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Sample records for stable kr xe

  1. Symmetric resonance double charge transfer in Kr++ + Kr and Xe++ + Xe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, K.; Koizumi, T.; Kaneko, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Cross sections of processes Kr ++ + Kr → Ke + Kr ++ and Xe ++ + XeXe + Xe ++ were measured by the injected-ion-drift-tube technique from 0.04 to 20 eV. For both cases, the cross section below 1 eV coincides with the orbiting cross sections with a charge-transfer probability 1/2. Above 1 eV, the energy dependence of the cross sectcion is like that for single charge transfer. Mobilities of Kr ++ and Xe ++ in He are presented also

  2. Modeling of Kr-Xe discharge of excimer lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belasri A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical simulation of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD for Kr-Xe excilamp. The model of the discharge consists of three main modules: a plasma chemistry module, a circuit module and a Boltzmann equation module. The results predict the optimal operating conditions and describe the electrical and chemical properties of the KrXe* excimer lamp.

  3. EUV emission from Kr and Xe capillary discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juschkin, L.; Ellwi, S.; Kunze, H-J.; Chuvatin, A.; Zakharov, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Kr and Xe plasmas are very intensive emitters in the spectral range of 100-150 A, which is relevant for a number of applications (for example microlithography). We present investigations of the extreme utraviolet (EUV) emission from a slow capillary discharge with Kr and Xe fillings. The emission of Kr ions (Kr VIII to Kr XI) within the range of 70-150 A consists of three bands of lines of about 10 A width with maxima at 116, 103 and 86 A. Xe emission bands of about 15 A width have their maxima at 136 and 115 A (Xe IX to Xe XII). The radiation duration in this spectral range is ∼150 ns for both elements. At the optimum conditions, the Kr emission at 103 A is 2-3 times more intense than the Xe emission at 136 A. The measured spectral energy of Kr radiation is about 0.1 J sr -1 A -1 . Experimental results are compared with numerical modellings of the dynamics and emission of the capillary discharge plasma, which enables the determination of plasma parameters and the future use of the codes as additional instruments for plasma diagnostics. (author)

  4. Separation of Kr-Xe system by thermal diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Numata, Kazuyoshi; Matsuda, Yuji; Ouchi, Misao; Naruse, Yuji

    1979-11-01

    Separation experiments of Kr-Xe system were carried out to study the possibility of adapting thermal diffusion method for concentration of krypton in a fuel reprocessing off-gas treatment process. The results are as follows. (1) A batchwise thermal diffusion column of hot tube diameter 21 mm, cold tube diameter 32 mm, effective hight 1000 mm and volume -- 500 CC is the best in separation characteristics and in ease of operation under the different conditions. (2) The overall separation factor increases with increase of the operating temperature in the column with and without reservoir. (3) The optimum operating pressure (about 400 Torr) is independent of the operating conditions such as temperature, reservoir volume and feed gas content. (4) A preliminary design of the Kr-Xe separating plant for a reprocessing plant (1500 ton-U/yr) shows the required number of columns and the total electric power. (author)

  5. Single electron capture in N^+ -(Ne, Kr, Xe) collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Pedro G.; Castillo, Fermin; Martinez, Horacio

    2001-05-01

    Total cross sections for single electron capture of N^+ ions impinging on Ne, Kr and Xe were measured in the energy range of 1.5 to 5.0 keV. The electron capture cross sections for all the targets studied are found to be in excellent agreement with previous data in the low-energy range. The present data together with previous measurements give a general shape of the whole curve of single electron capture cross sections for the N^+ - Ne system. For the cases of N^+ - (Kr, Xe) systems, semiempirical calculation using the two-state approximation are in very good agreement with present cross sections data. Research supported by DGAPA IN-100392 and CONACyT 32175-E

  6. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, Paul [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Naduvalath, Balakrishnan [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Czerwinski, Ken [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas – surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  7. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, Paul; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Czerwinski, Ken

    2015-01-01

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas - surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  8. Xe/Kr Selectivity Measurements using AgZ-PAN at Various Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for planned FY-15 Xe/Kr multi-column testing, a series of experiments were performed to determine the selectivity of Xe over Kr using the silver converted mordenite-polyacrylonitrile (AgZ-PAN) sorbent. Results from these experiments will be used for parameter selection guidelines to define test conditions for Kr gas capture purity evaluations later this year. The currently configured experimental test bed was modified by installing a new cooling apparatus to permit future multi-column testing with independent column temperature control. The modified test bed will allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents. Selectivity experiments were run at temperatures of 295, 250 and 220 K. Two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv Xe, 150 ppmv Kr in either a He or an air balance were used. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivity was calculated using Xe and Kr capacity determinations. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr of 72 were calculated at room temperature (295 K) using the feed gas with a He balance and 34 using the feed gas with an air balance. As the test temperatures were decreased the selectivity of Xe over Kr also decreased due to an increase in both Xe and Kr capacities. At 220 K, the sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr were 22 using the feed gas with a He balance and 28 using the feed gas with an air balance. The selectivity results indicate that AgZ-PAN used in the first column of a multi-column configuration will provide adequate partitioning of Xe from Kr in the tested temperature range to produce a more pure Kr end product for collection.

  9. Kr and Xe isotopes from spontaneous fission of 248Cm and 250Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.

    1980-01-01

    Relative yields of Kr and Xe isotopes from the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm and 250 Cf have been determined mass spectrometrically. The yields are as follows: 83 Kr/ 84 Kr/ 85 Kr/ 86 Kr = 0.223/0.458/0.596/ identical 1.00 and 0.306/0.582/0.793/ identical 1.00; 131 Xe/ 134 Xe/ 136 Xe = 0.486/0.819/1.075 identical 1.00 and 0.343/0.506/0.851/ identical 1.00 from 248 Cm and 250 Cf, respectively. The Xe yields from 248 Cm agree with an earlier determination by Leich et al. Neither of these yield patterns matches that of fissiogenic Kr and Xe in carbonaceous chondrites and hence 248 Cm and 250 Cf are ruled out as progenitors of the meteoritic Kr and Xe. In general, none of the spontaneously fissioning nuclides of actinide elements can be identified as a possible progenitor. Even the mixtures of actinides, including a combination of 248 Cm and 250 Cm, are unsuitable. The origin of anomalous Kr and Xe in carbonaceous chondrites must then be traced either to the spontaneous fission of a superheavy element or to peculiarities in specific nucleosynthetic reactions. (orig.)

  10. Differential cross sections for inelastic scattering of electrons on Kr and Xe atoms at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovic, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Electron-impact excitation of the larger- number noble-gas atoms is a way of understanding excitation mechanisms in atomic collisional processes. Krypton and xenon have the largest atomic number of all the stable noble gases. Therefore, effects dependent on the size of a target atom, such as alignment and orientation of the atomic outer shell charge cloud after collisional excitation, are best observed by studying these atoms. Normalized, absolute differential cross sections (DCS's) for the lowest electronic states of Kr and Xe atoms, at intermediate energies, are the subject of this report

  11. Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) Membranes for Kr/Xe Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting; Feng, Xuhui; Elsaidi, Sameh K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Carreon, Moises A.

    2017-01-30

    Herein, we demonstrate that a prototypical type of metal organic framework, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8), in membrane form, can effectively separate Kr/Xe gas mixtures at industrially relevant compositions. The best membranes separated Kr/Xe mixtures with average Kr permeances as high as 1.5 × 10-8 ± 0.2 mol/m2 s Pa and average separation selectivities of 14.2 ± 1.9 for molar feed compositions corresponding to Kr/Xe ratio encountered typically in air. Molecular sieving, competitive adsorption, and differences in diffusivities were identified as the prevailing separation mechanisms. These membranes potentially represent a less-energy-intensive alternative to cryogenic distillation, which is the benchmark technology used to separate this challenging gas mixture. To our best knowledge, this is the first example of any metal organic membrane composition displaying separation ability for Kr/Xe gas mixtures.

  12. Multicollector High Precision Resolution of Primordial Kr and Xe in Mantle CO2 Well Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G.; Ballentine, C.; Cassidy, M.

    2008-12-01

    Noble gas isotopes in magmatic CO2 well gases provide a unique insight into mantle volatile origin and dynamics [1-3]. Previous work has resolved mantle 20Ne/22Ne ratios consistent with a solar wind irradiated meteoritic source for mantle He and Ne [1]. This is distinct from Solar Wind values that might be expected if the primary mechanism of terrestrial mantle volatile acquisition was through the gravitational capture of solar nebula gases [see 4]. Within the CO2 well gases a primordial component has also been resolved in the non- radiogenic Xe isotopic composition [2,3]. Using multicollector mass spectrometry we have observed a 124Xe/130Xe excess of 1.85 percent over air plus/minus 0.17 percent for the least air contaminated samples. At this level of precision we are for the first time able to differentiate between a trapped meteoritic origin (average carbonaceous chondrite or Q Xe) rather than Solar Wind origin as the primordial Xe component. The well gases also contain Kr which, in the least air contaminated sample, have a correlated 86Kr/82Kr excess of 0.55 percent over air plus/minus 0.04 percent. Whilst mass dependent fractionation can theoretically produce correlated excesses in 124Xe-128Xe and 82Kr-86Kr isotopes, no fractionation from air is observed in 38Ar/36Ar [3] and the Kr excesses are in the opposite sense to that of Xe. From 136Xe excesses, Kr fission yield from Pu and U can be calculated and subtracted from the Kr isotopic signature. This fission-corrected signature is most reasonably explained as a primordial component. This is the first time that primordial Kr has ever been resolved in a terrestrial sample. The primordial Kr isotopic signature is distinct from Solar Wind Kr and is consistent with the primordial Kr also originating as a trapped component within meteorites. We are now able to demonstrate that both the light (He and Ne) and Heavy (Kr and Xe) noble gas origin in the terrestrial mantle is consistent with a trapped component during the

  13. SEP-Kr and SEP-Xe in Lunar Ilmenite and the Ar/Kr/Xe Ratio in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieler, R.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.

    1992-07-01

    We analyzed all five noble gases in an ilmenite sample from lunar soil 71501 by closed system stepped etching (CSSE), thus extending our CSSE studies of solar noble gases (Wieler et al., 1986; Benkert et al., 1988) to Kr and Xe. He, Ne, Ar isotopes: We observe the familiar presence of two solar noble gas components: step 1 shows ^4He/^3He = 2250, ^20Ne/^22Ne = 13.8, and ^36Ar/^38Ar=5.46. The first two ratios are essentially identical to modern solar wind values (SWC; Geiss, 1973), indicating an isotopically unfractionated SW noble gas reservoir in lunar ilmenite. The Ne data-points of later steps fall on a straight line and reach the SEP-Ne point (^20Ne/^22Ne = 11.3). The slope of this line indicates mass dependent fractionation between SW-Ne and SEP-Ne. SEP-He (^4He/^3He = 4650 +-100) and SEP-Ar (^36Ar/^38Ar = 4.89+-0.05) are also observed (latter two numbers slightly revised compared to Wieler et al., 1992). Kr, Xe isotopes: Kr in those two steps that release pure SW-Ne is very slightly lighter than atmospheric Kr (^86Kr/^84Kr = 0.3041; see also Wieler et al., 1992). We interpret this to be SW-Kr in soil 71501. Steps containing (isotopically heavier) SEP-Ne likewise release heavier Kr, interpreted accordingly as SEP-Kr (^86Kr/^84Kr = 0.323). Similarly, a light Xe component is released first (SW-Xe, ^136Xe/^132Xe = 0.3003), followed by heavier SEP-Xe (^136Xe/^132Xe = 0.319). The data are consistent with both Kr and Xe in SW and SEP components to be related by mass fractionation. The relation first proposed by Benkert et al. (1988) between a ratio R(m(sub)2,m(sub)1) of two isotopes with masses m(sub)2>m(sub)1 in SW and SEP now holds for all five noble gases: (R(sub)SW-R(sub)SEP)/R(sub)SW = (2+-0.13)*(m(sub)2- m(sub)1)/m(sub)2. Since m(sub)2~m(sub)1, this relation may also be written as: R(sub)SEP/R(sub)SW ~ (m(sub)1/m(sub)2)^2 (Geiss and Bochsler, 1991). Element ratios: ^4He/^36Ar and ^20Ne/^36Ar rise from values several times below SWC to essentially SWC ratios in

  14. Direct Observation of Xe and Kr Adsorption in a Xe-Selective Microporous Metal-Organic Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Plonka, A.M.; Banerjee, D.; Krishna, R.; Schaef, H.T.; Ghose, S.; Thallapally, P.K.; Parise, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    The cryogenic separation of noble gases is energy-intensive and expensive, especially when low concentrations are involved. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) containing polarizing groups within their pore spaces are predicted to be efficient Xe/Kr solid,state adsorbents, but no experimental insights

  15. Infrared Spectra of Novel NgBeSO2 Complexes (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) in Low Temperature Matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjie; Liu, Xing; Xu, Bing; Xing, Xiaopeng; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-11-03

    The novel noble-gas complexes NgBeSO 2 (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) have been prepared in the laser-evaporated beryllium atom reactions with SO 2 in low-temperature matrixes. Doped with heavier noble gas, the guest (Ar, Kr, Xe) atom can substitute neon to form more stable complex. Infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations are used to confirm the band assignment. The dissociation energies are calculated at 0.9, 4.0, 4.7, and 6.0 kcal/mol for NeBeSO 2 , ArBeSO 2 , KrBeSO 2 , and XeBeSO 2 , respectively, at the CCSD(T) level. Quantum chemical calculations demonstrate that the Ng-Be bonds in NgBeSO 2 could be formed by the combination of electron-donation and ion-induced dipole interactions. The Wiberg bond index (WBI) values of Ng-Be bonds and LOL (localized orbital locator) profile indicate that the Ng-Be bond exhibits a gradual increase in covalent character along Ne to Xe.

  16. Multiple photoionization from 3p excitation of Kr and 4p excitation of Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayaishi, T.

    1986-01-01

    The photoionization cross sections for multiply charged ions produced by 3p excitation of Kr and 4p excitation of Xe have been obtained by means of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and synchrotron radiation. It is found that the main formation of doubly to quadruply charged ions in both Kr and Xe is caused from the each initial p-hole state through a Coster-Kronig transition followed by Auger of double Auger processes. The formation of singly charged ions in these excitation energy regions is caused by direct photoionization from outermost shell electrons in both Kr and Xe. Triply charged ions are prominently produced among the multiply charged ions. The quadruple photoionization cross sections show clearly the structures due to the Rydberg series, 3p -1 nl of Kr and 4p -1 nl of Xe. Their main structures were assigned to the 3p -1 nd series in Kr and the 4p -1 nd series in Xe. (orig.)

  17. Photoionisation study of Xe.CF{sub 4} and Kr.CF{sub 4} van-der-Waals molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, V. A., E-mail: alekseev@va3474.spb.edu; Kevorkyants, R. [St. Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya Nab., St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Garcia, G. A.; Nahon, L. [Synchrotron Soleil, Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2016-05-14

    We report on photoionization studies of Xe.CF{sub 4} and Kr.CF{sub 4} van-der-Waals complexes produced in a supersonic expansion and detected using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The ionization potential of CF{sub 4} is larger than those of the Xe and Kr atoms and the ground state of the Rg.CF{sub 4}{sup +} ion correlates with Rg{sup +} ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) + CF{sub 4}. The onset of the Rg.CF{sub 4}{sup +} signals was found to be only ∼0.2 eV below the Rg ionization potential. In agreement with experiment, complementary ab initio calculations show that vertical transitions originating from the potential minimum of the ground state of Rg.CF{sub 4} terminate at a part of the potential energy surfaces of Rg.CF{sub 4}{sup +}, which are approximately 0.05 eV below the Rg{sup +} ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) + CF{sub 4} dissociation limit. In contrast to the neutral complexes, which are most stable in the face geometry, for the Rg.CF{sub 4}{sup +} ions, the calculations show that the minimum of the potential energy surface is in the vertex geometry. Experiments which have been performed only with Xe.CF{sub 4} revealed no Xe.CF{sub 4}{sup +} signal above the first ionization threshold of Xe, suggesting that the Rg.CF{sub 4}{sup +} ions are not stable above the first dissociation limit.

  18. Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemer, Darryl D.; Lewis, Leroy C.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

  19. Independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes for the photofission of heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gangrskij, Y P; Mishinskij, G V; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Szoelloes, O; Zhemenik, V I

    2002-01-01

    Presented are the yields of primary fission fragments (produced in the process of the rupture of the nucleus) of Kr (A = 87- 93) and Xe (A 148-143) for the photofission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U and sup 2 sup 4 sup 4 Pu, which were measured using Bremsstrahlung from a microtron, the energy of accelerated electrons being 25 MeV. A technique was used that includes transportation of fragments escaped from the target with a gas flow through a capillary and the condensation of Kr and Xe inert gases in a cryostat at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Fragments of all the other elements were retained with a filter at the entrance of the capillary. Kr and Xe isotopes were identified by the gamma spectra of their daughter products. The mass number distributions are obtained of the independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes, which are compared with the similar characteristics for the fission induced by thermal and fast neutrons; the charge shifts for the fragments under study relative to the unchanged...

  20. Independent Yields of Kr and Xe Isotopes for the Photofission of Heavy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gangrsky, Yu P; Maslova, N Yu; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Szöllös, O; Zhemenik, V I

    2002-01-01

    Presented are the yields of primary fission fragments (produced in the process of the rupture of the nucleus) of Kr (A=87-93) and Xe (A=148-143) for the photofission of ^{232}Th, ^{238}U and ^{244}Pu, which were measured using bremsstrahlung from a microtron, the energy of accelerated electrons being 25 MeV. A technique was used that includes transportation of fragments escaped from the target with a gas flow through a capillary and the condensation of Kr and Xe inert gases in a cryostat at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Fragments of all the other elements were retained with a filter at the entrance of capillary. Kr and Xe isotopes were identified by the gamma-spectra of their daughter products. The mass number distributions are obtained of the independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes, which are compared with the similar characteristics for the fission induced by thermal and fast neutrons; the charge shifts for the fragments under study relative to the unchanged charge distribution are determined. The pe...

  1. Independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes in the photofission of heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangrsky, Yu.P.; Zhemenik, V.I.; Maslova, N.Yu.; Mishinsky, G.V.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Szoelloes, O.

    2003-01-01

    The yields of Kr (A = 87-93) and Xe (A = 138-143) primary fission fragments produced in 232 Th, 238 U, and 244 Pu photofission upon the scission of a target nucleus and neutron emission were measured in an experiment with bremsstrahlung from electrons accelerated to 25 MeV by a microtron, and the results of these measurements are presented. The experimental procedure used involved the transportation of fragments that escaped from the target by a gas flow through a capillary and the condensation of Kr and Xe inert gases in a cryostat at liquid-nitrogen temperature. The fragments of all other elements were retained with a filter at the capillary inlet. The isotopes of Kr and Xe were identified by the γ spectra of their daughter products. The mass-number distributions of the independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes are obtained and compared with similar data on fission induced by thermal and fast neutrons; the shifts of the fragment charges with respect to the undistorted charge distribution are determined. Prospects for using photofission fragments in studying the structure of highly neutron-rich nuclei are discussed

  2. Cryogenics free production of hyperpolarized 129Xe and 83Kr for biomedical MRI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Six, Joseph S.; Lilburn, David M. L.; Stupic, Karl F.; Dorkes, Alan C.; Shaw, Dominick E.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    As an alternative to cryogenic gas handling, hyperpolarized (hp) gas mixtures were extracted directly from the spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process through expansion followed by compression to ambient pressure for biomedical MRI applications. The omission of cryogenic gas separation generally requires the usage of high xenon or krypton concentrations at low SEOP gas pressures to generate hp 129Xe or hp 83Kr with sufficient MR signal intensity for imaging applications. Two different extraction schemes for the hp gasses were explored with focus on the preservation of the nuclear spin polarization. It was found that an extraction scheme based on an inflatable, pressure controlled balloon is sufficient for hp 129Xe handling, while 83Kr can efficiently be extracted through a single cycle piston pump. The extraction methods were tested for ex vivo MRI applications with excised rat lungs. Precise mixing of the hp gases with oxygen, which may be of interest for potential in vivo applications, was accomplished during the extraction process using a piston pump. The 83Kr bulk gas phase T1 relaxation in the mixtures containing more than approximately 1% O2 was found to be slower than that of 129Xe in corresponding mixtures. The experimental setup also facilitated 129Xe T1 relaxation measurements as a function of O2 concentration within excised lungs.

  3. Cryogenics free production of hyperpolarized 129Xe and 83Kr for biomedical MRI applications☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Six, Joseph S.; Lilburn, David M.L.; Stupic, Karl F.; Dorkes, Alan C.; Shaw, Dominick E.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative to cryogenic gas handling, hyperpolarized (hp) gas mixtures were extracted directly from the spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process through expansion followed by compression to ambient pressure for biomedical MRI applications. The omission of cryogenic gas separation generally requires the usage of high xenon or krypton concentrations at low SEOP gas pressures to generate hp 129Xe or hp 83Kr with sufficient MR signal intensity for imaging applications. Two different extraction schemes for the hp gasses were explored with focus on the preservation of the nuclear spin polarization. It was found that an extraction scheme based on an inflatable, pressure controlled balloon is sufficient for hp 129Xe handling, while 83Kr can efficiently be extracted through a single cycle piston pump. The extraction methods were tested for ex vivo MRI applications with excised rat lungs. Precise mixing of the hp gases with oxygen, which may be of interest for potential in vivo applications, was accomplished during the extraction process using a piston pump. The 83Kr bulk gas phase T1 relaxation in the mixtures containing more than approximately 1% O2 was found to be slower than that of 129Xe in corresponding mixtures. The experimental setup also facilitated 129Xe T1 relaxation measurements as a function of O2 concentration within excised lungs. PMID:24135800

  4. Negligible fractionation of Kr and Xe isotopes by molecular diffusion in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyroller, Lina; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Busemann, Henner; Maden, Colin; Baur, Heinrich; Kipfer, Rolf

    2018-06-01

    Molecular diffusion is a key transport process for noble gases in water. Such diffusive transport is often thought to cause a mass-dependent fractionation of noble gas isotopes that is inversely proportional to the square root of the ratio of their atomic mass, referred to as the square root relation. Previous studies, challenged the commonly held assumption that the square root relation adequately describes the behaviour of noble gas isotopes diffusing through water. However, the effect of diffusion on noble gas isotopes has only been determined experimentally for He, Ne and Ar to date, whereas the extent of fractionation of Kr and Xe has not been measured. In the present study the fractionation of Kr and Xe isotopes diffusing through water immobilised by adding agar was quantified through measuring the respective isotope ratio after diffusing through the immobilised water. No fractionation of Kr and Xe isotopes was observed, even using high-precision noble gas analytics. These results complement our current understanding on isotopic fractionation of noble gases diffusing through water. Therefore this complete data set builds a robust basis to describe molecular diffusion of noble gases in water in a physical sound manner which is fundamental to assess the physical aspects of gas dynamics in aquatic systems.

  5. Experimental preparation of Kr/Xe hydrate at pressures up to 160 bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis, R.

    1985-06-01

    A compound called gas (mixture) hydrate is formed under pressurized atmosphere by reaction of krypton, xenon and a mixture of both with water. The study under review reports on preparing such hydrates experimentally under pressures up to 160 bar. The dissociation function of the hydrates is determined by low and medium-pressure experiments. Observing the formation process it was found that a hydrate layer is formed at the interface of gas and water, its separating effect almost inhibiting continuance of hydrate reactions. Strong stirring will avoid or destroy the separating layer. It is shown that at pressures above 50 bar the dissociation function psub(D) (T) gets non-linear with logarithmic pressure plotting above the absolute, reciprocal temperature. The medium-temperature experiments show that the density of the gas consisting of Xe or Kr and Xe, respectively, reaches higher values than that of the water. In this case, the system collapses and the gas is found at the bottom of the pressure flask, and the water in the top region. The gas samples taken during the mixed hydrate preparation show that Kr is accumulated in the gaseous phase, and Xe in the hydrate phase. (orig./RB) [de

  6. Energies, wavelengths, and transition probabilities for Ge-like Kr, Mo, Sn, and Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, O.; El Sayed, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths have been calculated for Ge-like Kr, Mo, Sn, and Xe ions among the fine-structure levels of terms belonging to the ([Ar] 3d 10 )4s 2 4p 2 , ([Ar] 3d 10 )4s 4p 3 , ([Ar] 3d 10 )4s 2 4p 4d, and ([Ar] 3d 10 )4p 4 configurations. The fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock method, taking both correlations within the n=4 complex and the quantum electrodynamic effects into account, have been used in the calculations. The results are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical results.

  7. Measurement of the Auger decay after resonance excitation of Xe 4d and Kr 3d resonance lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, W.; Kalkoffen, G.; Kunz, C.

    1978-03-01

    The Nsub(4,5) 0sub(2,3) 0sub(2,3) Auger spectra from Xe and the Msub(4,5) Nsub(2,3) Nsub(2,3) Auger spectra from Kr are investigated for different photon energies around threshold of ionization. When exciting at the resonance line (4d 9 5s 2 5p 6 6p for Xe and 3d 9 4s 2 4p 6 5p for Kr) we observe the usual Auger multiplet structure to be shifted to higher kinetic energies. Additionally, new lines appear which can be assigned to shake-up processes int he Xe + and Kr + ions. (orig.) [de

  8. Independent Yields of Kr and Xe Fragments at Photofission of Odd Nuclei ^{237}Np and ^{243}Am

    CERN Document Server

    Gangrsky, Yu P; Myshinskii, G V; Penionzhkevich, Yu E

    2004-01-01

    he independent yields of fragments Kr (A=89-93) and Xe (A=135-142) at photofission of odd nuclei 237Np and 243Am are presented. The experiments were performed using the bremsstrahlung of 25 MeV electrons on the microtron of FLNR, JINR. A technique was used that included the transportation of fragments which escaped from the target with the gas flow through a capillary and the condensation of inert gases in a cryostat at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Kr and Xe isotopes were identified by the spectra of their daughter products. The mass number distributions of the independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes and of the complementary fragments (Y and La at the photofission of ^{237}Np and Nb and Pr at the photofission of ^{243}Am) were obtained.

  9. Stereodynamics of Ne(3P2) reacting with Ar, Kr, Xe, and N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Junwen; Gordon, Sean D. S.; Tanteri, Silvia; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Stereodynamics experiments of Ne(3P2) reacting with Ar, Kr, Xe, and N2 leading to Penning and associative ionization have been performed in a crossed molecular beam apparatus. A curved magnetic hexapole was used to state-select and polarize Ne(3P2) atoms which were then oriented in a rotatable magnetic field and crossed with a beam of Ar, Kr, Xe, or N2. The ratio of associative to Penning ionization was recorded as a function of the magnetic field direction for collision energies between 320 cm-1 and 500 cm-1. Reactivities are obtained for individual states that differ only in Ω, the projection of the neon total angular momentum vector on the inter-particle axis. The results are rationalized on the basis of a model involving a long-range and a short-range reaction mechanism. Substantially lower probability for associative ionization was observed for N2, suggesting that predissociation plays a critical role in the overall reaction pathway.

  10. Measurements of Positronium Formation Cross Sections for Positron-Kr, Xe Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, W. E.; Kwan, C. K.; Li, H.; Stein, T. S.; Zhou, S.

    1997-04-01

    Our experimental approach(S. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 236 (1994).) for measuring Ps formation cross sections (Q_Ps) involves passing a variable energy positron beam through a gas scattering cell and detecting the 511 keV annihilation gamma rays resulting from the decay of para-Ps and from the interaction of ortho-Ps with the walls of the scattering cell. It is found that the Q_Ps curves for both Kr and Xe rise rapidly from their formation threshold energies of 7.2 and 5.3 eV, reach maxima within about 10 eV of their thresholds and then decrease to become rather small (less than 10% of the peak heights) above 100 eV. At the maxima Q_Ps accounts for more than 50% of the total scattering cross sections. There is some evidence of possible small scale structure in the Q_Ps curves between 10 and 100 eV. The present results are consistent with the prior measurements of Diana et al.( L.M. Diana et al., in "Atomic Physics with Positrons", edited by J.W. Humberston and E.A.G. Armour (Plenum, New York and London, 1987), p. 55; and in "Positron Annihilation", edited by L. Dorikens-Vanpraet et al. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 311.) from near threshold to 70 eV for Kr and from 15 to 100 eV for Xe.

  11. Effect of Xe ion (167 MeV) irradiation on polycrystalline SiC implanted with Kr and Xe at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlatshwayo, T T; Kuhudzai, R J; Njoroge, E G; Malherbe, J B; O’Connell, J H; Skuratov, V A; Msimanga, M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of swift heavy ion (Xe 167 MeV) irradiation on polycrystalline SiC individually implanted with 360 keV Kr and Xe ions at room temperature to fluences of 2  ×  10 16 cm −2 and 1  ×  10 16 cm −2 respectively, was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Implanted specimens were each irradiated with 167 MeV Xe +26 ions to a fluence of 8.3  ×  10 14 cm −2 at room temperature. It was observed that implantation of 360 keV Kr and Xe ions individually at room temperature amorphized the SiC from the surface up to a depth of 186 and 219 nm respectively. Swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation reduced the amorphous layer by about 27 nm and 30 nm for the Kr and Xe samples respectively. Interestingly, the reduction in the amorphous layer was accompanied by the appearance of randomly oriented nanocrystals in the former amorphous layers after SHI irradiation in both samples. Previously, no similar nanocrystals were observed after SHI irradiations at electron stopping powers of 33 keV nm −1 and 20 keV nm −1 to fluences below 10 14 cm −2 . Therefore, our results suggest a fluence threshold for the formation of nanocrystals in the initial amorphous SiC after SHI irradiation. Raman results also indicated some annealing of radiation damage after swift heavy ion irradiation and the subsequent formation of small SiC crystals in the amorphous layers. No diffusion of implanted Kr and Xe was observed after swift heavy ion irradiation. (paper)

  12. Adsorption properties of fission gases Xe and Kr on pristine and doped graphene: A first principle DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhappilly, Tijo, E-mail: tijoj@barc.gov.in [Theoretical Chemistry Section, Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ghanty, Tapan K., E-mail: tapang@barc.gov.in [Theoretical Chemistry Section, Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Jagatap, B.N. [Theoretical Chemistry Section, Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2017-07-15

    Graphene has excellent adsorption properties due to large surface area and has been used in applications related to gas sorption and separation. The separation of radioactive noble gases using graphene is an interesting area of research relevant to nuclear waste management. Radioactive noble gases Xe and Kr are present in the off-gas streams from nuclear fission reactors and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The entrapment of these volatile fission gases is important in the context of nuclear safety. The separation of Xe from Kr is extremely difficult, and energy intensive cryogenic distillation is generally employed. Physisorption based separation techniques using porous materials is a cost effective alternative to expensive cryogenic distillation. Thus, adsorption of noble gases on graphene is relevant for fundamental understanding of physisorption process. The properties of graphene can be tuned by doping and incorporation of defects. In this regard, we study the binding affinity of Xe and Kr in pristine and doped graphene sheets. We employ first principle calculations using density functional theory, corrected for dispersion interactions. The structural parameters obtained from the current study show excellent agreement with the available theoretical and experimental observations on similar systems. Noble gas adsorption energies on pristine graphene match very well with the available literature. Our results show that the binding energy of fission gases Xe and Kr on graphene can be considerably improved through doping the lattice with a heteroatom. - Graphical abstract: The adsorption of radioactive fission gases Xe and Kr on pristine/doped graphene is an interesting topic in the context of nuclear waste management. Previous experimental and computational studies about Xe/Kr adsorption on graphene were limited to only on pristine graphene. The doping by hetero atom changes the electronic properties of graphene and creates active sites in the lattice. Based

  13. Energy-Transfer Kinetics for Xe (6p[1/2]0) Atoms in Kr, Ar, Ne, and He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Liu, Dong; Li, Xueyang; Chu, Junzhi; Guo, Jingwei; Liu, Jinbo; Hu, Shu; Sang, Fengting; Jin, Yuqi

    2018-06-11

    The kinetic processes for the Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms in Kr, Ar, Ne, and He buffer gases were studied. We found that Kr, Ar, and Ne atoms can be used to switch the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) channel from 3408 nm (6p[1/2] 0 -6s'[1/2] 1 ) to 3680 nm (5d[1/2] 1 -6p[1/2] 1 ), while Xe and He atoms do not show such a phenomenon. This ASE channel switch is mainly ascribed to the fast transfer of 6p[1/2] 0 → 5d[1/2] 1 . On the basis of the rate equations for two-state coupling (energy-transfer processes between the two states are very rapid), the reason why the ASE channel switch effect normally coincides with a double exponential decay of the spontaneous emission at 828 nm (6p[1/2] 0 -6s[3/2] 1 ) is explained. The actual situations in Xe, Ar, Ne, and He follow this rule. However, the strictly single exponential decay of the spontaneous emission at 828 nm and strong ASE channel switch effect simultaneously emerge in Kr. This indicates that the transfer of 6p[1/2] 0 → 5d[1/2] 1 in Kr does not occur via two-state coupling, but via two steps of near-resonance collision through the 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state as the intermediate state (6p[1/2] 0 → 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) → 5d[1/2] 1 ). In addition, we found Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms strongly tend to reach the 6p[3/2] 2 , 6p[3/2] 1 , and 6p[5/2] 2 states through the 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state as the intermediate state in Kr. The 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state plays a very important role in the energy-transfer kinetics for the Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms. Kr is probably an excellent buffer gas for laser systems based on Xe.

  14. Electronic Spectroscopy of B Atoms and B2 Molecules Isolated in Para-H2, Normal-D2, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe Matrices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tam, Simon

    2000-01-01

    ...), Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices, and of B2 molecules in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices. The 2s(sup 2)3s((sup 2)S) left arrow 2s(sup 2)2p((sup 2)P) B atom Rydberg absorption suffers large gas-to-matrix blue shifts, increasing...

  15. Adsorption properties of fission gases Xe and Kr on pristine and doped graphene: A first principle DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhappilly, Tijo; Ghanty, Tapan K.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2017-07-01

    Graphene has excellent adsorption properties due to large surface area and has been used in applications related to gas sorption and separation. The separation of radioactive noble gases using graphene is an interesting area of research relevant to nuclear waste management. Radioactive noble gases Xe and Kr are present in the off-gas streams from nuclear fission reactors and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The entrapment of these volatile fission gases is important in the context of nuclear safety. The separation of Xe from Kr is extremely difficult, and energy intensive cryogenic distillation is generally employed. Physisorption based separation techniques using porous materials is a cost effective alternative to expensive cryogenic distillation. Thus, adsorption of noble gases on graphene is relevant for fundamental understanding of physisorption process. The properties of graphene can be tuned by doping and incorporation of defects. In this regard, we study the binding affinity of Xe and Kr in pristine and doped graphene sheets. We employ first principle calculations using density functional theory, corrected for dispersion interactions. The structural parameters obtained from the current study show excellent agreement with the available theoretical and experimental observations on similar systems. Noble gas adsorption energies on pristine graphene match very well with the available literature. Our results show that the binding energy of fission gases Xe and Kr on graphene can be considerably improved through doping the lattice with a heteroatom.

  16. Repulsive wall potentials for He-(Ne,Ar,Kr,Xe) as inferred from differential cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitz, D.E.; Larson, J.; Swanson, K.; Wildgoose, C.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained representations of the He-(Ne,Ar,Kr,Xe) ground state repulsive walls using model potentials optimized to fit published absolute differential cross section data for 500 and 1500 eV collisions. The HeNe potential, like the He 2 potentials can be fit using the semi-empirical HFD-B form constrained to cross zero at the proper internuclear separation. For the heavier atoms, this approach is unsuccessful and superior fits are obtained using only the purely repulsive V(r) - A EXP [-αr - βr 2 ] term of the HFD-B potential. Comparison of fitted potentials with previous results will be presented

  17. Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in excited states of Ar, Kr and Xe atoms in Ne matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, U.; Schwentner, N.

    1979-10-01

    Synchrotron radiation with its intense continuum and its excellent time structure has been exploited for time resolved luminescence spectroscopy in the solid state. By selective excitation of n = 1, n' = 1 and n = 2 exciton states of Xe, Kr and Ar atoms in Ne matrix we were able to identify the emitting states involved. Lifetimes within the cascade of radiative and radiationless relaxation between excited states as well as the radiative lifetimes for transitions to the ground state have been derived from the decay curves. Energy positions and radiative lifetimes of the emitting states correspond quite well with those of the free atoms. Radiative and radiationless relaxation processes take place within the manifold of excited states of the guest atoms. The rate constants for radiationless decay confirm an energy gap law. The order of the radiationless processes reaches in some cases extremely high values. Selection rules for spin and angular momentum are essential to understand the observed radiationless transition rates. (orig.)

  18. VUV emission spectra from binary rare gas mixtures near the resonance lines of Xe I and Kr I

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A; Gerasimov, G; Arnesen, A; Hallin, R

    2003-01-01

    Emission spectra of Xe-X (X = He, Ne, Ar and Kr) and of Kr-Y (Y = He, Ne and Ar) mixtures with low concentrations of the heavier gases (0.1-1%) and moderate total pressures (50-200 hPa) have been recorded near each of the two resonance lines of Xe and Kr in DC glow capillary discharges. The recorded intense emissions have narrow spectral profiles with FWHM of about 0.1 nm. The profiles are very similar in shape to profiles of known high resolution absorption spectra recorded at comparable gas pressures. A tentative identification of the emission structures is given, which involves transitions in heteronuclear molecules and quasimolecules between weakly-bound states.

  19. Differential elastic scattering of He* (21S) by Ar, Kr and Xe: Repulsive rainbows and optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.W.; Gregor, R.W.; Jordan, R.M.; Siska, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Elastic scattering angular distributions of He* (2 1 S) with Ar, Kr, and Xe measured in crossed atomic beams at collision energies from 0.4--2.8 kcal/mole are analyzed using a physically motivated optical potential model. The resulting potentials show some features expected on the basis of the analogous Li--rare gas potentials: monotonically increasing van der Waals well depths epsilon in the sequence Ar, Kr, Xe, and nearly constant well position r/sub m/. However, structure occurs in the repulsive parts of the potentials in the form of a local slope maximum (force minimum) at low positive potential energy, as suggested by other studies. The potential energy at the slope maximum decreases monotonically in the Ar, Kr, Xe sequence, while its position increases monotonically. The slope maximum is manifested in the angular distributions through the appearance of rainbow scattering peaks for Ar and Kr at angles well removed from those at which attractive rainbows are expected, with both repulsive and attractive rainbows evident in the same distribution. The resonance widths are constrained to be simple exponentials. Table I contains all potential parameters derived. Reasonably good agreement is obtained between measured total ionization cross sections and quenching rate constants and those calculated from the optical potentials

  20. Investigations of an excimer laser working with a four-component gaseous mixture He-Kr:Xe-HCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Leszek; Pokora, Ludwik J.

    1991-08-01

    The paper presnts working conditions of an XCI excimer laser untypical gas mixture based on KrzXe instead of pure Xe. Such a choice was influenced by the necessity of Findin9 the way to replace imported and expensive Xe by gaseous components accesible in Poland. Determining the range of changes of laser extrnal parameters which enables its proper work with the new gas mixture was the aim of same investigations results of which are presented in this paper. The laser pulse output energy and the pulse duration as a Function of supply voltage and the mixture composition are presented. The range of proper conditions for the laser working with the new mixture He-Kr:Xe--HC1 was determined. The analysis of experimental results showed that using the new mixture ensures value of energy and pulse duration comparable with the ones obtained for the mixture He-''Xe--HCl. Spectral investigations showed the lack of influence of Kr presence in the mixture on the generation spectrum of the laser. L.

  1. Relativistic coupled-cluster calculations of 20Ne, 40Ar, 84Kr, and 129Xe: Correlation energies and dipole polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, B. K.; Angom, D.; Latha, K. V. P.

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed and systematic study of the correlation energies of inert gas atoms Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe using relativistic many-body perturbation theory and relativistic coupled-cluster theory. In the relativistic coupled-cluster calculations, we implement perturbative triples and include these in the correlation energy calculations. We then calculate the dipole polarizability of the ground states using perturbed coupled-cluster theory.

  2. A first-principles study of He, Xe, Kr and O incorporation in thorium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Daroca, D., E-mail: pdaroca@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Llois, A.M. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    Thorium-based materials are currently being investigated in relation with their potential utilization in Generation-IV reactors as nuclear fuels. Understanding the incorporation of fission products and oxygen is very important to predict the behavior of nuclear fuels. A first approach to this goal is the study of the incorporation energies and stability of these elements in the material. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we calculate the incorporation energies of He, Xe, Kr and O atoms in Th and C vacancy sites, in tetrahedral interstitials and in Schottky defects along the 〈1 1 1〉 and 〈1 0 0〉 directions. We also analyze atomic displacements, volume modifications and Bader charges. This kind of results for ThC, to the best authors’ knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. This should deal as a starting point towards the study of the complex behavior of fission products in irradiated ThC.

  3. Elastic helium scattering studies of ordered overlayers of Ar, Kr, and Xe physisorbed on Ag(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, K.D.; Cerjan, C.; Light, J.C.; Sibener, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    We describe experiments that measured the angle resolved intensity of He (E/sub i/ = 18 and 66 meV) elastically scattering from the surfaces of rare gas overlayers physisorbed on Ag(111). These studies were done on a layer-by-layer basis for 1, 2, 3, and ∼25 ordered overlayers of Ar, Kr, and Xe. Two types of experiments are described. The first is diffraction, where the scattered He intensity was measured as a function of the detector angle, with the incident polar and azimuthal angles held constant. In the second type of experiment, selective adsorption, we measured the specular intensity as a function of incident angle. The purpose of these experiments was to examine the He--surface potential, to assess the relative contributions that various He--rare gas pair potentials, nonadditive multibody terms, and He--substrate interactions make to the systems studied. The experiments are compared with the results of accurate close-coupling calculations, in order to quantitatively perform these assessments. The comparisons between the selective adsorption data and scattering calculations demonstrate the extreme sensitivity that such measurements have to the He--surface potential. In particular, observable changes in the calculated selective adsorption spectra appear when different He--rare gas potentials are tested, or when various nonadditive terms are included in the potential. The results suggest that further refinements in the He-heavy--rare gas pair potentials may be in order

  4. LASER RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS (BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS): Conversion of KrCl and XeCl laser radiation to the visible spectral range by stimulated Raman scattering in lead vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, Gennadii S.; Mel'chenko, S. V.; Panchenko, Aleksei N.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.

    1990-04-01

    Conversion of KrCl and XeCl laser radiation by stimulated Raman scattering was achieved in lead vapor. The KrCl laser radiation was converted into three lines in the visible region at λ = 406, 590, and 723 nm by transitions from both the ground and first excited levels of the lead atom. The conversion efficiency of XeCl laser radiation of low spatial coherence was found to be limited by the activation of a competing nonlinear process.

  5. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed Using CaSDB MOF for Xe/Kr Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Processing of spent nuclear fuel produces off-gas from which several volatile radioactive components must be separated for further treatment or storage. As part of the Off-gas Sigma Team, parallel research at INL and PNNL has produced several promising sorbents for the selective capture of xenon and krypton from these off-gas streams. In order to design full-scale treatment systems, sorbents that are promising on a laboratory scale must be proven under process conditions to be considered for pilot and then full-scale use. To that end, a bench-scale multi-column system with capability to test multiple sorbents was designed and constructed at INL. This report details bench-scale testing of CaSDB MOF, produced at PNNL, and compares the results to those reported last year using INL engineered sorbents. Two multi-column tests were performed with the CaSDB MOF installed in the first column, followed with HZ-PAN installed in the second column. The CaSDB MOF column was placed in a Stirling cryocooler while the cryostat was employed for the HZ-PAN column. Test temperatures of 253 K and 191 K were selected for the first column while the second column was held at 191 K for both tests. Calibrated volume sample bombs were utilized for gas stream analyses. At the conclusion of each test, samples were collected from each column and analyzed for gas composition. While CaSDB MOF does appear to have good capacity for Xe, the short time to initial breakthrough would make design of a continuous adsorption/desorption cycle difficult, requiring either very large columns or a large number of smaller columns. Because of the tenacity with which Xe and Kr adhere to the material once adsorbed, this CaSDB MOF may be more suitable for use as a long-term storage solution. Further testing is recommended to determine if CaSDB MOF is suitable for this purpose.

  6. Measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 as undisturbed tracers for the representing of atmospheric transport after disposal of radioactivity from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T.; Salvamoser, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Meteorological Service) operates since 1996 a sampling and measurement device for the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 in Offenbach. These measurements are embedded in the German Measurement and Information System for Monitoring Environmental Radioactivity (Integriertes Mess- und Informationssystem zur Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet in der Umwelt, IMIS) [1]. In addition to these measurements the DWD is sampling rare gases in Potsdam and since 2014 in Trier in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection, BfS). In the frame of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)-program of the WMO the DWD operated a sampling station at the Zugspitze (Schneefernerhaus) from 1999 to 2005. This location at the Zugspitze is well suited for the observation of long distance transport of Kr-85 in the higher atmosphere. The DWD in Offenbach operates a complex analytical system for the measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 since 1998. This system consists of sampling with first enrichment, second enrichment, gas chromatographic separation and preparation of Krypton and Xenon and measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133. Using the example Fukushima, it is shown, that the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 are well undisturbed tracers for atmospheric transport in case of a nuclear accident or routine nuclear reprocessing plants. Measurements of Xe-133, I-131, Cs-137 and Kr-85 are correlated with source and atmospheric transport to the sampling sites at Offenbach and Potsdam.

  7. Superficial Velocity Effects on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN for Kr/Xe Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Nearly all previous testing of HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN was conducted at the same flow rate in order to maintain consistency among tests. This testing was sufficient for sorbent capacity determinations, but did not ensure that sorbents were capable of functioning under a range of flow regimes. Tests were conducted on both HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN at superficial velocities between 20 and 700 cm/min. For HZ-PAN, Kr capacity increased from 60 mmol/kg to 110 mmol/kg as superficial velocity increased from 21 to 679 cm/min. Results for AgZ-PAN were similar, with capacity ranging from 72 to 124 mmol/kg over the same range of superficial. These results are promising for scaling up to process flows, demonstrating flexibility to operate in a broad range of superficial velocities while maintaining sorbent capacity. While preparing for superficial velocity testing it was also discovered that AgZ-PAN Xe capacity, previously observed to diminish over time, could be recovered with increased desorption temperature. Further, a substantial Xe capacity increase was observed. Previous room temperature capacities in the range of 22-25 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN were increased to over 60 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN. While this finding has not yet been fully explored to optimize activation and desorption temperatures, it is encouraging.

  8. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed for Xe/Kr Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Garn, Troy Gerry; Welty, Amy Keil; Lyon, Kevin Lawrence; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-01-01

    Previous research studies have shown that INL-developed engineered form sorbents are capable of capturing both Kr and Xe from various composite gas streams. The previous experimental test bed provided single column testing for capacity evaluations over a broad temperature range. To advance research capabilities, the employment of an additional column to study selective capture of target species to provide a defined final gas composition for waste storage was warranted. The second column addition also allows for compositional analyses of the final gas product to provide for final storage determinations. The INL krypton capture system was modified by adding an additional adsorption column in order to create a multi-column test bed. The purpose of this modification was to investigate the separation of xenon from krypton supplied as a mixed gas feed. The extra column was placed in a Stirling Ultra-low Temperature Cooler, capable of controlling temperatures between 190 and 253K. Additional piping and valves were incorporated into the system to allow for a variety of flow path configurations. The new column was filled with the AgZ-PAN sorbent which was utilized as the capture medium for xenon while allowing the krypton to pass through. The xenon-free gas stream was then routed to the cryostat filled with the HZ-PAN sorbent to capture the krypton at 191K. Selectivities of xenon over krypton were determined using the new column to verify the system performance and to establish the operating conditions required for multi-column testing. Results of these evaluations verified that the system was operating as designed and also demonstrated that AgZ-PAN exhibits excellent selectivity for xenon over krypton in air at or near room temperature. Two separation tests were performed utilizing a feed gas consisting of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton with the balance being made up of air. The AgZ-PAN temperature was held at 295 or 253K while the HZ-PAN was held at 191K for both

  9. Measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 as undisturbed tracers for the representing of atmospheric transport after disposal of radioactivity from nuclear facilities; Messungen von Kr-85 und Xe-133 als ungestoerte Tracer zur Darstellung atmosphaerischer Transportvorgaenge nach Freisetzung von Radioaktivitaet aus kerntechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T. [Deutscher Wetterdienst (Germany); Salvamoser, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Isotopen-, Gas- und Umweltuntersuchungen (IGU), Woerthsee (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Meteorological Service) operates since 1996 a sampling and measurement device for the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 in Offenbach. These measurements are embedded in the German Measurement and Information System for Monitoring Environmental Radioactivity (Integriertes Mess- und Informationssystem zur Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet in der Umwelt, IMIS) [1]. In addition to these measurements the DWD is sampling rare gases in Potsdam and since 2014 in Trier in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection, BfS). In the frame of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)-program of the WMO the DWD operated a sampling station at the Zugspitze (Schneefernerhaus) from 1999 to 2005. This location at the Zugspitze is well suited for the observation of long distance transport of Kr-85 in the higher atmosphere. The DWD in Offenbach operates a complex analytical system for the measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 since 1998. This system consists of sampling with first enrichment, second enrichment, gas chromatographic separation and preparation of Krypton and Xenon and measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133. Using the example Fukushima, it is shown, that the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 are well undisturbed tracers for atmospheric transport in case of a nuclear accident or routine nuclear reprocessing plants. Measurements of Xe-133, I-131, Cs-137 and Kr-85 are correlated with source and atmospheric transport to the sampling sites at Offenbach and Potsdam.

  10. Inner-shell spectroscopy and exchange interaction of Rydberg electrons bound by singly and doubly charged Kr and Xe atoms in small clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Masanari; Hatsui, Takaki; Setoyama, Hiroyuki; Ruehl, Eckart; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Surface-site resolved Kr 3d 5/2 -1 5p and 3d 5/2 -1 6p and Xe 4d 5/2 -1 6p and 4d 5/2 -1 7p Rydberg excited states in small van der Waals Kr and Xe clusters with a mean size of = 15 are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface-site resolved Kr 4s -2 5p, 4s -2 6p, and 4s -1 4p -1 5p shakeup-like Rydberg states in small Kr clusters are investigated by resonant Auger electron spectroscopy. The exchange interaction of the Rydberg electron with the surrounding atoms and the induced polarization of the surrounding atoms in the singly and doubly ionized atoms are deduced from the experimental spectra to analyze different surface-site contributions in small clusters, assuming that the corner, edge, face, and bulk sites have 3, 5-6, 8, and 12 nearest neighbor atoms. These energies are almost proportional to the number of the nearest neighbor atoms. The present analysis indicates that small Kr and Xe clusters with = 15 have an average or mixture structure between the fcc-like cubic and icosahedron-like spherical structures.

  11. Methane activation using Kr and Xe in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Woo Seok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Methane has interested many researchers as a possible new energy source, but the high stability of methane causes a bottleneck in methane activation, limiting its practical utilization. To determine how to effectively activate methane using non-thermal plasma, the conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gases—Ar, Kr, and Xe—as additives. In addition to the methane conversion results at various applied voltages, the discharge characteristics such as electron temperature and electron density were calculated through zero-dimensional calculations. Moreover, the threshold energies of excitation and ionization were used to distinguish the dominant particle for activating methane between electrons, excited atoms, and ionized atoms. From the experiments and calculations, the selection of the additive noble gas is found to affect not only the conversion of methane but also the selectivity of product gases even under similar electron temperature and electron density conditions

  12. Search of 2K(2ν) capture in 78 Kr and 124 Xe by means of wall-less proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchenko, G.V.; Gavrilyuk, Yu.M.; Kuz'minov, V.V.; Osetrova, N.Ya.; Ratkevich, S.S.

    1998-01-01

    The technique of the experiment on the double two-neutrino K-capture search in isotopes of rare gases 78 Kr and 124 Xe is described. Multiwire wall-less proportional counters of a large volume are used in this experiment. Methods of decreasing the counter background noise in the energy range 10-100 keV are considered. These methods are based on the discrimination of events on the coordinate along the anode filament and the pulse rise time. The sensitivity of the experimental installation is estimated according to the half-life 78 Kr (1.2 x 10 21 years) and 124 Xe (2.6 x 10 20 years) with respect to the 2K(2ν) capture (68% certain level)

  13. Production of He-, Ne-, Ar-, Kr-, and Xe-isotopes by proton-induced reactions on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leya, I.; Michel, R.

    2003-01-01

    We measured integral thin target cross sections for the proton-induced production of He-, Ne-, Ar-, Kr-, and Xe-isotopes from lead from the respective reaction thresholds up to 2.6 GeV. The production of noble gas isotopes in lead by proton-induced reactions is of special importance for design studies of accelerator driven systems and energy amplifiers. In order to minimise the influences of secondary particles on the production of residual nuclides a new Mini-Stack approach was used instead of the well-known stacked-foil techniques for all experiments with proton energies above 200 MeV. With some exceptions our database for the proton-induced production of noble gas isotopes from lead is consistent and nearly complete. In contradistinction to the production of He from Al and Fe, where the cross sections obtained by thin-target irradiation experiments are up to a factor of 2 higher than the NESSI data, both datasets agree for the He production from lead. (orig.)

  14. Production of highly charged ion beams Kr32+, Xe44+, Au54+ with Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) Krion-2 and corresponding basic and applied studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2010-09-01

    Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) Krion-2 (JINR, Dubna) was used for basic and applied research in various aspects of multiply charged heavy ions production. Energy recuperation mode in ESIS has been proofed first and used for production of highly charged ions 84Kr28+÷84Kr32+, 124Xe40÷124Xe44 and Au51+÷ Au54+. Krion-2 ESIS was mounted on high voltage (HV) platform of LU-20 Linac and used as an injector of highly charged ions during Nuclotron run N° 41. Krion-2 ESIS has produced 3.0.107 124Xe42+ ions per pulse of 7 μs duration. This ion beam was injected into LU-20 and Nuclotron, accelerated up to energy of 186 GeV and the extracted Xe beam was used for physics experiments. Electron String Ion Source Krion-2 demonstrated the high reliability and stability running during 30 days on HV platform. We believe that it is due to an extremely low electron beam power, provided by using the electron string mode of operation: 50 W pulse power and about 10 W average power. Other possible application of ESIS could be its use in injection complexes of synchrotrons and cyclotrons for cancer therapy. Slow and fast extraction of C4+ and C6+ beams from Krion-2 ESIS were preliminary studied towards ESIS optimization for medical accelerators requirements.

  15. Measurement of collision-induced radiative deexcitation cross sections for metastable He*(2 1S) interacting with He, Ar, Kr, and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnbostel, C.; Feltgen, R.; Hoffmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiative deexcitation cross section for He * (2 1 S) in collisions with He has been measured in the collision energy range from 40 to 110 meV. The experimental results agree well with quantal distorted-wave calculations of Zygelman and Dalgarno [Phys. Rev. A 38, 1877 (1988)]. The measured radiative quenching cross sections for the systems He * (2 1 S)+Ar,Kr,Xe manifest a scaling law for fixed collision energy with α 2 as the scaling parameter, where α is the static dipole polarizability of the heavier rare gas

  16. Vapor equilibrium data for the systems Ar--N/sub 2/, Kr--Ar, Kr--N/sub 2/, and Xe--Kr, as well as the liquidus lines of solid xenon and of solid krypton in liquid air component mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastera, S J

    1977-01-15

    The knowledge of vapor-liquid equilibrium data of real gas mixtures makes possible a precise design of a low temperature distillation system. The noble gas isotopes Kr and Xe are formed as a result of nuclear fission. They reach the off-gas, where they must be separated by cryogenic methods, among others, in order to reduce radiological contamination of the environment. Consequently, an equilibrium apparatus was constructed inhouse, which worked according to a dynamical measurement method. The following low temperature measurements were performed with this apparatus: (1) to test the apparatus with the Ar--N/sub 2/ system, at temperatures of 80, 85, 90, 95, and 100 degrees K; (2) with the Kr--Ar system, at temperatures of 115, 116.5, 120, and 125 degrees K; (3) with the Kr--N/sub 2/ system, at temperatures of 100, 105, at 110 degrees K in the N/sub 2/-rich existence range of the liquid phase above the solubility limit, and at temperatures of 115, 120, and 125 degrees K in the entire concentration range. No data at all were previously known about this important system. (4) In the Xe-Kr system, at temperatures of 150, 155, and 160 degrees K, in the Kr-rich liquid existence range above the solubility limit, and at the temperature steps 165, 166, and 170 degrees in the entire concentration range. The consistency of the equilibrium data thus determined was tested with the computer program SYMFIT. These measurements were completed by determining the solubility limits (= liquidus lines) of solid Kr in a liquid Kr--Ar mixture or in a liquid Kr--N/sub 2/ mixture, as well as the solubility limit of solid Xe in a liquid Xe--Kr mixture. The measurement points for the liquidus lines were associated with the respective pressure and respective temperature over the entire concentration range. The experimentally determined data are displayed on tables and graphs. The utilized measurement equipment, with its glass equilibrium cell, is described.

  17. Chemical activity of noble gases Kr and Xe and its impact on fission gas accumulation in the irradiated UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuta, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is generally accepted that most of the insoluble inert gas atoms Xe and Kr produced during fissioning are retained in the fuel irradiated at a temperature lower than the threshold. Experimental data imply that we can assume that after irradiation exposure in excess of 10 18 fissions/cm 3 the single gas atom diffusion can be disregarded in description of fission gas behaviour. It is assumed that the vicinity of the fission fragment trajectory is the place of intensive irradiation induced chemical interaction of the fission gas products with UO 2 . Significant part of fission gas product is thus expected to be chemically bound in the matrix of UO 2 . Experiments with mixture of noble gases, coupled with theoretical calculations, provide strong evidence for direct bonds between Ar, Kr, or Xe atoms and the U atom of the CUO molecule. Because of its positive charge, the UO 2 2+ ion, which is isoelectronic with CUO, should form even stronger bonds with noble gas atoms, which could lead to a growing number of complexes that contain direct noble gas - to - actinide bonds. Considering the huge amount of gas immobilised in the UO 2 fuel the solution process and in consequence the re-solution process of rare gases is to be replaced by the chemical bonding process. This explains the fission gas accumulation in the irradiated UO 2 fuel. (author)

  18. Dry aerosol of monodisperse millimicrospheres for ventilation imaging: Production, delivery system, and clinical results in comparison with /sup 81m/Kr and /sup 127/Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehn, H; Mostbeck, A; Klech, H; Kummer, F; Angelberger, P; Strigl, A; Zolle, I

    1985-05-01

    The production of monodisperse human albumin millimicrospheres (diameter 1 ..mu..m) and labeling with /sup 99m/Tc is described. A system constructed to nebulize and deliver a dry aerosol yielded a lung delivery efficiency of approximately 25%. In 48 patients without and with varying degrees of chronic obstructive lung disease, quantitative comparison with /sup 81m/Kr (penetration index, regional distribution of activity in the lungs) demonstrated similar penetration of the particles to the lung periphery (r = 0.89 and r = 0.94, respectively). Qualitative comparison with /sup 81m/Kr or /sup 127/Xe showed complete or a high degree of diagnostic agreement in all but one patient. Semiquantitative scoring of hot spots as a substrate of local turbulent airflow showed a close inverse correlation (r = -0.82) with the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1.0%), thus providing additional information about the severity of the airway obstruction. In 24 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, complete agreement between aerosol and /sup 81m/Kr images was found in all patients studied. For same-day ventilation/perfusion studies, labeling of the millimicrospheres with /sup 111/In yielded images of comparable quality to those obtained with the /sup 99m/Tc-labeled aerosol.

  19. Theoretical treatment of the spin-orbit coupling in the rare gas oxides NeO, ArO, KrO, and XeO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    Off-diagonal spin-orbit matrix elements are calculated as a function of internuclear distance for the rare gas oxides NeO, ArO, KrO, and XeO using the full microscopic spin-orbit Hamiltonian, including all one- and two-electron integrals, and POL-CI wave functions comparable to those of Dunning and Hay (1977). A good agreement was found when comparing these results in detail with the calculations of Cohen, Wadt and Hay (1979) that utilize an effective one-electron one-center spin-orbit operator. For the rare gas oxide molecules, it is suggested that the numerical results are a more sensitive test of the wave functions (particularly to the extent of charge transfer) than the exact evaluation of all terms in the full spin-orbit operator.

  20. 80 A/cm2 electron beams from metal targets irradiated by KrCl and XeCl excimer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazov, A.; Martino, M.; Nassisi, V.

    1996-05-01

    Due to the growing demand for high-current and long-duration electron-beam devices, laser electron sources were investigated in our laboratory. Experiments on electron-beam generation and propagation from aluminium and copper targets illuminated by XeCl (308 nm) and KrCl (222 nm) excimer lasers, were carried out under plasma ignition due to laser irradiation. This plasma supplied a spontaneous accelerating electric field of about 370 kV/m without an external accelerating voltage. By applying the modified one-dimensional Poisson equation, we computed the expected current and we also estimated the plasma concentration during the accelerating process. At 40 kV of accelerating voltage, an output current pulse of about 80 A/cm2 was detected from an Al target irradiated by the shorter wavelength laser.

  1. Static electric polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizabilities of molecular ions RgH + (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe): ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Janusz; Antušek, Andrej; Holka, Filip; Sadlej, Joanna

    2009-06-01

    Extensive ab initio calculations of static electric properties of molecular ions of general formula RgH + (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) involving the finite field method and coupled cluster CCSD(T) approach have been done. The relativistic effects were taken into account by Douglas-Kroll-Hess approximation. The numerical stability and reliability of calculated values have been tested using the systematic sequence of Dunning's cc-pVXZ-DK and ANO-RCC-VQZP basis sets. The influence of ZPE and pure vibrational contribution has been discussed. The component αzz has increasing trend in RgH + while the relativistic effect on αzz leads to a small increase of this molecular parameter.

  2. Quasimolecular emission near the Xe(5p 56s 1,3 P 1 - 5p 6 1 S 0) and Kr (4p 55s 1,3 P 1 - 4p 6 1 S 0) resonance lines induced by collisions with He atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, O. S.; Devdariani, A. Z.; Grigorian, G. M.; Lednev, M. G.; Zagrebin, A. L.

    2017-02-01

    This study is devoted to the theoretical investigation of the quasimolecular emission of Xe*-He and Kr*-He collision pairs near the Xe (5p 56s 1,3 P 1 - 5p 6 1 S 0) and Kr (4p 55s 1,3 P 1 - 4p 6 1 S 0) resonance atomic lines. The potential curves of the quasimolecules Xe(5p 56s) + He and Kr(4p 55s) + He have been obtained with the use of the effective Hamiltonian and pseudopotential methods. Based on these potential curves the processes of quasimolecular emission of Xe*+He and Kr*+He mixtures have been considered and the spectral distributions I(ħΔω) of photons emitted have been obtained in the framework of quasistatic approximation.

  3. Rotational energy transfer in Na2 (A Σ) colliding with Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne, He, H2, CH4, and N2: Experiment and fitting laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, T.A.; Smith, N.; Karp, A.W.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the method of laser-induced fluorescence, we have measured level to level rate constants for rotational energy transfer (RET) in Na 2 colliding with Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne, He, H 2 , N 2 , and CH 4 . For each target gas we varied the initial rotational quantum number ji-italic over a wide range, typically 4--100, and measured approximately 60 rate constants with an average error of between 6% and 9%. The resulting base of 479 rate constants is used to test several recently proposed fitting laws. The energy corrected sudden scaling law of DePristo et al., when combined with the assumption of a power gap law for the basis rate constants k/sub l/→0, fit with only 3 parameters all of the data for a given target gas with 7%--12% average percentage deviation. Our statistical power gap law worked well and was generally the best law for those data sets with only one value of j/sub i/. The worst fits in all cases considered here were those using the exponential gap law of surprisal theory

  4. Hemodynamics in the Sturge-Weber syndrome utilizing stable Xe-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okudaira, Yojiro; Bandoh, Kuniaki; Ito, Masanori; Sato, Kiyoshi; Tsuji, Masahiro

    1993-01-01

    In 4 Sturge-Weber-syndrome child patients with calcified lesions mainly in the occipital lobe, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined with stable Xe-CT in the resting state and after iv injection of acetazolamide (AA) and megimide (M), with the purpose of examining factors affecting deterioration of neurologic manifestations and the influence of lobectomy. In the resting state, rCBF of the temporal and occipital areas was significantly lower on the affected than unaffected sides. The side-to-side asymmetry of rCBF in the affected and unaffected sides decreased from the frontal to temporal and occipital areas. It was indistinct after AA injection because cerebral vasoreactivity became higher on the affected side. A low rCBF in association with a high cerebral vasoreactivity on the lesion side suggested that the low rCBF matched the low cerebral metabolism of the brain area affected by leptomeningeal angiomatosis. However, cerebral vasoreactivity to AA depended on clinical presentations. Two patients presented with progressive mental retardation. The other two patients were in clinically stable condition. Cerebral vasoreactivity to AA in the former two cases was poorer on both the affected and unaffected sides than that in the latter two cases. M administration was associated with a significantly decreased rCBF in the area of leptomeningeal angiomatosis and cerebral calcification and with a significantly increased rCBF of the 'pericalcified' area. In one patient undergoing extended occipital lobectomy on the affected side, no decrease in rCBF was noted in the resting state in either affected or unaffected side, and cerebral vasoreactivity to AM on the unaffected side was apparently increased. Both circulatory disturbance and seizure appear to play a role in clinical presentations, as well as their deterioration in Sturge-Weber-Syndrome patients. (N.K.)

  5. Stable Chloro- and Bromoxenate Cage Anions; [X3(XeO3)3]3- and [X4(XeO3)4]4- (X = Cl or Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettel, James T; Haensch, Veit G; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2017-06-28

    The number of isolable compounds which contain different noble-gas-element bonds is limited for xenon and even more so for krypton. Examples of Xe-Cl bonds are rare, and prior to this work, no Xe-Br bonded compound had been isolated in macroscopic quantities. The syntheses, isolation, and characterization of the first compounds to contain Xe-Br bonds and their chlorine analogues are described in the present work. The reactions of XeO 3 with [N(CH 3 ) 4 ]Br and [N(C 2 H 5 ) 4 ]Br have provided two bromoxenate salts, [N(C 2 H 5 ) 4 ] 3 [Br 3 (XeO 3 ) 3 ] and [N(CH 3 ) 4 ] 4 [Br 4 (XeO 3 ) 4 ], in which the cage anions have Xe-Br bond lengths that range from 3.0838(3) to 3.3181(8) Å. The isostructural chloroxenate anions (Xe-Cl bond lengths, 2.9316(2) to 3.101(4) Å) were synthesized by analogy with their bromine analogues. The bromo- and chloroxenate salts are stable in the atmosphere at room temperature and were characterized in the solid state by Raman spectroscopy and low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and in the gas phase by quantum-chemical calculations. They are the only known examples of cage anions that contain a noble-gas element. The Xe-Br and Xe-Cl bonds are very weakly covalent and can be viewed as σ-hole interactions, similar to those encountered in halogen bonding. However, the halogen atoms in these cases are valence electron lone pair donors, and the σ* Xe-O orbitals are lone pair acceptors.

  6. Nature of the bonding in the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules. Topological study on electron density and the electron localization function (ELF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarewicz, Emilia; Gordon, Agnieszka J; Berski, Slawomir

    2015-03-19

    Topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) has been carried out for the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules using the wave function approximated by the CCSD, MP2, and DFT(B3LYP, M062X) methods including zero-order regular approximation (ZORA). In the Ng-F bond, the bonding disynaptic attractor V(Ng,F) is missing; therefore, there are no signs of the covalent binding. The nature of the Au-Ng bond depends on the computational method used. Analysis of the ELF carried out for the AuArF and AuXeF molecules, with the wave function approximated by the CCSD and MP2 methods, shows the V(Au,Ng) attractor possibly corresponding to a partially covalent binding between the gold and noble gas atom. However, its very small basin population (<1e) and a very large value of the variance of the basin population suggest that the Au-Ng bond has a very delocalized character. Such bond nature may be related to the charge shift concept with a resonance of the Au(-+)NgX, Au(+-)NgX hybrids. The weakest Au-Ng bond, in terms of the smallest amount of electron density for the V(Au,Ng) basin, is found for the AuKrF molecule with the CCSD method (0.13e). The MP2 method, however, does not yield any V(Au, Ng) population; hence, the covalent Au-Kr bond is not confirmed. Because the V(Au,Ng) attractor is also not observed with the DFT method, the proper characterization of the Au-Ng bond requires proper description of correlation effects. Additional studies on the Au2 and [AuXe](+) molecules, performed at the CCSD and B3LYP levels, exhibit no V(Au,Au) and V(Au,Xe) bonding basins either.

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the triple-differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of Kr(4p) and Xe(5p) at 1-keV impact energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasch, J.; Zitnik, M.; Avaldi, L.; Whelan, C.T.; Stefani, G.; Camilloni, R.; Allan, R.J.; Walters, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    The triple-differential cross sections for the ionization of Kr(4p) and Xe(5p) by a fast electron where the exiting electrons have energies of 20 eV and 1 keV have been measured and compared with distorted-wave Born calculations. Difficulties were encountered when trying to place the relative data on an absolute scale by extrapolation to the optical limit: an extensive study of this normalization process is presented and it is argued that it is not applicable to the heavier atoms considered here, but can be used effectively for helium targets. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Double beta decay searches of 134Xe, 126Xe and 124Xe with large scale Xe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, N; Thurn, J; Zuber, K

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity for double beta decay studies of 134 Xe and 124 Xe is investigated assuming a potential large scale Xe experiment developed for dark matter searches depleted in 136 Xe. The opportunity for an observation of the 2νββ - decay of 134 Xe is explored for various scenarios. A positive observation should be possible for all calculated nuclear matrix elements. The detection of 2ν ECEC of 124 Xe can be probed in all scenarios covering the theoretical predicted half-life uncertainties and a potential search for 126 Xe is discussed. The sensitivity to β + EC decay of 124 Xe is discussed and a positive observation might be possible, while β + β + decay still remains unobservable. The performed studies take into account solar pp–neutrino interactions, 85 Kr beta decay and remaining 136 Xe double beta decay as background components in the depleted detector. (paper)

  9. Influence of Xe and Kr impurities on x-ray yield from debris-free plasma x-ray sources with an Ar supersonic gas jet irradiated by femtosecond near-infrared-wavelength laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Petrov, G. M.; Safronova, A. S.; Petkov, E. E.; Moschella, J. J.; Shrestha, I.; Cline, W.; Wiewior, P.; Chalyy, O.

    2016-11-01

    Many aspects of physical phenomena occurring when an intense laser pulse with subpicosecond duration and an intensity of 1018-1019W /cm2 heats an underdense plasma in a supersonic clustered gas jet are studied to determine the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal processes to soft- and hard-x-ray emission from debris-free plasmas. Experiments were performed at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) Leopard laser operated with a 15-J, 350-fs pulse and different pulse contrasts (107 or 105). The supersonic linear (elongated) nozzle generated Xe cluster-monomer gas jets as well as jets with Kr-Ar or Xe-Kr-Ar mixtures with densities of 1018-1019cm-3 . Prior to laser heating experiments, all jets were probed with optical interferometry and Rayleigh scattering to measure jet density and cluster distribution parameters. The supersonic linear jet provides the capability to study the anisotropy of x-ray yield from laser plasma and also laser beam self-focusing in plasma, which leads to efficient x-ray generation. Plasma diagnostics included x-ray diodes, pinhole cameras, and spectrometers. Jet signatures of x-ray emission from pure Xe gas, as well as from a mixture with Ar and Kr, was found to be very different. The most intense x-ray emission in the 1-9 KeV spectral region was observed from gas mixtures rather than pure Xe. Also, this x-ray emission was strongly anisotropic with respect to the direction of laser beam polarization. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (Non-LTE) models have been implemented to analyze the x-ray spectra to determine the plasma temperature and election density. Evidence of electron beam generation in the supersonic jet plasma was found. The influence of the subpicosecond laser pulse contrast (a ratio between the laser peak intensity and pedestal pulse intensity) on the jets' x-ray emission characteristics is discussed. Surprisingly, it was found that the x-ray yield was not sensitive to the prepulse contrast ratio.

  10. Prospect of drug distribution to hepatic cancer in intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy. Examination by infusion of sup(81m)Kr and /sup 133/Xe via catheter into hepatic artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y; Imaoka, S; Matsui, Y; Ishikawa, O; Taniguchi, K [Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan)

    1982-04-01

    Cannulation into the hepatic artery under laparotomy was performed to nine patients of non-resectable hepatic cancer (eight of hepatocellular carcinoma, and one of cholangiocellular carcinoma), and injected sup(81m)Kr (Tsub(1/2) = 13 sec.) continuously via catheter into hepatic artery as the model of continuous intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy, and /sup 133/Xe (Tsub(1/2) = 5.3 days) by bolus injection as the model of one-shot ones. During and immediately after injection, sequential scintigrams were carried out and simultaneously images were acquired on a medical computer. Higher radioactivities of both sup(81m)Kr and /sup 133/Xe were observed in tumor than non-tumor region in seven of eight patients of hepatocellular carcinoma. The radioactive ratio of tumor to non-tumor (T/C ratio) was over 1.0 in these cases. This result indicated that there was more arterial blood flow in tumor than non-tumor region, and it could be expected to obtain higher distribution of drugs in tumor on both continuous and one-shot infusion chemotherapy. The pattern of distribution of sup(81m)Kr changed according to positions of patients, and in some cases T/C ratio was higher in other positions than supine position. The most effective position of the intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy could be selected by this method. This technique seems to make it possible to prospect the arrival of drugs to the tumor and presume the effectiveness of intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy.

  11. Stable formation of ultrahigh power-density 248 nm channels in Xe cluster targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Alex B.; Racz, Ervin; Khan, Shahab F.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; McCorkindale, John C.; Boguta, John; Longworth, James W.; Rhodes, Charles K. [Laboratory for X-ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-07-11

    The optimization of relativistic and ponderomotive self-channeling of ultra-powerful 248 nm laser pulses launched in underdense plasmas with an appropriate longitudinal gradient in the electron density profile located at the initial stage of the self-channeling leads to (1) stable channel formation and (2) highly efficient power compression producing power densities in the 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 3} range. The comparison of theoretical studies with experimental results involving the correlation of (a) Thomson images of the electron density with (b) x-ray images of the channel morphology demonstrates that more than 90% of the incident 248 nm power can be trapped in stable channels and that this stable propagation can be extended to power levels significantly exceeding the critical power of the self-channeling process.

  12. Dynamics of Chemical and Charge Transfer Reactions of Molecular Dications: Part V. An Experimental and Theoretical Study of Reactions between CHCl2+ and Ar, Kr and Xe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roithová, Jana; Žabka, Ján; Thissen, R.; Herman, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2003), s. 2988-2995 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0632; GA AV ČR KJB4040302 Grant - others:Konktakt Barrande(XE) 2002-013-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : charge-transfer * experimental and theoretical study * molecular dications Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.959, year: 2003

  13. XeCl Excimer Laser with Three- and Four-Component Mixture of Active Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanejko, L.; Pokora, L.

    1998-01-01

    Selected results of investigations of a XeCl excimer laser employing a new type (four-component)of mixture of gases, He-Kr:Xe-HCl, are presented. The mixture includes, instead of Xe, a mixture of not-separated Kr and Xe gases, much less expensive than pure xenon. A comparison of durations and energies of pulses generated in the XeCl excimer laser using three- or four-component gaseous active medium (He-Xe-HCl or He-Kr:Xe-HCl) is made. The investigations have been carried out with the use of a laser system with UV preionization and self sustained pumping discharge. (author)

  14. On applicability of the QsUb(gg)-systematics to the description of cross sections for multinucleon transfer reactions induces by 40Ar, 86Kr, and 136Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepanov, E.A.; Lee Gen Soo; Mezentsev, A.N.; Volkov, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    Relative cross sections have been calculated for the production of gold isotopes with mass numbers of the 190-199 range in the 181 Ta+ 40 Ar, 181 Ta+ 86 Kr and 181 Ta+ 136 Xe systems at laboratory bombarding energies of 290, 550 and 840 MeV, respectively. It was assumed that gold isotopes were produced as a result of multinucleon transfers followed by neutron evaporation. The yield of primary gold isotopes was found using the Qsub(gg)-systematics, whereas the neutron evaporation process was calculated within the framework of the Jackson model. The parameters used in the calculation are the average entrance angular momentum anti l, temperature UPSILON and the nuclear parameter r 0 of exit reaction channels. For realistic values of the parameters indicated a good agreement with the experimental data obtained previously has been achieved. This provides evidence for the applicability of the Qsub(gg)-systematics to the description of multinucleon transfer reactions induced by very heavy ions

  15. CDW-EIS calculations for multiple ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe by the impact of H{sup +} and He{sup +}, including post-collisional electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, C C; Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y FIsica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montenegro, E C, E-mail: mclaudia@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-08-28

    We present theoretical single to quintuple ionization cross sections for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe bombarded by H{sup +} and He{sup +}. Post-collisional contributions due to Auger-like processes are taken into account using recent photoionization data. The present continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) and first Born approximation results are compared with the experimental data available in the energy range of 50-10 000 keV amu{sup -1} for H{sup +} on Ne and Ar, and 50-1000 keV amu{sup -1} for the other cases. In general, the combination of the CDW-EIS with the post-collisional branching ratios describes well the multiple ionization data above 300 keV amu{sup -1}, showing a clear tendency to coalesce with the first Born approximation at high energies. The surprising result of this work is the good performance of the first Born approximation which describes rather well the experimental data of double and triple ionization, even in the intermediate energy range (50-300 keV amu{sup -1}), where direct ionization is the dominant contribution.

  16. The effect of EC-IC bypass surgery on resting cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reserve capacity studied with stable Xe-CT and acetazolamide test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, T.; Kashiwagi, S.; Nakano, S.; Takasago, T.; Abiko, S.; Shiroyama, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Ito, H. (Yamaguchi Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1991-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CRC) were measured by stable xenon computerized tomography (Xe-CT) and acetazolamide test in 15 patients with cerebrovascular disease before and after extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery for minor stroke, reversible ischemic neurological deficit or transient ischemic attack. All had angiographically shown occlusive lesions of the major arterial trunk. In the present series, global analysis showed that the bypass did not increase the resting rCBF, but did increase the rCRC. We divided the patients into four groups according to the preoperative resting rCBF and rCRC. All 3 patients with normal resting rCBF and reduced rCRC showed postoperative improvement of rCRC. Of 6 patients with reduced CBF and reduced CRC, three had postoperative increase in resting CBF and four had increased CRC. One of two patients with reduced CBF and normal CRC showed only an increase in CRC. We propose that reduced CRC or reduced CBF with reduced CRC are criteria for selection of candidates for bypass surgery. We conclude that Xe-CT with the Diamox test is a useful and simple method for evaluating cerebral hemodynamics. Preoperative grouping with a combination of preoperative resting rCBF and preoperative rCRC is useful for predicting the effect of EC-IC bypass surgery. (orig.).

  17. Fast and stable gratings inscription in POFs made of different materials with pulsed 248 nm KrF laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A.F.; Min, R.; Leal, A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents fiber Bragg grating (FBG) inscription with a pulsed 248 nm UV KrF laser in polymer optical fibers (POFs) made of different polymers, namely polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), cyclic-olefin polymer and co-polymer, and Polycarbonate. The inscribed gratings and the corresponding...... inscription parameters are compared with grating inscribed in POFs made of the aforementioned materials but with the hitherto most used laser for inscription, which is a continuous wave 325 nm UV HeCd laser. Results show a reduction of the inscription time of at least 16 times. The maximum time reduction...... is more than 130 times. In addition, a reflectivity and a bandwidth close to or higher than the ones with the 325 nm laser were obtained. The polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (POFBGs) inscribed with the 248 nm laser setup present high stability with small variations in their central wavelength...

  18. Hemodynamics in the Sturge-Weber syndrome utilizing stable Xe-CT; With special reference to the perfusion reserve and the epileptic focus activated by megimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okudaira, Yojiro; Bandoh, Kuniaki; Ito, Masanori; Sato, Kiyoshi; Tsuji, Masahiro (Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    In 4 Sturge-Weber-syndrome child patients with calcified lesions mainly in the occipital lobe, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined with stable Xe-CT in the resting state and after iv injection of acetazolamide (AA) and megimide (M), with the purpose of examining factors affecting deterioration of neurologic manifestations and the influence of lobectomy. In the resting state, rCBF of the temporal and occipital areas was significantly lower on the affected than unaffected sides. The side-to-side asymmetry of rCBF in the affected and unaffected sides decreased from the frontal to temporal and occipital areas. It was indistinct after AA injection because cerebral vasoreactivity became higher on the affected side. A low rCBF in association with a high cerebral vasoreactivity on the lesion side suggested that the low rCBF matched the low cerebral metabolism of the brain area affected by leptomeningeal angiomatosis. However, cerebral vasoreactivity to AA depended on clinical presentations. Two patients presented with progressive mental retardation. The other two patients were in clinically stable condition. Cerebral vasoreactivity to AA in the former two cases was poorer on both the affected and unaffected sides than that in the latter two cases. M administration was associated with a significantly decreased rCBF in the area of leptomeningeal angiomatosis and cerebral calcification and with a significantly increased rCBF of the 'pericalcified' area. In one patient undergoing extended occipital lobectomy on the affected side, no decrease in rCBF was noted in the resting state in either affected or unaffected side, and cerebral vasoreactivity to AM on the unaffected side was apparently increased. Both circulatory disturbance and seizure appear to play a role in clinical presentations, as well as their deterioration in Sturge-Weber-Syndrome patients. (N.K.).

  19. Development of 85Kr separation from the off-gas of the large reprocessing plant: Findings of the prototype test plants ADAMO and KRETA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, R. von; Bumiller, W.; Hutter, E.; Neffe, G.

    1977-01-01

    Operation of the KRETA and ADAMO test plants so far has shown that rectification of the ternary system N 2 -Kr-Xe is possible if certain limiting concentrations of Kr and Xe in the feedwater are kept. At Xe concentrations [de

  20. Cosmic-ray-produced stable nuclides: various production rates and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The rates for a number of reactions producing certain stable nuclides, such as 3 He and 4 He, and fission in the moon are calculated for galactic-cosmic-ray particles and for solar protons. Solar-proton-induced reactions with bromine usually are not an important source of cosmogenic Kr isotopes. The 130 Ba(n,p) reaction cannot account for the undercalculation of 130 Xe production rates. Calculated production rates of 15 N, 13 C, and 2 H agree fairly well with rates inferred from measured excesses of these isotopes in samples with long exposure ages. Cosmic-ray-induced fission of U and Th can produce significant amounts of fission tracks and of 86 Kr, 134 Xe, and 136 Xe, especially in samples with long exposures to cosmic-ray particles

  1. Iseh, KR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iseh, KR. Vol 7, No 3 (2008) - Articles Pattern Of Epistaxis In Sokoto, Nigeria: A Review Of 72 Cases Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 1 (2010) - Articles Rhinosinusitis: A retrospective analysis of clinical pattern and outcome in north western Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1596-3519. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. The use of Kr-81m in ventilation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommet, R.; Therain, F.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive gases are very useful in the study of pulmonary disorders because they allow an assessment of regional lung function. The most widely used radioactive gases are Xe-133 and, more recently, Kr-81m. This paper is a review of the physical characteristics of Kr-81m, its production from the parent Rb-81, the different methods to produce Rb-81, the different types of generators which can be used in hospitals, and the clinical applications of pulmonary ventilation imaging. The paper suggests that Kr-81m offers several advantages over previous methods that used Xe-133 due to its improved spatial resolution, its capacity to provide superimposable ventilation and perfusion images in multiple projections, and its total lung dose which is ten times lower than that of Xe-133

  3. Optical imaging of the boreholes KR29, KR29B, KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33 and KR33B, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-02-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR29, KR29B, KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33 and KR33B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and preliminary processing of the images. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality through example images. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD format. The images are also attached to the appendix CD of this report in Adobe Acrobat PDF-format. (orig.)

  4. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31b, KR32, KR33, KR33b and KR24 Upper Part, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2005-12-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33, KR33B and KR24 upper part at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2004, January, February and September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  5. Monitoring measurements by difference flow method during the year 2006, drillholes OL-KR1, KR2, KR4, KR7, KR8, KR10, KR14, KR22, KR22B, KR27 and KR28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeisaesvaara, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Sokolnicki, M.

    2008-04-01

    The Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flow Method can be used for a relatively fast determination of water conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. In this method, a flow meter with a flow guide is used. This report presents the principles and results of the measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR1, -KR2, -KR4, -KR7, -KR8, -KR10, -KR14, -KR22, -KR22B, -KR27 and -KR28 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2006. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme. Two different section lengths (2 m and 0.5 m) were used in the flow logging measurements. The flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole into the bedrock was measured within the section. Measurements were carried out both in natural conditions and when the drillhole was pumped. The transmissivity (T) and hydraulic head (h) of zones were calculated and are presented in the results. The measurement device also includes a sensor for single-point resistance (SPR) measurements. SPR was always measured in connection with flow measurements. SPR is measured when the tool is moving. The electric conductivity of fracture-specific water (EC) was measured in selected fractures in some of the drillholes. The fractures were chosen on the basis of the measured flow from the fracture to the drillhole. In addition to this some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was measured separately. (orig.)

  6. Ionization energies of Xe2+ and Xe3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutil, R.; Marmet, P.

    1980-01-01

    New electron impact measurements show that the previously accepted energies of ionization of Xe 2+ and Xe 3+ from xenon are erroneous. These energies are determined 33.11 +- 0.04 eV for Xe 2+ and 64.35 +- 0.10 eV for Xe 3+ . New structures are seen by electron impact just above the Xe 2+ threshold. New information is also given on the ionization energies of Xe 4+ and Xe 5+ . (orig.)

  7. Ultra-stable implanted 83Rb/83mKr electron sources for the energy scale monitoring in the KATRIN experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zboril, M.; Beck, M.; Bonn, J.; Dragoun, O.; Jakubek, J.; Johnston, K.; Kovalik, A.; Otten, E.W.; Schlösser, K.; Slezak, M.; Spalek, A.; Thümmler, T.; Venos, D.; Zemlicka, J.; Weinheimer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The KATRIN experiment aims at the direct model-independent determination of the average electron neutrino mass via the measurement of the endpoint region of the tritium beta decay spectrum. The electron spectrometer of the MAC-E filter type is used, requiring very high stability of the electric filtering potential. This work proves the feasibility of implanted 83Rb/83mKr calibration electron sources which will be utilised in the additional monitor spectrometer sharing the high voltage with the main spectrometer of KATRIN. The source employs conversion electrons of 83mKr which is continuously generated by 83Rb. The K-32 conversion line (kinetic energy of 17.8 keV, natural line width of 2.7 eV) is shown to fulfill the KATRIN requirement of the relative energy stability of +/-1.6 ppm/month. The sources will serve as a standard tool for continuous monitoring of KATRIN's energy scale stability with sub-ppm precision. They may also be used in other applications where the precise conversion lines can be separated fr...

  8. Long-term storage of 85Kr in amorphous zeolite 5A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.; Noppel, H.E.; Dorea, A.; Guenther, K.; Leitzig, H.; Schuster, P.

    1984-01-01

    Ar, Kr and Xe can be immobilized in type A zeolites as well as in mordenite and chabazite, when the original crystal structure is hydrothermally vitrified in the presence of the densified gas. Zeolites containing a high percentage of earth alcali metals yield encapsulates that are thermally very stable. Gas fixation conditions are essentially independent of the form of aggregation of the matrix. Noble gas encapsulates were characterized by their specific surface area as well as by microprobe analysis, X-ray analysis and electron diffraction. The results indicate that Kr is immobilized in units smaller than the size of a zeolite crystal. The thermal conductivity of zeolites was determined experimentally in various fluid media. With the data obtained the heat transport through a final storage vessel cooled by natural air convection was calculated. The estimated temperature profiles correlate well with those obtained in experiments simulating a storage containment. To verify the process, active samples having specific activities up to 30 mCi/g have been prepared. Leaching results demonstrate the chemical stability of the Kr/5A encapsulates. A semi-pilot facility based on the one-way autoclave concept has been constructed and demonstrated in operation

  9. Post-irradiation analysis of an ISOLDE lead-bismuth target: Stable and long-lived noble gas nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leya, I., E-mail: Ingo.Leya@space.unibe.ch [University of Bern, Space Science and Planetology, Bern (Switzerland); Grimberg, A. [University of Bern, Space Science and Planetology, Bern (Switzerland); Isotope Geochemistry, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); David, J.-C. [CEA/Saclay, Irfu/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Schumann, D.; Neuhausen, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Zanini, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 117, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Noah, E. [University of Geneva, Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    We measured the isotopic concentrations of long-lived and stable He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotopes in a sample from a lead-bismuth eutectic target irradiated with 1.0 and 1.4 GeV protons. Our data indicate for most noble gases nearly complete release with retention fractions in the range of percent or less. Higher retention fractions result from the decay of long-lived radioactive progenitors from groups 1, 2, or 7 of the periodic table. From the data we can calculate a retention fraction for {sup 3}H of 2–3%. For alkaline metals we find retention fractions of about 10%, 30%, and 50% for Na, Rb, and Cs, respectively. For the alkaline earth metal Ba we found complete retention. Finally, the measured Kr and Xe concentrations indicate that there was some release of the halogens Br and I during and/or after the irradiation.

  10. Formation and migration properties of the rare gases He, Ne, Ar, Ke, and Xe in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melius, C.F.; Wilson, W.D.; Bisson, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The energies of formation and migration of various rare gas-point defect complexes in an f.c.c. nickel lattice have been calculated for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Formation energies of rare gas atoms at interstitial sites are compared with those in substitutional sites. Binding energies are presented for self-interstitials and vacancies trapped to the various rare gas substitutionals. Migration energies and migration paths are also presented for various rare gas interstitials and substitutionals with and without trapped vacancies and self-interstitials. The migration energies are compared with the breakup energies for the corresponding complexes. It is found that divacancy-rare gas complexes are rather stable and will migrate at relatively low energies compared to other substitutional rare gas migration processes. (author)

  11. Understanding and modulating the high-energy properties of noble-gas hydrides from their long-bonding: an NBO/NRT investigation on HNgCO+/CS+/OSi+ and HNgCN/NC (Ng = He, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiqiu; Song, Junjie; Fu, Lei; Tang, Kongshuang; Su, Yue; Chen, Dezhan

    2018-04-18

    The noble-gas hydrides, HNgX (X is an electronegative atom or fragment), represent potential high-energy materials because their two-body decomposition process, HNgX → Ng + HX, is strongly exoergic. Our previous studies have shown that each member of the HNgX (X = halogen atom or CN/NC fragment) molecules is composed of three leading resonance structures: two ω-bonding structures (H-Ng+ :X- and H:- Ng+-X) and one long-bonding structure (H∧X). The last one paints a novel [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding picture. The present study focuses on the relationship between this novel bonding motif and the unusual energetic properties. We chose HNgCO+/CS+/OSi+/CN/NC, with the formula HNgAB (Ng = He, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; AB = CO+/CS+/OSi+/CN/NC) as the research system. We first investigated the bonding of HNgCO+ and its analogous HNgCS+/OSi+ species using NBO/NRT methods, and quantitatively compared the bonding with that in HNgCN/NC molecules. NBO/NRT results showed that each of the HNgCO+/CS+/OSi+ molecules could be better represented as a resonance hybrid of ω-bonding and long-bonding structures, but the long-bonding is much weaker than that in HNgCN/NC molecules. Furthermore, we introduced the long-bonding concept into the rationalization of the high-energy properties, and found a good correlation between the highly exothermic two-body dissociation channel and the long-bond order, bH-A. We also found that the long-bond order is highly tunable for these noble-gas hydrides due to its dependence on the nature of the electronegative AB fragments or the central noble-gas atoms, Ng. On the basis of these results, we could optimize the energetic properties by changing the long-bonding motif of our studied molecules. Overall, this study shows that the long-bonding model provides an easy way to rationalize and modulate the unusual energy properties of noble-gas hydrides, and that it is helpful to predict some noble-gas hydrides as potential energetic materials.

  12. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31b, KR32, KR33, KR33b and KR24 Upper Part, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33, KR33B and KR24 upper part at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2004, January, February and September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  13. Xe isotopic abundances in enstatite meteorites and relations to other planetary reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jee-Yon; Marti, Kurt; Wacker, John F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the interpretation of xenon that was measured in the Abee meteorite. Reported Xe isotopic abundances in enstatite chondrites (EC's) show some variability, and this makes comparisons to other solar system reservoirs rather difficult. In contrast, we find uniform Xe isotopic abundances in the EC chondrite Abee for a variety of clasts, except for 128 Xe and 129 Xe, the isotopes affected by neutron capture in I and by extinct 129 I. We report averages for the studied clasts which are consistent within error limits with OC-Xe and with the Q-Xe signature. On the other hand, the elemental abundance ratios Ar/Xe are variable between clasts. A strongly reducing environment which is indicated for enstatite meteorites was generally assumed to be consistent with conditions existing in the early inner solar system. Xe isotopic abundances in SNC meteorites from Mars and also those in some terrestrial wells show that distinct isotopic reservoirs coexisted on the same planets. In particular, the Xe isotopic signatures in terrestrial well gases show the presence of a minor distinct component in two of the reported four well gases. These authors suggested that the extra component represents solar Xe, but we show that also a meteoritic xenon reservoir of the Abee-Xe structure is an option. The reported Xe data in Ar-rich (subsolar) EC's show isotopic abundances slightly lighter than those in Abee-Xe, but the relative abundances of Ar, Kr, and Xe indicate only a minor component of elementally unfractionated solar Xe. The elemental ratios suggest rather a different origin for these gases: the loading of solar particles into grain surfaces during exposure at elevated temperatures during accretion of matter in the inner solar system. A model of this type was suggested for the accretion of gases now observed in the atmosphere on Venus. We note that disks of crystalline silicates (including enstatite and olivine) have been observed in T Tauri stars during their early

  14. New spectroscopic results in Xe II, Xe III, and Xe IV

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Almandos, Jorge Guillermo; Gallardo, Mario; Garavaglia, Mario J.

    1982-01-01

    New results obtained in spontaneous xenon spectrum employing a conventional pulsed gaseous laser tube as light source, are presented in this work. A total of 626 spectral lines has been ionically assigned as follows: 50 to Xe II spectrum, 103 to Xe III spectrum, arid 222 to Xe IV spectrum. 30 Lines previously assigned to Xe II were reassigned as belonging to Xe III, 94 lines were assigned with some doubts to Xe II-III spectrum and 84 lines to Xe Ill-IV spectrum. Also there were clas...

  15. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebiger Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  16. Hyperfine spectra of the radioactive isotopes 81Kr and 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    Isotope shifts and hyperfine constants are reported for the radioactive isotopes 81 Kr and 85 Kr and the stable isotope 83 Kr. The previously unreported nuclear moments of 81 Kr were determined to be μ I =-0.909(4) nuclear magneton and Q=+0.630(13) b from the hyperfine constants. This work increases the number of transitions for which 85 Kr hyperfine constants and isotope shifts have been measured from 1 to 4. The hyperfine anomaly for krypton reported in the previous measurement of 85 Kr hyperfine constants [H. Gerhardt et al., Hyperfine Interact. 9, 175 (1981)] is not supported by this work. The isotope shifts and hyperfine constants of 83 Kr measured in this work are in excellent agreement with previous work. Saturation spectroscopy was used to study transitions from krypton's metastable 1s 5 state to the 2p 9 , 2p 7 , and 2p 6 states. In saturation spectra, different line shapes were observed for the even- and odd-mass krypton isotopes. This even- versus odd-line-mass shape difference can be explained using the large cross section that has been reported for collisional transfer of the 1s 5 state excitation between krypton atoms. Two-color two-photon laser-induced fluorescence was used to measure the hyperfine spectra of the 1s 5- 4d 4 ' transition using the 2p 9 state as the intermediate state. This technique proved to be more sensitive than saturation spectroscopy

  17. Analysis of XeC1 Emission in a Hollow Cathode Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    excited homopolar molecule, e.g., Xe2 , Hg2 The term exciplex refers to an electronically excited heteropolar complex, e.g., KrF , XeOH , XeCl , which...frequently overlooked and both homopolar and heteropolar systems are commonly referred to as excimers, Excimers are formed by the interaction between two...mode and a non-scanning mode. Scanning is performed using a 1 rpm motor and produces plots of in- tensity versus wavelength. The non-scanning mode is

  18. Preparation and dosimetry of reactor-produced Xe-125 for ventilation scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, D.; Cordes, H.

    1978-01-01

    Xe-125 is produced in the reactor by the (n, γ)-reaction from Xe-124. The natural abundance of Xe-124, however, is only 0,1 percent. As the costs for Xe-124 enriched Xenon are considerable, natural Xenon is activated in the epithermal energy region. In contrast to the other stable isotopes of Xenon, Xe-124 shows a large resonance cross section in this energy region. The main activation product is Xe-125. In addition, a few nuclides (e.g. Xe-125m, Xe-127m, Xe-137) are produced, which due to their short half lives give no contribution to radiation dose. Radiocontaminants originating from parent-daughter decay (e.g. Cs-135 and Cs-137) are separated by filtration of the gas. I-125 produced by the decay of Xe-125 is removed by filtering of the gas before administration to the patient. Typical yields of a sample capsule are 20 to 30 mCi Xe-125 after irradiation of 4 hours in an epithermal flux of approximately 2.10 -11 s -1 cm -2 . The residual contaminants contributing to the radiation dose are Xe-135 and Xe-129m. Depending on the irradiation time they amount to a few percent of the total activity. Using Xe-125 for lung ventilation studies results in considerable reduction of radiation dose as compared to Xe-133. An additional advantage is the better tissue penetration of Xe-125 (γ-energies at 188 keV (55%) and 243 keV (29%)) permitting the reduction of the dose for a study. The daughter nuclide I-125 generated during the study causes only a few mrem of radiation dose if the thyroid is blocked. Altogether Xe-125 as compared to Xe-133 offers more suitable γ-energies for lung ventilation studies and in addition a reduced radiation dose to the patient. (author)

  19. XeBr exciplex laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searles, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Laser emission from the recently discovered XeBr exciplex laser was investigated as a function of the partial pressures of Xe and Br 2 . An optical loss process appears to limit high-pressure operation

  20. Primordial Terrestrial Xe from the Viewpoint of CFF-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshik, A. P.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.; Jessberger, E. K.

    1995-09-01

    We have already reported [7, 23] on the non-linear isotope mass-fractionation of fission Xe by migration of the precursors I, Te, Sn, and Sb and simultaneous fission of heavy nuclei. Xe with anomalous isotopic pattern was found in a number of meteorites and terrestrial materials and was named CFF-Xe (Chemically Fractionated Fission Xe). It is characterized by an up eightfold ^132Xe and ^131Xe excesses coupled with smaller ^134Xe and ^129Xe excesses. The present work is aimed to estimate the role of CFF-Xe in the terrestrial lithosphere and specifically deals with the problem of the isotopic composition of primordial terrestrial Xe. Due to variations of the migration conditions the isotopic structure of CFF-Xe is not well established and is even not reproducible in the same rock [2]. Nevertheless, we have tried to estimate the composition of CFF-Xe by investigating all available isotopic data of Xe of presumable mantle origin. This is Xe in MORB [29, 1, 12] and ocean island glasses [1, 28], in diamonds [17], in volcanic rocks [29, 8, 9, 21], in volcanic glasses from pillow basalts [16, 6], continental igneous rocks [1, 24, 10, 22], carbonatites and granitoids [1] as well as Xe in natural gases [3, 24, 11, 4, 15]. All data are plotted Fig. 1 where we also suggest end members of the observed scattering. Optimized slopes of CFF-lines are shown as well as the position of the initial points which we regard as primordial terrestrial Xe (Xe0). The isotopic composition of CFF-Xe and Xe0 are given in Tab. 1. The abundances of ^124Xe and ^126Xe in mantle derived samples are very uncertain, but since ^128Xe/^130Xe in Xea and Xe0 is very similar we propose the same ^124Xe/^130Xe and ^126Xe/^130Xe ratios for both Xea and Xe0. If so, AVCC-Xe is simply Xe0 with an admixture of L-Xe, and atmospheric xenon Xea consists of Xe0, CFF-Xe and a small amount of fission Xe (92.5%Xe0 + 5.3%CFF-Xe + 2.2%XeF). Thus, a number of old problems in xenology are removed. The hypothetic components U-Xe

  1. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxian Zhang

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011. In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A, tmLT, constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q-tmLT that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea.

  2. Z/sub 1/ dependence of ion-induced electron emission from aluminum. [H/sup +/,H/sub 2//sup +/,D/sup +/,D/sub 2//sup +/,He/sup +/,B/sup +/,C/sup +/,N/sup +/,N/sub 2//sup +/,O/sup +/,O/sub 2//sup +/,F/sup +/,Ne/sup +/,S/sup +/,Cl/sup +/,Ar/sup +/,Kr/sup +/, and Xe/sup +/, 1. 2-50 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1980-07-01

    We have measured the electron emission yields ..gamma.. of clean aluminum under bombardment with H/sup +/, H/sub 2/ /sup +/, D/sup +/, D/sub 2/ /sup +/, He/sup +/, B/sup +/, C/sup +/, N/sup +/, N/sub 2/ /sup +/, O/sup +/, O/sub 2/ /sup +/, F/sup +/, Ne/sup +/, S/sup +/, Cl/sup +/, Ar/sup +/, Kr/sup +/, and Xe/sup +/ in the energy range 1.2--50 keV. The clean surfaces were prepared by in situ evaporation of high-purity Al under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. It is found that kinetic electron emission yields ..gamma../sub k/, obtained after subtracting from the measured ..gamma.. a contribution due to potential emission, are roughly proportional to the electronic stopping powers, for projectiles lighter than Al. For heavier projectiles there is a sizable contribution to electron emission from collisions involving rapidly recoiling target atoms, which increases with the mass of the projectile, and which dominates the threshold and near-threshold behavior of kinetic emission. The results, together with recently reported data on Auger electron emission from ion-bombarded Al show that the mechanism proposed by Parilis and Kishinevskii of inner-shell excitation and subsequent Auger decay is negligible for light ions and probably small for heavy ions on Al and in our energy range. We thus conclude that kinetic electron emission under bombardment by low-energy ions results mainly from the escape of excited valence electrons.

  3. Absolute Kr I and Kr II transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, T.; Helbig, V.; Nick, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    Transition probabilities for 11 KrI and 9 KrII lines between 366.5 and 599.3nm were obtained from measurements with a wall-stabilised arc at atmospheric pressure in pure krypton. The population densities of the excited krypton levels were calculated under the assumption of LTE from electron densities measured by laser interferometry. The uncertainties for the KrI and the KrII data are 15 and 25% respectively. (author)

  4. Low-lying levels of 129Xe and 131Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.C.; Irving, A.D.; Forsyth, P.D.; Hall, I.; Martin, D.G.E.; Maynard, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclei 129 Xe and 131 Xe have been studied by Coulomb excitation and by (α, n) reactions on 126 Te and 128 Te. Eleven new levels for 129 Xe and six for 131 Xe and B(E2) transition values for some of the low-lying states are reported. The present Coulomb excitation experiments together with published β-decay work enable some spin-parity assignments and restrictions to be made. The data are broadly consistent with the predictions of the particle-vibrator coupling model, although a thorough comparison requires further spectroscopic measurements and more detailed theoretical calculation. (author)

  5. Application of Kr-81m gas for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A comparison of various inhalation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, K; Katsuyama, N i; Anno, I i; Harada, J; Kuroda, T [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1978-11-01

    The Kr-81m ventilation study was performed by the following four inhalation techniques. 1) Spontaneous respiration with Kr-81m in air (Sp). 2) Serial inhalation of Kr-81m from residual volume to total lung capacity (VC). 3) Bolus inhalation of 50 ml of Kr-81m from the level of functional residual capacity (FRC), and 4) residual volume (RV), followed by air, to total lung capacity. Scintiphotos were taken during 10 sec of breathholding for VC, FRC, RV inhalation techniques and during tidal breathing for Sp technique, in a sitting position, by a scinticamera (Pho/Gamma HP). Twenty-three of the 28 subjects showed uneven distribution of the washout time in the Xe-133 study, 5 cases have a normal Xe-133 study. In severe obstructive changes with marked delay of the Xe-133 washout time, inhalation defects of Kr-81m were imaged in all techniques. In minor degrees of obstruction associated with slight delay of the washout, FRC and RV techniques detected abnormalities, whilst images by Sp and VC techniques showed homogeneous distribution of Kr-81m. This is due to rebreathing effect on Sp and to opening of partial airway obstruction in a high lung volume on VC technique. RV technique had a disadvantage for imaging of abnormalities in the lower lung fields, because Kr-81m concentration is low in the lower lung fields, due to physiological closure of the small airway. In 3 of 5 cases of asymptomatic asthma with a normal Xe-133 study, uneven distribution in RV technique was the only abnormality detected. FRC technique was most sensitive for slight obstructive changes in the upper lung fields as well as in the lower. For the ventilation study using Kr-81m, a combined test of Sp, VC, RV and FRC inhalation techniques is useful for early detection of the small airway disease and evaluation of the degree of abnormalities.

  6. Alt koster 10 kr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2014-01-01

    Jeg havde engang en elev, som fortalte, at når han gik i byen for at købe ind, så var det nemt at beregne, om han havde nok penge med i byen. Han sagde bare, at alle varerne kun kostede 10 kr. Det kan lyde som lidt af en tilsnigelse, så klassen og jeg besluttede at undersøge om hans metode virkede....

  7. Geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR43, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR46B, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B and OL-KR48, at Olkiluoto 2007 and 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.; Heikkinen, E.

    2008-09-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR43, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR46B, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B and OL-KR48 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2007, May 2008. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  8. Anomalous Photoionization in Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2012-10-01

    Photoionization (PI) cross sections are important components of the opacities that are necessary for the simulation of astrophysical and ICF plasmas. Most of PI cross sections (i) start abruptly at threshold and (ii) decrease as an inverse power (e.g.3^rd) of the photon energy. In the framework of the CRASH project [1] we computed Xe opacities with the STA code [2]. We observed that the PI cross section for the 4d shell has neither of these 2 characteristics. We explain this result as interference between the bound 4d wavefunction (wf), the photon, and the free electron wf. Similar, but less pronounced effects are seen for the 5d and 5p shells. Simplified models of PI not involving the actual wf would not show this effect and would probably be inaccurate.[4pt] [1] Doss, F. W., Drake, R. P., and Kuranz, C. C., High Ener. Dens. Phys. 6, 157-61.[0pt] [2] Busquet, M., Klapisch, M., Bar-Shalom, A., et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 225 (2010).

  9. 85Kr dating of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.; Florkowski, T.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of 85 Kr dating of groundwater is being investigated. The method of gas extraction from 200 to 300 litres of water sample has been developed. The Argon and Krypton mixture, separated from the gas extracted from water, was counted in a 1.5 ml volume proportional counter. The amount of krypton gas in the counter was determined by mass spectrometry. A number of surface and groundwater samples were analyzed indicating an 85 Kr concentration ranging from present atmospheric content (river water) to zero values. 85 Kr 'blank value' was determined to be about 5 per cent of present 85 Kr atmospheric content. For groundwater samples, the mean residence time in the system was calculated assuming the exponential model and known 85 Kr input function. Further improvement of the method should bring higher yield of krypton separation and lower volume of water necessary for analysis. (orig.) [de

  10. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV

  11. Search for the permanent electric dipole moment of 129Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Natasha; Chupp, Timothy; Gong, Fei; Babcock, Earl; Salhi, Zahir; Burghoff, Martin; Fan, Isaac; Killian, Wolfgang; Knappe-Grüneberg, Silvia; Schabel, Allard; Seifert, Frank; Trahms, Lutz; Voigt, Jens; Degenkolb, Skyler; Fierlinger, Peter; Krägeloh, Eva; Lins, Tobias; Marino, Michael; Meinel, Jonas; Niessen, Benjamin; Stuiber, Stefan; Terrano, William; Kuchler, Florian; Singh, Jaideep

    2017-09-01

    CP-violation in Beyond-the-Standard-Model physics, necessary to explain the baryon asymmetry, gives rise to permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs). EDM measurements of the neutron, electron, paramagnetic and diamagnetic atoms constrain CP-violating parameters. The current limit for the 129Xe EDM is 6 ×10-27 e . cm (95 % CL). The HeXeEDM experiment at FRM-II (Munich Research Reactor) and BMSR-2 (Berlin Magnetically Shielded Room) uses a stable magnetic field in a magnetically shielded room and 3He comagnetometer with potential to improve the limit by two orders of magnitude. Polarized 3He and 129Xe free precession is detected with SQUID magnetometers in the presence of applied electric and magnetic fields. Conclusions from recent measurements will be presented.

  12. The Krásná Hora, Milešov, and Příčovy Sb-Au ore deposits, Bohemian Massif: mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and stable isotope constraints on the deposit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Matěj; Zachariáš, Jiří

    2018-02-01

    The Krásná Hora-Milešov and Příčovy districts (Czech Republic) are the unique examples of Sb-Au subtype orogenic gold deposits in the Bohemian Massif. They are represented by quartz-stibnite veins and massive stibnite lenses grading into low-grade, disseminated ores in altered host rocks. Gold postdates the stibnite and is often replaced by aurostibite. The ore zones are hosted by hydrothermally altered dikes of lamprophyres (Krásná Hora-Milešov) or are associated with local strike-slip faults (Příčovy). Formation of Sb-Au deposits probably occurred shortly after the main gold-bearing event (348-338 Ma; Au-only deposits) in the central part of the Bohemian Massif. Fluid inclusion analyses suggest that stibnite precipitated at 250 to 130 °C and gold at 200 to 130 °C from low-salinity aqueous fluids. The main quartz gangue hosting the ore precipitated from the same type of fluid at about 300 °C. Early quartz-arsenopyrite veins are not associated with the Sb-Au deposition and formed from low-salinity, aqueous-carbonic fluid at higher pressure and temperature ( 250 MPa, 400 °C). The estimated oxygen isotope composition of the ore-bearing fluid (4 ± 1‰ SMOW; based on post-ore calcite) suggests its metamorphic or mixed magmatic-metamorphic origin and excludes the involvement of meteoric water. Rapid cooling of warm hydrothermal fluids reacting with "cold" host rock was probably the most important factor in the formation of both stibnite and gold.

  13. Calculation of a complete data set for n + 83Kr, 84Kr, 85Kr and 86Kr in the energy region 0.001-20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chonghai

    1999-01-01

    Complete reaction cross sections, secondary neutron spectra and elastic scattering angular distributions of 83 Kr, 84 Kr, 85 Kr and 86 Kr in the energy region 0.001-20 MeV are calculated, theoretical results are in ENDF/B-6 in pretty good accordance with experimental data

  14. Optical imaging of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38 at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-02-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and preliminary processing of the images. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality through example images. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD format. The images are also attached to the appendix CD of this report in Adobe Acrobat PDF-format. (orig.)

  15. Milestone Report - M4FT-15OR03120218 - A Literature Search on the Effects of the Decay of 85Kr to 85Rb on Long-term Storage Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B [ORNL

    2015-10-01

    Reprocessing of UNF that has been out of the reactor for less than about 50 y requires the removal of 85Kr from the process off-gas streams. This is needed despite the relatively small amount of that isotope in the combined Xe and Kr inventory (Table 1). The decay of 85Kr to 85Rb presents challenges to the materials that will potentially be used to remove and store the Kr recovered from the off-gas. To address some of these problems, a thorough literature survey was completed, and the results of that analysis are summarized in this document.

  16. Recombination of KrD+ and KrH+ ions in afterglow plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolov, I; Kotrik, T; Plasil, R; Hejduk, M; Varju, J; Dohnal, P; Glosik, J

    2009-01-01

    Reported is flowing afterglow (FALP) study of recombination of KrH + and KrD + ions with electrons at 250 K in mixtures of He/Kr/H 2 and He/Kr/D 2 , respectively. The influence of fast recombining cluster ions formation on apparent effective recombination rate coefficients (α eff ) was measured and used in data analysis. The obtained binary rate coefficients for recombination of KrH + and KrD + are α KrH+ = 2x10 -8 cm 3 s -1 and α KrD+ = 1x10 -8 cm 3 s -1 .

  17. Recombination of KrD+ and KrH+ ions in afterglow plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolov, I.; Kotrik, T.; Plasil, R.; Hejduk, M.; Varju, J.; Dohnal, P.; Glosik, J.

    2009-11-01

    Reported is flowing afterglow (FALP) study of recombination of KrH+ and KrD+ ions with electrons at 250 K in mixtures of He/Kr/H2 and He/Kr/D2, respectively. The influence of fast recombining cluster ions formation on apparent effective recombination rate coefficients (αeff) was measured and used in data analysis. The obtained binary rate coefficients for recombination of KrH+ and KrD+ are αKrH+ = 2×10-8 cm3s-1 and αKrD+ = 1×10-8 cm3s-1.

  18. Stable isotope separation by thermal diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Thermal diffusion in both gaseous and liquid phase has been subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, especially after the invention of K. Clusius and G. Dickel of the thermal diffusion column, sixty three years ago. This paper gives a brief overview of the most important research and developments performed during the time at the National Institute for Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technology (ITIM) at Cluj - Napoca, Romania in the field of separation of stable isotopes by thermal diffusion. An retrospective analysis of the research and results concerning isotope separation by thermal diffusion entails the following conclusions: - thermal diffusion is an adequate method for hydrogen isotope separation (deuterium and tritium) and for noble gas isotope separation (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe); - thermal diffusion is attractive also for 13 C enrichment using methane as raw material for separation, when annual yields of up to 100 g are envisaged; - lately, the thermal diffusion appears to be chosen as a final enrichment step for 17 O. An obvious advantage of this method is its non-specificity, i.e. the implied equipment can be utilized for isotope separation of other chemical elements too. Having in view the low investment costs for thermal diffusion cascades the method appears economically attractive for obtaining low-scale, laboratory isotope production. The paper has the following content: 1. The principle of method; 2. The method's application; 3. Research in the field of thermal diffusion at ITIM; 4. Thermal diffusion cascades for N, C, Ne, Ar and Kr isotope separation; 5. Conclusion

  19. Development and selection of a matrix alloy for 85Kr encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, R.W.; McClanahan, E.D.; Tingey, G.L.; McDonald, E.L.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and demonstrated a pilot-scale process for stable, long-term storage of radioactive 85 Kr gas from spent nuclear fuel. The process entraps the Kr into a solid metal matrix that can be safely stored at ambient pressure. For this matrix numerous alloys were first screened; those that best satisfied the selection criteria were Cu-Y, Ni-Y, and Ni-La. Of these, Cu-Y alloys containing approximately 20 at.% Y were recommended for use in the pilot-scale system. Reasons for this decision, based on the development work described in Section 5, are summarized here. Thick Cu-Y-Kr deposits (greater than or equal to1 mm) exhibit much better thermal and mechanical stability than do those of Ni-La-Kr and are at least as stable as Ni-Y-Kr deposits. Cu-Y-Kr coatings are very compatible with the sputtering process. They adhere well to the substrate, do not spall significantly during deposition, and can be deposited at higher rates than the Ni-base alloys. This faster deposition helps compensate, in terms of process efficiency, for the lower Kr capacity of Cu-Y-Kr alloys. Another advantage of Cu-Y over Ni-base alloys is the higher vapor pressure of Cu compared to Ni. This reduces the unwanted buildup of Cu on the hot anode surface, whereas deposition of Ni is a problem with Ni-Y, for example. Cu-Y-Kr deposits containing 17 to 20 at. % Y and 6 to 8 at. % Kr compared favorably to Ni 80 La 10 Kr 10 in terms of long-term Kr retention characteristics. The measurements of Cu-Y-Kr by differential scanning calorimetry also indicated stable retention of Kr because rapid release did not occur below approx.650 0 C. Finally, Cu-Y alloys are satisfactory in terms of materials costs and producibility of the sputtering target. 13 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Wavelengths and energy levels of Xe V and Xe VI obtained by collision-based spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, M.O.; Gonzalez, A.M.; Hallin, R.; Heijkenskjoeld, F.; Nystroem, B.; O'Sullivan, G.; Weber, C.; Waennstroem, A.

    1996-01-01

    We have utilized collision-based spectroscopy to investigate the spectra of Xe V and Xe VI. The radiation emitted following electron capture by 50 keV Xe 5+ and 60 keV Xe 6+ ions impinging on a He (Ar) gas target has been recorded in the 350-6000 (1200-2500) A wavelength region. A number of new energy levels of Xe V and Xe VI have been established from lines identified by us. In particular, we have observed and identified transitions from the 5s 2 5p4f (5s 2 4f) configuration of Xe V (Xe VI). The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. (orig.)

  1. Lifetime measurement in {sup 74}Kr and {sup 76}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goergen, A.; Clement, E.; Chatillon, A.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Theisen, Ch. [DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dewald, A.; Melon, B.; Moeller, O.; Zell, K.O. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Marginean, N.; Tonev, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Menegazzo, R.; Ur, C.A. [Universita di Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova (Italy)

    2005-11-01

    Lifetimes of excited states in the ground-state bands of {sup 74}Kr and {sup 76}Kr were measured using the recoil-distance Doppler-shift and the differential decay curve methods. The states were populated in the {sup 40}Ca({sup 40}Ca,{alpha}2p) and {sup 40}Ca({sup 40}Ca,4p) reactions. Gamma rays were detected with the GASP array which was coupled to the Cologne Plunger device. The results resolve discrepancies between earlier lifetime measurements and a recent Coulomb excitation experiment. Experimental transition rates are compared to theoretical calculations. The results support a strong mixing between prolate and oblate configurations for the low-spin states, and represent an important basis for the interpretation and understanding of the shape coexistence phenomenon in this mass region. (orig.)

  2. 124Xe(n,γ125Xe and 124Xe(n,2n123Xe measurements for National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhike Megha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section for the 124Xe(n,γ125Xe reaction has been measured for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, the 124Xe(n,2n123Xe reaction has been studied between threshold and 14.8 MeV. The results of these measurements provide sensitive diagnostic tools for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in Deuterium-Tritium (DT capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  3. 124Xe(n,γ)125Xe and 124Xe(n,2n)123Xe measurements for National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Ludin, Nurin; Tornow, Werner

    2015-05-01

    The cross section for the 124Xe(n,γ)125Xe reaction has been measured for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, the 124Xe(n,2n)123Xe reaction has been studied between threshold and 14.8 MeV. The results of these measurements provide sensitive diagnostic tools for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in Deuterium-Tritium (DT) capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Charge transfer reactions in Xe plasma expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, C. Q.; Garscadden, A.; Ganguly, B. N.

    2007-01-01

    Charge transfer reactions of fast Xe ions with hydrocarbons including methane (CH 4 ), ethene (C 2 H 4 ), and propane (C 3 H 8 ) are studied by adding these hydrocarbon gases into a cross flowing Xe plasma expansion. Branching ratios and relative reaction rates for the charge transfers of fast Xe + with each of the three hydrocarbon gases are measured under different rf powers of the inductively coupled Xe discharge. For CH 4 /Xe system, we find that fast Xe + reacts readily with CH 4 generating CH 4 + and CH 3 + in a ratio of 1:0.56, with an estimated rate coefficient of (2.3±0.3)x10 -10 cm 3 /s at 75 W rf power which slowly increases to (2.9±0.3)x10 -10 cm 3 /s at 250 W (error bars reflect only the uncertainties due to the unknown extent of the ion recombination that follows the charge transfer reaction). These observed charge transfer reactions are made possible by the kinetically excited Xe ions produced by free expansion of the plasma. For the C 2 H 4 /Xe system product ions C 2 H 4 + and C 2 H 2 + are observed, and for C 3 H 8 /Xe, C 2 H 4 + and C 2 H 5 + and minor product ions including C 2 H 2 + and C 3 H 7 + are observed

  5. Level structure in 123Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukko, A.; Hattula, J.; Helppi, H.; Knuuttila, O.

    1980-09-01

    The level structure of 123 Xe has been studied with 122 Te( 3 He,2n) and 123 Te( 3 He,3n) reactions using in-beam γ-ray spectroscopic methods. Band-like level structures based on the unique-parity hsub(11/2) neutron state and different low-j states are observed. The isomeric state proposed earlier is established at 185.4 keV with a half-life of 5.6+-0.3 μs, and a new spin assignment of 7/2 - is proposed for this level. A triaxial-rotor-model calculation has been performed to interprete the negative-parity level system. Because of the 7/2 - state, we do not obtain a consistent description of the negative-parity states with the triaxial rotor model, unlike the heavier odd-A Xe nuclei. On the other hand, the positive-parity level structures are interpreted in terms of the core-quasiparticle model supposing a vibrational core. This indicates different core shapes for the positive- and negative-parity level systems. (author)

  6. Angle Performance on Optima XE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant.Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04 deg. (1σ). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.

  7. The 4s- and 4p- XPS spectra of Xe, XeF2 and XeF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The 4s- and 4p- XPS spectra of Xe gas, XeF 2 molecule and XeF 4 molecule are calculated by an ab-initio atomic many-body theory. The 4s-peak and the prominent '4p'-peak are predicted well by the present theory. In XeF 2 and XeF 4 the spectral lines observed below the 4d-double ionization threshold are the 4d -2 4f multiplet states strongly perturbed by the interaction with the initial 4p 1/2 -hole state. They are very similar to the spectral lines which emerge with an increase in atomic number (e.g. Ba)

  8. Flow measurements in biological systems using Xe-127 and Xe-133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Xe-133 and Xe-127 are widely used for quantitative evaluation of ventilation in human subjects. Owing to differences in scattering in the biological system as well as differences in the detector response to photons of selected energies, clinical Xe-133 images are much more distorted than the corresponding Xe-127 images. This thesis concerns itself with the evaluation of Xe-133 and Xe-127 as potential tracers for pulmonary function studies. Through the simulation of clinical images it is shown that such smaller abnormalities are able to be detected with Xe-127 than with Xe-133. It is also found that even for poorly ventilated regions, the measured lesion size in the simulated image is comparable to the known lesion size when studied with Xe-127. With Xe-133, however, the measured size of the lesion is smaller than its known size. By fitting the washout portion of the clinical data to a linear sum of two exponentials, a weighted average clearance constant for the tracer - which relates to the reciprocal of the mean flow through the system - can be calculated and used as an index for comparison of the two Xenon isotopes. When an appropriate model is used for data interpretation, more accurate clinical information can be derived from the Xe-127 data. Unlike Xe-133, ventilation study with Xe-127 can be performed immediately after the perfusion study with Tc-99m. Lower radiation dose and longer shelf-life of Xe-127 are added advantages over Xe-133. Various compartmental and non-compartmental models are examined and appropriate technique(s) for clinical data interpretation is(are) recommended

  9. Asymmetric output profile of Xe Laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, F.J.; Rubin, P.L.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Witteman, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    A new set of asymmetric modes was recently revealed in a Xe slab laser with pronounced lens effects originating from gas heating in the discharge. The appearance of these modes is a threshold effect. Their domain of existence in the Xe laser is discussed. It is shown that mode competition can result

  10. Multi-Column Xe/Kr Separation with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Garn, Troy Gerry; Welty, Amy Keil; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2016-01-01

    Previous multi-column xenon/krypton separation tests have demonstrated the capability of separating xenon from krypton in a mixed gas feed stream. The results of this initial testing with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN indicated that an excellent separation of xenon from krypton could be achieved. Building upon these initial results, a series of additional multi-column testing were performed in FY-16. The purpose of this testing was to scale up the sorbent beds, test a different composition of feed gas and attempt to improve the accuracy of the analysis of the individual capture columns' compositions. Two Stirling coolers were installed in series to perform this testing. The use of the coolers instead of the cryostat provided two desired improvements, 1) removal of the large dilution due to the internal volume of the cryostat adsorption chamber, and 2) ability to increase the sorbent bed size for scale-up. The AgZ-PAN sorbent, due to its xenon selectivity, was loaded in the first column to capture the xenon while allowing the krypton to flow through and be routed to a second column containing the HZ-PAN for capture and analysis. The gases captured on both columns were sampled with evacuated sample bombs and subsequently analyzed via GC-MS for both krypton and xenon. The results of these tests can be used to develop the scope of future testing and analysis using this test bed for demonstrating the capture and separation of xenon and krypton using sorbents, for demonstrating desorption and regeneration of the sorbents, and for determining compositions of the desorbed gases. They indicate a need for future desorption studies in order to better quantify co-adsorbed species and final krypton purity.

  11. Photoionization dynamics of excited Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe atoms near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhorukov, V L; Petrov, I D; Schäfer, M; Merkt, F; Ruf, M-W; Hotop, H

    2012-01-01

    A review of experimental and theoretical studies of the threshold photoionization of the heavier rare-gas atoms is presented, with particular emphasis on the autoionization resonances in the spectral region between the lowest two ionization thresholds 2 P 3/2 and 2 P 1/2 , accessed from the ground or excited states. Observed trends in the positions, widths and shapes of the autoionization resonances depending on the atomic number, the principal quantum number n, the orbital angular momentum quantum number ℓ and further quantum numbers specifying the fine- and hyperfine-structure levels are summarized and discussed in the light of ab initio and multichannel quantum defect theory calculations. The dependence of the photoionization spectra on the initially prepared neutral state are also discussed, including results on the photoionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions of polarized excited states. The effects of various approximations in the theoretical treatment of photoionization in these systems are analysed. The very large diversity of observed phenomena and the numerous anomalies in spectral structures associated with the threshold ionization of the rare-gas atoms can be described in terms of a limited set of interactions and dynamical processes. Examples are provided illustrating characteristic aspects of the photoionization, and sets of recommended parameters describing the energy-level structure and photoionization dynamics of the rare-gas atoms are presented which were extracted in a critical analysis of the very large body of experimental and theoretical data available on these systems in the literature. (topical review)

  12. Multi-Column Xe/Kr Separation with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Previous multi-column xenon/krypton separation tests have demonstrated the capability of separating xenon from krypton in a mixed gas feed stream. The results of this initial testing with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN indicated that an excellent separation of xenon from krypton could be achieved. Building upon these initial results, a series of additional multi-column testing were performed in FY-16. The purpose of this testing was to scale up the sorbent beds, test a different composition of feed gas and attempt to improve the accuracy of the analysis of the individual capture columns’ compositions. Two Stirling coolers were installed in series to perform this testing. The use of the coolers instead of the cryostat provided two desired improvements, 1) removal of the large dilution due to the internal volume of the cryostat adsorption chamber, and 2) ability to increase the sorbent bed size for scale-up. The AgZ-PAN sorbent, due to its xenon selectivity, was loaded in the first column to capture the xenon while allowing the krypton to flow through and be routed to a second column containing the HZ-PAN for capture and analysis. The gases captured on both columns were sampled with evacuated sample bombs and subsequently analyzed via GC-MS for both krypton and xenon. The results of these tests can be used to develop the scope of future testing and analysis using this test bed for demonstrating the capture and separation of xenon and krypton using sorbents, for demonstrating desorption and regeneration of the sorbents, and for determining compositions of the desorbed gases. They indicate a need for future desorption studies in order to better quantify co-adsorbed species and final krypton purity.

  13. Inner-shell photoionization and core-hole decay of Xe and XeF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Stephen H; Wehlitz, Ralf; Picón, Antonio; Lehmann, C Stefan; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F

    2015-06-14

    Photoionization cross sections and partial ion yields of Xe and XeF2 from Xe 3d(5/2), Xe 3d(3/2), and F 1s subshells in the 660-740 eV range are compared to explore effects of the F ligands. The Xe 3d-ϵf continuum shape resonances dominate the photoionization cross sections of both the atom and molecule, but prominent resonances appear in the XeF2 cross section due to nominal excitation of Xe 3d and F 1s electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), a delocalized anti-bonding MO. Comparisons of the ion products from the atom and molecule following Xe 3d photoionization show that the charge-state distribution of Xe ions is shifted to lower charge states in the molecule along with production of energetic F(+) and F(2+) ions. This suggests that, in decay of a Xe 3d core hole, charge is redistributed to the F ligands and the system dissociates due to Coulomb repulsion. The ion products from excitation of the F 1s-LUMO resonance are different and show strong increases in the yields of Xe(+) and F(+) ions. The subshell ionization thresholds, the LUMO resonance energies, and their oscillator strengths are calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster methods and agree well with measurements.

  14. Hg-Xe exciplex formation in mixed Xe/Ar matrices: molecular dynamics and luminescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada-García, Rolando; Rojas-Lorenzo, Germán; Crépin, Claudine; Ryan, Maryanne; McCaffrey, John G

    2015-03-19

    Luminescence of Hg((3)P1) atoms trapped in mixed Ar/Xe matrices containing a small amount of Xe is reported. Broad emission bands, strongly red-shifted from absorption are recorded which are assigned to strong complexes formed between the excited mercury Hg* and xenon atoms. Molecular dynamics calculations are performed on simulated Xe/Ar samples doped with Hg to follow the behavior of Hg* in the mixed rare gas matrices leading to exciplex formation. The role of Xe atoms in the first solvation shell (SS1) around Hg was investigated in detail, revealing the formation of two kinds of triatomic exciplexes; namely, Xe-Hg*-Xe and Ar-Hg*-Xe. The first species exists only when two xenon atoms are present in SS1 with specific geometries allowing the formation of a linear or quasi-linear exciplex. In the other geometries, or in the presence of only one Xe in SS1, a linear Ar-Hg*-Xe exciplex is formed. The two kinds of exciplexes have different emission bands, the most red-shifted being that involving two Xe atoms, whose emission is very close to that observed in pure Xe matrices. Simulations give a direct access to the analysis of the experimental absorption, emission, and excitation spectra, together with the dynamics of exciplexes formation.

  15. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Heikkinen, E.

    2005-04-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  16. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  17. Ab initio effective core potentials including relativistic effects. II. Potential energy curves for Xe2, Xe+2, and Xe*2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermler, W.C.; Lee, Y.S.; Pitzer, K.S.; Winter, N.W.

    1978-01-01

    Potential energy curves for the ground 1 Σ + /sub g/ state of Xe 2 , the first four states of the Xe + 2 ions, and the eight Xe* 2 excimer states corresponding to the addition of a 6ssigma/sub g/ Rydberg electron to these ion cores have been computed using averaged relativistic effective core potentials (AREP) and the self-consistent field approximation for the valence electrons. The calculations were carried out using the LS-coupling scheme with the effects of spin--orbit coupling included in the resulting potential energy curves using an empirical procedure. A comparison of nonrelativistic and averaged relativistic EP's and subsequent molecular calculations indicates that relativistic effects arising from the mass--velocity and Darwin terms are not important for these properties of Xe 2 molecules. Spectroscopic constants for Xe + 2 are in good agreement with all electron CI calculations suggesting that the computed values for Xe* 2 excimers should be reliable. The lifetime for the O/sub u/ + state of the Xe 2 * is computed to be 5.6 nsec which is in the range of the experimentally determined values

  18. Double-electron excitation above Xe K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Tochio, T.; Vlaicu, A.M.; Mutaguchi, K.; OhHashi, H.; Shigeoka, N.; Nakata, Y.; Akahama, Y.; Uruga, T.; Emura, Sh.

    2000-01-01

    When X-rays fall on any substance, whether solid, liquid, or gaseous, a photoabsorption occurs. Photoabsorption in atoms has been generally treated as a single-electron excitation process. However, the existence of the multi-electron excitation process, where the removal of a core electron by photoabsorption causes excitation of additional electrons in the same atoms, has been known in x-ray absorption spectra for a long time. In x-ray absorption spectra, experimental investigations of the shake processes in inner-shell ionization phenomena have been performed by detecting discontinuities. The shake effect which is a consequence of rearrangement of the atomic electrons, occurs in association with inner-shell excitation and ionization phenomena in x-ray absorption. The shake process has been studied extensively in various gases, because it is usually considered that the measurement of the multi-electron excitation is only possible for monatomic gases or vapors. The x-ray absorption spectra in Kr gas were measured by Ito et al. in order to observe precisely x-ray absorption spectra and to investigate the multi-electron excitation cross sections in Kr as a function of photon energy using synchrotron radiation. However, no suitable measured K x-ray absorption spectra was available to elucidate the shake processes. In the present work, the photoabsorption cross sections in Xe have been precisely measured in order to determine the features on the shake processes resulting from multiple electron excitations as a function of photon energy. Double-electron transitions of [1s4d], [1s4p], [1s4s], and [1s3d] are first detected. (author)

  19. Recombination of KrD{sup +} and KrH{sup +} ions in afterglow plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolov, I; Kotrik, T; Plasil, R; Hejduk, M; Varju, J; Dohnal, P; Glosik, J, E-mail: juraj.glosik@mff.cuni.c [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-11-15

    Reported is flowing afterglow (FALP) study of recombination of KrH{sup +} and KrD{sup +} ions with electrons at 250 K in mixtures of He/Kr/H{sub 2} and He/Kr/D{sub 2}, respectively. The influence of fast recombining cluster ions formation on apparent effective recombination rate coefficients ({alpha}{sub eff}) was measured and used in data analysis. The obtained binary rate coefficients for recombination of KrH{sup +} and KrD{sup +} are {alpha}{sub KrH+} = 2x10{sup -8} cm{sup 3}s{sup -1} and {alpha}{sub KrD+} = 1x10{sup -8} cm{sup 3}s{sup -1}.

  20. Determination of 131mXe and 133mXe in the presence of 133gXe via combined beta-spectroscopy and delayed coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Bowyer, T.W.; McIntyre, J.I.; Pitts, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    The International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty will include measurements of Xe fission products. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which detects Xe fission products using a beta-gamma counting system for 131m Xe, 133m Xe, 133g Xe, and 135g Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse-height spectra of gamma-energy versus beta-energy are obtained. The plastic scintillator spectrum in coincidence with the 31-keV X-rays from 131m Xe. 133m Xe, and 133g Xe is a complex mixture of conversion electrons and betas. A new technique to simultaneously measure the delayed coincidence (T 1/2 = 6.27 ns) between beta-particles from 133g Xe and conversion electrons depopulating the 81-keV state in 133 Cs is being developed. This technique allows separation of the 133g Xe beta spectrum from the conversion electrons due to 131m Xe and 133m Xe and uniquely quantifies all three nuclides. (author)

  1. Determination of 131m Xe and 133m Xe in the presence of 133gXe via combined beta-spectroscopy and delayed coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, Paul L.; Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Pitts, W K.

    2001-01-01

    The International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty will include measurements of Xe fission products. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which detects Xe fission products using a beta-gamma counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse height spectra of gamma energy versus beta energy are obtained. The plastic scintillator spectrum in coincidence with the 31-keV X-rays from 131mXe. 133mXe, and 133Xe is a complex mixture of conversion electrons and betas. A new technique to simultaneously measure the delayed coincidence (t1/2 = 6.27 ns) between beta particles from 133Xe and conversion electrons depopulating the 81-keV state in 133Cs is being developed. This technique will allow separation of the 133Xe spectrum from the conversion electrons due to 131mXe and 133mXe and will uniquely quantify all three nuclides

  2. Kinetic analysis of rare gas metastable production and optically pumped Xe lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyanov, A. V.; Kochetov, I. V.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Azyazov, V. N.; Heaven, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    Optically pumped all-rare-gas lasers use metastable rare gas atoms as the lasing species in mixtures with He or Ar buffer gas. The metastables are generated in a glow discharge, and we report model calculations for the optimal production of Ne*, Ar*, Kr* and Xe*. Discharge efficiency was estimated by solving the Boltzmann equation. Laser efficiency, gain and output power of the CW optically pumped Xe laser were assessed as functions of heavier rare gas content, pressure, optical pump intensity and the optical path length. It was found that, for efficient operation the heavier rare gas content has to be of the order of one percent or less, and the total pressure—in the range 0.3-1.5 atm. Output power and specific discharge power increase approximately linearly with pump intensity over the output range from 300-500 W cm-2. Ternary mixtures Xe:Ar:He were found to be the most promising. Total laser efficiency was found to be nearly the same for pumping the 2p8 or 2p9 state, reaching 61%-70% for a pump intensity of ~720 W cm-2 when the Xe fraction was in the range 0.001 ÷ 0.01 and Ar fraction—0.1 ÷ 0.5. However, when the 2p8 state was pumped, the maximum total efficiency occurred at larger pressures than for pumping of the 2p9 state. The discharge power density required to sustain a sufficient Xe* number density was in the range of tens of watts per cubic centimeter for 50% Ar in the mixture.

  3. Xe N4,5O-OOO satellite Auger spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partanen, L; Huttula, M; Heinaesmaeki, S; Aksela, H; Aksela, S

    2007-01-01

    The N 4,5 O 1,2,3 -O 1,2,3 O 2,3 O 2,3 Auger transitions, appearing as a satellite structure in the N 4,5 -OO Auger spectrum of xenon, were studied in detail. By measuring the N 4,5 O-OOO satellite Auger spectrum both below and above the 4p ionization threshold, we were able to separate the satellite production via the direct photo-double ionization and the Auger cascade from the 4p states. The N 3 -N 4,5 O 2,3 Coster-Kronig transitions and the subsequent N 4,5 O 2,3 -O 2,3 O 2,3 O 2,3 satellite Auger transitions were calculated using the HF wavefunctions and the most intense satellite lines were assigned. The Xe N 4,5 O-OOO satellite spectrum was compared with the previously studied Kr M 4,5 N-NNN satellite Auger spectrum. The 5s orbital in Xe was found to reveal more pronounced electron correlation than the 4s orbital in Kr

  4. Geophysical logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR45, OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B at Olkiluoto in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2010-04-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging, acoustic imaging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR45 (re-measurements), OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during January-November 2009. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. The missing density logging of drillhole OL-KR45 was carried out successfully. Dynamic rock mechanical parameters and natural gamma data were re-processed and this report includes updated WellCAD and Excel files. Acoustic imaging was also carried out in OL-KR45 after 700 meters depth. Acoustic imaging was used instead of optical imaging after 350 meters in OL-KR49 and 700 meters in OL-KR50. (orig.)

  5. Ne beam-Kr target interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, V E; Kostin, V V; Vorob` ev, V S [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). High Energy Density Research Center; Kulish, M I; Mintsev, V B [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics; Hoffman, [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Energetic heavy ions of Ne - crystal Kr target interaction is investigated both experimentally and with the help of a 2-D computer code. The dynamics of the target matter heating, expansion, and destruction are described. A new equation of state for Kr was obtained and tested within a wide range of parameters. (author). 2 figs., 10 refs.

  6. Hydrodynamic predictions for 5.44 TeV Xe+Xe collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Giuliano; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Luzum, Matthew; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2018-03-01

    We argue that relativistic hydrodynamics is able to make robust predictions for soft particle production in Xe+Xe collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The change of system size from Pb+Pb to Xe+Xe provides a unique opportunity to test the scaling laws inherent to fluid dynamics. Using event-by-event hydrodynamic simulations, we make quantitative predictions for several observables: mean transverse momentum, anisotropic flow coefficients, and their fluctuations. Results are shown as a function of collision centrality.

  7. Stark shift measurements of Xe II and Xe III spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirisan, M; Pelaez, R J; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2007-01-01

    Stark shift measurements of singly and doubly ionized Xe spectral lines are presented in this paper. Shifts of 110 Xe II lines and 42 Xe III lines are reported, including a significant number of new results. A low-pressure-pulsed arc with 95% of He and 5% of Xe was used as a plasma source. All measurements were performed under the following plasma conditions: electron density (0.2-1.4) x 10 23 m -3 and electron temperature 18 000-23 000 K. The measured Stark shifts are compared with other experimental and theoretical data

  8. Gaseous 83mKr generator for KATRIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentkerestiová, J.; Dragoun, O.; Lebeda, O.; Ryšavý, M.; Sturm, M.; Vénos, D.

    2018-04-01

    Monoenergetic conversion electrons from the 83mKrKr isomeric state have been proven to be useful in the calibration of several tritium neutrino mass and dark matter experiments. In this paper the design and characteristics of the gaseous 83mKrKr generator, including the 83Rb/83mKrKr source behavior in tritium, for the KATRIN experiment are presented. Using Si(Li) and silicon drift detectors (SDD) detectors, the half-life of the 83mKrKr isomeric state was measured to be 1.8620 ± 0.0019 h.

  9. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR37, KR37b and KR38 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during September and October 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  10. Geophysical logging and imaging of characterisation drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2011-08-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15 at ONKALO in June-July 2010 and in March 2011. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  11. Removal or excitation of a 1s electron in Kr II and Kr III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Lin; Beck, Donald R; O'Malley, Steven M

    2005-01-01

    Relativistic configuration interaction calculations are done for Kr ions Kr II and Kr III. Transition energies and transition probabilities for 122 transitions between Kr II 4p 5 J = 1/2, 3/2→ 1s 4p 6 , 1s 4p 5 np (n = 5-8) J = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2; 437 transitions between Kr III 4p 4 J = 0, 1, 2→ 1s 4p 5 , 1s 4p 4 np (n = 5-8) J = 0, 1, 2, 3 have been calculated. These data have been used by experiment to reproduce the absorption spectrum of Kr II and Kr III and found to be in good agreement with their measurement. Also, the K-edge energy of neutral Kr, Kr II and Kr III has been calculated. The first is within 0.94 eV of an existing experiment, while the last two are calculated for the first time

  12. Drillhole gamma-ray spectrum logging in drillholes OL-KR11, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B, OL-KR48 and ground survey at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, 2007 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julkunen, A.; Kallio, L.; Kuusisto, M. (Astrock Oy, Sodankylae (Finland))

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the detailed drillhole surveys is to increase the knowledge of the bedrock on the study area and to supplement the investigations made earlier. As a part of the detailed investigations Astrock Oy carried out drillhole spectrometer logging in drillholes OL-KR11, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B, OL-KR48 and ground survey at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during 2007 and 2008. This report describes the logging, data processing and the results. For the first time the results contains moving standard deviation calculations of Th/K ratio, because the variability of Th/K ratio is a reasonably good indicator of alteration zones. This report includes also moving standard deviation calculations of Th/K ratio from earlier measured and reported drillholes OL-KR40-43 and OL-KR40B-43B. (orig.)

  13. Anisotropic flow in Xe-Xe collisions at 5.44 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Ali, Yasir; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Anaam, Mustafa Naji; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Angeletti, Massimo; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Apadula, Nicole; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; 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    2018-01-01

    The first measurements of anisotropic flow coefficients $v_{n}$ for mid-rapidity charged particles in Xe-Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.44$ TeV are presented. Comparing these measurements to those from Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV, $v_{2}$ is found to be suppressed for mid-central collisions at the same centrality, and enhanced for central collisions. The values of $v_{3}$ are generally larger in Xe-Xe than in Pb-Pb at a given centrality. These observations are consistent with expectations from hydrodynamic predictions. When both $v_{2}$ and $v_{3}$ are divided by their corresponding eccentricities for a variety of initial state models, they generally scale with transverse density when comparing Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb, with some deviations observed in central Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb collisions. These results assist in placing strong constraints on both the initial state geometry and medium response for relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of adsorption and diffusion of Xe on bare and Xe covered Pt(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de F.; Jansen, A.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to calculate adsorption probabilities and diffusion coefficients of Xe on Pt(111) and Xe/Pt(111). Experimental trends are reproduced. The adsorption mechanism is found to be the modified Kisliuk model, with the addition of direct and indirect insertion in the

  15. Precipitation of Kr after implantation into Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Jaeger, W.

    1985-09-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to perform a systematic study of the microstructural evolution in Al as a function of the fluence received during 65 keV Kr + ion implantation at room temperature. At the lower fluences (2 x 10 16 to 2 x 10 19 Kr + m -2 ), isolated dislocation loops and the evolution of a dislocation network was observed by TEM. Above fluences of 10 19 Kr + m -2 , the microstructure is dominated by a high density of Kr bubbles whose average size increases with dose. The appearance of additional electron diffraction reflections indicates that the majority of the bubbles contain solid fcc Kr that is epitaxially aligned with the fcc Al matrix. Above fluences of 2 x 10 20 Kr + m -2 an increasing fraction of the Kr is in a liquid or gas-like phase. The thermal stability of the microstructure, characteristic of the different fluence regimes, was investigated up to 640 0 C by in situ TEM annealing experiments

  16. Analysis of 81Kr in groundwater using laser resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.D.; Hurst, G.S.; Chen, C.H.

    1985-10-01

    A new analytical technique based on resonant ionization of krypton with a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser source was used to determine low-level 81 Kr concentrations in groundwater. The long half-life (210,000 years) and low concentration (1.3 x 10 3 81 Kr atoms per liter of modern water at 10 0 C) make the detection of 81 Kr by radioactive counting techniques extremely difficult. In this method, krypton gas was removed from water taken from an underground Swiss aquifer using standard cryogenic and chromatographic techniques. Stable krypton isotopes were then reduced by a factor of 10 7 by a two-stage isotopic enrichment cycle using a commercially available mass spectrometer. The enriched gas containing about 10 8 stable krypton atoms and about 10 3 atoms of 81 Kr was implanted into a silicon disc. This disc was then placed in the high vacuum final counting chamber and the krypton was released by laser annealing. This chamber contained a quadrupole mass spectrometer which used a pulsed VUV laser source as the ionizer. The measured signal indicated that the sample contained 1200 (+-300) atoms of 81 Kr

  17. Long term storage techniques for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.A.; Pence, D.T.; Staples, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    As new nuclear fuel reprocessing plants go on stream, the collection of fission product 85 Kr will be required to avoid potential local release problems and long-term atmospheric buildup. Storage of the collected 85 Kr for a period of at least 100 years will be necessary to allow approximately 99.9 percent decay before it is released. A program designed to develop and evaluate proposed methods for long-term storage of 85 Kr is discussed, and the results of a preliminary evaluation of three methods, high pressure steel cylinders, zeolite encapsulation, and clathrate inclusion are presented. (U.S.)

  18. Investigation of 124Xe nuclear structure with the 8Pi spectrometer at TRIUMF-ISAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radich, Allison; Garrett, P.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Diaz Varela, A.; Hadinia, B.; Bianco, L.; Wong, J.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Laffoley, A.; Leach, K. G.; Rand, E.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Svennson, C. E.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.; Andreoiu, C.; Starosta, K.; Cross, D.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Ball, G.; Triambak, S.

    2013-10-01

    The 124Xe nucleus has been thought to obey O(6) symmetry but a recent Coulomb excitation study has found that while O(5) may be preserved, O(6) appears to be badly broken. To further characterize the structure of this nucleus, a beta-decay experiment was performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. A beam of radioactive 124Cs at a rate of 9.8 × 107 ions/s was implanted at the center of the 8Pi spectrometer where it underwent β + /EC decay into stable 124Xe. High-statistics gamma-gamma coincidence measurements have been analyzed to add to the level scheme of 124Xe, which has been extended considerably. The high statistics data set has revealed a new decay branch from a 124Cs high-spin isomer as well as several very-weak transitions between low-spin states in 124Xe. Branching ratios and B(E2) transition strengths have been calculated for the updated level scheme. The results will be important in determining collective properties and nuclear structure of the 124Xe.

  19. Beta-delayed proton emitter $^{113}Xe$

    CERN Document Server

    Hagberg, E; Jonson, B; Jørgensen, B; Kugler, E; Mowinckel, T

    1973-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at the CERN synchrocyclotron has been used for extending the series of beta -delayed proton emitters in xenon to masses lighter than those previously observed (/sup 115,117/Xe). Owing to the rapid decrease of the yields, experiments with solid-state counters were inconclusive, and instead a new and much more sensitive method based on nuclear emulsions was developed. The mass range 111-114 showed one new activity, /sup 113/Xe, with a half-life of 2.8+or-0.2 sec. From measurements of the track lengths for a total of 1130 protons from /sup 113/Xe it was possible to determine the energy spectrum. The results extend the systematics of beta -strength functions in the light xenon isotopes. (19 refs).

  20. The excited states of 79Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liptak, J.; Kristiak, J.; Kristiakova, K.

    1977-01-01

    The β + -decay of 79 Rb has been studied with Ge(Li) detectors in single and coincidence modes. The half-life of the 147.06 keV level in 79 Kr has been determined to be (78+-6) ns. The relative electron intensities of seventeen transitions have been measured with a magnetic Si(Li) spectrometer. The internal conversion coefficients have been determined. The transition multipolarities have been deduced. The spin-parity assignments have been made for excited states of 79 Kr and a β-decaying sta 79 Rb(5/2 + ). The structure of excited states in 79 Kr is discussed in the framework of the Alaga and Coriolis coupling models. It is shown that the properties of some levels in 79 Kr can be explained by the existence of relatively pure rotational bands

  1. The Electra KrF Laser Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sethian, J. D; Hegeler, F; Myers, M; Friedman, M; Obenschain, S; Lehmberg, R; Giuliani, J; Kepple, P; Swanekamp, S; Smith, I

    2002-01-01

    Electra is a repetitively pulsed, electron-beam pumped, Krypton Fluoride "KrF" laser that will develop the technologies that can meet the Inertial Fusion Energy "IFE" requirements for durability, efficiency, and cost...

  2. Mise-a-la-masse measurements in drillholes OL-KR4, OL-KR30 and OL-KR14 - OL-KR18 in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansson, S.; Heikkinen, P.

    2009-02-01

    Mise-a-la-masse measurements were conducted in the Olkiluoto investigation site in the time period from May to November 2007. Measurements were carried out in drillholes OL-KR4, OL-KR30 and OL-KR14 - OL-KR18. The purpose of the study was to collect data for geological modelling. The aim is to evaluate the continuity of fractures and other geological structures from a drillhole to another drillhole and from a drillhole to the ground surface. Posiva has developed electrodes for mise-a-la-masse method measurements, where the location of the electrode is between rubber disks similar to the flow guide. Rubber disks prevent leakage of current along the drillhole and focus current directly to a specific fracture. (orig.)

  3. Half-life of Xe120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A. A.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Behr, J. A.; Chupp, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hayden, M. E.; Hyland, B.; Nuss-Warren, S. R.; Pearson, M. R.; Schumaker, M. A.; Smith, M. B.; Svensson, C. E.; Tardiff, E. R.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Warner, T.

    2006-08-01

    We have measured the half-life of Xe120 using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector to monitor the 176, 178, and 762 keV γ rays from Xe120 β+ decay. The result, 46±0.6 min, differs significantly from the value 40±1 min reported by Andersson [Ark. Fys. 28, 37 (1964)]. We have also measured the half-lives of Cs120 and I120 to be 60±0.7 s and 82.1±0.6 min, respectively, both of which are consistent with previous measurements.

  4. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in B-like to F-like Kr ions (Kr XXXII XXVIII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Keenan, F. P.; Lawson, K. D.

    2008-05-01

    Energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and lifetimes have been calculated for transitions in B-like to F-like Kr ions, Kr XXXIII-XXVIII. For the calculations, the fully relativistic GRASP code has been adopted, and results are reported for all electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the lowest 125, 236, 272, 226, and 113 levels of Kr XXXII, Kr XXXI, Kr XXX, Kr XXIX, and Kr XXVIII, respectively, belonging to the n ⩽ 3 configurations. Comparisons are made with earlier available theoretical and experimental results, and some discrepancies have been noted and explained.

  5. Production of 81Rb/sup 81m/Kr generators with 60-MeV protons at BLIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.; Richards, P.

    1983-01-01

    By bombarding natural krypton gas with approx. 63 MeV protons, 81 Rb is formed by (p,4n) reaction from high abundance 84 Kr (57%) as well as some additional contribution from 83 Kr (11.5%) and 82 Kr (11.6%) by (p,3n) and (p,2n) reactions, respectively. The production rate of 81 Rb is typically 1.5 mCi/μAh. This production rate is sufficient to create up to several hundred millicuries per run if necessary, enough for several high activity 81 Rb/sup 81m/Kr generators. Presently generators that deliver 10 to 20 mCi to the lungs are produced weekly for on-site use. The only other important activity in the solution is Rb-82m (6.4 hr). Small amounts of Br-76 (16.1 hr), Br-77 (57 hr), Br-82 (35.5 hr), Rb-83 (86.2 d), and Rb-84 (33 d) were also present. The bromine impurities pose no problem since they are not trapped on the generator. Rb-82m and Rb-84 decay to stable Kr-82 and Kr-84 in the generator and do not interfere with Kr-81m studies

  6. Multifragment emission times in Xe induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bowman, D.R. [AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont. (Canada); Bruno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Buttazzo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Celano, L. [INFN, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Colonna, N. [INFN, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); D`Agostino, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Dinius, J.D. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Ferrero, A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Fiandri, M.L. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Gelbke, K. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Glasmacher, T. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Gramegna, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea 4, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Handzy, D.O. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Horn, D. [AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont. (Canada); Hsi Wenchien [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Huang, M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Iori, I. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lisa, M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Lynch, W.G. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Margagliotti, G.V. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Mastinu, P.F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Milazzo, P.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Montoya, C.

    1995-02-06

    Multifragment emission is studied in {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Cu reactions. The emission process for central collisions occurs on a time scale of similar 200fm/c at 30MeV/n. Intermediate-mass-fragment yields, velocity correlation functions and emission velocities of Z=6 fragments are compared with predictions of statistical decay models. ((orig.)).

  7. Modulation of ERG channels by XE991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Calloe, Kirstine; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known to be stan......In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known...... to be standard KCNQ potassium channel blockers. These compounds have been used in many different tissues as specific pharmacological tools to discern native currents conducted by KCNQ channels from other potassium currents. In this article, we demonstrate that ERG1-2 channels are also reversibly inhibited by XE......991 in the micromolar range (EC(50) 107 microM for ERG1). The effect has been characterized in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing ERG1-2 and in the mammalian HEK293 cell line stably expressing ERG1 channels. The IC(50) values for block of KCNQ channels by XE991 range 1-65 microM. In conclusion, great...

  8. Structure of high spin states of 76Kr and 78Kr nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evolution of the shape with spin, and rotation alignment of proton as well as neutron ... by studying ground state properties of 76,78Kr by employing two sets of basis .... Figure 3. Energies of the yrast states of 76,78Kr nuclei compared with the.

  9. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  10. Homogeneous scintillating LKr/Xe calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Mullins, M.; Pelly, D.; Shotkin, S.; Sumorok, K.; Akyuz, D.; Chen, E.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Bolozdynya, A.; Tchernyshev, V.; Goritchev, P.; Khovansky, V.; Koutchenkov, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Lebedenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.; Gusev, L.; Sheinkman, V.; Krasnokutsky, R.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Fedyakin, N.N.; Sushkov, V.; Akopyan, M.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hitachi, A.; Kashiwagi, T.; Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E.; Ishida, N.; Sugimoto, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent R and D work on full length scintillating homogeneous liquid xenon/krypton (LXe/Kr) cells has established the essential properties for precision EM calorimeters: In-situ calibration using α's, radiation hardness as well as the uniformity required for δE/E≅0.5% for e/γ's above 50 GeV. (orig.)

  11. Spectra of copperlike and zinclike xenon: Xe XXV and Xe XXVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, V.; Sugar, J.; Rowan, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The spectra of highly ionized xenon were generated in a tokamak plasma and photographed in the region 60--350 A with a 2.2-m grazing-incidence spectrograph. The 4s 2 --4s4p transitions of Zn-like xenon (Xe XXV) and all the 4l--4(l+1) transitions of Cu-like xenon (Xe XXVI) were measured with estimated uncertainties of +- 0.005 A. These measurements have been combined with previous wavelength measurements of Xe XXVI to determine energy levels. A value for the ionization energy of Xe 25+ of 6 912 400 +- 3000 cm -1 (857.0 +- 0.4 eV) was derived

  12. Excimer lasers utilizing XeF and XeCl molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, Yu I; Konovalov, I N; Losev, V F; Mesyats, G A; Ryzhov, V V; Tarasenko, V F; Fedorov, A I; Shemyakina, S B; Yastremskii, A G

    1978-12-01

    The results are given of an experimental and theoretical study of XeF (wavelength approx. 350 nm) and XeCl (wavelength approx. 308 nm) lasers excited by an electron beam, a discharge stabilized by an electron beam, and a rapid discharge. These lasers are representative of ones employing halides of noble gases, which are the most powerful sources of stimulated emission in the uv region. The XeCl laser is shown to have good emission characteristics with various methods of excitation. An analysis of the kinetics of processes in the plasma of lasers utilizing halides of noble gases showed that the main channel for the transfer of the beam's energy to the formation of excimer molecules is the ionic channel. An efficiency of about 2.6 percent and a specific radiant energy of 10 J.l/sup -1/ showed that XeCl* is one of the most effective excimer molecules.

  13. K-edge x-ray-absorption spectroscopy of laser-generated Kr+ and Kr2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S. H.; Arms, D. A.; Dufresne, E. M.; Dunford, R. W.; Ederer, D. L.; Hoehr, C.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Landahl, E. C.; Peterson, E. R.; Rudati, J.; Santra, R.; Walko, D. A.; Young, L.

    2007-01-01

    Tunable, polarized, microfocused x-ray pulses were used to record x-ray absorption spectra across the K edges of Kr + and Kr 2+ produced by laser ionization of Kr. Prominent 1s→4p and 5p excitations are observed below the 1s ionization thresholds in accord with calculated transition energies and probabilities. Due to alignment of 4p hole states in the laser-ionization process, the Kr + 1s→4p cross section varies with respect to the angle between the laser and x-ray polarization vectors. This effect is used to determine the Kr + 4p 3/2 and 4p 1/2 quantum state populations, and these are compared with results of an adiabatic strong-field ionization theory that includes spin-orbit coupling

  14. Optical imaging of drillholes OL-KR40, OL-KR41, OL-KR41B, OL-KR42, OL-KR42B, OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B at Olkiluoto, 2006 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy carried out optical imaging of drillholes OL-KR40, OL-KR41, OL-KR41B, OL-KR42, OL-KR42B, OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during July, August, November and December 2006 as well as January 2007. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and the data processing. This report describes the field operation, the equipment as well as the processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and PDF format. (orig.)

  15. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  16. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2005-09-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  17. Release of dissolved 85Kr by standing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Norikatsu; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Tsukui, Kohei

    1986-01-01

    The experiments on the release of dissolved 85 Kr by standing at room temperature were carried out to examine the influence of liquid level in a sampler and properties of solvent on the release efficiency. Six kinds of organic solvents as well as water were taken as solvents. The half-life period in case of the decrease in concentration of the dissolved 85 Kr which was used as an index of release efficiency, was proportional to the liquid level in the sampler and was inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient of Kr gas in solvent. For organic solvents belonging to homologous series, the half-life period became longer with increasing the carbon number of solvent molecule. From the relationship between the half-life period and the carbon number, the release efficiency in the dissolved 85 Kr can be predicted for any commonly used solvent as a practical application. This method was found to be an effective means of removing the dissolved 85 Kr of low level though it takes rather long time. (author)

  18. A new site for 85Kr measurements on groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, T.; Hebert, D.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of stable and radioactive isotopes is essential as a complement to geochemistry and geohydraulic investigations on groundwater regimes and their genesis. This is widely acknowledged also for the determination of the specific activity of 85 Kr in groundwater. The geochemical inertness and well-defined input function of 85 Kr allow estimates of groundwater age and enhance characterization of groundwater flow and components in many aquifer systems. A new site for measurement of the 85 Kr specific activity has been established at the Institute of Applied Physics at the Freiberg University, Saxony. Under normal conditions ca. 80 μl krypton are dissolved in 1 m 3 of water in contact with air. Therefore gas extraction has to be most effectively. A modified CO 2 extractor of 45 cm x 10 cm was chosen. The water is continuously pumped under pressure (3 - 4 bar) passing a Venturi-type nozzle, which simultaneously operates as a water-jet pump. The extracted gas flows through a CO 2 trap (NaOH 10 %), a H 2 O cold trap, through molecular sieves (5, 3 A) and a charcoal column, cooled by liquid nitrogen, where krypton, nitrogene and other components are adsorbed. Remaining gases re-enter the extractor at the Venturi-type nozzle. A small membrane pump supports the circulation. Due to the special design of the water outlet, contamination of the sample is avoided. Optional a compact stove heats the water to improve the extraction efficiency. If pressure supply is high enough, additional extractors can be run simultaneously. In a test run the recovery for radon was around 65 to 70 %. Further preparation steps of the raw krypton sample is performed in the laboratory. To obtain a good first enrichment a tube furnace filled with chrome powder is used to separate nitrogen and oxygen from the sample at 900 deg C. The following enrichment steps are performed by a preparation setup developed at GSF-Institute for Hydrology, Neuherberg. (author)

  19. Structural Search for High Pressure CS2 and Xe-Cl Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, Niloofar; Tse, John S.

    2018-04-01

    The recent successful implementation of several methodologies for the prediction of crystal structures based on the first-principles electronic structure have ushered in a new area of computational chemistry. In this study, the two most popular methods, namely genetic evolution and particle swarm optimization, were applied to the investigation of stable crystalline polymorphs of solid carbon disulfide and xenon halides at high pressure. It was found that both methods have their own merits. However, there are subtleties that need to be considered for the proper execution of the methods. We found a two-dimensional (2D) layered structure that may be responsible for the superconductivity in CS2. Except for XeCl2, no thermodynamically stable crystalline Xe halides were found under 60 GPa in the halide-rich region of the phase diagram.

  20. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at Olkiluoto in 2009 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2010-10-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between November 2009 and February 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  1. Performance assessment of a new laser system for efficient spin exchange optical pumping in a spin maser measurement of 129Xe EDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, C.; Furukawa, T.; Sato, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Ohtomo, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kojima, S.; Suzuki, T.; Hirao, C.; Chikamori, M.; Hikota, E.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yoshimi, A.; Bidinosti, C. P.; Ino, T.; Ueno, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Asahi, K.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate spin-exchange optical pumping of 129 Xe atoms with our newly made laser system. The new laser system was prepared to provide higher laser power required for the stable operation of spin maser oscillations in the 129 Xe EDM experiment. We studied the optimum cell temperature and pumping laser power to improve the degree of 129 Xe spin polarization. The best performance was achieved at the cell temperature of 100 ∘ C with the presently available laser power of 1 W. The results show that a more intense laser is required for further improvement of the spin polarization at higher cell temperatures in our experiment

  2. Behavior of fission gases in nuclear fuel: XAS characterization of Kr in UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.M., E-mail: Philippe-m.martin@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache DEC/SESC, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Vathonne, E.; Carlot, G.; Delorme, R.; Sabathier, C.; Freyss, M.; Garcia, P.; Bertolus, M. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache DEC/SESC, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Glatzel, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Proux, O. [OSUG, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers de Grenoble, CNRS and Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-11-15

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) was used to study the behavior of krypton as a function of its concentration in UO{sub 2} samples implanted with Kr ions. For a 0.5 at.% krypton local concentration, by combining XAS results and DFT + U calculations, we show that without any thermal treatment Kr atoms are mainly incorporated in the UO{sub 2} lattice as single atoms inside a neutral bound Schottky defect with O vacancies aligned along the (100) direction (BSD1). A thermal treatment at 1273 K induces the precipitation of dense Kr nano-aggregates, most probably solid at room temperature. In addition, 26 ± 2% of the Kr atoms remain inside BSD1 showing that Kr-BSD1 complex is stable up to this temperature. Consequently, the (in-)solubility of krypton in UO{sub 2} has to be re-evaluated. For high Kr concentration (8 at.%), XAS signals show that Kr atoms have precipitated in nanometer-sized aggregates with internal densities ranging between 4.15(7) g cm{sup −3} and 3.98(5) g cm{sup −3} even after annealing at 873 K. By neglecting the effect due to the UO{sub 2} matrix, the corresponding krypton pressures at 300 K were equal to 2.6(3) GPa and 2.0(2) GPa, respectively. After annealing at 1673 K, regardless of the initial Kr concentration, a bi-modal distribution is observed with solid nano-aggregates even at room temperature and larger cavities only partially filled with Kr. These results are very close to those observed in UO{sub 2} fuel irradiated in reactor. In this study we show that a rare gas can be used as a probe to investigate the defect creation and their stability in UO{sub 2}.

  3. Analysis of 125Xe electron-photon coincidence decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingberg, F.J.; Biegalski, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), environmental gas samples originating from nuclear fission are analyzed for the presence of 131m Xe, 133m Xe, 133 Xe, and 135 Xe. In this work, the non-traditional radioxenon isotope 125 Xe was investigated. The isotope was produced as an isotopically pure sample via neutron activation of 124 Xe at the University of Texas at Austin Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab's TRIGA MARK II Reactor. The sample was then measured using a HPGe detector as well as an ARSA-style b-c coincidence detector. Potential sources and sensitivities for production of 125 Xe are also considered for relevance to the CTBT verification mission. (author)

  4. Development of a hyperpolarized 129Xe system on 3T for the rat lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Hayashi, Takuya

    2004-01-01

    MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) with 129 Xe has gained much attention as a diagnostic methodology because of its affinity for lipids and possible polarization. The quantitative estimation of net detectability and stability of hyperpolarized 129 Xe in the dissolved phase in vivo is valuable to the development of clinical applications. The goal of this study was to develop a stable hyperpolarized 129 Xe experimental 3T system to statistically analyze the dissolved-phase 129 Xe signal in the rat lungs. The polarization of 129 Xe with buffer gases at the optical pumping cell was measured under adiabatic fast passage against the temperature of an oven and laser absorption at the cell. The gases were insuffiated into the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=15, 400-550 g) through an endotracheal tube under spontaneous respiration. Frequency-selective spectroscopy was performed for the gas phase and dissolved phase. We analyzed the 129 Xe signal in the dissolved phase to measure the chemical shift, T 2 * , delay and its ratio in a rat lungs on 3T. The polarizer was able to produce polarized gas (1.1±0.47%, 120 cm 3 ) hundreds of times with the laser absorption ratio (25%) kept constant at the cell. The optimal buffer gas ratio of 25-50% rendered the maximum signal in the dissolved phase. Two dominant peaks of 211.8±0.9 and 201.1±0.6 ppm were observed with a delay of 0.4±0.9 and 0.9±1.0 s from the gas phase spectra. The ratios of their average signal to that of the gas phase were 5.6±5.2% and 4.4±4.7%, respectively. The T 2 * of the air space in the lungs was 2.5±0.5 ms, which was 3.8 times shorter than that in a syringe. We developed a hyperpolarized 129 Xe experimental system using a 3T MRI scanner that yields sufficient volume and polarization and quantitatively analyzed the dissolved-phase 129 Xe signal in the rat lungs. (author)

  5. Helbredsrelateret livskvalitet ved kræft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    I denne artikel gennemgås metoder, erfaringer og resultater fra livskvalitetsforskningen på kræftområdet, og der opstilles anbefalinger. Forskningen har omfattet deskriptive undersøgelser, endemål i kliniske undersøgelser, prognostiske studier og klinisk anvendelse af livskvalitetsskemaer. Der vu...... vurderes at være behov for yderligere livskvalitetsundersøgelser ved alle kræftformer og -behandlinger, men de bør kun foretages, når de tilstrækkelige resurser er til stede, da kun velgennemførte studier er af værdi. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar-3...

  6. Tiden kræver nye karakteregenskaber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2013-01-01

    I Danmark har vi tradition for, at unges studievalg er styret af faglig interesse og lyst. Men en ny global konkurrencetilstand kræver, at lysten også omfatter vilje til at udføre kedsommelige pligter som moderne og fleksible medarbejdere......I Danmark har vi tradition for, at unges studievalg er styret af faglig interesse og lyst. Men en ny global konkurrencetilstand kræver, at lysten også omfatter vilje til at udføre kedsommelige pligter som moderne og fleksible medarbejdere...

  7. Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission from solid Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyzhniy, I.V.; Grigorashchenko, O.N.; Savchenko, E.V.; Ponomarev, A.N.; Bondybey, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    Thermally-stimulated emission of exoelectrons and photons from solid Xe pre-irradiated by low-energy electrons were studied. A high sensitivity of thermally-stimulated luminescence (TSL) and thermally-stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) to sample prehistory was demonstrated. It was shown that electron traps in unannealed samples are characterized by much broader distribution of trap levels in comparison with annealed samples and their concentration exceeds in number that in annealed samples. Both phenomena, TSL and TSEE, were found to be triggered by release of electrons from the same kind of traps. The data obtained suggest a competition between two relaxation channels: charge recombination and electron transport terminated by TSL and TSEE. It was found that TSEE predominates at low temperatures while at higher temperatures TSL prevails. An additional relaxation channel, a photon-stimulated exoelectron emission pre-irradiated solid Xe, was revealed

  8. Rb-129Xe spin-exchange rates due to binary and three-body collisions at high Xe pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, G.D.; Fitzgerald, R.J.; Barton, A.S.; Bogorad, P.; Gatzke, M.; Newbury, N.R.; Saam, B.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the spin relaxation of 129 Xe nuclei due to collisions with Rb atoms at Xe pressures of 245--1817 Torr. Our results can be characterized by two parameters, the Rb- 129 Xe velocity-averaged binary spin-exchange cross section left-angle σv right-angle and a rate γ M that characterizes spin relaxation due to van der Waals molecules. Our results complement earlier studies performed at Xe pressures of about 1 Torr and N 2 pressures of 10--100 Torr. This work is useful for predicting spin-exchange rates between polarized Rb atoms and 129 Xe nuclei

  9. A compact 133Xe gas dispenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, T.; Harris, R.

    1977-01-01

    A dispenser for 133 Xe gas is described which is compact and simple to use, allowing the xenon to be dispensed from it shipping ampoule to suitable multi-dose injection vials in a controlled manner and with a high degree of operator safety. The apparatus has no joints and only a single rubber teat, minimizing the risks of adsorption and leakage. A scaled drawing of the dispenser is shown. (U.K.)

  10. Homogeneous scintillating LKr/Xe calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.; Mullins, M.; Pelly, D.; Shotkin, S.; Sumorok, K. (Lab. for Nuclear Science, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Akyuz, D.; Chen, E.; Gaudreau, M.P.J. (Plasma Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Bolozdynya, A.; Tchernyshev, V.; Goritchev, P.; Khovansky, V.; Koutchenkov, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Lebedenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.; Gusev, L.; Sheinkman, V. (ITEP, Moscow (Russia)); Krasnokutsky, R.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Fedyakin, N.N.; Sushkov, V. (IHEP, Serpukhov (Russia)); Akopyan, M. (Inst. for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russia)); Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hitachi, A.; Kashiwagi, T. (Science and Eng. Res. Lab., Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E. (Saitama Coll. of Health (Japan)); Ishida, N. (Seikei Univ. (Japan)); Sugimoto, S. (INS, Univ. Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-03-20

    Recent R and D work on full length scintillating homogeneous liquid xenon/krypton (LXe/Kr) cells has established the essential properties for precision EM calorimeters: In-situ calibration using [alpha]'s, radiation hardness as well as the uniformity required for [delta]E/E[approx equal]0.5% for e/[gamma]'s above 50 GeV. (orig.).

  11. Development of technologies for the waste management of I-129, Kr-85, C-14 and tritium in the Fed. Rep. of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Ebert, K.

    1985-01-01

    The main source of I-129, Kr-85, C-14 and tritium in Germany will be a 10-15 GWe LWR fuel reprocessing plant (FRP), expected to be in operation in the mid nineties. Guidelines for release regulations and development efforts are discussed. It has been recommended to limit the annual I-129 release to less than 0.2 curie. The uncontrolled release of Kr-85, C-14 or tritium via the stack resulting from the 15 GWe power will not exceed the limits derived from the German radiation protection ordinary. The development and hot demonstration of a Kr-85 control technology is recommended in view of the anticipated increasing use of nuclear power in the future. Commercial use of Xe and Kr may also contribute to the incentive for recovery. It would be simple to recover 14CO 2 once separated in the course of the I-129 or Kr-85 removal operations. Tritiated waste water once it has been separated in the course of processing, should not be deliberately released. Therefore, tritium control technology is being developed. General concepts and the present status of reference and back-up technologies as well as additional research in view of advanced processes are summarized

  12. Radioactivity 85Kr in krypton enriched with light isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'minov, V.V.; Novikov, V.M.; Pomanskij, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    85 Kr content in krypton enriched with 78 Kr is measured within the frames of experiment for search of binary position decay and conversion of atomic electron into 78 Kr. Voluminous activity in krypton enriched up to 98% 78 Kr equal to 0.206 -0.004 +0.001 Bq/L is obtained which is by 4000 less as compared to natural krypton. 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  13. Los Alamos KrF laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.J.; Cartwright, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos is currently developing the krypton fluoride (KrF) laser - a highly efficient laser able to emit very intense bursts of short-wavelength photons - as a research tool for the general study of high-density matter, as well as for use in laser fusion. The KrF laser operates at 1/4 μm, close to the short-wavelength limit for conventional optical material, but still in the region where standard optical techniques can be used. The excited-state lifetime of the KrF lasing medium is short - as a result of both spontaneous emission and deactivation from collisions - making it impossible to store energy within the lasing medium for times significant to electrical pumping. However, an optical multiplexing scheme is being developed that will generate short, intense pulses of 1/4-μm light by overcoming the short storage time of the laser and taking advantage of the high gain of the KrF medium

  14. Effect of chronic 85Kr exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, D.H.; Deford, H.S.; Gerk, R.E.; Ballou, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Rats are being exposed continuously for their life span to three concentrations of 85 Kr: 3 x 10 -3 , 3 x 10 -4 , and 3 x 10 -5 μCi/ml. A group of treated controls exposed to room air completes the study. No effects of treatment have been observed up to 70 days postexposure

  15. Effect of chronic 85Kr exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, D.H.; DeFord, H.S.; Ballou, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Groups of rats exposed continuously for 15 mo to 85 Kr atmospheres have received measured dose rates of 2750, 370, and 38 rad/yr. With more than 75% of the rats still alive, there has been no dose-related effect on weight gain but a probably significant effect on survival

  16. A 223-nm KrCl excimer laser on a He-Kr-HCl mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razhev, A M; Zhupikov, A A; Kargapol'tsev, E S

    2004-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the parameters of a 223-nm electric-discharge KrCl excimer laser on a He-Kr-HCl mixture depending on the excitation conditions and the composition of the active gaseous medium are presented. To achieve the maximum values of the output energy and the efficiency of the KrCl laser on mixtures with buffer gaseous helium, an excitation system was used that included a circuit with an LC inverter with a high-voltage switch based on an RU-65 spark gap. An output energy of 320 mJ with an efficiency of 0.5% relative to the energy stored in the capacitors is obtained in a KrCl laser with an active medium based on the buffer He gas at a charging voltage of 30 kV. Radiation pulses with a duration of 22±1 ns and a pulse power of 15 MW are obtained. (lasers)

  17. Kr atoms and their clustering in zeolite A

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, W T; Jung, K J; Heo, N H

    2001-01-01

    The positions of Kr atoms encapsulated in the molecular-dimensioned cavities of fully dehydrated zeolite A of unit-cell composition Cs sub 3 Na sub 8 HSi sub 1 sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 2 O sub 4 sub 8 (Cs sub 3 -A) have been determined. Cs sub 3 -A was exposed to 1025 atm of krypton gas at 400 .deg. C for four days, followed by cooling at pressure to encapsulate Kr atoms. The resulting crystal structure of Cs sub 3 -A(6Kr) (a=12.247(2) A, R sub 1 =0.078, and R sub 2 =0.085) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques in the cubic space group Pm3m at 21(1) .deg. C and 1 atm. In the crystal structure of Cs sub 3 -A(6Kr), six Kr atoms per unit cell are distributed over three crystallographically distinct positions: each unit cell contains one Kr atom at Kr(1) on a threefold axis in the sodalite unit, three at Kr(2) opposite four-rings in the large cavity , and two at Kr(3) on threefold axes in the large cavity . Relatively strong interactions of Kr atoms at Kr(1) and Kr(3) with Na sup + ions of ...

  18. Mercury: The Los Alamos ICF KrF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czuchlewski, S.J.; York, G.W.; Bigio, I.J.; Brucker, J.; Hanson, D.; Honig, E.M.; Kurnit, N.; Leland, W.; McCown, A.W.; McLeod, J.; Rose, E.; Thomas, S.; Thompson, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Mercury KrF laser facility at Los Alamos is being built with the benefit of lessons learned from the Aurora system. An increased understanding of KrF laser engineering, and the designed implementation of system flexibility, will permit Mercury to serve as a tested for a variety of advanced KrF technology concepts

  19. Results of sampling and analysis of groundwater from multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaeae, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 between spring 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program (OMO) during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1 (151.2-156.8 m, 311.2-336.8 m and 524.4-528.4 m), OL-KR3 (242.6-253.2 m), OL-KR5 (277.2-284.6 m and 457.2-476.2 m), OL-KR9 (468.2-482.2 m), OL-KR11 (597.5-628.1 m) and OLKR12 (363-368 m). The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's (1967) classification, the collected groundwater samples represent either the borehole water type Na-Cl (OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OLK-R1/ T/311.2-336.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.6 m, OL-KR11/ T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m) or Na-Ca-Cl (OL-KR1/T/524.4- 528.4 m, OL-KR5/T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m). The groundwater samples from OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6- 253.2 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.2 m, OL-KR11/T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m were brackish (1000 mg/L < TDS < 10000 mg/L) according to Davis's (1964) TDS classification. Other samples (OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m), were saline (TDS> 10000 mg/L). Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes were seen between samplings done at the different times. Only the groundwater sampled from OL-KR1/T/311.2-336.8 m had significant changes in its chemical composition during the reference period, but also in OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T

  20. Medical Isotope Program: O-18, C-13, and Xe-129 Final Report CRADA No. TC-2043-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibner, K. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fought, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    This was a collaborative effort between the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Spectra Gases, Inc., to develop new and cheaper sources of Oxgyen-18 (O-18), Carbon-13 (C-13), and Xenon-129 (Xe-129), and to develop new applications of these stable medical isotopes in medicine resulting in a substantial increase in stable isotopes that are important to human health sciences.

  1. XENON IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK (PPD-Xe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, K.; Mathew, K. J., E-mail: kattathu.mathew@srs.gov [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    Relationships among solar system Xe components as observed in the solar wind, in planetary atmospheres, and in meteorites are investigated using isotopic correlations. The term PPD-Xe is used for components inferred to have been present in the molecular cloud material that formed the protoplanetary disk (PPD). The evidence of the lack of simple relationships between terrestrial atmospheric Xe and solar or meteoritic components is confirmed. Xe isotopic correlations indicate a heterogeneous PPD composition with variable mixing ratios of the nucleosynthetic component Xe-HL. Solar Xe represents a bulk PPD component, and the isotopic abundances did not change from the time of incorporation into the interior of Mars through times of regolith implantations to the present.

  2. XENON IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK (PPD-Xe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, K.; Mathew, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among solar system Xe components as observed in the solar wind, in planetary atmospheres, and in meteorites are investigated using isotopic correlations. The term PPD-Xe is used for components inferred to have been present in the molecular cloud material that formed the protoplanetary disk (PPD). The evidence of the lack of simple relationships between terrestrial atmospheric Xe and solar or meteoritic components is confirmed. Xe isotopic correlations indicate a heterogeneous PPD composition with variable mixing ratios of the nucleosynthetic component Xe-HL. Solar Xe represents a bulk PPD component, and the isotopic abundances did not change from the time of incorporation into the interior of Mars through times of regolith implantations to the present

  3. Xenon in the Protoplanetary Disk (PPD-Xe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, K.; Mathew, K. J.

    2015-06-01

    Relationships among solar system Xe components as observed in the solar wind, in planetary atmospheres, and in meteorites are investigated using isotopic correlations. The term PPD-Xe is used for components inferred to have been present in the molecular cloud material that formed the protoplanetary disk (PPD). The evidence of the lack of simple relationships between terrestrial atmospheric Xe and solar or meteoritic components is confirmed. Xe isotopic correlations indicate a heterogeneous PPD composition with variable mixing ratios of the nucleosynthetic component Xe-HL. Solar Xe represents a bulk PPD component, and the isotopic abundances did not change from the time of incorporation into the interior of Mars through times of regolith implantations to the present.

  4. Beta-gamma counting system for Xe fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Bowyer, T.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    A beta-gamma coincidence counting system has been developed for automated analysis of Xe gas samples separated from air. The Xe gas samples are contained in a cylindrical plastic scintillator cell located between two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The X-ray and gamma spectra gated by coincident events in the plastic scintillator cell are recorded for each NaI(Tl) crystal. The characteristic signatures of the 131m Xe, 133g Xe, 133m Xe, and 135g Xe isotopes of interest for nuclear test-ban verification as well as the procedures and results of absolute efficiency measurements are described. A NaI(Tl) crystal with provision for 4 sample cells has been implemented for the system to be deployed in the field. Examples of data on ambient air samples in New York City obtained with the field prototype are presented. (author)

  5. Kr photoionized plasma induced by intense extreme ultraviolet pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    Irradiation of any gas with an intense EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation beam can result in creation of photoionized plasmas. The parameters of such plasmas can be significantly different when compared with those of the laser produced plasmas (LPP) or discharge plasmas. In this work, the photoionized plasmas were created in a krypton gas irradiated using an LPP EUV source operating at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The Kr gas was injected into the vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV radiation pulses. The EUV beam was focused onto a Kr gas stream using an axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector. The resulting low temperature Kr plasmas emitted electromagnetic radiation in the wide spectral range. The emission spectra were measured either in the EUV or an optical range. The EUV spectrum was dominated by emission lines originating from Kr III and Kr IV ions, and the UV/VIS spectra were composed from Kr II and Kr I lines. The spectral lines recorded in EUV, UV, and VIS ranges were used for the construction of Boltzmann plots to be used for the estimation of the electron temperature. It was shown that for the lowest Kr III and Kr IV levels, the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions were not fulfilled. The electron temperature was thus estimated based on Kr II and Kr I species where the partial LTE conditions could be expected.

  6. Liquid-Xe detector for contraband detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartsky, D., E-mail: david.vartsky@weizmann.ac.il [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Israelashvili, I. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Nuclear Research Center of Negev (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 9001 (Israel); Cortesi, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing 48823, MI (United States); Arazi, L.; Coimbra, A.E.; Moleri, L.; Erdal, E.; Bar, D.; Rappaport, M.; Shchemelinin, S. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Caspi, E.N. [Nuclear Research Center of Negev (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 9001 (Israel); Aviv, O. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Breskin, A. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2016-07-11

    We describe progress made with a liquid-Xe (LXe) detector coupled to a gaseous photomultiplier (GPM), for combined imaging and spectroscopy of fast neutrons and gamma-rays in the MeV range. The purpose of this detector is to enable the detection of hidden explosives and fissile materials in cargo and containers. The expected position resolution is about 2 m and 3.5 mm for fast neutrons and gamma-rays, respectively. Experimental results obtained using an {sup 241}Am source yielded energy and time resolutions of 11% and 1.2 ns RMS, respectively. Initial results obtained with the position-sensitive GPM are presented.

  7. 136 Xe enrichment through cryogenic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Henning O.; Bottenus, Daniel R.; Clayton, Christopher K.; Stephenson, David E.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2017-09-01

    The next generation of 136Xe neutrinoless double beta decay experiments will require on the order of 5 tons of enriched 136Xe. By estimating the relative volatilities of the xenon isotopes and using standard chemical engineering techniques we explore the feasibility of using cryogenic distillation to produce 5 tons of 80% enriched 136Xe in 5-6 years. With current state-of-the-art distillation column packing materials we can estimate the total height of a traditional cryogenic distillation column. We also, report on how Micro Channel Distillation may reduce the overall size of a distillation system for 136Xe production.

  8. Production of pure 133mXe for CTBTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peräjärvi, K.; Eronen, T.; Gorelov, D.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kettunen, H.; Kolhinen, V.; Laitinen, M.; Moore, I. D.; Penttilä, H.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Toivonen, H.; Turunen, J.; Äystö, J.

    2014-01-01

    Underground nuclear weapon detonations release gaseous species into the atmosphere. The most interesting isotopes/isomers from the detection point of view are 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe. We have developed a method that employs high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry at the JYFLTRAP facility, the University of Jyväskylä, to produce pure calibration samples of these isotopes/isomers. Among developments this work required a new mass resolution record of a few parts-per-million. Here the status and future plans of the project are reviewed.

  9. Brain Imaging Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Simrun; Prete, Braedan R J; Wade, Alanna; Hane, Francis T; Albert, Mitchell S

    2018-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a novel iteration of traditional MRI that relies on detecting the spins of 1 H. Since 129 Xe is a gaseous signal source, it can be used for lung imaging. Additionally, 129 Xe dissolves in the blood stream and can therefore be detectable in the brain parenchyma and vasculature. In this work, we provide detailed information on the protocols that we have developed to image 129 Xe within the brains of both rodents and human subjects. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2011-08-01

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled three drillholes ONK-KR13 (120.45 m), ONK-KR14 (75.27 m) and ONK-KR15 (79.96 m) in ONKALO, at Olkiluoto in June 2010 - March 2011. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water, and the drillholes were washed and flushed after the drilling. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. The core samples were logged according to Posiva's normal procedure for drillholes. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses and pegmatitic granite. The average natural fracture frequencies and RQDs of the core samples are 1.6 pcs/m and 97.0 % (ONK-KR13), 0.5 pcs/m and 99.3 % (ONK-KR14) and 1.6 pcs/m and 97.3 % (ONK-KR15). In drillhole ONK-KR13 one, and in drillhole ONK-KR15 three fractured zones were intersected. There was no fractured zones in drillhole ONK-KR14. Rock mechanical tests were performed to core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 143.2 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 57.3 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.25. (orig.)

  11. 133Xe and 135Xe interference with in vivo low-energy measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.; Lo Sasso, T.; Lei, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fission product 133 Xe and 135 Xe are released to the atmosphere during normal reactor operation. With increasing numbers of nuclear power stations there will be an increase in the ambient level of these isotopes. They do not present an appreciable long-term health hazard because of their inert nature and relatively short half-lives. However, their presence in the air of a whole-body counter may interfere significantly with in vivo low-energy photon counting procedures by contributing to the background count-rate in the energy region below 300 keV. This applies particularly to lung and whole-body measurements with dual thin crystal NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors for actinide nuclides. It is important, therefore, that gamma spectroscopists should be aware of the possible presence of 133 Xe and 135 Xe in the air of their whole-body counting facilities, particularly if these are near to reactors and do not have traps for removal of inert gases from their air supplies. (author)

  12. /sup 133/Xe and /sup 135/Xe interference with in vivo low-energy measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, N; Lo Sasso, T; Lei, W [New York Univ., NY (USA). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1980-03-01

    Fission product /sup 133/Xe and /sup 135/Xe are released to the atmosphere during normal reactor operation. With increasing numbers of nuclear power stations there will be an increase in the ambient level of these isotopes. They do not present an appreciable long-term health hazard because of their inert nature and relatively short half-lives. However, their presence in the air of a whole-body counter may interfere significantly with in vivo low-energy photon counting procedures by contributing to the background count-rate in the energy region below 300 keV. This applies particularly to lung and whole-body measurements with dual thin crystal NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors for actinide nuclides. It is important, therefore, that gamma spectroscopists should be aware of the possible presence of /sup 133/Xe and /sup 135/Xe in the air of their whole-body counting facilities, particularly if these are near to reactors and do not have traps for removal of inert gases from their air supplies.

  13. Surface effect of KrF laser exposure on ECE of alpha particle tracks in polycarbonate polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, P. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Laser Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: parvin@aut.ac.ir; Jaleh, B. [Physics Department, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikh, N. [Gamma Irradiation Center, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amiri, N. [Physics Department, Emam Hossien University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    The optical penetration depth for polycarbonate (PC) at 308nm due to XeCl laser is about 450{mu}m while those of KrF (248nm) and ArF (193nm) lasers become noticeably shorter to 1{mu}m and 20nm, respectively, to show the strong superficial absorption at shorter UV wavelengths. On the other hand, KrF laser exposure on polycarbonate, at doses above 6J/cm{sup 2}, creates the surface crosslinking. In spite of several reliable methods available, such as 'hot set' and 'gel content', to determine the bulk crosslinking, there are a few consistent techniques to evaluate the surface crosslinking effect quantitatively. It includes hardening measurements using nanoindenter or AFM (atomic force microscopy). In this work, we present a technique for the measurement of superficial crosslinking, based on electrochemical etching of alpha irradiated polycarbonate accordingly. The mean diameter of the developed tracks nonlinearly decreases for KrF laser treatment at higher doses. The relative shrinkage of track diameters due to UV exposure before alpha irradiation, comparing to those without UV pre-radiation, indicates that UV laser makes the polymer surface hardened. The variation of mean track diameters can be strongly used to quantify the surface crosslinking.

  14. Surface effect of KrF laser exposure on ECE of alpha particle tracks in polycarbonate polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvin, P.; Jaleh, B.; Sheikh, N.; Amiri, N.

    2005-01-01

    The optical penetration depth for polycarbonate (PC) at 308nm due to XeCl laser is about 450μm while those of KrF (248nm) and ArF (193nm) lasers become noticeably shorter to 1μm and 20nm, respectively, to show the strong superficial absorption at shorter UV wavelengths. On the other hand, KrF laser exposure on polycarbonate, at doses above 6J/cm 2 , creates the surface crosslinking. In spite of several reliable methods available, such as 'hot set' and 'gel content', to determine the bulk crosslinking, there are a few consistent techniques to evaluate the surface crosslinking effect quantitatively. It includes hardening measurements using nanoindenter or AFM (atomic force microscopy). In this work, we present a technique for the measurement of superficial crosslinking, based on electrochemical etching of alpha irradiated polycarbonate accordingly. The mean diameter of the developed tracks nonlinearly decreases for KrF laser treatment at higher doses. The relative shrinkage of track diameters due to UV exposure before alpha irradiation, comparing to those without UV pre-radiation, indicates that UV laser makes the polymer surface hardened. The variation of mean track diameters can be strongly used to quantify the surface crosslinking

  15. An improved method for 85Kr analysis by liquid scintillation counting and its application to atmospheric 85Kr determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, Noriyuki; Inoue, Fumio; Sugihara, Shinji; Shimada, Jun; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric 85 Kr concentration at Fukuoka, Japan was determined by an improved 85 Kr analytical method using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). An average value of 1.54 ± 0.05 Bq m -3 was observed in 2008, which is about two times that measured in 1981 at Fukuoka, indicating a 29 mBq y -1 rate of increase as an average for these 27 years. The analytical method developed involves collecting Kr from air using activated charcoal at liquid N 2 temperature and purifying it using He at dry ice temperature, followed by Kr separation by gas chromatography. An overall Kr recovery of 76.4 ± 8.1% was achieved when Kr was analyzed in 500-1000 l of air. The Kr isolated by gas chromatography was collected on silica gel in a quartz glass vial cooled to liquid N 2 temperature and the activity of 85 Kr was measured with a low-background LS counter. The detection limit of 85 Kr activity by the present analytical method is 0.0015 Bq at a 95% confidence level, including all propagation errors, which is equivalent with 85 Kr in 1.3 l of the present air under the analytical conditions of 72.1% counting efficiency, 0.1597 cps background count rate, and 76.4% Kr recovery.

  16. KrF laser kinetics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandl, A.; Klimek, D.; Parks, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A series of measurements characterizing an e beam pumped KrF* laser was carried out using a 200-nsec e-beam pulse having a rise time of 25 nsec at current densities up to 50 A/cm 2 . These pump conditions are relevent for inertial confinement fusion laser drivers. The measurements include fluorescence efficiency, sidelight suppression of the fluorescence during lasing, and laser energy output over a wide range of laser parameters including: total density 0.5--2.0 amagats, temperature 300--400 K, fluorine density 0.15%--0.5%, current density 38--50 A/cm 2 and various mirror transmissions. This data was used to verify and refine a model of KrF* kinetics which was then used to estimate the performance of an angular multiplexed power amplifier suitable for laser fusion applications

  17. Excitation rates for transitions in Kr XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Keenan, F. P.; Lawson, K. D.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we report our results for collision strengths and effective collision strengths for transitions among the lowest 125 levels of the 2s22p, 2s2p2, 2p3, 2s23ell, 2s2p3ell, and 2p23ell configurations of Kr XXXII. For our calculations both the FAC and DARC codes have been employed.

  18. Geophysical drillhole logging of the drillholes OL-KR40, OL-KR41, OL-KR41B, OL-KR42, OLKR42B, OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, at Olkiluoto 2006 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-05-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes drillholes OL-KR40, OL-KR41, OL-KR41B, OL-KR42, OL-KR42B, OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during August, September, December 2006 and January 2007. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  19. Regional lung function (133Xe-radiospirometry) in bronchial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arborelius, M.; Kristersson, S.; Lindell, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    In a prospective study of all patients with bronchial cancer in the city of Malmoe, all patients considered for surgery were examined with regard to overall function (conventional spirometry) and regional lung function (133-Xe-radiospirometry). Out of 116 consecutive cases examined with 133-Xe-radiospirometry before surgery,

  20. Discharge efficiency in high-Xe-content plasma display panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hagelaar, G.J.M.; Heusler, G.

    2004-01-01

    We study theoretically the overall output performance and the dominating reaction processes of the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation production in high-Xe partial pressures in plasma display panels (PDPs) with Ne-Xe gas mixtures. A two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model is applied for the

  1. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in B-like to F-like Xe ions (Xe L-XLVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.M.; Keenan, F.P.; Lawson, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    Energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and lifetimes have been calculated for transitions in B-like to F-like Xe ions, Xe L-XLVI. For the calculations, a fully relativistic GRASP code has been adopted, and results are reported for all electric dipole, electric quadrupole, magnetic dipole, and magnetic quadrupole transitions among the lowest 125, 236, 272, 226, and 113 levels of Xe L, Xe XLIX, Xe XLVIII, Xe XLVII, and Xe XLVI, respectively, belonging to the n ≤ 3 configurations.

  2. Recoil distance lifetime measurements in 122,124Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, I. M.; Kumar, A.; Iyer, H.; Li, H.; Garg, U.; Ghugre, S. S.; Johnson, T.; Kaczarowski, R.; Kharraja, B.; Naguleswaran, S.; Walpe, J. C.

    1998-02-01

    Lifetimes of the lower-excited states in 122,124Xe are measured using the recoil-distance Doppler-shift technique. The reactions 110Pd(16O,4n)122Xe and 110Pd(18O,4n)124Xe at a beam energy of 66 MeV were used for this experiment. The lifetimes of the 2+, 4+, 6+, and 8+ states of the ground state band were extracted using the computer code LIFETIME including the corrections due to the side feeding and the nuclear deorientation effects. The lifetime of the 2+ state in 122Xe agrees with the recoil distance method (RDM) measurements but for the 124Xe it does not agree with the RDM measurements but agrees with the Coulomb-excitation experiment. The measured B(E2) values for both the nuclei are compared with the standard algebraic and the multishell models.

  3. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-CF4 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, A. F. V.; Kaja, M. A.; Escada, J.; Santos, M. A. G.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ion mobility measurements made in gaseous mixtures of xenon with carbon tetrafluoride (Xe-CF4) for pressures ranging from 6 to 10 Torr (8-10.6 mbar) and for low reduced electric fields in the 10 to 25 Td range (2.4-6.1 kVṡcm‑1ṡbar‑1), at room temperature. The time-of-arrival spectra revealed one or two peaks depending on the gas relative abundances, which were attributed to CF3+ and to Xe2+ ions. However, for Xe concentrations above 60%, only one peak remains (Xe2+). The reduced mobilities obtained from the peak centroid of the time-of-arrival spectra are presented for Xe concentrations in the 5%-95% range.

  4. Emission characteristics of Xe-RbBr plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneral, A. A.; Avtaeva, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The luminescence spectra of the longitudinal pulsed-periodic discharge in Xe-RbBr gas-vapour mixtures at low pressures are experimentally studied. Conditions for obtaining strong UV radiation of XeBr* exiplex molecules in the spectral range of 200-425 nm are found. The greatest output of the XeBr* UV radiation is provided at temperature of the gas-discharge tube walls of ~1000 K. The maximum UV emission power of the whole plasma volume is 4.8 W. Formation of XeBr* exciplex molecules in the pulsed-periodic discharge in Xe-RbBr gas-vapour mixtures at low pressures is discussed.

  5. Possible Odd Parity State in 128Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, L.; Malmskog, S.G.

    1966-07-01

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 ± 0.05, 526.5 ± 0.5, 742.4 ±1.0, 969.0 ± 1.0, and 1136.5 ±2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in 128 Xe at 1579 ± 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 ± 0.3 of the (β - feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0 + level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration

  6. One-electron spectrum of Xe VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.R.; Knystautas, E.J.; Sugar, J.

    1979-01-01

    The spectrum of Xe VIII has been observed in a theta-pinch discharge. New line identifications were made that determine the energies of the 6s, 7s, 6p, and 5f terms relative to the 5s 2 S ground state and confirm the previously known 5p and 5d terms. An independent system of levels derived from the observed 4f-ng (n = 5,6) transitions was found. Its position relative to the ground state is obtained from a predicted value for the 5g effective quantum number n*. From the ns series (n=5--7) a value for the ionization enegy of 105.91 +- 0.05 eV was derived

  7. The decay of /sup 120/Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Münnich, F; Lode, D; Pessara, W; Schrader, H

    1974-01-01

    The decay scheme of 40 min /sup 120/Xe has been investigated using isotopically separated sources produced by the ISOLDE facility at CERN. A total number of 202 gamma -transitions has been observed in this decay; 188 of them have been placed in a level scheme involving 34 excited states in /sup 120/I. Most of these levels are based on the results of gamma - gamma coincidence experiments with two Ge(Li) detectors. Internal conversion coefficients have been obtained with a Si(Li) detector and a magnetic spectrometer. The half-life of 4 low- lying levels in /sup 120/I has been measured by delayed coincidence techniques. From these measurements, partial half-lives for some transitions have been deduced and are compared with the single- particle estimates. Two E2 transitions are strongly enhanced. (24 refs).

  8. Magnetic dipole strength in 128Xe and 134Xe in the spin-flip resonance region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarczyk, R.; Rusev, G.; Schwengner, R.; Dönau, F.; Bhatia, C.; Gooden, M. Â. E.; Kelley, J. Â. H.; Tonchev, A. Â. P.; Tornow, W.

    2014-11-01

    The magnetic dipole strength in the energy region of the spin-flip resonance is investigated in 128Xe and 134Xe using quasimonoenergetic and linearly polarized γ -ray beams at the High-Intensity γ -Ray Source facility in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Absorption cross sections were deduced for the magnetic and electric and dipole strength distributions separately for various intervals of excitation energy, including the strength of states in the unresolved quasicontinuum. The magnetic dipole strength distributions show structures resembling a resonance in the spin-flip region around an excitation energy of 8 MeV. The electric dipole strength distributions obtained from the present experiments are in agreement with the ones deduced from an earlier experiment using broad-band bremsstrahlung instead of a quasimonoenergetic beam. The experimental magnetic and electric dipole strength distributions are compared with phenomenological approximations and with predictions of a quasiparticle random phase approximation in a deformed basis.

  9. High energy KrCl electric discharge laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy KrCl laser for producing coherent radiation at 222 nm. Output energies on the order of 100 mJ per pulse are produced utilizing a discharge excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions, thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HCl is used as a halogen donor which undergoes a harpooning reaction with metastable Kr.sub.M * to form KrCl.

  10. ETUDE STRUCTURELLE ET SPECTRES D’ABSORPTION DE Kr3+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A CHIKHAOUI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Le présent travail, qui comporte deux étapes, est une étude théorique de l'agrégat de Krypton chargé une fois (Kr3+. La première étape est l'étude structurelle de Kr3+. L'hamiltonien modèle est développé dans le cadre de la méthode D.I.M (Diatomics In Molecules. Les résultats obtenus montrent que Kr3+ est linéaire. La profondeur du puits attractif De est égale  à 0.29 eV par rapport à la dissociation en Kr2+ + Kr pour une distance d'équilibre Re = 5.496 u.a. Ce résultat est en bon accord avec la valeur expérimentale qui vaut 0.27 eV. La deuxième étape est l'étude thermodynamique et spectroscopique de Kr3+. Les résultats obtenus montrent que le spectre vertical de Kr3+ linéaire comporte trois pics situés dans le domaine du visible à 625nm, 551nm et 466nm. L'analyse statistique des populations de charges atomiques montre que Kr3+ subit une isomérisation qui le ramène à une configuration de type ( Kr2+ ...Kr ou à une configuration plus probable de type  (Kr+...Kr2 .

  11. Backbending in high spin states of 80Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, M.; Saxena, G.

    2014-01-01

    The study of high-spin states in Kr isotopes near A = 80 region has attracted a considerable interest in recent years. A variety of shapes, shape coexistence as well as backbending phenomenon have been studied in the many of Kr isotopes. In the case of 80 Kr, the high spin structure has been studied by Doring et al. rather extensively and has provided considerable insight into the structure of f-p-g shell nuclei and the competition between single-particle and collective degrees of freedom. Backbending phenomenon is reported in 80 Kr at ω = 0.5 MeV

  12. Kr-85 signatures for various plutonium production schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanoszek, Paul [Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker-Centre for Science and Peace Research (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Kr-85 is considered to be the best atmospheric indicator of unreported weapon-grade material production. This fact is based on the half-life of 10.76 years of Kr-85 and its chemical inactivity, which makes it even detectable after extended periods of cooling time. Kr-85 is produced as fission product during nuclear reactor operation and remains in the fuel until reprocessing starts. In order to determine the detectability of plutonium production the Kr-85 source term has to be assessed. The important issue of this presentation is the question on the minimum signal that an inspector can expect under the assumption that a proliferator minimizes his Kr-85 generation in order to circumvent a Kr-85 detection. A further assumption is that for nuclear weapon production a burn-up of typically around 2 MWd/kg is used. In addition, if clandestine plutonium production takes place, the source term might be used to estimate the amount of separated plutonium. The methodology of this study is based on a linkage between MCNPX and MATLAB. All results for actinide concentrations and Kr-85 are evaluated for different enrichments of U-235 and compared to known literature data. The Kr-85 source term per kilogram plutonium depends on the enrichments. As a result the lowest Kr-85 source term is found for depleted uranium.

  13. Indirect processes in electron impact ionization of Kr24+ and Kr25+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.H.; Reed, K.J.

    1992-09-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections have been calculated for magnesiumlike Kr 24+ and sodiumlike Kr 25+ . Electron-impact ionization is an important atomic process in hot dense plasmas. It can affect the ionization balance, electron temperature, electron density, and level population in the plasma. In the past decade, theoretical and experimental studies have revealed that indirect processes can make significant contributions to the cross sections for electron impact ionization of positive ions. The most important indirect process is excitation of an inner-shell electron followed by Auger emission. Higher-order processes such as resonant excitation followed by sequential double Auger emission, can also contribute significantly. The contributions of excitation-autoionization and resonant excitation double autoionization (REDA) were included, in addition to the cross sections for direct ionization of a 3s electron. The calculations were carried out using the relativistic distorted wave methods and the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock model. For Kr 25+ , the total cross section is about 5 times the direct ionization cross section. For the Kr 24+ , the indirect contribution is about 2.5 times the direct ionization cross section. The REDA process produces many strong resonances and contributes about 20% to the average ionization cross section

  14. Comprehensive sets of 124Xe(n ,γ )125Xe and 124Xe(n ,2 n )123Xe cross-section data for assessment of inertial-confinement deuterium-tritium fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Ludin, N.; Tornow, W.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the neutron radiative-capture cross section of 124Xe have been performed for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, data for the 124Xe(n ,2 n )123Xe reaction cross section have been obtained from threshold to 14.8 MeV to cover the entire energy range of interest, while previous data existed only at around 14 MeV. The results of these measurements provide the basis for an alternative and sensitive diagnostic tool for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium (DT) capsules at the National Ignition Facility located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Here, areal density ρ R (density × radius) of the fuel, burn asymmetry, and fuel-ablator mix are of special interest. The 124Xe(n ,γ )125Xe reaction probes the down-scattered neutrons, while the 124Xe(n ,2 n )123Xe reaction provides a measure of the 14 MeV direct neutrons.

  15. Biological Studies with Laser-Polarized ^129Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C. H.; Oteiza, E. R.; Wong, G. A.; Walsworth, R. L.; Albert, M. S.; Nascimben, L.; Peled, S.; Sakai, K.; Jolesz, F. A.

    1996-05-01

    We have studied several biological systems using laser-polarized ^129Xe. In certain tissues magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using inhaled laser-polarized noble gases may provide images superior to those from conventional proton MRI. High resolution laser-polarized ^3He images of air spaces in the human lung were recently obtained by the Princeton/Duke group. However, ^3He is not very soluble in tissue. Therefore, we are using laser polarized ^129Xe (tissue-soluble), with the long term goal of biomedical functional imaging. We have investigated multi-echo and multi-excitation magnetic resonance detection schemes to exploit the highly non-thermal ^129Xe magnetization produced by the laser polarization technique. We have inhalated live rats with laser-polarized ^129Xe gas and measured three distinct ^129Xe tissue resonances that last 20 to 40 sec. As a demonstration, we obtained a laser polarized ^129Xe image of the human oral cavity. Currently we are measuring the polarization lifetime of ^129Xe dissolved in human blood, the biological transporting medium. These studies and other recent developments will be reported.

  16. Laser technologies. KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owadano, Yoshiro; Okuda, Isao; Matsushima, Isao; Yashiro, Hidehiko; Matsumoto, Yuji

    1994-01-01

    Krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is one of the promising driver for inertial confinement fusion because of its short wavelength, broad band width, high efficiency and capability of high repetition-rate operation. A high gain double-pass amplifier can yield a high, heavily saturated output intensity (5 to 6 times saturation intensity, > 10MW/cm 2 ) with nearly maximum efficiency (> 10%) and high stage gain (> 50) at the same time. The high gain can be achieved by cylindrical electron-beam pumping configuration without external magnetic field. Angular pulse multiplexing enables efficient pulse compression and amplification of beams with broad spectral width. The broad band width is required for irradiation smoothing methods, BRP (broad-band Random Phase Irradiation) or ISI (Induced Spatial Incoherence). Multi-kJ KrF laser, Super-ASHURA (Electrotechnical Laboratory, 8kJ), NIKE (at Naval Research Laboratory, 3kJ) and TITANIA (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, 2kJ) are being developed and close to completion. (author)

  17. High-j neutron excitations outside 136Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, R.; Kay, B. P.; Mitchell, A. J.; Adachi, S.; Entwisle, J. P.; Fujita, Y.; Gey, G.; Noji, S.; Ong, H. J.; Schiffer, J. P.; Tamii, A.

    2017-08-01

    The ν 0 h9 /2 and ν 0 i13 /2 strength at 137Xe, a single neutron outside the N =82 shell closure, has been determined using the 136Xe(α ,3He)137Xe reaction carried out at 100 MeV. We confirm the recent observation of the second 13 /2+ state and reassess previous data on the 9 /2- states, obtaining spectroscopic factors. These new data provide additional constraints on predictions of the same single-neutron excitations at 133Sn.

  18. Hyperpolarized 129Xe as an NMR probe for functional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear spin polarization of 129 Xe can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude using optical pumping techniques, resulting in a dramatic enhancement of the 129 Xe Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signal. The 'hyperpolarized' gas can be used for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the void spaces of the lungs after introduction of the gas into the respiratory system. Furthermore, the high solubility of xenon in blood and lipids suggests the use of 129 Xe NMR for studying blood flow, permeability, perfusion and blood volume. Hyperpolarized 129 Xe MRI has the potential of combining the high sensitivity and functional information of radioactive tracer studies with the high spatial and temporal resolution of MRI. The spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 of 129 Xe in blood determines the loss of polarization during transit from the lungs to the tissue of interest. A difference in the relaxation times of xenon in oxygenated and deoxygenated blood could be used as a contrast mechanism in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). In this thesis, the hyperpolarized 129 Xe T 1 in human blood is measured in vitro as a function of blood oxygenation, and the relevant relaxation mechanisms are discussed. A new and unexpected finding is that the hyperpolarized 129 Xe NMR spectrum in blood is highly sensitive to blood oxygenation. Therefore, hyperpolarized 129 Xe NMR provides a powerful means of measuring blood oxygenation quantitatively and non-invasively. The interaction of xenon with hemoglobin is responsible for an oxygen-dependent shift of the 129 Xe NMR resonance of xenon in red blood cells. Injection delivery of hyperpolarized 129 Xe in solution could be a more efficient method of administrating the gas for functional NMR studies. For this purpose, suitable biocompatible carrier media have been studied. In particular, the use of perfluorocarbon emulsions, which are already in use as blood substitutes, as delivery media for hyperpolarized 129 Xe has been investigates

  19. Isotope Shifts and Hyperfine Structure in the[Xe]4f(7)5d 6s(2) D-2(J)->[Xe]4f(7)5d 6s 6p F-9(J+1) Transitions of Gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaum, K.; Bushaw, Bruce A.; Diel, S; Geppert, Ch; Kuschnick, A; Muller, P.; Nortershauser, W.; Schmitt, A.; Wendt, K.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in all[Xe] 4f 7 5d 6s2 9DJ ---[Xe] 4f 7 5d 6s 6p 9FJ+1 (J= 2-6) and the[Xe] 4f 7 5d 6s2 9D6---[Xe] 4f 7 5d 6s 6p 9D5 transitions of gadolinium (Gd I). Gadolinium atoms in an atomic beam were excited with a tunable single-frequency laser in the wavelength range of 422 - 429 nm. Resonant excitation was followed by photoionization with the 363.8 nm line of an argon ion laser and resulting ions were mass separated and detected with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Isotope shifts for all stable gadolinium isotopes in these transitions have been measured for the first time. Additionally, the hyperfine structure constants of the upper states have been derived for the isotopes 155, 157Gd and are compared with previous work. Using prior experimental values for the mean nuclear charge radii, derived from the combination of muonic atoms and electron scattering data, field shift a nd specific mass shift coefficients for the investigated transitions have been determined and nuclear charge parameters l for the minor isotopes 152, 154Gd have been calculated

  20. Preliminary studies in sheep exposed to 85Kr atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, F.D.; Willard, D.H.; Ballou, J.E.; Sikov, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Accumulation of 85 Kr in arterial blood of sheep occurs within 10 min of inhalation exposure initiation, and disappears by 30 min after exposure termination. As reported for other species, 85 Kr concentrations in fat were approximately 10 times those in other tissues

  1. Disposition and biological effect of inhaled 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, D.H.; Ballou, J.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Gandolfi, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    Half-lives of approximately 5, 30, and 100 min were obtained for whole-body clearance of inhaled 85 Kr in beagle dogs. Analysis showed the highest partition coefficients in lungs, bone marrow, and fat. Circulating blood elements were not lowered permanently after 85 Kr exposures

  2. Photoresonance anode plasma production by KrF lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazev, B.A.; Melnikov, P.I.; Doroshkin, A.A.; Matveenko, A.N.; Bluhm, H.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of an intense KrF laser pulse with vapor clouds of different elemental composition has been studied experimentally. The clouds were produced by evaporation of solid targets with a ruby laser. Ionization of the expanding clouds by a KrF laser was observed for clouds containing tantalum atoms. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs

  3. Dielectronic recombination of Xe8+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoding; Fu Yanbiao; Dong Chenzhong; Zhang Yizhao

    2012-01-01

    Based on the fully relativistic configuration interaction method, theoretical calculations are carried out for the dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients of Xe 8+ ions in the temperature region from 0.1 to 1 650 eV. The comparison of the DR rate coefficients from 4s, 4p and 4d subshell excitations shows that 4d subshell excitation dominates in the whole temperature region. The contribution from 4p subshell excitation is very important at temperature above 10 eV and the contributions from 4s subshell ex- citation is lower than 7.5% in the whole temperature region. Similarly, the comparison of the DR rate coefficients through △n= 0, I and 2 core excitation shows that the contribution from △n= 2 core excitation can not be neglected, the contributions from n'>15 can also not be neglected. The DR rate coefficients of △n=0, 1 and 2 core excitation and the total DR rate coefficients are fitted with some parameters, which are in good agreement with theoretical calculations values (within 1 % difference)The total DR rate coefficients are greater than radiative recombination (RR) and three-body recombination (TBR) rate coefficients at temperature above 1 eV. Therefore, the DR process can strongly influence the ionization balance of laser produced xenon plasmas. (authors)

  4. Electron beam pumped KrF lasers for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethian, J.D.; Friedman, M.; Giuliani, J.L. Jr.; Lehmberg, R.H.; Obenschain, S.P.; Kepple, P.; Wolford, M.; Hegeler, F.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Weidenheimer, D.; Welch, D.; Rose, D.V.; Searles, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of electron beam pumped KrF lasers for inertial fusion energy. KrF lasers are an attractive driver for fusion, on account of their demonstrated very high beam quality, which is essential for reducing imprint in direct drive targets; their short wavelength (248 nm), which mitigates the growth of plasma instabilities; and their modular architecture, which reduces development costs. In this paper we present a basic overview of KrF laser technology as well as current research and development in three key areas: electron beam stability and transport; KrF kinetics and laser propagation; and pulsed power. The work will be cast in context of the two KrF lasers at the Naval Research Laboratory, The Nike Laser (5 kJ, single shot), and The Electra Laser (400-700 J repetitively pulsed)

  5. Decay of 132Cs and nuclear structure of 132Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, M.T.F. da; Goldman, I.D.

    1989-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy, coincidence and angular correlation experiments were performed, in an extensive study of 132 Cs decay. The population intensities of states in 132 Ba were measured, some upper limits were determined and the value of the transition to the 4 1 + state of 132 Ba has drastically changed. A new gamma transition of 688 KeV was detected and located in the level scheme of 132 Xe. The angular correlation measurements were performed with a Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) spectrometer and helped in choosing the spin value for the 1804 KeV state of 132 Xe. Kumar-Baranger-type calculations were performed for the 132 Xe fairly good results. The resulting potential energy surface for 132 Xe is very different from that of Gneuss and Greiner model, suggesting the need for any quadrupole moment measurement for this nucleus. (author) [pt

  6. Analysis results of PAVE sampling of groundwaters from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaa, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Four groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 with pressurised water sampling equipment (PAVE) between summer 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study is a part of Olkiluoto's monitoring programme (OMO). This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the open boreholes OL-KR2/328.5-330.5 m, OL-KR7/275.5- 289.5 m, OL-KR13/362-365 m and OL-KR15/241-245 m. The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's ( 1967) classification, all ground water samples represent the borehole water type Na-Cl. All ground water samples were brackish ( 1000 mg/L < TDS < 1 0000 mg/L) according to Davis's ( 1964) TDS classification. Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes have occurred between samplings. Other parameters, with couple of particular exceptions, have a downward trend, but bicarbonate concentration has increased in all boreholes. Concentrations of main parameters have changed most in OL-KR7 and OL-KR13 waters. Gas analyses results have not changed significantly, but increased carbon dioxide concentration is noticed in gas analysis results also. (orig.)

  7. Aurora: A short-pulse multikilojoule KrF inertial fusion laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Aurora is a laser system that serves as an operating technology demonstration prototype for large-scale high-energy KrF laser systems of interest for inertial fusion applications. This system will incorporate the following elements to achieve an end-to-end 248-nm laser fusion concept demonstration: an injection-locked oscillator-amplifier front end; an optical angular multiplexer to produce 96 encoded optical channels each of 5-nsec duration; a chain of four electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers; automated alignment systems for beam alignment; a decoder to provide for pulse compression of some fraction of the total beam train to be delivered to target, and a target chamber to house and diagnose fusion targets. The front end configuration uses a stable resonator master oscillator to drive an injection-locked unstable resonator slave oscillator. An extension of existing technology has been used to develop an electrooptic switchout at 248 nm that produces a 5-nsec pulse from the longer slave oscillator pulse. This short pulse is amplified by a postamplifier. Using these discharge lasers, the front end then delivers at least 250 mJ of KrF laser light output to the optical encoder

  8. In-situ observation of atomic self-organization processes in Xe nanocrystals embedded in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuishi, K.; Song, M.; Furuya, K.; Birtcher, R. C.; Allen, C. W.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1998-01-01

    Self-organization processes in Xe nanocrystals embedded in Al are observed with in-situ high-resolution electron microscopy. Under electron irradiation, stacking fault type defects are produced in Xe nanocrystals. The defects recover in a layer by layer manner. Detailed analysis of the video reveals that the displacement of Xe atoms in the stacking fault was rather small for the Xe atoms at boundary between Xe and Al, suggesting the possibility of the stacking fault in Xe precipitate originating inside of precipitate, not at the Al/Xe interface

  9. Search for a permanent Xe-electric dipole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: MIXed-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the isotope {sup 129}Xe would imply a breakdown of both parity P and time-reversal symmetry T and, through the CPT theorem, a breakdown in CP, the combined symmetries of charge conjugation C and parity P. Our goal is to improve the present experimental limit (d{sub Xe}<3.10{sup -27} ecm) by about three orders of magnitude. The most precise EDM limit on diamagnetic atoms was measured on {sup 199}Hg (d{sub Hg}<3.1.10{sup -29} ecm). To get more stringent limits, we perform a {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe clock comparison experiment with the detection of free spin precession of gaseous, nuclear polarized {sup 3}He or {sup 129}Xe samples with a SQUID as magnetic flux detector. The precession of co-located {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe nuclear spins are used as an ultra-sensitive probe for non-magnetic spin interactions of type δν∝ d{sub Xe}.E. With our experimental setup at the research center Juelich we are able to observe spin coherence times T{sub 2}{sup *} of several hours for both species. We report on first experimental results achieved within the MIXed-collaboration.

  10. Polarizability of Kr6+ from high-L Kr5+ fine-structure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, S. R.; Fehrenbach, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    The transition between n=55 and n=109 Rydberg levels of Kr 5+ has been studied at high resolution using the resonant excitation stark ionization spectroscopy method. Resolved excitation of L=6, 7, 8, and 9 levels in n=55 lead to a determination of the fine-structure energies of these levels. Interpreted with the long-range polarization model, this leads to a measurement of the dipole polarizabilities of Zn-like Kr 6+ , α d =2.69(4)a 0 3 . Obtaining a value of the quadrupole polarizability from the data will require additional theoretical input. Factors contributing to the signal and noise levels in measurements of this type are discussed

  11. New energy level identifications in Kr VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauheed, A.; Pinnington, E.H.; Ansbacher, W.; Kernahan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Beam-foil delayed spectra from 89.0 to 101.0 nm are used to identify the intercombination lines connecting the 4s4p 2 4 P and 4s 2 4p 2 P levels in Kr VI. The existing analysis is extended to include the 4s 2 5s 2 S 1/2 , 4f 2 F 5/2 , 2 F 7/2 , 4p 3 2 D 3/2 , 2 D 5/2 , 2 P 3/2 , 4 S 3/2 and 4s4p 2 4 P 1/2 , 4 P 3/2 , 4 P 5/2 levels. Lifetime measurements for the 4s4p 2 4 P 1/2 , 4 P 5/2 , 4p 3 2 D 3/2 and 2 D 5/2 levels are also discussed in support of these assignments. (orig.)

  12. Formation of (Xe2H)* centers in solid Xe via recombination: nonstationary luminescence and 'internal electron emission'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, E.V.; Khyzhniy, I.V.; Uyutov, S.A.; Gumenchuk, G.B.; Ponomarev, A.N.; Bondybey, V.E.; Beyer, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of excimers (Xe 2 H) * in solid Xe doped with molecular hydrogen under electron beam is studied using the original two-stage technique of nonstationary (NS) cathodoluminescence (CL) in combination with the current activation spectroscopy method - thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE). Charged species were generated using a high-density electron beam. The species produced were then probed with a low density beam on gradual sample heating. The near UV emission of the (Xe 2 H) * was used to monitor the neutralization process. It is found that the temperature behavior of the NS CL band of (Xe 2 H) * clearly correlates with the yield of TSEE measured after identical pre-irradiation of the sample. The fingerprints of the thermally stimulated detrapping of electrons - 'internal electron emission' in the spectrum of NS CL point to the essential role of neutralization reaction in the stability of the proton solvated by rare-gas atoms.

  13. Modification of the Xe 4d giant resonance by the C60 shell in molecular Xe at C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, A. S.; Chernysheva, L. V.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2006-01-01

    It is demonstrated that in photoabsorption of the 4d 10 subshell of a Xe atom in molecular Xe at C 60 , the 4d giant resonance that characterizes the isolated Xe atom is distorted significantly. The reflection of photoelectron waves by the C 60 shell leads to profound oscillations in the photoionization cross section such that the Xe giant resonance is transformed into four strong peaks. Similarly, the angular anisotropy parameters, both dipole and nondipole, are also modified. The method of calculation is based on the approximation of the C 60 shell by an infinitely thin bubble potential that leaves the sum rule for the 4d-electrons almost unaffected, but noticeably modifies the dipole polarizability of the 4d-shell

  14. Completion of Kr-81 and Kr-85 Analysis Development for Hydrogeology and Testing its Validity by Assessing Aquifer Recharge Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thonnard, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The overall objective was to complete the development of a RIMS-based analytical technique to determine the concentration of the rare krypton radioisotopes, 81Kr and 85Kr, in samples of interest to the geoscience and planetary science community The key to RIMS is the use of tunable lasers to selectively and efficiently excite by resonant photon absorption atomic states unique to the chosen element. Ionization of the specified element can then occur while excluding all other constituents of the sample, bringing detection limits down to the single-atom level. Combining RIMS with several steps of isotopic enrichment makes detection of a rare isotope, such as 81Kr, feasible. A complete process for groundwater samples consists of starting with (1) collecting the groundwater sample, (2) degassing the water sample, (3) separating Kr from the recovered gases, (4 and 5) two isotopic enrichments reducing interfering isotopes by >109, and (6) detecting the rare krypton isotope using RIMS in a time-of-flight system. Required water sample size is 20 liters for 81Kr and 10 to 3 liters for 85Kr. Weak links in the above steps were to be identified and rectified. Most of the troublesome issues were resolved, but unfortunately, two key difficulties could not be resolved with the available resources, so the overall, final goal of completing a suite of measurements was not achieved. In spite of this, valuable collaborations were established to demonstrate the value of 81Kr and 85Kr measurements in two critical applications, the future site of a nuclear waste repository, where high efficiency 81Kr measurements would allow groundwater dating of low-yield formations, and a multi-method analysis of potential contamination inflow into a large municipal water system, where the simplicity of interpretation of 85Kr measurements could become a valuable future interpretive tool. Therefore, samples were collected anyway, and processing started using the working parts of the method, so that

  15. Etching microscopic defects in polycarbonate due to high dose ArF or KrF laser exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaleh, B. [Physics Department, Bu- Alisina University, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parvin, P. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Laser Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) ]. E-mail: parvin@aut.ac.ir; Katoozi, M. [National Radiation Protection Department, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamani, Z. [Laser Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, A. [Laser Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    The ArF or KrF excimer laser exposure on the polycarbonate (PC) with corresponding doses higher than {phi}{sub th}5.2J/cm{sup 2}, at 32mJ/cm{sup 2} fluence per pulse and 5Hz pulse repetition rate (PRR), induces regular defects leading to self assembled defect structure following electrochemical etching (ECE). We have observed the conical-like structure for {phi}>{phi}{sub th}, whereas the polymer experiences hardening effect due to crosslinking when {phi}<{phi}{sub th}. Subsequently, conical-like, structure turns into track-like pits developing under ECE multiple treeing. Self assembled defect structure may be seen by naked eye as white spots, despite SEM illustrates a type of periodic pit formation-morphology. The exact explanation of the effect is not well understood yet. It looks like alpha tracks in the polymer surface, however the PC pieces were simply treated by excimer lasers at high doses, and they have not been exposed to the nuclear particles afterwards. We could not observe those effects at 308nm (XeCl laser) or longer wavelengths at 351nm (XeF laser) where UV photoablation does not occur. It indicates that UV ablation establishes surface degradation at shorter wavelengths, leading to laser micro etching. The mean track (defect) density is about one order of magnitude greater than the normal alpha tracks. Increasing UV doses, polymer undergoes a plateau, corresponding to etched defect saturation on PC.

  16. Etching microscopic defects in polycarbonate due to high dose ArF or KrF laser exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaleh, B.; Parvin, P.; Katoozi, M.; Zamani, Z.; Zare, A.

    2005-01-01

    The ArF or KrF excimer laser exposure on the polycarbonate (PC) with corresponding doses higher than φ th 5.2J/cm 2 , at 32mJ/cm 2 fluence per pulse and 5Hz pulse repetition rate (PRR), induces regular defects leading to self assembled defect structure following electrochemical etching (ECE). We have observed the conical-like structure for φ>φ th , whereas the polymer experiences hardening effect due to crosslinking when φ th . Subsequently, conical-like, structure turns into track-like pits developing under ECE multiple treeing. Self assembled defect structure may be seen by naked eye as white spots, despite SEM illustrates a type of periodic pit formation-morphology. The exact explanation of the effect is not well understood yet. It looks like alpha tracks in the polymer surface, however the PC pieces were simply treated by excimer lasers at high doses, and they have not been exposed to the nuclear particles afterwards. We could not observe those effects at 308nm (XeCl laser) or longer wavelengths at 351nm (XeF laser) where UV photoablation does not occur. It indicates that UV ablation establishes surface degradation at shorter wavelengths, leading to laser micro etching. The mean track (defect) density is about one order of magnitude greater than the normal alpha tracks. Increasing UV doses, polymer undergoes a plateau, corresponding to etched defect saturation on PC

  17. Xe isotopic constraints on cycling of deep Earth volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2017-12-01

    The modern deep Earth volatile budget reflects primordial volatiles delivered during accretion, radiogenic ingrowth of volatile species (e.g., 40Ar produced by 40K decay), outgassing in association with mantle processing, and regassing via subduction. The noble gases are unique volatile tracers in that they are chemically inert, but are thought to be trapped within hydrous alteration phases in downwelling lithologies. Noble gases thus provide a tracer of volatile transport between the deep Earth and surface reservoirs. Constraints on the fluxes of noble gases between deep Earth and surface reservoirs over time can accordingly be used to provide insight into temperature conditions at subduction zones, limits on volatile cycling, and the evolving distribution of major volatile species in terrestrial reservoirs over time. Xe isotope systematics in mantle-derived rocks show that 80-90% of the mantle Xe budget is derived from recycling of atmospheric Xe, indicating that atmospheric Xe is retained in subducting slabs beyond depths of magma generation in subduction zones over Earth history. We present an integrated model of Xe cycling between the mantle and atmosphere in association with mantle processing over Earth history. We test a wide variety of outgassing and regassing rates and take the evolution of the atmospheric Xe isotopic composition [e.g., 1] into account. Models in which the deep Earth transitions from a net outgassing to net regassing regime best satisfy Xe isotopic constraints from mantle-derived rocks [2-6]. [1] Avice et al., 2017; Nature Communications, 8; [2] Mukhopadhyay, 2012, Nature 486, 101-104; [3] Parai et al., 2012, EPSL 359-360, 227-239; [4] Parai and Mukhopadhay, 2015, G-cubed 16, 719-735; [5] Peto et al., 2013, EPSL 369-370, 13-23; [6] Tucker et al., 2012, EPSL 355-356, 244-254.

  18. Estimation of radiation hazard of global 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.; Moskalev, Yu.I.; Istomina, A.G.

    1979-01-01

    The data on sources and levels of the 85 Kr biosphere contamination are presented on the basis of generalization and analysis of literature. The potential irradiation doses for people are calculated and the biological estimation of the hazard of 85 Kr accumulation in the atmosphere up to 2050 is given taking into account the prospects for development of nuclear power engineering. The basis of the estimation is the radionuclide blastomogeneous and genetic effect. The conclusion is made that the prospects for development of nuclear power engineering do not lead to any sufficient increase in the number of malignant tumors and genetic abnormalities caused by 85 Kr radiation comparing with their natural frequency

  19. Observation of site-specific decay processes in Ar-Kr mixed clusters following K-shell excitation of Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, K.; Murakami, H.; Iwayama, H.; Yao, M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple ion coincidence momentum imaging measurements have been performed for an Ar-Kr mixed rare-gas cluster with an average cluster size = 100 in the 1s threshold region of Kr. The signals resulting due to the photoabsorption by Kr have been extracted on the basis of the difference in the spectra between 14.08 and 14.50 keV, i.e., on both sides of the 1s threshold for Kr. The time-of-flight spectra for the clusters reveal that multiply charged cluster ions produced as a result of inner-core excitation emit many singly charged ions such as Kr + , Ar + , ArKr + , and Ar 2 + . The abundance of daughter ions suggests the transfer of positive charges from the X-ray absorbing atom to the surrounding atoms before the Coulomb explosion is suggested from. The momentum of daughter ions is deduced from the time-of-flight and position data, and the momentum distribution shows the characteristic size dependence of the ions on the number of coincidence signals N coin , i.e., the average momentum of the Ar + ions increases with N coin , while that of the Kr + ions decreases. The N coin dependence of momentum is interpreted according to the site-dependent decay processes

  20. High-Pressure Reactivity of Kr and F2—Stabilization of Krypton in the +4 Oxidation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Kurzydłowski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the synthesis of the first krypton compound, several other Kr-bearing connections have been obtained. However, in all of them krypton adopts the +2 oxidation state, in contrast to xenon which forms numerous compounds with an oxidation state as high as +8. Motivated by the possibility of thermodynamic stabilization of exotic compounds with the use of high pressure (exceeding 1 GPa = 10 kbar, we present here theoretical investigations into the chemistry of krypton and fluorine at such large compression. In particular we focus on krypton tetrafluoride, KrF4, a molecular crystal in which krypton forms short covalent bonds with neighboring fluorine atoms thus adopting the +4 oxidation state. We find that this hitherto unknown compound can be stabilized at pressures below 50 GPa. Our results indicate also that, at larger compressions, a multitude of other KrmFn fluorides should be stable, among them KrF which exhibits covalent Kr–Kr bonds. Our results set the stage for future high-pressure synthesis of novel krypton compounds.

  1. Manipulation by multiple filamentation of subpicosecond TW KrF laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Smetanin, I. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    A self-focusing of TW-level subpicosecond UV KrF laser pulses in ambient air produces a few 100 randomly distributed filaments over 100-m propagation distance. A control of multiple filamentation process by a number of methods was demonstrated in the present work envisaging applications for a HV discharge guiding, remote excitation of an atmospheric air laser, MW radiation transfer by virtual plasma waveguide, as well as filamentation suppression to improve short pulse parameters in direct amplification scheme. Under the laser beam focusing, a multitude of filaments coalesced into a superfilament with highly increased intensity and plasma conductivity. A superradiant forward lasing was obtained in the superfilament around 1.07-µm wavelength of atmospheric nitrogen. A regular 2D array of a 100 superfilaments was configured over 20-m distance by Fresnel diffraction on periodic amplitude masks. Effective Kerr defocusing and a subsequent filaments suppression over 50-m distance was demonstrated in Xe due to 2-photon resonance of laser radiation with 6p state being accompanied by a narrow-angle coherent conical emission at 828-nm wavelength.

  2. Determination of the separation efficiencies of a single-stage cryogenic distillation setup to remove krypton out of xenon by using a (83m)Kr tracer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, S; Brown, E; Cristescu, I; Fieguth, A; Huhmann, C; Lebeda, O; Murra, M; Weinheimer, C

    2015-11-01

    The separation of krypton and xenon is of particular importance for the field of direct dark matter search with liquid xenon detectors. The intrinsic contamination of the xenon with radioactive (85)Kr makes a significant background for these kinds of low count-rate experiments and has to be removed beforehand. This can be achieved by cryogenic distillation, a technique widely used in industry, using the different vapor pressures of krypton and xenon. In this paper, we present an investigation on the separation performance of a single stage distillation system using a radioactive (83m)Kr-tracer method. The separation characteristics under different operation conditions are determined for very low concentrations of krypton in xenon at the level of (83m)Kr/Xe = 1.9 ⋅ 10(-15), demonstrating, that cryogenic distillation in this regime is working. The observed separation is in agreement with the expectation from the different volatilities of krypton and xenon. This cryogenic distillation station is the first step on the way to a multi-stage cryogenic distillation column for the next generation of direct dark matter experiment XENON1T.

  3. Revised analysis of singly ionized xenon, Xe II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.; Persson, W.

    1987-01-01

    We present a revised analysis of the spectrum of singly ionized xenon, Xe II. This spectrum has been reanalyzed on the basis of the wavelength material published by Drs J. C. Boyce and C. J. Humphreys. The latter has kindly placed the original wavelength list covering the wavelength range 10220-390 A at our disposal. We report 161 energy levels which have been identified on the basis of classifications of 950 lines. We report first f and g levels in Xe II. Also a number of g-factors have been determined for the first time and we give in total 75 g-factors. We have carried out least-squares fits to the even configurations and report the resulting parameter values and eigenvector compositions. A least-squares fit to the 5p 4 6p configuration is also reported. The levels have been named in jK and for many levels also in LS coupling. The former is the better coupling scheme for Xe II. We present an analysis of the 5s photoelectron satellite spectrum of Xe based on our calculated eigenvector compositions and calculations of transition probabilities for ground state transitions as well as lifetimes for the 6p levels. The latter are compared to recent experimental measurements. A list of wavelengths for observed laser transitions showing the present classifications and a discussion of the determination of the ionization potential of Xe II concludes the paper. (orig.)

  4. Origin of anomalous Xe-H in nanodiamond stardust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, K. L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Otto-Hahn-Institut, D-55128 Mainz, Germany and Fachbereich Chemie, Pharmazie und Geowissenschaften, Universitat Mainz, Mainz (United States); Farouqi, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Otto-Hahn-Institut, D-55128 Mainz, Germany and Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hallmann, O. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Otto-Hahn-Institut, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Pfeiffer, B. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Univ. Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ott, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Otto-Hahn-Institut, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Univ. of West Hungary, H-9700 Szombathely (Hungary)

    2014-05-09

    Still today, the nucleosynthesis origin of Xe-H in presolar nanodiamonds is far from understood. Historically possible explanations were proposed by a secondary “neutron-burst” process occurring in the He- or C/O-shells of a type-II supernova (SN-II), which are, however, not fully convincing in terms of modern nucleosynthesis conditions. Therefore, we have investigated Xe isotopic abundance features that may be diagnostic for different versions of a classical, primary r-process in high-entropy-wind (HEW) ejecta of core-collapse SN-II. We report here on parameter tests for non-standard r-process variants, by varying electron abundances (Y{sub e}), ranges of entropies (S) and expansion velocities (V{sub exp}) with their correlated neutron-freezeout times (τ(freeze)) and temperatures (T{sub 9}(freeze)). From this study, we conclude that a best fi to the measured Xe-H abundance ratios {sup i}Xe/{sup 136}Xe can be obtained with the high-S “main” component of a “cold” r-process variant.

  5. Status of the Nike KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmberg, R.H.; Bodner, S.E.; Gerber, K.A.; Kearney, K.J.; McLean, E.A.; Obenschain, S.P.; Pawley, C.J.; Pronko, M.S.; Sethian, J.D.; Stamper, J.A.; Sullivan, C.A.; Webster, W.D.; McGeoch, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the main features of the NIKE laser currently under development at the Naval Research Laboratory. The aim of this KrF laser is to address technological and physics issues of direct-drive laser fusion. (TEC)

  6. High efficiency Dual-Cycle Conversion System using Kr-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelas, Mark A; Tchouaso, Modeste Tchakoua

    2018-04-26

    This paper discusses the use of one of the safest isotopes known isotopes, Kr-85, as a candidate fuel source for deep space missions. This isotope comes from 0.286% of fission events. There is a vast quantity of Kr-85 stored in spent fuel and it is continually being produced by nuclear reactors. In using Kr-85 with a novel Dual Cycle Conversion System (DCCS) it is feasible to boost the system efficiency from 26% to 45% over a single cycle device while only increasing the system mass by less than 1%. The Kr-85 isotope is the ideal fuel for a Photon Intermediate Direct Energy Conversion (PIDEC) system. PIDEC is an excellent choice for the top cycle in a DCCS. In the top cycle, ionization and excitation of the Kr-85:Cl gas mixture (99% Kr and 1% Cl) from beta particles creates KrCl* excimer photons which are efficiently absorbed by diamond photovoltaic cells on the walls of the pressure vessels. The benefit of using the DCCS is that Kr-85 is capable of operating at high temperatures in the primary cycle and the residual heat can then be converted into electrical power in the bottom cycle which uses a Stirling Engine. The design of the DCCS begins with a spherical pressure vessel of radius 13.7 cm with 3.7 cm thick walls and is filled with a Kr-85:Cl gas mixture. The inner wall has diamond photovoltaic cells attached to it and there is a sapphire window between the diamond photovoltaic cells and the Kr-85:Cl gas mixture which shields the photovoltaic cells from beta particles. The DCCS without a gamma ray shield has specific power of 6.49 W/kg. A removable 6 cm thick tungsten shield is used to safely limit the radiation exposure levels of personnel. A shadow shield remains in the payload to protect the radiation sensitive components in the flight package. The estimated specific power of the unoptimized system design in this paper is about 2.33 W/kg. The specific power of an optimized system should be higher. The Kr-85 isotope is relatively safe because it

  7. Pulmonary ventilation studies of asthmatic children with Kr-81m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Guio; Hotta, Toshiko; Arimizu, Noboru; Sugimoto, Kazuo.

    1979-01-01

    Krypton-81 m gas was eluted from the 81 Rb-sup(81m)Kr generator by using compressed air or oxygen as an eluting agent. The continuous inhalation of mixed gas of sup(81m)Kr and air or oxygen with the use of a scintillation camera produced a pulmonary image of which density was proportional to regional ventilation. Because of short half life of sup(81m)Kr (13 seconds), exhaled gas was not necessary to be trapped by the charcoal filter, and the several pulmonary views of a patient could readily be available in a short period of time. The great advantage of sup(81m)Kr generator was found in use for the studies of small children who were not usually cooperative to medical examination. Thirty seven patients with bronchial asthma of any state were so far studied. Their ages ranged from 3 to 15 years old. Studies revealed the definite ventilation defects in scans of patients with asthmatic attack. Re-scans right after the use of bronchodilators showed marked improvement of the ventilation defects. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) was easily identified by the sup(81m)Kr ventilation study. After premedications for EIA with disodium cromoglicate, the next exercises produced less or no ventilation defects, and the preventive effect could be individually examined. The sup(81m)Kr ventilation study was also used for estimating the patient's sensitivity to provokative substances of bronchial asthma. House dust was continuously inhaled with sup(81m)Kr gas by patients. The threshold dose of house dust of disclosing ventilation defects in scans was definitely less than that of provokating the symptom of asthmatic attack. The sensitive sup(81m)Kr ventilation study could be another provokative test which induces no clinical symptoms. (author)

  8. Pulmonary ventilation studies of asthmatic children with Kr-81m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, G; Hotta, T; Arimizu, N [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugimoto, K

    1979-05-01

    Krypton-81 m gas was eluted from the /sup 81/Rb-sup(81m)Kr generator by using compressed air or oxygen as an eluting agent. The continuous inhalation of mixed gas of sup(81m)Kr and air or oxygen with the use of a scintillation camera produced a pulmonary image of which density was proportional to regional ventilation. Because of short half life of sup(81m)Kr (13 seconds), exhaled gas was not necessary to be trapped by the charcoal filter, and the several pulmonary views of a patient could readily be available in a short period of time. The great advantage of sup(81m)Kr generator was found in use for the studies of small children who were not usually cooperative to medical examination. Thirty seven patients with bronchial asthma of any state were so far studied. Their ages ranged from 3 to 15 years old. Studies revealed the definite ventilation defects in scans of patients with asthmatic attack. Re-scans right after the use of bronchodilators showed marked improvement of the ventilation defects. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) was easily identified by the sup(81m)Kr ventilation study. After premedications for EIA with disodium cromoglicate, the next exercises produced less or no ventilation defects, and the preventive effect could be individually examined. The sup(81m)Kr ventilation study was also used for estimating the patient's sensitivity to provokative substances of bronchial asthma. House dust was continuously inhaled with sup(81m)Kr gas by patients. The threshold dose of house dust of disclosing ventilation defects in scans was definitely less than that of provokating the symptom of asthmatic attack. The sensitive sup(81m)Kr ventilation study could be another provokative test which induces no clinical symptoms. (author).

  9. Low-lying level structure of 73Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltz, D.M.; Robertson, J.D.; Norman, E.B.; Burde, J.; Beausang, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    We have used the 40 Ca( 36 Ar, 2pn) reaction to study the low-lying level structure of 73 Kr. By utilizing a bombarding energy at the Coulomb barrier, the relative cross section for this channel was enhanced to a few percent of the total reaction cross section. Levels in 73 Kr were assigned based primarily upon observed neutron-gamma-gamma coincidences and upon comparisons of these newly assigned transition cross sections with those from known nuclei. (orig.)

  10. The NIKE KrF laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethian, J.D.; Bodner, S.E.; Gerber, K.A.; Lehmberg, R.H.; McLean, E.A.; Obenschain, S.P.; Pawley, C.J.; Pronko, M.S.; Stamper, J.A.; Deniz, A.V.; Hardgrove, J.; Lehecka, T.; McGeoch, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    NIKE is a large angularly multiplexed Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser under development at the Naval Research Laboratory. It is designed to explore the technical and physics issues of direct drive laser fusion. When completed, NIKE will deliver 2--3 kJ of 248 nm light in a 4 nsec pulse with intensities exceeding 2x10 14 W/cm 2 onto a planar target. Spatially and temporally incoherent light will be used to reduce the ablation pressure nonuniformities to less than 2% in the target focal plane. These parameters are predicted to be those required for a high gain ICF pellet. The NIKE system consists of a commercial oscillator/amplifier front end, an array of gas discharge amplifiers, two electron beam pumped amplifiers (one with a 20x20 cm 2 aperture, the other with a 60x60 cm 2 aperture) and the optics required to relay, encode, and decode the beam. Approximately two-thirds of the system is operational and currently undergoing tests. The output of the smaller e-beam system, the 20 cm Amplifier, exceeds both the uniformity and energy required to drive the final e-beam system, the 60 cm Amplifier. The pulsed power components of the 60 cm Amplifier have been built, and initial tests show the electron beam deposited by the system meets the laser requirements for pumping uniformity and energy deposition. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  11. Electron impact excitation of Kr XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Keenan, F. P.; Lawson, K. D.

    2009-09-01

    Collision strengths (Ω) have been calculated for all 7750 transitions among the lowest 125 levels belonging to the 2s2p,2s2p,2p,2s3ℓ,2s2p3ℓ, and 2p3ℓ configurations of boron-like krypton, Kr XXXII, for which the Dirac Atomic R-matrix Code has been adopted. All partial waves with angular momentum J⩽40 have been included, sufficient for the convergence of Ω for forbidden transitions. For allowed transitions, a top-up has been included in order to obtain converged values of Ω up to an energy of 500 Ryd. Resonances in the thresholds region have been resolved in a narrow energy mesh, and results for effective collision strengths (ϒ) have been obtained after averaging the values of Ω over a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities. Values of ϒ are reported over a wide temperature range below 107.3K, and the accuracy of the results is assessed. Values of ϒ are also listed in the temperature range 7.3⩽logTe(K)⩽9.0, obtained from the nonresonant collision strengths from the Flexible Atomic Code.

  12. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  13. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at Olkiluoto in 2010 and 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.; Heikkinen, E.

    2011-08-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of the drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between August 2010 and January 2011. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. New focused resistivity, susceptibility, natural gamma and density probes were tested and compared with old probes. This report describes the major features of new probes and the comparison with old probes. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  14. 129 Xe-NMR of carbon black filled elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling-Ischinsky, K.; Veeman, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that 129 Xe-NMR is a powerful tool to investigate carbon black and carbon black filled elastomers. For the carbon black material itself the 129 Xe chemical shift of xenon adsorbed at the surface of carbon black aggregates yields information about the relative average pore size of the carbon black aggregates. The experimental 129 Xe-NMR results of carbon black filled ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) can be explained when it is assumed that the xenon atoms in the bound EPDM fraction exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale between a state where they are adsorbed on the carbon black surface and a state in which they are absorbed in the EPDM layer. This would imply that the carbon black aggregates are not completely covered with EPDM chains. (author)

  15. Sputtering of Au induced by single Xe ion impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtering of Au thin films has been determined for Xe ions with energies between 50 and 600 keV. In-situ transmission electron microscopy was used to observe sputtered Au during deposition on a carbon foil near the specimen. Total reflection and transmission sputtering yields for a 62 nm thick Au thin film were determined by ex-situ measurement of the total amount of Au on the carbon foils. In situ observations show that individual Xe ions eject Au nanoparticles as large as 7 nm in diameter with an average diameter of approximately 3 nm. Particle emission correlates with crater formation due to single ion impacts. Nanoparticle emission contributes significantly to the total sputtering yield for Xe ions in this energy range in either reflection or transmission geometry

  16. Optical properties of implanted Xe color centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Russell; Ke, Li; Martin, Aiden; Wang, Ziyu; Kianinia, Mehran; Green, Ben; Gao, Wei-bo; Aharonovich, Igor

    2018-03-01

    Optical properties of color centers in diamond have been the subject of intense research due to their promising applications in quantum photonics. In this work we study the optical properties of Xe related color centers implanted into nitrogen rich (type IIA) and an ultrapure, electronic grade diamond. The Xe defect has two zero phonon lines at ∼794 nm and 811 nm, which can be effectively excited using both green and red excitation, however, its emission in the nitrogen rich diamond is brighter. Near resonant excitation is performed at cryogenic temperatures and luminescence is probed under strong magnetic field. Our results are important towards the understanding of the Xe related defect and other near infrared color centers in diamond.

  17. 129Xe on the outgassing of the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, L.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the short half-life of its parent ( 129 I, 17 m.y.) and its own chemical inertness, 129 Xe offers unique insight into the problem of the outgassing history of the earth's atmosphere. Because the current atmosphere is different in Xe isotopic patterns than is the interior, the present atmosphere must have been largely outgassed before these patterns finished changing, that is, very early in earth history. Furthermore, there can have been no significant delay in the onset of outgassing; that is, the earth must have been initially hot. Because ancient sedimentary rocks indicate that the atmospheric Xe patterns have not changed substantially for over 3 b.y., models presuming a separate, lower mantle reservoir do not alter these conclusions. Similar conclusions have been reached before but have always carried a heavier burden of debatable assumptions

  18. A high volume, batch mode {sup 129}Xe polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojna-Pelczar, Anna, E-mail: anna.wojna.pelczar@mail.muni.cz [Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic); Formerly: Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland); Pałasz, Tadeusz [Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland)

    2017-06-01

    Numerous designs of optical gas polarizers have been proposed, broadening possible applications of the hyperpolarized gases as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. We present a home–made {sup 129}Xe polarizer based on the spin exchange optical pumping method. The polarizer operates under 1 bar of the gas mixture (at the maximum temperature of 160 °C) in a high volume optical cell (5025 cm{sup 3}). Approximately 100 cm{sup 3} of {sup 129}Xe polarized at 1.50±0.37% is produced in a single cycle of polarization. Operation under standard pressure imposes polarization transfer mainly via van der Waals molecules, resulting in the efficient spin exchange between rubidium and {sup 129}Xe atoms. The design, construction and operation of the polarizer are described in details.

  19. Shock disturbance of the I-Xe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Podosek, F.A.; Swindle, T.D.

    1982-01-01

    Three separate samples of the meteorite Bjurbole were artificially shocked at pressures of 70 kb, 200 kb, and 400 kb. Analysis of xenon released in stepwise heating shows that the I-Xe system of the 400 kb sample is substantially altered by the shock loading, and it is no longer possible to infer an age or trapped xenon composition for that sample. The 200-kb and 70-kb samples display isotopic structures progressively less altered demonstrating the gradations in shock disturbance likely to be found in natural systems. Interpretations of the I-Xe and Ar-40-Ar-39 systems for several naturally shocked meteorites are also presented. New data for Arapahoe do not confirm the previously reported age and trapped xenon composition, demonstrating instead that its I-Xe structure has been strongly disturbed by shock

  20. Design Concepts of Emergency Response Robot Platform K-R2D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sun Young; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    From the analysis for various mobile robots competed in DARPA Robotics Challenge, there are some drawbacks in using two or four legs because bipedal locomotion is not yet suitable for maintaining stability and quadrupedal locomotion is difficult to go through narrow aisles. Motivated by the above observations, we propose a K-R2D2 robot platform with three legs arranged in the form of a triangle like as R2-D2 robot which is a fictional robot character in the Star Wars movies. This robot has 3 legs with tracks in each sole of the leg. It is statically stable since there are three contact points to ground. In addition, three legs are also possible to design a structure walking stairs that can expand and contract in the vertical direction. This paper has presented the conceptual design, it is developed on the purpose of quick response instead of emergent workers to the extreme conditions disasters. This robot is emergency response robot platform KR2D2 with three legs, which is statically stable to walk or wheel depending on the terrains and move quickly as possible as on uneven terrain or stairs.

  1. Design Concepts of Emergency Response Robot Platform K-R2D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sun Young; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2016-01-01

    From the analysis for various mobile robots competed in DARPA Robotics Challenge, there are some drawbacks in using two or four legs because bipedal locomotion is not yet suitable for maintaining stability and quadrupedal locomotion is difficult to go through narrow aisles. Motivated by the above observations, we propose a K-R2D2 robot platform with three legs arranged in the form of a triangle like as R2-D2 robot which is a fictional robot character in the Star Wars movies. This robot has 3 legs with tracks in each sole of the leg. It is statically stable since there are three contact points to ground. In addition, three legs are also possible to design a structure walking stairs that can expand and contract in the vertical direction. This paper has presented the conceptual design, it is developed on the purpose of quick response instead of emergent workers to the extreme conditions disasters. This robot is emergency response robot platform KR2D2 with three legs, which is statically stable to walk or wheel depending on the terrains and move quickly as possible as on uneven terrain or stairs

  2. Xe isotope detection and discrimination using beta spectroscopy with coincident gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, P. L.; Bowyer, T. W.

    1998-02-01

    Beta spectroscopic techniques show promise of significant improvements for a beta-gamma coincidence counter that is part of a system for analyzing Xe automatically separated from air. The previously developed counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133gXe, and 135gXe can be enhanced to give additional discrimination between these Xe isotopes by using the plastic scintillation sample cell as a beta spectrometer to resolve the conversion electron peaks. The automated system will be a key factor in monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  3. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 in 2009 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, H. [Geopros Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with HTU-equipment in drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2009 and 2010. The total length of the borehole OL-KR19 is 544,34 m, 241,80 m of which was covered by 121 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR45 is 1023,30 m long and 63 similar tests were made in it covering 126,00 m of the hole and OL-KR46 600,10 m long, 151 tests made covering 301,35 m. The measured sections are around the depths of the planned repository. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  4. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A viable functional lung imaging modality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3 He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129 Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3 He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129 Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129 Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO 2 ) by observation of 129 Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO 2 by observation of 129 Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3 He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129 Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO 2 that accounts for both traditional T 1 decay from pO 2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output

  5. Possible 85Kr influence on the plant metabolism. Investigation of inert gas 85Kr interaction with plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkus, D.

    1999-01-01

    Model experiments have shown that inert gas 85 Kr is accumulated by plants. The aim of the work was to determine the way of the capture of inert gas by growing plants: either only through their overground part from air or in addition through their overground part from air or in addition through roots which accumulate water dissolved materials. For this purpose potatoes were grown in the chamber where the 85 Kr volume activity was (3.6±0.1)*10 6 Bq*m -3 . It was determined that 85 Kr gas accumulation was greater in those plant parts which grow faster and are further from the soil. Measurement results of 85 Kr activity of a potato tuber slightly differed from the environment background activity. It shows that the main penetration of inert gas into the plant occurred by absorption from air. (author)

  6. Negative heat capacities in central Xe+Sn reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Neindre, N.; Bougault, R.; Gulminelli, F.

    2000-02-01

    In this study the fluctuation method is applied to the 32-50 A.MeV Xe + Sn central collisions detected with the INDRA multidetector. This method based on kinetic energy fluctuations allows the authors to provide information on the liquid gas phase transition in nuclear multifragmentation. In the case of Xe + Sn central reactions a divergence in the total heat capacity is observed. This divergence corresponds to large fluctuations on the detected fragment partitions. A negative heat capacity branch is measured and so tends to confirm the observation of a first order phase transition in heavy-ion collisions. (A.C.)

  7. The partition coefficients of 133Xe between blood and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, T.; Karjalainen, P.; Vaeaenaenen, A.; Lahtinen, R.; Alhava, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The partition coefficients of 133 Xe between blood and haematopoietic bone marrow and homogenised bone have been determined in vitro. The partition coefficient lambda 1 corresponding to haematopoietic marrow was 0.95 ml g -1 while that corresponding to homogenised bone was a function of age, lambda 2 = 3.11 + 0.049(age)(ml g -1 ). These data can be used for calculating regional blood flow in healthy human femur by means of a simple 133 Xe radionuclide method. (author)

  8. Disintegration of C60 by Xe ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalish, R.; Samoiloff, A.; Hoffman, A.; Uzan-Saguy, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Changes in resistivity of fullerene (C 60 ) films subject to 320 keV Xe ion irradiation are investigated as a function of ion dose. From a comparison of this dependence with similar data on other Xe irradiated C containing insulating materials and with data on C implanted fused quartz, it is concluded that upon ion impact C 60 clusters completely disintegrate. This disintegration releases about 60 C atoms which disperse amongst the remaining intact C 60 spheres giving rise to hopping conductivity between isolated C atoms. 16 refs., 3 figs

  9. Quadrupole photoionization of endohedral Xe-C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, Karan; Deshmukh, P C

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an endohedral confinement on the quadrupole photoionization of atomic Xe is studied using the relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA). The atom's confinement is modelled by placing atomic Xe at the centre of a C 60 cage represented by an annular potential around it. A new confinement resonance is reported in the 4p quadrupole cross-section along with 'correlation confinement resonances' in 4d, 5s and 5p photoionizations at about 185 eV. The effect of the confinement on the non-dipole photoelectron angular distribution parameter γ is also reported.

  10. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, A. F. V.; Santos, M. A. G.; Veenhof, R.; Patra, R. N.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Data on ion mobility is important to improve the performance of large volume gaseous detectors. In the present work the method, experimental setup and results for the ion mobility measurements in Xe-CO2 mixtures are presented. The results for this mixture show the presence of only one peak for all gas ratios of Xe-CO2, low reduced electric fields, E/N, 10-25 Td (2.4-6.1 kV·cm-1·bar-1), low pressures 6-8 Torr (8-10.6 mbar), at room temperature.

  11. Level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes were determined by observing prompt gamma-ray coincidences in {sup 248}Cm fission fragments. A 5-mg {sup 248}Cm, in the form of {sup 248}Cm-KCl pellet, was placed inside Eurogam array which consisted of 45 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and 5 Low-Energy Photon Spectrometers. Transitions in Xe isotopes were identified by the appearance of new peaks in the {gamma}-ray spectra obtained by gating on the gamma peaks of the complementary Mo fragments.

  12. Risetime discrimination applied to pressurized Xe gas proportional counter for hard x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Doi, Kosei

    1978-01-01

    A high pressure Xe proportional counter has been developed for hard X-ray observation. This counter has better energy-resolving power than a NaI scintillation counter, and the realization of large area is relatively easy. This counter is constructed with a cylindrical aluminum tube, and this tube can be used at 40 atmospheric pressure. The detection efficiency curves were obtained in relation to gas pressure. It is necessary to reduce impurities in the Xe gas to increase the energy-resolving power of the counter. The increase of gas pressure made the resolving power worse. The characteristics of the counter were stable for at least a few months. The wave form discrimination was applied to reduce the background signals such as pulses caused by charged particles and gamma-ray. This method has been used for normal pressure counter, and in the present study, it was applied for the high pressure counter. It was found that the discrimination method was able to be applied to this case. (Kato, T.)

  13. Predicted versus observed cosmic-ray-produced noble gases in lunar samples: improved Kr production ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, S.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Marti, K.; Reedy, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    New sets of cross sections for the production of krypton isotopes from targets of Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr were constructed primarily on the bases of experimental excitation functions for Kr production from Y. These cross sections were used to calculate galactic-cosmic-ray and solar-proton production rates for Kr isotopes in the moon. Spallation Kr data obtained from ilmenite separates of rocks 10017 and 10047 are reported. Production rates and isotopic ratios for cosmogenic Kr observed in ten well-documented lunar samples and in ilmenite separates and bulk samples from several lunar rocks with long but unknown irradiation histories were compared with predicted rates and ratios. The agreements were generally quite good. Erosion of rock surfaces affected rates or ratios for only near-surface samples, where solar-proton production is important. There were considerable spreads in predicted-to-observed production rates of 83 Kr, due at least in part to uncertainties in chemical abundances. The 78 Kr/ 83 Kr ratios were predicted quite well for samples with a wide range of Zr/Sr abundance ratios. The calculated 80 Kr/ 83 Kr ratios were greater than the observed ratios when production by the 79 Br(n,γ) reaction was included, but were slightly undercalculated if the Br reaction was omitted; these results suggest that Br(n,γ)-produced Kr is not retained well by lunar rocks. The productions of 81 Kr and 82 Kr were overcalculated by approximately 10% relative to 83 Kr. Predicted-to-observed 84 Kr/ 83 ratios scattered considerably, possibly because of uncertainties in corrections for trapped and fission components and in cross sections for 84 Kr production. Most predicted 84 Kr and 86 Kr production rates were lower than observed. Shielding depths of several Apollo 11 rocks were determined from the measured 78 Kr/ 83 Kr ratios of ilmenite separates. 4 figures, 5 tables

  14. Fourier photospectroscopy of Xe-C{sub 60} through a Xe 4d resonance window: theory versus recent experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Aakash B; Chakraborty, Himadri S, E-mail: himadri@nwmissouri.edu [Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri 64468 (United States)

    2011-10-14

    The photoionization cross section of endohedral Xe-C{sub 60} over a Xe 4d giant resonance energy region, calculated in the time-dependent local density approximation, is compared with recent measurements (Kilcoyne et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 213001). An analysis based on the Fourier transforms of oscillatory cross sections is performed to derive a number of inherent similarities between the prediction and the data, including a large beating-type oscillation and several others of intermediate size. Results stress the need for more accurate measurements to access the wealth of information about the geometry of the system. (fast track communication)

  15. Fourier photospectroscopy of Xe-C60 through a Xe 4d resonance window: theory versus recent experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Aakash B; Chakraborty, Himadri S

    2011-01-01

    The photoionization cross section of endohedral Xe-C 60 over a Xe 4d giant resonance energy region, calculated in the time-dependent local density approximation, is compared with recent measurements (Kilcoyne et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 213001). An analysis based on the Fourier transforms of oscillatory cross sections is performed to derive a number of inherent similarities between the prediction and the data, including a large beating-type oscillation and several others of intermediate size. Results stress the need for more accurate measurements to access the wealth of information about the geometry of the system. (fast track communication)

  16. Determination of electron impact ionization and excitation coefficients in He-Xe gas mixtures. He-Xe kongo gas ni okeru denshi shototsu denri keisu oyobi reiki keisu no sokutei to kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Tachibana, K. (Kyoto Inst. of Technology, Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-03-20

    The rare gas discharge gives a stable discharge and light emission characteristics at low temperature in comparison with the discharge of the vapor of such a metal as Hg. The present barrier for the commercialization of the color PDP lies in the lower level of its emission intensity and efficiency in comparison with that of CRT. In this report, an electron impact ionization coefficient in a gas mixture and an electron impact excitation coefficient for a XeIs {sub 4} level were analyzed using a Boltzmann equation by means of a steady state Townsend method using a drift tube. By comparing both, the elementary process in the gas mixture is investiagted to discuss the respective contributions for the effective ionization coefficient and the excitation coefficient. As a result, it was found that the ionization process in the He-Xe gas mixture could be described by the processes of direct ionization of Xe and He, and an indirect ionization (Penning effect) by an active helium. 37 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Study of high-j neutron excitations outside 136Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, R.; Kay, B. P.; Mitchell, A. J.; Adachi, S.; Entwisle, J. P.; Fujita, Y.; Gey, G.; Noji, S.; Ong, H. J.; Schiffer, J. P.; Tamii, A.

    2017-09-01

    The character of single-neutron excitations outside of N = 82 has been studied using nucleon transfer reactions in terms of the energy centroid of their strength as well as the fragmentation of this strength among the actual states of the nucleus. However, extending the systematic study of the N = 83 isotones to 137Xe has been challenging due to xenon being a gas at room temperature. Though several attempts have been made, a quantitative determination of the spectroscopic factors for the neutron 9/2- and 13/2+ excitations in 137Xe is still lacking. In the present work, we report on a study of the 136Xe(α,3He)137Xe reaction carried out at 100 MeV to probe the l = 5 , 9/2- and l = 6 , 13/2+ single-neutron excitations. The experimental technique and results will be presented discussing them in context of the evolution of these single-neutron excitations and the influence of the tensor interaction on the neutron single-particle states as the proton orbits are filling. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357, the Australian Research Council Discovery Project 120104176, and the UK Science and Technology Facilities.

  18. Generator Coordinate Method Analysis of Xe and Ba Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Teruya, Eri

    Nuclear structure of Xe and Ba isotopes is studied in terms of the quantum-number projected generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM reproduces well the energy levels of high-spin states as well as low-lying states. The structure of the low-lying states is analyzed through the GCM wave functions.

  19. Collective states of even Xe isotopes in IBM+MQRPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimov A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A modification of the Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA with small ground state correlations is suggested. The lowest energy phonon is used as the image of d-boson of the Interacting Boson Model 1 (IBM1 and applied to microscopical calculations of the IBM1 parameters. Results are compared with experimental data for Xe isotopes.

  20. A sensitive zinc-activated 129Xe MRI probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotera, N.; Delacour, L.; Traore, T.; Buisson, D.A.; Taran, F.; Coudert, S.; Rousseau, B.; Tassali, N.; Leonce, E.; Boutin, C.; Berthault, P.; Brotin, T.; Dutasta, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we propose the use of hyper-polarized 129 Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the sensitive detection of Zn 2+ ions. To achieve this goal, the noble gas is encapsulated in dedicated host systems bearing a ligand that chelates the Zn 2+ ions. Cryptophanes, aromatic cage molecules made of cyclotriveratrylene groups, are perfectly suited to this purpose as 1) they can easily be rendered water-soluble, 2) the noble gas has a high affinity for their cavity, 3) when xenon is encapsulated, it takes a specific NMR frequency, and 4) xenon exchange in and out of the cavity insures a continuous refreshment of the Xe-cryptophane environment in hyper-polarization. We constructed a powerful 129 Xe NMR-based sensor of Zn 2+ ions, which enables for the first time measurement of Zn 2+ concentrations as low as 100 nm. This high sensitivity was achieved thanks to a smart 129 Xe MRI sensor, where the binding of the ion to the target is accompanied by a change in NMR parameters. We have also demonstrated the importance of working with enantiopure cryptophane derivatives. (O.M.)

  1. Xe-135 and Sm-149 Isotopic Evolution Analysis Xesamo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Gallego, J.; Martinez Fanegas, R.

    1977-01-01

    In this report the time evolution analysis of the nuclides concentration Xe-135 and Sm-149 as a function of the neutron flux is carried out. The neutron flux may be any function of time. It is analyzed as well the reactivity changes associated with the xenon and samarium concentration variations. (Author) 5 refs

  2. Radioactive 85Kr in krypton enriched with a light isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'minov, V.V.; Novikov, V.M.; Pomanskii, A.A.; Pritychenko, B.V.; Vieiar, J.; Garcia, E.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nunes-Lagos, R.; Piumendon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive krypton 85, a product of nuclear power generation, is known to be accumulating in the atmosphere continuously. Its volumetric activity in natural krypton is 700-800 Bq/liter. This can cause difficulties, e.g., in the fabrication of nuclear radiation detector for high-mass krypton. Krypton with a reduced 85 Kr content can be obtained by isotope separation. As part of an experiment to look for two-positron decay and conversion of an atomic electron to a positron in 78 Kr, Saenz measured the 85 Kr content in 78 Kr-enriched krypton. A mixture of two 85 Kr samples was used as the working substance of a cylindrical ionization chamber. The useful volume (1.33 liter) of the chamber contained 35.3 liters of gas at ∼2.5 kPa. The energy resolution of the detector at an energy of 0.511 MeV was 3.8%. The measurements were made in a passive lead shield 20 cm thick in an underground laboratory at a depth of 675 m water equivalent. Results are presented for counting rates in low-energy regions, contribution of krypton-85 to background, and the volumetric activity of krypton-85

  3. Investigation of triaxiality in 54122-128Xe isotopes in the framework of sdg-IBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Ranjbar, Z.; Fouladi, N.; Ghapanvari, M.

    In this paper, a transitional interacting boson model (IBM) Hamiltonian in both sd-(IBM) and sdg-IBM versions based on affine SU(1, 1) Lie algebra is employed to describe deviations from the gamma-unstable nature of Hamiltonian along the chain of Xe isotopes. sdg-IBM Hamiltonian proposed a better interpretation of this deviation which cannot be explained in the sd-boson models. The nuclei studied have well-known γ bands close to the γ-unstable limit. The energy levels, B(E2) transition rates and signature splitting of the γ -vibrational band are calculated via the affine SU(1,1) Lie algebra. An acceptable degree of agreement was achieved based on this procedure. It is shown that in these isotopes the signature splitting is better reproduced by the inclusion of sdg-IBM. In none of them, any evidence for a stable, triaxial ground state shape is found.

  4. Charged particle suppression in Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe collisions measured with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Balek, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of charge particle production in heavy ion collisions, when compared with pp data, provides insight into the properties of the hot and dense quark-gluon plasma. The ATLAS detector at the LHC recorded 0.49 nb$^{−1}$ of Pb+Pb collisions and 4.2 pb$^{−1}$ of pp collisions, both at the center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV. Recently, ATLAS also recorded 3 $\\mu$b$^{−1}$ of Xe+Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.44$ TeV, which offers a new opportunity to study the system size dependence of the parton energy loss. The large acceptance of the ATLAS detector allows measurements of charged hadron spectra in a wide range of both pseudorapidity and transverse momentum, differentially in collision centrality. The charged hadron spectra measured in Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe collisions are compared to the analogous spectra measured in pp collisions, and the resulting nuclear modification factors $R_{AA}$ are studied.

  5. Constraints on the timing of the Moon-forming giant impact from MORB Xe isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-12-01

    As Earth accreted, volatiles were delivered by accreting material and lost by degassing and impact-driven ejection to space. The Moon-forming giant impact initiated the final catastrophic outgassing and bulk volatile ejection event on the early Earth. I-Pu-U-Xe systematics provide a powerful tool to probe degassing of the early Earth. Radiogenic 129Xe was produced by β-decay of the extinct nuclide 129I (t1/2 = 15.7 Ma) in the first ~90 Myr of Earth history. Fissiogenic 131Xe, 132Xe, 134Xe, 136Xe were produced in distinct, characteristic proportions by the fission of extinct short-lived 244Pu (t1/2 = 80.0 Myr) and extant long-lived 238U (t1/2 = 4.468 Gyr). Here we present radiogenic and fission Xe data in basalts from the Southwest Indian Ridge, and discuss them with other mantle-derived samples to shed light on early Earth volatile accretion and loss. Based on the ratio of radiogenic 129Xe to plutogenic 136Xe determined for the MORB source, we calculate an I-Pu-Xe closure age for the upper mantle of ~44-70 Myr after the start of the Solar System. The closure age should correspond to the end of catastrophic mantle outgassing during accretion, and thus constrains the age of the last giant impact (LGI). Our closure age is significantly older than previous Xe closure age determinations of ~100 Myr, and is also older than some direct radiometric ages of lunar crustal samples. In order to explore the effects of accretion timescales, partial early retention of Xe, and degassing associated with long-term mantle processing on Xe closure age, we develop a new model of I-Pu-U-Xe systematics. We find that for LGI's between ~35 and 70 Myr after the start of the Solar System, we are able to satisfy constraints on I-Pu-U-Xe systematics simultaneously without invoking partial retention of Xe prior to the last giant impact. For LGI's after ~80 Myr, partial retention of Xe prior to the LGI is required. Non-zero early retention of Xe is necessary to explain the budgets of primordial

  6. Cross-Section Measurements of the Kr86(γ,n) Reaction to Probe the s-Process Branching at Kr85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, R.; Tonchev, A. P.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.; Iliadis, C.; Lugaro, M.; Buntain, J.; Goriely, S.; Kelley, J. H.; Schwengner, R.; Banu, A.; Tsoneva, N.

    2013-09-01

    We have carried out photodisintegration cross-section measurements on Kr86 using monoenergetic photon beams ranging from the neutron separation energy, Sn=9.86MeV, to 13 MeV. We combine our experimental Kr86(γ,n)Kr85 cross section with results from our recent Kr86(γ,γ') measurement below the neutron separation energy to obtain the complete nuclear dipole response of Kr86. The new experimental information is used to predict the neutron capture cross section of Kr85, an important branching point nucleus on the abundance flow path during s-process nucleosynthesis. Our new and more precise Kr85(n,γ)Kr86 cross section allows us to produce more precise predictions of the Kr86 abundance from s-process models. In particular, we find that the models of the s process in asymptotic giant branch stars of mass <1.5M⊙, where the C13 neutron source burns convectively rather than radiatively, represent a possible solution for the highest Kr86∶Kr82 ratios observed in meteoritic stardust SiC grains.

  7. An improved method for {sup 85}Kr analysis by liquid scintillation counting and its application to atmospheric {sup 85}Kr determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momoshima, Noriyuki, E-mail: momoshima.noriyuki.551@m.kyushu-u.ac.j [Radioisotope Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Inoue, Fumio [Graduate School of Science, Kyushu University, 6-10-1Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Sugihara, Shinji [Radioisotope Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Shimada, Jun [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Taniguchi, Makoto [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Atmospheric {sup 85}Kr concentration at Fukuoka, Japan was determined by an improved {sup 85}Kr analytical method using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). An average value of 1.54 {+-} 0.05 Bq m{sup -3} was observed in 2008, which is about two times that measured in 1981 at Fukuoka, indicating a 29 mBq y{sup -1} rate of increase as an average for these 27 years. The analytical method developed involves collecting Kr from air using activated charcoal at liquid N{sub 2} temperature and purifying it using He at dry ice temperature, followed by Kr separation by gas chromatography. An overall Kr recovery of 76.4 {+-} 8.1% was achieved when Kr was analyzed in 500-1000 l of air. The Kr isolated by gas chromatography was collected on silica gel in a quartz glass vial cooled to liquid N{sub 2} temperature and the activity of {sup 85}Kr was measured with a low-background LS counter. The detection limit of {sup 85}Kr activity by the present analytical method is 0.0015 Bq at a 95% confidence level, including all propagation errors, which is equivalent with {sup 85}Kr in 1.3 l of the present air under the analytical conditions of 72.1% counting efficiency, 0.1597 cps background count rate, and 76.4% Kr recovery.

  8. Cross-section measurements of the 86Kr(γ,n) reaction to probe the s-process branching at 85Kr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, R; Tonchev, A P; Rusev, G; Tornow, W; Iliadis, C; Lugaro, M; Buntain, J; Goriely, S; Kelley, J H; Schwengner, R; Banu, A; Tsoneva, N

    2013-09-13

    We have carried out photodisintegration cross-section measurements on 86Kr using monoenergetic photon beams ranging from the neutron separation energy, S(n) = 9.86  MeV, to 13 MeV. We combine our experimental 86Kr(γ,n)85Kr cross section with results from our recent 86Kr(γ,γ') measurement below the neutron separation energy to obtain the complete nuclear dipole response of 86Kr. The new experimental information is used to predict the neutron capture cross section of 85Kr, an important branching point nucleus on the abundance flow path during s-process nucleosynthesis. Our new and more precise 85Kr(n,γ)86Kr cross section allows us to produce more precise predictions of the 86Kr abundance from s-process models. In particular, we find that the models of the s process in asymptotic giant branch stars of mass <1.5M⊙, where the 13C neutron source burns convectively rather than radiatively, represent a possible solution for the highest 86Kr:82Kr ratios observed in meteoritic stardust SiC grains.

  9. Discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture with varying Xe contents and at varying sustain electrode gap lengths in the plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ohyung; Whang, Ki-Woong; Bae, Hyun Sook

    2009-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture in the plasma display panel were investigated using a two-dimensional numerical simulation to understand the effects of adding He and varying the Xe contents in the gas mixture, and also varying sustain electrode gap. With 5% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, decreased ionization led to the improvement of the vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) efficacy at increasing He mixing ratios. However, at 20% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, increased electron heating improved the vuv efficacy until the He mixing ratio reached 0.7, but the efficacy decreased beyond the ratio of 0.7 due to the increased ionization of Xe atoms. At 5% Xe content and 200 μm sustain electrode gap, the vuv efficacy increased as a result of increased electron heating at the gap space at increasing He mixing ratios.

  10. Lifetime measurements in N=Z 72Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoiu, C.; Svensson, C. E.; Austin, R. A. E.; Carpenter, M. P.; Dashdorj, D.; Finlay, P.; Freeman, S. J.; Garrett, P. E.; Görgen, A.; Greene, J.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Jenkins, D.; Johnston-Theasby, F.; Joshi, P.; Machiavelli, A. O.; Moore, F.; Mukherjee, G.; Phillips, A. A.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Schumaker, M. A.; Seweryniak, D.; Smith, M. B.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wadsworth, R.

    2006-07-01

    High-spin states in the N=Z nucleus 72Kr have been populated in the 40Ca(40Ca, 2α)72Kr fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 165 MeV and using a thin isotopically enriched 40Ca target. The experiment, performed at Argonne National Laboratory close to Chicago, USA, employed the Gammasphere array for γ-ray detection coupled to the Microball array for charged particle detection. The previously observed bands in 72Kr were extended to a higher excitation energy of ~24 MeV and higher angular momentum of 30planck. Using the Doppler-shift attenuation method, the lifetimes of high-spin states were measured for the first time in order to investigate deformation changes associated with the g9/2 proton and neutron alignments in this N=Z nucleus. An excellent agreement with theoretical calculations including only standard t=1 np pairing was observed.

  11. Long-term pumping test in borehole KR24 flow measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhiainen, P.; Poellaenen, J. [PRG-Tec Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    The Difference Flow method can be used for the relatively fast determination of transmissivity and hydraulic head in fractures or fractured zones in cored boreholes. In this study, the Difference Flow method was used for hydraulic crosshole interference tests. The tests were performed in boreholes KR24 (pumped borehole) KR4, KR7, KR8, KRlO, KR14, KR22, KR22B, KR26, KR27, KR27B, KR28 and KR28B at Olkiluoto during the first and second quarters of 2004. The distance between the boreholes varies from approximately tens of meters to hundreds of meters. All the measurements were carried out in open boreholes, i.e. no packers were used. For interpretation, a normal single hole test was first performed in each borehole. Flow rates and drawdown were first measured both without pumping and with pumping the borehole under test. For practical reasons, the data set is neither complete nor similar in all tested boreholes. Connected flow to borehole KR24 was detected in all these boreholes. These flow responses were concentrated on a few zones. (orig.)

  12. A Simplified Numerical Study of the Kr/Cl2 Plasma Chemistry in Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachir, N. Larbi Daho; Belasri, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the generation of excimers and exciplexe radiation in mixtures of rare gas with halogen by homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is investigated. The typical characteristics of an excilamp based on KrCl* exciplexe molecules and the kinetic processes for the formation and the decay of this molecules in the Kr/Cl 2 mixture are studied. The computer model developed is based on the Kr/Cl 2 mixture chemistry, the equivalent electric circuit and the Boltzmann equations. The importance in the kinetic processes of some species such as the metastable state of Krypton (Kr*( 3 P 0,2 )) and the negative ion of chloride (Cl − ) is considered. The results illustrate the time variations of charged species (n e , Kr + , Cl − , Cl + , Cl + 2 , Kr + 2 ), excited atoms and molecules (Kr*( 3 P 0,2 ), Kr*( 3 P 1 ), Cl*, Cl* 2 ), the excimers (Kr* 2 , KrCl*(B), KrCl*(C), Kr 2 Cl*) and the UV photon concentrations (in 222 nm, 235 nm, 258 nm and 325 nm range). The effects of chlorine concentration and the total gas pressure in the Kr-Cl 2 discharge on the electric parameters and radiation emissions are investigated. (low temperature plasma)

  13. Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a rep-rated multibeam KrF laser driver design for the 500kJ Inertial Fusion test Facility (FTF) recently proposed by NRL, then models its optical pulse shaping capabilities using the ORESTES laser kinetics code. It describes a stable and reliable iteration technique for calculating the required precompensated input pulse shape that will achieve the desired output shape, even when the amplifiers are heavily saturated. It also describes how this precompensation technique could be experimentally implemented in real time on a reprated laser system. The simulations show that this multibeam system can achieve a high fidelity pulse shaping capability, even for a high gain shock ignition pulse whose final spike requires output intensities much higher than the ˜4MW/cm2 saturation levels associated with quasi-cw operation; i.e., they show that KrF can act as a storage medium even for pulsewidths of ˜1ns. For the chosen pulse, which gives a predicted fusion energy gain of ˜120, the simulations predict the FTF can deliver a total on-target energy of 428kJ, a peak spike power of 385TW, and amplified spontaneous emission prepulse contrast ratios IASE/Ilaser.

  14. Theoretical Investigation of the Bistability Effect in Non-Self-Sustained Discharges in Kr and Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyatko, N.A.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    The electron energy distribution function and the related plasma parameters in non-self-sustained discharges in Kr and Ar are studied theoretically. The investigations are carried out by numerically solving the corresponding Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function with allowance for electron-electron collisions. The electron energy distribution and electron density are calculated self-consistently as functions of the intensity q of the source of secondary electrons and the magnitude of the reduced electric field E/N. The main goal of the investigations was to determine the conditions under which the plasma exhibits bistable parameters. Calculations show that, for discharges in Kr, there is a certain range of q and E/N values in which the Boltzmann equation has two different stable solutions. For an Ar plasma, such a bistability effect was not found: over the parameter range under consideration, the Boltzmann equation has a unique solution. Various plasma parameters (such as the effective electron temperature, electron drift velocity, and electron current density) are calculated for different discharge conditions, including those corresponding to the bistability effect

  15. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  16. Dmitri Krõmovist on saanud vaatemängumeister / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Vene lavastaja Dmitri Krõmovist ja tema lavastusest "Söör Vantes. Donki Hot" (Anatoli Vassiljevi Teater Draamakunstikool. Dmitri Krõmovi loomelaboratoorium), mida etendatakse festivalil "Talveöö unenägu 2006"

  17. Study of laser-generated debris free x-ray sources produced in a high-density linear Ar, Kr, Xe, Kr/Ar and Xe/Kr/Ar mixtures gas jets by 2 ω, sub-ps LLNL Titan laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Safronova, A. S.; Cooper, M. C.; Shrestha, I. K.; Petkov, E. E.; Stafford, A.; Moschella, J. J.; Schmidt-Petersen, M. T.; Butcher, C. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Andrews, S. D.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-10-01

    The study of laser-generated debris-free x-ray sources in an underdense plasma produced in a high-density linear gas-puff jet was carried out at the LLNL Titan laser (2 ω, 45 J, sub-ps) with an intensity in the 10 um focal spot of 7 x 1019 W/cm2. A linear nozzle with a fast valve was used for the generation of a clusters/gas jet. X-ray diagnostics for the spectral region of 0.7 - 9 keV include: two spectrometers and pinhole cameras, and 3 groups of fast filtered detectors. Electron beams were measured with the EPPS magnetic spectrometer (>1 MeV) and Faraday cups (>72 keV). Spectralon/spectrometer devices were also used to measure absorption of laser radiation in the jets. New results were obtained on: anisotropic generation of x-rays (laser to x-ray conversion coefficient was >1%) and characteristics of laser-generated electron beams; evolution of x-ray generation with the location of the laser focus in a cluster-gas jet, and observations of a strong x-ray flash in some focusing regimes. Non-LTE kinetic modeling was used to estimate plasma parameters. UNR work supported by the DTRA Basic Research Award # HDTRA1-13-1-0033. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. New study on the XeVIII spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, M.; Raineri, M.; Giuliani, M.; Lagorio, C.; Padilla, S.; Sarmiento, R.; Reyna Almandos, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Capillary light sources were used to observe the spectrum of seven-times-ionized xenon, XeVIII, in the 300-6000 A wavelength range. Twenty-eight energy levels belonging to the 5s-9s, 5d-9d, 5g-9g, 7i-10i, 9l, 5p-9p, 4f-9f, 6h-9h and 8k-10k configurations were adjusted and 38 new spectral lines were classified. The XeVIII ionization energy was determined with improved accuracy using the polarization model. The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. The weighted oscillator strengths for all the observed spectral lines were also calculated considering the fitted values for the energy parameters

  19. (e, 2e) processes on Ne, Ar and Xe targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, G; Patidar, Vinod; Sud, K K, E-mail: g_vpurohit@yahoo.co, E-mail: ghanshyam.purohit@spsu.ac.i [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur-313 601 (India)

    2010-06-01

    Recently, there have been several attempts to explain the features of triple differential cross section (TDCS) for the (e, 2e) processes on inert targets Ne, Ar and Xe but there are still certain discrepancies in theoretical results and measurements, which require more theoretical efforts to understand the collision dynamics of these targets. We present in this paper the results of our modified distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculation of TDCS for the ionization of Ne (2p), Ar (3p) and Xe (5p) targets. We modify the standard DWBA formalism by including the correlation-polarization potential (which is function of electron density) and compare our computed results with the available experimental and theoretical data. We observe that the polarization potential is able to improve the agreement with experimental results.

  20. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigoto, J. M. C.; Cortez, A. F. V.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Data on ion mobility is important to improve the performance of large volume gaseous detectors. In the present work, the method, experimental setup and results for the ion mobility measurements in Xe-CH4 mixtures are presented. The results for this mixture show the presence of two distinct groups of ions. The nature of the ions depend on the mixture ratio since they are originated by both Xe and CH4. The results here presented were obtained for low reduced electric fields, E/N, 10-25 Td (2.4-6.1 kV ṡ cm-1 ṡ bar-1), at low pressure (8 Torr) (10.6 mbar), and at room temperature.

  1. New study on the XeVIII spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp) Casilla de Correo 124, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: gallardom@ciop.unlp.edu.ar; Raineri, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp) Casilla de Correo 124, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: monicar@ciop.unlp.edu.ar; Giuliani, M. [Dto. de Fisica, Fac. de C. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Lagorio, C. [Dto. de Fisica, Fac. de C. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Padilla, S. [Dto. de Fisica, Fac. de C. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Sarmiento, R. [Dto. De Fisica, Universidad del Atlantico, A.A 1890 Barranquilla (Colombia); Reyna Almandos, J.G. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp) Casilla de Correo 124, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: jreyna@ciop.unlp.edu.ar

    2005-10-15

    Capillary light sources were used to observe the spectrum of seven-times-ionized xenon, XeVIII, in the 300-6000 A wavelength range. Twenty-eight energy levels belonging to the 5s-9s, 5d-9d, 5g-9g, 7i-10i, 9l, 5p-9p, 4f-9f, 6h-9h and 8k-10k configurations were adjusted and 38 new spectral lines were classified. The XeVIII ionization energy was determined with improved accuracy using the polarization model. The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. The weighted oscillator strengths for all the observed spectral lines were also calculated considering the fitted values for the energy parameters.

  2. Dynamic moments of inertia in Xe, Cs and Ba nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Samman, H.; Barci, V.; Gizon, A.

    1984-01-01

    The γ-rays following the reactions induced by 12 C ions on 115 In, 112 , 117 , 122 Sn and 123 Sb targets have been investigated using six NaI(Tl) detectors in a two-dimensional arrangement. The collective moment of inertia I( 2 ) /sub band/ of 118 , 122 Xe, 123 Cs and 128 , 130 Ba have been extracted from the energy-correlation spectra. The behaviour of these nuclei and the observed differences are interpreted in terms of high-spin collective properties. Data are also presented on the effective moment of inertia I( 2 )/sub eff/ of 118 Xe and 130 Ba measured by sum-spectrometer techniques. 13 references

  3. Systematics of triaxial deformation in Xe, Ba, and Ce nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.; Vogel, O.; von Brentano, P.; Gelberg, A.

    1993-01-01

    The (β,γ) deformation parameters of even-even Xe, Ba, and Ce nuclei have been calculated by using the triaxial rotor model. Deformation parameters calculated, on one hand, from decay properties and, on the other hand, from energies are in good agreement. The smooth dependence of the deformation parameters on Z and N is discussed. The results are compared with those extracted from properties of odd-A nuclei

  4. Analytical method of Kr-85 determination, using cryogenic concentration and separation and liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1983-01-01

    The method used in the Laboratory of the JEN for the determination of Kr-85 levels in gaseous effluents of nuclear power and in the atmosphere is described. Samples of air, collected in metallic cylinders, are introduced into a gas-solid chromatographic separation system which resolves Kr from the other air components. The separated Kr ia dissolved in a toluene based scintillation cocktail, and the Kr-85 content is determined by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

  5. Investigation of the interaction of 85Kr with plants in model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkus, D.V.; Morkunas, G.S.; Bluvshtejn, D.Yu.; Styro, B.I.

    1988-01-01

    The method of investigation of the interaction of 85 Kr with plants is described using model experiments and data analysis. The dependencies of the coefficient of 85 Kr absorption by plants on the biological structure of the plant, the concentration of krypton-85 in the environment, the method of plant exposition in the environment with the 85 Kr admixture are provided. The time dependencies of 85 Kr desorption from plants are given. 4 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Arsenic Pollution Study at Nitra-Krška Ny Location as an Example of Line Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Michal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to identify the level of arsenic in soils and water as a type of line contamination with widespread environmental impact. For this purpose, as the “model locality” was chosen the Nitra River (Krškany location situated around 80 km from the original source of contamination - Zemianske Kostoľany. EcaFlow 150 analyzer was used to identify the content of arsenic in water and soil samples, SEM and EDS were used to characterize morphology, surface area, and chemical composition of primary substrate. In Nitra-Krškany, significant values of arsenic concentrations were observed for surface water, 14.75 μg l-1, which exceeded the WHO international A limit 1.5 times, for filtered water from the sediment, 149.9 μg l-1, with the present exceedance in all categories (WHO international A limit 15 times, and for soil samples, 26.6 mg kg-1, which exceeded 2.6 times the Slovak soil legal limit (10 mg kg-1. Detection of arsenic confirmed line contamination in Nitra - Krškany. As the main source responsible for contamination there was evaluated coal combustion residuals that consist of spherical aggregates from 2 μm to 1 mm dimension, non-linear topography. This type of contamination has a long-term impact due to hazardous materials and non-stable reactive surface area.

  7. Study of ΔI = 1 band in 83Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Aparajita; Banerjee, P.; Ray, I.; Kshetri, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Ganguly, Sourav . sgpresi@rediffmail.com; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, R.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, the ΔI = 1 band in 83 Kr have been studied and reported in the literature. The lifetime results reported are smaller than those reported by about of a factor of two. A re-measurement of these level lifetimes has been attempted in the present work in view of the discrepancies in the reported results

  8. Performance of the Aurora KrF ICF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Turner, T.P.; Watt, R.G.; Thomas, S.J.; Netz, D.A.; Tallman, C.R.; Mack, J.M.; Figueira, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Because short wavelength lasers are attractive for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the Department of Energy is sponsoring work at Los Alamos National Laboratory in krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser technology. Aurora is a short-pulse, high-power, KrF laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems for short wavelength ICF research. The system employs optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers. The 1 to 5 ns pulse of the Aurora front end is split into 96 beams which are angularly and temporally multiplexed to produce a 480 ns pulse train for amplification by four KrF laser amplifiers. In the present system configuration half (48) of the amplified pulses are demultiplexed using different optical path lengths and delivered simultaneously to target. This paper discusses how the Aurora laser system has entered the initial operational phase by delivering pulse energies of greater than one kilojoule to target

  9. Recent progress in the Los Alamos KrF Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, T.E.; Cartwright, D.C.; Coggeshall, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program (ICF) is to develop the ability to ignite and burn small masses of thermonuclear fuel. Although the present near-term objectives of the program are directed toward defense applications, ICF research continues to be carried out with a view to the longer term goal of commercial power production. The characteristics of a KrF laser make it an attractive candidate as an ICF driver. The KrF wavelength of 248 nm provides a target coupling that is very high at intensities of 10 14 w/cm 2 . In addition, the KrF laser can be repetitively operated at frequencies appropriate for a power reactor and has an intrinsically high efficiency, which allows projections to the long-term goal of energy production. The ICF program at Los Alamos consists of driver development, target design and fabrication, and target experimentation. The major effort at present is the investigation and development of KrF technology to determine its applicability for use in a laboratory driver at Los Alamos. Such a driver would be used in defense related technology studies and in areas of scientific study such as highly ionized materials and high-energy-density physics

  10. Laser Plasma Instability Experiments with KrF Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weaver, J. L; Oh, J; Afeyan, B; Phillips, L; Seely, J; Feldman, U; Brown, C; Karasik, , M; Serlin, V; Aglitskiy, Y; Mostovych, A. N

    2007-01-01

    ...) with a rep-rate system that has a per pulse laser energy well below 1 megajoule. Measurements of LPI using the Nike KrF laser are presented at and above intensities needed for the FTF (Ĩ2x1015 W/cm2...

  11. Electromagnetic transition strengths in 75Kr and 79Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, M.A.; Filevich, Alberto; Garcia Bermudez, Gerardo; Achterberg, Erhard

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear structure in light Kr and Sr isotopes have revealed a region of large quadrupole deformation. In this work, deformation properties of odd-nuclei 75 Kr and 79 Sr have been investigated. For this purpose, lifetime of excited states in both nuclei have been measured by means of the recoil distance Doppler shift technique. These nuclei were populated via the reactions: 54 Fe( 24 Mg,2pn) 75 Kr at 75 MeV and 54 Fe( 28 Si,2pn) 79 Sr at 97 MeV, the beams were provided by the Tandar accelerator. The experimental B(E2) values for these nuclei were well reproduced in the framework of the triaxial-rotor-plus quasiparticle model. In order to fix the parameters of the model a study of neighboring even-even Kr isotopes was performed. The whole N=3 and N=4 oscillator shell was used for the space configuration of the odd particle for negative and positive bands respectively. (Author) [es

  12. Difference flow and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Hurmerinta, E.; Ripatti, K. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head of fractures/fractured zones in drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B at the Olkiluoto investigation site between January 2011 and September 2011. The measuring programme employed was the same in all drillholes. The applied section lengths of the flow guide were either 2 m and 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section length. The measurements were carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. The transmissivity and hydraulic head of zones were calculated from the flow and pressure results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with the flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fractures into the drillhole. The drillhole flow (flow along the drillhole) was measured in conjunction with drillhole EC measurements. (orig.)

  13. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  14. Magnetic dipole strength in {sup 128}Xe and {sup 134}Xe in the spin-flip resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarczyk, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Rusev, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Schwengner, R.; Doenau, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Bathia, C. [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4L8 (Canada); Gooden, M.E.; Kelley, J.H. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Tonchev, A.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The magnetic dipole strength in the energy region of the spin-flip resonance is investigated in {sup 128}Xe and {sup 134}Xe using quasimonoenergetic and linearly polarized γ-ray beams at the High-Intensity γ-Ray Source facility in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Absorption cross sections were deduced for the magnetic and electric and dipole strength distributions separately for various intervals of excitation energy, including the strength of states in the unresolved quasicontinuum. The magnetic dipole strength distributions show structures resembling a resonance in the spin-flip region around an excitation energy of 8 MeV. The electric dipole strength distributions obtained from the present experiments are in agreement with the ones deduced from an earlier experiment using broad-band bremsstrahlung instead of a quasimonoenergetic beam. The experimental magnetic and electric dipole strength distributions are compared with model predictions.

  15. Charged-particle nuclear modification factors in XeXe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=5.44~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The differential yields of charged particles having pseudorapidity within $|\\eta|6~\\mathrm{GeV}$. However, the suppression in XeXe events is slightly greater than in PbPb collisions when comparing selections having a similar number of participating nucleons.

  16. Study on decay of 118Xe and 119Xe by means of mass-separator on-line with a synchrocyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlovich, Eh.E.; Batist, L.Kh.; Blinnikov, Yu.S.

    1976-01-01

    The decay of sup(118, 119)Xe isotopes has been investigated. An experimental device involving a mass-separator operating in line with a synchrocyclotron is briefly outlined. The elements to be investigated were isolated from a proton-irradiated target by the 'on-beam-chemistry' methods and transferred into the mass-separator ion source. The Xe separated ions are transported to detectors in an experimental ha ll. The energies and relative γ ray intensities of 118 Xe → 118 J and of 119 Xe → 119 J decays ar presented. The error of the γ ray energy determination does not exceed 0.6 keV. Obtained are the periods of half-life: for 118 Xe - (3.8+-0.9) min, for 119 Xe - (5.8+-0.3) min. The decay scheme for 119 Xe is made up. The scheme of 119 Xe levels is well inscribed into the general systematics of the J odd isotope levels. On the basis of obtained and known data the spin values are described to the 119 J levels

  17. Saturated multikilovolt x-ray amplification with Xe clusters: single-pulse observation of Xe(L) spectral hole burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Alex B; Davis, Jack; Song, Xiangyang; Koshman, Yevgeniya; Dai Yang; Boyer, Keith; Rhodes, Charles K

    2003-01-01

    Single-pulse measurements of spectral hole burning of Xe(L) 3d → 2p hollow atom transition arrays observed from a self-trapped plasma channel provide new information on the dynamics of saturated amplification in the λ ∼ 2.8-2.9 A region. The spectral hole burning on transitions in the Xe 34+ and Xe 35+ arrays reaches full suppression of the spontaneous emission and presents a corresponding width Δ h-bar ω x ∼ = 60 eV, a value adequate for efficient amplification of multikilovolt x-ray pulses down to a limiting length τ x ∼ 30 as. The depth of the suppression at 2.86 A indicates that the gain-to-loss ratio is ≥10. An independent determination of the x-ray pulse energy from damage produced on the surface of a Ti foil in the far field of the source gives a pulse energy of 20-30 μJ, a range that correlates well with the observation of the spectral hole burning and indicates an overall extraction efficiency of ∼10%. (letter to the editor)

  18. Xe-129 NMR chemical shift in Xe@C-60 calculated at experimental conditions: Essential role of the relativity, dynamics, and explicit solvent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Standara, Stanislav; Kulhánek, P.; Marek, R.; Straka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 22 (2013), s. 1890-1898 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2037; GA ČR GA13-03978S Grant - others:7th European Community Framework Program(XE) FP7-286154; CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology (European Regional Development)(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068; Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(XE) CZ.1.05/3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Xe-129 NMR * Xe@C-60 * dynamical averaging * explicit solvent * relativistic effects Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.601, year: 2013

  19. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR28 and OL-KR39 in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, H.

    2007-05-01

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out in drillholes OL-KR28 and OL-KR39 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during summer 2006. The total length of the borehole OL-KR28 is 656,33 m, 352 m of which was covered by 176 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR39 is 502,97 m deep and 101 similar tests were made in it covering 202 m of the hole. The measured sections are around the depths of the planned repository. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary-state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  20. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy 129Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, Kin.

    1996-05-01

    The 129 Xe-induced reactions on nat Cu, 89 Y, 165 Ho, and 197 Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 ampersand 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the 129 Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied

  1. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy 129Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, Kin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The 129Xe-induced reactions on natCu, 89Y, 165Ho, and 197Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the 129Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  2. High-accuracy mass measurements of neutron-rich Kr isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Blaum, K; Carrel, F; George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2006-01-01

    The atomic masses of the neutron-rich krypton isotopes 84,86-95Kr have been determined with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with uncertainties ranging from 20 to 220 ppb. The masses of the short-lived isotopes 94Kr and 95Kr were measured for the first time. The masses of the radioactive nuclides 89Kr and 91Kr disagree by 4 and 6 standard deviations, respectively, from the present Atomic-Mass Evaluation database. The resulting modification of the mass surface with respect to the two-neutron separation energies as well as implications for mass models and stellar nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  3. The effect of simultaneous electron and Kr+ irradiation on amorphization of CuTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, J.; Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.; Meshii, M.

    1989-01-01

    CuTi was irradiated with 1-MeV electrons and Kr + ions simultaneously at temperatures from 10 to 423 K. Retardation of Kr + -induced amorphization was observed with simultaneous electron irradiation at 295 and 423 K. The retardation effect increased with increasing irradiation temperature and relative electron-to-Kr dose rate. In contrast, simultaneous irradiation below 100 K showed an additive effect of electron- and Kr + -induced amorphization. The results can be explained by the mobility point defects introduced by electron irradiation interacting with Kr + -induced displacement cascades. 6 refs., 6 figs

  4. Effect of high Xe-concentration in a plasma display panel with a SrCaO cold cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Giichiro; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Tsutae; Uchida, Satoshi; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    We present here measurements of high Xe-contents plasma display panel (PDP) with SrCaO cold cathode. Luminous efficacy (η) shows a two-step increase with Xe-concentration in Ne/Xe gas mixture: η drastically increases up to Xe-concentration of 30% (Xe: 30%), and then attains 5 lm/W at the highest Xe-concentration of Xe: 100%. The high performance PDP with Xe: 100% can be operated at low applied voltage between 230 and 377 V due to the high secondary electron emission from the SrCaO cathode. Emission measurements clearly show the change in discharge characteristics at Xe: 30%, where the discharge changes from a Ne/Xe mixture discharge to an almost pure Xe discharge, and the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from the combination of resonance and excimer radiations to only excimer radiation. Theoretical analysis solving Boltzmann equation for electron demonstrates that increasing Xe-concentration enhances the collision frequency for electron impact excitation directly from ground state to lower levels concerned with the VUV radiation, resulting in a drastic increase in luminous efficacy up to Xe: 30%. Also, one-dimensional fluid simulation of a Ne/Xe dielectric barrier discharge clearly shows that a combination of high secondary electron emission cathode and high Xe-concentration is quite effective for high VUV radiation efficiency because it induces a drastic increase in electron-heating efficiency.

  5. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  6. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  7. Alternative methods for 85Kr ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.

    Storage by ion implantation is described. Ion implantation (II) involves the penetration and retention of ions accelerated in the keV-MeV energy range in the surface layer of a solid material. Through collisions, the accelerated ions that are to be implanted give off electrical energy to the target material and heat it up. The number of ions implanted, resulting from the entire ion current, depends not on the physical properties of the implantation material but rather is determined by the external system. The gas enclosed in the matrix is in the form of small bubbles. The size of the bubbles depends on the temperature and is in the range of a few hundred Angstrom units. The bubbles are stable at least up to the temperature at which they were produced. Therefore, bombardment of the metal at higher temperatures decreases the danger of the gas being released, even at very high temperatures. Methods of producing noble gas ions are discussed along with embedding capacity, safety, recovery, and advantages and disadvantages of the method

  8. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  9. En etisk diskussion af screening for kræftsygdomme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Laurs Sørensen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I 2007 gennemførte forbundskansler Angela Merkel en sundhedsreform der blandt andet indebærer, at tyske borgere ikke frit kan afgøre, om de vil deltage i forebyggende programmer, da et fravalg kan medføre økonomiske konsekvenser. Hermed udvider den tyske stat sin ret til at gribe ind i borgernes liv, når det handler om sekundær forebyggelse, fx i form af screening for kræftsygdomme. Dette kan være problematisk da den bedst tilgængelige evidens viser at tre igangværende kræftscreeningsprogrammer ikke kun har gavnlige virkninger, men også betydelige skadelige virkninger. Formålet med denne undersøgelse var at undersøge, hvilke holdninger eksperter, politikere og sundhedsmyndigheder i Danmark har til tvang og/eller belønning i forbindelse med screening for kræftsygdomme, og om de ville støtte eller fraråde en tysk model i det danske sundhedsvæsen.Der blev foretaget enkeltinterviews med strategisk udvalgte eksperter. Interviewene blev transskriberet og analyseret med en fænomenologisk analysemetode, og derefter analyseret og diskuteret i forhold til utilitaristisk og deontologisk etik, samt evidensen vedrørende de tre eksisterende kræftscreeningsprogrammer i Danmark.Alle informanterne var kritiske over for det tyske forslag. Til gengæld blev forholdet mellem de gavnlige og skadelige virkninger af kræftscreening vurderet meget forskelligt. Manglen på enighed, uklare udtalelser og ikke-stringent terminologi bestyrkede vor konklusion; at det danske sundhedsvæsen for det første ikke bør følge den tyske kurs og, for det andet, at man bør være kritisk over for implementering af screeningsprogrammer for kræftsygdomme. Hvis forebyggende initiativer kan være mere til skade end gavn, bør de altid overvejes nøje i lyset af sundhedsvæsnets oprindelige intention om at hjælpe og beskytte det enkelte menneske.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1712

  10. Exploring the Nature of Silicon-Noble Gas Bonds in H3SiNgNSi and HSiNgNSi Compounds (Ng = Xe, Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Pan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio and density functional theory-based computations are performed to investigate the structure and stability of H3SiNgNSi and HSiNgNSi compounds (Ng = Xe, Rn. They are thermochemically unstable with respect to the dissociation channel producing Ng and H3SiNSi or HSiNSi. However, they are kinetically stable with respect to this dissociation channel having activation free energy barriers of 19.3 and 23.3 kcal/mol for H3SiXeNSi and H3SiRnNSi, respectively, and 9.2 and 12.8 kcal/mol for HSiXeNSi and HSiRnNSi, respectively. The rest of the possible dissociation channels are endergonic in nature at room temperature for Rn analogues. However, one three-body dissociation channel for H3SiXeNSi and one two-body and one three-body dissociation channels for HSiXeNSi are slightly exergonic in nature at room temperature. They become endergonic at slightly lower temperature. The nature of bonding between Ng and Si/N is analyzed by natural bond order, electron density and energy decomposition analyses. Natural population analysis indicates that they could be best represented as (H3SiNg+(NSi− and (HSiNg+(NSi−. Energy decomposition analysis further reveals that the contribution from the orbital term (ΔEorb is dominant (ca. 67%–75% towards the total attraction energy associated with the Si-Ng bond, whereas the electrostatic term (ΔEelstat contributes the maximum (ca. 66%–68% for the same in the Ng–N bond, implying the covalent nature of the former bond and the ionic nature of the latter.

  11. Present status of the {sup 129}Xe comagnetometer development for neutron EDM measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, M., E-mail: mihara@vg.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Masuda, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Matsuta, K. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Kawasaki, S.; Watanabe, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Hatanaka, K.; Matsumiya, R. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    A {sup 129}Xe comagnetometer designed for the measurement of neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) as precisely as 1 × 10{sup −27}e cm is presented. Highly nuclear spin polarized {sup 129}Xe are introduced into an EDM cell where the {sup 129}Xe spin precession is detected by means of the two-photon transition. The geometric phase effect (GPE) which generates the false nEDM was quantitatively discussed and the systematic error of nEDM from the GPE was estimated considering the buffer-gas suppression due to Xe atomic collisions. Research and development are in progress to construct the {sup 129}Xe comagnetometer with a field sensitivity of 0.3 fT. At present, about 70 % nuclear spin polarized {sup 129}Xe atoms have been obtained in a spin exchange opitial pumping cell, that are in the process of being transferred into the EDM cell via a cold trap.

  12. Sequestration in hydrothermally modified zeolite 5A of Kr-85 from reprocessing: mechanism of fixation and characterization of the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorea, A.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Ache, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    A large number of Kr and Xe encapsulates having loadings between 7.1 and 58.2 (ml STP/g) were prepared from type A zeolites of different aggregation forms (pellet, powder), containing the earth alcaline cations Mg, Ca and Sr as well as the cation Na at various compositions. Under the conditions employed the achievable loading was found to be only a function of pressure, irrelevant of the type of trapped noble gas. As observed by X-ray and infra-red spectroscopy the encapsulates do not recrystallize at high temperatures. Only after the trapped gas has been completely released will the amorphous matrix become crystalline. The gas release from the encapsulates can be described by a diffusion model. Experimentally it was shown that the rate-determining step describing the thermal gas evolution out of the pellets is the diffusion through vitrified particles with a size of a few μm and not the mass transport through the macropores. A high zeolite pellet bulk density in the autoclave can be achieved by mixing fractions of appropriate pellet size distribution. The encapsulates do not liberate the sequestered gas when exposed to water, irrespective of the conditions employed for the fixation of the noble gas

  13. High spin {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 121,122}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmers, H [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; [Department of Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, NY (United States); Riley, M A; Hanna, F; Mullins, S M; Sharpey-Schafer, J F [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hughes, J R; Fossan, D B; Liang, Y; Ma, R; Xu, N [Department of Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, NY (United States); Simpson, J; Bentley, M A [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom); Bengtsson, T [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics; Wyss, R [Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    High-spin states have been populated in {sup 121,122}Xe using the reactions {sup 108}Pd({sup 16}O,3n){sup 121}Xe at 65 MeV and {sup 96}Zr({sup 30}Si,4n/5n){sup 122}Xe/{sup 121}Xe at 135 MeV. Coincident {gamma} rays following the neutron evaporation were detected by six Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and the TESSA3 array respectively. The level structure of {sup 121}Xe and {sup 122}Xe has been extended up to 47/2 {Dirac_h} and 32 {Dirac_h} respectively. In {sup 121}Xe a coupled band was found feeding the 19/2{sup -} level. In {sup 122}Xe several decays are suggested to be a sequence of stretched E2 quadrupole transitions connecting states of positive parity. While in {sup 121}Xe this phenomenon was not observed, at high spin a phase transition from prolate collective rotation to oblate single particle excitation was detected in {sup 122}Xe. For the new, probably positive parity side band in{sup 122}Xe a four quasi-neutron or a two quasi-proton configuration of h{sub 11/2} quasi-nucleons might be considered. The positive parity high spin structure in {sup 122}Xe contains three I{sup {pi}} = 22{sup +} states of different character. This is predicted by TRS (total Routhian surface) calculations, which identify these states as two shapes with predominantly prolate collective characteristic and the third as an oblate single particle configuration. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Excess 129Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hudson, G.B.

    1987-03-01

    Excesses of 129 Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these 129 Xe excesses have been thought to be related to 129 I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial 129 Xe excesses based on the production of 129 I from the spontaneous fission of 238 U

  15. Actinide production in 136Xe bombardments of 249Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorich, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    The production cross sections for the actinide products from 136 Xe bombardments of 249 Cf at energies 1.02, 1.09, and 1.16 times the Coulomb barrier were determined. Fractions of the individual actinide elements were chemically separated from recoil catcher foils. The production cross sections of the actinide products were determined by measuring the radiations emitted from the nuclides within the chemical fractions. The chemical separation techniques used in this work are described in detail, and a description of the data analysis procedure is included. The actinide production cross section distributions from these 136 Xe + 249 Cf bombardments are compared with the production cross section distributions from other heavy ion bombardments of actinide targets, with emphasis on the comparison with the 136 Xe + 248 Cm reaction. A technique for modeling the final actinide cross section distributions has been developed and is presented. In this model, the initial (before deexcitation) cross section distribution with respect to the separation energy of a dinuclear complex and with respect to the Z of the target-like fragment is given by an empirical procedure. It is then assumed that the N/Z equilibration in the dinuclear complex occurs by the transfer of neutrons between the two participants in the dinuclear complex. The neutrons and the excitation energy are statistically distributed between the two fragments using a simple Fermi gas level density formalism. The resulting target-like fragment initial cross section distribution with respect to Z, N, and excitation energy is then allowed to deexcite by emission of neutrons in competition with fission. The result is a final cross section distribution with respect to Z and N for the actinide products. 68 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Project for detecting the double beta decay of 136Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, M.; Sasaki, S.; Tawara, H.

    1992-01-01

    For detecting the nuclear double beta decay of 136 Xe, a liquid-xenon positive-ion collector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer are under development for detecting the decay product 136 Ba. Two sets of lasers are used with the mass spectrometer. An Nd-YAG laser is used for sampling 136 Ba from the surface of the positive-ion collector electrode, and a dye laser pumped by an Nd-YAG laser is used for the selective ionization of 136 Ba. The principle of measurements as well as the experimental apparatus and procedures are described in detail, together with our future plans. (orig.)

  17. 133Xe labelling of acrylate for catheter embolisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endert, G.; Penzel, E.; Ritter, H.; Schumann, E.

    1983-01-01

    A method for radio-nucleide labelling of histo-acryl/lipiodol with 133 Xe gas is described. The method consists of disolving the gas in lipiodol under sterile conditions. After embolisation and angiography, the localisation of the embolising material can be determined by means of a scintillation camera. The labelling method was used in 15 patients. In all patients the position of the embolising material, as demonstrated by scintigraphy, corresponded with the radiological findings. It was not possible to demonstrate escape of the material by scintigraphy. (orig.) [de

  18. Cryptophane-Folate Biosensor for 129Xe NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    normal adult tissue, but as the name implies, this low affinity folate carrier is specific for the physiological form of reduced folic acid, 5- methyl ...yield. Finally, 3 was treated with 1.5 equiv of 6 and N- methyl -1,5,9-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]-decene (MTBD) in dry DMSO to give the folate recognition moiety...Cryptophane- Folate Biosensor for 129Xe NMR Najat S. Khan, Brittany A. Riggle, Garry K. Seward, Yubin Bai, and Ivan J. Dmochowski* Department of

  19. Decreased 133Xe clearance in the proximal femur in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.; Marek, J.; Jahoda, I.; Vilimovska, D.

    1986-01-01

    Using the 133 Xe tissue clearance method, the blood flow in the greater trochanter of the femur was studied in 30 patients with acromegaly. Both the washout rate constant (k 2 ) and blood flow (P 2 ) values are significantly decreased in acromegaly (p < 0.01). There is a significant negative correlation (r = -0.42, p < 0.05) between the flow values and mean daily concentrations of growth hormone in serum of acromegalic patients. The observation is presented as a preliminary evidence of a possible influence of growth hormone on the blood flow in bone. (author)

  20. XeF pump laser. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    The goal of this program was to demonstrate operation of an XeF laser of adequate energy, efficiency and beam quality at high repetition rates. The specific design goals were: PRF greater than or equal to 10 kHz, energy output greater than or equal to 50 mJ/pulse, efficiency greater than or equal to 0.3%, and beam divergence angle less than or equal to 20x diffraction limited. In the following sections of this report we will discuss how these goals have been met

  1. KrF lasers as inertial fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Berggren, R.R.; Kurnit, N.A.; Lowenthal, D.D.; Berger, R.G.; Eggleston, J.M.; Ewing, J.J.; Kushner, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    A new type of KrF laser system has been proposed that has a significantly higher efficiency than pure angular multiplexed KrF lasers. This system uses electron-beam-sustained discharge lasers to pump a high gain Raman amplifier. The discharge lasers can operate at a higher efficiency than e-beam pumped lasers, and the forward Raman scattering process has both a high gain and high quantum efficiency using the rotational transition. The Raman system cost and performance has been examined and compared to the pure angular multiplexed system. The discharge-Raman system has a higher efficiency (12% vs 9%) and a higher cost ($140/joule vs $100/joule). For an ICF power plant driver, the higher efficiency offsets the higher cost, making the discharge-Raman system appear to be an attractive alternative to the pure angular multiplexed system

  2. KrF lasers as inertial fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Berggren, R.R.; Kurnit, N.A.; Lowenthal, D.D.; Berger, R.G.; Eggleston, J.M.; Ewing, J.J.; Kushner, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of KrF laser system has been proposed that has a significantly higher efficiency than pure angular multiplexed KrF lasers. This system uses electron-beam-sustained discharge lasers to pump a high gain Raman amplifier. The discharge lasers can operate at a higher efficiency than e-beam pumped lasers, and the forward Raman scattering process has both a high gain and high quantum efficiency using the rotational transition. The Raman system cost and performance has been examined and compared to the pure angular multiplexed system. The discharge-Raman system has a higher efficiency (12.3% vs 9.1%) and a higher cost ($140/joule vs $100/joule). For an ICF power plant driver, the higher efficiency offsets the higher cost, making the discharge-Raman system appear to be an attractive alternative to the pure angular multiplexed system

  3. The β+-electron capture decay of 73Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miehe, C.; Dessagne, P.; Pujol, Ch.; Walter, G.; Jonson, B.; Lindroos, M.

    1999-01-01

    The β + - electron capture decay of 73 Kr, produced at the ISOLDE CERN facility, has been studied by β-delayed proton and gamma emission. The established decay scheme involves 15 up to now unreported gamma emitting levels in 73 Br. The total proton branching ratio has been measured to be 0.0025±0.0003. From this work, a spin and parity 3/2 - is assigned to the 73 Kr ground state, on the basis of the allowed β branch to the 73 Br J π =1/2 - ground state and the feeding of the 5/2 + level located at 286 keV in 73 Br. (orig.)

  4. The permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron and atomic 129Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recently the Seattle group has measured the permanent edm of atomic 129 Xe to be d /sub Xe/ = (-0.3 + or - 1.1) x 10 -26 cm. This measurement provides an improvement by a factor of 10 4 over the best previous measurement of an atomic edm. The edm of Xe is most sensitive to a T-violating electron-nucleon interaction, but can also be generated by an intrinsic electron edm or an edm of the Xe nucleus. In the second half of this presentation, each of these mechanisms will be briefly discussed and a description of the experiment will be given

  5. 128Xe Lifetime Measurement Using the Coulex-Plunger Technique in Inverse Kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinopoulos, T.; Lagoyannis, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Dewald, A.; Rother, W.; Ilie, G.; Jones, P.; Rakhila, P.; Greenlees, P.; Grahn, T.; Julin, R.; Balabanski, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    The lifetimes of the lowest collective yrast and non-yrast states in 128 Xe were measured in a Coulomb excitation experiment using the recoil distance method (RDM) in inverse kinematics. Hereby, the Cologne plunger apparatus was employed together with the JUROGAM spectrometer. Excited states in 128 Xe were populated using a 128 Xe beam impinging on a nat Fe target with E( 128 Xe)≅525 MeV. Recoils were detected by means of an array of solar cells placed at forward angles. Recoil-gated γ-spectra were measured at different plunger distances

  6. 128Xe Lifetime Measurement Using the Coulex-Plunger Technique in Inverse Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinopoulos, T.; Lagoyannis, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Dewald, A.; Rother, W.; Ilie, G.; Jones, P.; Rakhila, P.; Greenlees, P.; Grahn, T.; Julin, R.; Balabanski, D. L.

    2008-05-01

    The lifetimes of the lowest collective yrast and non-yrast states in 128Xe were measured in a Coulomb excitation experiment using the recoil distance method (RDM) in inverse kinematics. Hereby, the Cologne plunger apparatus was employed together with the JUROGAM spectrometer. Excited states in 128Xe were populated using a 128Xe beam impinging on a natFe target with E(128Xe)~525 MeV. Recoils were detected by means of an array of solar cells placed at forward angles. Recoil-gated γ-spectra were measured at different plunger distances.

  7. Targeted Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using MS2-Based 129 Xe NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Keunhong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Netirojjanakul, Chawita [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Munch, Henrik K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sun, Jinny [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Finbloom, Joel A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physical Biosciences Division; Pines, Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Francis, Matthew B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2016-07-25

    Targeted, selective, and highly sensitive 129Xe NMR nanoscale biosensors have been synthesized using a spherical MS2 viral capsid, Cryptophane A molecules, and DNA aptamers. The biosensors showed strong binding specificity toward targeted lymphoma cells (Ramos line). Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR signal contrast and hyper-CEST 129Xe MRI image contrast indicated its promise as highly sensitive hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR nanoscale biosensor for future applications in cancer detection in vivo.

  8. Solid and liquid 129Xe NMR signals enhanced by spin-exchange optical pumping under flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xin; Luo Jun; Sun Xianping; Zeng Xizhi; Liu Maili; Liu Wuyang

    2002-01-01

    Laser-polarized 129 Xe gas was produced by spin-exchange with Cs atom optically pumped with diode laser array in a low field under flow. The nuclear spin polarizations of the solid and liquid 129 Xe frozen from the laser-polarized 129 Xe gas were 2.16% and 1.45% respectively in the SY-80M NMR spectrometer, which corresponded to the enhancements of 6000 and 5000 compared to those without optical pumping under the same conditions. It could provide the base and possibility for quantum computers using laser-enhanced solid and liquid 129 Xe. Polarization loss of transport and state change was also discussed

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of Xe bubble nucleation in nanocrystalline UO2 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Emily; René Corrales, L.; Desai, Tapan; Devanathan, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We simulated the interactions of defects and fission gas with grain boundaries in nuclear fuel. ► We observed the formation of Xe bubble nuclei that are difficult to observe experimentally. ► The bubble nuclei form by vacancy-assisted diffusion of Xe atoms. ► We also observed the initial stages of grain boundary motion. ► The study offers insights to the design of nuclear fuel to control fission gas release. - Abstract: We have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the dynamical interactions between vacancy defects, fission gas atoms (Xe), and grain boundaries in a model of polycrystalline UO 2 nuclear fuel with average grain diameter of about 20 nm. We followed the mobility and aggregation of Xe atoms in the vacancy-saturated model compound for up to 2 ns. During this time we observed the aggregation of Xe atoms into nuclei, which are possible precursors to Xe bubbles. The nucleation was driven by the migration of Xe atoms via vacancy-assisted diffusion. The Xe clusters aggregate faster than grain boundary diffusion rates and are smaller than experimentally observed bubbles. As the system evolves towards equilibrium, the Xe atom cluster growth slows down significantly, and the lattice relaxes around the cluster. These simulations provide insights into fundamental physical processes that are inaccessible to experiment.

  10. Echo-planar MR imaging of dissolved hyperpolarized 129Xe. Potential for M angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maansson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of hyperpolarized 129 Xe for fast MR angiography (MRA) was evaluated using the echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique. Material and Methods: Hyperpolarized Xe gas was dissolved in ethanol; a carrier agent with high solubility for Xe (Ostwald solubility coefficient 2.5) and long relaxation times. The dissolved Xe was injected as a bolus into a flow phantom where the mean flow velocity was 15 cm/s. Ultrafast EPI images with 44 ms scan time were acquired of the flowing bolus and the signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were measured. Results: The relaxation times of hyperpolarized Xe in ethanol were measured to T1=160±11 s and T2 ≅ 20 s. The resulting images of the flowing liquid were of reasonable quality and had an SNR of about 70. Conclusion: Based on the SNR of the obtained Xe EPI images; it was estimated that rapid in vivo MRA with 129 Xe may be feasible; provided that an efficient; biologically acceptable carrier for Xe can be found and polarization levels of more than 25% can be achieved in isotopically enriched 129 Xe

  11. XeCl Excimer Laser For Micro - Machining Of Materials: Preliminary Theoretical And Experimental Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Leszek; Pokora, Ludwik; Stefanski, Miroslaw; Ujda, Zbigniew

    1987-10-01

    The paper presents the results of preliminary investigations, both theoretical and experimental, of XeC1 excimer laser pumped by transverse electric discharge with UU preionization. The medium was a mixture of gases He-Xe-HC1. A theoretical model of the XeC1 laser was worked out and a lot of laser parameters calculations were done. In the same time an excimer laser operating on the mixture He-Xe-HC1 was started, the generation of laser radiation was of energy about 20mJ.

  12. Applications developed for byproduct 85Kr and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remini, W.C.; Case, F.N.; Haff, K.W.; Tiegs, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radionuclides, krypton-85 and tritium, both of which are gases under ordinary conditions, are used in many applications in industries and by the military forces. Krypton-85 is produced during the fissioning of uranium and is released during the dissolution of spent-fuel elements. It is a chemically inert gas that emits 0.695-MeV beta rays and a small yield of 0.54-MeV gammas over a half life of 10.3 years. Much of the 85 Kr currently produced is released to the atmosphere; however, large-scale reprocessing of fuel will require collection of the gas and storage as a waste product. An alternative to storage is utilization, and since the chemical and radiation characteristics of 85 Kr make this radionuclide a relatively low hazard from the standpoint of contamination and biological significance, a number of uses have been developed. Tritium is produced as a byproduct of the nuclear-weapons program, and it has a half life of 12.33 years. It has a 0.01861-MeV beta emission and no gamma emission. The absence of a gamma-ray energy eliminates the need for external shielding of the devices utilizing tritium, thus making them easily transportable. Many of the applications require only small quantities of 85 Kr or tritium; however, these uses are important to the technology base of the nation. A significant development that has the potential for beneficial utilization of large quantities of 85 Kr and of tritium involves their use in the production of low-level lighting devices. Since these lights are free from external fuel supplies, have a long half life (> 10 years), are maintenance-free, reliable, and easily deployed, both military and civilian airfield-lighting applications are being studied

  13. Shape coexistence in 72Kr at finite angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almehed, Daniel; Walet, Niels R.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate shape coexistence in a rotating nucleus. We concentrate on the case of 72 Kr which exhibits an interesting interplay between prolate and oblate shaped states as a function of angular momentum. The calculation uses the local harmonic version of the method of self-consistent adiabatic large-amplitude collective motion. We analyse how the collective behaviour of the system changes with angular momentum and we focus on the role of non-axial shapes

  14. Shape determination in Coulomb excitation of $^{72}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Kruecken, R; Paul, E S; Wadsworth, R; Heenen, P

    Nuclei with oblate shapes at low spins are very special in nature because of their rarity. Both theoretical and experimental shape co-existence studies in the mass 70 region for near proton drip-line nuclei suggest $^{72}$Kr to be the unique case with oblate low-lying and prolate high-lying levels. However, there is no direct experimental evidence in the literature to date for the oblate nature predicted for the first 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr. We propose to determine the sign of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of this state via the re-orientation effect in a low-energy Coulomb excitation measurement. In the inelastic excitation of the 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr beam of 3.1 MeV/u with an intensity of 800 pps at REX-ISOLDE impinging on $^{104}$Pd target, the re-orientation effect plays a significant role. The cross section measurement for the 2$^+$ state should thus allow the model-independent determination of the sign of the quadrupole moment unambiguously and will shed light on the co-existing prolate and o...

  15. Kr ion irradiation study of the depleted-uranium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Kirk, M. A.; Rest, J.; Allen, T. R.; Wachs, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel-cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted-uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel-cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Al, Si) 3, (U, Mo)(Al, Si) 3, UMo 2Al 20, U 6Mo 4Al 43 and UAl 4. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200 °C to ion doses up to 2.5 × 10 19 ions/m 2 (˜10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 10 16 ions/m 2/s (˜4.0 × 10 -3 dpa/s). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Kr ion irradiation study of the depleted-uranium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, J., E-mail: Jian.Gan@inl.go [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Keiser, D.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Miller, B.D. [University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kirk, M.A.; Rest, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Allen, T.R. [University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wachs, D.M. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel-cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted-uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel-cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Al, Si){sub 3}, (U, Mo)(Al, Si){sub 3}, UMo{sub 2}Al{sub 20}, U{sub 6}Mo{sub 4}Al{sub 43} and UAl{sub 4}. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200 {sup o}C to ion doses up to 2.5 x 10{sup 19} ions/m{sup 2} ({approx}10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 10{sup 16} ions/m{sup 2}/s ({approx}4.0 x 10{sup -3} dpa/s). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Laser plasma instability experiments with KrF lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S.; Chan, L-Y.; Kehne, D.; Schmitt, A. J.; Colombant, D.; Velikovich, A.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Afeyan, B.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Brown, C.; Feldman, U.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Mostovych, A. N.; Holland, G.

    2007-01-01

    Deleterious effects of laser-plasma instability (LPI) may limit the maximum laser irradiation that can be used for inertial confinement fusion. The short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth, and very uniform illumination available with krypton-fluoride (KrF) lasers should increase the maximum usable intensity by suppressing LPI. The concomitant increase in ablation pressure would allow implosion of low-aspect-ratio pellets to ignition with substantial gain (>20) at much reduced laser energy. The proposed KrF-laser-based Fusion Test Facility (FTF) would exploit this strategy to achieve significant fusion power (150 MW) with a rep-rate system that has a per pulse laser energy well below 1 MJ. Measurements of LPI using the Nike KrF laser are presented at and above intensities needed for the FTF (I∼2x10 15 W/cm 2 ). The results to date indicate that LPI is indeed suppressed. With overlapped beam intensity above the planar, single beam intensity threshold for the two-plasmon decay instability, no evidence of instability was observed via measurements of (3/2)ω o and (1/2)ω o harmonic emissions

  18. Puzzling Two-Proton Decay of 67Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. M.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2018-05-01

    Ground-state two-proton (2 p ) radioactivity is a rare decay mode found in a few very proton-rich isotopes. The 2 p decay lifetime and properties of emitted protons carry invaluable information on nuclear structure in the presence of a low-lying proton continuum. The recently measured 2 p decay of 67Kr turned out to be unexpectedly fast. Since 67Kr is expected to be a deformed system, we investigate the impact of deformation effects on the 2 p radioactivity. We apply the recently developed Gamow coupled-channel framework, which allows for a precise description of three-body systems in the presence of rotational and vibrational couplings. This is the first application of a three-body approach to a two-nucleon decay from a deformed nucleus. We show that deformation couplings significantly increase the 2 p decay width of 67Kr; this finding explains the puzzling experimental data. The calculated angular proton-proton correlations reflect a competition between 1 p and 2 p decay modes in this nucleus.

  19. On the structure of collective bands in 78Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmeister, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    Using 16 O, 19 F, and 12 C induced reactions high spin states in 78 Kr were excited. The targets consisted of 65 Cu, 69 Ni, and 68 Zn. On the base of gamma spectroscopic methods as γγ-coincidences, angular distributions and excitation functions a level scheme of 78 Kr is proposed. Four bands could be identified, which decay mostly by stretched E2-transitions. From recoil distance Doppler shift as well as Doppler shift attenuation measurements lifetimes of about 20 states were measured. The β-decay of the 103 keV isomeric state and the ground state in 78 Rb was observed and the half-lifes determined. Altogether a very good agreement of the level scheme and the E2- and E1-transition strength with predictions of the interacting boson model were found. Using a Monte Carlo code the γ-decay of the continuum of highly excited nuclei is described. Entry states, mean γ-energies, γ-spectra, mean multiplicities, multipolarities, and mean feeding times as well as e.g. their second moments were calculated for the reactions 58 Ni( 16 O,2p) 72 Se and 68 Zn( 12 C,2n) 78 Kr. The results are discussed and compared with experimental data. (HSI) [de

  20. Radiative lifetimes and two-body collisional deactivation rate constants in argon for Kr(4p 55p) and Kr(4p 55p') states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, R.S.F.; Horiguchi, H.; Setser, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiative lifetimes and collisional deactivation rate constants, in argon, of eight Kr(4p 5 [ 2 P/sub 1/2/]5p and [ 2 P/sub 3/2/]5p) levels have been measured by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in a flowing afterglow apparatus. The measured radiative lifetimes are compared with other experimental values and with theoretical calculations. Radiative branching ratios of these excited states also were measured in order to assign the absolute transition probabilities of the Kr(5p,5p'--5s, 5s') transition array from the radiative lifetimes. In addition to the total deactivation rate constants, product states from two-body collisions between Kr(5p and 5p') atoms and ground state argon atoms were identified from the laser-induced emission spectra, and product formation rate constants were assigned. Two-body intermultiplet transfer from Kr(4p 5 [ 2 P/sub 1/2/]5p) to the Kr(4p 5 [ 2 P/sub 3/2/]4d) levels occurs with ease. Intermultiplet transfer from the lowest level in the (4p 5 5p) configuration to the Kr(4p 5 5s and 5s') manifold was fast despite the large energy defect. However, this was the only Kr(5p) level that gave appreciable transfer to the Kr(5s or 5s') manifold. Generally the favored product states are within a few kT of the entrance channel

  1. Borehole plugging experiment in OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.

    2006-04-01

    Sealing of investigation boreholes has been studied by Svensk Koernbroenslehantering AB (SKB) and Posiva Oy (Posiva) as a part of final disposal research. The proposed principle is that investigation boreholes drilled at a site must not act as a continuous flow path for groundwater but be sealed to become as tight as the surrounding rock. As a part of the investigations SKB and Posiva started the third phase of the joint project 'Cleaning and sealing of investigation boreholes' in 2005. One of the sub-projects was the plugging experiment in borehole OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto. The aim of the experiment was to test all main procedures of borehole sealing concept in practise in a deep borehole. Borehole KR24 was drilled to the depth of 551.11 metres in 2003 and it was located inside the shaft profile in Onkalo. From the surface to the depth of about 120 m the borehole diameter is 98 mm. The rest of the borehole is 75.7 mm in diameter. The borehole is vertical and the inclination is quite accurately 90 degrees. The plugging experiment in borehole OL-KR24 consisted of four main activities: (1) cleaning of the borehole, (2) characterization of the borehole (3) selective stabilisation of the borehole, and (4) emplacement of plugs. The comprehensive cleaning of the borehole was to be done in the first stage to provide the basis for other activities. The aim of characterization was to study the borehole in order to determine the sections for selective stabilisation and the locations for plugs. The characterization phase consisted of caliper measurements, dummy probing and optical borehole imaging (OBI). The aim of selective stabilisation was to show that selected borehole sections can be stabilised using new techniques and methods. One borehole section was reamed from Ω 76 mm to Ω 98 mm. The reamed borehole section should have been filled with sufficient amount of cement-based material to achieve a stable 'concrete tube' after redrilling, but due to encountered problems and

  2. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) with 133Xe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tadaki; Masumura, Michio; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Yamashita, Hideyuki.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of CO 2 inhalation on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) were examined with 133 Xe inhalation method (Novo Inhalation Cerebrograph) on 9 normal peoples and 20 patients. Nine normal peoples were divided into 3 groups consisting of each 3 peoples, namely young age group, middle age group, and old age group. Each increased CBF (%) by CO 2 inhalation was 40 -- 44 in young age group, 36 -- 37 in middle age group, and 35 -- 36 in old age group in the blood flow of the first compartment (F 1 ), and 27 -- 28 in young age group, 30 -- 31 in middle age group and 23 -- 24 in old age group in the initial slope index (ISI). Each CO 2 reactivity factor (RF) was 5.5 -- 5.8 in young age group, 3.8 -- 4.0 in middle age group and 3.3 in old age group in F 1 , and 3.1 -- 3.2 in young age group, 2.0 -- 3.3 in middle age group, and 1.2 -- 1.3 in old age group in ISI. Twenty patients consisted of 15 patients of occlusive cerebrovascular disease, 2 patients of head injury, 2 patients of normal pressure hydrocephalus and one patient of subarachnoid hemorrhage. RF was abnormally lower than normal value in 5 patients in F 1 , but in 7 in ISI. Clinical benefits of CBF study during CO 2 inhalation with 133 Xe inhalation method were discussed. (author)

  3. Structure and stability of solid Xe(H2)n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayazulu, Maddury; Hemley, Russell J.; Dera, Przemyslaw; Smith, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Mixtures of xenon and molecular hydrogen form a series of hexagonal, van der Waals compounds at high pressures and at 300 K. Synchrotron, x-ray, single crystal diffraction studies reveal that below 7.5 GPa, Xe(H 2 ) 8 crystallizes in a P3 - m1 structure that displays pressure-induced occupancy changes of two pairs of xenon atoms located on the 2c and 2d sites (while the third pair on yet another 2c site remains fully occupied). The occupancy becomes 1 at the P3 - m1 to R3 transition and all the xenon atoms occupy the 3d sites in the high-pressure structure. These pressure-induced changes in occupancy coincide with volume changes that maintain the average Xe:H 2 stoichiometry fixed at 1:8. The synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman measurements show that this unique hydrogen-bearing compound that can be synthesized at 4.2 GPa and 300 K, quenched at low temperatures to atmospheric pressure, and retained up to 90 K on subsequent warming

  4. Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedein, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.A.; Kandil, M.K.; Kadad, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K, L 1 , L 2,3 , M 1 , M 2,3 and M 4,5 subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe 7+ , Xe 8+ , Xe 9+ and Xe 1 0 + ions, and the charged X 8+ ions are the highest. The main product from the L 1 shell ionization is found to be Xe 8+ , Xe 9+ ions, while the charged Xe 8+ ions predominate at L 2,3 hole states. The charged Xe 6+ , Xe 7+ and Xe 8+ ions mainly yield from 3s 1/2 and 3p 1/2 , 3/2 ionization, while Xe in 3d 3/2 , 5/2 hole states mainly turns into Xe 4+ and Xe 5+ ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data. (author)

  5. Mass spectrometric characterizations of ions generated in RF magnetron discharges during sputtering of silver in Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, D.; Novotný, Michal; Musil, Jindřich; Fitl, Přemysl; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2013), s. 593-602 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0958 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101271 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : double charge ions * mass spectrometry * noble gas * RF magnetron discharges * silver * single charge ions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.964, year: 2013

  6. Assessment of density functional theory for bonds formed between rare gases and open-shell atoms: a computational study of small molecules containing He, Ar, Kr and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolus, Marjorie; Major, Mohamed; Brenner, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    The validity of the description of the DFT approximations currently implemented in plane wave DFT codes (LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, hybrid, GGA + empirical dispersion correction) for interactions between rare gases and open-shell atoms which form materials is poorly known. We have performed a first assessment of the accuracy of these functionals for the description of the bonds formed by helium, argon, krypton and xenon with various open-shell atoms. This evaluation has been done on model molecular systems for which precise experimental data are available and reference post-Hartree-Fock calculations (CCSD(T) using large basis sets) are feasible. The results show that when the rare gas atom shares density with the neighbouring atoms, the GGA functionals yield good geometries and qualitatively correct binding energies, even if these are quite significantly overestimated. The use of hybrid functionals enables us to obtain good geometries and satisfactory binding energies. For compounds in which the rare gas atom forms weak dispersive-like bonding, the accuracy yielded by the various functionals is not as good. No functional gives satisfactory binding energies for all the compounds investigated. Several GGA and hybrid functionals yield correct geometries, even if some isomers are not obtained. One GGA functional (PBE) yields qualitatively correct results for the compounds of the three rare gases and several hybrid functionals give satisfactory energies for He compounds. The addition of an empirical dispersive correction improves the results on association compounds, but several isomers are not found. (authors)

  7. Empirical model for calculating vapor-liquid equilibrium and associated phase enthalpy for the CO2--O2--Kr--Xe system for application to the KALC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.W.; Gilliam, T.M.; Fowler, V.L.

    1976-01-01

    An empirical model is presented for vapor-liquid equilibria and enthalpy for the CO 2 -O 2 system. In the model, krypton and xenon in very low concentrations are combined with the CO 2 -O 2 system, thereby representing the total system of primary interest in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor program for removing krypton from off-gas generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel. Selected properties of the individual and combined components being considered are presented in the form of tables and empirical equations

  8. The electronic spectrum of CUONg(4) (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe): New insights in the interaction of the CUO molecule with noble gas matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecmer, P.; van Lingen, H.; Gomes, A.S.P.; Visscher, L.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic spectrum of the CUO molecule was investigated with the IHFSCC-SD (intermediate Hamiltonian Fock-space coupled cluster with singles and doubles) method and with TD-DFT (time-dependent density functional theory) employing the PBE and PBE0 exchange-correlation functionals. The importance

  9. Assessment of density functional theory for bonds formed between rare gases and open-shell atoms: a computational study of small molecules containing He, Ar, Kr and Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolus, Marjorie; Major, Mohamed; Brenner, Valérie

    2012-01-14

    The validity of the description of the DFT approximations currently implemented in plane wave DFT codes (LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, hybrid, GGA + empirical dispersion correction) for interactions between rare gases and open-shell atoms which form materials is poorly known. We have performed a first assessment of the accuracy of these functionals for the description of the bonds formed by helium, argon, krypton and xenon with various open-shell atoms. This evaluation has been done on model molecular systems for which precise experimental data are available and reference post-Hartree-Fock calculations (CCSD(T) using large basis sets) are feasible. The results show that when the rare gas atom shares density with the neighbouring atoms, the GGA functionals yield good geometries and qualitatively correct binding energies, even if these are quite significantly overestimated. The use of hybrid functionals enables us to obtain good geometries and satisfactory binding energies. For compounds in which the rare gas atom forms weak dispersive-like bonding, the accuracy yielded by the various functionals is not as good. No functional gives satisfactory binding energies for all the compounds investigated. Several GGA and hybrid functionals yield correct geometries, even if some isomers are not obtained. One GGA functional (PBE) yields qualitatively correct results for the compounds of the three rare gases and several hybrid functionals give satisfactory energies for He compounds. The addition of an empirical dispersive correction improves the results on association compounds, but several isomers are not found.

  10. Low energy γ- γ and e{sup −}- γ PAC measurements using APDs and the probe nuclei {sup 83}Rb({sup 83}Kr) and {sup 83m}Kr({sup 83}Kr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenz, M., E-mail: arenz@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Vianden, R., E-mail: vianden@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Universität Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    In the field of Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) are rarely used, despite their favourable properties for fast counting purposes at low energies. This work demonstrates their application in combination with a simple and cheap custom build voltage sensitive preamplifier module. Using the PAC nuclei {sup 83}Rb({sup 83}Kr) and {sup 83m}Kr({sup 83}Kr), the time resolution of the set-up is analysed and the feasibility of precise timing measurements is shown.

  11. Closing in on parton energy loss with charged particle spectra in Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    For comparison, a pp reference at the collision energy of 5.44 TeV is obtained by interpolating between existing pp measurements at 5.02 and 7 TeV.  The nuclear modification factor in Xe-Xe collisions is compared to Pb-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV and 2.76 TeV, showing remarkable similarity at pT > 10 GeV/c. The comparison of the measured nuclear mod...

  12. Level structures of 119Xe, 121Xe excited in (12C,3nγ) reactions and analysis of the hsub(11/2) bands in the IBF model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barci, V.; Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.

    1982-02-01

    Levels in 119 Xe, 121 Xe excited by the reactions 110 Cd, 112 Cd( 12 C,3nγ) 119 Xe, 121 Xe have been studied by in-beam γ-ray spectroscopic techniques. Several bands have been observed: hsub(11/2) and gsub(7/2) in 119 Xe, 121 Xe, a decoupled one in 121 Xe. A new level structure in 119 Xe found for the first time is assigned as the gsub(9/2) band generated by one hole in the gsub(9/2) neutron shell. The connections between these bands have been fixed in both nuclei. A detailed analysis is made for the hsub(11/2) level structure. An interpretation is given in terms of the interacting boson-fermion model where hsub(11/2), fsub(7/2) and hsub(9/2) fermion configurations are included

  13. A comparison between the irradiation damage response of spinel and zirconia due to Xe ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickafus, K.E.; Wetteland, C.J.; Baker, N.P.; Yu Ning; Devanathan, R.; Nastasi, M.; Bordes, N.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Xe-implanted spinel and cubic zirconia surfaces, as determined by nano-indentation measurements, are distinct and the differences can be related to their microstructures. Upon Xe 2+ ion irradiation to high dose at cryogenic temperature (120 K), the Young's modulus of irradiated spinel falls dramatically until the modulus is only about 3/4 the un-irradiated value. The maximum modulus occurs concurrent with the formation of a metastable crystalline phase of spinel. The subsequent elastic softening at higher Xe 2+ doses is an indication of the onset of amorphization of the spinel. Xe-implanted zirconia surfaces behave differently, in all cases showing almost no change in elastic modulus with increasing Xe 2+ ion dose. This is consistent with microstructural observations of Xe-implanted zirconia crystals which, unlike spinel, show no change in crystal structure with increasing ion dose. The hardness of both spinel and zirconia increases slightly for low Xe 2+ ion doses. At higher doses, zirconia shows little change in hardness, while the hardness of the implanted spinel falls by more than a factor of two. The initial increase in hardness of both spinel and zirconia is consistent with point defect accumulation and the precipitation of small interstitial clusters, while the drop in hardness of spinel at high Xe 2+ ion doses is due to the formation of an amorphous phase. (orig.)

  14. Ar-Xe Laser: The Path to a Robust, All-Electric Shipboard Directed Energy Weapon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apruzese, J. P; Sethian, J. D; Giuliani, J. L; Wolford, M. F

    2008-01-01

    .... The electron beam pumped Ar-Xe laser has been investigated in an ONR-sponsored 6.1 program at NRL. The results of this program are summarized in this Memorandum Report, and indicate that the Ar-Xe laser has strong potential to meet these requirements...

  15. Modeling studies on the precipitation of Kr after implantation into metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1988-02-01

    A rate-theory approach is applied to interpreting observations on the precipitation of Kr injected into Ni at temperatures between 25 and 560/degree/C. At temperatures of 400/degree/C or higher, the implanted Kr precipitates evolve into a bi-modal size distribution containing small solid precipitates and an additional population of larger, faceted bubbles. The calculations explore the dependence of the observed bi-modal distribution on the maximum size of the solid Kr precipitates and the effect of this dependence on bubble mobility. The analysis suggests that during the irradiation, whereas the large bubbles move by surface diffusion, the solid Kr precipitates are immobile. The relevance of the Kr-Ni interaction on the solid Kr precipitates size cutoff is discussed. 18 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Cascade processes after 3p-shell threshold photoionization of Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, T.; Yoshii, H.; Higurashi, A.; Hayaishi, T.; Murakami, E.; Aoto, T.; Onuma, T.; Morioka, Y.; Yagishita, A.

    2002-01-01

    Yield spectra of the multiply charged ions Kr 2+ , Kr 3+ , Kr 4+ and Kr 5+ in coincidence with threshold electrons (E k ≤0.03 eV) have been measured near the 3p-shell ionization region of Kr. Profiles of post-collision interaction (PCI) effects induced by Auger cascades following 3p-shell threshold ionization are derived from these coincidence spectra. On the basis of the PCI profiles, the number of Auger cascade steps for each of the decay channels leading to the formation of the multiply charged ions in 3p 3/2 - and 3p 1/2 -shell threshold ionization of Kr was determined, and the branching ratios of the decay channels were estimated. (author)

  17. Control of the UV flux of a XeCl dielectric barrier discharge excilamp through its current variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquet, H; Bhosle, S; Diez, R; Cousineau, M; Djibrillah, M; Le Thanh, D; Dagang, A N; Zissis, G

    2012-02-28

    The efficiency of the electrical power transfer to the gas mixture of a XeCl dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exciplex lamp is analysed. An equivalent circuit model of the DBD is considered. It is shown that the excilamp power can be controlled by applying current to the lamp. This highly desired property is ensured by means of a specific power supply topology, whose concepts and design are discussed. The experimental prototype of a current-mode converter operating in the pulsed regime at pulse repetition rate of 50 kHz is presented and its capability to control the amount of energy transferred during each current pulse is demonstrated. The capability of this power supply to maintain specific operating conditions for the DBD lamp, with a very stable behaviour (even at a very low current, in the regime of a single discharge channel), is illustrated. The experimental results of a combined use of this converter and a XeCl excilamp are presented. The influence of the supply parameters on the 308-nm XeCl excilamp is analysed. The shape of the UV pulse of the lamp is experimentally shown to be similar to that of the current, which actually flows into the gas mixture. The UV radiation power is demonstrated to be tightly correlated to the current injected into the gas and controlled by the available degrees of freedom offered by the power supply. The measured UV output characteristics and performance of the system are discussed. Time resolved UV imaging of a XeCl DBD excilamp is used to analyse the mechanisms involved in the production of exciplexes at various power supply regimes. It is shown that a pulsed voltage source leads to formation of short high intensity UV peaks, while current pulses lead to formation of sustained discharge filaments. Based on the results of modelling of the above-mentioned operation conditions, the two power supply regimes are compared and analysed from the point of view of the UV power and radiative control.

  18. Predictions for multiplicities and flow harmonics in 5.44 TeV Xe+Xe collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskola, K. J.; Niemi, H.; Paatelainen, R.; Tuominen, K.

    2018-03-01

    We present the event-by-event next-to-leading-order perturbative-QCD + saturation + viscous hydrodynamics (EKRT) model predictions for the centrality dependence of the charged hadron multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |η |≤0.5 , and for the centrality dependence of the charged hadron flow harmonics vn{2 } obtained from two-particle cumulants, in √{sN N}=5.44 TeV Xe+Xe collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Our prediction for the 0-5 % central charged multiplicity is d Nch/d η =1218 ±46 . We also predict vn{2 } in Xe+Xe collisions to increase more slowly from central towards peripheral collisions than those in a Pb+Pb system. We find that at 10 ,⋯,50 % centralities v2{2 } is smaller and v3{2 } is larger than in the Pb+Pb system while v4{2 } is of the same magnitude in both systems. We also find that the ratio of flow harmonics in Xe+Xe collisions and in Pb+Pb collisions shows a slight sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the shear-viscosity-to-entropy ratio. As we discuss here, the new nuclear mass-number systematics especially in the flow harmonics serves as a welcome further constraint for describing the space-time evolution of a heavy-ion system and for determining the shear viscosity and other transport properties of strongly interacting matter.

  19. Kartulisortide pikaaegne säilitamine krüomeetodil / Jaanika Edesi, Viive Rosenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Edesi, Jaanika

    2014-01-01

    Taimmaterjali krüosäilitus on hetkel uusim ja perspektiivikaim säilitusmeetod. Krüosäilituse all mõistetakse bioloogilise materjali säilitamist väga madalal temperatuuril elu- ja taastumisvõimelisena. Krüosäilitus toimub tavaliselt vedelas lämmastikus (-196 °C) või selle gaasilises faasis alla -150 °C kraadi.

  20. Alternative processes for the long-term storage of Kr-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.

    1977-12-01

    The forseeable problems which are characteristic of the long-term storage of Kr-85, are discussed on the basis of the chemical, physical and radiological properties of the fission noble gases krypton and xenon as well as rubidium, the daughter nuclide of Kr-85. The various alternatives suggested in the literature for the long-term storage of Kr-85 are reviewed. The technological realization of each of the proposed alternatives is analyzed. (orig.) [de

  1. Variable energy positron beam study of Xe-implanted uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djourelov, Nikolay; Marchand, Benoît; Marinov, Hristo; Moncoffre, Nathalie; Pipon, Yves; Nédélec, Patrick; Toulhoat, Nelly; Sillou, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma-line combined with a slow positron beam was used to measure the momentum density distribution of annihilating pair in a set of sintered UO 2 samples. The influence of surface polishing, of implantation with 800-keV 136 Xe 2+ at fluences of 1 × 10 15 and 1 × 10 16 Xe cm −2 , and of annealing were studied by following the changes of the momentum distribution shape by means of S and W parameters. The program used for this purpose was VEPFIT. At the two fluences in the stoichiometric as-implanted UO 2 , formation of Xe bubbles was not detected. The post-implantation annealing and over-stoichiometry in the as-implanted sample caused Xe precipitation and formation of Xe bubbles.

  2. Luminescent Characteristics of a Pulsed Discharge Plasma in Xe-KBr Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneral, A. A.; Zhmenyak, Y. V.

    2018-03-01

    A mixture of xenon with a nontoxic halogen carrier Xe-KBr is used to create a plasma radiation source at the 282-nm transition of the XeBr* molecule excited by a high-voltage pulsed-periodic discharge. The luminescence spectra of the plasma of a longitudinal pulsed-periodic discharge in the Xe-KBr mixture at low pressures are studied experimentally. The most intense UV bands of exciplex XeBr* molecules are recorded in the spectral range of 250-350 nm. The spectral, temporal, and energetic characteristics of the radiation source are presented, as well as the dependence of the XeBr* exciplex molecule formation efficiency on the discharge excitation conditions. The optimal conditions for the excitation of UV radiation in the pulsed-periodic discharge plasma are determined.

  3. Programming A Molecular Relay for Ultrasensitive Biodetection through 129 Xe NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanfei [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Roose, Benjamin W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Philbin, John P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Doman, Jordan L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Dmochowski, Ivan J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA

    2015-12-21

    We reported a supramolecular strategy for detecting specific proteins in complex media by using hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR. A cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6])-based molecular relay was programmed for three sequential equilibrium conditions by designing a two-faced guest (TFG) that initially binds CB[6] and blocks the CB[6]–Xe interaction. Moreover, the protein analyte recruits the TFG and frees CB[6] for Xe binding. TFGs containing CB[6]- and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-binding domains were synthesized in one or two steps. X-ray crystallography confirmed TFG binding to Zn2+ in the deep CAII active-site cleft, which precludes simultaneous CB[6] binding. The molecular relay was reprogrammed to detect avidin by using a different TFG. Finally, Xe binding by CB[6] was detected in buffer and in E. coli cultures expressing CAII through ultrasensitive 129Xe NMR spectroscopy.

  4. Mass measurement on the rp-process waiting point {sup 72}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kolhinen, V.S. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (FR)] [and others

    2004-06-01

    The mass of one of the three major waiting points in the astrophysical rp-process {sup 72}Kr was measured for the first time with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The measurement yielded a relative mass uncertainty of {delta}m/m=1.2 x 10{sup -7} ({delta}m=8 keV). Other Kr isotopes, also needed for astrophysical calculations, were measured with more than one order of magnitude improved accuracy. We use the ISOLTRAP masses of{sup 72-74}Kr to reanalyze the role of the {sup 72}Kr waiting point in the rp-process during X-ray bursts. (orig.)

  5. High pressure microwave discharge for electrodeless Xe-lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudela, J.; Kando, M.

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the investigation into the high pressure Xe microwave discharge in bent tubes, sustained by electromagnetic surface wave. The research was aimed to help with the design of a new generation of high intensity light sources with generally more complex shapes than those commonly used. The results show that the electromagnetic surface wave can effectively sustain discharge in tubes with various bending radii within the large pressure range. The curved shapes of discharge tubes improve the cooling of the lamp which is one of the major technological difficulties. It was shown that under relatively lower powers and higher gas pressures (100 Torr) the discharge exhibits a streamer-like filamentation and the branching of filaments. The phenomena of the effective sustaining of the discharge by surface wave propagation along curved plasma columns will be investigated in more detail by measurements of the profiles of surface wave electric and magnetic field intensities. (author)

  6. Soft x-ray source by laser produced Xe plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Sho; Masuda, Kazuya; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2010-01-01

    The laser plasma soft X-ray source in the wavelength rage of 5-17 nm was developed, which consisted of the rotating drum system supplying cryogenic Xe target and the high repetition rate pulse Nd:YAG slab laser. We found the maximum conversion efficiency of 30% and it demonstrated the soft X-ray generation with the high repetition rate pulse of 320 pps and the high average power of 20 W. The soft X-ray cylindrical mirror was developed and successfully focused the soft X-ray with an energy intensity of 1.3 mJ/cm 2 . We also succeeded in the plasma debris mitigation with Ar gas. This will allow a long lifetime of the mirror and a focusing power intensity of 400 mW/cm 2 with 320 pps. The high power soft X-ray is useful for various applications. (author)

  7. Search for positive parity bands in 117Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Sun, X.; Zhou, X.; Lei, X.; Zhang, Y.; Jin, H.; Pan, Q.; Guo, Y.; Chen, X.; Luo, Y.; Wen, S.; Yuan, G.; Yang, C.; Luo, W.; Chen, Y.S.; Xing, Z.; Chen, X.Q.

    1995-01-01

    Excited states of 117 Xe were populated via the reaction 28 Si+ 92 Mo at 100-120MeV. More than 40 new γ-transitions and three new positive parity bands have been observed by means of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. The previously known νh 11/2 bands were confirmed, and the νg 7/2 favored band was extended up to 47/2 + in which two bandcrossings have been observed at hω=0.33 and 0.44MeV, respectively. The band structures have been discussed by means of TRS and CSM calculations. A newly observed rotational band consisting of five γ-transitions has been considered as the πh 11/2 band of 117 Cs. ((orig.))

  8. Electromagnetic excitation of 136Xe in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.D.

    1991-11-01

    In the framework of the experimental program at the accelerator facilities SIS/ESR at the Society for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt a detector system for relativistic neutrons was developed, constructed, and applied in first experiments. An essential research aim is the study of collective states after electromagnetic excitation in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In peripheral collisions high-energy virtual photons are exchanged. This leads to the excitation of giant resonances, especially of the giant dipole and quadrupole resonance. An essential decay channel of giant resonances in heavy nuclei is the emission of neutrons, followed by the emission of γ radiation below the particle threshold. These decay channels were studied with the detector system developed by the LAND collaboration. A first experiment on the electromagnetic excitation was performed with a 136 Xe beam at an energy of 700 MeV/u and Pb respectively C targets. (orig./HSI) [de

  9. Assessment of pulmonary ventilation patterns by nonradioactive Xe enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Tomokuni; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Harima, Yoko; Kobayashi, Akitomo; Hasegawa, Takeo

    1984-01-01

    To assess the patterns of regional pulmonary ventilation in conjunction with pulmonary blood flow, pulmonary Xe enhanced CT was performed in 26 patients with interstitial disorders including 3 with chest irradiation and 23 with old myocardial infarction and in 2 control patients. Washout time was short and its patterns were not influenced by an increased or decreased blood flow in the control group. In the group with chest irradiation, a decreased blood flow and slight disturbance were seen in the affected lung, while an increased blood flow and a slightly increased resistance of the pulmonary periphery were suspected in the opposite lung. Furthermore, a prolonged washout and relative reduction of the washout seemed to be reflective of the interstitial degeneration and decreased blood flow, respectively. In the group with old myocardial infarction, the prolongation of washout became marked because of a decreased blood flow caused by venous congestion. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Contribution to scintigraphic study of pulmonary ventilation using 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chareyron, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique of regional lung function study, using 133 Xe, is described (instrumentation, procedure, results). A gamma-camera is used for this investigation, its main advantages are as follows. The picture is smaller than the one produced by a scanner, but is obtained more quickly. The gamma-camera equipped with a data processing unit is able to visualize areas of interest and to provide quantitative informations. Two parameters are studied. The first one is Xenon washout speed expressed in (ml/mn/cm 3 ) which gives an exact value of pulmonary ventilation. The latter is retention. This parameter is of interest because retention is more easy to evaluate than washout speed, and is able to quantify what is suggested by scintigraphic pictures. The technique has proven to be valuable in differentiating chronic bronchitis from post-bronchitic emphysema [fr

  11. Observation of high spin states in 117Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Yuan, G.J.; Li, G.S.; Yang, C.X.; Luo, W.D.; Chen, Y.S.

    1995-01-01

    High spin states of 117 Xe have been investigated by means of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy using the reaction 92 Mo( 28 Si, 2pn) at beam energies of 100 to 120 MeV. The previously known νh 11/2 bands are confirmed and the νg 7/2 favored-signature band is extended up to 47/2 + , in which two band crossings are observed at hω=0.33 and 0.44 MeV, respectively. Two new positive-parity bands have been established, one of which is most likely the νg 7/2 unfavored-signature band. A new transition cascade with irregular level spacings is also observed. (orig.)

  12. 129 Xe NMR Relaxation-Based Macromolecular Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Muller D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dao, Phuong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jeong, Keunhong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Slack, Clancy C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Vassiliou, Christophoros C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Finbloom, Joel A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Francis, Matthew B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physical Biosciences Division; Pines, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-07-29

    A 129Xe NMR relaxation-based sensing approach is reported on that exploits changes in the bulk xenon relaxation rate induced by slowed tumbling of a cryptophane-based sensor upon target binding. The amplification afforded by detection of the bulk dissolved xenon allows sensitive detection of targets. The sensor comprises a xenon-binding cryptophane cage, a target interaction element, and a metal chelating agent. Xenon associated with the target-bound cryptophane cage is rapidly relaxed and then detected after exchange with the bulk. Here we show that large macromolecular targets increase the rotational correlation time of xenon, increasing its relaxation rate. Upon binding of a biotin-containing sensor to avidin at 1.5 μM concentration, the free xenon T2 is reduced by a factor of 4.

  13. Possible Odd Parity State in {sup 128}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, L [Department of Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Malmskog, S G [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-07-15

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 {+-} 0.05, 526.5 {+-} 0.5, 742.4 {+-}1.0, 969.0 {+-} 1.0, and 1136.5 {+-}2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in {sup 128}Xe at 1579 {+-} 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 {+-} 0.3 of the ({beta}{sup -} feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0{sup +} level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration.

  14. Orestes Kinetics Model for the Electra KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, J. L.; Kepple, P.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Myers, M. C.; Sethian, J. D.; Petrov, G.; Wolford, M.; Hegeler, F.

    2003-10-01

    Orestes is a first principles simulation code for the electron deposition, plasma chemistry, laser transport, and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in an e-beam pumped KrF laser. Orestes has been benchmarked against results from Nike at NRL and the Keio laser facility. The modeling tasks are to support ongoing oscillator experiments on the Electra laser ( 500 J), to predict performance of Electra as an amplifier, and to develop scaling relations for larger systems such as envisioned for an inertial fusion energy power plant. In Orestes the energy deposition of the primary beam electrons is assumed to be spatially uniform, but the excitation and ionization of the Ar/Kr/F2 target gas by the secondary electrons is determined from the energy distribution function as calculated by a Boltzmann code. The subsequent plasma kinetics of 23 species subject to over 100 reactions is followed with 1-D spatial resolution along the lasing axis. In addition, the vibrational relaxation among excited electronic states of the KrF molecule are included in the kinetics since lasing at 248 nm can occur from several vibrational lines of the B state. Transport of the lasing photons is solved by the method of characteristics. The time dependent ASE is calculated in 3-D using a ``local look-back'' scheme with discrete ordinates and includes specular reflection off the side walls and rear mirror. Gain narrowing is treated by multi-frequency transport of the ASE. Calculations for the gain, saturation intensity, extraction efficiency, and laser output from the Orestes model will be presented and compared with available data from Electra operated as an oscillator. Potential implications for the difference in optimal F2 concentration will be discussed along with the effects of window transmissivity at 248 nm.

  15. Noninvasive 133Xe inhalation method for cerebral blood flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shigeharu; Kobatake, Keitaro; Shinohara, Yukito

    1991-01-01

    Recent development of the 133 Xe inhalation technique has made it possible to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. Recording of the head curves from the frontal and temporal areas during inhalation of 133 Xe, however, is contaminated by the artifact from the air passages. A method based on Fourier transforms was reported to be able to eliminate air passage artifact (APA) effectively. However, it was pointed out that such an algorithm does not give a complete correction if the artifact seen by the head detectors differs in shape from that recorded from the airways at the mouth, which may happen when there is a slow isotope convection in the nasal and sinus cavities. The purpose of this study was to compare the CBF values calculated by the Fourier method with those by the conventional method of Obrist (VM method). Mean hemispheric gray matter flow (F 1 ) calculated by the VM method in 11 subjects, including normal volunteers and patients with various neurological diseases, was 69.2±13.2 mg/100 g brain/ min, whereas F 1 calculated by the Fourier method in the same subjects was 64.4±13.5, indicating that APA can be effectively eliminated by the Fourier method. The F 1 values calculated by the Fourier method from the frontal and temporal regions were relatively high, and closer to the F 1 values calculated by the VM method. The size of the APA was large in these regions. It was concluded that the deformed APA contaminated the results in these regions, and could not be eliminated effectively by the Fourier method. It is suggested that the shape of the head curve and the size of APA should be carefully examined to ensure that CBF data are reliable. (author)

  16. 85Kr and 39Ar background in GENIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Tomei, C.

    2003-01-01

    GENIUS is a proposal for a large-scale detector of rare events like double beta decay, cold dark matter and low-energy solar neutrinos in real time. The idea of GENIUS is to operate a large amount of 'naked' Ge detectors in liquid nitrogen, with the aim of reducing the background down to a level of 10 -3 counts/kg keV yr. In this work, we investigate the contribution to the background of GENIUS coming from argon ( 39 Ar) and krypton ( 85 Kr) contamination in the liquid nitrogen

  17. Core drilling of boreholes ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3, ONK-KR4 and ONK-PVA1 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted am application for the Decision in Principle (the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki) to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. The investigation programme on the influence of grouting in ground-water chemistry will be started by Posiva. The programme consists of long-term and short-term effects of grouting and the influence of grouting at different distances from the tunnel on groundwater conditions. As a part of this Suomen Malmi oy (Smoy) core drilled four boreholes in ONKALO. The identification numbers of thee boreholes are ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3 and ONK-KR4. An additional borehole ONK-PVA1 was core drilled for long-term monitoring purposes in a place where no grouting is planned to be done.The diameter of the borehole sis 75.7 mm A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. The volume of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded as well as the pressure of the drilling water. The objective of these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 16 m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 11 dm{sup 3} in boreholes. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instrument EMS. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fractures are most common type of fractures. The average fracture frequency of the boreholes varies from 0.6 to 3.1 pcs/m. The average RQD

  18. Core drilling of boreholes ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3, ONK-KR4 and ONK-PVA1 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.

    2005-11-01

    Posiva Oy submitted am application for the Decision in Principle (the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki) to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. The investigation programme on the influence of grouting in ground-water chemistry will be started by Posiva. The programme consists of long-term and short-term effects of grouting and the influence of grouting at different distances from the tunnel on groundwater conditions. As a part of this Suomen Malmi oy (Smoy) core drilled four boreholes in ONKALO. The identification numbers of thee boreholes are ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3 and ONK-KR4. An additional borehole ONK-PVA1 was core drilled for long-term monitoring purposes in a place where no grouting is planned to be done.The diameter of the borehole sis 75.7 mm A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. The volume of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded as well as the pressure of the drilling water. The objective of these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 16 m 3 and the measured volume of the returning water was about 11 dm 3 in boreholes. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instrument EMS. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fractures are most common type of fractures. The average fracture frequency of the boreholes varies from 0.6 to 3.1 pcs/m. The average RQD value of

  19. KrCl lasers for fusion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The lasing characteristics of the Krypton Chloride excimer have been investigated in an e-beam laser facility. The results of experiments have been compared with the predictions of a comprehensive numerical kinetics model. The model predicts that the formation efficiency for KrCl* should be quite high (approx. = 20%) and these predictions appear to be borne out by experimental gain measurements. However, observed intrinsic laser efficiencies are poor, about 1 percent being the best observed in this program. We conclude that the poor lasing performance results from an adverse gain to loss ratio and an extreme sensitivity to optics losses because of the low characteristics magnitude of the gain

  20. Internal conversion in highly stripped 83Kr ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copnell, J.; Phillips, W.R.; Barnett, A.R.; Rehm, K.E.; Ahmad, I.; Gehring, J.; Glagola, B.G.; Kutschera, W.

    1995-01-01

    The total decay probabilities per unit time of the first excited 9.4-keV state in 83 Kr have been measured in ions of ionicity q from 28 to 32. Using a γ-decay probability per unit time of 0.255(2)x10 6 s -1 gives internal conversion coefficients of 14.6(11), 14.9(10), 14.1(9), 14.6(11), and 15.2(24) for q=28--32, respectively. These values are compared with theoretical predictions

  1. Form coexistence in light krypton nuclei. Isomeric spectroscopy of 72,74Kr nuclei and Coulomb excitation of the 76Kr radioactive beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchez, Emmanuelle

    2003-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis proposes an overview of the different theoretical calculations elaborated in the region of light krypton nuclei, and of published experimental results. The second part reports the electron and gamma isomeric spectroscopy of 72,74 Kr nuclei after fragmentation of the projectile by a magnetic separator (experimental installation, experimental results, discussion). The third part reports the study of the Coulomb excitation of the 76 Kr radioactive beam (method and experimental installation, data analysis and results in terms of germanium and silicon spectra, and form of the 76 Kr)

  2. Many-body effects on the structures and stability of Ba{sup 2+}Xe{sub n} (n = 1–39, 54) clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdessalem, Kawther, E-mail: kawtherabdessalem@yahoo.fr; Habli, Héla; Ghalla, Houcine [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Yaghmour, Saud Jamil [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Calvo, Florent [University of Grenoble Alpes, LIPHY, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CNRS, LIPHY, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Oujia, Brahim [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-10-21

    The structures and relative stabilities of mixed Ba{sup 2+}Xe{sub n} (n = 1–39, 54) clusters have been theoretically studied using basin-hopping global optimization. Analytical potential energy surfaces were constructed from ab initio or experimental data, assuming either purely additive interactions or including many-body polarization effects and the mutual contribution of self-consistent induced dipoles. For both models the stable structures are characterized by the barium cation being coated by a shell of xenon atoms, as expected from simple energetic arguments. Icosahedral packing is dominantly found, the exceptional stability of the icosahedral motif at n = 12 being further manifested at the size n = 32 where the basic icosahedron is surrounded by a dodecahedral cage, and at n = 54 where the transition to multilayer Mackay icosahedra has occurred. Interactions between induced dipoles generally tend to decrease the Xe-Xe binding, leading to different solvation patterns at small sizes but also favoring polyicosahedral growth. Besides attenuating relative energetic stability, many-body effects affect the structures by expanding the clusters by a few percents and allowing them to deform more.

  3. I-Xe dating of silicate and troilite from IAB iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1979-01-01

    Silicate and troilite (FeS) from IAB irons were analyzed by the I-Xe technique. Four IAB silicate samples gave well-defined I-Xe ages [in millions of years relative to Bjurbole: - 3.7 +- 0.3 for Woodbine, -0.7 +- 0.6 for Mundrabilla, + 1.4 +- 0.7 for Copiapo, and +2.6 +- 0.6 for Landes. The ( 129 Xe/ 132 Xe)sub(trapped) ratios are consistent with previous values for chondrites, with the exception of Landes which has an extraordinary trapped ratio of 3.5 +- 0.2. Both analyses of silicate from Pitts gave anomalous I-Xe patterns. Troilite samples were also analyzed: Pitts troilite gave a complex I-Xe pattern, which suggests an age of +17 Myr; Mundrabilla troilite defined a good I-Xe correlation, which after correction for neutron capture on 128 Te gave an age of -10.8 +- 0.7 Myr. Thus, low-melting troilite predates high-melting silicate in Mundrabilla. Abundances of Ga, Ge, and Ni in metal from these meteorites are correlated with I-Xe ages of the silicate; meteorites with older silicates have greater Ni contents. No model easily accounts for this result as well as other properties of IAB irons; nevertheless, these results, taken at face value, favour a nebular formation model. The great age of troilite from Mundrabilla suggests that this troilite formed in a different nebular region from the silicate and metal, and was later mechanically mixed with these other phases. The correlation between the trace elements in the metal and the I-Xe ages of the silicate provides one of the first known instances in which another well-defined meteoritic property correlates with I-Xe ages. In addition, almost all the 129 Xe in Mundrabilla silicate (etched in acid) was correlated with 128 Xe. These two results further support the validity of the I-Xe dating method. (author)

  4. L-MM Auger electron production in 0.3-1.6 MeV Kr-Kr collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGroot, P.; Zarcone, M.J.; Kessel, Q.C.; Connecticut Univ., Storrs

    1987-01-01

    Relative total cross sections for Kr L-Auger electron emission are presented and compared with the corresponding X-ray data of Woerlee and Shanker and coworkers. These data sets all show the same incident ion energy dependence, indicating a constant fluorescence yield for the collision conditions under consideration. These data are also in agreement with a rotational coupling calculation by shanker and coworkers that was carried out within the framework of the one-electron molecular orbital model of Fano and Lichten. (orig.)

  5. 100-KR-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Feasibility Study (FS) includes development and screening of alternatives and the detailed analysis of alternatives. This focused feasibility study (FFS) was conducted for the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objective of this operable unit-specific FFS is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures (IRM) for the five sites (116-K-1 crib, 116-K-2 trench, 116-KE-4 and 116-KW-3 retention basins, and process effluent pipelines) associated with the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit. The IRM candidate waste sites are determined in the limited field investigation. Site profiles are developed for each of these waste site. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  6. Study of Electric Monopole Transitions in $^{76,78}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the run at ISOLDE performed last August we completed the study of the decay properties of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $ ^{76, 78, 80}$Kr by measuring the lifetime of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $^{76}$Kr. This was done by applying the $\\beta \\gamma\\gamma$ (t) fast timing method to the $\\beta^{+} $-decay of $^{76}$Rb. For the first time the method was applied to proton-rich nuclei at ISOLDE. This required some special modifications of the experimental set-up previously used for the case of $\\beta^{-}$-decay due to the presence of intense annihilation radiation. The experiment has been successful and enough data have been collected for the determination of the lifetime. The analysis is in progress. From a very preliminary estimate it would appear that the lifetime value falls in the range 20-60 ps. Combining this value with the previously measured ratio \\[\\frac{B(E0; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 0^{+}_{1})}{B(E2; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 2^{+}_{1})}\\] It is possible to extract an estimate of the monopole transition...

  7. Characterization of lead nanoparticles formed by Shewanella sp. KR-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chien-Liang; Yen, Jui-Hung, E-mail: sonny@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Department of Agricultural Chemistry (China)

    2016-01-15

    The bacterial strain KR-12 was isolated from river sediment in northeast Taiwan. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that it belongs to the genus Shewanella. The strain can accumulate lead (Pb) and form Pb nanoparticles (PbNPs) on exposure to Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and sodium formate in HEPES buffer. On transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the KR-12-formed PbNPs were spherical in shape and ranged from 3 to 8 nm. The PbNPs formed a line or curved pattern on bacteria. In addition, one or more pilus-like structures elongated from the bacteria. In contrast, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and other bacteria could not form PbNPs pattern or pilus-like structure under the same conditions. High-resolution TEM combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that these PbNPs primarily contained Pb and had an amorphous structure. This is the first report of the biosynthesis of PbNPs by a Shewanella species.

  8. Photoemission study of Kr 3d→np autoionization resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.; Heimann, P.A.; Ferrett, T.A.; Piancastelli, M.N.; Shirley, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Resonant photoelectron spectra of Kr have been taken in the photon-energy ranges of the 3d/sub 5/2/→5p,6p and 3d/sub 3/2/→5p excitations. The spectra, which closely resemble normal Kr + 3d/sup -1/ Auger spectra, illustrate the importance of ''spectator'' Auger-like decay for inner-shell resonances, in which the initially excited electron does not participate in the core-hole deexcitation process, except to respond to the change in the atomic potential. Possible assignments for some of the spectator decay channels are discussed based on photoemission intensity measurements at the different 3d resonances. These assignments suggest that shake-up (e.g., 5p→6p) of the ''spectator'' electron during the decay process is not quite as important as previously suspected. The resonance profiles of some of the more intense satellites have been determined over the 3d→np resonances. Very small resonance effects also were observed in the partial cross section for 4p subshell ionization, which produced asymmetric Fano-type profiles. The 4p angular distribution, in contrast, exhibits a pronounced effect in the resonance energy range. The 4p results demonstrate that nonspectator autoionization also is present

  9. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargus, W A; Azarnia, G M; Nakles, M R

    2012-10-01

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d(4)D(7/2) to the 5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d(4)D(7/2)-5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  10. A Kinetics Model for KrF Laser Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, J. L.; Kepple, P.; Lehmberg, R.; Obenschain, S. P.; Petrov, G.

    1999-11-01

    A computer kinetics code has been developed to model the temporal and spatial behavior of an e-beam pumped KrF laser amplifier. The deposition of the primary beam electrons is assumed to be spatially uniform and the energy distribution function of the nascent electron population is calculated to be near Maxwellian below 10 eV. For an initial Kr/Ar/F2 composition, the code calculates the densities of 24 species subject to over 100 reactions with 1-D spatial resolution (typically 16 zones) along the longitudinal lasing axis. Enthalpy accounting for each process is performed to partition the energy into internal, thermal, and radiative components. The electron as well as the heavy particle temperatures are followed for energy conservation and excitation rates. Transport of the lasing photons is performed along the axis on a dense subgrid using the method of characteristics. Amplified spontaneous emission is calculated using a discrete ordinates approach and includes contributions to the local intensity from the whole amplifier volume. Specular reflection off side walls and the rear mirror are included. Results of the model will be compared with data from the NRL NIKE laser and other published results.

  11. Neutron Inelastic Scattering on 134Xe at En = 5 - 8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Mary; Tornow, Werner; Finch, Sean; Krishichayan, Fnu; Bhike, Megha

    2017-09-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) studies are both the best way to determine the Majorana nature of the neutrino and determine its effective mass. The two main experiments searching for 0 νββ -decay of 136Xe (Q value = 2457.8 keV) are Kamland-Zen and EXO-200. Though both experiments have enriched 136Xe targets, these targets still contain significant quantities of 134Xe. Recently, a new nuclear level was discovered in 134Xe that decays to the ground state emitting a 2485.7 keV gamma ray. The γ-ray production cross section for this branch was found to be on the order of 10 mb for incident neutron energies of 2.5-4.5 MeV. Here, we have extended the investigation of this level to higher incident neutron energies, and further explore the potential neutron-induced backgrounds on both 134Xe and 136Xe for extended neutron energies. We will report our preliminary results for neutron inelastic scattering on 134Xe in applications to 0 νββ decay searches. NSF PHY-1614348, DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  12. Evaluation of reactivity and Xe behavior during daily load following operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yasunori; Araki, Tsuneyasu; Yamamoto, Fumiaki

    1992-01-01

    A boiling water reactor (BWR) has an excellent load following capability provided by a core flow control, which is used for changing a reactor power level and for compensating the subsequent Xe concentration change. The core characteristics during load following operations are investigated in detail, using our reactor core simulator. Comparisons of changes of the Doppler reactivity, the void reactivity and the Xe reactivity during transients are performed. Also the features of Xe transient during load following operations are shown. It has been shown that the core flow change required to compensate the Xe reactivity change produces much greater change of the void reactivity than that required for power level changes, and that the resulting local power change in the lower part of the core is greater than that in the upper part, because the Xe concentration change in the lower part is hardly compensated by the core flow control. Also the effects of power level changes, cycle patterns, and initial concentration of Xe and I on the Xe transient behavior have been investigated. (author)

  13. Addition computed tomography with stable xenon; Special reference to ischemic cerebrovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Yamada, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Keiji [Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan)

    1990-09-01

    Stable xenon (Xe{sup s}) is used as a contrast agent because it freely diffuses to cerebral tissues through the blood-brain barrier. In this study, 2 axial levels for Xe{sup s} enhancement analysis were selected from a baseline series of computed tomographic (CT) scans and 6 serial CT scans were obtained every 20 seconds for each scan level during the 240 seconds inhalation period of 30% Xe{sup s} in 10 volunteer controls and in 52 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (ICVD). The serial CT scans were added and averaged in each pixel. This was used to make a new CT picture (addition CT scans). The CT scans before the Xe{sup s} inhalation, the scan at the end of the Xe{sup s} inhalation, and the addition CT scan were compared to see whether gray matter and ischemic areas could be differentiated from white matter. The addition CT scans could differentiate the three structures very well in both the acute and chronic stages of ICVD. This technique is thought to be a very simple and useful method to detect the small infarcted areas and low perfusion areas that cannot be visualized on precontrast CT scans. (author).

  14. Cerebral blood flow measurement using stable xenon CT with very short inhalation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Yamada, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Keiji [Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan)

    1991-02-01

    A noninvasive, simplified method using inhalation of stable xenon (Xe{sup s}) and computed tomographic (CT) scanning to estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional partition coefficient (r{lambda}) is described. Twenty-four patients with cerebrovascular occlusive disease and six volunteer controls inhaled 30% Xe{sup s} and 70% oxygen for 180 seconds and exhaled for 144 seconds during serial CT scanning without denitrogenation. The end-tidal Xe{sup s} concentration was continuously monitored with a thermoconductivity analyzer to determine the build-up range (A value) and build-up rate constant (K value) for arteries with the curve fitting method. The time-CT number (Hounsfield unit) curve for cerebral tissue during the Xe{sup s} washin and washout phases was used to calculate r{lambda} and rCBF using least squares curve fitting analysis. The resultant r{lambda} and rCBF map demonstrated a reliable distribution between the gray and white matter, and infarcted areas. rCBF was high in gray matter, low in white matter, and much lower in infarcted areas than in white matter. r{lambda} was high in white matter, low in gray matter, and much lower in infarcted areas. Xe{sup s} CT-CBF studies with very short inhalation of 180 seconds is a clinically useful method for evaluation of rCBF in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. (author).

  15. Centrality determination using the Glauber model in Xe-Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.44$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This document describes the methods used by the ALICE Collaboration for determining the centrality of Xe-Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.44$ TeV at the LHC within the Glauber model. The half-density radius $R$ and the diffusivity $a$ describing the Xe-129 nucleus with a 2-parameter Fermi distribution have been derived from a recent electron scattering measurement for the Xe-132 nucleus. The deformation parameter $\\beta$ has been derived by an interpolation between measured deformation parameters for the even-$A$ Xe isotopes. The inelastic nucleon-nucleon cross-section at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.44$ TeV has been estimated by interpolation of pp data at different center-of-mass energies. The particle multiplicity per nucleon-nucleon collision has been parameterized by a negative binomial distribution (NBD) and a number of independently emitting sources (ancestors) given by a linear combination of $N_{\\rm part}$ and $N_{\\rm coll}$. The NBD parameters $\\mu$ and $k$ and the ancestor parameter $f$ are then...

  16. Xe-133 recuperation by adsorption in active carbon impregnated with PF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, A.V.; Marques, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    Since the Mo-99 Fission Project has the aim to produce Xe-133 from gases generated in the alkaline dissolution of Al-U plates irradiated with thermal neutrons and, considering the importance of this radioisotope from the nuclear medicine point of view, studies to improve and optimize the Xe-133 recuperation were continued. Experiences were made on 'static' equilibrium employing high purity xenon and for the 'dynamic' case, Xe-133 mixed with a carrier and nitrogen as gas carrier; in this case, a 44% and a 34% increase in the capacity of xenon adsorption relaxed with activated carbon without being impregnated and impregnated with AgF, were respectively achieved. (Author) [es

  17. Nuclear Structure of 124Xe Studied with β+/EC-Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radich, A. J.; Garrett, P. E.; Allmond, J. M.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bianco, L.; Bildstein, V.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Cross, D. S.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Leach, K. G.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Orce, J. N.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E.; Starosta, K.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wang, Z. M.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Williams, S. J.; Yates, S. W.

    The nuclear structure of 124Xe was investigated using γ-ray spectroscopy following the β+/EC-decay of 124Cs. A very high-statistics data set was collected and γγ coincidence data was analyzed, greatly adding to the 124Xe level scheme. A new decay branch from the high-spin isomer of 124Cs was observed as well as weak E2 transitions into excited 0+ states in 124Xe. B(E2) transition strengths of such low-spin transitions are very important in determining collective properties, which are currently poorly characterized in the region of neutron-deficient xenon isotopes.

  18. Gain measurements of the Ca-Xe charge exchange system. [for UV lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, C. J.; Chubb, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Charge-exchange-pumped Ca(+) was studied for possible positive laser gain at 370.6 and 315.9 nm using an Xe MPD arc as the Xe(+) source. The present paper describes the MPD arc, the calcium injection system, the diagnostics for gain, and spontaneous emission measurements and results. No positive gain measurements were observed. A small Xe-Ca charge exchange cross section compared to He-metal laser systems charge exchange cross sections is the most probable reason why the result was negative.

  19. Trampoline motions in Xe-graphite(0 0 0 1) surface scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Hashinokuchi, Michihiro; Sawabe, Kyoichi; Maruyama, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Shobatake, Kosuke

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated Xe scattering from the graphite(0 0 0 1) surface at hyperthermal incident energies using a molecular beam-surface scattering technique and molecular dynamics simulations. For all incident conditions, the incident Xe atom conserves the momentum parallel to the surface and loses approximately 80% of the normal incident energy. The weak interlayer potential of graphite disperses the deformation over the wide range of a graphene sheet. The dynamic corrugation induced by the collision is smooth even at hyperthermal incident energy; the graphene sheet moves like a trampoline net and the Xe atom like a trampoliner.

  20. Conceptual design of an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.D.; Ewing, J.J.; Center, R.E.; Mumola, P.; Olson, T.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design for an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF are presented. Optical designs, amplifier scaling with a KrF kinetics code and limitations imposed by pulsed power technology are described

  1. Laboratory sensor design for fiber-optic detection of 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Knopf, M.A.

    1994-06-01

    The goal of the fiber-optic detection of 85 Kr project is to produce a sensor to detect 85 Kr in real-time from either an airborne or ground-based platform. The 85 Kr gas is a fission product which is released in large quantities during fuel reprocessing and in minor quantities during nuclear reactor operations. Thus an airborne plume of 85 Kr is a radioactive signature of proliferation. Since 85 Kr has a 10.72 year half life, it is difficult for a proliferator to contain the gas for several half lives to avoid releasing the radioactive signature of proliferation. The long half life also results in a plume that can extend several kilometers from the source, which allows initial proliferation monitoring from large distances. The sensor can be used to make stand-alone, real-time measurements of 85 Kr that can be used as direct evidence for proliferation and/or as a screening sensor to determine when to collect air samples for further laboratory analysis. This report provides a summary of the 85 Kr beta sensor design that PNL will use in the laboratory to: (1) demonstrate the measurement technique, (2) establish minimum detection limits, and (3) optimize the sensor design for the final airborne sensor package. The goal of the final airborne sensor package will be to measure 85 Kr at activity levels as low as or as close to ambient background levels as possible with a reasonably sized sensor

  2. Microscopic study of low-lying collective bands in 77Kr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive experimental studies of 77Kr have recently been performed by Sylvan et al [4] and Johnson et al [5] (see also refs [6,7]). These experimental studies have resulted in the identification of positive parity and negative parity collective bands up to very high spin. The ground state for 77Kr is based on K = 5/2+ with the.

  3. High gain direct drive target designs and supporting experiments with KrF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, Max; Bates, Jason W.; Aglitskiy, Yefim

    2013-01-01

    Krypton-fluoride laser is an attractive inertial fusion energy driver from the standpoint of target physics. Target designs taking advantage of zooming, shock ignition, and favorable physics with KrF reach energy gains of 200 with sub-MJ laser energy. The designs are robust under 2D simulations. Experiments on the Nike KrF laser support the physics basis. (author)

  4. Design, development and calibration of a radioactive gas (85Kr) detector for continuous environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanan, S.; Swaminathan, N.; John, Jacob; Kutty, K.N.; Wattamwar, S.B.; Gopalan, C.S.; Menezes, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    Design, development and calibration of a scintillation type detector for environmental monitoring of low levels of 85 Kr activity in off-line effluents or plant areas in presence of gamma background are reported. Calibration of the system was done using NBS 85 Kr standard. (author)

  5. Design, development and calibration of a radioactive gas (/sup 85/Kr) detector for continuous environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanan, S.; Swaminathan, N.; John, J.; Kutty, K.N.; Wattamwar, S.B. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.); Gopalan, C.S.; Menezes, C.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Electronics Div.)

    Design, development and calibration of a scintillation type detector for environmental monitoring of low levels of /sup 85/Kr activity in off-line effluents or plant areas in presence of gamma background are reported. Calibration of the system was done using NBS /sup 85/Kr standard.

  6. Long pulse KrCl laser with a high discharge quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casper, L.C.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Peters, P.J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Hofstra, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    The discharge quality and optimum pump parameters of a long-pulse high-pressure gas discharge excited KrCl laser are investigated. A three-electrode prepulse–mainpulse excitation circuit is employed as pump source. The discharge volume contains a gas mixture of HCl/Kr/Ne operated at a total pressure

  7. Feasibility of evaluating possible 85Kr environmental contamination from neon lamp production line to be installed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangzuo

    1989-01-01

    Using a simplified method, the concentrations of 85 Kr leaking into the air of a workshop and its surroundings, where a neon lamp production line was to be installed, were calculated. The doses to the workers and inhabitants nearby were also estimated. Thus, the evaluation of 85 Kr enviromental contamination caused by imported equipments was made feasible

  8. Analytical method of Kr-85 determination, using cryogenic concentration and separation and liquid scintillation counting; Desarrollo del metodo de concentracion y se paracion criogenica cromatografica y medida radiactiva por centelleo liquido de Kr-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M C; Perez, M M; Grau, A

    1983-07-01

    The method used in the Laboratory of the JEN for the determination of Kr-85 levels in gaseous effluents of nuclear power and in the atmosphere is described. Samples of air, collected in metallic cylinders, are introduced into a gas-solid chromatographic separation system which resolves Kr from the other air components. The separated Kr ia dissolved in a toluene based scintillation cocktail, and the Kr-85 content is determined by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

  9. Measurement of sequential change of regional ventilation by new developed Kr-81m method in asthmatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Takao; Narita, Hiroto; Ishida, Hirohide; Terashima, Yoichi; Hirasawa, Korenori; Mori, Yutaka; Kawakami, Kenji

    1991-01-01

    Fazio has reported the distribution of Kr-81m by the continuous inhalation method indicates distribution of ventilation. To estimate sequential ventilation change with the continuous Kr-81m inhalation method, it is necessary to keep the concentration of Kr-81m constant. However this is frequently ignored. Because of this, we have developed the new method to maintain constant concentration of Kr-81m and compared the reliability of this method to the conventional method. The results of phantom study showed that the concentration of Kr-81m is kept constant, and sequential change of ventilation can be estimated only by our new method. On application of this method in asthmatics, we have discovered the existence of the region where ventilation reduced by inhalation of a bronchodilator. (author)

  10. Low energy collision experiments using the beam guide technique. Charge transfer cross sections of Ar/sup 3+/ and Kr/sup 3+/ in their own gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Kazuhiko; Kaneko, Yozaburo

    1986-12-01

    The trajectories of charged particles moving in an octopole ion beam guide (OPIG) are computer-simulated for various initial conditions of motion. Boundary conditions between the stable and unstable regions of beam trajectory in OPIG are obtained. These calculated results are very useful for operation of OPIG under the best condition. In low energy collision experiments using the beam guide technique, cross sections of one-, two- and three-electron capture processes in collision systems of Ar/sup 3+/-Ar and Kr/sup 3+/-Kr are measured in energy region from 0.375 to 768 eV in center-of-mass system. In both collision systems, one-electron capture reaction is predominant in higher energy side, however, the dominant reaction changes from one-electron capture reaction to the symmetric resonant three-electron capture reaction in the low energy region below about 10 eV. As was predicted, it was first confirmed that each cross section obtained for symmetric resonant triple-charge-transfer reaction of Ar/sup 3+/ and Kr/sup 3+/ at the low energy end of Ecm = 0.375 eV is larger than both cross sections of symmetric resonant double-charge-transfer for the doubly charged ion and symmetric resonant single-charge-transfer for the singly charged ion.

  11. The Gotthard experiment on 136Xe ββ decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, F.; Busto, J.; Farine, J.; Gabathuler, K.; Gervasio, G.; Henrikson, H.; Joergens, V.; Lou, K.; Luescher, R.; Paic, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Gotthard experiment measuring the double beta decay of 136 Xe is now running with an improved version of the TPC. The whole charge readout system has been redesigned in order to reduce the radioactive background. Signal-to-noise ratio is further enhanced by the tracking capability that allows to select events with two electron tracks emerging from the same point, and reject with high efficiency those background components such as internal β and α radioactivity, Compton electrons, and cosmic rays. After the first 2200 hours of data taking, a reduction of the count rate has been observed. The most recent 90% C.L. half life limits for the different ββ modes are: 4 x 10 23 yr, corresponding to a Majorana mass of 1.9-2.5 eV, for the neutrinoless channel; 1.1 x 10 22 yr for the majoron, and 4.6 x 10 20 yr for the 2ν channel. (K.A.)

  12. Application of 133Xe encephalography in lack blood diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhiyuan; Guo Huiying

    1993-01-01

    The determination of local blood flow in brain gray matter (rCBF) using the type CGEM 2000 133 Xe encephalography is a reliable indication for judging the degree of lack blood disease. For all the inspected patients the scalp analogy localization is used. 28 probes are applied to some regions of the forehead, the vertex, the temporal folium and the occipital folium. The localization is accurate and repeatable. The result of rCBF determination is similar to XCT, but its range is rather wider than XCT. Therefore, the rCBF determination in clinic diagnosis is reliable and can give the rCBF value qualitatively. It can be used not only for diagnosing the decease in brain, but also for the predication before apoplexy, especially for vertigo disease to be inspected. For the vertigo disease of middle age and old man, the first consideration should be the decreasing of rCBF value. For the inspection of thrombus of neck artery system, it can reflect the real range of pathological changes correctly. The method is superior to XCT for treatment planning, estimating the results, supervising the effect treatment, and the diagnosis of acute cerebral embolism. In China, the morbidity rate, the sickness rate, the disability rate and recurrent rate of cerebrovascular disease are very high, especially for the old man. Satisfactory results for 1010 cases altogether are obtained by using type CGEM 2000 cerebral angiography technique for the screening

  13. Improving the efficiency of a fluorescent Xe dielectric barrier light source using short pulse excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beleznai, Sz; Mihajlik, G; Richter, P; Maros, I; Balazs, L

    2008-01-01

    Operation of a Xe dielectric barrier discharge lamp producing 147-172 nm VUV radiation is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Xe gas pressure varies between 100 and 300 mbar, and the glass body of the lamp is coated with LAP (green) phosphor to convert radiation into the visible part of the spectrum. Simulation results predict improved discharge efficiencies reaching 67% when excited by a fast rise-time, short pulse (∼200 ns) driving waveform. In this case most power deposited into the plasma efficiently produces Xe 2 * excimers, while other energy dissipation processes (ion heating, e-Xe elastic collision) are kept at a low rate. Simulation and experimental results are compared in terms of discharge efficacy and show good agreement. A lamp efficacy value as high as 80 lm W -1 is demonstrated experimentally

  14. Probing the porosity of cocrystallized MCM-49/ZSM-35 zeolites by hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Zhang, Weiping; Xie, Sujuan; Xu, Longya; Han, Xiuwen; Bao, Xinhe

    2008-01-31

    One- and two-dimensional 129Xe NMR spectroscopy has been employed to study the porosity of cocrystallized MCM-49/ZSM-35 zeolites under the continuous flow of hyperpolarized xenon gas. It is found by variable-temperature experiments that Xe atoms can be adsorbed in different domains of MCM-49/ZSM-35 cocrystallized zeolites and the mechanically mixed counterparts. The exchange of Xe atoms in different types of pores is very fast at ambient temperatures. Even at very low temperature two-dimensional exchange spectra (EXSY) show that Xe atoms still undergo much faster exchange between MCM-49 and ZSM-35 analogues in the cocrystallized zeolites than in the mechanical mixture. This demonstrates that the MCM-49 and ZSM-35 analogues in cocrystallized zeolites may be stacked much closer than in the physical mixture, and some parts of intergrowth may be formed due to the partially similar basic structure of MCM-49 and ZSM-35.

  15. Theoretical Study of the NMR Chemical Shift of Xe in Supercritical Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacerda Junior, Evanildo Gomes; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Mikkelsen, Kurt Valentin

    2018-01-01

    In this work we investigate the level of theory necessary for reproducing the non-linear variation of the 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift with the density of Xe in supercritical conditions. In detail we study how the 129Xe chemical shift depends under these conditions...... on electron correlation, relativistic and many-body effects. The latter are included using a sequential-QM/MM methodology, in which a classical MD simulation is performed first and the chemical shift is then obtained as an average of quantum calculations of 250 MD snapshots conformations carried out for Xen...... this approach we obtain very good agreement with the experimental data, showing that the chemical shift of 129Xe in supercritical conditions is very well described by cluster calculations at the HF level, with small contributions from relativistic and electron correlation effects....

  16. Nuclear spin relaxation due to chemical shift anisotropy of gas-phase 129Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, Matti; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha

    2011-08-14

    Nuclear spin relaxation provides detailed dynamical information on molecular systems and materials. Here, first-principles modeling of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) relaxation time for the prototypic monoatomic (129)Xe gas is carried out, both complementing and predicting the results of NMR measurements. Our approach is based on molecular dynamics simulations combined with pre-parametrized ab initio binary nuclear shielding tensors, an "NMR force field". By using the Redfield relaxation formalism, the simulated CSA time correlation functions lead to spectral density functions that, for the first time, quantitatively determine the experimental spin-lattice relaxation times T(1). The quality requirements on both the Xe-Xe interaction potential and binary shielding tensor are investigated in the context of CSA T(1). Persistent dimers Xe(2) are found to be responsible for the CSA relaxation mechanism in the low-density limit of the gas, completely in line with the earlier experimental findings.

  17. High-spin {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khatib, Ali

    2008-08-18

    rotational bands loose collectivity and, finally, when all nucleons outside the core have their spins aligned, the bands terminate. In the framework of this thesis, extensive spectroscopic investigations of three nuclei of the A {proportional_to}125 region, {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe, have been performed. These nuclei have been studied with the largest spectrometers available, Euroball and Gammasphere. The previously known level schemes of these nuclei have been extended substantially, both in the low- and high-spin regions. Many new rotational bands could be established. Lifetimes have been measured for several of the long large-deformation bands. The rotational structures, shape co-existence and band termination at high spins have been investigated. (orig.)

  18. Inhalation scan using sup(81m)Kr-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Tsuneo; Senda, Kohei; Ohara, Ken; Kaii, Osamu

    1979-01-01

    Inhalation scan using sup(81m) Kr-gas was performed in the various pulmonary diseases, in order to examine the ventilatory function of the lung after the measurement of ratio of expiratory ratio in the normal and diseased lung field. Inhalation scan is applied to the various pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer, radiation pulmonary fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In cases of lung cancer, there is disturbance of respiratory function at the site of lesion when compared to the remainder of the normal lung fields. In cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the inhalation scan is performed at three states such as pre-, in- and post-attack of the disease. During the asthma attack the respiratory function is disturbed considerably when compared to the pre- and post-attack states. In each pulmonary disease, the ratio of expiratory ratio is measured from the histogram and pulmonary function is evaluated. (author)

  19. Comparison of observed and predicted Kr-85 air concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiran, M.; Miller, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A computer code, ANEMOS has been written to estimate concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operation Sources. This code uses a modified Gaussian plume equation. Output from ANEMOS includes annual-average air concentrations and ground deposition rates of dispersed radionuclides and daughters. To use the environmental transport model properly, some estimate of the models predictive accuracy must be obtained. To validate the ANEMOS model, one year of weekly average Kr-85 concentrations observed at 13 stations located 28 to 144 km distant from continuous point source at the Savannah River Plant have been used. There was a general tendency for the model to underpredict the observed air concentrations slightly. Pearson's correlation between pairs of logarithms of observed and predicted annual-average values was r=0.84. The monthly results tend to show more scatter than do either the seasonal or the annual comparisons. (orig.)

  20. Kr-PLIF for scalar imaging in supersonic flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, V; Burns, R; Clemens, N T

    2011-11-01

    Experiments were performed to explore the use of two-photon planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of krypton gas for applications of scalar imaging in supersonic flows. Experiments were performed in an underexpanded jet of krypton, which exhibited a wide range of conditions, from subsonic to hypersonic. Excellent signal-to-noise ratios were obtained, showing the technique is suitable for single-shot imaging. The data were used to infer the distribution of gas density and temperature by correcting the fluorescence signal for quenching effects and using isentropic relations. The centerline variation of the density and temperature from the experiments agree very well with those predicted with an empirical correlation and a CFD simulation (FLUENT). Overall, the high signal levels and quantifiable measurements indicate that Kr-PLIF could be an effective scalar marker for use in supersonic and hypersonic flow applications.

  1. A new site for 85Kr measurements on groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, T.; Hebert, D.

    2001-01-01

    As a part of a new 85 Kr laboratory, which is currently being established at the Institute of Applied Physics in Freiberg, Germany, a modified CO 2 extractor for krypton sampling is used. The operation principle is simple and contamination-safe with a reasonable effort. Continuously pumped under pressure, the water passes a Venturi-type nozzle and degasses due to relaxing. The extracted gas mixture then enters a recirculation system flowing through a CO 2 trap (NaOH), molecular sieves and a cooled charcoal trap, where krypton and other components are adsorbed. Remaining gases reenter the system at the Venturi-type nozzle. To keep the circulation alive an additional helium support is needed. In a simple field experiment, extraction efficiencies up to 0.8 for 222 Rn have been measured.

  2. A new site for 85Kr measurements on groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T.; Hebert, D.

    2001-06-01

    As a part of a new 85Kr laboratory, which is currently being established at the Institute of Applied Physics in Freiberg, Germany, a modified CO 2 extractor for krypton sampling is used. The operation principle is simple and contamination-safe with a reasonable effort. Continuously pumped under pressure, the water passes a Venturi-type nozzle and degasses due to relaxing. The extracted gas mixture then enters a recirculation system flowing through a CO 2 trap (NaOH), molecular sieves and a cooled charcoal trap, where krypton and other components are adsorbed. Remaining gases reenter the system at the Venturi-type nozzle. To keep the circulation alive an additional helium support is needed. In a simple field experiment, extraction efficiencies up to 0.8 for 222Rn have been measured.

  3. Energies and lifetimes of excited states in copperlike Kr VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, A.E.; Curtis, L.J.; Schectman, R.M.; Berry, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    The spectrum of Kr VIII has been observed between 180 and 2000 A by using foil excitation of 2.5--3.5-MeV krypton ions. Twenty new transitions have been classified and eleven new excited-state energies have been determined within the n=4 --7 shells. The ionization potential is derived to be 1 015 800 +- 200 cm -1 . The excited-state energies and fine structures are compared with recent relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations. The 4p-state lifetime has been measured by performing a simultaneous analysis of decay data for the 4p level and for its dominant cascade-repopulating levels. The 4p lifetime is found to be 30% shorter than previously measured values and is in excellent agreement with the result of a recent multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculation. The source of the discrepancy between this result and earlier measurements is discussed

  4. Evidence for shape coexistance in 81,83Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemnitz, P.; Doering, J.; Funke, L.; Winter, G.; Hildingsson, L.; Jerrestam, D.; Johnson, A.; Lindblad, Th.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of systematic investication of few-particle and collective states in the mass 80 region, the excitations in 81 , 83 Kr have been studied in-beam via (α,3n) reactions. Most of the data were derived from experiments at the Stockholm cyclotron, where coincidence relations, angular distributions, relative excitation functions and the linear polarization of the γ-rays were measured. To obtain precise data on the Doppler shift (DSA method) of the γ-rays, the spectra at 30 deg and 150 deg and, respectively, at 45 deg and 135 deg relative to the beam axis were measured alternatingly. Since DSA data are most reliable for the highest levels reached with a certain beam energy, additional measurements were performed at the Rossendorf cyclotron using α-particles of 27 MeV which excite lower spin states than the 42 MeV α-particles used in the main part of the experiments

  5. Comparison of observed and predicted Kr-85 air concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiran, M.; Miller, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A computer code, ANEMOS has been written to estimate concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operation Sources. This code uses a modified Gaussian plum equation. Output from ANEMOS includes annual-average air concentrations and ground deposition rates of dispersed radionuclides and daughters. To use the environmental transport model properly, some estimate of the models predictive accuracy must be obtained. To validate the ANEMOS model, one year of weekly average Kr-85 concentrations observed at 13 stations located 28 to 144 km distant from continuous point source at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), Aiken, South Carolina, have been used. There was a general tendency for the model to underpredict the observed air concentrations slightly. Pearsons's correlation between pairs of logarithms of observed and predicted annual-average values was r = 0.84. The monthly results tend to show more scatter than do either the seasonal or the annual comparisons. 18 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  6. I-Xe dating of silicate and troilite from IAB iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1978-01-01

    The IAB iron meteorites may be related to the chondrites; siderophile elements in the metal matrix have chondritic abundances, and the abundant silicate inclusions are chondritic both in mineralogy and in chemical composition. Silicate and troilite (FeS) and IAB irons were analyzed by the I-Xe technique. Four IAB silicate samples gave well-defined I-Xe ages [in millions of years relative to Bjurboele; the monitor error (+-2.5 m.y.) is not included]: -3.7 +- 0.3 for Woodbine, -0.7 +- 0.6 for Mundrabilla, +1.4 +- 0.7 for Copiapo, and +2.6 +- 0.6 for Landes. The ( 129 Xe/ 132 Xe)/sub trapped/ ratios are consistent with previous values for chondrites, with the exception of Landes which has an extraordinary trapped ratio of 3.5 +- 0.2. Both analyses of silicate from Pitts gave anomalous I-Xe patterns: intermediate-temperature points defined good correlations but higher-temperature (greater than or equal to 1400 0 C) points lay above (extra 129 Xe) these lines. The two correlations have different slopes, so it cannot be assigned a definite I-Xe age to Pitts silicate. Troilite samples from Mundrabilla and Pitts were also analyzed: Pitts troilite gave a complex I-Xe pattern, which suggests an age of +17 m.y.; Mundrabilla troilite defined a good I-Xe correlation, which after correction for neutron capture on 128 Te an age of -10.8 +- 0.7 m.y. Thus, surprisingly, low-melting troilite substantially predates high-melting silicate in Mundrabilla. Abundances of Ga, Ge, and Ni in metal from these meteorites are correlated with I-Xe ages of the silicate (referred to henceforth as the metal-silicate correlation). After exploring possible relationships between the I-Xe ages and other properties of the IAB group, it was concluded that the metal-silicate correlation, the old Mundrabilla troilite, and other results favor a nebular formation model (e.g. Wasson, 1970a)

  7. Annealing studies of Bi and Kr inclusions in Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoern Thoft, N

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the results of experimental investigations of melting, solidification and growth of Bi and Kr inclusions made by ion implantation into aluminium. The experimental techniques used of for this study were x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering, ion channeling, and grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The x-ray diffraction signal from crystalline Bi inclusions in Al has been recorded as a function of temperature during heating to temperatures above the bulk melting point and cooling to room temperature. Data from these measurements have been fitted using models (developed by Pawlow and Wronski) for the size-dependent melting temperature of small particles, and size distributions for the inclusions have been determined in this way. Transmission electron microscopy has confirmed the melting and solidification of the Bi inclusions in the temperature ranges, in which these processes were observed by x-ray diffraction, establishing the facts that the inclusions melt below the bulk melting point and that a large supercooling is seen. Information about the amount and depth distribution of the Bi confined in the Al matrix has been derived from Rutherford backscattering measurements. Melting and solidification of Bi inclusions have been observed by means of ion channeling. The results of the investigations of bismuth inclusions in aluminium are compared to previous, similar results for lead inclusions in aluminium. Finally, preliminary experiments have confirmed that growth of Kr inclusions in Al can be observed using grazing-incidence small-angle scattering. (au) (13 tabs., 46 ills., 77 refs.).

  8. Annealing studies of Bi and Kr inclusions in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoern Thoft, N.

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the results of experimental investigations of melting, solidification and growth of Bi and Kr inclusions made by ion implantation into aluminium. The experimental techniques used of for this study were x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering, ion channeling, and grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The x-ray diffraction signal from crystalline Bi inclusions in Al has been recorded as a function of temperature during heating to temperatures above the bulk melting point and cooling to room temperature. Data from these measurements have been fitted using models (developed by Pawlow and Wronski) for the size-dependent melting temperature of small particles, and size distributions for the inclusions have been determined in this way. Transmission electron microscopy has confirmed the melting and solidification of the Bi inclusions in the temperature ranges, in which these processes were observed by x-ray diffraction, establishing the facts that the inclusions melt below the bulk melting point and that a large supercooling is seen. Information about the amount and depth distribution of the Bi confined in the Al matrix has been derived from Rutherford backscattering measurements. Melting and solidification of Bi inclusions have been observed by means of ion channeling. The results of the investigations of bismuth inclusions in aluminium are compared to previous, similar results for lead inclusions in aluminium. Finally, preliminary experiments have confirmed that growth of Kr inclusions in Al can be observed using grazing-incidence small-angle scattering. (au) (13 tabs., 46 ills., 77 refs.)

  9. Stellar laboratories . VIII. New Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths and the Al, Zr, and Xe abundances in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Gamrath, S.; Quinet, P.; Löbling, L.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-03-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: To search for zirconium and xenon lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289, new Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths were calculated. This allows, for the first time, determination of the Zr abundance in white dwarf (WD) stars and improvement of the Xe abundance determinations. Methods: We calculated Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions of Zr and Xe in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of their lines exhibited in UV observations of the hot WDs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: We identified one new Zr iv, 14 new Zr v, and ten new Zr vi lines in the spectrum of RE 0503-289. Zr was detected for the first time in a WD. We measured a Zr abundance of -3.5 ± 0.2 (logarithmic mass fraction, approx. 11 500 times solar). We identified five new Xe vi lines and determined a Xe abundance of -3.9 ± 0.2 (approx. 7500 times solar). We determined a preliminary photospheric Al abundance of -4.3 ± 0.2 (solar) in RE 0503-289. In the spectra of G191-B2B, no Zr line was identified. The strongest Zr iv line (1598.948 Å) in our model gave an upper limit of -5.6 ± 0.3 (approx. 100 times solar). No Xe line was identified in the UV spectrum of G191-B2B and we confirmed the previously determined upper limit of -6.8 ± 0.3 (ten times solar). Conclusions: Precise measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for advanced NLTE stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Zr iv-vi and Xe vi-vii line profiles in the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289 were simultaneously well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. Based on observations

  10. Xe-133 accumulation in fatty liver: hepatic uptake and washout correlated with pulmonary and mesenteric retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Xe-133 uptake in patients with fatty livers is described and compared with uptake and retention in lungs, blood and mesenteric fat and with normal hepatic uptake. In the absence of obstructive lung disease or excessive obesity, Xe-133 uptake and retention is a valuable means of screening patients for the presence of fatty liver. Although non-specific for the etiology of fatty liver, the test is an effective and non-invasive method of detection which merits further application. (author)

  11. Damage evolution in Xe-ion irradiated rutile (TiO2) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.; Sickafus, K.E.; Evans, C.R.; Nastasi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Rutile (TiO 2 ) single crystals with (110) orientation were irradiated with 360 keV Xe 2+ ions at 300 K to fluences ranging from 2 x 10 19 to 1 x 10 20 Xe/m 2 . Irradiated samples were analyzed using: (1) Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with ion channeling analysis (RBS/C); and (2) cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Upon irradiation to a fluence of 2 x 10 19 Xe/m 2 , the sample thickness penetrated by the implanted ions was observed to consist of three distinct layers: (1) a defect-free layer at the surface (thickness about 12 nm) exhibiting good crystallinity; (2) a second layer with a low density of relatively large-sized defects; and (3) a third layer consisting of a high concentration of small defects. After the fluence was increased to 7 x 10 19 Xe/m 2 , a buried amorphous layer was visible by XTEM. The thickness of the amorphous layer was found to increase with increasing Xe ion fluence. The location of this buried amorphous layer was found to coincide with the measured peak in the Xe concentration (measured by RBS/C), rather than with the theoretical maximum in the displacement damage profile. This observation suggests the implanted Xe ions may serve as nucleation sites for the amorphization transformation. The total thickness of the damaged microstructure due to ion irradiation was always found to be much greater than the projected range of the Xe ions. This is likely due to point defect migration under the high stresses induced by ion implantation

  12. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  13. Atomistic simulations of thermodynamic properties of Xe gas bubbles in U10Mo fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang, E-mail: shenyang.hu@pnnl.gov; Setyawan, Wahyu; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2017-07-15

    Xe gas bubble superlattice formation is observed in irradiated uranium–10 wt% molybdenum (U10Mo) fuels. However, the thermodynamic properties of the bubbles (the relationship among bubble size, equilibrium Xe concentration, and bubble pressure) and the mechanisms of bubble superlattice formation are not well known. In this work, the molecular dynamics (MD) method is used to study these properties and mechanisms. The results provide important inputs for quantitative mesoscale models of gas bubble evolution and fuel performance. In the MD simulations, the embedded-atom method (EAM) potential of U10Mo-Xe [1] is employed. Initial gas bubbles with a low Xe concentration (underpressured) are generated in a body-centered cubic (bcc) U10Mo single crystal. Then Xe atoms are sequentially added into the bubbles one by one, and the evolution of pressure and dislocation emission around the bubbles is analyzed. The relationship between pressure, equilibrium Xe concentration, and radius of the bubbles is established. It was found that an overpressured gas bubble emits partial dislocations with a Burgers vector along the <111> direction and a slip plane of (11-2). Meanwhile, dislocation loop punch out was not observed. The overpressured bubble also induces an anisotropic stress field. A tensile stress was found along <110> directions around the bubble, favoring the nucleation and formation of a face-centered cubic bubble superlattice in bcc U10Mo fuels.

  14. High Sensitivity Detection of Xe Isotopes Via Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Reeder, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which includes a beta-gamma counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. The counting geometry is nearly 100% for beta and conversion electrons. The resolution in the pulse height spectrum from the plastic scintillator is sufficient to observe distinct peaks for specific conversion electrons. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse height spectra of gamma energy versus beta energy are obtained. Each of the four xenon isotopes has a distinctive signature in the two-dimensional energy array. The details of the counting system, examples of two-dimensional beta-gamma data, and operational experience with this counting system will be described

  15. Imaging Human Brain Perfusion with Inhaled Hyperpolarized 129Xe MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhwesha R; Stewart, Neil J; Griffiths, Paul D; Norquay, Graham; Wild, Jim M

    2018-02-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of directly imaging perfusion of human brain tissue by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with inhaled hyperpolarized xenon 129 ( 129 Xe). Materials and Methods In vivo imaging with 129 Xe was performed in three healthy participants. The combination of a high-yield spin-exchange optical pumping 129 Xe polarizer, custom-built radiofrequency coils, and an optimized gradient-echo MR imaging protocol was used to achieve signal sensitivity sufficient to directly image hyperpolarized 129 Xe dissolved in the human brain. Conventional T1-weighted proton (hydrogen 1 [ 1 H]) images and perfusion images by using arterial spin labeling were obtained for comparison. Results Images of 129 Xe uptake were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 31 ± 9 and demonstrated structural similarities to the gray matter distribution on conventional T1-weighted 1 H images and to perfusion images from arterial spin labeling. Conclusion Hyperpolarized 129 Xe MR imaging is an injection-free means of imaging the perfusion of cerebral tissue. The proposed method images the uptake of inhaled xenon gas to the extravascular brain tissue compartment across the intact blood-brain barrier. This level of sensitivity is not readily available with contemporary MR imaging methods. © RSNA, 2017.

  16. Atomistic simulations of thermodynamic properties of Xe gas bubbles in U10Mo fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenyang; Setyawan, Wahyu; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2017-07-01

    Xe gas bubble superlattice formation is observed in irradiated uranium-10 wt% molybdenum (U10Mo) fuels. However, the thermodynamic properties of the bubbles (the relationship among bubble size, equilibrium Xe concentration, and bubble pressure) and the mechanisms of bubble superlattice formation are not well known. In this work, the molecular dynamics (MD) method is used to study these properties and mechanisms. The results provide important inputs for quantitative mesoscale models of gas bubble evolution and fuel performance. In the MD simulations, the embedded-atom method (EAM) potential of U10Mo-Xe [1] is employed. Initial gas bubbles with a low Xe concentration (underpressured) are generated in a body-centered cubic (bcc) U10Mo single crystal. Then Xe atoms are sequentially added into the bubbles one by one, and the evolution of pressure and dislocation emission around the bubbles is analyzed. The relationship between pressure, equilibrium Xe concentration, and radius of the bubbles is established. It was found that an overpressured gas bubble emits partial dislocations with a Burgers vector along the direction and a slip plane of (11-2). Meanwhile, dislocation loop punch out was not observed. The overpressured bubble also induces an anisotropic stress field. A tensile stress was found along directions around the bubble, favoring the nucleation and formation of a face-centered cubic bubble superlattice in bcc U10Mo fuels.

  17. A method for determining leakage of 133Xe gas from septum-sealed glass vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, J.R.; Borak, T.B.; Pellicciarini, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The authors have developed a method for determining the leakage of 133 Xe gas from septum-sealed glass vials that are supplied for medical examinations. Twenty vials each originally containing 370 MPq of 133 Xe and 20 vials each originally containing 740 MBq 133 Xe were measured daily for 26 d. Retention of 133 Xe within the vial was modeled as a first order process with a constant rate coefficient, λ T . The value of λ T was estimated for each vial using a regression analysis. The leakage rate, λ L , was then determined assuming that λ L = λ L + λ r where λ r represents the physical decay of 133 Xe. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using uncertainties in the estimates of each vial to obtain the mean and tails of the distribution for the average leakage rate, bar λ L . the average leakage rate for the complete sample of vials was 0.00007 d -1 with an upper, one-sided, 95% confidence limit of 0.0011 d -1 . Uncertainties in the published values of λ r for 133 Xe made a significant contribution to the uncertainties of the leakage rate for this sample of vials. The methods described can be applied to other situations where leakage of radioactive materials may be of concern

  18. Adsorptive separation of xenon/krypton mixtures using a zirconium-based metal-organic framework with high hydrothermal and radioactive stabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Joon; Yoon, Tae-Ung; Kim, Ah-Reum; Kim, Seo-Yul; Cho, Kyung-Ho; Hwang, Young Kyu; Yeon, Jei-Won; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2016-12-15

    The separation of xenon/krypton mixtures is important for both environmental and industrial purposes. The potential of three hydrothermally stable MOFs (MIL-100(Fe), MIL-101(Cr), and UiO-66(Zr)) for use in Xe/Kr separation has been experimentally investigated. From the observed single-component Xe and Kr isotherms, isosteric heat of adsorption (Q st o ), and IAST-predicted Xe/Kr selectivities, we observed that UiO-66(Zr) has the most potential as an adsorbent among the three candidate MOFs. We performed dynamic breakthrough experiments with an adsorption bed filled with UiO-66(Zr) to evaluate further the potential of UiO-66(Zr) for Xe/Kr separation under mixture flow conditions. Remarkably, the experimental breakthrough curves show that UiO-66(Zr) can efficiently separate the Xe/Kr mixture. Furthermore, UiO-66(Zr) maintains most of its Xe and Kr uptake capacity, as well as its crystallinity and internal surface area, even after exposure to gamma radiation (2kGy) for 7h and aging for 16 months under ambient conditions. This result indicates that UiO-66(Zr) can be considered to be a potential adsorbent for Xe/Kr mixtures under both ambient and radioactive conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New method of 85Kr reduction in a noble gas based low-background detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, D. Yu.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Burenkov, A. A.; Hall, C.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Simakov, G. E.

    2017-04-01

    Krypton-85 is an anthropogenic beta-decaying isotope which produces low energy backgrounds in dark matter and neutrino experiments, especially those based upon liquid xenon. Several technologies have been developed to reduce the Kr concentration in such experiments. We propose to augment those separation technologies by first adding to the xenon an 85Kr-free sample of krypton in an amount much larger than the natural krypton that is already present. After the purification system reduces the total Kr concentration to the same level, the final 85Kr concentration will be reduced even further by the dilution factor. A test cell for measurement of the activity of various Kr samples has been assembled, and the activity of 25-year-old krypton has been measured. The measured activity agrees well with the expected activity accounting for the 85Kr abundance of the earth's atmosphere in 1990 and the half-life of the isotope. Additional tests with a Kr sample produced in the year 1944 (before the atomic era) have been done in order to demonstrate the sensitivity of the test cell.

  20. New method of 85Kr reduction in a noble gas based low-background detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, D.Yu.; Burenkov, A.A.; Kovalenko, A.G.; Simakov, G.E.; Bolozdynya, A.I.; Hall, C.; Kuzminov, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Krypton-85 is an anthropogenic beta-decaying isotope which produces low energy backgrounds in dark matter and neutrino experiments, especially those based upon liquid xenon. Several technologies have been developed to reduce the Kr concentration in such experiments. We propose to augment those separation technologies by first adding to the xenon an 85 Kr-free sample of krypton in an amount much larger than the natural krypton that is already present. After the purification system reduces the total Kr concentration to the same level, the final 85 Kr concentration will be reduced even further by the dilution factor. A test cell for measurement of the activity of various Kr samples has been assembled, and the activity of 25-year-old krypton has been measured. The measured activity agrees well with the expected activity accounting for the 85 Kr abundance of the earth's atmosphere in 1990 and the half-life of the isotope. Additional tests with a Kr sample produced in the year 1944 (before the atomic era) have been done in order to demonstrate the sensitivity of the test cell.

  1. Identification of Near-infrared [Se iii] and [Kr vi] Emission Lines in Planetary Nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, N. C.; Mashburn, A. L. [Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, 1601 Maple Street, Carrollton, GA 30118 (United States); Madonna, S.; García-Rojas, J.; Luridiana, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Butler, K. [Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Morisset, C. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20164, 04510 (Mexico); Roederer, I. U., E-mail: nsterlin@westga.edu, E-mail: awhite15@my.westga.edu, E-mail: vale@iaa.es, E-mail: smadonna@iac.es, E-mail: jogarcia@iac.es, E-mail: butler@usm.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: chris.morisset@gmail.com, E-mail: iur@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We identify [Se iii] 1.0994 μ m in the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5315 and [Kr vi] 1.2330 μ m in three PNe from spectra obtained with the Folded-Port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) spectrometer on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope. Se and Kr are the two most widely detected neutron-capture elements in astrophysical nebulae, and can be enriched by s -process nucleosynthesis in PN progenitor stars. The detection of [Se iii] 1.0994 μ m is particularly valuable when paired with observations of [Se iv] 2.2864 μ m, as it can be used to improve the accuracy of nebular Se abundance determinations, and allows Se ionization correction factor (ICF) schemes to be empirically tested for the first time. We present new effective collision strength calculations for Se{sup 2+} and Kr{sup 5+}, which we use to compute ionic abundances. In NGC 5315, we find that the Se abundance computed from Se{sup 3+}/H{sup +} is lower than that determined with ICFs that incorporate Se{sup 2+}/H{sup +}. We compute new Kr ICFs that take Kr{sup 5+}/H{sup +} into account, by fitting correlations found in grids of Cloudy models between Kr ionic fractions and those of more abundant elements, and use these to derive Kr abundances in four PNe. Observations of [Se iii] and [Kr vi] in a larger sample of PNe, with a range of excitation levels, are needed to rigorously test the ICF prescriptions for Se and our new Kr ICFs.

  2. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR50 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2009-02-01

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 939.33 m and 45.44 m deep drillholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in September - November 2008. The identification numbers of the drillholes are OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and washing water were 1135 m 3 and 20 m 3 in the drillholes OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B, respectively. The measured volume of the returning water in the drillhole OL-KR50 was 954 m 3 . The deviation of the drillholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor II. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 129.7 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 45.8 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.15. The main rock types were veined and diatexitic gneisses, pegmatitic granite and tonaliticgranodioritic-granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.0 pcs/m in drillhole OL KR50 and 3.6 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR50B. The average RQD values are 96.1 % and 94.3 %, respectively. 39 fractured zones were penetrated by drillhole OL-KR50 and four by drillhole OL-KR50B. (orig.)

  3. Inclusive J/$\\psi$ production in Xe-Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.44 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Ali, Yasir; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Anaam, Mustafa Naji; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Angeletti, Massimo; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Apadula, Nicole; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartsch, Esther; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhaduri, Partha Pratim; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhatt, Himani; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Antonio; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Soto Camacho, Rabi; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chang, Wan; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Chowdhury, Tasnuva; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Dani, Sanskruti; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Delsanto, Silvia; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Arteche Diaz, Raul; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Ding, Yanchun; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Van Doremalen, Lennart Vincent; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dudi, Sandeep; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dukhishyam, Mallick; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Ersdal, Magnus Rentsch; Espagnon, Bruno; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Faggin, Mattia; Faivre, Julien; 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Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Witt, William Edward; Xu, Ran; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zherebchevskii, Vladimir; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Ya; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    Inclusive J/$\\psi$ production is studied in Xe-Xe interactions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.44 TeV, using the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. The J/$\\psi$ meson is reconstructed via its decay into a muon pair, in the centre-of-mass rapidity interval 2.5 < y < 4 and down to zero transverse momentum. In this Letter, the nuclear modification factors $R_{AA}$ for inclusive J/$\\psi$, measured in the centrality range 0-90% as well as in the centrality intervals 0-20% and 20-90% are presented. The $R_{AA}$ values are compared to previously published results for Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV and to the calculation of a transport model. A good agreement is found between Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb results as well as between data and the model.

  4. Xe-135 and Sm-149 Isotopic Evolution Analysis Xesamo code; Analisis de la Evolucion Isotopica del Xe-135 y Sm-149. Programa Xesamo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R; Gallego, J; Martinez Fanegas, R

    1977-07-01

    In this report the time evolution analysis of the nuclides concentration Xe-135 and Sm-149 as a function of the neutron flux is carried out. The neutron flux may be any function of time. It is analyzed as well the reactivity changes associated with the xenon and samarium concentration variations. (Author) 5 refs.

  5. New stage of search for 2Κ(2ν) capture of 78Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavriljuk, Ju.M.; Gangapshev, A.M.; Gavrin, V.N.

    2006-01-01

    A technique to search for 2Κ capture of 78 Kr with large low-background proportional counter filled with an enriched in 78 Kr up to 99.8% at a pressure of 4.51 atm is described. The results of first measurements are presented. Analysis of data collected during 159 h yielded new limit to the half-life of 78 Kr with regard to 2Κ capture (T 1/2 ≥ 1.5 x 10 21 yr (90% C.L.)) [ru

  6. Adsorption properties of a molecular 5 A sieve for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardaszko, T.; Nidecka, J.

    1978-01-01

    The enrichment processes which are necessary at low-level 85 Kr determinations in the atmospheric air require the knowledge of adsorption properties of appropriate sorbing agents, such as a molecular 5A sieve. Following low-temperature adsorption, under specified conditions, of known amounts of 85 Kr diluted in the air, desorption was carried out and then the 85 Kr content in the temperature fraction as well as their total volume were determined. Distribution curves for the above quantities in fractions are presented. (author)

  7. Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško

    OpenAIRE

    Kortnik, Jože; Leskovar, Jože

    2015-01-01

    Review paper Received: October 25, 2013 Accepted: November 7, 2013 Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Ravnanje z mešanimi komunalnimi odpadki v Zbirnem centru Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Jože Kortnik1'*, Jože Leskovar2 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Mining and Geotechnology, Aškerčeva 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 2Kostak, d. d., Leskovška cesta 2a, 8270 Krško, Slovenia Correspo...

  8. Simple PVT quantitative method of Kr under high pure N2 condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuesong; Zhang Zibin; Wei Guanyi; Chen Liyun; Zhai Lihua

    2005-01-01

    A simple PVT quantitative method of Kr in the high pure N 2 was studied. Pressure, volume and temperature of the sample gas were measured by three individual methods to obtain the sum sample with food uncertainty. The ratio of Kr/N 2 could measured by GAM 400 quadrupole mass spectrometer. So the quantity of Kr could be calculated with the two measured data above. This method can be suited for quantitative analysis of other simple composed noble gas sample with high pure carrying gas. (authors)

  9. Dissolved stable noble gas measurements from primary water of Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcsu, L.; Molnar, M.; Szanto, Zs.; Svingor, E.; Futo, I.; Pinter, T.

    2001-01-01

    A sampling and measuring method of noble gases from the primary water circuit of a VVER type NPP was developed to provide relevant information about the kilter of heating rods and detailed additional information about some working parameters. The helium concentrations and 3 He/ 4 He ratios was used to estimate the content of tritium and alpha emitting isotopes of the primary water. By argon content measurements the air penetration and the required hydrazine amount for the oxygen absorption could be estimated with high accuracy. Continuous monitoring of the concentration and isotope ratios of Xe and Kr in the dissolved gas is proved to be a good tool for high sensitivity detection of small leakage of fuel elements. In case of block-3 xenon surplus was detected. The results indicate possible leakage of fuel rods.(author)

  10. Study of the spallation reactions 136Xe + p and 136Xe + 12C at 1 GeV per nucleon at the GSI facility (Darmstadt, Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbinet, T.

    2011-11-01

    The collision of 136 Xe with a proton and with 12 C at 1 GeV per nucleon of projectile kinetic energy in the center of mass has been studied in inverse kinematics using the SPALADIN experimental setup at the GSI facility. This manuscript describes the analysis of these collisions realized in spring 2009. The detection in coincidence of the final state fragments (projectile residues, neutrons and light charged fragments) with a large geometrical efficiency is provided by the inverse kinematics combined with a large aperture dipole magnet and large detectors. Such a coincidence, measured on an event basis, allows selecting, in a model independent way, the pre-fragment, the excited nuclear system formed after the intranuclear cascade as a function of its excitation energy. Hence, we were able to study the evolution of the pre-fragment deexcitation mechanism (evaporation of light particles, asymmetric binary decay, multiple fragmentation..) as a function of its excitation energy. The data of the 136 Xe + p reaction have been compared mainly to three deexcitation models (SMM, GEMINI++ and ABLA07) coupled to the intranuclear cascade code INCL4. Despite the relatively good and global agreement between these models and our data, significant discrepancies appeared concerning in particular the production of intermediate mass fragments (IMF). Comparison between the 136 Xe + 12 C and the 136 Xe + p data exhibits an important similarity in the deexcitation of the pre-fragments. This suggests that the nuclear cascade leads, for both targets, to similar pre-fragment types in the range of excitation energy (0 to 4 MeV per nucleon) common to both reactions. Higher excitation energies, reached only in the 136 Xe + 12 C reaction, show a qualitative difference in the deexcitation of the pre-fragment, with much higher multiplicities of IMF per event, increasing with the excitation energy. (author)

  11. Analysis of Selected Legacy 85Kr Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Legacy samples composed of 85Kr encapsulated in solid zeolite 5A material and five small metal tubes containing a mixture of the zeolite combined with a glass matrix resulting from hot isostatic pressing have been preserved. The samples were a result of krypton R&D encapsulation efforts in the late 1970s performed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These samples were shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in mid-FY 2014. Upon receipt the outer shipping package was opened, and the inner package, removed and placed in a radiological hood. The individual capsules were double bagged as they were removed from the inner shipping pig and placed into individual glass sample bottles for further analysis. The five capsules were then x-ray imaged. Capsules 1 and 4 appear intact and to contain an amorphous mass within the capsules. Capsule 2 clearly shows the saw marks on the capsule and a quantity of loose pellet or bead-like material remaining in the capsule. Capsule 3 shows similar bead-like material within the intact capsule. Capsule 5 had been opened at an undetermined time in the past. The end of this capsule appears to have been cut off, and there are additional saw marks on the side of the capsule. X-ray tomography allowed the capsules to be viewed along the three axes. Of most interest was determining whether there was any residual material in the closed end of Capsule 5. The images confirmed the presence of residual material within this capsule. The material appears to be compacted but still retains some of the bead-like morphology. Based on the nondestructive analysis (NDA) results, a proposed path forward was formulated to advance this effort toward the original goals of understanding the effects of extended storage on the waste form and package. Based on the initial NDA and the fact that there are at least two breached samples, it was proposed that exploratory tests be conducted with the breached specimens before opening the three intact

  12. Comparison of air space measurement imaged by CT, small-animal CT, and hyperpolarized Xe MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Aniseh; White, Steven; Santyr, Giles; Cunningham, Ian

    2005-04-01

    Lung disease is the third leading cause of death in the western world. Lung air volume measurements are thought to be early indicators of lung disease and markers in pharmaceutical research. The purpose of this work is to develop a lung phantom for assessing and comparing the quantitative accuracy of hyperpolarized xenon 129 magnetic resonance imaging (HP 129Xe MRI), conventional computed tomography (HRCT), and highresolution small-animal CT (μCT) in measuring lung gas volumes. We developed a lung phantom consisting of solid cellulose acetate spheres (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm diameter) uniformly packed in circulated air or HP 129Xe gas. Air volume is estimated based on simple thresholding algorithm. Truth is calculated from the sphere diameters and validated using μCT. While this phantom is not anthropomorphic, it enables us to directly measure air space volume and compare these imaging methods as a function of sphere diameter for the first time. HP 129Xe MRI requires partial volume analysis to distinguish regions with and without 129Xe gas and results are within %5 of truth but settling of the heavy 129Xe gas complicates this analysis. Conventional CT demonstrated partial-volume artifacts for the 1mm spheres. μCT gives the most accurate air-volume results. Conventional CT and HP 129Xe MRI give similar results although non-uniform densities of 129Xe require more sophisticated algorithms than simple thresholding. The threshold required to give the true air volume in both HRCT and μCT, varies with sphere diameters calling into question the validity of thresholding method.

  13. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  14. Hyperpolarized 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavngaard, Trine; Søgaard, Lise; Mortensen, J

    2005-01-01

    visual defect score (r=0.80, pemphysema (pulmonary function test and HRCT). The defect scores were largest on 81mKr SPECT (the score on HP 3He MRI...... was to compare ventilation imaging methods in 26 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and nine lung healthy volunteers. METHODS: HP 3He MRI, 81mKr single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests were performed....... The three scans were scored visually as percentage of non-ventilated/diseased lung, and a computer-based objective measure of the ventilated volume in HP 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT and an emphysema index in HRCT were calculated. RESULTS: We found a good correlation between HP 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT for both...

  15. Noor koreograaf Krõõt Juurak sai imel sabast kinni / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2006-01-01

    Tantsulavastusest "Once upon" Kanuti Gildi saalis. Esietendus 12. okt. Idee ja esitus Krõõt Juurak. Valminud prooviperioodide tulemusel Viinis, PAFis Prantsusmaal ja Tallinnas. Etendub 6. dets. ka Austrias Dietheater Küntslerhausis Viinis

  16. Quadrupole collectivity beyond N = 50 in neutron- rich Se and Kr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Brandon; Gade, A.; Barofsky, D.; Bender, P. C.; Bowry, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Kemper, K. W.; Lipschutz, S.; Lunderberg, E.; Sachmpazidi, N.; Terpstra, N.; Walters, W. B.; Weisshaar, D.; Westerberg, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wimmer, K.

    2017-09-01

    We will present results on measuring the B (E 2 ;01+ ->2n+) strength for the neutron-rich 88,90Kr and 86Se isotopes from intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation. The electric quadrupole transition strengths to the first 2+ state complete, with considerably improved uncertainties, the evolution of quadrupole collectivity in the Kr and Se isotopes approaching N = 60 , for which 90Kr and 86Se had previously been the most uncertain. We also report significant excitation strength to several higher lying 2+ states in the krypton isotopes. The results confirm shell model calculations in the π (fpg) - ν (sdg) shell with only a minimally tuned shell model setup that is based on a nucleon-nucleon interaction derived from effective field theory with effective charges adjusted to 86Kr.

  17. Production and de-excitation modes of hot nuclei in the 84Kr + 12C, 84Kr + 27Al, 84Kr + Nat Ti reactions at 26.4, 34.4 and 45.4 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure-Ramstein, B.

    1988-01-01

    The inclusive characteristics of nuclear fragments, of mass greater than 10 uma, from KR + C, Al and Ti reactions at 25, 35 and 45 MeV/u, are investigated. The inverse kinematic method is applied. The analysis of velocity and fragment (mass [fr

  18. Gamma-ray multiplicity moments from deeply inelastic collisions of 86Kr and 144Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.R.; Folkmann, F.; Hansen, O.; Nathan, O.; Trautner, N.; Videlbaek, F.; Werf, S.Y.v.d.; Britt, H.C.; Chestnut, R.P.; Freiesleben, H.; Puehlhofer, F.

    1978-01-01

    First, second, and third moments of gamma-ray multiplicity distributions from deeply inelastic collisions have been measured for the system 8 6Kr on 1 44Sm at 490-MeV Kr energy. The average gamma-ray multiplicities are approx. = 21, independent of reaction angle and fragment charge. The multiplicity distributions are broad, with standard deviations of ν approx. = 10, and they have a negative skewness

  19. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR57 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2012-07-01

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 401.71 m and 45.01 m deep drillholes, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, at Olkiluoto in September 2011 - January 2012. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling, flushing and washing water were 350 m3 and 30 m3 in the drillholes OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, respectively. The measured volumes of the returning water in the drillholes were 328 m 3 and 16.8 m 3 , respectively. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 123.9 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 42.6 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.23. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, mica gneiss and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.5 pcs/m in drillhole OL-KR57 and 3.3 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR57B. The average RQD values are 95.0 % and 93.0 %. Seven separate fractured zones were interpreted from OL-KR57 and three fractured zones from OL-KR57B. (orig.)

  20. Peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus WalKR-dependent cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Delaune

    Full Text Available The WalKR two-component system is essential for viability of Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen. We have shown that WalKR acts as the master controller of peptidoglycan metabolism, yet none of the identified regulon genes explain its requirement for cell viability. Transmission electron micrographs revealed cell wall thickening and aberrant division septa in the absence of WalKR, suggesting its requirement may be linked to its role in coordinating cell wall metabolism and cell division. We therefore tested whether uncoupling autolysin gene expression from WalKR-dependent regulation could compensate for its essential nature. Uncoupled expression of genes encoding lytic transglycosylases or amidases did not restore growth to a WalKR-depleted strain. We identified only two WalKR-regulon genes whose expression restored cell viability in the absence of WalKR: lytM and ssaA. Neither of these two genes are essential under our conditions and a ΔlytM ΔssaA mutant does not present any growth defect. LytM is a glycyl-glycyl endopeptidase, hydrolyzing the pentaglycine interpeptide crossbridge, and SsaA belongs to the CHAP amidase family, members of which such as LysK and LytA have been shown to have D-alanyl-glycyl endopeptidase activity, cleaving between the crossbridge and the stem peptide. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation through crossbridge hydrolysis plays a crucial role in the essential requirement of the WalKR system for cell viability.