Xe and Kr isotherms, isosteric heat of adsorption (Q{sub st}{sup o}), and IAST-predicted Xe/Kr selectivities, we observed that UiO-66(Zr) has the most potential as an adsorbent among the three candidate MOFs. We performed dynamic breakthrough experiments with an adsorption bed filled with UiO-66(Zr) to evaluate further the potential of UiO-66(Zr) for Xe/Kr separation under mixture flow conditions. Remarkably, the experimental breakthrough curves show that UiO-66(Zr) can efficiently separate the Xe/Kr mixture. Furthermore, UiO-66(Zr) maintains most of its Xe and Kr uptake capacity, as well as its crystallinity and internal surface area, even after exposure to gamma radiation (2 kGy) for 7 h and aging for 16 months under ambient conditions. This result indicates that UiO-66(Zr) can be considered to be a potential adsorbent for Xe/Kr mixtures under both ambient and radioactive conditions.

  18. Lifetime measurements of intruder states in sup 120 Xe and the shape coexistence picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagwat, A.; Walker, P.M.; Singleton, B.D.D. (Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Al-Ghamdi, S.S.; Barham, C.G.; Grant, I.S. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Schuster Lab.)

    1992-05-01

    Absolute EO and E2 transition rates have been measured for the O{sub 3}{sup +} state in {sup 120}Xe. The O{sub 3}{sup +} state appears to be weakly mixed with the normal structure of {sup 120}Xe. In the N = 66 mid-neutron-shell region, this is the heaviest even-even nucleus showing a signature of shape coexistence. (author).

  19. Half-collision analysis of far-wing diffuse structure in Cs-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exton, R. J.; Hillard, M. E.; Lempert, W. R.

    1987-01-01

    Laser excitation in the far red wing of the second principal series doublet of Cs mixed with Xe revealed a diffuse structure associated with the 2P(3/2) component. The structure is thought to originate from a reflection type of spectrum between the weakly bound E 2Sigma(1/2) excited state and the X 2Sigma(1/2) repulsive ground state of CsXe.

  20. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  1. Stark shifts and transition probabilities within the Kr I spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, V.; Simić, Z.; Daniels, S.; Dimitrijević, M. S.

    2012-05-01

    On the basis of 28 experimentally determined prominent neutral krypton (Kr I) line shapes (in the 5s-5p and 5s-6p transitions), we have obtained electron (de) and ion (di) contributions to the total Stark shifts (dt). Stark shifts are also calculated using the semiclassical perturbation formalism (SCPF) for electrons, protons and helium ions as perturbers up to 50 000 K electron temperatures. Transition probabilities of spontaneous emission (Einstein's Ak, i values) have been obtained using the relative line-intensity ratio method. The separate electron (de) and ion (di) contributions to the total Stark shifts are presented, as well as the ion-broadening parameters, which describe the influence of the ion-dynamical effect on the shift of the line shape, for neutral krypton spectral lines. We made a comparison of our measured and calculated de data and compared both of these with other available experimental and theoretical de values.

  2. Pyrene degradation by Mycobacterium sp. strain KR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmann, K; Noll, H P; Steinberg, C E; Kettrup, A A

    1998-06-01

    A Mycobacterium sp., strain KR2 which was able to utilise pyrene as sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil originating from the area of a former gaswork plant. The isolate metabolised up to 60% of the pyrene added (0.5 mg/mL) within 8 days at 20 degrees C. Cis-4,5-pyrene dihydrodiol, 4,5-phenanthrene dicarboxylic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, 2-carboxybenzaldehyde, phthalic acid, and protocatechuic acid were identified as degradation products. Based on these findings a degradation pathway for pyrene is suggested which is in good accordance with the data published so far on bacterial pyrene metabolism.

  3. Simulations of Ar gas-puff implosions on Z with a Xe dopant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangri, Varun; Giuliani, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Ouart, N. D.; Dasgupta, A.; Thornhill, J. W.; Apruzese, J. P.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    A recent experiment on the Z machine at SNL indicated that the presence of a small fraction of Xe (0.8% by number in the center jet) in a Ar gas puff shot had a significant effect on the emitted K-shell radiation. In presence of the Xe dopant, the Ar K-shell yield dramatically reduced from 373 +/-9 to 129 +/-9 kJ. The peak K-shell power was also significantly lower and accompanied by two nearly equal peaks. A second shot without the Xe dopant consisted of a single peak. We present radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of these shots [Z2603 (with Xe) and Z2605 (without Xe)] using the using the Mach2-TCRE code with a tabulated collisional radiative equilibrium model. Detailed numerical simulations exploring the impact of the Xe dopant on the implosion dynamics and the resultant K-shell radiation will be presented. Analysis of a time- and space resolved synthetic K-shell spectra would also be presented. Work supported by the DOE/NNSA. SNL is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Atomistic simulations of thermodynamic properties of Xe gas bubbles in U10Mo fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang; Setyawan, Wahyu; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2017-04-15

    Xe gas bubble superlattice formation is observed in irradiated uranium–10 wt% molybdenum (U10Mo) fuels. However, the thermodynamic properties of the bubbles (the relationship among bubble size, equilibrium Xe concentration, and bubble pressure) and the mechanisms of bubble growth and superlattice formation are not well known. In this work, molecular dynamics is used to study these properties and mechanisms. The results provide important inputs for quantitative mesoscale models of gas bubble evolution and fuel performance. In the molecular dynamics simulations, the embedded-atom method (EAM) potential of U10Mo-Xe (Smirnova et al. 2013) is employed. Initial gas bubbles with low Xe concentration are generated in a U10Mo single crystal. Then Xe atom atoms are continuously added into the bubbles, and the evolution of pressure and dislocation emission around the bubbles is analyzed. The relationship between pressure, equilibrium Xe concentration, and radius of the bubbles is established. It was found that the gas bubble growth is accompanied by partial dislocation emission, which results in a star-shaped dislocation structure and an anisotropic stress field. The emitted partial dislocations have a Burgers vector along the <111> direction and a slip plane of (11-2). Dislocation loop punch-out was not observed. A tensile stress was found along <110> directions around the bubble, favoring the nucleation and formation of a face-centered cubic bubble superlattice in body-centered cubic U10Mo fuels.

  5. Atomistic simulations of thermodynamic properties of Xe gas bubbles in U10Mo fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenyang; Setyawan, Wahyu; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2017-07-01

    Xe gas bubble superlattice formation is observed in irradiated uranium-10 wt% molybdenum (U10Mo) fuels. However, the thermodynamic properties of the bubbles (the relationship among bubble size, equilibrium Xe concentration, and bubble pressure) and the mechanisms of bubble superlattice formation are not well known. In this work, the molecular dynamics (MD) method is used to study these properties and mechanisms. The results provide important inputs for quantitative mesoscale models of gas bubble evolution and fuel performance. In the MD simulations, the embedded-atom method (EAM) potential of U10Mo-Xe [1] is employed. Initial gas bubbles with a low Xe concentration (underpressured) are generated in a body-centered cubic (bcc) U10Mo single crystal. Then Xe atoms are sequentially added into the bubbles one by one, and the evolution of pressure and dislocation emission around the bubbles is analyzed. The relationship between pressure, equilibrium Xe concentration, and radius of the bubbles is established. It was found that an overpressured gas bubble emits partial dislocations with a Burgers vector along the direction and a slip plane of (11-2). Meanwhile, dislocation loop punch out was not observed. The overpressured bubble also induces an anisotropic stress field. A tensile stress was found along directions around the bubble, favoring the nucleation and formation of a face-centered cubic bubble superlattice in bcc U10Mo fuels.

  6. Stellar laboratories . VIII. New Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths and the Al, Zr, and Xe abundances in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Gamrath, S.; Quinet, P.; Löbling, L.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-03-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: To search for zirconium and xenon lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289, new Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths were calculated. This allows, for the first time, determination of the Zr abundance in white dwarf (WD) stars and improvement of the Xe abundance determinations. Methods: We calculated Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions of Zr and Xe in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of their lines exhibited in UV observations of the hot WDs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: We identified one new Zr iv, 14 new Zr v, and ten new Zr vi lines in the spectrum of RE 0503-289. Zr was detected for the first time in a WD. We measured a Zr abundance of -3.5 ± 0.2 (logarithmic mass fraction, approx. 11 500 times solar). We identified five new Xe vi lines and determined a Xe abundance of -3.9 ± 0.2 (approx. 7500 times solar). We determined a preliminary photospheric Al abundance of -4.3 ± 0.2 (solar) in RE 0503-289. In the spectra of G191-B2B, no Zr line was identified. The strongest Zr iv line (1598.948 Å) in our model gave an upper limit of -5.6 ± 0.3 (approx. 100 times solar). No Xe line was identified in the UV spectrum of G191-B2B and we confirmed the previously determined upper limit of -6.8 ± 0.3 (ten times solar). Conclusions: Precise measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for advanced NLTE stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Zr iv-vi and Xe vi-vii line profiles in the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289 were simultaneously well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. Based on observations

  7. Active Stabilization of the Beam Pointing of a High- Power KrF Laser System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna1 A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An active beam-pointing stabilization system has been developed for a high-power KrF laser system to eliminate the long-term drift of the directional change of the beam in order to have a stable focusing to a high intensity. The control of the beam direction was achieved by a motor-driven mirror activated by an electric signal obtained by monitoring the position of the focus of the output beam. Instead of large sized UV-sensitive position sensitive detectors a simple arrangement with scatter plates and photodiodes are used to measure the directionality of the beam. After the beam stabilization the long-term residual deviation of the laser shots is ~14 μrad, which is comparable to the shot-to-shot variation of the beam (~12 μrad. This deviation is small enough to keep the focal spot size in a micrometer range when tightly focusing the beam using off-axis parabolic mirrors.

  8. Annealing studies of Bi and Kr inclusions in Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoern Thoft, N.

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the results of experimental investigations of melting, solidification and growth of Bi and Kr inclusions made by ion implantation into aluminium. The experimental techniques used of for this study were x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering, ion channeling, and grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The x-ray diffraction signal from crystalline Bi inclusions in Al has been recorded as a function of temperature during heating to temperatures above the bulk melting point and cooling to room temperature. Data from these measurements have been fitted using models (developed by Pawlow and Wronski) for the size-dependent melting temperature of small particles, and size distributions for the inclusions have been determined in this way. Transmission electron microscopy has confirmed the melting and solidification of the Bi inclusions in the temperature ranges, in which these processes were observed by x-ray diffraction, establishing the facts that the inclusions melt below the bulk melting point and that a large supercooling is seen. Information about the amount and depth distribution of the Bi confined in the Al matrix has been derived from Rutherford backscattering measurements. Melting and solidification of Bi inclusions have been observed by means of ion channeling. The results of the investigations of bismuth inclusions in aluminium are compared to previous, similar results for lead inclusions in aluminium. Finally, preliminary experiments have confirmed that growth of Kr inclusions in Al can be observed using grazing-incidence small-angle scattering. (au) (13 tabs., 46 ills., 77 refs.).

  9. Lifetimes of excited states in neutron-rich Xe isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilieva, Stoyanka; Kroell, Thorsten [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: EXILL-FATIMA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The EXILL and FATIMA campaign at ILL, Grenoble is the first prompt-fission γ-ray spectroscopy experiment performed with a mixed array of Ge detectors (EXILL) and fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators (FATIMA). The lifetimes of excited states, populated by neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 241}Pu targets, were directly measured. The high-resolution EXILL detector gives us the possibility to identify the nuclides of interest among the large amount of produced fission fragments. Using the generalized centroid difference method to analyse the data from FATIMA we could measure lifetimes down to ∼ 10 ps. The lifetime of an excited state is a direct measure for the strength (collectivity) of a transition. The properties of the excited states in even-even nuclei can be largely described by quadrupole and octupole degrees of freedom. This contribution will present the current status of the analysis for the neutron-rich even-even {sup 138,140,142}Xe isotopes which lie in the vicinity of the double shell closure Z=50 and N=82. Through the direct lifetime measurement we aim to study the evolution of quadrupole and octupole collectivity above {sup 132}Sn.

  10. High-spin {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khatib, Ali

    2008-08-18

    rotational bands loose collectivity and, finally, when all nucleons outside the core have their spins aligned, the bands terminate. In the framework of this thesis, extensive spectroscopic investigations of three nuclei of the A {proportional_to}125 region, {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe, have been performed. These nuclei have been studied with the largest spectrometers available, Euroball and Gammasphere. The previously known level schemes of these nuclei have been extended substantially, both in the low- and high-spin regions. Many new rotational bands could be established. Lifetimes have been measured for several of the long large-deformation bands. The rotational structures, shape co-existence and band termination at high spins have been investigated. (orig.)

  11. Elucidation of meso- and microporosity in soil components with 129-Xe NMR spectroscopy of adsorbed xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, Svetlana; Nossov, Andrey; Knicker, Heike; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    Soil meso- and micropores (2-50 nm and content of Al oxides (case of the Andosol). DOM sorption on the studied Al oxides occurred inhomogeneously as it was inferred from the existence of the "empty" pores and the pores coated with OM. The latter were evidenced by the different Xe adsorption enthalpies estimated from the temperature dependences of the chemical shift. The increased sensitivity of the HP 129-Xe NMR allowed us detecting micropores in the charcoals, where the N2 adsorption method underestimated porosity due to the restricted diffusion of N2 at 77 K. The observed differences between the HP and TP 129-Xe patterns were explained by the slow diffusion of xenon within an interconnected but highly constricted pore system of the charcoals. The estimated width of those constricted pore openings was of the order of one or two diameters of the Xe atom. Similar "bottle neck" effects may also exist in the natural soil particle size fractions, as it was inferred from the increased pore access for Xe adsorption performed at elevated pressures (2-4 bar). The unusually large 129-Xe shifts (up to 170 ppm) detected for the for the H2O2-treated clay fractions of the Andosol (Bw horizon) coincided with their large specific surface areas(up to 220 m2/g) and were attributed to the pores formed by agglomerates of the nano-sized Al - humus complexes with contribution from the charred residues. Micropores found in the Arenosol fractions were attributed to the charred residues. Briefly, 129-Xe NMR spectroscopy shows its potential for studying soil meso- and micropores due to: i) higher sensitivity for probing micropores within polymeric organic structures, e.g. charcoals, as compared to the N2 adsorption; ii) possibility to use elevated pressures of the adsorbate for increasing the pore accessibility; iii) evaluating not only the pore size range but also adsorption enthalpies that reflect the nature of Xe - pore surface interactions. On the other hand, a combination of the HP

  12. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-05-13

    We present successful (81)Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The (81)Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) (85)Kr and (39)Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the (81)Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA (81)Kr analysis requires a 40-80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, (81)Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility.

  13. New method of 85Kr reduction in a noble gas based low-background detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, D. Yu.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Burenkov, A. A.; Hall, C.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Simakov, G. E.

    2017-04-01

    Krypton-85 is an anthropogenic beta-decaying isotope which produces low energy backgrounds in dark matter and neutrino experiments, especially those based upon liquid xenon. Several technologies have been developed to reduce the Kr concentration in such experiments. We propose to augment those separation technologies by first adding to the xenon an 85Kr-free sample of krypton in an amount much larger than the natural krypton that is already present. After the purification system reduces the total Kr concentration to the same level, the final 85Kr concentration will be reduced even further by the dilution factor. A test cell for measurement of the activity of various Kr samples has been assembled, and the activity of 25-year-old krypton has been measured. The measured activity agrees well with the expected activity accounting for the 85Kr abundance of the earth's atmosphere in 1990 and the half-life of the isotope. Additional tests with a Kr sample produced in the year 1944 (before the atomic era) have been done in order to demonstrate the sensitivity of the test cell.

  14. Xe-135 and Sm-149 Isotopic Evolution Analysis Xesamo code; Analisis de la Evolucion Isotopica del Xe-135 y Sm-149. Programa Xesamo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Gallego, J.; Martinez Fanegas, R.

    1977-07-01

    In this report the time evolution analysis of the nuclides concentration Xe-135 and Sm-149 as a function of the neutron flux is carried out. The neutron flux may be any function of time. It is analyzed as well the reactivity changes associated with the xenon and samarium concentration variations. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Xe Adsorption and Separation Properties of a Series of Microporous Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) with V-Shaped Linkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Elsaidi, Sameh K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2017-08-28

    A series of microporous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) constructed by a V-shaped linker, 4,4’-sul-fonyldibenzoic acid were evaluated for their Xe gas adsorption properties. In particular, a cadmium based MOF exhibit noteworthy Xe adsorption and separation properties in presence of other gases under nuclear reprocessing conditions. The difference in Xe adsorption and separation properties of the materials were attributed towards their topology and pore size.

  16. Surface tension of mixtures of molecular fluids: Comparison between the experimental and theoretical study of CH{sub 4} + Kr, Kr + NO, and CH{sub 4} + NO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, J.C.G.; Saramago, B.J.V. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Quimica Estrutural; Santos Mendonca, A.F.S. dos; Soares, V.A.M. [Univ. de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a study of the surface tension of three binary liquid mixtures of molecular fluids. A microscopic mean field theory (MFT) has been used to calculate the theoretical results enabling the comparison with the experimental data. The mean field theory has been successfully used in the prediction of the surface properties of simple systems composed by quasi-spherical molecules. In the present study the MFT was able to reproduce the essential features of the interfacial properties of the systems CH{sub 4} + Kr, Kr + NO and CH{sub 4} + NO. The pure components were modeled by Lennard-Jones potentials with a set of intermolecular parameters taken from the literature for Kr and calculated from the fitting of the energy parameters to the surface tension, for CH{sub 4} and NO. In the case of the mixtures, it was found that reasonable agreement with experiment can only be obtained by allowing deviations from the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules. For the CH{sub 4} + Kr system the authors used the binary energy parameter {xi} obtained through a fitting to the bulk properties; for the Kr + NO and CH{sub 4} + NO systems the binary parameter was adjusted to the interfacial properties.

  17. Surface Tension of Mixtures of Molecular Fluids: Comparison between the Experimental and Theoretical Study of CH4 + Kr, Kr + NO, and CH4 + NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado; Mendonca; Saramago; Soares

    1997-01-01

    We report a study of the surface tension of three binary liquid mixtures of molecular fluids. A microscopic mean field theory (MFT) has been used to calculate the theoretical results enabling the comparison with the experimental data. The mean field theory has been successfully used in the prediction of the surface properties of simple systems composed by quasi-spherical molecules. In the present study the MFT was able to reproduce the essential features of the interfacial properties of the systems CH4 + Kr, Kr + NO and CH4 + NO. The pure components were modeled by Lennard-Jones potentials with a set of intermolecular parameters taken from the literature for Kr and calculated from the fitting of the energy parameters (epsilon) to the surface tension, for CH4 and NO. In the case of the mixtures, it was found that reasonable agreement with experiment can only be obtained by allowing deviations from the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules. For the CH4 + Kr system we used the binary energy parameter xi obtained through a fitting to the bulk properties; for the Kr + NO and CH4 + NO systems the binary parameter was adjusted to the interfacial properties.

  18. Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško

    OpenAIRE

    Kortnik, Jože; Leskovar, Jože

    2015-01-01

    Review paper Received: October 25, 2013 Accepted: November 7, 2013 Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Ravnanje z mešanimi komunalnimi odpadki v Zbirnem centru Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Jože Kortnik1'*, Jože Leskovar2 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Mining and Geotechnology, Aškerčeva 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 2Kostak, d. d., Leskovška cesta 2a, 8270 Krško, Slovenia Correspo...

  19. Analysis of Selected Legacy 85Kr Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Legacy samples composed of 85Kr encapsulated in solid zeolite 5A material and five small metal tubes containing a mixture of the zeolite combined with a glass matrix resulting from hot isostatic pressing have been preserved. The samples were a result of krypton R&D encapsulation efforts in the late 1970s performed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These samples were shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in mid-FY 2014. Upon receipt the outer shipping package was opened, and the inner package, removed and placed in a radiological hood. The individual capsules were double bagged as they were removed from the inner shipping pig and placed into individual glass sample bottles for further analysis. The five capsules were then x-ray imaged. Capsules 1 and 4 appear intact and to contain an amorphous mass within the capsules. Capsule 2 clearly shows the saw marks on the capsule and a quantity of loose pellet or bead-like material remaining in the capsule. Capsule 3 shows similar bead-like material within the intact capsule. Capsule 5 had been opened at an undetermined time in the past. The end of this capsule appears to have been cut off, and there are additional saw marks on the side of the capsule. X-ray tomography allowed the capsules to be viewed along the three axes. Of most interest was determining whether there was any residual material in the closed end of Capsule 5. The images confirmed the presence of residual material within this capsule. The material appears to be compacted but still retains some of the bead-like morphology. Based on the nondestructive analysis (NDA) results, a proposed path forward was formulated to advance this effort toward the original goals of understanding the effects of extended storage on the waste form and package. Based on the initial NDA and the fact that there are at least two breached samples, it was proposed that exploratory tests be conducted with the breached specimens before opening the three intact

  20. Efficient generation of Xe K-shell x rays by high-contrast interaction with submicrometer clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yukio; Pirozhkov, Alexander S; Kando, Masaki; Fukuda, Yuji; Faenov, Anatoly; Kawase, Keigo; Pikuz, Tatiana; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Okada, Hajime; Bulanov, Sergei V

    2011-05-01

    The interaction between a 25 TW laser and Xe clusters at a peak intensity of 1 × 10¹⁹ W/cm² has been investigated. Xe K-shell x rays, whose energies are approximately 30 keV, were clearly observed with a hard x-ray CCD at 3.4 MPa. Moreover, we studied the yield of the Xe K-shell x rays by changing the pulse duration of the laser at a constant laser energy and found that the pulse duration of 40 fs is better than that of 300 fs for generating Xe K-shell x rays.

  1. Decay pathways after Xe 3d inner shell ionization using a multi-electron coincidence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, I H; Nakano, M; Ito, K [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hikosaka, Y; Soejima, K [Department of Environmental Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Shigemasa, E [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Lablanquie, P; Penent, F [UPMC, Universite Paris 06, LCPMR, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Kouchi, N, E-mail: suzukii@post.kek.jp [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2011-04-14

    Cascade Auger electron emission following Xe 3d photoionization has been investigated using a multi-electron coincidence technique, which utilizes an electron spectrometer of magnetic bottle type. It has been found that the Xe{sup 2+} states of the 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1} configuration, formed by the Auger decay of the Xe{sup +} 3d{sub 3/2,5/2}{sup -1} states, dominantly turn into triply charged states of the 4d{sup -2}5p{sup -1}/4d{sup -2}5s{sup -1} configurations. The Xe{sup 2+} 4s{sup -1}4d{sup -1} states, formed by the 3d Auger decay, yield the 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1}5p{sup -1} states as well as the 4d{sup -3} states. From the coincidence spectrum among three Auger electrons, it is suggested that the Xe{sup 2+} 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1} states give rise to the following cascade processes: 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1} {yields} 4d{sup -2}5p{sup -1} {yields} 4d{sup -1}5p{sup -3}.

  2. Finite element modeling of 129Xe diffusive gas exchange NMR in the human alveoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Neil J.; Parra-Robles, Juan; Wild, Jim M.

    2016-10-01

    Existing models of 129Xe diffusive exchange for lung microstructural modeling with time-resolved MR spectroscopy data have considered analytical solutions to one-dimensional, homogeneous models of the lungs with specific assumptions about the alveolar geometry. In order to establish a model system for simulating the effects of physiologically-realistic changes in physical and microstructural parameters on 129Xe exchange NMR, we have developed a 3D alveolar capillary model for finite element analysis. To account for the heterogeneity of the alveolar geometry across the lungs, we have derived realistic geometries for finite element analysis based on 2D histological samples and 3D micro-CT image volumes obtained from ex vivo biopsies of lung tissue from normal subjects and patients with interstitial lung disease. The 3D alveolar capillary model permits investigation of the impact of alveolar geometrical parameters and diffusion and perfusion coefficients on the in vivo measured 129Xe CSSR signal response. The heterogeneity of alveolar microstructure that is accounted for in image-based models resulted in considerable alterations to the shape of the 129Xe diffusive uptake curve when compared to 1D models. Our findings have important implications for the future design and optimization of 129Xe MR experiments and in the interpretation of lung microstructural changes from this data.

  3. XeBr excilamp based on a non-toxic component mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, V A; Shpenik, Yu O; Zhmenyak, Yu V, E-mail: mironkle@rambler.ru [Institute of Electron Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Universitetska 21, 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

    2011-06-29

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on obtaining UV luminescence of XeBr* molecules at the excitation of a non-toxic Xe-CsBr gas-vapour mixture by a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge. Effective UV emission yield of the exciplex XeBr* molecules (spectral maximum at 282 nm) is observed within a wide range of excitation conditions. The spectral distribution in the UV emission under the optimal excitation conditions does not differ essentially from that in other XeBr excilamps based on toxic components. The emission of the B {yields} X band of the XeBr* molecules provides the main contribution to the total power of the discharge UV emission. The determined average power of the UV emission for the experimental discharge tube is 12 W at an efficiency of 1%. Spectral, power-related and time-dependent parameters of the laboratory excilamp are presented for a wide range of excitation parameters. A new mechanism of exciplex molecule formation at the excitation of a rare gas/alkali halide vapour mixture is discussed.

  4. Interpreting the I-Xe system in individual silicate grains from Toluca IAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Meshik, A. P.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Petaev, M.

    2009-12-01

    Detailed isotopic and mineralogical studies of silicate inclusions separated from a troilite nodule of the Toluca IAB iron meteorite reveal the presence of radiogenic 129Xe in chlorapatite, plagioclase, perryite, and pyroxene grains. Subsequent I-Xe studies of 32 neutron-irradiated pyroxene grains indicate that high-Mg and low-Mg pyroxenes have distinctive I-Xe signatures. The I-Xe system in high-Mg pyroxenes closed at 4560.5 ± 2.4 Ma, probably reflecting exsolution of silicates from the melt, while the low-Mg pyroxenes closed at 4552.0 ± 3.7 Ma, 8.5 Ma later, providing a means for determining the cooling rate at the time of exsolution. If the host Toluca graphite-troiliterich inclusion formed after the breakup and reassembly of the IAB parent body as has been suggested, the I-Xe ages of the high-Mg pyroxenes separated from this inclusions indicate that this catastrophic impact occurred not later than 4560.5 Ma, 6.7 Ma after formation of CAIs. The cooling rate at the time of silicates exsolution in Toluca is 14.5 ± 10.0 °C/Ma.

  5. Marine Arctic point distribution of Northern Wolffish (Anarhichas denticulatus) Krøyer, 1845

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Region(s) of distribution of Northern Wolffish (Anarhichas denticulatus) Krøyer, 1845 in the Arctic as digitized for U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations...

  6. Hyperpolarized 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavngaard, Trine; Søgaard, Lise; Mortensen, J

    2005-01-01

    was to compare ventilation imaging methods in 26 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and nine lung healthy volunteers. METHODS: HP 3He MRI, 81mKr single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests were performed....... The three scans were scored visually as percentage of non-ventilated/diseased lung, and a computer-based objective measure of the ventilated volume in HP 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT and an emphysema index in HRCT were calculated. RESULTS: We found a good correlation between HP 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT for both...... visual defect score (r=0.80, pemphysema (pulmonary function test and HRCT). The defect scores were largest on 81mKr SPECT (the score on HP 3He MRI...

  7. August Krüger ja linnakapell Tallinna muusikaelus 19. sajandi teisel poolel / Triin Vallaste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vallaste, Triin, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Tallinna 19. sajandi teise poole muusikaelu jaoks olulise inimese A. Fr. Krügeri elust ja muusikalisest tegevusest, samuti institutsioonidest, mille heaks ta töötas, ja teda ümbritsenud keskkonnast

  8. Nanosensorer - et lovende værktøj til kræftforskning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Nanosensorer er så små at de kan sprøjtes ind i levende celler uden på nogen måde at forstyrre cellernes øvrige liv. De afprøves i øjeblikket på kræftceller i samarbejde med Kræftens Bekæmpelse.......Nanosensorer er så små at de kan sprøjtes ind i levende celler uden på nogen måde at forstyrre cellernes øvrige liv. De afprøves i øjeblikket på kræftceller i samarbejde med Kræftens Bekæmpelse....

  9. Deformation driving intruder orbitals in {sup 77}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvan, G.N.; Doering, J.; Johns, G.D.; Tabor, S.L. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Gross, C.J. [ORISE, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)]|[Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Baktash, C.; Jin, H.; Stracener, D.W. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hua, P.F.; Korolija, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Sarantites, D.G. [Chemistry Department, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Cristancho, F.; Landulfo, E.; Saladin, J.X. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Cederwall, B.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Rathbun, W. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vander Molen, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    High-spin states in {sup 77}Kr were identified via analysis of prompt {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences in the {sup 58}Ni({sup 29}Si,2{alpha}2p) reaction at 128 MeV at the Gammasphere facility. Evaporation channel selection was achieved using the 95 element Microball charged-particle detector. 27 new states and 42 new transitions were found. The positive-parity bands were confirmed and the {alpha}={minus}(1)/(2) band extended to (39)/(2){sup +}. The negative-parity signature pair was extended to (31)/(2){sup {minus}} and (37)/(2){sup {minus}}. Two new high-lying negative-parity bands were found extending from a state of spin I=(15)/(2) and energy 2.6 MeV to 17.4 MeV at I=((55)/(2)). The new bands appear highly deformed and become yrast at high spin. A three-quasiparticle structure based on deformation driving, low-K unique-parity and intruder orbitals is suggested for them. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Oxidizing behavior of some platinum metal fluorides. [Xe complexes with Pt, Pd fluorides; Chlorine-2 oxidation by transition metal hexafluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, L.

    1978-10-01

    The previously known compounds Xe/sub 2/F/sub 3//sup +/PtF/sub 6//sup -/, XeF/sup +/PtF/sub 6//sup -/ and XeF/sub 2/.2PtF/sub 4/(XePt/sub 2/F/sub 10/) were prepared by the interaction of XeF/sub 2/ with PtF/sub 4/. The new compounds XeF/sub 2/.PdF/sub 4/ and XeF/sub 2/.2PdF/sub 4/(XePd/sub 2/F/sub 10/) were produced by interaction of XeF/sub 2/ with either PdF/sub 4/ or Pd/sub 2/F/sub 6/. A weight loss-versus-time curve indicated the presence of 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1 XeF/sub 2//PdF/sub 4/ complexes. The thermal decomposition of XeFPtF/sub 6/ or XePd/sub 2/F/sub 10/ yields highly pure XeF/sub 4/. Thus the interaction of XeF/sub 2/ with platinum fluorides (PtF/sub 4/ or PtF/sub 5/) or palladium fluorides (Pd/sub 2/F/sub 6/ or PdF/sub 4/) provides for the conversion of XeF/sub 2/ to XeF/sub 4/. The compound XePd/sub 2/F/sub 10/ is a close structural relative of XePt/sub 2/F/sub 10/, and spectroscopic evidence suggests that both are salts of XeF/sup +/ and a polymeric (M/sub 2/F/sub 9/)/sub x//sup x-/ ion. A Xe:PtF/sub 6/ material of approximately 1:1 stoichiometry has been prepared and compared with XePdF/sub 6/(XeF/sub 2/.PdF/sub 4/). The interaction of chlorine with the third-series transition metal hexafluorides has been investigated. Gravimetric and tensimetric evidence indicate that the initial product of the Cl/sub 2/ plus IrF/sub 6/ reaction is a solid of composition Cl/sub 2/IrF/sub 6/. Vibrational spectroscopic and other evidence indicates that this solid yields a sequence of products, of which Cl/sub 3//sup +/IrF/sub 6//sup -/, Cl/sub 3//sup +/Ir/sub 2/F/sub 11//sup -/ and Ir/sub 4/F/sub 20/ have been identified, the last being the ultimate solid product of the room temperature decomposition of the adduct. A new chlorine fluoride generated in the room temperature decomposition of Cl/sub 2/IrF/sub 6/ has been tentatively formulated as Cl/sub 3/F from infrared evidence.

  11. Unified Treatment of the Krätzel Transformation for Generalized Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Q. Al-Omari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a generalization of the Krätzel transforms on certain spaces of ultradistributions. We have proved that the Krätzel transform of an ultradifferentiable function is an ultradifferentiable function and satisfies its Parseval's inequality. We also provide a complete reading of the transform constructing two desired spaces of Boehmians. Some other properties of convergence and continuity conditions and its inverse are also discussed in some detail.

  12. Photon burst mass spectrometry for the measurement of {sup 85}Kr at ambient levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, W.M. Jr.; LaBelle, R.D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Physics Dept.; Hansen, C.S. [Southern Adventist Coll., Collegedale, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Photon Burst Mass Spectrometry has been used to measure {sup 85}Kr in a sample with an abundance of 6 x 10{sup {minus}9}. Improvements in detection efficiency by the use of avalanche photodiodes cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature are reported, which should make possible measurement of {sup 85}Kr at the ambient atmospheric abundance of 10{sup {minus}11}. Potential applications include nuclear monitoring, atmospheric transport, and dating young ground water up to 40 years.

  13. In vivo MR imaging of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange in rats via continuous extracorporeal infusion of hyperpolarized 129Xe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackary I Cleveland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperpolarized (HP (129Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI permits high resolution, regional visualization of pulmonary ventilation. Additionally, its reasonably high solubility (>10% and large chemical shift range (>200 ppm in tissues allow HP (129Xe to serve as a regional probe of pulmonary perfusion and gas transport, when introduced directly into the vasculature. In earlier work, vascular delivery was accomplished in rats by first dissolving HP (129Xe in a biologically compatible carrier solution, injecting the solution into the vasculature, and then detecting HP (129Xe as it emerged into the alveolar airspaces. Although easily implemented, this approach was constrained by the tolerable injection volume and the duration of the HP (129Xe signal. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we overcome the volume and temporal constraints imposed by injection, by using hydrophobic, microporous, gas-exchange membranes to directly and continuously infuse (129Xe into the arterial blood of live rats with an extracorporeal (EC circuit. The resulting gas-phase (129Xe signal is sufficient to generate diffusive gas exchange- and pulmonary perfusion-dependent, 3D MR images with a nominal resolution of 2×2×2 mm(3. We also show that the (129Xe signal dynamics during EC infusion are well described by an analytical model that incorporates both mass transport into the blood and longitudinal relaxation. CONCLUSIONS: Extracorporeal infusion of HP (129Xe enables rapid, 3D MR imaging of rat lungs and, when combined with ventilation imaging, will permit spatially resolved studies of the ventilation-perfusion ratio in small animals. Moreover, EC infusion should allow (129Xe to be delivered elsewhere in the body and make possible functional and molecular imaging approaches that are currently not feasible using inhaled HP (129Xe.

  14. Discharge-current characteristics in UV-preionized Kr/He, F2/He gas-mixtures and KrF excimer laser gas. Shigaisen yobi denri Kr/He, F2/He kongo kitai hoden oyobi KrF laser reiki hoden no denryu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, N.; Kawakami, H.; Yukimura, K. (Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan))

    1992-08-15

    In order to study effects of Kr and F2 on discharge characteristics of KrF excimer laser gas, gap phenomena in Kr/He and F2/He gas-mixtures were observed and discharge current (I[sub d]) was measured. In the range where Kr concentration was over 10% in Kr/He gas, in which production of filamentation as well as glow discharge started, discontinuous change in I[sub d] in the second or third half cycle was observed. According to the results of experiments and model analyses, it was considered that the discontinuity of the current showed the transition point to filamentation. When F2 concentration was in the range between 0.1 and 0.3% in F2/He mixture gas, filamentation and arc with glow were observed. Sine-waveform I[sub d] ended in the first half cycle, and began to flow again after cessation or had almost constant current due to arc and others. When F2 was over 0.4%, only are discharge was observed. It was thus found that F2 has a large effect on discharge characteristics of KrF laser gas. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  15. EDM measurement in {sup 129}Xe atom using dual active feedback nuclear spin maser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T., E-mail: sato@yap.nucl.ap.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Ichikawa, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Ohtomo, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kojima, S.; Funayama, C.; Suzuki, T.; Chikamori, M.; Hikota, E.; Tsuchiya, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Physics (Japan); Yoshimi, A. [Okayama University, Research Core for Extreme Quantum World (Japan); Bidinosti, C. P. [University of Winnipeg, Department Physics (Canada); Ino, T. [Institute of Material Structure Science, KEK (Japan); Ueno, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Matsuo, Y. [Hosei University, Department of Advanced Sciences (Japan); Fukuyama, T. [Osaka University, RCNP (Japan); Asahi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    The technique of an active nuclear spin maser is adopted in the search for electric dipole moment in a diamagnetic atom {sup 129}Xe. In order to reduce systematic uncertainties arising from long-term drifts of the external magnetic field and from the contact interaction between longitudinal polarized Rb atoms and {sup 129}Xe spin, a {sup 3}He comagnetometer with a double-cell geometry was employed. The remaining shift, which turned out to show some correlation with the cell temperature, was mitigated by stabilizing the cell temperature. As a result, the frequency drift of the {sup 129}Xe maser was reduced from 12 mHz to 700 μHz, and the determination precision of frequency of 8.7 nHz was obtained for a 2×10{sup 4} s measurement time using the double-cell geometry cell.

  16. Searches for double beta decay of 134Xe with EXO-200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J. B.; Anton, G.; Badhrees, I.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bayerlein, R.; Beck, D.; Belov, V.; Breidenbach, M.; Brunner, T.; Cao, G. F.; Cen, W. R.; Chambers, C.; Cleveland, B.; Coon, M.; Craycraft, A.; Cree, W.; Daniels, T.; Danilov, M.; Daugherty, S. J.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J.; Delaquis, S.; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A.; DeVoe, R.; Didberidze, T.; Dilling, J.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dolinski, M. J.; Fairbank, W.; Farine, J.; Feyzbakhsh, S.; Fierlinger, P.; Fudenberg, D.; Gornea, R.; Graham, K.; Gratta, G.; Hall, C.; Hoessl, J.; Hufschmidt, P.; Hughes, M.; Jamil, A.; Jewell, M. J.; Johnson, A.; Johnston, S.; Karelin, A.; Kaufman, L. J.; Koffas, T.; Kravitz, S.; Krücken, R.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K. S.; Lan, Y.; Leonard, D. S.; Li, S.; Licciardi, C.; Lin, Y. H.; MacLellan, R.; Marino, M. G.; Michel, T.; Mong, B.; Moore, D.; Murray, K.; Nelson, R.; Njoya, O.; Odian, A.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Retière, F.; Rowson, P. C.; Russell, J. J.; Schubert, A.; Sinclair, D.; Smith, E.; Stekhanov, V.; Tarka, M.; Tolba, T.; Tsang, R.; Vogel, P.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Wagenpfeil, M.; Waite, A.; Walton, J.; Walton, T.; Weber, M.; Wen, L. J.; Wichoski, U.; Yang, L.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zeldovich, O. Ya.; Zettlemoyer, J.; Ziegler, T.; EXO-200 Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Searches for double beta decay of 134Xe were performed with EXO-200, a single-phase liquid xenon detector designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe. Using an exposure of 29.6 kg .yr , the lower limits of T1/2 2 ν β β>8.7 ×1020 yr and T1/2 0 ν β β>1.1 ×1023 yr at 90% confidence level were derived, with corresponding half-life sensitivities of 1.2 ×1021 yr and 1.9 ×1023 yr . These limits exceed those in the literature for 134Xe, improving by factors of nearly 1 05 and 2 for the two antineutrino and neutrinoless modes, respectively.

  17. GeoGebra and eXe Learning: applicability in the teaching of Physics and Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Maria Mussoi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, education in the field of sciences is still characterized by excessive attention to repetitive exercises at the expense of understanding and visualizing the concepts of mathematical and physical phenomena. This article will show the potential of the software GeoGebra to build content and / or activities in Physics and Mathematics usable in isolation or engaged in other activities, such as eXe Learning. For this we constructed two activities: a mathematical content - Application of successive derivatives, and a content of physics - Application of uniform rectilinear motion. These contents were built in eXe Learning, and the graphics was built in GeoGebra and imported into the eXe by Java Applet. The content was done with the exported SCORM to Moodle, it is within this framework that the student will study the movement and display of graphic content.

  18. Time interval measurement between two emissions: Kr + Au; Mesure de l`intervalle de temps entre deux emissions: Kr + Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboufirassi, M; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Mahi, M.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France); LPC (Caen) - CRN (Strasbourg) - GANIL Collaboration

    1998-04-01

    To indicate the method allowing the determination of the emission intervals, the results obtained with the Kr + Au system at 43 and 60 A.MeV are presented. The experiments were performed with the NAUTILUS exclusive detectors. Central collisions were selected by means of a relative velocity criterion to reject the events containing a forward emitted fragment. For the two bombardment energies the data analysis shows that the formation of a compound of mass around A = 200. By comparing the fragment dynamical variables with simulations one can conclude about the simultaneity of the compound deexcitation processes. It was found that a 5 MeV/A is able to reproduce the characteristics of the detected fragments. Also, it was found that to reproduce the dynamical characteristics of the fragments issued from central collisions it was not necessary to superimpose a radial collective energy upon the Coulomb and thermal motion. The distribution of the relative angles between detected fragments is used here as a chronometer. For simultaneous ruptures the small relative angles are forbidden by the Coulomb repulsion, while for sequential processes this interdiction is the more lifted the longer the interval between the two emissions is. For the system discussed here the comparison between simulation and data has been carried out for the extreme cases, i.e. for a vanishing and infinite time interval between the two emissions, respectively. More sophisticated simulations to describe angular distributions between the emitted fragments were also developed 2 refs.

  19. Hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe MRI: A viable functional lung imaging modality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patz, Samuel [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)], E-mail: patz@bwh.harvard.edu; Hersman, F. William [Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, 131 Main Street, Nesmith Hall, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Muradian, Iga [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Hrovat, Mirko I. [Mirtech, Inc., 452 Ash Street, Brockton, MA 02301 (United States); Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen [Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, 131 Main Street, Nesmith Hall, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Jacobson, Francine [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Topulos, George P. [Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Hatabu, Hiroto [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Butler, James P. [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used {sup 3}He as their imaging agent of choice rather than {sup 129}Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, {sup 3}He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO{sub 2}) by observation of {sup 129}Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO{sub 2} by observation of {sup 129}Xe signal decay is more complex than that for {sup 3}He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of {sup 129}Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO{sub 2} that accounts for both traditional T{sub 1} decay from pO{sub 2} and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output.

  20. Human pulmonary imaging and spectroscopy with hyperpolarized 129Xe at 0.2T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Samuel; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I; Ruset, Iulian C; Topulos, George; Covrig, Silviu D; Frederick, Eric; Hatabu, Hiroto; Hersman, F W; Butler, James P

    2008-06-01

    Using a novel (129)Xe polarizer with high throughput (1-2 L/hour) and high polarization (approximately 55%), our objective was to demonstrate and characterize human pulmonary applications at 0.2T. Specifically, we investigated the ability of (129)Xe to measure the alveolar surface area per unit volume of gas, S(A)/V(gas). Variable spin echo time (TE) gradient and radiofrequency (RF) echoes were used to obtain estimates of the lung's contribution to both T(2)* and T(2). Standard multislice ventilation images were obtained and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) determined. Whole-lung, time-dependent measurements of (129)Xe diffusion from gas to septal tissue were obtained with a chemical shift saturation recovery (CSSR) method. Four healthy subjects were studied, and the Butler et al CSSR formalism (J Phys Condensed Matter 2002; 14:L297-L304) was used to calculate S(A)/V(gas). A single-breath version of the xenon transfer contrast (SB-XTC) method was implemented and used to image (129)Xe diffusion between alveolar gas and septal tissue. A direct comparison of CSSR and SB-XTC was performed. T(2)*=135+/-29 ms amd T(2)=326.2+/-9.5 ms. Maximum SNR=36 for ventilation images from inhalation of 1L 86% (129)Xe and voxel volume =0.225 mL. CSSR analysis showed S(A)/V(gas) decreased with increasing lung volume in a manner very similar to that observed from histology measurements; however, the absolute value of S(A)/V(gas) was approximately 40% smaller than histology values. SB-XTC images in different postures demonstrate gravitationally dependent values. Initial comparison of CSSR with XTC showed fairly good agreement with expected ratios. Hyperpolarized (129)Xe human imaging and spectroscopy are very promising methods to provide functional information about the lung.

  1. I-Xe systematics of the impact plume produced chondrules from the CB carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for the half-life value of 129I and absolute age normalization of 129I-129Xe chronometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O; Meshik, A; Hohenberg, C M; Krot, A N

    2017-03-15

    It is inferred that magnesian non-porphyritic chondrules in the CB (Bencubbin-type) carbonaceous chondrites formed in an impact generated plume of gas and melt at 4562.49 ± 0.21 Ma (Bollard et al., 2015) and could be suitable for the absolute age normalization of relative chronometers. Here xenon isotopic compositions of neutron irradiated chondrules from the CB chondrites Gujba and Hammadah al Hamra (HH) 237 have been analyzed in an attempt to determine closure time of their I-Xe isotope systematics. One of the HH 237 chondrules, #1, yielded a well-defined I-Xe isochron that corresponds to a closure time of 0.29 ± 0.16 Ma after the Shallowater aubrite standard. Release profiles and diffusion properties of radiogenic 129*Xe and 128*Xe, extracted from this chondrule by step-wise pyrolysis, indicate presence of two iodine host phases with distinct activation energies of 73 and 120 kcal/mol. In spite of the activation energy differences, the I-Xe isotope systematics of these two phases closed simultaneously, suggesting rapid heating and cooling (possibly quenching) of the CB chondrules. The release profiles of U-fission Xe and I-derived Xe correlate in the high temperature host phase supporting simultaneous closure of 129I-129Xe and 207Pb-206Pb systematics. The absolute I-Xe age of Shallowater standard is derived from the observed correlation between I-Xe and Pb-Pb ages in a number of samples. It is re-evaluated here using Pb-Pb ages adjusted for an updated 238U/235U ratio of 137.794 and meteorite specific U-isotope ratios. With the addition of the new data for HH 237 chondrule #1, the re-evaluated absolute I-Xe age of Shallowater is 4562.4 ± 0.2 Ma. The absolute I-Xe age of the HH 237 chondrule #1 is 4562.1 ± 0.3 Ma, in good agreement with U-corrected Pb-Pb ages of the Gujba chondrules (Bollard et al., 2015) and HH 237 silicates (Krot et al., 2005). All I-Xe data used here, and in previous estimates of the absolute age of Shallowater, are calculated using 15.7

  2. Influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of a XeCl exciplex lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avtaeva, S. V., E-mail: s_avtaeva@mail.ru [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan); Sosnin, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High-Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Saghi, B. [Mohamed Boudiaf University of Sciences and Technology, Department of Electronics (Algeria); Panarin, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High-Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Rahmani, B. [Mohamed Boudiaf University of Sciences and Technology, Department of Electronics (Algeria)

    2013-09-15

    The influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of coaxial exciplex lamps (excilamps) excited by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in binary Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixtures at pressures of 240–250 Torr is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiments were carried out at Cl{sub 2} concentrations in the range of 0.01–1%. The DBD characteristics were calculated in the framework of a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model at Cl{sub 2} concentrations in the range of 0.1–5%. It is found that the radiation intensities of the emission bands of Xe*{sub 2}(172 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) are comparable when the chlorine concentration in the mixture is in the range of 0.01–0.1%. In this case, in the mixture, the radiation intensity of the Xe*{sub 2} molecule rapidly decreases with increasing Cl{sub 2} concentration and, at a chlorine concentration of ≥0.2%, the radiation of the B → X band of XeCl* molecules with a peak at 308 nm dominates in the discharge radiation. The radiation efficiency of this band reaches its maximum value at chlorine concentrations in the range of 0.4–0.5%. The calculated efficiencies of DBD radiation exceed those obtained experimentally. This is due to limitations of the one-dimensional model, which assumes the discharge to be uniform in the transverse direction, whereas the actual excilamp discharge is highly inhomogeneous. The influence of the chlorine concentration on the properties of the DBD plasma in binary Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixtures is studied numerically. It is shown that an increase in the Cl{sub 2} concentration in the mixture leads to the attachment of electrons to chlorine atoms and a decrease in the electron density and discharge conductivity. As a result, the electric field and the voltage drop across the discharge gap increase, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the average electron energy and the probability of dissociation of Cl{sub 2} molecules and ionization of Xe atoms and Cl{sub 2} molecules

  3. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}Xe with EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmeier, Wolfhart

    2015-02-19

    Several properties of neutrinos, such as their absolute mass, their possible Majorana nature or the mechanisms that lead to small neutrino masses, are still unknown. The EXO-200 experiment is trying to answer some of these questions by searching for the hypothetical neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope {sup 136}Xe. This thesis describes an analysis of two years of detector data, which yields a lower limit on the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe of 1.1 x 10{sup 25} years.

  4. Effect of pumping conditions on lasing in He-Xe optical breakdown plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollonov, V.V.; Bunkin, F.V.; Derzhavin, S.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.; Sirotkin, A.A.; Firsov, K.N.

    1984-09-01

    Lasing in a He-Xe optical breakdown plasma pumped by a CO2 laser is investigated over a wide range of pumping pulse energies and lengths and active medium pressures. Lasing at four transitions in Xe I (2.03, 2.65, 3.4, and 3.65 microns) is observed. It is shown that pumping duration significantly affects lasing characteristics in an optical breakdown plasma. The role of the gasdynamic processes associated with the interaction between CO2 laser radiation and the gas near the target during inversion is discussed. Quasi-continuous generation of a recombination laser in an optical breakdown plasma is reported. 10 references.

  5. Formation of a narrow baryon resonance with positive strangeness in K^+ collisions with Xe nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Barmin, V V; Borisov, V S; Curceanu, C; Davidenko, G V; Dolgolenko, A G; Guaraldo, C; Kubantsev, M A; Larin, I F; Matveev, V A; Shebanov, V A; Shishov, N N; Sokolov, L I; Tumanov, G K; Verebryusov, V S

    2009-01-01

    The data on the charge-exchange reaction K^+Xe --> K^0 p Xe, obtained with the bubble chamber DIANA, are reanalyzed using increased statistics and updated selections. Our previous evidence for formation of a narrow pK^0 resonance with mass near 1538 MeV is confirmed and reinforced. The statistical significance of the signal reaches some 8\\sigma (6\\sigma) when estimated as S/\\sqrt{B} (S/\\sqrt{B+S}). The mass and intrinsic width of the \\Theta^+ baryon are measured as m = (1538+-2) MeV and \\Gamma = (0.39+-0.10) MeV.

  6. A novel Cs-(129)Xe atomic spin gyroscope with closed-loop Faraday modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wan, Shuangai; Qin, Jie; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Dong, Haifeng

    2013-08-01

    We report a novel Cs-(129)Xe atomic spin gyroscope (ASG) with closed-loop Faraday modulation method. This ASG requires approximately 30 min to start-up and 110 °C to operate. A closed-loop Faraday modulation method for measurement of the optical rotation was used in this ASG. This method uses an additional Faraday modulator to suppress the laser intensity fluctuation and Faraday modulator thermal induced fluctuation. We theoretically and experimentally validate this method in the Cs-(129)Xe ASG and achieved a bias stability of approximately 3.25 °∕h.

  7. Measurement of electron drift velocities in the mixture of Xe and He for a new high-pressure Xe gamma-ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, S; Dmitrenko, V V

    2003-01-01

    Drift velocities of electrons in a mixture of Xe (20 atm)-He (3 atm) were measured using a cylindrical high-pressure xenon chamber. The drift velocities were found to be greater than 3x10 sup 5 cm/s above the reduced electric field of 2.0x10 sup - sup 1 sup 8 V centre dot cm sup 2 at room temperature, which are close to those in Xe-H sub 2 (0.3%). The mixture of He gas into high-pressure xenon improved the resolving time of detectors because it increased the electron drift velocities. This implies that a high-pressure xenon chamber mixed with sup 3 He instead of He gas operates as a gamma-ray detector sensitive to thermal neutrons. (author)

  8. Laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge in a Xe – CsCl mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boichenko, A M [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klenovskii, M S [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    By using the previously developed kinetic model, we have carried out simulations to study the possibility of laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in the working medium based on a mixture of Xe with CsCl vapours, excited by a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge. The formation mechanism of exciplex molecules in this mixture is fundamentally different from the formation mechanisms in the traditional mixtures of exciplex lasers. The conditions that make the laser generation possible are discussed. For these conditions, with allowance for available specific experimental conditions of the repetitively pulsed discharge excitation, we have obtained the calculated dependences of the power and efficiency of generation on the reflectivity of mirrors in a laser cavity. (active media)

  9. Can there be a multi-bond between noble gas and metal? A theoretical study of F2XeMoF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kunqi; Sheng, Li

    2017-04-05

    A new noble gas compound containing a Xe-Mo double bond, F 2 XeMoF 2 , was theoretically constructed and studied based on DFT and ab initio calculations. The CCSD(T)-calculated Xe-Mo bond length of 2.518 Å was comparable to the standard value of 2.56 Å. The bonding energy (32.3 kcal mol -1 ) was even higher than that of the Xe-Au bond in the well-known XeAuF complex (24.1 kcal mol -1 ). The result of natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis indicates that there is a σ-bond and a π-bond between the Xe and Mo atoms in F 2 XeMoF 2 . The properties of the Xe-Mo double bond were also analyzed with the atoms in molecules (AIM) approach and natural resonance theory (NRT).

  10. TARGET EXCITATION IN BARE ION XE/AR COLLISIONS STUDIED BY ELECTRON TARGET ION COINCIDENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENIJS, G; HOEKSTRA, R; MORGENSTERN, R

    We present electron spectra resulting from collisions of bare ions N-15(7+) and C-13(6+) on Ar and the charge state distribution of target ions resulting from C-13(6+)-Xe collisions. From both type of experiments we find evidence that electron capture accompanied by target excitation is an important

  11. Level lifetimes and the nuclear structure of 134,136Xe from inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E. E.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; Ross, T. J.; Ashley, S. F.; Elhami, E.; Kumar, A.; Liu, S. H.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Orce, J. N.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Yates, S. W.; Hicks, S. F.

    2017-09-01

    The level structures of 134,136Xe were studied with the inelastic neutron scattering reaction followed by γ-ray detection. Highly enriched solid XeF2 samples were used in the measurements. A number of level lifetimes were determined for the first time with the Doppler-shift attenuation method, and the low-lying excited states were characterized from this new spectroscopic information. In 134Xe, the third excited state, a tentative 0+ level, was verified. The 3- octupole phonon has been confirmed, and the complete negative-parity multiplet resulting from the ν (1h11 / 2 2d3 / 2) configuration has been tentatively identified for the first time in the N = 80 isotones. In 136Xe, a nucleus with a closed N = 82 neutron shell, several spins and parities of the states below 3 MeV in excitation energy have been firmly assigned for the first time, or have been re-assigned. New insights into the structures of these nuclei will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1606890.

  12. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression suitable for material processing applications are presented here. The laser incorporates in-built compact gas circulation and gas cooling to ensure fresh gas mixture between the electrodes for repetitive operation.

  13. High-resolution (He-3,t) reaction on the double-beta decaying nucleus Xe-136

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puppe, P.; Frekers, D.; Adachi, T.; Akimune, H.; Aoi, N.; Bilgier, B.; Ejiri, H.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Ganioglu, E.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hatanaka, K.; Holl, M.; Kozer, H. C.; Lee, J.; Lennarz, A.; Matsubara, H.; Miki, K.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Thies, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    A (He-3, t) charge-exchange reaction experiment on the double-beta decaying nucleus Xe-136 has been performed at an incident energy of 420 MeV with the objective to measure the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength distribution in Cs-136. The measurements have been carried out at the dispersion-matched WS beam

  14. Intrinsic efficiency and critical power deposition in the e-beam sustained Ar:Xe laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.; Botma, H.; Peters, P.J.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental investigations on an e-beam sustained near infrared Ar:Xe laser have been carried out to determine the intrinsic efficiency at optimized conditions. A parametric study at different sustainer currents reveals a maximum output energy depending on current density. Up to 8 bar the optimized

  15. A new mode to excite a gas-discharge XeCL laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.C.M.; van Goor, F.A.; Witteman, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The charge mode is a new mode to excite a discharge XeCl laser based on the dynamics of a spiker-sustainer circuit with a magnetic pulse compressor. The breakdown voltage is higher than in any other mode, due to a very fast rise time. The higher breakdown voltage provides a wider discharge and we

  16. Five-body calculations of D-2 fragmentation by Xe19+ impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feeler, CR; Olson, RE; DuBois, RD; Schlatholter, T; Hadjar, O; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R; Schlathölter, Thomas

    A five-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo model has been developed to study fragmentation of diatomic molecules after double electron removal by highly charged ion impact. A systematic study of the final-state deuteron energy and momentum spectra has been conducted for Xe19+ + D-2 collisions at

  17. Measurement of picosecond lifetimes in odd neutron-rich Xe isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Michael; Ilieva, Stoyanka; Kroell, Thorsten [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: EXILL-FATIMA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear properties in the region around the doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn are of special interest. Theory relies on nuclei near closed shells for predicting other, more complex systems. Our interest lies in particular on the neutron-rich Xe isotopes ({sup 138-144}Xe), as they exhibit both quadrupole and octupole collective properties. The lifetime of an excited state is a direct measure for the strength of the transition and thus allows us to study both phenomena. Within the EXILL and FATIMA campaign at the experimental nuclear reactor at ILL, Grenoble, the lifetimes of the excited states, populated in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 241}Pu targets, were measured. Using the generalized centroid difference method to analyse the data from the fast timing array (FATIMA) allows us to determine lifetimes down to ∼10 ps. The high-resolution EXILL (EXOGAM rate at ILL) detector gives us the possibility to identify the nuclides of interest among the big amount of produced fission fragments. In this contribution we present the first measurement of lifetimes of low-lying excited states in the odd isotopes {sup 139}Xe and {sup 141}Xe.

  18. EFFECTS OF XE ION IRRADIATION AND SUBSEQUENT ANNEALING ON THE PROPERTIES OF MAGNESIUM-ALUMINATE SPINEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. AFANASYEV; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    Single crystals of magnesium-aluminate spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were irradiated with 340 keV Xe{sup 2} ions at {minus}173 C ({approximately} 100 K). A fluence of 1 x 10{sup 20} Xe/m{sup 2} created an amorphous layer at the surface of the samples. The samples were annealed for 1 h at different temperatures ranging from 130 C to 880 C. Recrystallization took place in the temperature interval between 610 C and 855 C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show two distinct layers near the surface: (1) a polycrystalline layer with columnar grain structure; and (2) a buried damaged layer epitaxial with the substrate. After annealing at 1100 C for 52 days, the profile of implanted Xe ions did not change, which means that Xe ions are not mobile in the spinel structure up to 1100 C. The thickness of the buried damaged layer decreased significantly in the 1100 C annealed sample comparing to the sample annealed for 1 h at 855 C.

  19. High-pressure behaviour of an X-ray preionized discharge pumped XeCl laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J.W.; Ernst, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    The output characteristics are described of an X-ray preionized discharge pumped XeCl laser, fed by a low-impedance pulse forming line (PFL), at pressures up to 12 bar. The influence of a multichannel rail gap placed between the PFL and the laser head on the output energy was studied. We found an

  20. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Abstract. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compres- sion suitable for material processing applications are presented here. The laser incorporates in-built compact gas circulation and gas cooling to ensure fresh gas mixture between the electrodes for ...

  1. Pulse height measurements and electron attachment in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A

    2003-01-01

    We present pulse height measurements in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 gas mixtures. We investigate the attachment of primary electrons on oxygen and SF6 contaminants in the detection gas. The measurements are compared with simulations of properties of drifting electrons. We present two methods to check the gas quality: gas chromatography and Fe55 pulse height measurements using monitor detectors.

  2. Development of NCLR's 1 kW XeCl laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.C.M.; Hofstra, R.M.; Couperus, J.; Kleijhorst, Richard; Prins, H.T.M.; Prins, Henk; Oude Meijers, Gerard; Oude Meijers, Gerhardus J.M.; van Heel, Huub; van Heel, H.J.G.

    2000-01-01

    For several years NCLR is working on a 1 kW, 1 kHz XeCl laser. Improvement of the beam quality at high power levels enabled us to do large-scale application experiments and industrial applications become feasible. The base for the good beam quality is a homogeneous discharge. It starts with a smooth

  3. Spectral line competition in a coaxial e-beam pumped high pressure Ar/Xe laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Y.F.; Lan, Y.F.; Peters, P.J.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the kinetic mechanism of the e-beam pumped Ar/Xe laser, the temporal profiles of individual laser lines during multiline oscillation have been measured as a function of power deposition (1–12MW/cm3) and gas laser pressure (2–14 bar) using a short pulse (30 ns) coaxial electron beam

  4. Development of Atmospheric Air 85Kr Monitoring Methodology on the Territory of the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yury

    2014-05-01

    Highly sensitive, low-background and high-performance method of beta-radioactivity measurements of the gas samples was developed in mid-eighties at Khlopin Radium institute. This method was based on the use of the serial automated installation for liquid scintillation measurements and special scintillating cells. Cells were equipped with the gas valve, and their internal surface were covered by a thin layer of organic scintillator. This method found was successfully was applied for 85Kr activity measurements in atmospheric krypton samples and for 85Kr concentration measurements in atmospheric air. For the first time, method developed for 85Kr activity measurements, was practically tested in May - June, 1986, while studying radioactive pollution characteristics in the air basin of Russia and Ukraine after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Thus for sampling of atmospheric krypton the industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at air-separating plants, located in the cities of Cherepovets, Lipetsk, Krivoi Rog and Enakiyevo was used. In the end of April and in the first half of May it was determined that 1,5-fold excess concentrations of 85Kr in atmospheric air were observed in atmospheric air of considerable part of the European territory of Russia and Ukraine During the period from 1987 to 1991 this method was used for monitoring of 85Kr on the territory of the former USSR in the air basin of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at 14 large air-separating plants was also used for sampling. Six of them were situated in Russia (Novomoskovsk, Lipetsk, Cherepovets, Chelyabinsk, Nizhni Tagil, Orsk). Seven - in Ukraine (Enakiyevo, Kommunarsk, Krivoi Rog, Makeyevka, Mariupol, Severodonetsk, Dneprodzerzhinsk). One plant was situated in Temirtau, in Kazakhstan. The analysis indicated that in Krivoi Rog; Dneprozhzerzhinsk; Severodonetsk; Makeyevka; Mariupol; Enakiyevo; Kommunarsk; Novomoskovsk and Cherepovets the average 85Kr concentration in

  5. Magnetization control for bit pattern formation of spinel ferromagnetic oxides by Kr ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Eiji, E-mail: kita@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Suzuki, Kazuya Z.; Liu, Yang; Utsumi, Yuji; Morishita, Jumpei; Niizeki, Tomohiko; Yanagihara, Hideto [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Oshima, Daiki; Kato, Takeshi [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Mibu, Ko [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    As a first step toward the development of bit-patterned magnetic media made of oxides, we investigated the effectiveness of magnetism control by Kr implantation in a typical spinel ferromagnetic oxide, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We implanted Kr ions accelerated at 30 kV on 13-nm-thick Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films at dosages of (1–40) × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. Magnetization decreased with increase in ion dosages and disappeared when irradiation was greater than 2 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} of Kr ions. These dosages are more than ten times smaller than that used in the N{sub 2} implantation for metallic and oxide ferromagnets. Both the temperature dependence of magnetization and the Mössbauer study suggest that the transition of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic took place sharply due to Kr ion irradiation, which produces two-phase separation—ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic with insufficient dosage of Kr ions.

  6. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000 year old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Buizert, Christo; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    We present the first successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ~350 kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 +/- 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by 1) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination, and 2) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (MIS 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samp...

  7. Photo-ignition process of multiwall carbon nanotubes and ferrocene by continuous wave Xe lamp illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Paolo; Primiceri, Patrizio; Longo, Daniele; Strafella, Luciano; Carlucci, Paolo; Lomascolo, Mauro; Cretì, Arianna; Mele, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to investigate and characterize the photo-ignition phenomenon of MWCNT/ferrocene mixtures by using a continuous wave (CW) xenon (Xe) light source, in order to find the power ignition threshold by employing a different type of light source as was used in previous research (i.e., pulsed Xe lamp). The experimental photo-ignition tests were carried out by varying the weight ratio of the used mixtures, luminous power, and wavelength range of the incident Xe light by using selective optical filters. For a better explanation of the photo-induced ignition process, the absorption spectra of MWCNT/ferrocene mixtures and ferrocene only were obtained. The experimental results show that the luminous power (related to the entire spectrum of the Xe lamp) needed to trigger the ignition of MWCNT/ferrocene mixtures decreases with increasing metal nanoparticles content according to previously published results when using a different type of light source (i.e., pulsed vs CW Xe light source). Furthermore, less light power is required to trigger photo-ignition when moving towards the ultraviolet (UV) region. This is in agreement with the measured absorption spectra, which present higher absorption values in the UV-vis region for both MWCNT/ferrocene mixtures and ferrocene only diluted in toluene. Finally, a chemo-physical interpretation of the ignition phenomenon is proposed whereby ferrocene photo-excitation, due to photon absorption, produces ferrocene itself in its excited form and is thus capable of promoting electron transfer to MWCNTs. In this way, the resulting radical species, FeCp2 (+∙) and MWCNT(-), easily react with oxygen giving rise to the ignition of MWCNT/ferrocene samples.

  8. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  9. Design optimization of single-main-amplifier KrF laser-fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    KrF lasers appear to be a very promising laser fusion driver for commercial applications. The Large Amplifier Module for the Aurora Laser System at Los Alamos is the largest KrF laser in the world and is currently operating at 5 kJ with 10 to 15 kJ eventually expected. The next generation system is anticipated to be a single-main-amplifier system that generates approximately 100 kJ. This paper examines the cost and efficiency tradeoffs for a complete single-main-amplifier KrF laser fusion experimental facility. It has been found that a 7% efficient $310/joule complete laser-fusion system is possible by using large amplifier modules and high optical fluences.

  10. Search for Majoron-emitting modes of double-beta decay of $^{136}$Xe with EXO-200

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beauchamp, E; Beck, D; Belov, V; Benitez-Medina, C; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Chaves, J; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, C G; Davis, J; DeVoe, R; Delaquis, S; Didberidze, T; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Jiang, X S; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Leonard, F; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Ouellet, C; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Rivas, A; Rowson, P C; Rozo, M P; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tosi, D; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vogel, P; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2014-01-01

    EXO-200 is a single phase liquid xenon detector designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{136}$Xe. Here we report on a search for various Majoron-emitting modes based on 100 kg$\\cdot$yr exposure of $^{136}$Xe. A lower limit of $T^{^{136}Xe}_{1/2} >1.2...10^{24}$ yr at 90% C.L. on the half-life of the spectral index = 1 Majoron decay was obtained, corresponding to a constraint on the Majoron-neutrino coupling constant of $||<$ (0.8-1.7)...10$^{-5}$.

  11. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR57 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 401.71 m and 45.01 m deep drillholes, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, at Olkiluoto in September 2011 - January 2012. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling, flushing and washing water were 350 m3 and 30 m3 in the drillholes OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, respectively. The measured volumes of the returning water in the drillholes were 328 m{sup 3} and 16.8 m{sup 3}, respectively. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 123.9 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 42.6 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.23. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, mica gneiss and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.5 pcs/m in drillhole OL-KR57 and 3.3 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR57B. The average RQD values are 95.0 % and 93.0 %. Seven separate fractured zones were interpreted from OL-KR57 and three fractured zones from OL-KR57B. (orig.)

  12. Određivanje modula deformacije karbonatnih stijena u hrvatskom kršu

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević, Meho Saša; Jurić-Kaćunić, Danijela; Simović, Radovan

    2011-01-01

    Ističe se da krš zauzima više od polovice površine Hrvatske u kojem prevladavaju karbonatne stijene podložne okršavanju. Dan je pregled laboratorijskih i terenskih ispitivanja modula deformacije stijenske mase te neizravnog određivanja krutosti na temelju rezultata klasificiranja stijenske mase. Prikazana su hrvatska iskustva u primjeni klasifikacija za određivanje modula deformacije stijenske mase neophodna za stjecanje novih spoznaja o krutosti karbonatnih stijena u kršu Hrvatske.

  13. Fuâd Şükrü ve “Saltanat-ı Milliye Temelleri”

    OpenAIRE

    Özdilli, Mesude Sezer

    2014-01-01

    Fuad Şükrü and "Fundamentals of the Reign of the Nation" Fuad Şükrü has presented to the Parliament his book that is named "Fundamentals of the Reign of the Nation". In this book he bonds in some circumstances to nation's well-being, happiness and sovereignty. He balls these circumstances under the headings of all the nation of educate, enrich and prepare for defending the homeland. He expresses should be efficient the power of the law and should not be installed a financially burden to the p...

  14. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  15. Redskaber til vurdering af behov hos mennesker med kræft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Vibeke Østergaard; Sølver, Lisbeth; Thomsen, Thora Grothe

    2015-01-01

    Regioner og kommuner implementerer systematisk behovsvurdering, som anbefalet i Forløbsprogram for rehabilitering og palliation, der fulgte Kræftplan III. I praksis er det imidlertid ikke entydigt, hvordan disse vurderinger skal foregå og på hvilket værdigrundlag. Artiklen retter opmærksomhed mod...... sondringen mellem problem og behov og beskriver to typer spørgeskemaer, som i dag anbefales til at vurdere behov for rehabilitering og palliation hos mennesker med kræft og andre livstruende sygdomme. I lyset af det fokus, der er på evidensbaseret praksis, reflekterer forfatterne over udviklingen på området...

  16. FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

    2012-08-01

    Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

  17. Charge distribution of Kr ions produced upon photoionization around the 2s edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.C.F., E-mail: toni@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21991-972 (Brazil); Pilling, S. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton, Campinas 13084-971 (Brazil); Almeida, D.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-979 (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Charge spectra of Kr after photoionization of the L shell have been measured. • Multiple photoionization of krypton around the 2s edge is a collective process. • Electron correlation plays an important role in multiple ionization of heavy atoms. - Abstract: Charge state spectra of krypton ions generated after ionization (by a single photon) of the L shell have been measured by using the PEPICO technique. Relative abundances of Kr{sup q+} ions in charge state up to 8+ were obtained using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. A comparison with other experimental and theoretical data is presented.

  18. A system for field gas-extraction of 85Kr, 39Ar and 81Kr using SuperPhobic membrane contactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, L.; Suckow, A.; Cook, P.; Mathouchanh, E.

    2013-12-01

    Radioactive noble gas isotopes are established tools for assessing groundwater movement and transport processes on time scales of decades (85Kr), centuries (39Ar) and many millenia (81Kr). While the atomic trap trace analysis (ATTA) technology promises small sample sizes for these isotopes, field gas extraction will remain the method of choice for several years to come. Recently CSIRO obtained decommissioned radiocarbon gas proportional counters and targets to use them for 85Kr. We aim for a sample size of 50μL Kr corresponding to the gas extracted from 500-1000L water. Flinders University and CSIRO have developed a field-deployable extraction system for large volume gas-extraction in the field. It uses two membrane contactors (MEMBRANA SuperPhobic 4x13) allowing flow rates of up to 50L/min in serial mode. Switching to parallel flow through both contactors is possible, allowing even higher water flow rates. The system automatically logs water temperature, water pressure, water flow rate, gas pressure of the sample, vacuum pressure at the contactor and all valve states, using an Endress + Hauser RSG40 Memograph M. The use of SuperPhobic contactors results in ten times less water in the gas fraction than reported for earlier systems. With the two contactors in serial configuration, gas extraction efficiencies, determined for O2, N2 and Ar, are better than 95% at 5L/min water flow. They are still above 80% for flow rates up to 20L/min in parallel configuration for O2, N2 and Ar. No measurable isotopic fractionation of the target isotope ratios of argon and krypton is to be expected at these high extraction efficiencies.

  19. The Effectiveness of Local Culture-Based Mathematical Heuristic-KR Learning towards Enhancing Student's Creative Thinking Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandiseru, Selvi Rajuaty

    2015-01-01

    The problem in this research is the lack of creative thinking skills of students. One of the learning models that is expected to enhance student's creative thinking skill is the local culture-based mathematical heuristic-KR learning model (LC-BMHLM). Heuristic-KR is a learning model which was introduced by Krulik and Rudnick (1995) that is the…

  20. On the interference of Kr during carbon isotope analysis of methane using continuous-flow combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmitt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stable carbon isotope analysis of methane (δ13C of CH4 on atmospheric samples is one key method to constrain the current and past atmospheric CH4 budget. A frequently applied measurement technique is gas chromatography (GC isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS coupled to a combustion-preconcentration unit. This report shows that the atmospheric trace gas krypton (Kr can severely interfere during the mass spectrometric measurement, leading to significant biases in δ13C of CH4, if krypton is not sufficiently separated during the analysis. According to our experiments, the krypton interference is likely composed of two individual effects, with the lateral tailing of the doubly charged 86Kr peak affecting the neighbouring m/z 44 and partially the m/z 45 Faraday cups. Additionally, a broad signal affecting m/z 45 and especially m/z 46 is assumed to result from scattered ions of singly charged krypton. The introduced bias in the measured isotope ratios is dependent on the chromatographic separation, the krypton-to-CH4 mixing ratio in the sample, the focusing of the mass spectrometer as well as the detector configuration and can amount to up to several per mil in δ13C. Apart from technical solutions to avoid this interference, we present correction routines to a posteriori remove the bias.

  1. $\\gamma$ -spectroscopy of n-rich $^{95,96}$Rb nuclei by the incomplete fusion reaction of $^{94}$Kr on $^{7}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose an experiment with MINIBALL coupled to T-REX to investigate n-rich $^{95,96}$Rb nuclei by the incomplete fusion reaction of $^{94}$Kr on $^{7}$Li. The nuclei of interest will be populated by transfer of a triton into $^{94}$Kr, forming the excited $^{97}$Rb nucleus, followed by the emission of an alpha particle, which will be detected in the Si telescopes of T-REX. The $^{97}$Rb product will evaporate 1 or 2 (with the highest probability) neutrons leading to $^{96}$Rb or $^{95}$Rb, respectively. The aim of the experiment is twofold: \\\\ i) to perform a $\\gamma$- spectroscopy study of $^{95,96}$Rb nuclei with N=58,59, the structure of which is of particular interest in investigating the transition towards stable deformation at N=60, \\\\ ii) to acquire experience in using incomplete fusion reactions with the weakly bound $^{7}$Li target, in order to perform, at a later stage with HIE-ISOLDE, similar measurements induced by n-rich radioactive beams of Sn and Hg, for which at least 5 MeV/nucleon are need...

  2. Absorption by XeCl* excimer molecules of their own emission of the B-X transition (λ = 308 nm) in a dense Ar-Xe-CCl4 medium upon pumping by fast electrons and uranium-235 fission fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mis'kevich, A. I.; Dyuzhov, Yu. A.; Suvorov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Luminescence of dense Ar-Xe-CCl4 gas mixtures with a low CCl4 content upon pumping by fast electrons and uranium-235 fission fragments is studied by spectroscopic methods. It is found that, in a cell with a resonator tuned to the B-X transition of the XeCl* molecule (λ = 308 nm), the D-state population of the XeCl* excimer molecule (the D-X transition, λ = 235 nm) depends on the B-state population and increases by many times with increasing B-state population of the XeCl* molecule. The stimulated absorption coefficient k = 1.2 × 10-16 of B-X transition emission of the XeCl* molecule (λmax = 308 nm), which leads to population of the D-state of this molecule, and the coefficient of amplification μ = 2.5 × 10-4 cm-1 of B-X transition emission of the Xe Cl* molecule (λ = 308 nm) are measured upon pumping by uranium- 235 fission fragments with the specific energy input into the gas medium of ~60 mJ/cm3 and a specific power of energy input of about 240 W/cm3.

  3. Electrical and chemical properties of XeCl*(308 nm) exciplex lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadj, S.; Harrache, Z., E-mail: zharrache@yahoo.com; Belasri, A. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran, USTO-MB, Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Matériaux Conducteurs et leurs Application (LPPMCA) (Algeria)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this work is to highlight, through numerical modeling, the chemical and the electrical characteristics of xenon chloride mixture in XeCl* (308 nm) excimer lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge. A temporal model, based on the Xe/Cl{sub 2} mixture chemistry, the circuit and the Boltzmann equations, is constructed. The effects of operating voltage, Cl{sub 2} percentage in the Xe/Cl{sub 2} gas mixture, dielectric capacitance, as well as gas pressure on the 308-nm photon generation, under typical experimental operating conditions, have been investigated and discussed. The importance of charged and excited species, including the major electronic and ionic processes, is also demonstrated. The present calculations show clearly that the model predicts the optimal operating conditions and describes the electrical and chemical properties of the XeCl* exciplex lamp.

  4. Flow effect on {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe evolution behavior in a molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianhui; Guo, Chen [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Cai, Xiangzhou [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Chenggang; Zou, Chunyan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Han, Jianlong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jingen, E-mail: chenjg@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I evolution law in a molten salt reactor is analytically deduced. • The circulation of fuel salt through the primary loop decreases the concentration of {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe. • {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction is independent with the mass flow rate at normal core operating condition. • Increasing the external core volume would raise {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction caused by the flow effect. - Abstract: Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs fissile material dissolved in the fluoride salt as fuel which continuously circulates through the primary loop with the flow cycle time being a few tens of seconds. The nuclei evolution law is quite different from that in a solid fuel reactor. In this paper, we analytically deduce the nuclei evolution law of {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I which are entrained in the flowing salt, evaluate its concentration changing with the burnup time, and validate the result with the SCALE6. The circulation of fuel salt could decrease the concentration of {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I, and the reduction can achieve to around 40% and 50% for {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I respectively at a small power level (e.g., 2 MW) when the core has the same fuel salt volume as that of the outer-loop. Furthermore, it can be found that the reduction is inversely proportional to the core to outer-loop volume ratio, but uncorrelated with the mass flow rate under normal operating condition of a MSR. At low core power scale, the flow effect on {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction is apparent, but it is mitigated as the core power scale increases because of the rise of {sup 135}I concentration, which raises its decay to {sup 135}Xe and compensates the loss of {sup 135}Xe due to decay at the outer-loop. The decreased {sup 135}Xe concentration results in a core reactivity increase varying from around 150 pcm to 1000 pcm depending on the core power and core to outer-loop volume ratio.

  5. Influence of the pumping regime on lasing of an He--Xe optical-breakdown plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollonov, V.V.; Bunkin, F.V.; Derzhavin, S.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.; Sirotkin, A.A.; Firsov, K.N.

    1984-09-01

    An experimental investigation was made of lasing of an optical-breakdown plasma in an He--Xe gas mixture exposed to CO/sub 2/ laser radiation. A wide range of pump pulse energies and durations and active mixture pressures was used. Lasing was realized on four Xe I transitions (lambda = 2.03, 2.65, 3.4, and 3.65 ..mu..). The pump pulse duration was found to exert a strong influence on the lasing characteristics of the optical breakdown plasma. An analysis was made of the role of gasdynamic processes in the interaction of the CO/sub 2/ laser radiation with the gas close to a target during the buildup of inversion. A quasi-cw lasing regime of the recombination laser in the optical breakdown plasma was observed.

  6. Distinguishing multiple chemotaxis Y protein conformations with laser-polarized 129Xe NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowery, Thomas J.; Doucleff, Michealeen; Ruiz, E. Janette; Rubin, Seth M.; Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.

    2005-02-01

    The chemical shift of the {sup 129}Xe NMR signal has been shown to be extremely sensitive to the local environment around the atom and has been used to follow processes such as ligand binding by bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (Rubin et al. 2000; Lowery et al. 2004). Here we show that the {sup 129}Xe shift can sense more subtle changes: magnesium binding, BeF{sub 3}{sup -} activation, and peptide binding by the E. coli chemotaxis Y protein. {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N correlation spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography were used to identify two xenon-binding cavities in CheY that are primarily responsible for the shift changes. One site is near the active site, and the other is near the peptide binding site.

  7. Search for Two-Neutrino Double Electron Capture of $^{124}$Xe with XENON100

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E; Agostini, F; Alfonsi, M; Amaro, F D; Anthony, M; Arneodo, F; Barrow, P; Baudis, L; Bauermeister, B; Benabderrahmane, M L; Berger, T; Breur, P A; Brown, A; Brown, E; Bruenner, S; Bruno, G; Budnik, R; Bütikofer, L; Calvén, J; Cardoso, J M R; Cervantes, M; Cichon, D; Coderre, D; Colijn, A P; Conrad, J; Cussonneau, J P; Decowski, M P; de Perio, P; Di Gangi, P; Di Giovanni, A; Diglio, S; Duchovni, E; Fei, J; Ferella, A D; Fieguth, A; Franco, D; Fulgione, W; Rosso, A Gallo; Galloway, M; Gao, F; Garbini, M; Geis, C; Goetzke, L W; Greene, Z; Grignon, C; Hasterok, C; Hogenbirk, E; Itay, R; Kaminsky, B; Kessler, G; Kish, A; Landsman, H; Lang, R F; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Calloch, M Le; Levy, C; Lin, Q; Lindemann, S; Lindner, M; Lopes, J A M; Manfredini, A; Undagoitia, T Marrodán; Masbou, J; Massoli, F V; Masson, D; Mayani, D; Meng, Y; Messina, M; Micheneau, K; Miguez, B; Molinario, A; Murra, M; Naganoma, J; Ni, K; Oberlack, U; Orrigo, S E A; Pakarha, P; Pelssers, B; Persiani, R; Piastra, F; Pienaar, J; Piro, M -C; Plante, G; Priel, N; Rauch, L; Reichard, S; Reuter, C; Rizzo, A; Rosendahl, S; Rupp, N; Santos, J M F dos; Sartorelli, G; Scheibelhut, M; Schindler, S; Schreiner, J; Schumann, M; Lavina, L Scotto; Selvi, M; Shagin, P; Silva, M; Simgen, H; Sivers, M v; Stein, A; Thers, D; Tiseni, A; Trinchero, G; Tunnell, C D; Wall, R; Wang, H; Weber, M; Wei, Y; Weinheimer, C; Wulf, J; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Two-neutrino double electron capture is a rare nuclear decay where two electrons are simultaneously captured from the atomic shell. For $^{124}$Xe this process has not yet been observed and its detection would provide a new reference for nuclear matrix element calculations. We have conducted a search for two-neutrino double electron capture from the K-shell of $^{124}$Xe using 7636 kg$\\cdot$d of data from the XENON100 dark matter detector. Using a Bayesian analysis we observed no significant excess above background, leading to a lower 90 % credibility limit on the half-life $T_{1/2}>6.5\\times10^{20}$ yr. We also evaluated the sensitivity of the XENON1T experiment, which is currently being commissioned, and find a sensitivity of $T_{1/2}>6.1\\times10^{22}$ yr after an exposure of 2 t$\\cdot$yr.

  8. Search for double β-decays of 124Xe with XENON100 & XENON1T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieguth, Alexander; XENON Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The rare nuclear process of two-neutrino double electron capture, where two electrons are simultaneously captured from the atomic shell, has not yet been observed for 124Xe. A detection of this decay would provide a new reference for nuclear matrix element calculations. Moreover, if a neutrinoless mode were discovered, it would prove a Majorana nature of neutrinos and would shed light on the effective neutrino mass. The XENON dark matter project, with its dual-phase xenon time projection chambers XENON100 and XENON1T, is well suited for this rare event searches with signatures in the keV-region. The search with the XENON100 detector, containing 29 g of 124Xe, is explained as well as the outlook of its successor XENON1T, which contains 2 kg of the isotope in its active volume.

  9. Microscopic study of low-lying collective bands in 77Kr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microscopic study of low-lying collective bands in 77Kr. K C TRIPATHY1, R SAHU2 and S MISHRA2. 1Department of Physics, North Orissa University, Baripada 757 003, India. 2Physics Department, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India. E-mail: rankasahu@rediffmail.com. MS received 26 May 2005; revised 21 ...

  10. Microscopic study of low-lying collective bands in 77Kr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The structure of the collective bands in 77Kr is investigated within our deformed shell model (DSM) based on Hartree-Fock states. The different levels are classified into collective bands on the basis of their (2) values. The calculated = 5/2+ ground band agrees reasonably well with the experiment. An attempt has been ...

  11. Mød din nye kræftlæge: Dr. Microsoft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Blogs og chats med beskrivelser af symptomer og bekymringer på nettet er blevet anvendt af forskere til at spore patienter, som efterfølgende får stillet en kræftdiagnose. I teorien kan søgemaskiner som Google og Bing stille diagnosen tidligere og måske redde menneskeliv....

  12. Analysis of 85Kr: a comparison at the 10 -14 level using micro-liter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G-M; Cheng, C-F; Jiang, W; Lu, Z-T; Purtschert, R; Sun, Y-R; Tu, L-Y; Hu, S-M

    2013-01-01

    The isotopic abundance of (85)Kr in the atmosphere, currently at the level of 10(-11), has increased by orders of magnitude since the dawn of nuclear age. With a half-life of 10.76 years, (85)Kr is of great interest as tracers for environmental samples such as air, groundwater and ice. Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) is an emerging method for the analysis of rare krypton isotopes at isotopic abundance levels as low as 10(-14) using krypton gas samples of a few micro-liters. Both the reliability and reproducibility of the method are examined in the present study by an inter-comparison among different instruments. The (85)Kr/Kr ratios of 12 samples, in the range of 10(-13) to 10(-10), are measured independently in three laboratories: a low-level counting laboratory in Bern, Switzerland, and two ATTA laboratories, one in Hefei, China, and another in Argonne, USA. The results are in agreement at the precision level of 5%.

  13. Enhanced performance of a repetitively pulsed 130 mJ KrF laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... Studies related to the effect of pre-ionizer on laser output energy of a repetitively pulsed KrF laser are presented. The dependence of laser output energy, spectral width and beam spot homogeneity on pre-ionization parameters, namely its current and voltage rise time are reported here. Here, effectiveness ...

  14. Gaseous 83mKr generator of monoenergetic electrons based on 83Rb deposited in zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentkerestiová, J.; Vénos, D.; Slezák, M.

    2017-09-01

    The gaseous 83mKr electron source is currently used in neutrino mass experiments KATRIN and Project 8, dark matter experiments XENON, LUX and DarkSide, and ALICE (CERN) experiment. The main attractive features of this radioactive noble gas are its monoenergetic conversion electrons with well known energies and a half-life of 1.8 h, which is short enough to avoid any long-lasting contamination of the system. The long half-life of the mother 83Rb isotope (T1/2 = 86.2 d) enables more time demanding measurement. Particularly, in the neutrino mass experiments with gaseous tritium in which the 83mKr is applied in the same manner as the tritium, the K-32 conversion electrons with energy conveniently close to the beta spectrum endpoint represent an important test and calibration tool. Here, the design and characteristics of the gaseous 83mKr generator, including the 83mKr source itself, for KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment are presented.

  15. De eeuwigheid verzameld : Helene Kröller-Müller (1869-1939)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Een kist met 3400 brieven ligt aan de basis van de binnenkort te verschijnen biografie ‘De eeuwigheid verzameld’ van Helene Kröller-Müller (1869-1939), de grondlegster van het gelijknamige museum in Otterlo. Dankzij dit unieke bronnenmateriaal kon auteur Eva Rovers een nieuw licht werpen op de

  16. Coulomb excitation of $^{94,96}$Kr beam Deformation in the neutron-rich krypton isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Hass, M; Cederkall, J A; Di julio, D D; Zamfir, N - V; Srebrny, J; Wadsworth, R; Siem, S; Marginean, R; Iwanicki, J S

    Recently the energy of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ state in the N=60 $^{96}$Kr nucleus was determinated to be 241 keV. This was the first experimental observation of an excited state in this highly exotic nucleus. The 2$_{1}^{+}$ state in $^{94}$Kr is located at 665.5 keV, i.e. E(2$_{1}^{+}$) drops by more than 400 keV at N=60. This lowering of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ energy indicates a sharp shape transition behavior which is somewhat similar to that discovered in the Sr and Zr isotopic chains at N=60. The deformation expected for the 2$_{1}^{+}$ state of $^{96}$Kr, as resulting from the E(2$_{1}^{+}$) energy based on the semi-empirical relation of Raman et al. is $\\beta_{2}$ = 0.31, which is, however, considerably smaller than that for Sr and Zr ($\\geq$0.40). The sudden decrease of E(2$_{1}^{+}$) from N=50 to N=60 does not fully agree with the more gradual change of deformation deduced from laser spectroscopy measurements of mean square charge radii, although for $^{96}$Kr, in particular, these are consistent with a $\\beta_{2}...

  17. KrF laser amplifier with phase-conjugate Brillouin retroreflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, M C

    1982-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of phase-conjugate stimulated Brillouin scattering mirrors to produce high-quality, short-pulse KrF laser beams from angular multiplexed and regenerative amplifiers. The mirror was also shown to isolate systems optically from amplifier spontaneous emission. Automatic alignment of targets using this mirror as a retroreflector was also demonstrated.

  18. A Mossbauer study of Kr incorporations in sputtered a-Si films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosu, M.F; Niesen, L; van Veen, A.; Sloof, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    Krypton atoms incorporated in sputtered a-silicon films are investigated by means of Kr-83 Mosssbauer spectroscopy. The hyperfine parameters of the (RbI)-Rb-83 source were determined by taking a spectrum against solid krypton. Mossbauer spectra were taken for films containing krypton concentrations

  19. A categorization of KR&R methods for requirement analysis of a query answering knowledge base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaudhri, V.K.; Bredeweg, B.; Fikes, R.; McIlraith, S.; Wellman, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to build a query answering system that can answer questions on a wide variety of topics and explain the answers. In such a situation, a designer faces the challenge of how to specify the KR&R requirements that are needed to answer questions. In this paper, we introduce a

  20. Nuclear binding around the RP-process waiting points $^{68}$Se and $^{72}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Encouraged by the success of mass determinations of nuclei close to the Z=N line performed at ISOLTRAP during the year 2000 and of the recent decay spectroscopy studies on neutron-deficient Kr isotopes (IS351 collaboration), we aim to measure masses and proton separation energies of the bottleneck nuclei defining the flow of the astrophysical rp-process beyond A$\\sim$70. In detail, the program includes mass measurements of the rp-process waiting point nuclei $^{68}$Se and $^{72}$Kr and determination of proton separation energies of the proton-unbound $^{69}$Br and $^{73}$Rb via $\\beta$-decays of $^{69}$Kr and $^{73}$Sr, respectively. The aim of the project is to complete the experimental database for astrophysical network calculations and for the liquid-drop type of mass models typically used in the modelling of the astrophysical rp process in the region. The first beamtime is scheduled for the August 2001 and the aim is to measure the absolute mass of the waiting-point nucleus $^{72}$Kr.

  1. Coulomb Excitation of a Neutron-Rich $^{88}$Kr Beam Search for Mixed Symmetry States

    CERN Document Server

    Andreoiu, C; Napiorkowski, P J; Iwanicki, J S

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use the ISOLDE/REX/MINIBALL/CD set-up to perform a Coulomb Excitation experiment with a $^{88}$Kr radioactive beam. The motivation includes a search for $Mixed$ $Symmetry$ states predicted by the IBM-2 model, gathering more spectroscopy data about the $^{88}$Kr nucleus and extending shape coexistence studies (performed previously by the proposers for neutron-deficient Kr isotopes) to the neutron-rich side. The proposed experiment will provide data complementary to the Coulomb Excitation of a relativistic $^{88}$Kr beam proposed by D. Tonev et al. for a RISING experiment. A total of 12 days of beam time is necessary for the experiment, equally divided into two runs. One run with a 2.2 MeV/A beam energy on a $^{48}$Ti target and a second run with the maximum available REX energy of 3.1 MeV/A on a $^{208}$Pb target are requested. Using either a UC$_{x}$ or ThC$_{x}$ fissioning primary target coupled with a plasma source by a cooled transfer line seems to be the best choice for the proposed experime...

  2. "Infootsingu 2010" võitja on Krõõt Kaljusto-Munck / Krista Lepik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Krista, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Raamatukoguhoidjate infootsingu võistluse eelvoorust, finaalist ja võitjatest. Lisa: Üks küsimus võitjatele. Mis on motiveerinud sind infootsingu võistlusel osalema? Vastavad Krõõt Kaljusto-Munck, Kristi Ütt ja Carolina Schultz

  3. Dimensi Metrik Graf Kr+mKsr, m, r, s, En

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindayani Hindayani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of minimum resolving set has proved to be useful and or related to a variety of fields such as Chemistry, Robotic Navigation, and Combinatorial Search and Optimization. So that, this thesis explains the metric dimension of graph Kr + mKsr, m, r, s E N. Resolving set of a graph G is a subset of F (G that its distance representation is distinct to all vertices of graph G. Resolving set with minimum cardinality is called minimum resolving set, and cardinal states metric dimension of G and noted with dim (G. By drawing the graph, it will be found the resolving set, minimum resolving set and the metric dimension easily. After that, formulate those metric dimensions into a theorem. This research search for the metric dimension of Kr + mKs, m > 2, m,r,s E N and its outcome are dim (Kr + mK1= m+ (r-2 and dim(Kr + mKs= m(s-1+(r-2. This research can be continued for determining the metric dimension of another graph, by changing the operation of its graph or partition graph.

  4. Search for a new reaction mechanism in the system132Xe+natFe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmeier, W.; Reus, U.; Esterlund, R. A.; Gilat, J.; Patzelt, P.

    1981-09-01

    Thin targets of natural Fe have been irradiated with132xe ions at beam energies of 5.00, 5.90, and 7.15 MeV/u. Mass yields for projectile-like and symmetric products were evaluated, and their ratio as a function of beam energy determined. The results are consistent with previously-determined thick-target radiochemical data, and are not consistent with published on-line counter data for the same system.

  5. 124-134Xe Izotopları için Triaxiall RMF Hesaplamaları

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuncay BAYRAM; Serkan AKKOYUN; Şevki ŞENTÜRK

    2016-01-01

    Özet. Bu çalışmada çift-çift 124-134Xe çekirdekleri için Relativistik Ortalama Alan (RMF) Modeli kullanılarak taban durum nükleer özellik hesaplamaları yapılmıştır. Bu çekirdekler için RMF+DDM2...

  6. One-dimensional modelling of DBDs in NeXe mixtures for excimer lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Belasri, A; Khodja, K; Bendella, S; Harrache, Z

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) are a promising technology for high-intensity sources of specific UV and VUV radiation. In this work, the microdischarge dynamics in DBDs for Ne?Xe mixtures under the close conditions of excimer lamp working has been investigated. The computer model including the cathode fall, the positive column and the dielectric is composed of two coupled sub-models. The first submodel describes the electrical properties of the discharge and is based on a fl...

  7. A 100 lm/W efficacy low-pressure Xe discharge tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoshiba, Shigeo; Shirai, Shoji; Shinada, Shinichi

    1981-06-01

    The luminous efficacy of a Zn2SiO4:Mn-coated, low-pressure Xe-positive-column fluorescent tube is found to be as high as 100 l/W which corresponds to an electric to 147-nm radiation energy conversion factor of 66%. This high efficacy can be attained under conditions (pressure)×(column diameter)≃1 Torr cm and (current density)?3 mA/cm2.

  8. Detection of $^{133}$Xe from the Fukushima nuclear power plant in the upper troposphere above Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Simgen, Hardy; Arnold, Frank; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Kaether, Florian; Lindemann, Sebastian; Rauch, Ludwig; Schlager, Hans; Schlosser, Clemens; Schumann, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    After the accident in the Japanese Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 large amounts of radioactivity were released and distributed in the atmosphere. Among them were also radioactive noble gas isotopes which can be used as tracers to test global atmospheric circulation models. This work presents unique measurements of the radionuclide $^{133}$Xe from Fukushima in the upper troposphere above Germany. The measurements involve air sampling in a research jet aircraft followed by...

  9. Ropniak nadtwardówkowy kanału kręgowego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz J. Jaskólski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ropniakiem nadtwardówkowym kanału kręgowego nazywamy zbiornik ropy położony nad oponą twardą krę- gosłupa. Bywa powikłaniem zapalenia krążka międzykręgowego oraz zapalenia kości trzonu kręgu, lecz znacznie częściej powstaje w efekcie rozsiewu zakażenia (układu moczowego, wsierdzia, płuc drogą krwiopochodną. Jest dwukrotnie częstszy u mężczyzn; występuje zwykle u chorych powyżej 30. roku życia. Czynniki ryzyka to: narkomania, immunosupresja, cukrzyca, alkoholizm, obecność ognisk zakażenia i przebycie operacji lub otwartego urazu kręgosłupa. Źródło infekcji pozostaje niewykryte u <40% osób. Znamienna triada objawów obejmuje gorączkę, silny miejscowy ból kręgosłupa i postępujący zespół neurologiczny. Wczesne rozpoznanie stanowi niezwykle ważny aspekt – leczenie może wprawdzie zapobiec rozwojowi deficytu neurologicznego, lecz żadną miarą nie daje pewności jego ustąpienia. Do postawienia właściwej diagnozy niezbędne jest wykonanie badań obrazowych, najlepiej MRI. Leczenie polega na chirurgicznym usunięciu ropniaka i długotrwałej antybiotykoterapii. Zabieg operacyjny ma na celu odbarczenie elementów nerwowych, staranną ewakuację ropy i ziarniny zapalnej oraz uzyskanie materiału do badań mikrobiologicznych. Śmiertelność sięga 16%. Rokowanie co do funkcji zależy przede wszystkim od początkowego stanu neurologicznego i czasu trwania deficytów – jeśli przekracza on 72 godziny, nie ma szans na poprawę. Czynniki negatywnie wpływające na rokowanie to: obecność współ- istniejących chorób, przebycie wielokrotnej operacji kręgosłupa, ropniak w odcinku piersiowym oraz zakażenie szczepem MRSA.

  10. 135Xe measurements with a two-element CZT-based radioxenon detector for nuclear explosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Lily; Farsoni, Abi T; Becker, Eric M

    2017-04-01

    Measurement of elevated concentrations of xenon radioisotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) in the atmosphere has been shown to be a very powerful method for verifying whether or not a detected explosion is nuclear in nature. These isotopes are among the few with enough mobility and with half-lives long enough to make their detection at long distances realistic. Existing radioxenon detection systems used by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) suffer from problems such as complexity, need for high maintenance and memory effect. To study the response of CdZnTe (CZT) detectors to xenon radioisotopes and investigate whether it is capable of mitigating the aforementioned issues with the current radioxenon detection systems, a prototype detector utilizing two coplanar CZT detectors was built and tested at Oregon State University. The detection system measures xenon radioisotopes through beta-gamma coincidence technique by detecting coincidence events between the two detectors. In this paper, we introduce the detector design and report our measurement results with radioactive lab sources and 135Xe produced in the OSU TRIGA reactor. Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) for 135Xe was calculated to be 1.47 ± 0.05 mBq/m3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure of the Ne-Xe mixture near the 26-MPa demixing curve at T=275 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, M.; Ricci, F. P.; Filabozzi, A.; Postorino, P.

    1996-12-01

    We report neutron diffraction measurements for two Ne-Xe mixtures at T=275 K and P=26 MPa, having a Xe molar fraction of 0.81 and 0.45, respectively. These thermodynamic points are chosen to be in the single phase region, close to the gas-gas demixing surface. Total structure factors and neutron weighted pair distribution functions have been extracted. Partial pair distribution functions gij(r) have been calculated by means of molecular dynamics simulation using Lennard-Jones interaction potentials and the Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules, obtaining a good agreement with the experimental data. These partial pair distribution functions have been analyzed in terms of density expansion and also compared with those derived in a previous experiment on a He-Xe mixture. The main difference found between the structural properties of the two mixtures is that, in the Ne containing mixture, a definitely larger fraction of atoms of the lighter species occupies the Xe-Xe first neighbor shell. The model already used in interpreting the thermodynamic behavior of the He-Xe mixture in terms of microscopic properties suggests that this structural difference is related to the different behavior of the pressure-temperature projection of the critical line in the two mixtures.

  12. A new search for the atomic EDM of 129Xe at FRM-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchler, F.; Babcock, E.; Burghoff, M.; Chupp, T.; Degenkolb, S.; Fan, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Gong, F.; Kraegeloh, E.; Kilian, W.; Knappe-Grüneberg, S.; Lins, T.; Marino, M.; Meinel, J.; Niessen, B.; Sachdeva, N.; Salhi, Z.; Schnabel, A.; Seifert, F.; Singh, J.; Stuiber, S.; Trahms, L.; Voigt, J.

    2016-12-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) arise due to the breaking of time-reversal or, equivalently, CP-symmetry. Although EDM searches have so far only set upper limits, which are many orders of magnitude larger than Standard Model (SM) predictions, the motivation for more sensitive searches is stronger than ever. A new effort at FRM-II incorporating 129Xe and 3He as a co-magnetometer can potentially improve the current limit. The noble gas mixture of 129Xe and 3He is simultanously polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping and then transferred into a high-performance magnetically shielded room. Inside, both species can freely precess in the presence of applied magnetic and electric fields. The precession signals are detected by LTc SQUID sensors. In EDM cells with silicon electrodes we observed spin lifetimes in excess of 2500 s without and with high-voltage applied. This meets one requirement to achieve our goal of improving the EDM limit on 129Xe by several orders of magnitude.

  13. Evaluation of shunt flow by /sup 133/Xe clearance method and admittance plethysmography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, K.; Mori, Y.; Mashima, Y.; Shimada, T.; Itoh, H.

    1987-04-01

    The Xe-133-clearance method and the admittance plethysmography were simultaneously performed to measure the limb circulation in the normal subjects and in the diabetic patients. From the Xe-133-clearance curve, blood flow rates in the muscle (Fm) and in the skin (Fs) were separately measured. When the volume percent of the calf tissues was expressed as 70 % for the muscle and 10 % for the skin, the relationship between the total blood flow (Fy) measured by the admittance plethysmography and the nutrient flow (Fn) in the muscle and skin (Fn = 0.70 Fm + 0.1 Fs) was Fy = 1.22 Fn - 0.15 (ml/min/100 g tissue). The sum of the blood flow in the bone and the non-nutrient shunt flow was about 11 % of total blood flow in the calf. In the diabetic patients, the non-nutrient shunt flow increased associated with a reduction of the total flow in the calf. A combined study of the admittance plethysmography and the Xe-133-clearance method is useful to estimate the non-nutrient flow in the pathologic condition of lower extremities.

  14. Radiofrequency pulse design for the selective excitation of dissolved 129Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, General; Norquay, Graham; Schulte, Rolf F; Wild, Jim M

    2015-01-01

    To optimize radiofrequency (RF) pulses for the selective excitation of dissolved phase (129)Xe that take into account the very short T2*, while simultaneously, minimally exciting the much larger gas signal. Numerical simulations of Shinnar le-Roux pulses and binomial coefficient composite-element pulses were performed and experimentally implemented on a 1.5 Tesla (T) clinical scanner. These were compared with pulses commonly used for short T2* imaging from the literature. The pulses were then experimentally tested in vivo with healthy volunteers inhaling hyperpolarized (129)Xe using nuclear MR spectroscopy on a 1.5T clinical scanner. Standard RF excitation pulses inadvertently excite the gas compartment, or are long enough that the T2* of the dissolved compartment deteriorates the received signal. Amplitude modulated binomial composite pulses perform well being short and having high selectivity, however, deteriorate at high amplifier gain setting. Composite pulses using pulse width modulation provide the desired frequency response even in these nonlinear, high gain regimes. Composite pulses provide a means of very narrow band frequency selectivity in a short duration pulse that is well suited to dissolved (129)Xe imaging. Pulse width modulation maintains the desired frequency response even in the presence of amplitude distortion. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Detection of (133)Xe from the Fukushima nuclear power plant in the upper troposphere above Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simgen, Hardy; Arnold, Frank; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Kaether, Florian; Lindemann, Sebastian; Rauch, Ludwig; Schlager, Hans; Schlosser, Clemens; Schumann, Ulrich

    2014-06-01

    After the accident in the Japanese Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 large amounts of radioactivity were released and distributed in the atmosphere. Among them were also radioactive noble gas isotopes which can be used as tracers to test global atmospheric circulation models. This work presents unique measurements of the radionuclide (133)Xe from Fukushima in the upper troposphere above Germany. The measurements involve air sampling in a research jet aircraft followed by chromatographic xenon extraction and ultra-low background gas counting with miniaturized proportional counters. With this technique a detection limit of the order of 100 (133)Xe atoms in liter-scale air samples (corresponding to about 100 mBq/m(3)) is achievable. Our results provide proof that the (133)Xe-rich ground level air layer from Fukushima was lifted up to the tropopause and distributed hemispherically. Moreover, comparisons with ground level air measurements indicate that the arrival of the radioactive plume at high altitude over Germany occurred several days before the ground level plume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. /sup 133/Xe clearance of the knee joint of patients suffering from arthritis and osteoarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, G.; Reviczky, L.A.; Lendvay, J.; Boehm, U.; Kucsera, K.; Genti, Gy. (Orszagos Reuma es Fizioterapias Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    65 inflammed and 13 non-inflammed knee joints of patients suffering from osteoarthrosis were examined by the Xe/sup 133/ clearance method. The control group consisted of 27 patients with exsudative arthritis of the knee. The counts of 80 ..mu..C /sup 133/Xe given intraarticcularly were measured above the knee joint by NK 350 energy selective counter. The time needed to halve the count rate measured in the 4th minute after administration (biological half life (T1/2)) was significantly different in the three groups. It was the longest in the non-inflammed arthrosis, the shortest in the exsudative arthritis group. Significant differences were apparent regarding joint pain and tenderness in all the three groups. Though the synovial protein level and the C/sub 3/ complement level were significantly different, in the three groups no relationship was found between the T1/2 and synovial/serum protein ratio or between the synovial/serum C/sub 3/ ratio. The authors concluded that /sup 133/Xe clearance, which measures the perfusion of the synovial membrane, can be used for measuring the inflammatory activity of knee joint synovitis.

  17. Production of Ar and Xe metastables in rare gas mixtures in a dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheyev, Pavel A.; Han, Jiande; Clark, Amanda; Sanderson, Carl; Heaven, Michael C.

    2017-12-01

    Optically pumped all-rare-gas lasers (OPRGL) utilize metastable atoms of the heavier rare gases as lasing species. The required number density of metastables for efficient laser operation is 1012–1013 cm‑3 in He buffer gas at pressures in the 400–1000 Torr range. Such metastable densities are easily produced in a nanosecond pulsed discharge, even at pressures larger than atmospheric, but problems appear when one is trying to achieve continuous production. The reason for low production efficiency in many types of continuous discharge at atmospheric pressure is the low value of the E/N parameter (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Time-averaged [Ar(1s5)] and [Xe(1s5)] number densities on the order of 1012 cm‑3 were readily achieved. The temporal behavior of [Xe(1s5)] throughout the DBD cycle was observed. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using DBDs for OPRGL development. Spectral scans over the absorption lines were also used to examine the pressure broadening coefficients for the 912.3 nm Ar line in He and the Xe 904.5 nm line in Ne and He.

  18. A new search for the atomic EDM of {sup 129}Xe at FRM-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchler, F., E-mail: florian.kuchler@tum.de [Excellence Cluster Universe and Technische Universität München (Germany); Babcock, E. [Juelich Center for Neutron Science (Germany); Burghoff, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Chupp, T.; Degenkolb, S. [University of Michigan (United States); Fan, I. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Fierlinger, P. [Excellence Cluster Universe and Technische Universität München (Germany); Gong, F. [University of Michigan (United States); Kraegeloh, E. [Excellence Cluster Universe and Technische Universität München (Germany); Kilian, W.; Knappe-Grüneberg, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Lins, T.; Marino, M.; Meinel, J.; Niessen, B. [Excellence Cluster Universe and Technische Universität München (Germany); Sachdeva, N. [University of Michigan (United States); Salhi, Z. [Juelich Center for Neutron Science (Germany); Schnabel, A.; Seifert, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Singh, J. [Michigan State University and NSCL (United States); and others

    2016-12-15

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) arise due to the breaking of time-reversal or, equivalently, CP-symmetry. Although EDM searches have so far only set upper limits, which are many orders of magnitude larger than Standard Model (SM) predictions, the motivation for more sensitive searches is stronger than ever. A new effort at FRM-II incorporating {sup 129}Xe and {sup 3}He as a co-magnetometer can potentially improve the current limit. The noble gas mixture of {sup 129}Xe and {sup 3}He is simultanously polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping and then transferred into a high-performance magnetically shielded room. Inside, both species can freely precess in the presence of applied magnetic and electric fields. The precession signals are detected by LTc SQUID sensors. In EDM cells with silicon electrodes we observed spin lifetimes in excess of 2500 s without and with high-voltage applied. This meets one requirement to achieve our goal of improving the EDM limit on {sup 129}Xe by several orders of magnitude.

  19. Differential expression of hERG1 channel isoforms reproduces properties of native I(Kr) and modulates cardiac action potential characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2010-01-01

    The repolarizing cardiac rapid delayed rectifier current, I(Kr), is composed of ERG1 channels. It has been suggested that two isoforms of the ERG1 protein, ERG1a and ERG1b, both contribute to I(Kr). Marked heterogeneity in the kinetic properties of native I(Kr) has been described. We hypothesized...

  20. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  1. Stable canonical rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iemhoff, R.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Bezhanishvili, Guram

    2016-01-01

    We introduce stable canonical rules and prove that each normal modal multi-conclusion consequence relation is axiomatizable by stable canonical rules. We apply these results to construct finite refutation patterns for modal formulas, and prove that each normal modal logic is axiomatizable by stable

  2. Stable canonical rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, G.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Iemhoff, R.

    We introduce stable canonical rules and prove that each normal modal multi-conclusion consequence relation is axiomatizable by stable canonical rules. We apply these results to construct finite refutation patterns for modal formulas, and prove that each normal modal logic is axiomatizable by stable

  3. Relativistic Many-body Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Calculations of the Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities in Na- to P-like Xe Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2007-03-27

    Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations have been performed on Xe{sup 43+}-Xe{sup 39+} ions, resulting in energy levels, electric dipole transition probabilities, and level lifetimes. The second-order many-body perturbation theory calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies and E1 transition rates are used to present synthetic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet range for some of the Xe ions.

  4. Effect of the mixture composition on the characteristics of a high-power XeCl laser pumped by an electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, IU.I.; Ivanov, N.G.; Losev, V.F.; Ryzhov, V.V.; Turchanovskii, I.IU. (Institut Sil' notochnoi Elektroniki, Tomsk (USSR))

    1990-03-01

    The effect of HCl and Xe concentrations in the mixture on the pulse width and delay of a 150-J XeCl laser is investigated experimentally and theoretically. A method is developed for calculating the three-dimensional distribution of pump power within the active volume. It is shown that the pulse width and delay strongly depend on Xe and HCl concentrations in the mixture, which is explained in terms of the absorption of laser emission by the inert gas molecular ions, Cl(-) ions, and Xe2Cl molecules. 10 refs.

  5. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, Borehole OL-KR15 and OL-KR15B, Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, H.

    2005-07-01

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out in borehole OL-KR15 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2003-2004 in two phases. The total length of the borehole OL-KR15 is 518,85 m and 158 45,14 m. Of the 471 ,5 m + 44,5 m total measurable length 414 m was covered with 237 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the research plan, partly with 1 m overlaps. 259 tests were initiated, but some of them ended to hardware or software errors or unsuitable parameter values. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the stabilisation or injection stage lasted several hours. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary-state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  6. Resolution of hyperfine transitions in metastable 83Kr using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Y B; Tiwari, V B; Singh, S; Rawat, H S

    2015-01-01

    Narrow linewidth signals of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) in the metastable 83Kr have been observed for the first time. Various hyperfine transitions in 4p55s[3/2]2 to 4p55p[5/2]3 manifolds of 83Kr have been identified through the experimentally observed EIT signals. Some unresolved or poorly resolved hyperfine transitions in saturated absorption spectroscopy (SAS) are clearly resolved in the present work. Using the spectral separation of these EIT identified hyperfine transitions, the magnetic hyperfine constant (A) and the electric quadrupole hyperfine constant (B) are determined with improved accuracy for 4p55s[3/2]2 and 4p55p[5/2]3 manifolds.

  7. New shape isomer in the self-conjugate nucleus 72Kr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, E; Matea, I; Korten, W; Becker, F; Blank, B; Borcea, C; Buta, A; Emsallem, A; de France, G; Genevey, J; Hannachi, F; Hauschild, K; Hürstel, A; Le Coz, Y; Lewitowicz, M; Lucas, R; Negoita, F; de Oliveira Santos, F; Pantelica, D; Pinston, J; Rahkila, P; Rejmund, M; Stanoiu, M; Theisen, Ch

    2003-02-28

    A new isomeric 0(+) state was identified as the first excited state in the self-conjugate (N=Z) nucleus 72Kr. By combining for the first time conversion-electron and gamma-ray spectroscopy with the production of metastable states in high-energy fragmentation, the electric-monopole decay of the new isomer to the ground state was established. The new 0(+) state is understood as the band head of the known prolate rotational structure, which strongly supports the interpretation that 72Kr is one of the rare nuclei having an oblate-deformed ground state. This observation gives in fact the first evidence for a shape isomer in a N=Z nucleus.

  8. Nutritional quality of Krškopolje and commercial fattener pig meats in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kovač

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional quality of M. Longissimus dorsi in the autochthonous Krškopolje pig breed and commercial fatteners from intensive Slovenian farms was compared. Commercial fatteners were divided into two groups according to lean meat percentage: MEATY and FATTY groups. The Krškopolje pigs (KK group and the FATTY group had higher intramuscular fat content than the MEATY group. The lowest saturated fatty acids (SFA proportion was found in the KK group and the highest in the FATTY group. The KK and FATTY groups contained higher proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as well as lower proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to the MEATY group. The highest n-6 PUFA proportion was found in the MEATY group. The n-3 PUFA proportion differed between the MEATY and FATTY groups. The FATTY group had the lowest ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids as well as the highest atherogenic index.

  9. Conserved repressive function of Krüppel homolog 1 on insect metamorphosis in hemimetabolous and holometabolous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Jesus; Belles, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Insect metamorphosis is regulated by ecdysteroids, which induce molts, and juvenile hormone (JH), which inhibits metamorphic changes. The molecular action of ecdysteroids has been thoroughly studied, but that of JH is poorly understood, with data currently only being available for holometabolous species, like Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum. We studied the function of Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) in Blattella germanica, a hemimetabolous model. Kr-h1 is a Zn finger transcription factor whose function as transductor of the antimetamorphic action of JH has recently been demonstrated in D. melanogaster and T. castaneum. The RNAi experiments reported herein indicated that Kr-h1 transduces the antimetamorphic action of JH also in B. germanica, thereby suggesting that this role is an ancestral condition that has been conserved in insect evolution from hemimetabolous to holometabolous species.

  10. Gain and fluorescence in a long-pulse KrCl laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casper, L.C.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Peters, P.J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Hofstra, R.M.; Schuöcker, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    The net small-signal gain was measured in a discharge-pumped KrCl laser (222 nm) operated at high gas pressures of around 3.3 bar. The pump power-density was varied between 200-650 kW cm-3. The experiments were carried out on a three-electrode laser system. The net small-signal gain was measured in

  11. Archaeological finds from the vaulted building at Krševica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Petar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The completely preserved building with barrel vault was discovered in 2008 in the course of investigation of the remains of an urban settlement dating from the 4th /3rd centuries BC at the site Kale in the village Krševica (southeast Serbia. We are presenting in this work the archaeological finds discovered in this structure. They included pottery, worked stone and many skeletons of horses and dogs that are assumed to be the ritual sacrifice.

  12. Krāsas un atmosfēra Edgara Alana Po dzejā

    OpenAIRE

    Kļimova, Kristīna

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir krāsas un noskaņa Edgar Allana Po dzejā. Pētījuma uzdevums ir noteikt biežāk lietojamos tēlainās izteiksmes līdzekļus un krāsas Edgara Po dzejā, turklāt identificēt gaisotni un noskaņu šajos darbos. Darba autore ir veikusi pētījumu balstoties uz praktiskām un teorētiskām zināšanām. Teorētiskā daļa iztirzā tāda veida problēmas kā: tēlainās izteiksmes līdzekļu būtību, simbolu un simbolsisko krāsu izmantošana literatūrā, ka arī to nozīmi Edgara Allana Po dzejā, un cit...

  13. Magnesium aminoclay enhances lipid production of mixotrophic Chlorella sp. KR-1 while reducing bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bohwa; Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Lee, Jiye; Nam, Bora; Kim, Dong-Myung; Lee, Kyubock; Lee, Young-Chul; Oh, You-Kwan

    2016-11-01

    Improving lipid productivity and preventing overgrowth of contaminating bacteria are critical issues relevant to the commercialization of the mixotrophic microalgae cultivation process. In this paper, we report the use of magnesium aminoclay (MgAC) nanoparticles for enhanced lipid production from oleaginous Chlorella sp. KR-1 with simultaneous control of KR-1-associated bacterial growth in mixotrophic cultures with glucose as the model substrate. Addition of 0.01-0.1g/L MgAC promoted microalgal biomass production better than the MgAC-less control, via differential biocidal effects on microalgal and bacterial cells (the latter being more sensitive to MgAC's bio-toxicity than the former). The inhibition effect of MgAC on co-existing bacteria was, as based on density-gradient-gel-electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, largely dosage-dependent and species-specific. MgAC also, by inducing an oxidative stress environment, increased both the cell size and lipid content of KR-1, resulting in a considerable, ∼25% improvement of mixotrophic algal lipid productivity (to ∼410mgFAME/L/d) compared with the untreated control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of damage caused by Kr ions and neutrons on electrical properties of silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Croitoru, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Seidman, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, new measurements of physical properties of high-resistivity silicon, used in high-energy detectors, are presented. The obtained data contribute to the understanding of the causes which damage the 2electronic characteristics of the detection systems under irradiation of neutrons and ionized particles (Kr). The Hall effect coefficient (R sub H) and resistivity (rho) measurements as a function of temperature (T), for non-irradiated and irradiated by neutrons and Kr ions, were performed. The measurements of the Hall coefficient and resistivity of non-irradiated samples and irradiated at neutron fluences (PHI=9.9x10 sup 1 sup 0 n/cm sup 2 (neutrons) and PHI>=7.5x10 sup 8 Kr/cm sup 3 (ions), cannot be explained, considering the usual theoretical relations. The results, obtained in these experiments, have shown a change of mechanism of conduction due to the damaged regions, where localized levels are created, which are the main cause of the deviation of the electrical characteristics of the detectors ...

  15. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia

    2014-06-01

    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse J cm(-2)) and 0.048 µm/(pulse  J cm(-2)), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm(-2). The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining.

  16. Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Briz Monago, Jose Antonio; Nácher González, Enrique

    The Ph.D. thesis entitled “Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay” is devoted to the study of the shape of the ground state of the 72Kr nucleus. It is an N=Z nucleus in the mass region A~70-80 where shape transitions and the shape coexistence phenomena have been identified. Furthermore, this nucleus participates in the rp-process as a waiting point due to the slowdown of the process taking place at the arrival to this nucleus. The study of the properties of this nucleus is interesting from the Nuclear Structure point of view, for the phenomena occurring in its mass region and have been predicted for it, and from the Nuclear Astrophysics for the accurate performance of astrophysical calculations. The β+/EC decay of the 72Kr nucleus has been studied through two complementary experiments at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva (Switzerland). In one of them, the low-spin structure of the daughter nucleus, 72Br, has been revised via conversion electron spectroscopy where the convers...

  17. Structure of the light-driven sodium pump KR2 and its implications for optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushchin, Ivan; Shevchenko, Vitaly; Polovinkin, Vitaly; Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Buslaev, Pavel; Bamberg, Ernst; Gordeliy, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    A key and common process present in organisms from all domains of life is the maintenance of the ion gradient between the inside and the outside of the cell. The gradient is generated by various active transporters, among which are the light-driven ion pumps of the microbial rhodopsin family. Whereas the proton-pumping and anion-pumping rhodopsins have been known for a long time, the cation (sodium) pumps were described only recently. Following the discovery, high-resolution atomic structures of the pump KR2 were determined that revealed the complete ion translocation pathway, including the positions of the characteristic Asn-Asp-Gln (NDQ) triad, the unusual ion uptake cavity acting as a selectivity filter, the unique N-terminal α-helix, capping the ion release cavity, and unexpected flexibility of the retinal-binding pocket. The structures also revealed pentamerization of KR2 and binding of sodium ions at the interface. Finally, on the basis of the structures, potassium-pumping KR2 variants have been designed, making the findings even more important for optogenetic applications. In this Structural Snapshot, we analyse the implications of the structural findings for understanding the sodium translocation mechanism and application of the pump and its mutants in optogenetics. © 2015 FEBS.

  18. Injection locking in a high-power XeCl laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, IU.I.; Ivanov, N.G.; Kovalenko, S.E.; Losev, V.F.; Panchenko, IU.N. (Inst. Sil' notochnoi Elektroniki, Tomsk (Russian Federation))

    1992-02-01

    Experimental results are presented on injection locking in an XeCl laser with an output energy of 30-40 J and an emission pulse duration of 300 ns. The external signal was 100 ns in duration, and featured a line width of 0.2/cm and an energy of 10 mJ. When the axial region of the unstable resonator was filled with the external signal in the interval from the beginning of pumping up to the time when the threshold was achieved, 90 percent of the lasing energy belonged to the injected line. 6 refs.

  19. Gain limits of a Thick GEM in high-purity Ne, Ar and Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, J; Peskov, V

    2010-01-01

    The dependence of the avalanche charge gain in Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) on the purity of Ne, Ar and Xe filling gases was investigated. The gain, measured with alpha-particles in standard conditions (atmospheric pressure, room temperature), was found to considerably drop in gases purified by non-evaporable getters. On the other hand, small N2 admixtures to noble gases resulted in high reachable gains. The results are of general relevance in the operation of gas-avalanche detectors in noble gases, particularly that of two-phase cryogenic detectors for rare events.

  20. Fusion near the barrier in the system 132XE + natFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterlund, R. A.; Westmeier, W.; Rajagopalan, M.; Patzelt, P.

    Cross sections for the production of 154 nuclides were measured radiochemically in the reaction of (near-barrier) 600-MeV132 Xe ions with a natural Fe target, and the mass-yield curve was constructed. No evidence for significant subbarrier fusion was observed. Coalescence Model calculations were found to be in good agreement with the fusion yields from this and higher-energy experiments, while other model predictions were not, indicating that the Swiatecki "extra push" for fusion processes occurs as predicted. Moreover, this result supports the model implication that systems with similar effective fissilities are dynamically equivalent.

  1. Position reconstruction in drift chambers operated with Xe, $CO_{2}$ (15\\%)

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, C; Appelshäuser, H; Bielcikova, J; Blume, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bucher, D; Busch, O; Catanescu, V; Ciobanu, M; Daues, H W; Emschermann, D; Fateev, O V; Foka, P; Garabatos, C; Gunji, T; Herrmann, N; Inuzuka, M; Ivanov, M; Kislov, E; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Ludolphs, W; Mahmoud, T; Petracek, V; Petrovici, M; Radomski, S; Rusanov, I; Sandoval, A; Santo, R; Schicker, R; Schwarz, K; Simon, R S; Smykov, L P; Soltveit, H K; Stachel, J; Stelzer, H; Tsiledakis, G; Vulpescu, B; Wessels, J P; Windelband, B; Yurevich, V; Zanevsky, Yu; Zaudtke, O

    2005-01-01

    We present measurements of position and angular resolution of drift chambers operated with a Xe, CO2 (15%) mixture. The results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and important systematic effects - in particular the dispersive nature of the absorption of transition radiation and non-linearities - are discussed. The measurements were carried out with prototype drift chambers of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector, but our findings can be generalized to other drift chambers with similar geometry, where the electron drift is perpendicular to the wire planes.

  2. The effect of fission-energy Xe ion irradiation on dissolution of UO$_2$ thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Popel, Aleksej; Petrov, VG; Lebedev, VA; Day, J.; Kalmykov, SN; Springell, R; Scott, TB; Farnan, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of fission fragment damage on the dissolution of UO$_2$ thin films in water. For this purpose, thin films of UO$_2$ on LSAT (Al$_{10}$La$_3$O$_{51}$Sr$_{14}$Ta$_7$) substrates were produced and irradiated by 92 MeV $^{129}$Xe$^{23+}$ ions to a fluence of 4.8 × 10$^{15}$ ions/cm$^2$ to simulate the fission damage and induce chemical mixing that occur within nuclear fuels. The dissolution experiment was conducted under a nitrogen atmosphere (200–900 ...

  3. The Hopper System: How the Largest XE6 in the World Went From Requirements to Reality.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). NERSC Div.; Butler, Tina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). NERSC Div.; Carter, Jonathan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). NERSC Div.

    2017-06-28

    This paper will discuss the entire process of acquiring and deploying Hopper from the first vendor market surveys to providing 3.8 million hours of production cycles per day for NERSC users. Installing the latest system at NERSC has been both a logistical and technical adventure. Balancing compute requirements with power, cooling, and space limitations drove the initial choice and configuration of the XE6, and a number of first-of- a-kind features implemented in collaboration with Cray have resulted in a high performance, usable, and reliable system.

  4. Rukopis královédvorský a ohlas Písně o Nibelunzích

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčová, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 425-443 ISSN 0009-0468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90560517 Keywords : Czech National Revival * Nibelungenlied * The Song of the Nibelungs * Rukopis královédvorský * Manuscript of Dvůr Králové * echo * literary imagery * romantism * myth * Tacitus, Gaius Cornelius * Herder, Johann Gottfried Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  5. INVERSE STABLE SUBORDINATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Straka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The inverse stable subordinator provides a probability model for time-fractional differential equations, and leads to explicit solution formulae. This paper reviews properties of the inverse stable subordinator, and applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and physics. Several different governing equations for the inverse stable subordinator have been proposed in the literature. This paper also shows how these equations can be reconciled.

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  7. INVERSE STABLE SUBORDINATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; STRAKA, PETER

    2013-01-01

    The inverse stable subordinator provides a probability model for time-fractional differential equations, and leads to explicit solution formulae. This paper reviews properties of the inverse stable subordinator, and applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and physics. Several different governing equations for the inverse stable subordinator have been proposed in the literature. This paper also shows how these equations can be reconciled. PMID:25045216

  8. Juvenile hormone-independent function of Krüppel homolog 1 in early development of water flea Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Minae; Araki, Marina; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2018-02-01

    Elaborate regulation of insect metamorphosis is the consequence of physiological cooperation among multiple endocrine factors such as juvenile hormones (JHs) and ecdysteroids. Hormone-induced transcription factors play important roles in substantive interactions between hormonal signaling pathways. In insects, zinc finger transcription factor Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is a key gene of the endocrine signaling pathway in which it is directly upregulated by JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in the presence of JH and then regulates multiple downstream factors, including components of the ecdysteroid signaling pathway. Although JH also plays a role in various biological phenomena in other arthropod species, little is known about the molecular basis of the JH signaling pathway. Here we cloned Kr-h1 from a branchiopod crustacean, Daphnia pulex, (DappuKr-h1) and analyzed its expression profile and developmental function together with consideration of its relationship to the JH signaling pathway. We suggest that DappuKr-h1 lacks JH responsiveness and regulatory relationship with the JH receptor. Moreover our loss-of-function analysis revealed that maternal mRNA of DappuKr-h1 plays a critical role in early development independent from the JH signaling pathway. These findings provide insights about whether and how the JH signaling pathway influenced evolution, leading to greater diversity in phylum Arthropoda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preoperative determination of the level of amputation in chronic arterial occlusion. 2. /sup 133/Xe muscle clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissler, U.; Brueckner, L. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic))

    1985-10-01

    Two quantitative methods of blood flow measuring, venous occlusion plethysmography and /sup 133/Xe muscle clearance, were compared with regard to their suitability in determining the level of amputation preoperatively. The examinations were performed in 38 patients and 20 healthy control subjects. In differentiation between stump healing and distinctive disturbances of wound healing after lower leg amputation the best results could be obtained by the /sup 133/Xe clearance test (p < 0.05), followed by /sup 133/Xe clearance ischemia test and venous occlusion plethysmography. Blood flow measurements are in connection with clinical data auxiliaries in determining the level of amputation. Their application as absolute determinants seems to be not sensible. Considerable scattering of the measured values reduces the usefulness of the two methods.

  10. New biological temporary skin cover Xe-Derma(®) in the treatment of superficial scald burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, Robert; Matouskova, Eva; Broz, Ludomir; Kubok, Richard; Waldauf, Petr; Königova, Radana

    2011-03-01

    Xe-Derma® is a new dry sterile biological cover derived from acellular pig dermis. Hydrated Xe-Derma® displays bio-mechanical features similar to the normal skin. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of Xe-Derma® with hydrocolloid dressing Askina THINSite® for treatment of superficial burns in children in a prospective study. In a prospective study, 86 patients (5 months to 7 years of age) with superficial scald burns on a surface area of 1-35% BSA were enrolled. In the course of the study, 43 patients were treated with Xe-Derma® and 43 patients with Askina THINSite®. We collected data including the percentage of BSA covered with biological or synthetic material, epithelization time, the number of complete conversions (deepening of 100% of covered area into deep dermal wound) under each cover, the number and extent of partial conversions (deepening of less then 100% of covered area into deep dermal wound), infectious complications, the number of reapplications of the temporary cover and the extent in square centimetres of dressing material needed for successful healing of 1% BSA. No significant difference in the epithelization time, percentage of conversion from superficial to deep dermal burns and percentage of infectious complication was detected between the two groups. However, patients in the Xe-Derma® group were burned on a more extensive burn surface area (p ≤ 0.028). Xe-Derma® showed adherence to the wound and therefore there has been no need to be changed The number of reapplications and therefore also the number of square centimetres needed for successful healing of 1% BSA were statistically higher in the Askina THINSite® group (p burns in children. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  12. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  13. Large volume serial section tomography by Xe Plasma FIB dual beam microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, T L; Kelley, R; Winiarski, B; Contreras, L; Daly, M; Gholinia, A; Burke, M G; Withers, P J

    2016-02-01

    Ga(+) Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopes (FIB-SEM) have revolutionised the level of microstructural information that can be recovered in 3D by block face serial section tomography (SST), as well as enabling the site-specific removal of smaller regions for subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. However, Ga(+) FIB material removal rates limit the volumes and depths that can be probed to dimensions in the tens of microns range. Emerging Xe(+) Plasma Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (PFIB-SEM) systems promise faster removal rates. Here we examine the potential of the method for large volume serial section tomography as applied to bainitic steel and WC-Co hard metals. Our studies demonstrate that with careful control of milling parameters precise automated serial sectioning can be achieved with low levels of milling artefacts at removal rates some 60× faster. Volumes that are hundreds of microns in dimension have been collected using fully automated SST routines in feasible timescales (phase transformation of the Co phase, neither of which have been observed at PFIB currents as high as 60nA at 30kV. Xe(+) PFIB dual beam microscopes promise to radically extend our capability for 3D tomography, 3D EDX, 3D EBSD as well as correlative tomography. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficiently mapping structure-property relationships of gas adsorption in porous materials: application to Xe adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaija, A R; Wilmer, C E

    2017-09-08

    Designing better porous materials for gas storage or separations applications frequently leverages known structure-property relationships. Reliable structure-property relationships, however, only reveal themselves when adsorption data on many porous materials are aggregated and compared. Gathering enough data experimentally is prohibitively time consuming, and even approaches based on large-scale computer simulations face challenges. Brute force computational screening approaches that do not efficiently sample the space of porous materials may be ineffective when the number of possible materials is too large. Here we describe a general and efficient computational method for mapping structure-property spaces of porous materials that can be useful for adsorption related applications. We describe an algorithm that generates random porous "pseudomaterials", for which we calculate structural characteristics (e.g., surface area, pore size and void fraction) and also gas adsorption properties via molecular simulations. Here we chose to focus on void fraction and Xe adsorption at 1 bar, 5 bar, and 10 bar. The algorithm then identifies pseudomaterials with rare combinations of void fraction and Xe adsorption and mutates them to generate new pseudomaterials, thereby selectively adding data only to those parts of the structure-property map that are the least explored. Use of this method can help guide the design of new porous materials for gas storage and separations applications in the future.

  15. Theoretical study of the dielectronic recombination process of Li-like Xe51+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Lijun; Xie, Luyou; Zhang, Denghong; Dong, Chenzhong; Wen, Weiqiang; Huang, Zhongkui; Ma, Xinwen

    2017-05-01

    The dielectronic recombination of Li-like Xe51+ (2s) ions was studied using the flexible atomic code based on the relativistic configuration interaction method. The resonance energies, radiative and autoionization rates, and resonance strengths were calculated systematically for the doubly excited states (2p1/2nlj)J(n = 18-32) and (2p3/2n'lj)J(n' = 9-27) of Be-like Xe50+ ions. For the higher Rydberg resonance states with n ≥ 33 and n' ≥ 28, the resonance energies and strengths were obtained by extrapolation based on quantum defect theory. The theoretical rate coefficients, covering the center-of-mass energy range 0-505 eV, are in a better agreement with the experimental results measured at the heavy-ion storage ring ESR than the Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock calculations, especially at the resonance energy range close to the series limits. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  16. Evolutions of Molecular Oxygen Formation and Sodium Migration in Xe Ion Irradiated Borosilicate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Duofei F.; Lv, Peng; Zhang, Jiandong; Du, Xing; Yuan, Wei; Nan, Shuai; Zhu, Zihua; Wang, Tieshan

    2016-07-23

    The modifications of a commercial borosilicate glass induced by Xe ion irradiation have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and ToF-SIMS depth profiling. A decrease in the average Si–O–Si angle, an increase in the population of three-membered rings and an increase of the glass polymerization are evidenced. The molecular oxygen appears in the irradiated glasses after the irradiation fluence reaches approximately 1015 ions/cm2. The O2 concentration decreaseswith the depth of irradiated glass at the ion fluence of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2. A sodiumdepleted layer at the surface and a depleted zone at around the penetration depth of 5 MeV Xe ions are observed. The thickness of the sodium depleted layer increases with the irradiation fluence. Moreover, comparing with previous results after electron and Ar ion irradiation, it can be concluded that the nuclear energy deposition can partially inhibit the formation of molecular oxygen and increase the threshold value of electron energy deposition for the molecular oxygen formation.

  17. Linearity discontinuities in Xe-filled X-ray microstrip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zavattini, G.; Feroci, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    1997-01-01

    A prototype Xe + 10% CH4 microstrip detector was used to study the K-edge discontinuity in the pulse-height distribution as a function of the energy of incident X-rays. The electronics used was such that a pulse-shape rejection could be made of K-fluorescence reabsorption in the detector. The mea......A prototype Xe + 10% CH4 microstrip detector was used to study the K-edge discontinuity in the pulse-height distribution as a function of the energy of incident X-rays. The electronics used was such that a pulse-shape rejection could be made of K-fluorescence reabsorption in the detector....... The measured jump at the K-edge was (169 +/- 12)eV. It was also seen that K-alpha- and K-beta-decay channels produce different pulse heights for the same deposited energy. We find that the difference in energy between the calibration fines of the K-beta 2- and the K-beta 1.3-escape peaks is (93+/-12)eV whereas...... between the K-beta 1.3 and the K-alpha-escape peaks' calibration the energy gal is (69+/-7)eV....

  18. Evolution of quadrupole collectivity in the neutron-rich Xe isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilieva, Stoyanka; Henrich, Corinna; Kroell, Thorsten; Boenig, Sabine [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: IS411 and FATIMA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear properties in the region around the doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn are of special interest. Theory relies on nuclei near closed shells for predicting other, more complex systems. The quadrupole collectivity in nuclei can be studied in Coulomb-excitation experiments. The excitation cross section depends on both transition and diagonal matrix elements, an effect known as reorientation. Therefore, direct measurements of lifetimes which depend only on one single transition matrix element, are often more precise. Furthermore, the additional constraints from lifetimes enable the better determination of quadrupole moments, a quantity otherwise hard to obtain for short-living states. The isotopes {sup 138,140,142,144}Xe were studied by means of Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. Recently, these studies were complemented by a measurement of the lifetimes of excited states in the xenon isotopes ({sup 138-144}Xe), populated in neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 241}Pu. The experiment was part of the FATIMA campaign performed at ILL, Grenoble in early 2013. In this contribution we report on the results from these measurements, aiming to investigate the evolution of collectivity around Z = 50 and N = 82.

  19. Valence-shell photoionization of Ag-like Xe$^{7+}$ ions : experiment and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, A; Esteves-Macaluso, D; Habibi, M; Aguilar, A; Kilcoyn, A L D; Phaneuf, R A; Ballance, C P; McLaughlin, B M

    2014-01-01

    We report on experimental and theoretical results for the photoionization of Ag-like xenon ions, Xe$^{7+}$, in the photon energy range 95 to 145~eV. The measurements were carried out at the Advanced Light Source at an energy resolution of $\\Delta$E = 65 meV with additional measurements made at $\\Delta$E = 28 meV and 39 meV. Small resonance features below the ground-state ionization threshold, at about 106 eV, are due to the presence of metastable Xe$^{7+} (4d^{10} 4f~^2{\\rm F}^{\\circ}_{5/2,7/2})$ ions in the ion beam. On the basis of the accompanying theoretical calculations using the Dirac Atomic R-matrix Codes (DARC), an admixture of only a few percent of metastable ions in the parent ion beam is inferred, with almost 100\\% of the parent ions in the $(4d^{10}5s ~^2{\\rm S_{1/2}})$ ground level. The cross-section is dominated by a very strong resonance associated with $4d \\rightarrow 5f$ excitation and subsequent autoionization. This prominent feature in the measured spectrum is the $4d^95s5f ~^2{\\rm P}^{\\cir...

  20. Determination of adipose tissue blood flow with local 133Xe clearance. Evaluation of a new labelling technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Bülow, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Adipose tissue blood flow was measured in six healthy, non-obese subjects with the xenon wash-out technique after labelling of the tissue by either injection of 133Xe dissolved in isotonic sodium chloride (water depot) or injection of 133Xe in gas form (gas depot). The wash-out rates were...... between the wash-out rates registered from the two depot types, and it was also not possible to demonstrate any difference between the changes in wash-out rates induced by an oral glucose load. Similarly, the tissue distribution of the water and the gas depots appeared to be similar as registered...

  1. Hypo - and hypernatremia results in inaccurate Erythrocytes mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) measurement in vitro, when using Sysmex XE 2100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten Vikkelsø; Philipsen, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    measures MCV correctly in hypo- and hyperosmolality and hypo-and hypernatremia. In addition, to examine whether the theoretically calculated change in MCV corresponds with the experimentally determined MCV change. Method: Theoretical calculation of the MCV inaccuracy at hypo- and hypernatremia, as well...... as at hypo- and hyperosmolality. Experimental studies with comparison of MCV measured at Sysmex XE 2100 to MCV found by using the manual measured packed cell volume method. Results and conclusion: Measurement of MCV in hypo- and hypernatremia patients using the automated blood cell counter Sysmex XE 2100...

  2. Room-temperature synthesis of Cu(2-x)E (E = S, Se) nanotubes with hierarchical architecture as high-performance counter electrodes of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin Qi; Li, Zhen; Bai, Yang; Sun, Qiao; Wang, Lian Zhou; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-01-12

    Copper chalcogenide nanostructures (e.g. one-dimensional nanotubes) have been the focus of interest because of their unique properties and great potential in various applications. Their current fabrications mainly rely on high-temperature or complicated processes. Here, with the assistance of theoretical prediction, we prepared Cu(2-x)E (E = S, Se) micro-/nanotubes (NTs) with a hierarchical architecture by using copper nanowires (Cu NWs), stable sulfur and selenium powder as precursors at room temperature. The influence of reaction parameters (e.g. precursor ratio, ligands, ligand ratio, and reaction time) on the formation of nanotubes was comprehensively investigated. The resultant Cu(2-x)E (E = S, Se) NTs were used as counter electrodes (CE) of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) to achieve a conversion efficiency (η) of 5.02 and 6.25%, respectively, much higher than that of QDSSCs made with Au CE (η = 2.94%). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A novel urotensin II receptor antagonist, KR-36996, improved cardiac function and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yi, Kyu Yang; Lim, Chae Jo; Park, Byung Kil; Seo, Ho Won; Lee, Byung Ho

    2017-03-15

    Urotensin II and its receptor are thought to be involved in various cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Since the regulation of the urotensin II/urotensin II receptor offers a great potential for therapeutic strategies related to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the study of selective and potent antagonists for urotensin II receptor is more fascinating. This study was designed to determine the potential therapeutic effects of a newly developed novel urotensin II receptor antagonist, N-(1-(3-bromo-4-(piperidin-4-yloxy)benzyl)piperidin-4-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (KR-36996), in experimental models of heart failure. KR-36996 displayed a high binding affinity (Ki=4.44±0.67nM) and selectivity for urotensin II receptor. In cell-based study, KR-36996 significantly inhibited urotensin II-induced stress fiber formation and cellular hypertrophy in H9c2 UT cells. In transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy model in mice, the daily oral administration of KR-36996 (30mg/kg) for 14 days significantly decreased left ventricular weight by 40% (Pheart failure model in rats, repeated echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements demonstrated remarkable improvement of the cardiac performance by KR-36996 treatment (25 and 50mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 12 weeks. Moreover, KR-36996 decreased interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in the infarct border zone. These results suggest that potent and selective urotensin II receptor antagonist could efficiently attenuate both cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in experimental heart failure. KR-36996 may be useful as an effective urotensin II receptor antagonist for pharmaceutical or clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  5. Stable Allocation Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Baïou, Mourad; Balinski, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The stable allocation problem is the generalization of the well-known and much studied stable (0,1)-matching problems to the allocation of real numbers (hours or quantities). There are two distinct sets of agents, a set I of "employees" or "buyers" and a set J of "employers" or "sellers", each agent with preferences over the opposite set and each with a given available time or quantity. In common with its specializations, and allocation problem may have exponentially many stable solutions (th...

  6. New insight from noble gas and stable isotopes of geothermal/hydrothermal fluids at Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex: Boiling steam separation and water-rock interaction at shallow depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulleau, Emilie; Tardani, Daniele; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Vinet, Nicolas; Bravo, Francisco; Muñoz, Carlos; Sanchez, Juan

    2016-12-01

    We measured noble gas and stable isotopes of the geothermal and hydrothermal fluids of the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex (CCVC), one of the most important geothermal systems in Argentina/Chile, in order to provide new insights into fluid circulation and origin. With the exception of Anfiteatro and Chancho-co geothermal systems, mantle-derived helium dominates in the CCVC fluids, with measured 3He/4He ratios up to 7.86Ra in 2015. Their positive δ15N is an evidence for subducted sediment-derived nitrogen, which is commonly observed in subduction settings. Both He-N2-Ar composition and positive correlation between δD-H2O and δ18O-H2O suggest that the fluids from Anfiteatro and Chancho-co (and partly from Pucon-Mahuida as well, on the southern flank of Copahue volcano) represent a meteoric water composition with a minor magmatic contribution. The Ne, Kr and Xe isotopic compositions are entirely of atmospheric origin, but processes of boiling and steam separation have led to fractionation of their elemental abundances. We modeled the CCVC fluid evolution using Rayleigh distillation curves, considering an initial air saturated geothermal water (ASGW) end-member at 250 and 300 °C, followed by boiling and steam separation at lower temperatures (from 200 °C to 150 °C). Between 2014 and 2015, the CCVC hydrogen and oxygen isotopes shifted from local meteoric water-dominated to andesitic water-dominated signature. This shift is associated with an increase of δ13C values and Stotal, HCl and He contents. These characteristics are consistent with a change in the gas ascent pathway between 2014 and 2015, which in turn induced higher magmatic-hydrothermal contribution in the fluid signature. The composition of the magmatic source of the CCVC fluids is: 3He/4He = 7.7Ra, δ15N = + 6‰, and δ13C = - 6.5‰. Mixing models between air-corrected He and N suggest the involvement of 0.5% to 5% of subducted sediments in the magmatic source. The magmatic sulfur isotopic

  7. PET Imaging of the AT{sub 1} receptor with [{sup 11}C]KR31173

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zober, Tamas G. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Mathews, William B. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Seckin, Esen [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Yoo, Sung-eun [Center for Biological Modulators, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Hilton, John [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Xia Jinsong [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Sandberg, Kathryn [Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Ravert, Hayden T. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Dannals, Robert F. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Szabo, Zsolt [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States)]. E-mail: zszabo@jhmi.edu

    2006-01-15

    Aim: The goal of this study was to investigate the binding characteristics of [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and its applicability for PET studies of the AT{sub 1} receptor (AT{sub 1}R). Methods: Ex vivo biodistribution and pharmacology were tested in mice. PET imaging was performed in mice, beagle dogs and a baboon. To assess nonspecific binding, PET imaging was performed both before and after pretreatment with a potent AT{sub 1}R antagonist. In the baboon, PET imaging was also performed with the previously developed radioligand [{sup 11}C]L-159,884 for comparison. Results: Ex vivo biodistribution studies in mice showed specific binding rates of 80-90% in the adrenals, kidneys, lungs and heart. Specific binding was confirmed in mice using small animal PET. In dogs, renal cortex tissue concentration at 75-95 min postinjection (pi) was 63 nCi/ml per millicurie at a specific binding rate of 95%. In the baboon renal cortex, tissue activity at 55-75 min pi was 345 nCi/ml per millicurie. In the baboon the specific binding of [{sup 11}C]KR31173 was higher (81%) than the specific binding of [{sup 11}C]L-159,884 (34%). Conclusion: [{sup 11}C]KR31173 shows accumulation and significant specific binding to the AT{sub 1}R in the kidneys of mice, dogs and baboon. These findings suggest that this radioligand is suited for imaging the renal cortical AT{sub 1}R in multiple species.

  8. Effect of swift heavy Kr ions on complex permittivity of silicon PIN diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Su, Ping, E-mail: pingsu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao [Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gong, Min, E-mail: mgong@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The complex permittivity has been studied on Si PIN irradiated by heavy Kr ions. • DLTS was used to investigate damages formed in PIN diode during irradiation. • The recombination of carriers has important influence on the complex permittivity. - Abstract: The complex permittivity has been researched on silicon PIN diodes irradiated by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in this article. The difference of complex permittivity spectra from 1 to 10^7 Hz between irradiated and unirradiated were observed and discussed. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were measured at room temperature (300 K) to study the change of electrical properties in diode after irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to investigate damages caused by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in diode. Two extra electron traps were observed, which were located at E{sub C}-0.31 eV and E{sub C}-0.17 eV. It indicated that new defects have been formed in PIN diode during irradiation. A comparison of the results illustrated that not only the carrier density but also the recombination of electron-hole pair have important influences on the properties of complex permittivity. These results offer a further indication of the mechanism about the complex permittivity property of semiconductor device, which could help to make the applications for the semiconductor device controlled by electric signals come true in the fields of optoelectronic integrated circuits, plasma antenna and so on.

  9. Shape evolution of 72,74Kr with temperature in covariant density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Niu, Yi-Fei

    2017-09-01

    The rich phenomena of deformations in neutron-deficient krypton isotopes, such as shape evolution with neutron number and shape coexistence, have attracted the interest of nuclear physicists for decades. It is interesting to study such shape phenomena using a novel way, e.g. by thermally exciting the nucleus. In this work, we develop the finite temperature covariant density functional theory for axially deformed nuclei with the treatment of pairing correlations by the BCS approach, and apply this approach for the study of shape evolution in 72,74Kr with increasing temperature. For 72Kr, with temperature increasing, the nucleus firstly experiences a relatively quick weakening in oblate deformation at temperature T ∼0.9 MeV, and then changes from oblate to spherical at T ∼2.1 MeV. For 74Kr, its global minimum is at quadrupole deformation β 2 ∼ ‑0.14 and abruptly changes to spherical at T∼ 1.7 MeV. The proton pairing transition occurs at critical temperature 0.6 MeV following the rule T c=0.6Δ p(0), where Δ p(0) is the proton pairing gap at zero temperature. The signatures of the above pairing transition and shape changes can be found in the specific heat curve. The single-particle level evolutions with temperature are presented. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105042, 11305161, 11505157), Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, CAS, and Support from Henan Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs

  10. Large volume serial section tomography by Xe Plasma FIB dual beam microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, T.L. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, Bldg, 5651 GG, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kelley, R. [FEI Company, 5350 NE Dawson Creek Drive, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Winiarski, B. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, Bldg, 5651 GG, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Contreras, L. [FEI Company, 5350 NE Dawson Creek Drive, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Daly, M.; Gholinia, A.; Burke, M.G. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J., E-mail: P.J.Withers@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); BP International Centre for Advanced Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Ga{sup +} Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopes (FIB-SEM) have revolutionised the level of microstructural information that can be recovered in 3D by block face serial section tomography (SST), as well as enabling the site-specific removal of smaller regions for subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. However, Ga{sup +} FIB material removal rates limit the volumes and depths that can be probed to dimensions in the tens of microns range. Emerging Xe{sup +} Plasma Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (PFIB-SEM) systems promise faster removal rates. Here we examine the potential of the method for large volume serial section tomography as applied to bainitic steel and WC–Co hard metals. Our studies demonstrate that with careful control of milling parameters precise automated serial sectioning can be achieved with low levels of milling artefacts at removal rates some 60× faster. Volumes that are hundreds of microns in dimension have been collected using fully automated SST routines in feasible timescales (<24 h) showing good grain orientation contrast and capturing microstructural features at the tens of nanometres to the tens of microns scale. Accompanying electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show high indexing rates suggesting low levels of surface damage. Further, under high current Ga{sup +} FIB milling WC–Co is prone to amorphisation of WC surface layers and phase transformation of the Co phase, neither of which have been observed at PFIB currents as high as 60 nA at 30 kV. Xe{sup +} PFIB dual beam microscopes promise to radically extend our capability for 3D tomography, 3D EDX, 3D EBSD as well as correlative tomography. - Highlights: • The uptake of dual beam FIBs has been rapid but long milling times have limited imaged volumes to tens of micron dimensions. • Emerging plasma Xe{sup +} PFIB-SEM technology offers materials removal rates at least 60× greater than conventional Ga{sup +} FIB systems with

  11. Long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierczyk-Michulec, J; Krysta, M; Kalinowski, M; Hoffmann, E; Baré, J

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the transport of xenon emissions, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) operates an Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) system based on the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. The air mass trajectory ideally provides a "link" between a radionuclide release and a detection confirmed by radionuclide measurements. This paper investigates the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions, with special emphasis on evaluating the changes in the simulated activity concentration values due to the inclusion of the convective transport in the ATM simulations. For that purpose a series of 14 day forward simulations, with and without convective transport, released daily in the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 June 2013, were analysed. The release point was at the ANSTO facility in Australia. The simulated activity concentrations for the period January 2011 to February 2012 were calculated using the daily emission values provided by the ANSTO facility; outside the aforementioned period, the median daily emission value was used. In the simulations the analysed meteorological input data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used with the spatial resolution of 0.5°. It was found that the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective conditions, where convection was included in the ATM simulation, led to a small decrease in the activity concentration, as compared to transport without convection. In special cases related to deep convection, the opposite effect was observed. Availability of both daily emission values and measured Xe-133 activity concentration values was an opportunity to validate the simulations. Based on the paired t-test, a 95% confidence interval for the true mean difference between simulations without convective transport and measurements was constructed. It was estimated that the overall uncertainty lies between 0.08 and 0.25 mBq/m3

  12. Eutanazija u perspektivi kršćanske vjere i pravne znanosti

    OpenAIRE

    Trajković, Marko; Josić, Niko

    2011-01-01

    Naša stvarnost bilježi dramatične promjene u moralnim stavovima ljudi. Kršćanskim i pravno-filozofskim pristupom nastojimo, u svjetlu tih promjena, promišljati pitanje etičkog aspekta zahtjeva kompetentnog pacijenta da umre te odluke liječnika povodom toga zahtjeva. Ovo promišljanje spada u područje ispitivanja osnovnih ljudskih vrijednosti. Ističemo da ljudsko dostojanstvo – kao središnja vrijednost – nije određeno vanjskim uzrocima i ne ovisi o stanju čovjekova zdravlja ili bolesti, ono je ...

  13. Management sportovní akce AUTHOR Král Šumavy 2010 MTB

    OpenAIRE

    Matějka, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this bachelor thesis is to create a management project of sports event which could serve to organizers and set up recommendations for organizers of sports event AUTHOR král Šumavy MTB. The aim is to analyse the event by means of SWOT analysis and create suggestions to improve the whole organization of this sports event for further tournaments. In conclusion I reviewed whether or not the objectives were achieved and summarized the most important results of the performed method...

  14. Radiative electron capture in the first forbidden unique decay of 81Kr

    CERN Document Server

    Mianowski, S; Korgul, A; Pomorski, M; Pachucki, K; Pfutzner, M; Szweryn, B; Zylicz, J; Hornshoj, P; Nilsson, T; Rykaczewski, K

    2010-01-01

    The photon spectrum accompanying the orbital K-electron capture in the first forbidden unique decay of 81Kr was measured. The total radiation intensity for the photon energies larger than 50 keV was found to be 1.47(6) x 10^{-4} per K-capture. Both the shape of the spectrum and its intensity relative to the ordinary, non-radiative capture rate, are compared to theoretical predictions. The best agreement is found for the recently developed model which employs the length gauge for the electromagnetic field.

  15. Novi pristup određivanju krutosti karbonatnih stijena u hrvatskom kršu

    OpenAIRE

    Jurić-Kaćunić, Danijela; Arapov, Ivan; Kovačević, Meho Saša

    2011-01-01

    Opisuje se razvoj novog pristupa određivanju krutosti karbonatnih stijena u hrvatskom kršu čija bi primjena omogućila pouzdanije prognoziranje deformacija geotehničkih konstrukcija. Istraživanja su pokazala da na krutost karbonatnih stijena utječu: geološki indeks čvrstoće, brzina širenja uzdužnih valova i indeks krutosti stijenske mase, a krutost je jednaka umnošku indeksa krutosti stijenske mase, kvadrata geološkog indeksa čvrstoće i kvadrata brzine širenja uzdužnih valova.

  16. UV Raman spectroscopy of H2-air flames excited with a narrowband KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Raman spectra of H2 and H2O in flames excited by a narrowband KrF excimer laser are reported. Observations are made over a porous-plug, flat-flame burner reacting H2 in air, fuel-rich with nitrogen dilution to control the temperature, and with an H2 diffusion flame. Measurements made from UV Raman spectra show good agreement with measurements made by other means, both for gas temperature and relative major species concentrations. Laser-induced fluorescence interferences arising from OH and O2 are observed in emission near the Raman spectra. These interferences do not preclude Raman measurements, however.

  17. „Immunologia muzyki”? Krótkie wprowadzenie do kognitywistyki muzycznej improwizacji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Wachowski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Badania kognitywistyczne nad muzyką – dość różnorodne mimo krótkiej historii – spotykają się ze sceptycyzmem. Autor niniejszego wprowadzenia, prezentując kilka spektakularnych przykładów badań nad improwizacją muzyczną, próbuje pokazać, że mają one charakter wzbogacający, a nie redukujący naszą wiedzę o tym fenomenie.

  18. Krása v očích plastické chirurgie

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Univerzita Karlova v Praze Institut sociologických studií Katedra sociologie Nováková Hana Bakalářská práce: Krása v očích plastické chirurgie Abstract The objective of this bachelor thesis is to examine the cosmetic surgery phenomenon from the sociological point of view. Social conditions under which cosmetic surgery are carried out in such quantity and popularity are defined and explored. Paper also contains a summary of patients' opinions about cosmetic surgery and explains the way they th...

  19. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR35 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 100.87 m deep borehole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in May 2005. This borehole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock and the anomalous part of the bedrock and quality and the location of the fractured zones R19A and R19B. The identification number of the borehole is OL-KR35. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling parameters. The objective of all measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 53 m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 25 m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR35. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. The results of the Maxibor measurements indicate that borehole OL-KR35 deviates 0.49 m right and 0.30 m up at the borehole depth of 99 m. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 90 MPa, the

  20. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR3B at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 530.60 m deep borehole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in summer 2005. This borehole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock in the area, where a new shaft with a diameter of 3 m is planned to be located. The identification number of the borehole is OL-KR38. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling parameters. The objective of these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 473m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 38m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR38. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Devitool Peewee. The results of the EMS measurements indicate that borehole OL-KR38 deviates 1.02 m south and 0.58 m west from the target point at the borehole depth of 525 m. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 106

  1. Evolution from quasielastic to deep-inelastic transfer in the system132Xe+natFe§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, U.; Westmeier, W.; Esterlund, R. A.; Rox, A.; Rajagopalan, M.; Patzelt, P.

    1981-12-01

    Angular distributions of products from the reaction of 5.90 Mev/u132Xe ions with a natural Fe target have been determined radiochemically, using catcher-foil techniques. Partially-damped products with charge near that of the projectile exhibit distributions which clearly evolve from quasielastic yields focussed near the grazing angle to deep-inelastic products orbiting towards forward angles.

  2. A miniature silicon diode matrix detector for in vivo measurement of 133Xe disappearance following local tissue injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard Bendtsen, Katja Maria; Svendsen, J H; Rasmussen, H B

    1992-01-01

    A variety of biological processes can be studied from the washout of compounds labelled with a gamma emitter. Conventional systems for measurement of gamma radiation can detect count rates at both the low and high energy range of the indicator in question, 133Xe. However, silicon (Si) photodiodes...

  3. Level structure of 141Ba and 139Xe and the level systematics of N=85 even-odd isotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y.X.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hwang, J.K.; Beyer, C.J.; Zhu, S.J.; Kormicki, J.; Zhang, X.Q.; Jones, E.F.; Gore, P.M.; Ginter, T.N.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, I-Yang; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Zielinski, P.; Folden III, C.M.; Fallon, P.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Daniel, A.V.; Stoyer, M.A.; Cole, J.D.; Donangelo, R.; Wu, S.C.; Asztalos, S.J.

    2002-01-31

    New level schemes of {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}Xe are proposed from the analyses of spontaneous-fission gamma data from our {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission Gammasphere runs of 1995 and 2000. By analogy with the N = 85 even-odd isotones {sup 149}Gd, {sup 147}Sm, and {sup 145}Nd, spins and parities were assigned to the observed excited states in {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}Xe. It appears that spherical shell model neutron excitations plus octupolephonons are an appropriate basis at the lower end of the bands. Going to higher spins it is clear that the soft rotor involving valence protons as well as neutrons becomes increasingly important in the configurations. Level systematics in the N = 85 even-odd isotones from Gd(Z=64) through Te(Z=52), are discussed. The excitation systematics and smooth trends of the analogous levels support the spin and parity assignment for excited levels observed in {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}Xe. The level systematics and the comparison with neighboring even-even isotopes indicate that quadrupole and octupole collectivity play roles in {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}$Xe. From Gd(Z=64) through Te(Z=52), increasing excitation energies of the 13/2{sup +} states and lowering relative intensities of the positive parity bands in the N = 85 even-odd isotones may indicate that the octupole strength is becoming weaker for the isotones when approaching the Z = 50 closed shell.

  4. Electron capture and deprotonation processes observed in collisions between Xe8+ and multiply protonated cytochrome-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.; Ortega, C.; Chen, L.; Bredy, R.; Vernier, A.; Dugourd, P.; Antoine, R.; Bernard, J.; Reitsma, G.; Gonzalez Magana, Olmo; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Schlathölter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Electron-transfer processes in interaction between highly charged ions and multiply protonated proteins have been studied. Collisions between Xe8+ at 96 keV and protonated cytochrome-C at selected charge state (q from 15+ to 19+) result inmass spectra composed mainly of intact molecular ions. From

  5. Precise measurement of magnetic field gradients from free spin precession signals of He-3 and Xe-129 magnetometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allmendinger, Fabian; Blümler, Peter; Doll, Michael; Grasdijk, Oliver; Heil, Werner; Jungmann, Klaus; Karpuk, Sergej; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhäuser, Andreas; Repetto, Maricel; Schmidt, Ulrich; Sobolev, Yuri; Tullney, Kathlyne; Willmann, Lorenz; Zimmer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We report on precise measurements of magnetic field gradients extracted from transverse relaxation rates of precessing spin samples. The experimental approach is based on the free precession of gaseous, nuclear spin polarized He-3 and (12)9Xe atoms in a spherical cell inside a magnetic guiding field

  6. WE-AB-202-06: Correlating Lung CT HU with Transformation-Based and Xe-CT Derived Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, K; Patton, T; Bayouth, J [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reinhardt, J; Christensen, G [The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Regional lung ventilation is useful to reduce radiation-induced function damage during lung cancer radiation therapy. Recently a new direct HU (Hounsfield unit)-based method was proposed to estimate the ventilation potential without image registration. The purpose of this study is to examine if there is a functional dependence between HU values and transformation-based or Xe-CT derived ventilation. Methods: 4DCT images acquired from 13 patients prior to radiation therapy and 4 mechanically ventilated sheep subjects which also have associated Xe-CT images were used for this analysis. Transformation-based ventilation was computed using Jacobian determinant of the transformation field between peak-exhale and peak-inhale 4DCT images. Both transformation and Xe-CT derived ventilation was computed for each HU bin. Color scatter plot and cumulative histogram were used to compare and validate the direct HU-based method. Results: There was little change of the center and shape of the HU histograms between free breathing CT and 4DCT average, with or without smoothing, and between the repeated 4DCT scans. HU of −750 and −630 were found to have the greatest transformation-based ventilation for human and sheep subjects, respectively. Maximum Xe-CT derived ventilation was found to locate at HU of −600 in sheep subjects. The curve between Xe-CT ventilation and HU was noisy for tissue above HU −400, possibly due to less intensity change of Xe gas during wash-out and wash-in phases. Conclusion: Both transformation-based and Xe-CT ventilation demonstrated that lung tissues with HU values in the range of (-750, −600) HU have the maximum ventilation potential. The correlation between HU and ventilation suggests that HU might be used to help guide the ventilation calculation and make it more robust to noise and image registration errors. Research support from NIH grants CA166703 and CA166119 and a gift from Roger Koch.

  7. Phase stability, grain growth and photoluminescence property of nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia film under 500 keV Xe{sup 6+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin; Chang, Yongqin, E-mail: chang@ustb.edu.cn; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Farong; Long, Yi

    2014-06-01

    Nanocrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) film (with 8 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was synthesized via a sol–gel method. Phase stability, grain-growth and defects of the YSZ film were investigated under 500 keV Xe{sup 6+} ions irradiation to doses up to an average value of 22.2 displacements per atom (dpa). Atomic force microscope results show that the surface of the as-grown YSZ film is quite smooth and free of cracks. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that the average grain-size of the as-grown samples is around 12.6 nm. With increasing irradiation does up to 22.2 dpa, the average grain size increases, no phase transformation or amorphization is observed, which indicates that the phase structure of the nanocrystalline cubic YSZ film is quite stable. Two strong and broad emission peaks were detected in the YSZ film, and the emission intensity decreases obviously after irradiation. The possible mechanism of the grain growth was also discussed.

  8. Effects of XE991, retigabine, losigamone and ZD7288 on kainate-induced theta-like and gamma network oscillations in the rat hippocampus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlen, Anne; Kunert, Alexandra; Heinemann, Uwe

    2009-10-27

    Ion currents such as M-currents (I(M)), persistent sodium currents (I(NaP)) and H-currents (I(h)) have been observed in a variety of brain regions, including the hippocampal formation, where storage and retrieval of information are facilitated by oscillatory network activities. They have been suggested to play an important role in neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, membrane oscillatory activity, and in shaping resonance. Resonance and membrane potential oscillations have been implied in the generation of theta but not gamma oscillations. Here, we performed extracellular field potential recordings in hippocampal slices from adult rats and applied either the I(M) blocker XE991, the I(M) activator retigabine, the I(NaP) blocker losigamone or the I(h) inhibitor ZD7288 to test if these currents contribute to the generation of network oscillations. Kainate application induced network theta-like frequency oscillations in coronal slices as well as network gamma frequency oscillations in horizontal slices, and these remained stable for up to 3h. Power spectrum analysis revealed that all agents dose-dependently reduced the network oscillations in both frequency bands in areas CA3 and CA1. In contrast, the peak oscillation frequency was affected differentially. These results confirm that theta-like frequency oscillations are induced in longitudinal slices while gamma frequency oscillations dominate in horizontal slices. They also suggest that modifying neuronal excitability and transmitter release alters hippocampal network oscillations which are thought to be crucial for memory processing.

  9. Forbidden optical transition in Ti-like Xe, Ba, and Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekker, H.; Windberger, A.; Binder, M.; López-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Versolato, O. O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116, Braunschweig (Germany); Klawitter, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 Canada and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2015-01-09

    We present measurements of the (3d{sup 4}){sup 5}D{sub 2}−{sup 5}D{sub 3} transitions in the Ti-like ions Xe{sup 32+}, Ba{sup 34+}, and Ir{sup 55+} produced and trapped in the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap. The obtained wavelengths have a precision at the few ppm-level and are thereby the most precise measurements of these transitions up to date. For Z=60−75 semi-empirical calculations have shown excellent agreement, however our measurements combined with data from other works shows that outside this range predictions quickly deviate. The value obtained for Ir{sup 55+} 357.434(2) nm confirms the linear mismatch to ab initio calculations for Z > 70, as hypothesized in Utter et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 012508 (2003)

  10. Two-phonon giant resonances in {sup 136}Xe, {sup 208}Pb, and {sup 238}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretzky, K.; Gruenschloss, A.; Ilievski, S.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.; Bertulani, C.A.; Cub, J.; Dostal, W.; Eberlein, B.; Elze, T.W.; Emling, H.; Fallot, M.; Holeczek, J.; Holzmann, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kratz, J.V.; Kulessa, R.; Leifels, Y.; Leistenschneider, A.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Mordechai, S.; Ohtsuki, T.; Reiter, P.; Simon, H.; Stelzer, K.; Stroth, J.; Suemmerer, K.; Surowiec, A.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W.

    2003-07-01

    The excitation of the double-phonon giant dipole resonance was observed in heavy projectile nuclei impinging on targets of high nuclear charge with energies of 500-700 MeV/nucleon. New experimental data are presented for {sup 136}Xe and {sup 238}U together with further analysis of earlier data on {sup 208}Pb. Differential cross sections d{sigma}/dE{sup *} and d{sigma}/d{theta} for electromagnetic excitations were deduced. Depending on the isotope, cross sections appear to be enhanced in comparison to those expected from a purely harmonic nuclear dipole response. The cumulative effect of excitations of two-phonon states composed of one dipole and one quadrupole phonon, of predicted anharmoniticies in the double-phonon dipole response, and of damping of the dipole resonance during the collision may account for the discrepancy. In addition, decay properties of two-phonon resonances were studied and compared to that of a statistical decay. (orig.)

  11. Observation of high-spin bands with large moments of inertia in 124Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Somnath; Singh, A. K.; Hagemann, G. B.; Sletten, G.; Herskind, B.; Døssing, T.; Ragnarsson, I.; Hübel, H.; Bürger, A.; Chmel, S.; Wilson, A. N.; Rogers, J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Korichi, A.; Stefanova, E. A.; Fallon, P.; Nyakó, B. M.; Timár, J.; Juhász, K.

    2016-09-01

    High-spin states in 124Xe have been populated using the 80Se(48Ca,4 n ) reaction at a beam energy of 207 MeV and high-multiplicity, γ -ray coincidence events were measured using the Gammasphere spectrometer. Six high-spin bands with large moments of inertia, similar to those observed in neighboring nuclei, have been observed. The experimental results are compared with calculations within the framework of the cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky model. It is suggested that the configurations of the bands involve excitations of protons across the Z =50 shell gap coupled to neutrons within the N =50 -82 shell or excited across the N =82 shell closure.

  12. Space charge in drift chambers operated with the Xe, CO$_{2}$(15\\%) mixture

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070213; Blume, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bucher, D; Busch, O; Catanescu, V; Ciobanu, M; Daues, H W; Emschermann, D; Fateev, O V; Foka, Y; Garabatos, C; Gunji, T; Herrmann, N; Inuzuka, M; Kislov, E; Lindenstruth, V; Ludolphs, W; Mahmoud, T; Petracek, V; Petrovici, M; Rusanov, I R; Sandoval, A; Santo, R; Schicker, R; Simon, R S; Smykov, L P; Soltveit, H K; Stachel, J; Stelzer, H; Tsiledakis, G; Vulpescu, B; Wessels, J P; Windelband, B; Xu, C; Zaudtke, O; Zanevsky, Yu; Yurevich, V; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.01.076

    2004-01-01

    Using prototype modules of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) we investigate space-charge effects and the dependence of the pion rejection performance on the incident angle of the ionizing particle. The average pulse height distributions in the drift chambers operated with the Xe, CO //2(15%) mixture provide quantitative information on the gas gain reduction due to space charge accumulating during the drift of the primary ionization. Our results demonstrate that the pion rejection performance of a TRD is better for tracks which are not at normal incidence to the anode wires. We present detailed simulations of detector signals, which reproduce the measurements and lend strong support to our interpretation of the measurements in terms of space-charge effects.

  13. Electron capture by fluorinated fullerene anions in collisions with Xe atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltalina, OV; Hvelplund, P; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Electron capture by 50-keV fluorinated fullerene anions (C60Fn- 18Xe atoms, The relative importance of nondissociative vs dissociative electron capture was found to depend strongly on the ion pro...... production method and on the number of attached F atoms. The absolute size of the cross section similar to 10(-16) cm(2) has been modeled within the over-the-barrier model......Electron capture by 50-keV fluorinated fullerene anions (C60Fn- 18atoms, The relative importance of nondissociative vs dissociative electron capture was found to depend strongly on the ion...

  14. A novel approach to measure the electric dipole moment of the isotope 129-Xe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchler F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent electric dipole moments (EDM of fundamental systems are promising systems to find new CP violation beyond the Standard Model. Our EDM experiment is based on hyper-polarized liquid xenon droplets of sub-millimeter size on a micro-fabricated structure, placed in a low-field NMR setup. Implementation of rotating electric fields enables a conceptually new EDM measurement technique, allowing thorough investigation of systematic effects. Still, a Ramsey-type spin precession experiment with static electric field can be realized at similar sensitivity within the same setup. Employing superconducting pick-up coils and highly sensitive LTc-SQUIDs, a large array of independent measurements can be performed simultaneously. With our approach we aim to finally increase the sensitivity on the EDM of 129Xe by more than three orders of magnitude.

  15. Surface Morphology and Phase Stability of Titanium Foils Irradiated by 136 MeV 136Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Sadi, S; Loveland, W; Watson, P R; Greene, J P; Zhu, S; Zinkann, G

    2013-01-01

    A stack of titanium foils was irradiated with 136 MeV 136Xe to study microstructure damage and phase stability of titanium upon irradiation. X- ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the resulting microstructure damage and phase stability of titanium. We observed the phase transfor- mation of polycrystalline titanium from alpha-Ti (hexagonally closed packed (hcp)) to face centered cubic (fcc) after irradiation with 2.2 x 1015 ions/cm2. Irradiation of Ti with 1.8 x 1014-2.2 x 1015 ions/cm2 resulted in the forma- tion of voids, hillocks, dislocation loops, dislocation lines, as well as polygonal ridge networks.

  16. Xe-133 Activity Evaluation of a Defective Fuel Rod Depending on Loading Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Young; Yang, Sung Tae; Jung, Ji Eun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Reliable performance of LWR fuels not only allows power plants to operate economically but also minimizes personnel radiation exposure, which may in turn contribute to convince the public of the viability of clean nuclear energy. Although KHNP's fuel failure rate has been remarkably decreased and it is excellent worldwide, one or two fuel rods have been damaged annually. Whenever fuel failure is occurred, KHNP engineers have to evaluate which FA(fuel assembly) is damaged by analyzing reactor coolant activity. It is important because they decide whether the FA with a damaged rod is the reload FA in the next cycle or not. Recently, based on our operational experience and technical expertise, we analyzed the reactor coolant activity in order to identify FA's loading cycle with a damaged fuel rod. This paper suggests the knowledge about Xe{sup 133} activity level analysis

  17. Depth distribution analysis of Martensitic transformations in Xe implanted austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, E.; Gerritsen, E.; Chechenin, N.G.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years the implantation of noble gases in metals has been found to induce some exciting phenomena such as formation of inclusions containing solid gas at extremely high pressures. In stainless steels these inclusions are the origin of a stress-induced martensitic fcc → bcc phase...... crystals, the depth distribution of gas inclusions and defects can be directly observed. Besides microstructural details of the near surface region, this technique offers a well calibrated depth scale to be compared with that derived by RBS. Using X-ray diffraction on implanted single crystals, the solid...... epitaxial nature of the Xe inclusions, induced prior to the martensitic transformation, was established. The lattice constant obtained from the broad diffraction peak indicates that the pressure in the inclusions is ≈ 5 GPa....

  18. Padoue et son contado (Xe-XIIIe siècle)

    OpenAIRE

    Rippe, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    L'ouvrage traite d’un objet classique – une cité et son contado – à l’aide des concepts mis au point par l’historiographie récente. Après avoir décrit le cadre territorial hérité de l’Antiquité et du haut Moyen Âge, elle analyse l’évolution de ce territoire et de ses institutions du Xe au XIIe siècle, notamment la naissance et la constitution d’une société féodale à laquelle s’intègrent même les « arimanni » , puis l’« incastellamento » et sa signification démographique et politique, enfin l’...

  19. Cross Sections of Charged Current Neutrino Scattering off 132Xe for the Supernova Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Divari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total cross sections as well as the neutrino event rates are calculated in the charged current neutrino and antineutrino scattering off 132Xe isotope at neutrino energies Ev<100 MeV. Transitions to excited nuclear states are calculated in the framework of quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The contributions from different multipoles are shown for various neutrino energies. Flux-averaged cross sections are obtained by convolving the cross sections with a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution. The flux-averaged cross sections are also calculated using terrestrial neutrino sources based on conventional sources (muon decay at rest or on low-energy beta-beams.

  20. Determining Optimal Parameters for Brown Dwarf Spectral Extraction using the aXe Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan D.; Radigan, Jacqueline

    2017-06-01

    This research seeks to find optimal extraction parameters for brown dwarf slitless spectra obtained using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), with the G141 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope. We have used the STScI aXe pipeline to extract spectral time series for three brown dwarf targets from HST program GO-13299 (PI: Radigan). These targets include two L/T transition dwarfs 2MASS-J16291840+033537 and SDSS-J075840.33+324723.4, and one L-dwarf 2MASS-J11263991-5003550. The parameters explored in this study include the spectral extraction width, the type of background subtraction, and the pixel weighting of the extraction. We also explore how target brightness effects the optimal reduction parameters. Scatter within the spectral time series are used to draw conclusions regarding the relative goodness of different sets of reduction parameters.

  1. Space charge in drift chambers operated with the Xe,CO2(15%) mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A

    2004-01-01

    Using prototype modules of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector we investigate space charge effects and the dependence of the pion rejection performance on the incident angle of the ionizing particle. The average pulse height distributions in the drift chambers operated with the Xe,CO2(15%) mixture provide quantitative information on the gas gain reduction due to space charge accumulating during the drift of the primary ionization. Our results demonstrate that the pion rejection performance of a TRD is better for tracks which are not at normal incidence to the anode wires. We present detailed simulations of detector signals, which reproduce the measurements and lend strong support to our interpretation of the measurements in terms of space charge effects.

  2. High-efficiency dielectric barrier Xe discharge lamp: theoretical and experimental investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beleznai, Sz [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 3-9 Muegyetem rkp., Budapest H-1111 (Hungary); Mihajlik, G [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 3-9 Muegyetem rkp., Budapest H-1111 (Hungary); Agod, A [GE Consumer and Industrial-Lighting, 77 Vaci ut, Budapest H-1344 (Hungary); Maros, I [GE Consumer and Industrial-Lighting, 77 Vaci ut, Budapest H-1344 (Hungary); Juhasz, R [GE Consumer and Industrial-Lighting, 77 Vaci ut, Budapest H-1344 (Hungary); Nemeth, Zs [GE Consumer and Industrial-Lighting, 77 Vaci ut, Budapest H-1344 (Hungary); Jakab, L [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 3-9 Muegyetem rkp., Budapest H-1111 (Hungary); Richter, P [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 3-9 Muegyetem rkp., Budapest H-1111 (Hungary)

    2006-09-07

    A dielectric barrier Xe discharge lamp producing vacuum-ultraviolet radiation with high efficiency was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The cylindrical glass body of the lamp is equipped with thin strips of metal electrodes applied to diametrically opposite sides of the outer surface. We performed a simulation of discharge plasma properties based on one-dimensional fluid dynamics and also assessed the lamp characteristics experimentally. Simulation and experimental results are analysed and compared in terms of voltage and current characteristics, power input and discharge efficiency. Using the proposed lamp geometry and fast rise-time short square pulses of the driving voltage, an intrinsic discharge efficiency around 56% was predicted by simulation, and more than 60 lm W{sup -1} lamp efficacy (for radiation converted into visible green light by phosphor coating) was demonstrated experimentally.

  3. Effects of temperature on Rb and 129Xe spin polarization in a nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope with low pump power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linlin; Zhou, Binquan; Lei, Guanqun; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhai, Yueyang; Wang, Zhuo; Fang, Jiancheng

    2017-11-01

    We propose an average Rb polarization model to analyze the influence of temperature on the spin polarization of Rb and 129Xe in a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) with low pump power. This model is essentially based on summing the Rb spin polarization along the direction of the pump beam and dividing the result by the cell length. We experimentally study the spin polarization of Rb and 129Xe atoms as a function of the cell temperature at low values of the pump power. The experimental results and the values calculated with the average Rb polarization model are in good agreement for both Rb and 129Xe. The spin polarization of Rb atoms decreases with increasing cell temperature, with a decreasing trend which is rapid at temperatures below 110 °C, and slower at temperatures above 110 °C. The experimental values of the 129Xe polarization, obtained with a pump power of 1 mW, first increase to a maximum P129X e-ave = 0.66 % at 118 °C, and then decreases as the temperature increases. Increasing the power of the pump beam shifts the temperature maximum to a higher value. Our model is suitable for the analysis of Rb and 129Xe polarization at high temperature and low pump power, i.e. when the power of the pump beam is completely absorbed within a few millimeters of the front window of the cell. Therefore, the present model can provide theoretical support for the improvement of the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) of the NMRG, and to determine its optimal working temperature.

  4. An evaluation of the performance of Sysmex XE-2100 in enumerating nucleated red cells in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Gene; Behling, Eric; Kocher, William; Schwarting, Roland

    2007-07-01

    Automated methods of enumerating nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in blood are gaining acceptance in many laboratories. To evaluate the performance of Sysmex XE-2100 in enumerating NRBCs in peripheral blood. Automated relative number of NRBCs per 100 white blood cells (NRBC%) results for a total of 460 specimens run on the XE-2100 were compared with manual NRBC% results obtained by performing a 100-cell differential on a Wright-stained smear prepared from each specimen. To assess within-day reproducibility, 64 specimens were rerun on the XE-2100, and a second 100-cell differential was performed on the original blood smear. Excel software was used for data analysis. Regression analysis of automated NRBC% versus manual NRBC% yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.9712. No NRBCs were seen in the blood smear on 35 (15.1%) of 232 specimens with automated NRBC% of 0.1 to 1.9. The XE-2100 generated an NRBC% of 0.0 on 5 (6.8%) of 74 specimens, revealing 1 NRBC per 100 or more white blood cells by blood smear examination. The mean percent difference between duplicate automated results was 16.7 compared with 78.1 for the duplicate manual results. There were 9 instances in which the XE-2100 either did not detect the presence of more than 8 NRBCs per 100 white blood cells or generated an automated NRBC% of 18.1 or 18.8 when the smear revealed none. All of these were, however, flagged for smear review. Overall correlation between the automated and manual results was excellent. The automated method revealed better precision than the manual method. The number of specimens with false automated results was very small, and all were flagged for verification by a smear review.

  5. Quantitative analysis of total reflection X-ray fluorescence from finely layered structures using XeRay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zhiliang [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Kerr, Daniel [Program in the Biophysical Sciences, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Hwang, Hyeondo Luke [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Henderson, J. Michael [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Suwatthee, Tiffany [The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Slaw, Benjamin R. [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Cao, Kathleen D. [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Lin, Binhua [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Bu, Wei [Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Lee, Ka Yee C. [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA

    2017-03-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a widely applicable experimental technique for studying chemical element distributions across finely layered structures at extremely high sensitivity. To promote and facilitate scientific discovery using TXRF, we developed a MATLAB-based software package with a graphical user interface, named XeRay, for quick, accurate, and intuitive data analysis. XeRay lets the user model any layered system, each layer with its independent chemical composition and thickness, and enables fine-tuned data fitting. The accuracy of XeRay has been tested in the analysis of TXRF data from both air/liquid interface and liquid/liquid interfacial studies and has been compared to literature results. In an air/liquid interface study, Ca2+ sequestration was measured at a Langmuir monolayer of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidic acid (SOPA) on a buffer solution of 1 mM CaCl2 at pH 7.5. Data analysis with XeRay reveals that each 1 nm2 of interfacial area contains 2.38 ± 0.06 Ca2+ ions, which corresponds to a 1:1 ratio between SOPA headgroups and Ca2+ ions, consistent with several earlier reports. For the liquid/liquid interface study of Sr2+ enrichment at the dodecane/surfactant/water interface, analysis using XeRay gives a surface enrichment of Sr2+ at 68+6-568-5+6 Å2 per ion, consistent with the result published for the same dataset.

  6. Xe2* laser photolysis of OCSe at 172 nm: Se(1S) production and quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Wayne M.; Rice, James K.; Woodworth, Joseph R.

    1981-01-01

    Energetic and kinetic properties of OCSe photodissociation at 172 nm have been studied using a Xe2* laser photolytic driver which delivered excitation energies of up to 60 mJ/cm2. Photoelectron production in the OCSe/Se(1S) medium was directly measured by analysis of microwave transmission data. At high laser fluence, significant concentrations of electrons (≳1.5×1013 cm-3) are produced by a consecutive process of Se(1S) photoionization, superelastic electron heating, and subsequent electron impact ionization of residual Se(1S); however, quenching by electrons can be effectively controlled by adding an electron-attaching diluent such as SF6. The OCSe photodissociation cross section and Se(1S) photoionization cross section at 172 nm were determined to be (1.0±0.15)×10-16 and (3.4±1.2)×10-19 cm2, respectively. Rate constants for Se(1S) quenching by electrons, the parent molecule and Se(3P) were determined to be (1.2±0.3)×10-7, (1.40±0.08)×10-10, and (7±3)×10-11 cm3 sec-1, respectively. The quantum efficiency for Se(1S) production was found to be 0.63±0.17 at a wavelength of 172 nm. Relative rates for collision-induced emission from Se(1S0) to Se(1D2) by N2, H2, SF6, CO, Ar, and Xe have been measured.

  7. Nuclear fragmentation for Xe+Au and Xe+Ag systems at an energy of 44 A.MeV, formation and decay of hot nuclei; Etude de la fragmentation nucleaire pour les systemes XE+AU et XE+AG a 44 A.MeV, production et decroissance de noyaux chauds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslin, C.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the formation and the decay of hot nuclear fragments produced in the reactions Xe+Au and Xe+Ag at an energy of 44 A.MeV is presented in this thesis. The 4{pi} experimental setup consisted of four multidetectors -two for the detection of the fragments (Z>7; DELF and XYZT) and two for the detection of the charged particles (Z<6; MUR and TONNEAU) and allowed an analysis using ``complete events`` (80 % of the total charge and the total parallel linear momentum of the entrance channel) to be carried out. The reaction mechanism is binary with as observed at low energy an almost complete relaxation of the incident energy. The collision results in two hot fragments at the beginning of the exit channel which decay by evaporation and/or fragmentation. In addition of these two body events, we have identified a new dynamic mechanism where we detect a small fragment, called the neck, coming form the overlap of the nuclei during the interaction, in coincidence with a projectile-like fragment and a target-like fragment. For the most dissipative collisions, the deep inelastic collision have allowed an estimation of the lifetime of the hot nuclear fragments to be made. This is possible using proximity effects and fragment-fragment space-time correlations of the decay of one or two primary partners from the deep inelastic collisions. This method is seen to reach its limits in the case of the reactions studied here. (authors). 61 refs.

  8. Quartz modification by Zn ion implantation and swift Xe ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privezentsev, Vladimir [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, Vaclav [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Didyk, Alexander; Skuratov, Vladimir [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Steinman, Edward; Tereshchenko, Alexey; Kolesnikov, Nikolay [Institute of Solid-State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Trifonov, Alexey; Sakharov, Oleg [National Research University ' ' MIET' ' , Zelenograd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ksenich, Sergey [National University of Science and Technology ' ' MISiS' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    The quartz slides were implanted by {sup 64}Zn{sup +} ions with dose of 5 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} and energy of 100 keV. After implantation, the amorphous metallic Zn nanoparticles with an average radius of 3.5 nm were created. The sample surface becomes nonuniform, its roughness is increased and its values rise up to 6 nm compared to virgin state, and the roughness maximum is at a value of about 0.8 nm. The surface is made up of valleys and hillocks which have a round shape with an average diameter about 200 nm. At the center of these hillocks are pores with a depth up to 6 nm and a diameter of about 20 nm. After implantation in UV-vis diapason, the optical transmission decreases while PL peak (apparently due to oxygen deficient centers) at wavelength of 400 nm increases. Then the samples were subjected to swift Xe ion irradiation with the fluences of 1 x 10{sup 12}-7.5 x 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2} and energy of 167 MeV. After Xe irradiation, the sample surface roughness shat down to values of 0.5 nm and the roughness maximum is at a value of about 0.1 nm. Optical transmission in UV-vis diapason increases. The PL peak at wavelength of 400 nm is decreased while a PL peak at wavelength of 660 nm is raised. This peak is presumably due to non-bridging oxygen hole centers or/and NPs with structure Si(core)/SiO{sub 2}(shell). HRTEM image of Zn-implanted quartz subsurface layer. One can see the Zn amorphous nanoparticles, which confirms the electron diffraction pattern (insert). (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Heavy noble gases in solar wind delivered by Genesis mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshik, Alex; Hohenberg, Charles; Pravdivtseva, Olga; Burnett, Donald

    2014-02-15

    One of the major goals of the Genesis Mission was to refine our knowledge of the isotopic composition of the heavy noble gases in solar wind and, by inference, the Sun, which represents the initial composition of the solar system. This has now been achieved with permil precision: (36)Ar/(38)Ar = 5.5005 ± 0.0040, (86)Kr/(84)Kr = .3012 ± .0004, (83)Kr/(84)Kr = .2034 ± .0002, (82)Kr/(84)Kr = .2054 ± .0002, (80)Kr/(84)Kr = .0412 ± .0002, (78)Kr/(84)Kr = .00642 ± .00005, (136)Xe/(132)Xe = .3001 ± .0006, (134)Xe/(132)Xe = .3691 ± .0007, (131)Xe/(132)Xe = .8256 ± .0012, (130)Xe/(132)Xe = .1650 ± .0004, (129)Xe/(132)Xe = 1.0405 ± .0010, (128)Xe/(132)Xe = .0842 ± .0003, (126)Xe/(132)Xe = .00416 ± .00009, and (124)Xe/(132)Xe = .00491 ± .00007 (error-weighted averages of all published data). The Kr and Xe ratios measured in the Genesis solar wind collectors generally agree with the less precise values obtained from lunar soils and breccias, which have accumulated solar wind over hundreds of millions of years, suggesting little if any temporal variability of the isotopic composition of solar wind krypton and xenon. The higher precision for the initial composition of the heavy noble gases in the solar system allows (1) to confirm that, exept (136)Xe and (134)Xe, the mathematically derived U-Xe is equivalent to Solar Wind Xe and (2) to provide an opportunity for better understanding the relationship between the starting composition and Xe-Q (and Q-Kr), the dominant current "planetary" component, and its host, the mysterious phase-Q.

  10. Improvements in the equipment for determination of Kr-85 with the reference method; Variaciones y mejoras del equipo utilizado como referencia para la concentracion y separacin criogenica cromatografica del Kr-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M. M.; Perez, M. M.

    1983-07-01

    A new equipment for Kr-85 separation and their cryogenic chromatographic concentration is described, which presents some advantages respect the equipment used as reference. The new apparatus, made with metallic elements, is based on the method of concentration and separation previously described but presents easier control, faster chromatographic separations and without loosed of efficiency and reproducibility that the previous one. The concentration and separation procedure for Kr-85 and a comparative study between both apparatus is described. Also the efficiency of the method is obtained experimentally. (Author)

  11. A comparison between the measurements of Kr-85 in environmental samples by liquid scintillation and proportional counters; Comparacion de resultados de la medida radiactiva del Kr-85 ambiental por centelleo liquido y contadores proporcionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M. C.; Perez, M. M.

    1983-07-01

    The most used methods for the measurement of Kr-81 beta-activity after their concentration and aisolation are the liquid scintillation counting and the proportional counter. In this work the beta activity of concentrated and aisolated Kr-85 samples measured in collaboration with the Max-Planck Institut fur Kernphyslk, Aussenstelle Freiburg. Samples taken both In Madrid and Frelburg are measured by proportional counters in the Max-Planck lnstitut, Freibury and by liquid scintillation counting in JEN, Madrid. The comparison of both measurements do not show appreciable discrepancy between the results obtained to both techniques. (Author)

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination.

  13. Electra: Repetitively Pulsed Angularly Multiplexed KrF Laser System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, Matthew; Myers, Matthew; Giuliani, John; Sethian, John; Burns, Patrick; Hegeler, Frank; Jaynes, Reginald

    2008-11-01

    As in a full size fusion power plant beam line, Electra is a multistage laser amplifier system. The multistage amplifier system consists of a commercial discharge laser and two doubled sided electron beam pumped amplifiers. Angular multiplexing is used in the optical layout to provide pulse length control and to maximize laser extraction from the amplifiers. Two angularly multiplexed beams have extracted 30 J of KrF laser light with an aperture 8 x 10 cm^2, which is sufficient to extract over 500 J from the main amplifier and models agree. The main amplifier of Electra in oscillator mode has demonstrated single shot and rep-rate laser energies exceeding 700 J with 100 ns pulsewidth at 248 nm with an aperture 29 x 29 cm^2. Continuous operation of the KrF electron beam pumped oscillator has lasted for more than 2.5 hours without failure at 1 Hz and 2.5 Hz. The measured intensity and pulse energy for durations greater than thousand shots are consistent at measurable rep-rates of 1 Hz, 2.5 Hz and 5 Hz.

  14. Conceptual design of a KrF scaling module. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    A conceptual design of an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF laser module for Inertial Confinement Fusion is presented. Optical designs for encoding, beam packing and beam transfer between amplifier stages are developed; emphasis is placed on reducing prepulse problems and achieving acceptable optical quality. An axisymmetric optical design is identified as optimum in terms of simplicity, optical quality, cost and alignment. A kinetic code model was developed for the KrF amplifier and was used to derive scaling maps for the 50 kJ module. Attention was given to reducing parasitics, achieving acceptable extraction efficiency and accounting for amplified spontaneous emission effects. The size of the module is constrained by parasitic suppression and damage thresholds; the power gain is constrained by demanding 40% extraction efficiency in a double pass extraction geometry; and, the run time is constrained by the pulsed power technology (PFN or PFL) and acceptable values of g/sub 0/L. The bounds imposed on the design by the pulsed power technology were examined. Both PFLs and PFNs were considered along with their associated diode, hibachi and guide field requirements. A base line design for a 50 kJ module including amplifier staging, layout and overall size is discussed. Cost analysis and scaling for optical components, pulsed power technology and the guide field are also presented.

  15. Complex fragment production in Kr-induced reactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, A.; Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica INFN, Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionale del Sud); Bonasera, A. (INFN, Catania (Italy)); Cavinato, M.; Gulminelli, F. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica INFN, Milan (Italy)); Cunsolo, A. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica INFN, Catania (Italy)); Di Leo, G.C. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)

    1991-07-15

    Several features of complex fragment production at intermediate energies can be understood from the coupling of a dynamical description, which takes into account entrance-channel properties, and a statistical decay of equilibrated primary sources. We discuss this point using two different models for the dynamics, both based on the idea of the competition between mean field and two-body effects in this intermediate-energy range. The importance of a slow emission of large clusters in the de-excitation stage is stressed, with the possibility of using a suitably extended evaporation code. Fragment yields and spectra are analysed for Kr-induced reactions on C, Al, Ti at 34.4 MeV/A and on Au at 43 MeV/A. The effects of a different equation of state (e.o.s.) used in microscopic calculations is analysed. A stiffer e.o.s. implies more stopping of the fragments. Finally, projectile-like fragments produced in the Kr+Au reaction at 200 MeV/A are analysed. The predictions of the participant-spectator model are confirmed in this energy range. (orig.).

  16. Šestinohý kráčející robot

    OpenAIRE

    Kotrík, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Táto práca sa zaoberá návrhom a následnou konštrukciou šesťnohého kráčajúceho robota. Práca pozostáva z niekoľkých častí, ktoré nám priblížia, akým spôsobom bolo postupované pri návrhu a konštrukcii robota. Práca začína opisom problematiky kráčajúceho robota. Pokračuje návrhom skeletu robota, prepočítaním jednotlivých momentov síl pôsobiacích na potenciálne vybrané servomotory v kĺboch končatín robota. Ďalšia časť sa zaoberá výberom vhodného servomotoru, tvorbou plošného spoja riadiacej dosky...

  17. Comparison of KrF and ArF excimer laser treatment of biopolymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaljaničová, I. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Heitz, J.; Barb, R.A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-06-01

    Highlights: • The influence of ArF and KrF laser on biopolymer surface was determined. • ArF laser acts predominantly on biopolymer surface. • PHB roughness is increased similarly for both applied wavelengths. • Roughness of nanostructures can be precisely controlled. • ArF laser introduces nitrogen on PHB surface. - Abstract: The goal of this work was the investigation of the impact of two different excimer lasers on two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers (poly-L-lactide and poly hydroxybutyrate). Both polymers find usage in medical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymers were modified by KrF and ArF excimer lasers. Subsequently the impact on surface morphology, surface chemistry changes, and thermal properties was studied by means of confocal and AFM microscopy, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy and DSC calorimetry. Under the same conditions of laser treatment it was observed that ArF laser causes more significant changes on surface chemistry, surface morphology and pattern formation on the polymers under investigation. The data obtained in this work can be used for a wide range of possible applications, in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in electronics, e.g. for biosensors.

  18. Fat quality in the indigenous Krškopolje pig reared in an enriched environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta ŽEMVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The search for fat composition and content that is favourable in intramuscular fat (IMF for fresh meat quality and at the same time in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCF for processed meat products, within the same breed, is reflected in the growing interest in native pig breeds. The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition of the IMF of M. longissimus dorsi (LD and adjacent SCF from the Slovenian indigenous Krškopolje pig. The type of fat from the 42 Krškopolje pig significantly affected the proportions of 29 of the 35 fatty acids measured here. The SCF contained higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and correspondingly less monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA than the IMF. Taking the extremes, the IMF at 6–10 % of the LD had higher proportions of SFA and MUFA and less PUFA than the IMF at 2–3 %. The thicker SCF (57–67 mm was higher in SFA and lower in PUFA than thinner (30–40 mm. Sex and age also affected fatty acid composition; the fat from barrows was higher in MUFA and lower in PUFA than that from gilts, and with increasing age, MUFA content increased.

  19. Kr implantation into heavy ion irradiated monolithic U-Mo/Al systems: SIMS and SEM investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, T.; Valle, N.; Grygiel, C.; Monnet, I.; Beck, L.; Petry, W.

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, high performance research and material test reactors are aiming to convert their fuel from high enriched uranium towards low enriched ones. High density U-Mo/Al based nuclear fuels are considered as a promising candidate for this conversion. However, during in-pile test irradiations, the formation of an interdiffusion layer (IDL) between the U-Mo and the Al matrix is observed, caused by irradiation enhanced U-Al interdiffusion processes. This IDL accumulates fission gases at the IDL/matrix interfaces. Together, these two effects strongly reduce the performance of this new fuel type. Recently, the out-of-pile technique of heavy ion irradiation (127I) on U-Mo/Al layer systems proved to be an alternative to time-consuming in-pile test irradiations for certain fuel behaviour aspects. Here we present SIMS and SEM investigations of non-conventional 82Kr implantation into previously heavy ion irradiated U-Mo/Al layer systems. It is shown that Kr accumulates inside μm large porosities at the IDL/matrix interfaces. This critical accumulation of μm-sized large gas bubbles is directly related to the presence of the irradiation induced IDL. Without IDL no critical accumulation of fission gas bubbles occurs.

  20. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  1. On stable Baire classes

    OpenAIRE

    Karlova, Olena; Mykhaylyuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study adhesive spaces. Using this concept we obtain a characterization of stable Baire maps $f:X\\to Y$ of the class $\\alpha$ for wide classes of topological spaces. In particular, we prove that for a topological space $X$ and a contractible space $Y$ a map $f:X\\to Y$ belongs to the $n$'th stable Baire class if and only if there exist a sequence $(f_k)_{k=1}^\\infty$ of continuous maps $f_k:X\\to Y$ and a sequence $(F_k)_{k=1}^\\infty$ of functionally ambiguous sets of the $n$'th...

  2. Evolution of the Rayleigh scattering from mixed Ar/Kr clusters during their saturation with krypton atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvaniya, I. A.; Dzhidzhoev, M. S.; Balakin, A. V.; Kuzechkin, N. A.; Shkurinov, A. P.; Gordienko, V. M.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of the Rayleigh scattering signal from mixed Ar/Kr clusters with variation in the partial Kr concentration in the initial gas mixture is investigated. An addition of krypton in small amounts to argon is found to cause an anomalously rapid increase in the Rayleigh scattering signal amplitude, which is due to a sharp increase in the size of clusters as a result of their saturation with krypton atoms. At a partial krypton concentration above 25% in the initial mixture, the scattering signal amplitude is stabilised because of the condensation saturation during the cluster formation.

  3. High-spin structures in Xe132 and Xe133 and evidence for isomers along the N=79 isotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, A.; Siciliano, M.; Birkenbach, B.; Reiter, P.; Hadyńska-Klęk, K.; Wheldon, C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Teruya, E.; Yoshinaga, N.; Arnswald, K.; Bazzacco, D.; Blazhev, A.; Bracco, A.; Bruyneel, B.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Chapman, R.; Cline, D.; Corradi, L.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Cromaz, M.; de Angelis, G.; Eberth, J.; Fallon, P.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Fransen, C.; Freeman, S. J.; Fu, B.; Gadea, A.; Gelletly, W.; Giaz, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Hayes, A. B.; Hess, H.; Hetzenegger, R.; Hirsch, R.; Hua, H.; John, P. R.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Karayonchev, V.; Kaya, L.; Korten, W.; Lee, I. Y.; Leoni, S.; Liang, X.; Lunardi, S.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Mijatović, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Napoli, D.; Pearson, C. J.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pollarolo, G.; Pullia, A.; Queiser, M.; Recchia, F.; Regan, P. H.; Régis, J. -M.; Saed-Samii, N.; Şahin, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Sletten, G.; Smith, J. F.; Söderström, P. -A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stezowski, O.; Szilner, S.; Szpak, B.; Teng, R.; Ur, C.; Warner, D. D.; Wolf, K.; Wu, C. Y.; Zell, K. O.

    2017-08-01

    The transitional nuclei 132 Xe and 133 Xe are investigated after multinucleon-transfer (MNT) and fusion-evaporation reactions. Both nuclei are populated (i) in 136 Xe + 208 Pb MNT reactions employing the high-resolution Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) coupled to the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA, (ii) in the 136 Xe + 198 Pt MNT reaction employing the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer in combination with the gas-detector array CHICO, and (iii) as an evaporation residue after a 130 Te ( α , x n ) 134 - x n Xe fusion-evaporation reaction employing the HORUS γ -ray array at the University of Cologne. The high-spin level schemes are considerably extended above the J π = ( 7 - ) and ( 10 + ) isomers in 132 Xe and above the 11 / 2 - isomer in 133 Xe . The results are compared to the high-spin systematics of the Z = 54 as well as the N = 78 and N = 79 chains. Furthermore, evidence is found for a long-lived ( T 1 / 2 >> 1 μ s ) isomer in 133 Xe which closes a gap along the N = 79 isotones. Shell-model calculations employing the SN100PN and PQM130 effective interactions reproduce the experimental findings and provide guidance to the interpretation of the observed high-spin features.

  4. Stable Unhappy Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.; Albrecht, Stan L.

    1991-01-01

    Examined prevalence and determinants of stable unhappy marriage using data from national survey. Results indicated age, lack of prior marital experience, commitment to marriage as an institution, low social activity, lack of control over one's life, and belief that divorce would detract from happiness were all predictive of stability in unhappy…

  5. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  6. Cofinal stable logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, G.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Ilin, J.

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the (∧,∨)-canonical formulas to (∧,∨)-canonical rules, and prove that each intuitionistic multi-conclusion consequence relation is axiomatizable by (∧,∨)-canonical rules. This yields a convenient characterization of stable superintuitionistic logics. The (∧,∨)-canonical formulas are

  7. Generation of metallic arc spectrum of pumping discharge of XeCl laser; XeCl ekishima laser reiki hoden ni okeru arc iko to kinzoku supekutoru no hassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, H.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-12-20

    An arc generation of a long-pulse spiker-sustainer excimer laser with about 250ns of pulse width , is discussed by using time-varying spectroscopic method. First arcing occurs during a main discharge for laser excitation and shows XeII spectrum, while a glow-like discharge represents only XeI spectrum, the metallic spectrum such as Nil caused by vaporization of electrode material begins to appear just after the termination of the main discharge. Second arcing occurs after about 2{mu}s, which brings strong intensity of Nil spectrum. It means that the reignition arc might be produced in a metallic vapor that appears during the main discharge. Accordingly, it is concluded that the reignition arc is inherently metallic, which is different from the main arc with rare gas plasma. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  8. LASER PHYSICS: Formation of XeCl excimer molecules as a result of mixing of gas streams excited by a continuous discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhkel'soo, V. T.; Treshchalov, A. B.; Peét, V. É.; Yalviste, É. Kh; Belokon', A. A.; Braĭnin, B. I.; Khritov, K. M.

    1987-07-01

    A longitudinal continuous discharge in two independent supersonic gas streams, which were subsequently mixed, was used for nonequilibrium electronic excitation of components undergoing reactions and emitting chemiluminescence. Formation of XeCl excimer molecules as a result of mixing of excited He:Xe = 95:5 and He:HCl(Cl2) = 99:1 streams was deduced from the XeCl* fluorescence spectra (B→X and C→A bands). The steady-state concentration of the XeCl molecules in B and C states determined in the mixing region was ~1010 cm-3 when the pump power was 50 W, so that the efficiency of conversion of the input electrical energy into the excimer fluorescence was ~1%.

  9. Multiterawatt femtosecond hybrid system based on a photodissociation XeF(C-A) amplifier in the visible range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, S V; Aristov, A I; Ivanov, N G; Kovalchuk, B N; Losev, V F; Mesyats, Gennadii A; Mikheev, L D; Panchenko, Yu N; Ratakhin, N A

    2012-05-31

    This paper describes a multiterawatt hybrid laser system based on a Ti : sapphire front end and 25-cm-aperture photodissociation XeF(C - A) amplifier. The front end generates 50-fs pulses with second-harmonic ({lambda} = 475 nm) energies of up to 5 mJ. The gainmedium of the amplifier is produced in a XeF{sub 2} - N{sub 2} mixture by VUV radiation excited in xenon by a high-power electron beam. Through amplification of a negatively chirped 1-ps pulse, followed by pulse compression in bulk fused silica, a peak power of 14 TW, record-high for the visible range, has been achieved.

  10. Interdigitated 50 nm Ti electrode arrays fabricated using XeF{sub 2} enhanced focused ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santschi, Ch [Laboratoire de Microsystemes (LMIS), Station 17, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jenke, M [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee (LOA), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 17, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Hoffmann, P [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee (LOA), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 17, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Brugger, J [Laboratoire de Microsystemes (LMIS), Station 17, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-06-14

    The fabrication of interdigitated titanium nanoelectrode arrays of 50 nm in width and spacing is described in this work. The nanoarrays have been realized using a Ga{sup +} focused ion beam (FIB). FIB milling is typically accompanied by redeposition of removed material, which represents an important hindrance for milling closely spaced nanostructures. Redeposition effects have been reduced by means of XeF{sub 2} gas assistance, which increases the etch yield by a factor of seven compared with pure ion milling. Furthermore, we used a simple adsorption model, which led to the conclusion that dwell time and refresh time should be <500 ns and >30 ms, respectively, for optimized XeF{sub 2} assisted Ti milling. The measured resistance R of the electrodes is higher than 1 G{omega}.

  11. Search for two-neutrino double electron capture on 124Xe with the XMASS-I detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Double electron capture is a rare nuclear decay process in which two orbital electrons are captured simultaneously in the same nucleus. Measurement of its two-neutrino mode would provide a new reference for the calculation of nuclear matrix elements whereas observation of its neutrinoless mode would demonstrate lepton number violation. A search for two-neutrino double electron capture on 124Xe is performed using 165.9 days of data collected with the XMASS-I liquid xenon detector. No significant excess above background was observed and we set a lower limit on the half-life as 4.7×1021 years at 90% confidence level. The obtained limit has ruled out parts of some theoretical expectations. We obtain a lower limit on the 126Xe two-neutrino double electron capture half-life of 4.3×1021 years at 90% confidence level as well.

  12. Influence of graphene coating on the adsorption and tribology of Xe on Au(1 1 1) substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y N; Bortolani, V; Mistura, G

    2014-11-05

    The adsorption and tribological properties of graphene have received increasing attention for the further development of graphene-based coatings in applications. In this work, we performed first principles calculations with the inclusion of the nonlocal van der Waals correction to study the effect of graphene coating on the adsorption geometries, sliding frictions and electronic properties of Xe monolayer on the Au(1 1 1) substrate. The calculated activation energies indicate that Xe becomes movable on pure Au(1 1 1) surface at a temperature of around 30 K, whereas its motion can be activated only at a high temperature of ~50 K on graphene and on graphene-coated Au(1 1 1) substrates, in good agreement with recent experimental measurements by quartz crystal microbalance technique.

  13. Beta-decay half-lives of sup 7 sup 0 Kr and sup 7 sup 4 Rb

    CERN Document Server

    Oinonen, M; Köster, U; Huikari, J; Jokinen, A; Nieminen, A; Peraejaervi, K; Baumann, P; Didierjean, François; Huck, A; Knipper, A; Ramdhane, M; Walter, G; Huyse, M; Van Duppen, P; Marguier, G; Novikov, Y; Popov, A; Seliverstov, D M; Schatz, H

    2002-01-01

    Beta-decay half-lives of two nuclei close to N=Z line, sup 7 sup 0 Kr and sup 7 sup 4 Rb, have been measured at the ISOLDE mass-separator facility at CERN. Importance of these half-lives on two ingredients explaining existence and development of the Universe, the astrophysical nucleosynthesis and the Standard Model, are discussed.

  14. Investigation of the effects of LIFT printing with a KrF-excimer laser on thermally sensitive electrically conductive adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perinchery, S.M.; Smits, E.C.P.; Sridhar, A.; Albert, P.; Brand, J. van den; Mandamparambil, R.; Yakimets, I.; Schoo, H.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Laser induced forward transfer is an emerging material deposition technology. We investigated the feasibility of this technique for printing thermally sensitive, electrically conductive adhesives with and without using an intermediate dynamic release layer. A 248nm KrF-excimer laser was used to

  15. Fluoranthene metabolism in Mycobacterium sp. strain KR20: identity of pathway intermediates during degradation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmann, K; Hertkorn, N; Kettrup, A A

    2001-10-01

    Mycobacterium sp. strain KR20, which was isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil of a former gaswork plant site, metabolized about 60% of the fluoranthene added (0.5 mg ml(-1)) to batch cultures in mineral salts medium within 10 d at 20 degrees C. It thereby increased its cell number about 30-fold and produced at least seven metabolites. Five metabolites, namely cis-2,3-fluoranthene dihydrodiol, Z-9-carboxymethylene-fluorene-1-carboxylic acid, cis-1,9a-dihydroxy-1-hydro-fluorene-9-one-8-carboxylic acid, 4-hydroxybenzochromene-6-one-7-carboxylic acid and benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, could be identified by NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques and ascribed to an alternative fluoranthene degradation pathway. Besides fluoranthene, the isolate could not use any of the PAHs tested as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  16. Resonant third harmonic generation of KrF laser in Ar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, R. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00–908 Warsaw (Poland); Barna, A. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association HAS, 1121 Budapest, XII. Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33 (Hungary); Suta, T.; Földes, I. B. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association HAS, 1121 Budapest, XII. Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33 (Hungary); Bohus, J.; Szatmári, S. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Mikołajczyk, J.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00–908 Warsaw (Poland); Verona, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University “Tor Vergata”, Via Orazio Raimondo, 18–00173, Rome (Italy); Verona Rinati, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University “Tor Vergata”, Via Orazio Raimondo, 18–00173, Rome (Italy); Margarone, D. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Nowak, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, E. Radzikowskiego 152, 31–342 Cracow (Poland); and others

    2014-12-15

    Investigations of emission of harmonics from argon gas jet irradiated by 700 fs, 5 mJ pulses from a KrF laser are presented. Harmonics conversion was optimized by varying the experimental geometry and the nozzle size. For the collection of the harmonic radiation silicon and solar-blind diamond semiconductor detectors equipped with charge preamplifiers were applied. The possibility of using a single-crystal CVD diamond detector for separate measurement of the 3rd harmonic in the presence of a strong pumping radiation was explored. Our experiments show that the earlier suggested 0.7% conversion efficiency can really be obtained, but only in the case when phase matching is optimized with an elongated gas target length corresponding to the length of coherence.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances in PNe. III: Se and Kr (Sterling+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, N. C.; Porter, R. L.; Dinerstein, H. L.

    2015-08-01

    We have selected 15 PNe that exhibit emission lines from multiple Kr ions in their optical and near-infrared spectra (Table 1). Ten of these objects were modeled in Paper I (Sterling et al., 2007ApJS..169...37S). We draw the other objects from optical spectra published since Paper I (Sharpee et al. 2007, J/ApJ/659/1265; Garcia-Rojas et al. 2012, J/A+A/538/A54), with the exception of NGC 5315 (Peimbert et al. 2004ApJS..150..431P). Intensities for the K-band emission lines from Paper II (Sterling+, 2008ApJS..174..158S) were determined using the extinction coefficients listed in Table 1 and the extinction law adopted by the optical data reference. See section 3 for the complete explanation. (6 data files).

  18. Spectral Catalogue of Kr Optical Lines for the Development of Diagnostics for Fusion Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, C.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Harris, C.L.; Utter, S.B.; Wong, K.L.

    2000-06-14

    We made an inventory of krypton spectra over the wavelength range 3700-6000 {angstrom} for the development of fusion plasma diagnostics. The measurements were performed using a Steinheil prism spectrometer on the LLNL low energy electron beam ion trap (EBIT II). With the electron energy from 150 eV to 17000 eV, we recorded low ionization stages together with a number of magnetic dipole transitions from higher charge states. In total, we observed over 80 lines, of which about 70% of the lines have not been listed in the literature. This measurement established a baseline for future extension using spectrometers with very high resolution. As an example, we present the Kr spectra from 3770 {angstrom} to 3900 {angstrom} measured with a transmission grating spectrometer that has a resolving power of about 15000. Among the 41 lines observed, only 6 lines have been listed in the databases.

  19. Two waveguide layers in lithium niobate crystal formed by swift heavy Kr ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Huang, Qing; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Kong, Wei-Jin; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Lian; Zhou, Yu-Fan; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2015-05-01

    We report the formation of two waveguide layers in a lithium niobate crystal by irradiation with swift heavy Kr ions with high (GeV) energies and ultralow fluences. The micro-Raman spectra are measured at different depths in the irradiated layer and show that the high electronic energy loss can cause lattice damage along the ion trajectory, while the nuclear energy loss causes damage at the end of the ion track. Two waveguide layers are formed by confinement with two barriers associated with decreases in the refractive index that are caused by electronic and nuclear energy losses, respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275117, U1432120, and 11274188) and the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China.

  20. Applicability of KrF excimer laser induced fluorescence in sooting high-pressure flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildenbrandt, F.; Schulz, C.; Sick, V.; Jander, H.; Wagner, H.G.

    1999-07-01

    Laser-induced emissions obtained after excitation with a tunable KrF excimer laser at 248 nm were measured in well-defined sooting laminar high-pressure flames fueled with methane/air and ethylene/air up to 15 bar. A spectral analysis shows that Mie scattering, Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signals can be used for detailed flame studies under sooting high-pressure conditions. Mie scattering is correlated with soot, Raman signals can be used to measure spatially-resolved major species concentrations as well as temperatures. A LIF-scheme to measure NO was found to be applicable even under these conditions. The broadband fluorescence in the range from 270 to 290 nm, usually discarded as background, correlates well with the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as measured via GC-MS methods. (orig.)

  1. Evidence for a smooth onset of deformation in the neutron-rich Kr isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Albers, M; Nomura, K; Blazhev, A; Jolie, J; Mucher, D; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Bernards, C; Bettermann, L; Bildstein, V; Butterworth, J; Cappellazzo, M; Cederkall, J; Cline, D; Darby, I; Das Gupta, S; Daugas, J M; Davinson, T; De Witte, H; Diriken, J; Filipescu, D; Fiori, E; Fransen, C; Gaffney, L P; Georgiev, G; Gernhauser, R; Hackstein, M; Heinze, S; Hess, H; Huyse, M; Jenkins, D; Konki, J; Kowalczyk, M; Kroll, T; Krucken, R; Litzinger, J; Lutter, R; Marginean, N; Mihai, C; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Nara Singh, B S; Nowak, K; Otsuka, T; Pakarinen, J; Pfeiffer, M; Radeck, D; Reiter, P; Rigby, S; Robledo, L M; Rodriguez-Guzman, R; Rudigier, M; Sarriguren, P; Scheck, M; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Simpson, G; Thole, P; Thomas, T; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Wadsworth, R; Wenander, F; Wimmer, K; Zell, K O; Zielinska, M

    2012-01-01

    The neutron-rich nuclei $^{94,96}$Kr were studied via projectile Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. Level energies of the first excited 2$^{+}$ states and their absolute $E2$ transition strengths to the ground state are determined and discussed in the context of the $E(2^{+}_{1})$ and $B(E2;2^{+}_{1} \\rightarrow 0^{+}_{1})$ systematics of the krypton chain. Contrary to previously published results no sudden onset of deformation is observed. This experimental result is supported by a new proton-neutron interacting boson model calculation based on the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach using the microscopic Gogny-D1M energy density functional.

  2. Stable Hybrid Adaptive Control,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    STABLE HYBRID ADAPTIVE CONTROL(U) YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN i/i CT CENTER FOR SYSTEMS SCIENCE K S NARENDRA ET AL. JUL 82 8286 Ne@04-76-C-8e7 UNCLASSIFIED...teasrallepsaaw1tflbe~ll b ydd Il"t 5 As is the comtanuous Case cistral to the stability analysis of the hybrid ~IVt* COnRol PO* IMare the sur Models

  3. Some considerations on the use of gamma spectrometry for Kr-85 determination at gaseous effluents in the nuclear industry and environmental samples; Estudio sobre la aplicacin de la espectrometria gamma en la medida del Kr-8 5 ambiental y en efluentes gaseosos de la industria nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M. C.; Perez, M. M.; Travesi, A.

    1983-07-01

    The possibilities of using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry with GeLi semiconductor detector for measured the 0.514 KeV gamma radiation of Kr-B5 la explored, The detection limit of Kr-85 for a measuring time is 4.10{sup -}4 {mu}Ci with a counting time of 1000 minutes in a GeLi detector with a 20% efficiency relative to the INa (Tl). It is concluded that the use of gamma ray spectrometry for measuring the Kr-85 is not useful for environmental samples, but it can be used for the Kr-85 effluents control in Nuclear Stations. (Author) 26 refs.

  4. Phase shift improvement in ArF/KrF haze-free mask cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cathy; Zhao, Shirley; Guo, Eric; Hasegawa, Shinichi; Nemoto, Keiichi; Kuwajima, Tsuneaki

    2008-10-01

    The continuous evolution of LSI design rules has created an increased demand for the use of KrF and ArF phase-shift photomasks (EPSMs). One of the critical issues in the use of those photomasks, especially ArF half-tone photomasks, has been the generation of optical hazes known as (NH4)2SO4. The other critical issue has been a relatively large phase shift of those ArF and KrF photomasks caused by so-called haze-free mask cleaning.. In the present study we used an SPM integrated clean (as a reference) consisting of heated SPM, diluted SC-1 and heated UPW (widely known for rinsing), and a haze-free integrated mask clean consisting of Ozonated-water with a simultaneous 222nm Excimer UV irradiation, diluted SC-1 and heated UPW. We found that both Ozonated-water with a simultaneous 222nm Excimer UV irradiation and the diluted SC-1 (the components of the haze-free integrated clean) caused a sizable phase shift during the mask clean. We also found that the other component of the haze-free integrated clean, the heated UPW developed a relatively large phase shift in those photomasks. We have confirmed that the more we repeat the use of the 172nm Excimer UV light irradiation treatment before the clean, the less (more improved) phase shift has been realized in the haze-free clean. We found that the haze-free integrated clean also developed the CD shifts of the above photomasks and that those CD shifts could be recovered (reduced) drastically by the use of the 172nm Excimer UV light irradiation before the clean.

  5. Patterning of 90nm node flash contact hole with assist feature using KrF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yeonah; Jun, Sungho; Choi, Jaeyoung; Choi, Kwangseon; Han, Jae-won; Wang, Kechang; McCarthy, John; Xiao, Guangming; Dai, Grace; Son, DongHwan; Zhou, Xin; Cecil, Thomas; Kim, David; Baik, KiHo

    2009-10-01

    Patterning of contact holes using KrF lithography system is one of the most challenging tasks for the sub-90nm technology node,. Contact hole patterns can be printed with a KrF lithography system using Off-Axis Illumination (OAI) such as Quasar or Quadrupole. However, such a source usually offers poor image contrast and poor depth of focus (DOF), especially for isolated contact holes. In addition to image contrast and DOF, circularity of hole shape is also an important parameter for device performance. Sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) can be used to improve the image contrast, DOF and circularity for isolated contact holes. Application of SRAFs, modifies the intensity profile of isolated features to be more like dense ones, improving the focal response of the isolated feature. The insertion of SRAFs in a contact design is most commonly done using rule-based scripting, where the initial rules for configuring the SRAFs are derived using a simulation tool to determining the distance of assist features to main feature, and the size and number of assist features to be used.. However in the case of random contact holes, rule-based SRAF placement is a nearly impossible task. To address this problem, an inverse lithography technique was successfully used to treat random contact holes. The impact of SRAF configuration on pattern profile, especially circularity and process margin, is demonstrated. It is also shown that the experimental data are easily predicted by calibrating aerial image simulation results. Finally, a methodology for optimizing SRAF rules using inverse lithography technology is described.

  6. Improvement of KrF contact layer by inverse lithography technology with assist feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sungho; Shim, Yeon-Ah; Choi, Jaeyoung; Choi, Kwangsun; Han, Jae-won; Wang, Kechang; McCarthy, John; Xiao, Guangming; Dai, Grace; Son, DongHwan; Zhou, Xin; Cecil, Tom; Kim, David; Baik, KiHo

    2010-05-01

    Patterning of contact holes using KrF lithography system is one of the most challenging tasks for the sub-90nm technology node,. Contact hole patterns can be printed with a KrF lithography system using Off-Axis Illumination (OAI) such as Quasar or Quadrupole. However, such a source usually offers poor image contrast and poor depth of focus (DOF), especially for isolated contact holes. In addition to image contrast and DOF, circularity of hole shape is also an important parameter for device performance. Sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) can be used to improve the image contrast, DOF and circularity for isolated contact holes. Application of SRAFs, modifies the intensity profile of isolated features to be more like dense ones, improving the focal response of the isolated feature. The insertion of SRAFs in a contact design is most commonly done using rule-based scripting, where the initial rules for configuring the SRAFs are derived using a simulation tool to determining the distance of assist features to main feature, and the size and number of assist features to be used. However in the case of random contact holes, rule-based SRAF placement is a nearly impossible task. To address this problem, an inverse lithography technique was successfully used to treat random contact holes. The impact of SRAF configuration on pattern profile, especially circularity and process margin, is demonstrated. It is also shown that the experimental data are easily predicted by calibrating aerial image simulation results. Finally, a methodology for optimizing SRAF rules using inverse lithography technology is described.

  7. Kr-86 Ion-Beam Irradiation of Hydrated DNA: Free Radical and Unaltered Base Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, David; Adhikary, Amitava; Tetteh, Smedley T.; Bull, Arthur W.; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    This work reports an ESR and product analysis investigation of Kr-86 ion-beam irradiation of hydrated DNA at 77 K. The irradiation results in the formation and trapping of both base radicals and sugar phosphate radicals (DNA backbone radicals). The absolute yields (G, μmol/J) of the base radicals are smaller than the yields found in similarly prepared γ-irradiated DNA samples, and the relative yields of backbone radicals relative to base radicals are much higher than that found in γ-irradiated samples. From these results, we have elaborated our radiation chemical model of the track structure for ion-beam irradiated DNA as it applies to krypton ion-beams. The base radicals, which are trapped as ion radicals or reversibly protonated or deprotonated ion radicals, are formed almost entirely in the track penumbra, a region in which radiation chemical effects are similar to those found in γ-irradiated samples. By comparing the yields of base radicals in ion-beam samples to the yields of the same radicals in γ-irradiated samples, the partition of energy between the low-LET region (penumbra) and the core is experimentally determined. The neutral sugar and other backbone radicals, which are not as susceptible to recombination as are ion radicals, are formed largely in the track core. The backbone radicals show a linear dose response up to very high doses. Unaltered base release yields in Kr-86 irradiated hydrated DNA are equal to sugar radical yields within experimental error limits, consistent with radiation-chemical processes in which all base release originates with sugar radicals. Two phosphorus-centered radicals from fragmentation of the DNA backbone are found in low yields. PMID:23106211

  8. A non-LTE analysis of high energy density Kr plasmas on Z and NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, A.; Clark, R. W.; Ouart, N.; Giuliani, J.; Velikovich, A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Hansen, S. B.; Jennings, C.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jones, B.; Flanagan, T. M.; Bell, K. S.; Apruzese, J. P.; Fournier, K. B.; Scott, H. A.; May, M. J.; Barrios, M. A.; Colvin, J. D.; Kemp, G. E.

    2016-10-01

    Multi-keV X-ray radiation sources have a wide range of applications, from biomedical studies and research on thermonuclear fusion to materials science and astrophysics. The refurbished Z pulsed power machine at the Sandia National Laboratories produces intense multi-keV X-rays from argon Z-pinches, but for a krypton Z-pinch, the yield decreases much faster with atomic number ZA than similar sources on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. To investigate whether fundamental energy deposition differences between pulsed power and lasers could account for the yield differences, we consider the Kr plasma on the two machines. The analysis assumes the plasma not in local thermodynamic equilibrium, with a detailed coupling between the hydrodynamics, the radiation field, and the ionization physics. While for the plasma parameters of interest the details of krypton's M-shell are not crucial, both the L-shell and the K-shell must be modeled in reasonable detail, including the state-specific dielectronic recombination processes that significantly affect Kr's ionization balance and the resulting X-ray spectrum. We present a detailed description of the atomic model, provide synthetic K- and L-shell spectra, and compare these with the available experimental data from the Z-machine and from NIF to show that the K-shell yield behavior versus ZA is indeed related to the energy input characteristics. This work aims at understanding the probable causes that might explain the differences in the X-ray conversion efficiencies of several radiation sources on Z and NIF.

  9. Teflon impregnated anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles irradiated by 80 keV Xe{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanam, Rizwin; Paul, Nibedita; Kumar, P.; Kanjilal, D.; Ahmed, Gazi A.; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: •Nanoscale TiO{sub 2} exhibited swelling led particle growth due to low energy ion impact. •Formation of Xe crystals is likely to induce swelling behavior in titania. •Nanoripples are witnessed on the surface of nanoparticles. •Manifested band edge and oxygen vacancy related optical emissions have been revealed. -- Abstract: We report the effect of 80 keV Xe{sup +} ion irradiation on the morphological and optical responses of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles spread over commercially available polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon). These nanoparticles were synthesized via a convenient, sol–gel approach with titanium isopropoxide as the main precursor. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies we found that, the nanoparticles crystallize in anatase phase and with a preferential orientation of crystallites along (1 0 1) plane. Upon irradiation at a fluence of 1.25 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}, the nanoparticle dimension was found to increase from a value of ∼9 nm to ∼20–30 nm. Essentially, particle growth is predicted as a consequence of swelling behavior accompanied by the formation of Xe van der Waal crystals in isolated regions of nano-titania. Evidence of nanoripples was also witnessed on the surface of the irradiated nano-titania. The morphological evolution was assessed both by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies (AFM and TEM) independently. From the UV–Vis optical absorption studies, the estimated optical band gap was found to drop with increasing fluence, while refractive index exhibited a remarkable improvement. Photoluminescence (PL) studies have revealed that, the band edge emission and those due to the self trapped excitons (STE) and other oxygen vacancy related ones were manifested considerably as a result of Xe ion irradiation.

  10. Evolution from quasielastic to deep-inelastic transfer in the system /sup 132/Xe + sup(nat)Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reus, U.; Westmeier, W.; Esterlund, R.A.; Rox, A.; Rajagopalan, M.; Patzelt, P.

    1981-08-01

    Angular distributions of products from the reaction of 5.90 MeV/u /sup 132/Xe ions with a natural Fe target have been determined radiochemically, using catcher-foil techniques. Partially-damped products with charge near that of the projectile exhibit distributions which clearly evolve from quasielastic yields focussed near the grazing angle to deep-inelastic products orbiting towards forward angles.

  11. Effect of somatostatin on /sup 133/Xe clearance from colonic mucosa before and after local nervous blocade in unanaesthetized man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agerskov, K.; Bousfield, R.; Mortensen, P.E.; Olsen, J.; Christiansen, J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of intravenous somatostatin bolus on mucosal and submucosal blood flow in six patients with colostomies was studied with local /sup 133/Xe clearance technique. Mucosal and submucosal blood flow decreased by 28% after somatostatin injection. After induction of local nervous blockade by infiltrating the labelled area of the mucosal membrane with lidocaine, the reduction in blood flow caused by somatostatin was abolished. These observations suggest that the vasoconstrictor effect of somatostatin is mediated by neurogenic mechanisms.

  12. Detection of 133Xe from the Fukushima nuclear power plant in the upper troposphere above Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Simgen, H.; Arnold, F.; H. Aufmhoff; Baumann, R; Kaether, F.; Lindemann, S.; Rauch, L.; Schlager, H; Schlosser, C; Schumann, U.

    2014-01-01

    After the accident in the Japanese Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 large amounts of radioactivity were released and distributed in the atmosphere. Among them were also radioactive noble gas isotopes which can be used as tracers to probe global atmospheric circulation models. This work presents unique measurements of the radionuclide $^{133}$Xe from Fukushima in the upper troposphere above Germany. The measurements involve air sampling in a research jet aircraft followed b...

  13. Angle-resolved Wigner time delay in atomic photoionization: The 4 d subshell of free and confined Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Kheifets, A. S.; Dolmatov, V. K.; Manson, S. T.

    2017-11-01

    The angular dependence of photoemission time delay for the inner n d3 /2 and n d5 /2 subshells of free and confined Xe is studied in the dipole relativistic random phase approximation. A finite spherical annular well potential is used to model the confinement due to fullerene C60 cage. Near cancellations in a variety of the dipole amplitudes, Cooper-like minima, are found. The effects of confinement on the angular dependence, primarily confinement resonances, are demonstrated and detailed.

  14. Diagnostic Study and Self-Consistent Modelling of a Low-Pressure He-Xe Discharge for Lighting Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussiahn, René; Gortchakov, Serguei; Lange, Hartmut; Uhrlandt, Dirk

    2003-10-01

    A glow discharge in a mixture of helium and 2% xenon in a cylindrical tube is considered, which can be used for the design of mercury-free low-pressure VUV radiation sources and fluorescent lamps. Optimal operation conditions with respect to the efficiency and the output power of the 147 nm resonance radiation of xenon atoms are evaluated by experimental investigations assisted by a self-consistent analysis of the dc positive column plasma. The column plasma is investigated in the range of the total pressure p0 from 133 to 470 Pa at discharge currents Iz from 5 to 200 mA using tubes with the radii r_w=0.5, 0.875 and 1.12 cm. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been applied to determine the absolute densities of the Xe(1s_5), Xe(1s_4), Xe(1s_3) and Xe(1s_2) states and their radial profiles. The axial electric field has been measured by means of two Langmuir probes. Theoretical investigations of the dc column plasma use a self-consistent hybrid model which comprises a treatment of the non-local electron kinetics and the radial space charge confinement as well as a detailed balance description of all important excited states. The accuracy of the model is evaluated by detailed comparisons of model results and measurements for several discharge parameter conditions. In addition, the model is used for the study of the radiation efficiency and output power in extended parameter ranges of the dc glow discharge.

  15. Luminescence characteristics of Xe2Cl excimer molecules under pumping the dense Xe—CCl4 gas mixtures with a pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mis'kevich, A. I.; Jinbo, Guo

    2013-05-01

    Temporal and spectral characteristics of the luminescence of dense Xe—CCl4 gas mixtures of different composition, excited by a 5-ns pulsed electron beam, were measured. The energy of the electrons amounted to 150 keV and the electron beam current pulse amplitude was 5 A. The gas mixtures were used containing Xe (38-700 Torr) and CCl4 (0.03-0.3 Torr). The studies were performed within the wavelength range 200-1200 nm using a MAYA-2000Pro diffraction grating spectrometer and a RIGOL DS 5022 ME fast digital oscilloscope. The luminescence lifetimes of the excimer molecules XeCl* (band with λmax = 308 nm) and Xe2Cl* (band with λmax = 486 nm) were measured, as well as the constants of quenching by the components of the gas mixture for Xe2Cl* molecules. A model of plasma-chemical processes for dense Xe—CCl4 gas mixtures with a very low content of the CCl4 donor is proposed. It is shown that in such 'poor' mixtures Xe2Cl* molecules are mainly produced as a result of recombination of the Xe2+ and Cl- ions.

  16. Radiation damage induced in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal sequentially irradiated with reactor neutrons and 90 MeV Xe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirour, H. [Faculty of Physics, USTHB, BP. 32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Izerrouken, M., E-mail: izerrouken@yahoo.com [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria, BP. 43, Sebbala, Draria, Algiers (Algeria); Sari, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Berine, BP. 108, Ain-Oussara, Djelfa (Algeria)

    2016-06-15

    The present investigation reports the effect of 90 MeV Xe ion irradiation on neutron irradiated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals. Three irradiation experiments were performed, with neutrons only, 90 MeV Xe ions only and with neutrons followed by 90 MeV Xe ions. Neutron and 90 MeV Xe ion irradiations were performed at NUR research reactor, Algiers, Algeria and at GANIL accelerator, Caen, France respectively. After irradiation, the radiation damage was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), optical absorption measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Raman technique revealed that the concentration of the defects formed in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples subsequently irradiated with neutrons and 90 MeV Xe ions is lower than that formed in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples which were irradiated only with neutrons. This reveals the occurrence of ionization-induced recovery of the neutron damage. Furthermore, as revealed by XRD analysis, a new peak is appeared at about 2θ = 38.03° after irradiation at high fluence (>3 × 10{sup 13} Xe/cm{sup 2}). It can be assigned to the formation of new lattice plane.

  17. The response functions of the HEPC/LEPC detector system measured at the Xe L edge region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Olesen, C.; Schnopper, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    , respectively. The widths of the pulse height distributions indicate an increase of the Fano factor for Xe at the L absorption edges. These results are in good agreement with earlier predictions. Detailed analysis of the shape of the photopeaks as well as of the tail and escape contributions will also....../CH4 mixture as the counter gas. The response function as well as the pulse height-energy relation for a Xe/CH4 filled MSGC were investigated with monochromatized synchrotron radiation of the BESSY double crystal monochromator. The detector response functions were recorded at similar to 100 selected...... photon energies in the range from 1.8 to 5.9 keV. The response functions were measured with photon energy steps of 5 eV around the Xe L subshells. The average pulse height versus photon energy relation shows clear jumps at the L edges of 55 eV, 25.6 eV and 153. eV at the L(3), L(2) and L(1) shell...

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements in schizophrenics by /sup 133/Xe inhalation and intra-venous injection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Sumiya, Hisashi; Ishida, Hiroko; Taki, Junichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Katsuji; Yamaguchi, Nariyoshi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow measurements were performed in 25 schizophrenic patients and 25 healthy volunteers by /sup 133/Xe inhalation and intra-venous injection method. Schizophrenic patients were classified into the following three groups. Group I: 8 patients without auditory hallucination measured by 2-dimensional /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. Group II: 6 patients with auditory hallucination measured by the same method as in Group I. Group III: 11 patients, including 2 patients with auditory hallucination measured by 3-dimensional /sup 133/Xe intra-venous injection method at the level of OM+5 cm. Bilateral regional percent values, which were obtained by dividing regional values by hemispheric mean or sectional mean values, for frontal lobes in Group I and II were significantly lower than those in the controls. In addition, bilateral regional percent values for bilateral temporal lobes in Group II were significantly higher than those in the controls. In Group III, regional percent values for right frontal lobes and those for posterior part of central gray matter showed significant decrease and increase, respectively. These findings would suggest that the negative symptoms of schizophrenia are related to the hypofrontal and positive ones to the hypertemporoparietal activity.

  19. Depolarization of nuclear spin polarized 129Xe gas by dark rubidium during spin-exchange optical pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, M. A.; Burant, Alex; Wagner, Wolfgang; Branca, Rosa T.

    2017-06-01

    Continuous-flow spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) continues to serve as the most widespread method of polarizing 129Xe for magnetic resonance experiments. Unfortunately, continuous-flow SEOP still suffers from as-yet unidentified inefficiencies that prevent the production of large volumes of xenon with a nuclear spin polarization close to theoretically calculated values. In this work we use a combination of ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) measurements to study the effects of dark Rb vapor on hyperpolarized 129Xe in situ during continuous-flow SEOP. We find that dark Rb vapor in the optical cell outlet has negligible impact on the final 129Xe polarization at typical experimental conditions, but can become significant at higher oven temperatures and lower flow rates. Additionally, in the AAS spectra we also look for a signature of paramagnetic Rb clusters, previously identified as a source of xenon depolarization and a cause for SEOP inefficiency, for which we are able to set an upper limit of 8.3 × 1015 Rb dimers per cm3.

  20. Level structure of 141Ba and 139Xe and the level systematics of N=85 even-odd isotones

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Y X; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V; Hwang, J K; Beyer, C J; Zhu, S J; Kormicki, J; Zhang, X Q; Jones, E F; Gore, P M; Ginter, T N; Gregorich, K E; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; Zielinski, P M; Folden, C M; Fallon, P; Ter-Akopian, G M; Oganessian, Yu T; Daniel, A V; Stoyer, M A; Cole, J D; Donangelo, R; Wu, S C; Asztalos, S J

    2002-01-01

    New level schemes of sup 1 sup 4 sup 1 Ba and sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Xe are proposed from the analyses of spontaneous-fission gamma data from our sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf spontaneous fission Gammasphere runs of 1995 and 2000. By analogy with the N = 85 even-odd isotones sup 1 sup 4 sup 9 Gd, sup 1 sup 4 sup 7 Sm, and sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 Nd, spins and parities were assigned to the observed excited states in sup 1 sup 4 sup 1 Ba and sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Xe. It appears that spherical shell model neutron excitations plus octupolephonons are an appropriate basis at the lower end of the bands. Going to higher spins it is clear that the soft rotor involving valence protons as well as neutrons becomes increasingly important in the configurations. Level systematics in the N = 85 even-odd isotones from Gd(Z=64) through Te(Z=52), are discussed. The excitation systematics and smooth trends of the analogous levels support the spin and parity assignment for excited levels observed in sup 1 sup 4 sup 1 Ba and sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Xe. The le...

  1. Temperature and energy effects on secondary electron emission from SiC ceramics induced by Xe17+ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixia; Zhou, Xianming; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Xing; Ren, Jieru; Lei, Yu; Ma, Lidong; Zhao, Yongtao; Zhang, Xiaoan; Xu, Zhongfeng

    2017-07-25

    Secondary electron emission yield from the surface of SiC ceramics induced by Xe 17+ ions has been measured as a function of target temperature and incident energy. In the temperature range of 463-659 K, the total yield gradually decreases with increasing target temperature. The decrease is about 57% for 3.2 MeV Xe 17+ impact, and about 62% for 4.0 MeV Xe 17+ impact, which is much larger than the decrease observed previously for ion impact at low charged states. The yield dependence on the temperature is discussed in terms of work function, because both kinetic electron emission and potential electron emission are influenced by work function. In addition, our experimental data show that the total electron yield gradually increases with the kinetic energy of projectile, when the target is at a constant temperature higher than room temperature. This result can be explained by electronic stopping power which plays an important role in kinetic electron emission.

  2. Local structure of xenon adsorbed in the nanospaces of zeolites as studied by high-pressure 129Xe NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Hironori; Ueda, Takahiro; Kato, Noriko; Miyakubo, Keisuke; Eguchi, Taro

    2006-09-07

    Pressure (0-10 MPa) and local density dependence of 129Xe NMR chemical shift of xenon in various microporous materials was investigated using an in situ high-pressure probe. The density dependence of the chemical shift was analyzed using virial expansion of the chemical shift by xenon density. Results indicate that the second virial coefficient depends on the pore size and shape, and that the void space affects xenon-xenon interaction in both microporous and mesoporous materials. Furthermore, to interpret the magnitude of the virial coefficient in terms of the local structure of the adsorbed xenon, we analyzed the local structure of adsorbed xenon in molecular sieve 5A using Xe(n) clusters, thereby allowing description of the density dependence of the chemical shift. We also demonstrated the cluster model's validity by applying it to molecular sieves 13X and ZSM-5. The latter showed that the adsorbed xenon exists as a xenon monomer up to the filling of about 0.6 in micropores. Larger xenon clusters up to n = 4 have been grown with increasing filling of xenon. According to analyses using the Xe(n) cluster model, the second virial coefficient is related closely with the xenon cluster size, which contributes greatly to the chemical shift in the low loading region.

  3. Evolution of quadrupole and octupole collectivity north-east of $^{132}$ Sn: the even Te and Xe isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study excited states in isotopes north-east of the doubly-magic $^{132}$Sn by $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy following "safe" Coulomb excitation. The experiment aims to the determine B(E2) and B(E3) values to follow the evolution of quadrupole and octupole collectivity when going away from the shell closures at Z = 50 and N = 82. The B(E2; 0$^+_{gs}$ $\\rightarrow$ 2$^+_{1}$) values in the even isotopes $^{138-144}$Xe have been measured at REX-ISOLDE and the systematic trend towards neutron-rich nuclei is well described even by an empirical Grodzins-type formula. An increasing dipole moment observed for $^{140,142}$Xe is interpreted as indirect signature of increasing octupole correlations peaking at N = 88. So far, no B(E3) values are known. In contrast to the Xe isotopes, the Te ones, in particular $^{136}$Te, are known for their notoriously irregular behaviour. In order to understand the nuclear structure also on a microscopic basis, the isotope $^{136}$Te with just one pair of protons and neutrons...

  4. New parameters available on Sysmex XE-5000 hematology analyzers contribute to differentiating dengue from leptospirosis and enteric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehadian, A; Michels, M; de Mast, Q; Prihatni, D; Puspita, M; Hartantri, Y; Sinarta, S; van der Ven, A J A M; Alisjahbana, B

    2015-12-01

    Distinguishing dengue virus infection from other febrile thrombocytopenic illnesses such as leptospirosis or enteric fever is important but difficult, due to the unavailability of reliable diagnostic tests. Sysmex XE-5000 hematology analyzers use fluorescence flow cytometry to quantitate new parameters including cells in the atypical lymphocyte area (AL), high-fluorescent lymphocyte counts (HFLC), immature granulocytes (IG), and immature platelets (IPF). This study aimed to investigate whether these parameters can help to discriminate between the diseases. We compared hematocytometry performed by a Sysmex XE-5000 analyzer in Indonesian adults with dengue (n = 93), leptospirosis (n = 11), and enteric fever (n = 6) infection, and in healthy controls (n = 28). Receiver operating characteristic curves comparing dengue and leptospirosis showed that dengue was characterized by increased %AL (AUC 0.87; 95% CI 0.70-1.03), %HFLC (AUC 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-0.99), and %IPF (AUC 0.81; 95% CI 0.65-0.97), while patients with leptospirosis had increased %IG (AUC 0.86; 95% CI 0.71-1.02). Low %AL, %HFLC, and %IG supported a diagnosis of enteric fever. The detection of AL, HFLC, IG, and IPF by Sysmex XE-5000 hematology analyzers can help to differentiate between common causes of febrile illnesses with thrombocytopenia in dengue endemic areas. We recommend further investigating the discriminatory value of these parameters in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Investigation of DOTA-Metal Chelation Effects on the Chemical Shift of 129 Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, K; Slack, CC; Vassiliou, CC; Dao, P; Gomes, MD; Kennedy, DJ; Truxal, AE; Sperling, LJ; Francis, MB; Wemmer, DE; Pines, A

    2015-09-17

    Recent work has shown that xenon chemical shifts in cryptophane-cage sensors are affected when tethered chelators bind to metals. Here in this paper, we explore the xenon shifts in response to a wide range of metal ions binding to diastereomeric forms of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) linked to cryptophane-A. The shifts induced by the binding of Ca2+, Cu2+, Ce3+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Cr2+, Fe3+, and Hg2+ are distinct. In addition, the different responses of the diastereomers for the same metal ion indicate that shifts are affected by partial folding with a correlation between the expected coordination number of the metal in the DOTA complex and the chemical shift of 129Xe. Lastly, these sensors may be used to detect and quantify many important metal ions, and a better understanding of the basis for the induced shifts could enhance future designs.

  6. Characterization the microstructure and defects of matrix graphite irradiated with Xe ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. X.; Lin, J.; Li, J. J.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Zeng, G. L.; Liu, J. D.; Gu, B. C.; Liu, B.

    2017-09-01

    The matrix graphite of pebble fuel elements was irradiated with 1 MeV Xe ions at room temperature to fluences of 5.8 × 1014 ions/cm2 and 2.9 × 1015 ions/cm2, respectively. The microstructure and defects of matrix graphite samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and slow positron beam techniques. The SEM result reveals that hundred-nanometer sized pores appear at the surface after irradiation and the density of pore increases with fluence. Raman results show that D peak (1350 cm-1) and G peak (1580 cm-1) are broadened after irradiation. In addition, the G peak position shifts from 1580 cm-1 to 1560 cm-1 with the linewidth increases from 21 cm-1 to 132 cm-1, corresponding to the increase in bond-angle disorder as the matrix graphite transforms from microcrystalline to amorphous carbon(a-C). The slow positron beam study shows that the defects-trapped positron S parameter increases with fluence, suggesting that the vacancy-type defects concentration or size of open volume defects increases. The analysis of Raman and slow positron beam consistently conclude that the reason for the phase transition after irradiation is the increase in irradiation-induced vacancy defects accompanied by the overlap of disordered regions.

  7. The development and progress of XeCl Excimer laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Ma, Lianying; Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Zhu, Yongxiang; Hu, Yun; Qian, Hang; Shao, Bibo; Yi, Aiping; Liu, Jingru

    2015-05-01

    A large angularly multiplexed XeCl Excimer laser system is under development at the Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology (NINT). It is designed to explore the technical issues of uniform and controllable target illumination. Short wavelength, uniform and controllable target illumination is the fundamental requirement of high energy density physics research using large laser facility. With broadband, extended light source and multi-beam overlapping techniques, rare gas halide Excimer laser facility will provide uniform target illumination theoretically. Angular multiplexing and image relay techniques are briefly reviewed and some of the limitations are examined to put it more practical. The system consists of a commercial oscillator front end, three gas discharge amplifiers, two electron beam pumped amplifiers and the optics required to relay, encode and decode the laser beam. An 18 lens array targeting optics direct and focus the laser in the vacuum target chamber. The system is operational and currently undergoing tests. The total 18 beams output energy is more than 100J and the pulse width is 7ns (FWHM), the intensities on the target will exceed 1013W/cm2. The aberration of off-axis imaging optics at main amplifier should be minimized to improve the final image quality at the target. Automatic computer controlled alignment of the whole system is vital to efficiency and stability of the laser system, an array of automatic alignment model is under test and will be incorporated in the system soon.

  8. A description of odd mass Xe and Te isotopes in the Interacting Boson–Fermion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Musleh, S. [National Center of Research, Gaza, Palestine (Country Unknown); Phys. Dep., Faculty of Women for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abu-Zeid, H.M. [Phys. Dep., Faculty of Women for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Scholten, O. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, 9747 AA, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    Recent interest in spectroscopic factors for single-neutron transfer in low-spin states of the even–odd Xenon {sup 125,127,129.131}Xe and even–odd Tellurium, {sup 123,125,127,129,131}Te isotopes stimulated us to study these isotopes within the framework of the Interacting Boson–Fermion Model. The fermion that is coupled to the system of bosons is taken to be in the positive parity 3s{sub 1/2}, 2d{sub 3/2}, 2d{sub 5/2}, 1g{sub 7/2} and in the negative 1h{sub 11/2} single-particle orbits, the complete 50–82 major shell. The calculated energies of low-spin energy levels of the odd isotopes are found to agree well with the experimental data. Also, B(E2), B(M1) values and spectroscopic factors for single-neutron transfer are calculated and compared with experimental data.

  9. Photolytic degradation of organic azo dye in aqueous solution using Xe-excimer lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Zhu, S; Hou, H

    2006-02-01

    The photodegradation of organic azo dye C.I. Food Yellow 4 (FY-4) in aqueous solution was achieved, without the addition of oxidants, by 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation emitted from the planar Xe-excimer lamp. The degradation was mainly attributed to the impact of HO radicals produced by water absorbing VUV radiation. The dye decolorization followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The initial quantum yields of FY-4 decolorization in O2-saturated solution and N2-saturated solution were respectively 0.151 +/- 0.003 and 0.103 +/- 0.002. Dissolved oxygen in the solution contributed to the increase of the decolorization rate and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate while KCI added as HO radical scavenger decreased the efficiency of the decolorization and COD removal. It was found from the change of the UV-Vis spectra that the degradation of FY-4 was accompanied by both the cleavage of chromophoric group and the opening of aromatic ring. Major intermediates detected were aromatic compounds, some low molecular weight by-products and several organic acids and inorganic ions.

  10. Anisole fluorescence spectroscopy for temperature measurements with a Hg (Xe) arc lamp excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, P.; Kanumuri, S. S.; Bonnety, J.; Tran, K.-H.; Serio, B.; Bonnet, D.; Luc, J.; Lavayssiere, M.

    2017-04-01

    The main contribution of this study is to propose time-resolved measurements to determine temperature with a novel source of continuous excitation for an induced fluorescence technique with laser diagnosis based on tracer-induced fluorescence, which has become a major tool for experimental studies of fluid dynamics in reaction flows. We use a Hg (Xe) arc lamp as a continuous light source that has a wide range of emissions in wavelength. With this setup, one can reach high spatial and temporal resolution (temperature, pressure, species concentration, and velocity) to acquire quantitative data for the control of fluid thermal systems, such as engines, combustion chambers, furnaces, and reactors. A fluorescence study was performed on various tracers and their configurations. We focus on an anisole tracer using a broad wavelength of excitations. We propose a calibration to achieve temperature measurements in the range of 493-773 K and from 0.2 to 3.5 MPa of pressure. The temperature-dependent fluorescence is based on a two-line technique. The results give a better understanding of the influence of temperature and pressure in a nitrogen bath gas on the fluorescence photophysics in the UV domain. High temporal resolution was acquired using a high-speed intensified camera setup. The application of the photomultipliers manages the time-scale evolution of the flow in continuous emission and this eliminates the signal-to-noise ratio impact.

  11. Production mechanism of new neutron-rich heavy nuclei in the 136Xe +198Pt reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Wen, Peiwei; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Gen; Li, Bing; Xu, Xinxin; Liu, Zhong; Zhu, Shaofei; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2018-01-01

    The multinucleon transfer reaction of 136Xe +198Pt at Elab = 7.98 MeV/nucleon is investigated by using the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. The quasielastic, deep-inelastic, and quasifission collision mechanisms are studied via analyzing the angular distributions of fragments and the energy dissipation processes during the collisions. The measured isotope production cross sections of projectile-like fragments are reasonably well reproduced by the calculation of the ImQMD model together with the GEMINI code. The isotope production cross sections for the target-like fragments and double differential cross sections of 199Pt, 203Pt, and 208Pt are calculated. It is shown that about 50 new neutron-rich heavy nuclei can be produced via deep-inelastic collision mechanism, where the production cross sections are from 10-3 to 10-6 mb. The corresponding emission angle and the kinetic energy for these new neutron-rich nuclei locate at 40∘-60∘ and 100-200 MeV, respectively.

  12. Photoionization of 3d electrons of Xe, Cs and Ba endohedral atoms: comparative analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusia, Miron; Baltenkov, Arkadiy; Chernysheva, Larissa

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate rather interesting manifestations of co-existence of resonance features in characteristics of the photoionization of 3d-electrons in Xe, Cs and Ba endohedral atoms. It is shown that for all of the considered atoms the reflection by the fullerene shell of photoelectrons produced by the 3d subshell photoionization affects greatly partial photoionization cross-sections of 3d 5/2 and 3d 3/2 levels and respective angular anisotropy parameters, both dipole and non-dipole adding to all of them additional maximums and minimums. The results obtained demonstrate distinctive differences between the three atoms. The calculations are performed treating the 3/2 and 5/2 electrons as electrons of different kinds with their spins "up" and "down". The effect of the C60 shell is accounted for in the frame of the "orange" skin potential model. It is essential that in the considered photon frequency region the presented resonance features are not affected by the C60polarization.

  13. Stable and Enforceable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2011-01-01

    -term stabilisation. We argue for public sector debt targets as a practical way to achieve such a set up, and an excess debt protocol is constructed to give enforceable form to those targets. The ideas of “fiscal space” and optimal debt levels are used to provide a mechanism for identifying a stable region within...... which the debt targeting regime should operate. Making these factors explicit would both improve the credibility of planned fiscal policies and reduce risk premia on borrowing costs. We finally show how Europe’s competitiveness pact, and debt restructuring operations, can be used to maximise...

  14. Feasibility, tolerability and safety of pediatric hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe magnetic resonance imaging in healthy volunteers and children with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkup, Laura L.; Watters, Erin; Ruppert, Kai [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomen, Robert P.; Woods, Jason C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Physics, St. Louis, MO (United States); Akinyi, Teckla G.; Cleveland, Zackary I. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati, Biomedical Engineering Program, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Clancy, John P. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe is a promising contrast agent for MRI of pediatric lung function, but its safety and tolerability in children have not been rigorously assessed. To assess the feasibility, safety and tolerability of hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe gas as an inhaled contrast agent for pediatric pulmonary MRI in healthy control subjects and in children with cystic fibrosis. Seventeen healthy control subjects (ages 6-15 years, 11 boys) and 11 children with cystic fibrosis (ages 8-16 years, 4 boys) underwent {sup 129}Xe MRI, receiving up to three doses of {sup 129}Xe gas prepared by either a commercially available or a homebuilt {sup 129}Xe polarizer. Subject heart rate and SpO{sub 2} were monitored for 2 min post inhalation and compared to resting baseline values. Adverse events were reported via follow-up phone call at days 1 and 30 (range ±7 days) post-MRI. All children tolerated multiple doses of {sup 129}Xe, and no children withdrew from the study. Relative to baseline, most children who received a full dose of gas for imaging (10 of 12 controls and 8 of 11 children with cystic fibrosis) experienced a nadir in SpO{sub 2} (mean -6.0 ± standard deviation 7.2%, P≤0.001); however within 2 min post inhalation SpO{sub 2} values showed no significant difference from baseline (P=0.11). There was a slight elevation in heart rate (mean +6.6 ± 13.9 beats per minute [bpm], P=0.021), which returned from baseline within 2 min post inhalation (P=0.35). Brief side effects related to the anesthetic properties of xenon were mild and quickly resolved without intervention. No serious or severe adverse events were observed; in total, four minor adverse events (14.3%) were reported following {sup 129}Xe MRI, but all were deemed unrelated to the study. The feasibility, safety and tolerability of {sup 129}Xe MRI has been assessed in a small group of children as young as 6 years. SpO{sub 2} changes were consistent with the expected physiological effects of a short anoxic breath

  15. Comparison of image registration based measures of regional lung ventilation from dynamic spiral CT with Xe-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Fuld, Matthew K; Du, Kaifang; Christensen, Gary E; Hoffman, Eric A; Reinhardt, Joseph M

    2012-08-01

    Regional lung volume change as a function of lung inflation serves as an index of parenchymal and airway status as well as an index of regional ventilation and can be used to detect pathologic changes over time. In this paper, the authors propose a new regional measure of lung mechanics-the specific air volume change by corrected Jacobian. The authors compare this new measure, along with two existing registration based measures of lung ventilation, to a regional ventilation measurement derived from xenon-CT (Xe-CT) imaging. 4DCT and Xe-CT datasets from four adult sheep are used in this study. Nonlinear, 3D image registration is applied to register an image acquired near end inspiration to an image acquired near end expiration. Approximately 200 annotated anatomical points are used as landmarks to evaluate registration accuracy. Three different registration based measures of regional lung mechanics are derived and compared: the specific air volume change calculated from the Jacobian (SAJ); the specific air volume change calculated by the corrected Jacobian (SACJ); and the specific air volume change by intensity change (SAI). The authors show that the commonly used SAI measure can be derived from the direct SAJ measure by using the air-tissue mixture model and assuming there is no tissue volume change between the end inspiration and end expiration datasets. All three ventilation measures are evaluated by comparing to Xe-CT estimates of regional ventilation. After registration, the mean registration error is on the order of 1 mm. For cubical regions of interest (ROIs) in cubes with size 20 mm × 20 mm × 20 mm, the SAJ and SACJ measures show significantly higher correlation (linear regression, average r(2) = 0.75 and r(2) = 0.82) with the Xe-CT based measure of specific ventilation (sV) than the SAI measure. For ROIs in slabs along the ventral-dorsal vertical direction with size of 150 mm × 8 mm × 40 mm, the SAJ, SACJ, and SAI all show high correlation (linear

  16. Test of Lorentz symmetry with a {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe clock-comparison experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Claudia

    2011-01-28

    The minimal Standard Model Extension (SME) of Kostelecky and coworkers, which parametrizes the general treatment of CPT- and Lorentz invariance violation, predicts sidereal modulations of atomic transition frequencies as the Earth rotates relative to a Lorentz-violating background field. One method to search for these modulations is the so-called clock-comparison experiment, where the frequencies of co-located clocks are compared as they rotate with respect to the fixed stars. In this work an experiment is presented where polarized {sup 3}He and {sup 129}Xe gas samples in a glass cell serve as clocks, whose nuclear spin precession frequencies are detected with the help of highly sensitive SQUID sensors inside a magnetically shielded room. The unique feature of this experiment is the fact that the spins are precessing freely, with transverse relaxation times T{sup *}{sub 2} of up to 4.4 h for {sup 129}Xe and 14.1 h for {sup 3}He. To be sensitive to Lorentz-violating effects, the influence of external magnetic fields is canceled via the weighted {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe phase difference, {delta}{phi}={phi}{sub he}-({gamma}{sub he})/({gamma}{sub xe}) {phi}{sub xe}. The Lorentz-violating SME parameters for the neutron, b{sup n}{sub X} and b{sup n}{sub Y}, are determined out of a {chi}{sup 2} fit on the phase difference data of 7 spin precession measurements of 12 to 16 hours length. The piecewise defined fit model contains a sine and a cosine term to describe the sidereal modulation, as well as 7 offset terms, 7 linear terms and 7 . 2 exponential terms decreasing with T{sup *}{sub 2,he} and T{sup *}{sub 2,xe}, which are assigned to the respective measurement. The linear term in the weighted phase difference mainly arises from deviations of the gyromagnetic ratios from their literature values due to chemical shifts, while the exponential terms reflect the phase shifts resulting from demagnetization fields in the non-ideally spherical sample cell. The result of the {chi

  17. Contribution of I Kr and I K1 to ventricular repolarization in canine and human myocytes: is there any influence of action potential duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Norbert; Acsai, Károly; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Baczkó, István; Bitay, Miklós; Bogáts, Gábor; Nánási, Péter P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the profile of the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (I (Kr)) and the inward rectifier potassium current (I (K1)) during ventricular repolarization as a function of action potential duration and rate of repolarization. Whole cell configuration of the patch clamp technique was used to monitor I (Kr) and I (K1) during the action potential plateau and terminal repolarization. Action potentials recorded at various cycle lengths (0.4-5 s) and repolarizing voltage ramps having various slopes (0.5-3 V/s) were used as command signals. I (Kr) and I (K1) were identified as difference currents dissected by E-4031 and BaCl(2), respectively. Neither peak amplitudes nor mean values of I (Kr) and I (K1) recorded during the plateau of canine action potentials were influenced by action potential duration. The membrane potential where I (Kr) and I (K1) peaked during the terminal repolarization was also independent of action potential duration. Similar results were obtained in undiseased human ventricular myocytes, and also in canine cells when I (Kr) and I (K1) were evoked using repolarizing voltage ramps of various slopes. Action potential voltage clamp experiments revealed that the peak values of I (Kr), I (K1), and net outward current during the terminal repolarization were independent of the pacing cycle length within the range of 0.4 and 5 s. The results indicate that action potential configuration fails to influence the amplitude of I (Kr) and I (K1) during the ventricular action potential in dogs and humans, suggesting that rate-dependent changes in action potential duration are not likely related to rate-dependent alterations in I (Kr) or I (K1) kinetics in these species.

  18. Boltzmann equation analysis of electrons swarm parameters and properties of excited particle number densities in Xe/Ne plasmas. Laser absorption effect; Xe/Ne plasma chudenshi yuso keisu narabi ni reiki ryushisu mitsudo tokusei no Boltzmann hoteishiki kaiseki. Laser ko kyushu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, S.; Sugawara, H.; Ventzek, P.; Sakai, Y. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Xe/Ne plasmas are important for plasma display panels and VUV light sources. However, reactions between electrons and excited particles in the mixtures are so complicated that influence of the reactions on the plasma properties is not understood well. In this work, taking account of reactions through which electrons are produced, such as cumulative and Penning ionization, and of transition between excited levels, the electron and excited particle properties in Xe/Ne plasmas are calculated using the Boltzmann equation. The ionization coefficient and electron drift velocity agreed with experimental data. The influence of laser absorption in Xe/Ne plasmas on the plasma properties is also discussed. 25 refs., 15 figs.

  19. Modeling holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes of modular polyketide synthases: a docking and molecular dynamics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Swadha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modular polyketide synthases are multifunctional megasynthases which biosynthesize a variety of secondary metabolites using various combinations of dehydratase (DH, ketoreductase (KR and enoyl-reductase (ER domains. During the catalysis of various reductive steps these domains act on a substrate moiety which is covalently attached to the phosphopantetheine (P-pant group of the holo-Acyl Carrier Protein (holo-ACP domain, thus necessitating the formation of holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes. Even though three dimensional structures are available for DH, KR and ACP domains, no structures are available for DH or KR domains in complex with ACP or substrate moieties. Since Ser of holo-ACP is covalently attached to a large phosphopantetheine group, obtaining complexes involving holo-ACP by standard protein-protein docking has been a difficult task. Results We have modeled the holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes for identifying specific residues on DH and KR domains which are involved in interaction with ACP, phosphopantetheine and substrate moiety. A novel combination of protein-protein and protein-ligand docking has been used to first model complexes involving apo-ACP and then dock the phosphopantetheine and substrate moieties using covalent connectivity between ACP, phosphopantetheine and substrate moiety as constraints. The holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes obtained from docking have been further refined by restraint free explicit solvent MD simulations to incorporate effects of ligand and receptor flexibilities. The results from 50 ns MD simulations reveal that substrate enters into a deep tunnel in DH domain while in case of KR domain the substrate binds a shallow surface exposed cavity. Interestingly, in case of DH domain the predicted binding site overlapped with the binding site in the inhibitor bound crystal structure of FabZ, the DH domain from E.Coli FAS. In case of KR domain, the substrate binding site

  20. New Technique for Barium Daughter Ion Identification in a Liquid Xe-136 Double Beta Decay Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, William [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    This work addresses long-standing issues of fundamental interest in elementary particle physics. The most important outcome of this work is a new limit on neutrinoless double beta decay. This is an extremely rare and long-sought-after type of radioactive decay. If discovered, it would require changes in the standard model of the elementary constituents of matter, and would prove that neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same, a revolutionary concept in particle physics. Neutrinos are major components of the matter in the universe that are so small and so weakly interacting with other matter that their masses have not yet been discovered. A discovery of neutrinoless double beta decay could help determine the neutrino masses. An important outcome of the work on this project was the Colorado State University role in operating the EXO-200 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and in analysis of the data from this experiment. One type of double beta decay of the isotope 136Xe, the two-neutrino variety, was discovered in this work. Although the other type of double beta decay, the neutrinoless variety, was not yet discovered in this work, a world’s best sensitivity of 1.9x1025 year half-life was obtained. This result rules out a previous claim of a positive result in a different isotope. This work also establishes that the masses of the neutrinos are less than one millionth of that of electrons. A unique EXO-200 analysis, in which the CSU group had a leading role, has established for the first time ever in a liquid noble gas the fraction of daughter atoms from alpha and beta decay that are ionized. This result has important impact on other pending studies, including nucleon decay and barium tagging. Novel additional discoveries include multiphoton ionization of liquid xenon with UV pulsed lasers, which may find application in calibration of future noble liquid detectors, and studies of association and dissociation reactions of Ba

  1. Feasibility assessment of visual quality analyzer KR-1W guiding personalized aspheric IOL implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the feasibility of using the visual quality analyzer KR-1W to guide the relatively personalized aspheric intraocular lens(IOLimplants to make the whole eye spherical aberration close to 0.1μm.METHODS: In this prospective case series study, the corneal spherical aberration with 6mm aperture of 73 patients(100 eyeswas measured with KR-1W Visual Function Analyzer 1d before surgery. For the sake of the whole postoperative spherical aberration were close to 0.1μm, 9 cases(16 eyeswith corneal spherical aberration 0.35μm were implanted Tecnis ZA9003 IOL, named Tecnis group. Aspherical IOL was implanted after phacoemulsification through a cornea 2.75mm incision without suture.Uncorrected visual acuity, beat corrected visual acuity, spherical aberration of the whole eye and jnternal optics(mainly IOLat 6mm pupil diameter were examined at 3mo postoperatively. The relevant data were analyzed using t-test and variance analysis.RESULTS: The whole ocular spherical aberration at 6mm pupil diameter in all postoperative were 0.084±0.032μm; in Tecnis group, the data were 0.091 ± 0.021μm; in AO group, the data were 0.0814-0.013μm; IQ group were 0.093±0.042μm. There was no significantly different between the predicted value and actual value of ocular spherical aberration at 6 mm pupil diameter in all postoperative(t=1.932, P=0.061and in the three groups. The difference value in the predicted values of the preoperative spherical aberrations of the whole eye and the actual values after surgery was 0.013±0.041μm; there was no statistically significant difference(F=2.537, P=0.091. Respectively compared the uncorrected visual acuity and besta corrected visual acuity among three groups of postoperative, no significant difference were found(F=0.897, P=0.421; F=1.423, P=0.097.CONCLUSION: Personality selection of aspheric IOL based on preoperative corneal spherical aberration of patients is feasible and produces satisfactory target postoperative

  2. Photochemically induced deposition of protective alumina coatings onto UV emitting phosphors for Xe excimer discharge lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broxtermann, Mike, E-mail: mike.b@fh-muenster.de; Jüstel, Thomas, E-mail: tj@fh-muenster.de

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A UV-reactor for the pH induced precipitation of inorganic material is described. • The photolysis of Azide (N{sub 3}{sup −}) leads to a steady pH increase used for precipitation. • A UV induced Al(OH){sub 3} precipitation is used to craft Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings onto YPO{sub 4}:Bi. • The influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated onto YPO{sub 4}:Bi with different thicknesses is discussed. • SEM, VUV-spectroscopy and ESA measurements were performed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated samples. - Abstract: This work concerns the particle coating of the UV-C emitting phosphor YPO{sub 4}:Bi, targeting a stability enhancement of the phosphor material for Xe excimer lamp operation. To this end, the material is coated by the wide band gap material Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In order to obtain a thin and homogeneous coating layer, a novel process based on the photochemical cleavage of NaN{sub 3} in water was developed. This results in a slow and continuous enhancement of the pH value due to ongoing NaOH formation, which results in the precipitation of Al(OH){sub 3} from an Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {sub ×} 18H{sub 2}O solution. It turned out that the obtained particle coatings are of much better quality, i.e. homogeneity, compared to coatings made from a wet-chemical homogeneous precipitation process. The morphology and electrochemical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated YPO{sub 4}:Bi are discussed on the basis of optical spectroscopy, ESA measurements, and SEM/EDX investigations.

  3. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benerji, N S; Singh, A; Varshnay, N; Singh, Bijendra

    2015-07-01

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  4. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benerji, N. S., E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A.; Varshnay, N.; Singh, Bijendra, E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in [Excimer Laser Section, LMPD, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2015-07-15

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  5. Type of aphasia and regional cerebral blood flow. A study with /sup 133/Xe inhalation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Minematsu, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Sawada, Tohru (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1982-11-01

    In 40 patients with aphasia due to cerebral infarction, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured after 2 months of ictus with /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. There were 18 cases with motor aphasia and 22 with sensory aphasia. On the measurements of rCBF, 3 detectors were placed over frontal region (group F), 3 over temporal region (group T), and remaining 3 over parietal region (group P), of the dominant hemisphere. The flow values were compared with the rCBF values obtained from 21 control subjects who had no abnormality in CT scan and on neurological examinations. The control subjects revealed the hyperfrontal pattern of flow distribution; rCBF values in groups F, T and P, which were expressed as an initial slope index, were 50.0 +- 4.8, 48.0 +- 5.1 and 47.4 +- 4.5, respectively. The hyperfrontal pattern was absent in cases with motor aphasia. In this group, rCBF in groups F, T and P were 42.0 +- 8.3, 44.7 +- 8.4 and 41.0 +- 8.5, respectively, and rCBF in frontal region was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group. In sensory aphasia, rCBF values in groups F, T and P were all significantly reduced compared to the controls showing 44.0 +- 5.7, 42.8 +- 5.1 and 40.6 +- 5.4, respectively. In this group, the hyperfrontal pattern was maintained at a low flow level. When absolute rCBF values were compared between motor and sensory aphasia, there was no significant difference between these 2 groups. However, regional flow distribution in motor aphasia was significantly different from that of sensory aphasia, and the cases having the lowest value in group F were more frequently found in the former than in the latter.

  6. Amplification of picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers. Denshi beam reiki KrF laser zofukuki ni yoru piko byo pulse no zofuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, I.; Tomie, T.; Owadano, Y.; Yano, M. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-08-20

    Experiments on the amplification of a picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers were carried out for the purpose of its application to the field such as excitation light source for soft X-ray laser which requires large energy besides peak power. The picosecond pulse was amplified by a discharge pumped KrF amplifier and two electron-beam pumped KrF amplifiers(at the middle stage and the final stage). The energy of 4J, which was the largest energy for short pulse excimer laser so far, was obtained by these devices. About 90% of the window area of the final amplifier with 29cm diameter was filled by the input beam, and energy density of the picosecond beam reached 3.9 times saturation energy density. Measured energy of amplified spontaneous emission(ASE) showed good agreement with the theoretically estimated value. Most of ASE was derived from the discharge pumped laser as the first amplifier. As for the focused power density, the power density ratio of the picosecond pulse to ASE was estimated to be as large as 10{sup 5}. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Krypton Gas for High Quality Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis by KrF Excimer Laser Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Al-Zanganawee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time the production of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs by KrF excimer laser ablation method under the krypton gas atmosphere. For the ablation experiment 450 mJ energy and 30 Hz repetition rate KrF excimer laser was used, and the target was prepared with the following composition: 0.6% Ni, 0.6% Co, and 98.8% C (atomic percentage. The ablation product was characterized by confocal Raman microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The SWCNTs obtained are a mixture of semiconducting and metallic types with narrow diameters distribution of 1.26 to 1.49 nm, are micrometers long, and contain low amount of graphite and amorphous carbon.

  8. A new potential energy surface and microwave and infrared spectra of the Kr-D2O complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongquan; Feng, Eryin; Zhang, Chunzao; Sun, Chunyan

    2017-10-01

    A four-dimensional potential energy surface of the Kr-D2O is calculated by the single and double excitation coupled-cluster theory with noniterative perturbational treatment of triple excitations [CCSD(T)], including explicit dependence on the ν2 bending vibrational Q2 normal coordinate of D2O. Using the fitted potential energy surface, the bound energy levels are calculated. The theoretical results for Π110 (v2 = 1) ← Σ101para bands of Kr-D2O rovibrational transition frequencies and the Π111 (ν2 = 1) ← Σ000 and the Σ111 (ν2 = 1) ← Σ000ortho bands are in good agreement with the observed values. The root mean square deviation is about 0.127 cm-1 for the 67 spectral lines.

  9. Różnicowanie infekcyjnego zapalenia krążka międzykręgowego i seronegatywnej spondyloartropatii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Maślińska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objawy infekcyjnego zapalenia krążka międzykręgowego mogąimitować objawy spondyloartropatii seronegatywnych i wymagaćróżnicowania wśród tych jednostek chorobowych (tab. I. Spondyloartropatieseronegatywne to grupa zapalnych chorób przebiegającychz zajęciem stawów kręgosłupa i stawów obwodowych.Wśród zapaleń kości i szpiku infekcyjne zapalenie krążka międzykręgowegostanowi ok. 2–4% wszystkich przypadków. Poniżejprzedstawiono opis przypadku 18-letniego mężczyzny diagnozowanegoz powodu podejrzenia spondyloartropatii. U pacjentawystępowały: ból kręgosłupa o charakterze zapalnym, bóle stawówobwodowych oraz epizody stanów gorączkowych. Po wykluczeniuspondyloartropatii ostatecznie rozpoznano u pacjentainfekcyjne zapalenie krążka międzykręgowego. Dzięki diagnostycemetodą rezonansu magnetycznego możliwe było postawienie diag -nozy (ryc. 1, 2 oraz ocena skuteczności leczenia (ryc. 3, 4. Niew każdym przypadku infekcyjnego zapalenia krążka międzykręgowegomożliwe jest ustalenie czynnika etiologicznego, wówczasw leczeniu należy uwzględnić potencjalne czynniki ryzyka zakażeniaoraz najczęstsze patogeny, będące przyczyną spondylodiscitis,takie jak Staphylococcus aureus (w 50% przypadków i Escherichiacoli (23%. Brak klinicznej poprawy po 2 tygodniach optymalniecelowanej antybiotykoterapii drogą dożylną byłby wskazaniem doleczenia chirurgicznego.Womawianym przypadku rozpoznanie kliniczne potwierdził dobryefekt terapeutyczny prowadzonej antybiotykoterapii, wobec czegonie było wskazań do leczenia operacyjnego. Opisany przypadekwskazuje również na konieczność szybkiej oceny kręgosłupa pierwmetodąrezonansu magnetycznego u pacjentów z bólem zapalnymkręgosłupa i objawami ogólnymi wobec wątpliwości co do ich etiologiii braku wyjaśnienia ich przyczyny klasycznym zdjęciem radiologicznym.Ponieważ bardziej narażeni na infekcyjne zapaleniekrążka międzykręgowego są chorzy z obni

  10. Evolution of a Diffusion Channel in an Inhomogeneous Electric Field of the KrF-Laser Pump Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampol'skaya, S. A.; Yastremsky, A. G.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Puchikin, A. V.; Bobrovnikov, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    The results of studying the 2D-simulation of evolution of a diffusion channel in the KrF-laser pump discharge initiated by the pin on the cathode surface are presented. It is shown that during the pump pulse, the inhomogeneity passes successively through three stages: a plasma spot on the cathode surface, a diffuse channel, and a high-conductivity channel. From the analysis of the dynamics of spatial distribution of spontaneous emission on the B0-X transition of the KrF molecule in such a discharge, it is obtained that the channel can work as an amplifying medium while the volumetric form of its glow is maintained. Despite the contraction of the channel into a narrow cord at the end of the pump pulse, the distribution of the radiation energy over the entire pulse has the shape of a torch with the width at the anode of 0.6 cm.

  11. Costs of head-end incineration with respect to Kr separation in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert-Wiemer, H.; Boehnert, R.

    1976-07-15

    The C-incinerations and the Kr-separations during head-end incineration in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements are described. The costs for constructing an operating a head-end incineration of reprocessing capacities with 5,000 to 50,000 MW(e)-HTR power have been determined. The cost estimates are divided into investment and operating costs, further after the fraction of the N/sub 2/-content in the incineration exhaust gas, which strongly affects costs. It appears that, in the case of Kr-separation from the incineration exhaust gas, the investment costs as well as the operating costs of the head-end for N/sub 2/-containing exhaust gas are considerably greater than those for gas without N/sub 2/. The C-incineration of the graphite of the HTR fuel elements should therefore only be performed with influx gas that is free of N/sub 2/.

  12. Informovanost žen o kojení v královéhradeckém kraji

    OpenAIRE

    Beranová, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    Autor: Tereza Beranová Instituce: Ústav sociálního lékařství LF UK v Hradci Králové Oddělení ošetřovatelství Název práce: Women awarereness of Brestfeeding in Hradec Králové Region Vedoucí práce: Mgr. Eva Vachková Ph.D. Počet stran: 95 Počet příloh: 7 Rok obhajoby: 2015 Klíčová slova: Awareness about breastfeeding, breastfeeding woman, problems with breastfeeding, lactation counseling, child nutrition, support of breastfeeding. Bachelor's thesis discusses the importance and support of breastf...

  13. Hyperpolarized 3He and 129Xe magnetic resonance imaging apparent diffusion coefficients: physiological relevance in older never- and ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Miranda; Ouriadov, Alexei; Svenningsen, Sarah; Owrangi, Amir; Wheatley, Andrew; Etemad-Rezai, Roya; Santyr, Giles E; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2014-07-16

    Noble gas pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is transitioning away from (3)He to (129)Xe gas, but the physiological/clinical relevance of (129)Xe apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parenchyma measurements is not well understood. Therefore, our objective was to generate (129)Xe MRI ADC for comparison with (3)He ADC and with well-established measurements of alveolar structure and function in older never-smokers and ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In four never-smokers and 10 COPD ex-smokers, (3)He (b = 1.6 sec/cm(2)) and (129)Xe (b = 12, 20, and 30 sec/cm(2)) ADC, computed tomography (CT) density-threshold measurements, and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were measured. To understand regional differences, the anterior-posterior (APG) and superior-inferior (∆SI) ADC differences were evaluated. Compared to never-smokers, COPD ex-smokers showed greater (3)He ADC (P = 0.006), (129)Xe ADCb12 (P = 0.006), and ADCb20 (P = 0.006), but not for ADCb30 (P > 0.05). Never-smokers and COPD ex-smokers had significantly different APG for (3)He ADC (P = 0.02), (129)Xe ADCb12 (P = 0.006), and ADCb20 (P = 0.01), but not for ADCb30 (P > 0.05). ∆SI for never- and ex-smokers was significantly different for (3)He ADC (P = 0.046), but not for (129)Xe ADC (P > 0.05). There were strong correlations for DLCO with (3)He ADC and (129)Xe ADCb12 (both r = -0.95, P never-smokers and ex-smokers with moderate-to-severe emphysema, (129)Xe ADCb12 provided a physiologically appropriate estimate of gas exchange abnormalities and alveolar microstructure. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Krõps kirikus teenis esikoha : Kaido Veermäe püüab ideid ja kütab emotsioone / Anneli Aasmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aasmäe, Anneli, 1973-

    1999-01-01

    Režissöör Andrus Tuisu reklaamiklipp "Vigur krõps - kirik" võitis reklaamfilmide festivalil "The Mobius Advertising Awards 1998" Chicagos esimese koha. Idee autor reklaamiagentuurist Kontuur Leo Burnett jagab muljeid

  15. Deletion of Krüppel‐Like Factor 4 in Endothelial and Hematopoietic Cells Enhances Neointimal Formation Following Vascular Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Yamashita, Maho; Horimai, Chihiro; Hayashi, Matsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background Krüppel‐like factor 4 (Klf4) is involved in a variety of cellular functions by activating or repressing the transcription of multiple genes. Results of previous studies showed that tamoxifen‐inducible global deletion of the Klf4 gene in mice accelerated neointimal formation following vascular injury, in part via enhanced proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Because Klf4 is also expressed in non‐SMCs including endothelial cells (ECs), we determined if Tie2 promoter‐dependent...

  16. Shell-model study on event rates of lightest supersymmetric particles scattering off 83Kr and 125Te

    OpenAIRE

    Pirinen, Pekka; Srivastava, P. C.; Suhonen, Jouni; Kortelainen, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the elastic and inelastic scattering of lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) dark matter off two possible target nuclei, 83Kr and 125Te. For the nuclear-structure calculations, we employ the nuclear shell model using recently generated realistic interactions. We have condensed the nuclear-physics contribution to a set of nuclear-structure factors that are independent of the adopted supersymmetric (SUSY) model. Total event rates are then easily calculated by combin...

  17. The textile industry at Krševica (Southeast Serbia in the fourth-third centuries B.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The site of Kale at Krševica, with significant remains of a settlement dating to the late Classical and early Hellenistic periods, has yielded, in addition to other finds, more than a thousand loom weights, spindle whorls and spools of which 1038 pieces are typologically classified. This material provides evidence for the craft of weaving in the settlement in the fourth and early third centuries B.C.

  18. Groundwater sampling in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki from borehole OL-KR6 during a long-term pumping test in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland); Hatanpaeae, E. [Consulting Engineers Paavo Ristola Ltd, Hollola (Finland); Ahokas, H. [Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    A long-term pumping test from borehole OL-KR6 in Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Since then, flow and in situ EC measurements, as well as groundwater sampling from specific sampling sections have been performed yearly. The aim of this study was to get information on the potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to deep saline groundwater during long-term pumping of the open borehole. In 2005 four groundwater samples were collected from four different sampling depths (98.5-100.5 m, 120-125 m, 135-137 m and 422-425 m) from borebole OL-KR6. The groundwater samples were taken from packed-off sections by means of PAVE equipment. The water types of groundwater samples from OL-KR6 were Na-Cl (for samples from 98.5-100.5 m and 135-137 m depths) and Na-Ca-Cl (for samples from 120-125 m and 422-425 m depths). The sample from depth 422-425 m was saline (TDS> 10000mg/L), while other waters were brackish (1000 mg < TDS <10000 mg/L). This study presents the sampling methods and the analysis results of groundwater samples from deep borehole OL-KR6. A comparison between the results of the in situ EC measurements and the EC results measured during groundwater sampling is presented. This report also contains a short comparison of the results obtained during the long-term pumping test during 2001-2005. (orig.)

  19. New band structures and an unpaired crossing in {sup 78}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Doring, J.; Johns, R.A.; Solomon, G.; Tabor, S.; Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D.; Baktash, C.; Rudolph, D.; Yu, C.H.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.; Birriel, I.; Saladin, J.; Winchell, D.; Wood, V.Q.; Ragnarsson, I.

    1998-07-06

    High-spin states in {sup 78}Kr were studied using the {sup 58}Ni({sup 23}Na,3p) reaction at 70 MeV and the {sup 58}Ni({sup 28}Si,{alpha}4p) reaction at 130 MeV. Prompt {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences were measured using the Pitt-FSU detector array and the GAMMASPHERE-MICROBALL array. Results from these experiments have led to 26 new excitation levels, some of which have been grouped into 3 new bands. Spins were assigned based on directional correlations of oriented nuclei. Two of the new negative-parity bands appear to form a signature-partner pair based on a two-quasineutron structure, in contrast to the previously known two-quasiproton negative-parity bands. A forking has been observed at the 24{sup +} state in the yrast band, which calculations suggest may result from an unpaired crossing. The available evidence suggests oblate shapes in the yrast band coexist with prolate shapes in the negative-parity bands.

  20. New band structures and an unpaired crossing in {sup 78}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Doering, J.; Johns, G.D.; Kaye, R.A.; Solomon, G.Z.; Tabor, S.L. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Doering, J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D.G. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Baktash, C.; Rudolph, D.; Yu, C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Birriel, I.; Saladin, J.X.; Winchell, D.F.; Wood, V.Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Ragnarsson, I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    High-spin states in {sup 78}Kr were studied using the {sup 58}Ni({sup 23}Na,3p) reaction at 70 MeV and the {sup 58}Ni({sup 28}Si,{alpha}4p) reaction at 130 MeV. Prompt {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences were measured using the Pitt-FSU detector array and the GAMMASPHERE-MICROBALL array. Results from these experiments have led to 26 new excitation levels, some of which have been grouped into 3 new bands. Spins were assigned based on directional correlations of oriented nuclei. Two of the new negative-parity bands appear to form a signature-partner pair based on a two-quasineutron structure, in contrast to the previously known two-quasiproton negative-parity bands. A forking has been observed at the 24{sup +} state in the yrast band, which calculations suggest may result from an unpaired crossing. The available evidence suggests oblate shapes in the yrast band coexist with prolate shapes in the negative-parity bands. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}