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Sample records for stable kidney transplant

  1. Filtration Markers, Cardiovascular Disease, Mortality, and Kidney Outcomes in Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients: The FAVORIT Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M C; Weiner, D E; Bostom, A G; Carpenter, M A; Inker, L A; Jarolim, P; Joseph, A A; Kusek, J W; Pesavento, T; Pfeffer, M A; Rao, M; Solomon, S D; Levey, A S

    2017-09-01

    Cystatin C and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) are filtration markers associated with adverse outcomes in nontransplant populations, sometimes with stronger associations than for creatinine. We evaluated associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate from cystatin C (eGFR cys ), B2M (eGFR B 2M ), and creatinine (eGFR cr ) with cardiovascular outcomes, mortality, and kidney failure in stable kidney transplant recipients using a case-cohort study nested within the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) Trial. A random subcohort was selected (N = 508; mean age 51.6 years, median transplant vintage 4 years, 38% women, 23.6% nonwhite race) with enrichment for cardiovascular events (N = 306; 54 within the subcohort), mortality (N = 208; 68 within the subcohort), and kidney failure (N = 208; 52 within the subcohort). Mean eGFR cr , eGFR cys , and eGFR B 2M were 46.0, 43.8, and 48.8 mL/min/1.73m 2 , respectively. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios for eGFR cys and eGFR B 2M mortality; and 9.49 (4.28-21.00) and 15.53 (6.99-34.51; both p mortality, and kidney failure in stable kidney transplant recipients. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Menu Search Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health ... Tests for Transplant Care After Kidney Transplant Common Organ Donation and Transplantation Terms The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is the ...

  3. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... place a healthy kidney into a person with kidney failure . ... Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney ... Becker Y, Witkowski P. Kidney and pancreas transplantation. In: Townsend CM ... Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  4. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type matches or is compatible to your own. Blood-type incompatible transplants are also possible but require additional medical treatment before and after transplant to reduce the risk of organ rejection. These are known as ABO incompatible kidney transplants. ...

  5. Kidney-Pancreas Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Menu Search Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health ... Tests for Transplant Care After Kidney Transplant Common Organ Donation and Transplantation Terms The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is the ...

  6. Efficacy and safety of febuxostat in the treatment of hyperuricemia in stable kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofue T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tadashi Sofue,1 Masashi Inui,2 Taiga Hara,1 Yoko Nishijima,1 Kumiko Moriwaki,1 Yushi Hayashida,3 Nobufumi Ueda,3 Akira Nishiyama,4 Yoshiyuki Kakehi,3 Masakazu Kohno1 1Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Cardiorenal and Cerebrovascular Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, 2Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, 3Department of Urology, 4Department of Pharmacology, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan Background: Post-transplant hyperuricemia (PTHU, defined as serum uric acid concentration ≥7.0 mg/dL or need for treatment with allopurinol or benzbromarone, reduces long-term allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients. Febuxostat, a new nonpurine selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is well tolerated in patients with moderate renal impairment. However, its efficacy and safety in kidney recipients with PTHU is unclear. We therefore assessed the efficacy and safety of febuxostat in stable kidney transplant recipients with PTHU. Methods: Of 93 stable adult kidney transplant recipients, 51 were diagnosed with PTHU (PTHU group and 42 were not (NPTHU group. Of the 51 patients with PTHU, 26 were treated with febuxostat (FX group and 25 were not (NFX group, at the discretion of each attending physician. One-year changes in serum uric acid concentrations, rates of achievement of target uric acid (<6.0 mg/dL, estimated glomerular filtration rates in allografts, and adverse events were retrospectively analyzed in the FX, NFX, and NPTHU groups. Results: The FX group showed significantly greater decreases in serum uric acid (-2.0±1.1 mg/dL versus 0.0±0.8 mg/dL per year, P<0.01 and tended to show a higher rate of achieving target uric acid levels (50% versus 24%; odds ratio 3.17 [95% confidence interval 0.96–10.5], P=0.08 than the NFX group. Although baseline allograft estimated glomerular filtration rates tended to be lower in the FX group than in the NFX group (40±14 mL/min/1.73 m2 versus 47±19 mL/min/1.73 m2

  7. Mineral metabolism disorders, vertebral fractures and aortic calcifications in stable kidney transplant recipients: The role of gender (EMITRAL study).

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    Torres, Armando; Torregrosa, Vicens; Marcen, Roberto; Campistol, Josep María; Arias, Manuel; Hernández, Domingo; Fernández, Constantino; Esforzado, Nuria; Paschoalin, Raphael; Pérez, Nuria; García, Ana Isabel; Del Amo, Montserrat; Pomés, Jaume; González Rinne, Ana; Marrero, Domingo; Pérez, Estefanía; Henríquez, Fernando; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Silva, Irene; López, Verónica; Perello, Manuel; Ramos, David; Beneyto, Isabel; Cruzado, José María; Martínez Castelao, Alberto; Bravo, Juan; Rodríguez, Minerva; Díaz, Carmen; Crespo, Josep; Anaya, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Cubero, Juan José; Pascual, Pilar; Romero, Rafael; Andrés Belmonte, Amado; Checa, María Dolores; Jiménez, Carlos; Escuin, Fernando; Crespo, Marta; Mir, Marisa; Gómez, Gonzalo; Bayes, Beatriz; González, María José; Gutiérrez, Alex; Cuberes, Marta; Rodríguez Benoit, Alberto; García, Teresa; Llamas, Francisco; Ortega, Agustín; Conde, José Luis; Gómez Alamillo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between mineral metabolism disorders, bone fractures and vascular calcifications in kidney transplant recipients has not been established. We performed a cross-sectional study in 727 stable recipients from 28 Spanish transplant clinics. Mineral metabolism parameters, the semi-quantification of vertebral fractures and abdominal aortic calcifications were determined centrally. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD3D deficiency is more common among female kidney transplant recipients at earlier CKD-T stages, and it contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Prevalent vertebral fractures are only related to high serum PTH levels in female recipients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. [Promoting Living Kidney Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best approach for treating patients with end stage renal disease, offering patients the best chance of returning to normal health. While the techniques used in kidney transplantation surgery are mature and highly successful, there is a severe shortage of donor organs. Statistics show a serious imbalance between organ donations and patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. Moreover, evidence from empirical studies has shown a better transplantation outcome for patients who receive living donor transplantation than for those who receive organs from cadavers. Although using relatives as donors offers an effective way to reduce the problem of organ shortage, this strategy faces many challenges and many other factors affect the promotion of living donor transplantation. This article elaborates how cultural and psychological factors, kidney transplantation awareness, and ethics and laws impact upon living kidney donations and then proposes coping strategies for promoting living kidney transplantation.

  9. Once-Daily Tacrolimus Extended-Release Formulation: 1 Year after Conversion in Stable Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients

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    Lars Pape

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is speculated that a once-daily dosage of immunosuppression can increase adherence and thereby graft survival. Until now, there have been no studies on once-daily use of Tacrolimus extended-release formulation (TAC-ER in children following pediatric kidney transplantation. In 11 stable pediatric kidney recipients >10 years, efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a switch to TAC-ER were observed over one year. Adherence was determined by use of the BAASIS-Scale Interview and comparison of individual variability of Tacrolimus trough levels. Over the observation period, two acute rejections were observed in one girl with nonadherence and repeated Tacrolimus trough levels of 0 ng/m. Beside this, there were no acute rejections in this trial. TAC dose was increased in 3/11 patients and decreased in 2/11 patients within the course of the study. Six patients did not require a dose adjustment. All but one patient had a maximum of 1 dose change during therapy. Mean Tacrolimus dose, trough levels, and Glomerular filtration rates were also stable. Adherence, as measured by BAASIS-Scale Interview and coefficient of variation of Tacrolimus trough levels, was good at all times. It is concluded that conversion to Tac-ER is safe in low-risk children following pediatric kidney transplantation.

  10. Vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae does not induce antibodies against HLA or MICA in clinically stable kidney transplant recipients.

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    Lindemann, Monika; Heinemann, Falko M; Horn, Peter A; Witzke, Oliver

    2013-10-01

    There are concerns in the community that immune activation after vaccination could lead to (subclinical) rejection. Our aim was to define if pneumococcal vaccination induced HLA antibodies using highly sensitive methods. Forty-nine kidney transplant recipients were immunized with Pneumovax 23. The median interval between transplantation and vaccination was 6.5 years, the median serum creatinine concentration 1.3, 1.3 and 1.4 mg/dL pre-vaccination, at month 1 and 15 post-vaccination, respectively. In none of the patients biopsy-proven acute rejection was diagnosed within three years post-vaccination. Pneumococcal, HLA class I and II and major histocompatibility class I-related chain A (MICA) antibodies were determined by Luminex™ technology (xMAP™ Pneumococcal Immunity Panel and LABScreen™ Mixed beads, respectively) and HLA antibodies also by ELISA (Lambda Antigen Tray™). While pneumococcal antibodies were significantly higher at month 1 and 15 post- vs. pre-vaccination (p<0.0001 each), HLA/MICA antibodies remained unchanged as determined by Luminex™ and ELISA. Positive Luminex™ reactions were present in 63%, 67% and 63% (HLA class I), 47%, 47% and 55% (HLA class II) and 29%, 29% and 29% (MICA) pre-vaccination, at month 1 and 15, respectively. In clinically stable kidney transplant recipients there is no evidence for an increase in HLA antibodies after pneumococcal vaccination. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Switching Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients to a Generic Tacrolimus Is Feasible and Safe, but It Must Be Monitored

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    Fernando González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tacrolimus is the primary immunosuppressive drug used in kidney transplant patients. Replacing brand name products with generics is a controversial issue that we studied after a Chilean Ministry of Health mandate to implement such a switch. Methods. Forty-one stable Prograf (Astellas receiving kidney transplant patients were switched to a generic tacrolimus (Sandoz in a 1 : 1 dose ratio and were followed up for up to 8 months. All other drugs were maintained as per normal practice. Results. Neither tacrolimus doses nor their trough blood levels changed significantly after the switch, but serum creatinine did: 1.62±0.90 versus 1.75±0.92 mg/dL (p<0.001. At the same time, five graft biopsies were performed, and two of them showed cellular acute rejection. There were nine infectious episodes treated satisfactorily with proper therapies. No patient or graft was lost during the follow-up time period. Conclusion. Switching from brand name tacrolimus to a generic tacrolimus (Sandoz is feasible and appears to be safe, but it must be monitored carefully by treating physicians.

  12. Mineral metabolism disorders, vertebral fractures and aortic calcifications in stable kidney transplant recipients: The role of gender (EMITRAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Torres

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is more common among female kidney transplant recipients at earlier CKD-T stages, and it contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Prevalent vertebral fractures are only related to high serum PTH levels in female recipients.

  13. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

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    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clearly it has advantages over other organ procurementsystems primarily that thousands in need do not diewhile waiting for a compatible donor.In the present review I discuss the history of renal transplantationin Iran, "Iranian model" protocol, the situation ofIran’s kidney transplantation from either living or deceaseddonors compared with the Middle East countries, and our experiencesof unrelated renal transplantation.

  14. Everolimus in kidney transplantation

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    Cooper JE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available James E Cooper¹, Uwe Christians², Alexander C Wiseman¹¹Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Transplant Center, ²iC42 Integrated Solutions in Systems Biology for Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Everolimus is a novel target of rapamycin (mTOR-I analog that has recently been approved in combination with cyclosporine A and steroids for use in the prevention of organ rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Compared with rapamycin, everolimus is characterized by a shorter half-life and improved bioavailability. Prior to US Food and Drug Administration approval, a number of Phase II and III clinical trials were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of everolimus in combination with calcineurin inhibitors for preventing acute rejection and promoting allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients. In this report, we review the pharmacokinetic properties of everolimus, the clinical efficacy studies that led to its approval for use in kidney transplantation, as well as reported data on patient safety and tolerability associated with its use.Keywords: mTOR inhibitors, kidney transplantation, everolimus

  15. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

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    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  16. REPEAT KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

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    A. I. Sushkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, kidney transplantation is the best approach of renal replacement therapy for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease that significantly improves the quality and length of life. Advances in the field of organ donation, immunosuppression, transplant surgery and immunology have improved short-term graft and patient survival. But the long-term graft survival remains static over last two decades. The disparity between low graft and high patient long-term survival led to increasing number of transplant recipients with failed grafts. Repeat renal transplant is presumed to be a good option for many patients losing their grafts, but it is associated with higher complication rates. Unfortunately, there are no evidence-based recommendations or guidelines for renal retransplantation procedure. This review is based on 100 scientifi c publications related to various aspects of the kidney retransplantation and provides the recent data on this matter.

  17. Native kidney reincarnation following a failed transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.; Roberts, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 51-year-old woman with end stage renal failure secondary to Haemolytic Uraemic syndrome underwent a cadaveric renal transplant. A routine post transplant DTPA scan was performed which demonstrated satisfactory renal transplant perfusion and function. Incidental note was made of tracer uptake in the pelvis in the mid-line, which was suspected to be a uterine fibroid. This was confirmed on ultrasonography and at surgery. One week post transplantation the patient became acutely unwell and at laparotomy a perforated diverticular abscess was drained. Intraoperatively the transplant kidney was examined and the surgeon thought there was a area of infarction. This was confirmed on biopsy. As the patient's creatinine was rising a repeat DTPA study was performed. Perfusion and function of the transplant kidney was virtually absent while Doppler studies showed no flow. The patient however continued to produce urine and the creatinine was stable. Subsequently a mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG) 3 study was performed which again confirmed absent perfusion and function by the the transplanted kidney as well as the previous noted uterine fibroid. The native kidneys however demonstrated good perfusion and function. The patient's renal function remained stable and she did not require dialysis. A necrotic infarcted transplant kidney was removed uneventfully. This case illustrates the importance of imaging the native kidneys as well as the transplant kidney when there are puzzling clinical features. The presumed cause of the recovery of native renal function was the immunosuppression given for the transplant. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...... transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months. RESULTS: One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T...

  19. Body image in kidney transplantation.

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    De Pasquale, C; Pistorio, M L; Sorbello, M; Parrinello, L; Corona, D; Gagliano, M; Giuffrida, G; Giaquinta, A; Sinagra, N; Zerbo, D; Veroux, P; Veroux, M

    2010-05-01

    Psychologic disturbances are becoming more common in kidney transplantation, owing to effects of immunosuppressive therapy. In this study, we explored the incidence and specifity of psychopathology among kidney transplant patients. Twenty kidney transplant recipients underwent the Machover Draw-A-person test to detect significant variables (V1=V6) hypothetically related to chronologic age, education, years from transplantation, and gender differences. Emotional coarctation (V1) in the sense of "mental rigidity," "egocentrism," and "hypercontrol" were present in all transplant recipients (100%), followed by difficulty in interpersonal relationships (V3; 70%) and anxiety (V5; 70%). This research confirmed the hypothesis that transplantation can display a potential risk to the psychologic balance of the patient. Psychologic evaluation may be a fundamental step together with surgical aspects and management of immunosuppression to achieve well-being of kidney transplant recipients. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pediatric kidney transplantation: a review

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    Sharma A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Amit Sharma, Rajesh Ramanathan, Marc Posner, Robert A Fisher Hume-Lee Transplant Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: Pediatric kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for children with end-stage renal disease. The most common indications for transplantation in children are renal developmental anomalies, obstructive uropathy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Living donor kidney transplants are often performed pre-emptively and offer excellent graft function. Policy changes in deceased-donor kidney allocation have increased the proportion of such transplants in pediatric recipients. Adequate pretransplant workup along with evaluation of urologic abnormalities is imperative in achieving good outcomes. Overall, patient and graft outcomes after kidney transplantation have improved, with five-year deceased donor and living donor graft survivals of 78.8% and 84.3%, respectively. Improvements in induction and maintenance immunosuppression have contributed to the gradual improvement in outcomes. Unique challenges in pediatric recipients include increased graft thrombosis, adverse growth, and abnormal development relating to immunosuppression, increased rejection due to nonadherence, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and post-transplant malignancy. This review focuses on the current practices and outcomes in pediatric kidney transplantation in North America. We discuss the indications for transplantation, the evaluation process, some key surgical and immunologic considerations, and the common risk factors for graft dysfunction. Keywords: pediatric kidney transplantation, end-stage renal disease, dialysis, organ donors, immunosuppression

  1. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO-incompatible ......INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...... transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months. RESULTS: One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T...

  2. [Metabolic syndrome after kidney transplantation].

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    Nedbálková, Marta; Svojanovský, Jan; Trnavský, Karel; Kuman, Milan; Jarkovský, Jiří; Karpíšek, Michal; Souček, Miroslav

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Higher risk of the metabolic syndrome and its components in patients after kidney transplantation is caused by immunosuppressive therapy. THE AIM OF OUR STUDY was to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in kidney transplant recipients and to analyse their influence on allograft function and albuminuria. In the study we monitored 69 patients after cadaveric kidney transplantation. The prevalence of the meta-bolic syndrome was 61.3 % 3 years after kidney transplantation. The prevalence of new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation was 27 % and that of abdominal obesity 59.7 % of patients. The age of kidney transplant recipients with the metabolic syndrome was higher than of these without it, but not statistically significant. The age of kidney transplant recipients with new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation was significantly higher, 54.0 (35.0; 69.0) years, than in patients without it, 45.5 (27.0; 60.0) years, OR (95% IS) 1.116 (1.031; 1.207), p = 0.006.The number of components of the metabolic syndrome was negatively correlated with the graft function (rs -0,275, p = 0,031). In patients with impaired renal function with estimated glomerular filtration (using MDRD equation) metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridaemia was significantly higher. Chronic allograft dysfunction was predicted by donor age, delayed allograft function, rejection, low level of HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperuricaemia. Hyperuricaemia was the only significant predictor of allograft dysfunction independently of the presence of delayed allograft function, rejection episodes and donor age. The metabolic syndrome, elevation of apolipoprotein B and nonHDL-cholesterol and increased systolic blood pressure were associated with albuminuria. Higher levels of apolipoprotein B and total cholesterol were independent predictors of increased albumin-creatinine ratio. Obesity

  3. Perspectives of Older Kidney Transplant Recipients on Kidney Transplantation.

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    Pinter, Jule; Hanson, Camilla S; Chapman, Jeremy R; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Schell, Jane O; Tong, Allison

    2017-03-07

    Older kidney transplant recipients are susceptible to cognitive impairment, frailty, comorbidities, immunosuppression-related complications, and chronic graft failure, however, there has been limited focus on their concerns and expectations related to transplantation. This study aims to describe the perspectives of older kidney transplant recipients about their experience of kidney transplantation, self-management, and treatment goals to inform strategies and interventions that address their specific needs. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 kidney transplant recipients aged 65-80 years from five renal units in Australia. Transcripts were analyzed thematically. Six themes were identified: restoring vitality of youth (with subthemes of revived mindset for resilience, embracing enjoyment in life, drive for self-actualization); persisting through prolonged recovery (yielding to aging, accepting functional limitations, pushing the limit, enduring treatment responsibilities); imposing sicknesses (combatting devastating comorbidities, painful restrictions, emerging disillusionment, anxieties about accumulating side effects, consuming treatment burden); prioritizing graft survival (privileged with a miracle, negotiating risks for longevity, enacting a moral duty, preserving the last opportunity); confronting health deterioration (vulnerability and helplessness, narrowing focus to immediate concerns, uncertainty of survival); and value of existence (purpose through autonomy, refusing the burden of futile treatment, staying alive by all means). Older kidney transplant recipients felt able to enjoy life and strived to live at their newly re-established potential and capability, which motivated them to protect their graft. However, some felt constrained by slow recuperation and overwhelmed by unexpected comorbidities, medication-related side effects, and health decline. Our findings suggest the need to prepare and support older recipients for self

  4. Cancer rates after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Ulrik; Bistrup, Claus; Marckmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a 3-5-fold increased cancer risk in kidney allograft recipients compared with the general population. Our aim was to estimate cancer frequencies among kidney allograft recipients who were transplanted in 1997-2000 and who were immunosuppressed according to a more...

  5. Cancer rates after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Ulrik; Bistrup, Claus; Marckmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a 3-5-fold increased cancer risk in kidney allograft recipients compared with the general population. Our aim was to estimate cancer frequencies among kidney allograft recipients who were transplanted in 1997-2000 and who were immunosuppressed according to a more mod...

  6. Kidney transplantation in obese patients

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    Tran, Minh-Ha; Foster, Clarence E; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Ichii, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that in 2014, over 600 million people met criteria for obesity. In 2011, over 30% of individuals undergoing kidney transplant had a body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m2 or greater. A number of recent studies have confirmed the relationship between overweight/obesity and important comorbidities in kidney transplant patients. As with non-transplant surgeries, the rate of wound and soft tissue complications are increased following transplant as is the incidence of delayed graft function. These two issues appear to contribute to longer length of stay compared to normal BMI. New onset diabetes after transplant and cardiac outcomes also appear to be increased in the obese population. The impact of obesity on patient survival after kidney transplantation remains controversial, but appears to mirror the impact of extremes of BMI in non-transplant populations. Early experience with (open and laparoscopic) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy support excellent weight loss (in the range of 50%-60% excess weight lost at 1 year), but experts have recommended the need for further studies. Long term nutrient deficiencies remain a concern but in general, these procedures do not appear to adversely impact absorption of immunosuppressive medications. In this study, we review the literature to arrive at a better understanding of the risks related to renal transplantation among individuals with obesity. PMID:27011911

  7. VASCULAR COMPLICATIONS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

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    M. Sh. Khubutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: evaluation of the incidence and the pattern of vessel complications, efficacy of the prophylactic anticoagulation therapy after kidney transplantation. Materials and methods. From March 2007 till January 2013 421 patients: 230 men (54,6% and 191 women (45,4%; mean age 43,07 ± 11,62 undergone 429 kidney transplantations in the department of pancreas and kidney transplantation of the Scientific-Research Institute of Emergency Care named after N.V. Sklifosovsky. In order to evaluate the condition and the function of the kidney transplant ultrasound investigation (daily andacquisition(weekly wereused. In cases of kidney dysfunction and assumption of vessel complications we used computerized tomography. Besides, we used daily analysis of biochemical and clinical parameters of blood and urine. Results. The most common vessel complication was the thrombosis of the microvasculature of the kidney transplant due to acute humoral and combined rejection resistant to antirejection therapy (n = 9; 2,1%; in 4 cases there was a breakage of the transplant due to the acute rejection and the urgent transplantatectomy in an effort to save the patient; thrombosis of the transplantat artery occurred in 1 case (0,23%; we observed 2 cases (0,46% of the artery stenosis and 2 cases (0,46% of venous thrombosis. Conclusion. Summary frequency of vessel complications in our clinic, including thrombosis due to rejection, was 3,49%. It fully corresponds with data obtained from the global medical community. The incidence of great vessel thrombosis was less than 1% which indicates the adequate prophylactic anticoagulation therapy. For the benefit of early diacrisis of complications Doppler sonography is needed. In case of assumption of vessel complications urgent acquisition, computerized tomography and/ or angiography are to be held. 

  8. Ischemic Conditioning in Kidney Transplantation.

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    Veighey, Kristin; MacAllister, Raymond

    2017-07-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a composite of the injury sustained during a period of reduced or absent blood flow to a tissue or organ and the additional insult sustained on reperfusion, which limits the amount of tissue that can be salvaged. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the predominant insult during kidney transplantation, contributing to graft dysfunction, increased rates of acute rejection, and reduced rejection-free graft survival. In this review, we discuss the potential therapeutic benefits of a cost-effective and low-risk intervention, ischemic preconditioning, and its potential for improving kidney function following transplantation.

  9. IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg subsets with stable and unstable Foxp3 expression in kidney transplant recipients with good long-term graft function.

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    Trojan, Karina; Unterrainer, Christian; Aly, Mostafa; Zhu, Li; Weimer, Rolf; Bulut, Nuray; Morath, Christian; Opelz, Gerhard; Daniel, Volker

    2016-10-29

    Treg are a heterogenous cell population. In the present study we attempted to identify Treg subsets that might contribute to stable and good long-term graft function. Lymphocyte and Treg subsets were studied in 136 kidney transplant recipients with good long-term graft function and in 52 healthy control individuals using eight-color-fluorescence flow cytometry. Foxp3 TSDR methylation status was investigated in enriched IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg preparations using high resolution melt analysis. Compared with healthy controls, patients showed strong associations of IFNy secreting Helios+ and Helios- Treg with Treg that co-expressed perforin and/or CTLA4 (CD152; pterm graft function possess IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg with stable and unstable Foxp3 expression in the blood. They co-express CD28, HLADR, CTLA4, CXCR3, Lselectin, TGFβ, perforin and FasL and might contribute to the establishment and maintenance of good long-term graft function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. KIDNEY TRANSPLANT URODYNAMICS: NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS

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    V. B. Berdichevskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing data from the literature and the results of own clinical the authors suggest the presence of its own physiological rhythmogenesis motility of the urinary system to ensure its functional viability after denervation in the process of donor kidney recоvery and its transplantation to the recipient. 

  11. Aliskiren reduces albuminuria after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylicki, Leszek; Debska-Slizien, Alicja M; Lizakowski, Slawomir; Przybylska, Milena; Heleniak, Zbigniew; Renke, Marcin; Chamienia, Andrzej L; Biedunkiewicz, Bogdan; Rutkowski, Przemyslaw; Małgorzewicz, Sylwia; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2017-01-01

    The renoprotective effects of the direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, in renal transplant recipients have been supposed, but not finally proven. We performed an exploratory double-blind, losartan controlled, cross-over study to evaluate the influence of aliskiren, direct renin inhibitor, on albuminuria and other surrogate markers of kidney injury in patients after renal transplantation. The safety of this therapy was also evaluated. 16 of 18 patients (12 M, 4 F), 48.3 ± 9.0 years, 57.7 ± 9.1 months after kidney transplantation, with hypertension and stable serum creatinine 1.4 ± 0.08 mg/dl without proteinuria, completed the protocol. Each patient underwent two 8-week treatment periods (one with 150 mg of aliskiren, and one with 50 mg of losartan) in random order, allowing an 8-week placebo washout between them. There were no differences in albuminuria, transforming growth factor β-1 and 15-F2t-isoprostanes urine excretion between aliskiren and losartan. Creatinine serum level, eGFR, 24 h systolic and 24 h diastolic blood pressure were stable through the study. There were no differences in haemoglobin and potassium serum concentration between studied drugs. Aliskiren decreases albuminuria in renal transplant recipients with clinically minimal side effects. The effect does not differ from that of losartan.

  12. Bortezomib in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Raghavan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although current therapies for pretransplant desensitization and treatment of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR have had some success, they do not specifically deplete plasma cells that produce antihuman leukocyte antigen (HLA antibodies. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma (a plasma cell neoplasm, induces plasma cell apoptosis. In this paper we review the current body of literature regarding the use of this biological agent in the field of transplantation. Although limited experience with bortezomib may seem to show promise in the realm of transplant recipients desensitization and treatment of AMR, there is also experience that may suggest otherwise. Bortezomib's role in desensitization protocols and treatment of AMR will be defined better as more clinical data and trials become available.

  13. Kidney recipients experiences before during and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte

    lives. After the transplant, there is often a need for less medication and the possible side effects of the immunosuppressant treatment are outweighed by the increased quality of life. The transplant is a milestone, but the whole process is based on close contact with the health services, before...... and after the kidney transplant, through outpatient visits and during possible hospitalization, which can occur due to complications or disease progression. Objective To explore the coherence of the kidney transplant process in order to explain the lived experiences of kidney recipients before, during...... and after kidney transplantation. Method Participant observation and semi-structured individual interviews was conducted with kidney recipients before, during and after kidney transplantation. Data analysis is inspired by Ricoeur's interpretation theory on three levels: Naive reading; structural analysis...

  14. Kidney transplantation after previous liver transplantation: analysis of the organ procurement transplant network database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonwa, Thomas A; McBride, Maureen A; Mai, Martin L; Wadei, Hani M

    2011-07-15

    Patients after liver transplant have a high incidence of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We investigated kidney transplantation after liver transplantation using the Organ Procurement Transplant Network database. The Organ Procurement Transplant Network database was queried for patients who received kidney transplantation after previous liver transplantation. These patients were compared with patients who received primary kidney transplantation alone during the same time period. Between 1997 and 2008, 157,086 primary kidney transplants were performed. Of these, 680 deceased donor kidney transplants and 410 living donor kidney transplants were performed in previous recipients of liver transplants. The number of kidney after liver transplants performed each year has increased from 37 per year to 124 per year in 2008. The time from liver transplant to kidney transplant increased from 8.2 to 9.0 years for living donor transplants and from 5.4 to 9.6 years for deceased donor. The 1, 3, and 5 year actuarial graft survival in both living donor kidney after liver transplant and deceased donor kidney after liver transplant are less than the kidney transplant alone patients. However, the death-censored graft survivals are equal. The patient survival is also less but is similar to what would be expected in liver transplant recipients who did not have ESRD. In 2008, kidney after liver transplantation represented 0.9% of the total kidney alone transplants performed in the United States. Kidney transplantation is an appropriate therapy for selected patients who develop ESRD after liver transplantation.

  15. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  16. Immunosuppression Adherence in Stable Kidney Transplant Patients Converted From Immediate- to Prolonged-Release Tacrolimus in Clinical Practice: A Norwegian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Sadollah; Gøransson, Lasse; Cockburn, Elinor; Kilany, Suzanne; Holdaas, Hallvard

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated medication adherence in kidney transplant patients (KTPs) converted from immediate-release tacrolimus (IR-T) to prolonged-release tacrolimus (PR-T)-based immunosuppression in routine practice. Noninterventional, observational, multicenter study in Norway. Included adult KTPs with stable graft function, converted from IR-T (baseline) to PR-T (1 mg:1 mg) in routine practice. Data were collected at baseline, and months 1, 3, 6, and 12 postconversion. Primary endpoint: adherence using the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medication Scale. Secondary assessments: tacrolimus dose and trough levels (target, 3-7 ng/mL), clinical laboratory parameters (eg, estimated glomerular filtration rate [Modified Diet in Renal Disease]), and adverse events. Ninety-one KTPs (mean ± SD age 47.7 ± 14.3 years) were analyzed. Mean ± SD change in PR-T dose from baseline (4.4 ± 2.4 mg/d) to month 12 was -0.1 ± 0.9 mg/d; mean tacrolimus trough levels remained within target. Overall medication adherence increased from 45.6% at baseline to 58.1% at month 1, but was similar to baseline thereafter; taking and timing adherence followed a similar pattern. Odds ratio (OR) for adherence at month 1 (but not at other time points) was greater versus baseline for overall (OR, 1.71; P = 0.0205), taking (OR, 3.38; P = 0.0004), and timing (OR, 1.77, P = 0.0252) dimensions. Mean ± SD Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medication Scale visual analogue scale score at baseline was 96.4 ± 5.5%, and increased postconversion. Estimated glomerular filtration rate remained stable (month 12, 61.6 ± 17.7 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ), as did other laboratory parameters. Two (2.2%) patients had adverse events considered probably/possibly treatment-related. There was disparity between high, patient-perceived and low, actual adherence. Converting stable KTPs from IR-T to PR-T in routine practice did not impact long-term adherence to immunosuppression; renal

  17. Kidney transplantation at Tokyo Women's Medical University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Masashi; Ishida, Hideki; Omoto, Kazuya; Tanabe, Tatsu; Hattori, Motoshi; Hirano, Hajime; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2011-01-01

    The first case of kidney transplantation at our institution was carried out in 1971, and this first renal transplant recipient is still living with a functioning kidney. From 1971 through the end of 2011, more than 3000 cases of kidney transplantation have been carried out at our institution. Since 1983, cyclosporine-based immunosuppression has been employed at our center. During this period, most of the patients were treated with cyclosporine- or tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. The latest outcomes of kidney transplantation seem to have significantly improved compared to earlier periods. Since 2000, 10 year-graft survival is more than 90% in living donor kidney transplantation and 82% in deceased donor kidney transplantation. To resolve the serious problem of donor organ shortage, expansion of the donor pool by various options such as transplantation using extended criteria donation, donation after cardiac death, ABO-incompatible (ABO-ILKT) donors, or crossmatch-positive donors, has been carried out at our institution over the last decade. We performed the first case of ABO-ILKT in 1989, and have performed more than 400 cases at our institution as of 2011. We will describe our experience of kidney transplantation, including ABO-ILKT, sensitized recipients, pathological analysis, pediatric renal transplantation, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, and recurrent glomerulonephritis. The data shows good outcomes, however, we still have many issues to resolve to improve long-term renal transplant outcome and to reduce complications.

  18. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison Fiona; Manias, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Crawford, Kimberley

    2014-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease, the relative shortage of kidney donors and the economic- and health-related costs of kidney transplant rejection make the prevention of adverse outcomes following transplantation a healthcare imperative. Although strict adherence to immunosuppressant medicine regimens is key to preventing kidney rejection, evidence suggests that adherence is sub-optimal. Strategies need to be developed to help recipients of kidney transplants adhere to their prescribed medicines. This review has found that a number of factors contribute to poor adherence, for example, attitudes towards medicine taking and forgetfulness. Few investigations have been conducted, however, on strategies to enhance medicine adherence in kidney transplant recipients. Strategies that may improve adherence include pharmacist-led interventions (incorporating counselling, medicine reviews and nephrologist liaison) and nurse-led interventions (involving collaboratively working with recipients to understand their routines and offering solutions to improve adherence). Strategies that have shown to have limited effectiveness include supplying medicines free of charge and providing feedback on a participant's medicine adherence without any educational or behavioural interventions. Transplantation is the preferred treatment option for people with end-stage kidney disease. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation increases the risk of rejection, kidney loss and costly treatments. Interventions are needed to help the transplant recipient take all their medicines as prescribed to improve general well-being, medicine safety and reduce healthcare costs. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  19. [Living-donor kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, A; Fonouni, H; Golriz, M; Schmied, B; Tahmasbirad, M; Weitz, J; Büchler, M W; Zeier, M; Schmidt, J

    2010-09-01

    Due to the existing organ shortage the option of a kidney transplantation (KTx) in patients with end-stage renal disease is not always possible despite the offer of this therapy. So far the required number of KTx could not be adequately achieved by organ donations from deceased persons. To solve this problem living donation KTx programs have already become established in many transplantation centers. In published reports it has been shown that with the living donation program better results could be achieved in terms of graft function and patient survival compared to cadaver donation KTx. Therefore, living donation KTx allows an optimal alternative to expand the organ pool. The aim of our study is to present the long-term results of our living donation KTx program regarding graft function and patient survival. Finally, the risks of living donation KTx will be discussed based on the reported experiences of other centers.

  20. Gender Disparity in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghibi Orode

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender discrimination in benefiting from medical treatment is a worldwide pro-blem. Kidney transplantation, as the ideal treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, is not an exception. Considering the unique kidney donation patterns and different family styles in the Middle East, studying this problem in Iran seemed justifiable and necessary. In addition to comparing the numbers of female and male recipients, which has been done in other similar studies, considering the critical effect of waiting time on the outcome, we assessed and compared the waiting times also. The data of age, gender, nationality, donor type and waiting time before transplantation of 1426 (61.85% male, 38.14% female recipients who underwent transplantation in Imam Reza Hospital in the northeast of Iran from 1990 to 2003, was analyzed. Recipients were categorised into three groups based on donation patterns: those receiving kidney from live unrelated, live related and cadaver donors. The number of patients in each group was 1057 (61.96% male, 38.03% female, 232 (67.24% male, 32.75% female and 137 (51.82% male, 48.17% female respectively. The mean overall waiting time was 708 days. Comparing waiting time of male and female recipients in each of these groups did not show significant difference. In all categories of donors, females were less likely than males to be recipients. Furthermore, waiting time for females was longer than males when receiving kidney from sisters and children. For spousal donations, males were recipients more frequently than females although female recipients in this group waited less than their male counterparts to receive the kidney. Generally, our results are in accordance with results of similar researches. In all three mentioned groups, males com-prised the majority while the waiting time does not show significant difference between genders. We suggest some reasons for this phenomenon, of which the two main ones are: fewer females

  1. Diabetes Mellitus in the Transplanted Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil ePeev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD. New onset diabetes mellitus after transplant (NODAT has been described in approximately 30 percent of non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients many years post transplantation. DM in patients with kidney transplantation constitutes a major comorbidity, and has significant impact on the patients and allografts’ outcome. In addition to the major comorbidity and mortality that result from cardiovascular and other DM complications, long standing DM after kidney transplant has significant pathological injury to the allograft, which results in lowering the allografts and the patients’ survivals. In spite of the cumulative body of data on diabetic nephropathy (DN in the native kidney, there has been very limited data on the DN in the transplanted kidney. In this review, we will shed the light on the risk factors that lead to the development of NODAT. We will also describe the impact of DM on the transplanted kidney, and the outcome of kidney transplant recipients with NODAT. Additionally, we will present the most acceptable data on management of NODAT.

  2. Social participation after successful kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Van Sonderen, Eric L. P.; Van Son, Willem J.; De Jong, Paul E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To explore and describe the degree of social participation after kidney transplantation and to examine associated factors. Method. A cross-sectional study on 239 adult patients 1-7.3 years after kidney transplantation was performed via in-home interviews on participation in obligatory

  3. [Reproduction following kidney transplantation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, P; Fischer, W; Scholz, D; May, G; Göbel, U

    1979-01-01

    Reported in this paper are the first two pregnancies and childbirths in the GDR following kidney transplantations. The point is made that pregnancy following kidney transplantation should remain to be a rare exception, though the courses were favourable in both cases described. Reference is made to most suitable forms of anticonception.

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography in Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter M.; Wierwille, Jeremiah; Chen, Yu

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with both high mortality rates and an enormous economic burden [1]. The preferred treatment option for ESRD that can extend patients' lives and improve their quality of life is kidney transplantation. However, organ shortages continue to pose a major problem in kidney transplantation. Most kidneys for transplantation come from heart-beating cadavers. Although non-heart-beating cadavers represent a potentially large pool of donor kidneys, these kidneys are not often used due to the unknown extent of damage to the renal tubules (i.e., acute tubular necrosis or "ATN") induced by ischemia (i.e., lack of blood flow). Also, ischemic insult suffered by kidneys awaiting transplantation frequently causes ATN that leads to varying degrees of delayed graft function (DGF) after transplantation. Finally, ATN represents a significant risk for eventual graft and patient survival [2, 3] and can be difficult to discern from rejection. In present clinical practice, there is no reliable real-time test to determine the viability of donor kidneys and whether or not donor kidneys might exhibit ATN. Therefore, there is a critical need for an objective and reliable real-time test to predict ATN to use these organs safely and utilize the donor pool optimally. In this review, we provided preliminary data indicating that OCT can be used to predict the post-transplant function of kidneys used in transplantation.

  5. Kidney transplant outcomes from older deceased donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Jager, Kitty J; Caskey, Fergus

    2018-01-01

    As the median age of deceased kidney donors rises, updated knowledge of transplant outcomes from older deceased donors in differing donor-recipient age groups is required. Using ERA-EDTA Registry data we determined survival outcomes of kidney allografts donated from the same older deceased donor ...... transplanted into differing donor-recipient age groups are better than previously reported. These allografts remain a valuable transplant resource, particularly for similar-aged recipients....

  6. Anesthesia for Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittel, Aaron M; Wagener, Gebhard

    2017-09-01

    Kidney transplants are the most common solid organ abdominal transplant and are occasionally performed simultaneously with pancreas transplants in diabetic patients. Preoperative evaluation of potential transplant recipients should focus on the potential for occult cardiovascular disease while also screening for other signs of end-organ dysfunction. Intraoperatively, it is of utmost importance to ensure adequate graft perfusion to limit the risk of postoperative graft dysfunction or rejection. Postoperative care of the kidney or pancreas transplant patient should focus on ensuring normalization of volume status, electrolyte concentrations, and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Perfect timing, no remorse, and kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, D A

    1998-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is usually delayed until a patient has reached end-stage renal failure. When a living donor is used, earlier transplantation may be feasible. By averting the final stages of renal failure, early transplantation spares the patient the more pronounced effects of uremia. Unfortunately, lack of precision in predicting the future course of a patient's disease creates a dilemma: the kidneys could remain viable longer than anticipated. In that case, an early transplantation that leads to serious complications or graft failure will have caused harm by truncating the period of time the patient could have been sustained by his or her native kidneys. The present article introduces a theorem that helps solve the dilemma of early kidney transplantation. The theorem states that the timing decision depends only on the current burden of a disease relative to the risks of transplantation-that the future rate of progression of the disease is immaterial. The generality of the theorem makes it applicable, in principle, to any degenerative disease that can be treated by engraftment. The article also introduces a formula for the optimal timing of transplantation that depends on only four factors--a patient's perceived quality of life before transplantation as a function of time, the mortality associated with a transplant operation, the graft survival curve, and the quality of life in the event of a graft failure. The theorem and related formula should be helpful to patients and physicians in selecting the best time for transplantation.

  8. Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    Allograft thrombosis is a devastating early complication of renal transplantation that ultimately leads to allograft loss. We report here on our experience of nine cases of immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis at a single centre between January 1990 and June 2009. The mean age was 42.9 years at time of transplant. For seven patients, the allograft thrombosis was their first kidney transplant and seven of the nine cases had a deceased donor transplant. The initial transplants functioned for a mean of 1.67 days and the patients received a second allograft at a mean of 3.1 days after graft failure. All of the re-transplants worked immediately. Four allografts failed after a mean of 52.5 months (2-155 months). Two of these died with a functioning allograft, one failed owing to chronic allograft nephropathy and one owing to persistent acute cellular rejection. The remaining five patients still have a functioning allograft after a mean of 101.8 months (7-187 months). One year allograft and patient survival after re-transplantation were 87.5% and 100% respectively (after 5 years, both were 57%). Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis can be a success. It may be considered in selected cases after allograft thrombosis.

  9. Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2012-02-01

    Allograft thrombosis is a devastating early complication of renal transplantation that ultimately leads to allograft loss. We report here on our experience of nine cases of immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis at a single centre between January 1990 and June 2009. The mean age was 42.9 years at time of transplant. For seven patients, the allograft thrombosis was their first kidney transplant and seven of the nine cases had a deceased donor transplant. The initial transplants functioned for a mean of 1.67 days and the patients received a second allograft at a mean of 3.1 days after graft failure. All of the re-transplants worked immediately. Four allografts failed after a mean of 52.5 months (2-155 months). Two of these died with a functioning allograft, one failed owing to chronic allograft nephropathy and one owing to persistent acute cellular rejection. The remaining five patients still have a functioning allograft after a mean of 101.8 months (7-187 months). One year allograft and patient survival after re-transplantation were 87.5% and 100% respectively (after 5 years, both were 57%). Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis can be a success. It may be considered in selected cases after allograft thrombosis.

  10. Dual kidney transplantation with organs from extended criteria cadaveric donors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    D'Arcy, Frank T

    2009-10-01

    The critical shortage of kidneys available for transplantation has led to alternate strategies to expand the pool. Transplantation of the 2 kidneys into a single recipient using organs suboptimal for single kidney transplantation was suggested. We assessed results in 24 grafts allocated for dual kidney transplantation vs those in a control group of 44 designated for single kidney transplantation. Each group underwent pretransplant biopsy and recipients were age matched.

  11. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  12. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs Jobs at NIDDK Visit Us Contact Us News News ... regularly. A working transplanted kidney does a better job of filtering wastes and keeping you healthy than ...

  13. The Global Role of Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Garcia Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day on March 8 th 2012 provides a chance to reflect on the success of kidney transplantation as a therapy for end stage kidney disease that surpasses dialysis treatments both for the quality and quantity of life that it provides and for its cost effectiveness. Anything that is both cheaper and better, but is not actually the dominant therapy, must have other drawbacks that prevent replacement of all dialysis treatment by transplantation. The barriers to universal transplantation as the therapy for end stage kidney disease include the economic limitations which, in some countries place transplantation, appropriately, at a lower priority than public health fundamentals such as clean water, sanitation and vaccination. Even in high income countries the technical challenges of surgery and the consequences of immunosuppression restrict the number of suitable recipients, but the major finite restrictions on kidney transplantation rates are the shortage of donated organs and the limited medical, surgical and nursing workforces with the required expertise. These problems have solutions which involve the full range of societal, professional, governmental and political environments. World Kidney Day is a call to deliver transplantation therapy to the one million people a year who have a right to benefit.

  14. Study of dermatoses in kidney transplant patients*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; da Rocha, Sheila Pereira; Reis Filho, Eugênio Galdino de Mendonça; Eid, Danglades Resende Macedo; Reis, Carmelia Matos Santiago

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The increasing in the number of kidney transplant recipients has favored, more frequently than before, the emergence of dermatoses and warranted their study through subsequent publications. OBJECTIVES to evaluate the frequency of dermatoses in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS kidney transplant recipients with suspected dermatoses between March 1st 2009 and June 30th 2010. RESULTS 53 patients (28 males and 25 females), aged between 22 and 69 (mean age = 45 years) were evaluated. Most of them came from the cities of Ceilândia, Samambaia and São Sebastião/DF, and had already been transplanted for 5 to 10 years before (37.7%); 62.3% were recipients of living donors and 83% were prednisone-treated. The most prevalent dermatoses were of fungal (45.3%) and viral (39.6%) etiologies. Among the non-melanoma malignant neoplasms, the basal cell carcinoma prevailed (six cases), in spite of the low incidence. Concerning fungal dermatoses, 12 cases of onychomycosis, five of pityriasis versicolor and four of pityrosporum folliculitis were reported. For diagnosis, in most cases (64.2%), laboratory examinations (mycological and histopathological) were performed. CONCLUSION cutaneous manifestations in kidney transplant recipients are generally secondary to immunosuppression. The infectious dermatoses, especially those of fungal origin, are frequently found in kidney transplant recipients and their occurrence increases progressively according to the time elapsed from the transplantation, which makes follow-up important. PMID:23793196

  15. Commercial kidney transplantation: Trends, outcomes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to determine the trends, outcomes and challenges of commercial living unrelated renal transplants (LURT) as .... Commercial kidney transplants: Trends and outcomes. (22,2%), diabète post-greffe dans sept (15 .... (42.2%) with UTI as the commonest infection, which is in keeping with the known fact that UTI.

  16. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new...

  17. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Vase, Maja Ølholm; Kampmann, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) incidence is difficult to determine, mainly because both early and other lesions may go unrecognized and unregistered. Few studies have included systematic pathology review to maximize case identification and decide more accurately PTLD frequency...... after long-term post-transplantation follow-up. A retrospective population-based cohort study including all kidney transplant recipients at two Danish centres (1990-2011; population covered 3.1 million; 2175 transplantations in 1906 patients). Pathology reports were reviewed for all patient biopsies...

  18. Renal cancer in recipients of kidney transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajwal Dhakal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to determine characteristics and outcomes of kidney cancer in renal transplant recipients. MEDLINE ® database was searched in June 2015 to identify cases of kidney cancer in renal transplant recipients. We include also a new case. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Forty-eight (48 recipients reported in 25 papers met the eligibility criteria. The median age was 47 years (range 9-66; 27% were females. Chronic glomerulonephritis, cystic kidney disease and hypertension were common indications for renal transplant. Among donors 24% were females and the median age was 52.5 years (17- 73; 62% of kidney cancers were donor-derived. The median interval between transplant and cancer diagnosis was shorter for cancer of recipient versus donor origin (150 vs. 210 days. Clear cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 17%. 25% had metastasis at diagnosis. Kidney explantation or excision was done in 90% and 84% of cases with and without metastasis respectively. The median survival was 72 months. Actuarial 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 73.4% and 55.1% respectively. Among the recipients from 7 donors who subsequently developed malignancy, 57% were dead within a year. Kidney transplant recipients have a small risk of kidney cancer, which affects younger patients and occurs within a year of transplant, likely due to immunosuppression. Whether the use of older donors may increase the likelihood needs further investigation. The presence of metastasis, explantation or excision of affected kidney and development of cancer in donors predict outcomes. The results may guide patient education and informed decision-making.

  19. Cancer risk and mortality after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Wehberg, Sonja; Bistrup, Claus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney recipients receive immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection, and long-term outcomes such as post-transplant cancer and mortality may vary according to the different protocols of immunosuppression. METHODS: A national register-based historical cohort study was conducted......, the Danish National Cancer Registry and the Danish National Patient Register were used. A historical cohort of 1450 kidney recipients transplanted in 1995-2005 was followed up with respect to post-transplant cancer and death until 31 December 2011. RESULTS: Compared with Center 1 the adjusted post...... to examine whether post-transplant cancer and all-cause mortality differed between Danish renal transplantation centres using standard immunosuppressive protocols including steroids (Centres 2, 3, 4) or a steroid-free protocol (Centre 1). The Danish Nephrology Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System...

  20. Fasting ramadan in kidney transplant patients is safe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boobes Yousef

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Muslims with renal transplant often ask their doctors whether fasting Ramadan is safe. Scanty studies have addressed this question. This prospective study was undertaken to identify any clinical or biological changes with Muslim fasting. 22 kidney transplant patients with stable kidney functions, who were transplanted for more than one year, and voluntarily chose to fast during Ramadan in 1425 H (October-November 2004, were studied. Total of 22 subjects (10 men and 12 women with a mean age of 47 ± 11.6 years were studied. Full clinical and biological assessment was done before during and after the month of Ramadan fasting. Medications were taken in two divided doses at sunset (time of breaking the fast and pre dawn (before the fast. None of the patients experienced any undue fatigue, or symptoms. Body weight, blood pressure, kidney function tests, blood sugar, lipid profile, and cyclosporine levels remained stable. In conclusion it is safe for renal transplant recipients of more than one year and having stable graft function to fast during the month of Ramadan; however caution is advised for moderate to severe impaired renal function.

  1. Incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Mao, Michael A; Kittanamongkolchai, Wonngarm; Jaffer Sathick, Insara J; Dhondup, Tsering; Erickson, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the incidence and characteristics of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the inception of the databases through March 2016. Studies assessing the incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients were included. We applied a random-effects model to estimate the incidence of kidney stones. RESULTS Twenty one studies with 64416 kidney transplant patients were included in the analyses to assess the incidence of kidney stones after kidney transplantation. The estimated incidence of kidney stones was 1.0% (95%CI: 0.6%-1.4%). The mean duration to diagnosis of kidney stones after kidney transplantation was 28 ± 22 mo. The mean age of patients with kidney stones was 42 ± 7 years. Within reported studies, approximately 50% of kidney transplant recipients with kidney stones were males. 67% of kidney stones were calcium-based stones (30% mixed CaOx/CaP, 27%CaOx and 10%CaP), followed by struvite stones (20%) and uric acid stones (13%). CONCLUSION The estimated incidence of kidney stones in patients after kidney transplantation is 1.0%. Although calcium based stones are the most common kidney stones after transplantation, struvite stones (also known as “infection stones”) are not uncommon in kidney transplant recipients. These findings may impact the prevention and clinical management of kidney stones after kidney transplantation. PMID:28058231

  2. Sex inequality in kidney transplantation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubel, D E; Stewart, D E; Morrison, H I; Zimmerman, D L; Cameron, J I; Jeffery, J J; Fenton, S S

    Men in the United States undergoing renal replacement therapy are more likely than women to receive a kidney transplant. However, the ability to pay may, in part, be responsible for this finding. To compare adult male and female transplantation rates in a setting in which equal access to medical treatment is assumed. Using data from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register, the rate of first transplantations was computed for the 20, 131 men and the 13,458 women aged 20 years or older who initiated renal replacement therapy between January 1, 1981, and December 31, 1996. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the male-female transplantation rate ratio, adjusting for age, race, province, calendar period, underlying disease leading to renal failure, and dialytic modality. Actuarial survival methods were used to compare transplantation probability for covariable-matched cohorts of men and women. Men experienced 20% greater covariable-adjusted kidney transplantation rates relative to women (rate ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.27). The sex disparity was stronger for cadaveric transplants (rate ratio, 1.23) compared with those from living donors (rate ratio, 1.10). The 5-year probability of receiving a transplant was 47% for men and 39% for women within covariable-matched cohorts (P<.001). The sex disparity in transplantation rates increased with increasing age. The sex effect was weaker among whites and Oriental persons (Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian, Filipino, Malaysian, Indonesian, and Korean) and stronger among blacks, Asian Indians (Indian, Pakistani, and Sri Lankan), and North American Indians (aboriginal). Since survival probability and quality of life are superior for patients who undergo transplantation relative to those who undergo dialysis, an increased effort should be made to distribute kidneys available for transplantation more equitably by sex among patients undergoing renal replacement therapy.

  3. Transplant tourism among kidney transplant patients in Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, U H

    2017-07-05

    Transplant tourism entails movement of recipient, donor or both to a transplant centre outside their country of residence. This has been reported in many countries; and has variously been associated with organ trade. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency and pattern of transplant tourism among transplant patients in Eastern Nigeria. This is a non randomized cross sectional study. All kidney transplant patients who presented at Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane Enugu and Hilton Clinics Port Harcourt in Nigeria were recruited. The clinical parameters including the transplant details of all the patients were documented. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS package. A total of one hundred and twenty six patients were studied, 76.2% were males with M:F ratio of 3.2:1 and mean age of 46.9 ± 13.3 years. Fifty four and 58.7% of the patients were managed in a tertiary hospital and by a nephrologist respectively before referral for kidney transplant. Only 15.8% of the patients had their kidney transplant without delay: finance, lack of donor, logistics including delay in obtaining travelling documents were the common causes of the delay. Ninety percent of the patients had their transplant in India with majority of them using commercial donors. India was also the country with cheapest cost ($18,000.00). 69.8% were unrelated donors, 68.2% were commercial donors and 1.6% of the donors were spouse. All the commercial donors received financial incentives and each commercial donor received mean of 7580 ± 1280 dollars. Also 30.2% of the related donors demanded financial incentive. Transplant tourism is prevalent in eastern Nigeria.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the transplanted kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Suguru; Lee, Chol-Joo; Hamashima, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive means for evaluating pathological changes of kidney transplants. Thirty kidney transplants were examined by MRI study, comparing with 12 donor kidneys as control. Imaging of well functioning grafts using inversion recovery (IR) method displayed a clear figure of corticomedullary differentiation (CMD). Kidneys under acute rejection, chronic rejection, and ciclosporin nephrotoxicity displayed poor CMD. CMD of Kidneys under ATN was poor on IR imaging, but clear on T 1 weightened imaging. T 1 values of kidney grafts were obtained as the mean value of T 1 relaxation time of three areas including upper pole, lower pole, and the middle of the cortex. T 1 value of the grafts under chronic rejection was similar to that of well functioning grafts. The value increased in case of acute rejection, ATN, and ciclosporin nephrotoxicity and decreased as the graft function was getting better. Imaging and the estimation of T 1 value of kidney transplants of MRI were effective for evaluating graft function but of no use for differentiation of causes of graft deterioration. (author)

  5. Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, August 22, 2013 Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH- ... supporting development of noninvasive tests. Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can ...

  6. MR surface coil imaging of kidney transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gansbeke, D. Van; Segebarth, C.; Toussaint, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR appearance of the kidney transplant is evaluated on a series of 80 examinations performed on a supraconductive unit operating at 0.5 T. Normal function kidneys displayed a clearly delineated corticomedullary differentiation (CMD); the ratio between the thickness of cortex and medulla didn't exceed 0.6. The same appearance was observed in non complicated acute tubular necrosis. Complete loss of CMD was the major finding in acute rejection (74% of the cases), but it was not specific as it was also observed in chronic rejection and in acute glomerulonephritis. Cortex thickening was helpful for the detection of rejected transplants with visible CMD. The sensitivity of MR in the detection of acute rejection was 94%. Specificity of MR findings for acute rejection depended on the transplant age: it varied from 100% for examinations performed during the first 3 months after transplantation, to less than 50% for examinations of the second year [fr

  7. SURGICAL OPTIMIZATION OF KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION FROM ELDER DONOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Bagnenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Article provides elaborated method of kidney grafts quality evaluation by virtue of hypothermic perfusion data and express biopsy results. 27 kidney transplantation in older age recipients group were carried out from elder kidney donors. 7 of them were double kidney transplantation. First results of transplantation in elder recipients were compared with 31 transplant procedures in young recipients from optimal donor. To day 90 there were no significant differences in creatinine level between the study and comparison group. 

  8. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new......-onset diabetes mellitus after Tx, (ii) describe which parameters that influence the ADPN concentration before and after Tx. Fifty-seven nondiabetic kidney allograft recipients and 40 nondiabetic uraemic patients were included. The Tx group was examined at baseline and 3 and 12 months after Tx. The uraemic...... analysis, whereas an ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed no predictive characteristic of ADPN for aggravation of the glucose tolerance after Tx. In conclusion, kidney transplantation is accompanied by a significant reduction in ADPN concentration. Several factors determine the ADPN concentration...

  9. Post-transplantation Malignancy After Kidney Transplantation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Y; Tekin, S; Duzenli, M; Yuksel, Y; Yücetin, L; Dosemeci, L; Sengul, A; Demirbaş, A; Tuncer, M

    2015-06-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best treatment option for end-stage renal disease patients. Increased incidence of post-transplantation malignancy can be caused by immunosuppressive drugs and some oncogenic infections. The aim of this study is to show the incidence of post-transplantation malignancy in patients who had surgery and were followed up in the Organ Transplant Center, Medical Park Antalya, Antalya, Turkey. The study was based on 2100 kidney transplantation patients who had surgery between May 2008 and December 2012 and also on 1900 patients who had surgery by members of our team in other centers and who were followed up routinely. In all of our patients, the type of malignancy, the time that malignancy developed, immunosuppressive regimens, and viral status (Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus) were investigated. Malignancy was developed in 30 patients (60% of them were male, median age was 52.1 years). Post-transplantation malignancy development time was a median of 5.1 years. The types of malignancies were as follows: non-melanoma skin cancer in 12 patients (40%), urogenital cancer in 7 patients (24%), breast cancer in 4 patients (14%), lymphoproliferative disease in 3 patients (10%), thyroid cancer in 2 patients (6%), and lung cancer in 2 patients (6%). In this study, we did not find any increased post-transplantation malignancy risk in our patients. This finding could be due to the low-dosage immunosuppressive protocols that we used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kidney injury and renal replacement therapy in heart transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. L. Poz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of kidney injury and the characteristics of renal replacement therapy were considered in patient with dilated cardiomyopathy, who consequently underwent two heart transplantations and two kidney transplantations. Since the number of the patients needed both kidney and heart transplantation increases constantly, the multifaceted thorough research in this specific patient population is extremely important.

  11. Incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Mao, Michael A; Kittanamongkolchai, Wonngarm; Jaffer Sathick, Insara J; Dhondup, Tsering; Erickson, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the incidence and characteristics of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the inception of the databases through March 2016. Studies assessing the incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients were included. We applied a random-effects model to estimate the incidence of kidney stones. RESULTS Twenty one studies with 64416 kidney transplant pa...

  12. Systematic review of kidney transplantation functional predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret Alomar, E; Trilla Herrera, E; Lorente Garcia, D; Regis Placido, L; López Del Campo, R; Cuadras Solé, M; Pont Castellana, T; Moreso Mateos, F; Serón Micas, D; Morote Robles, J

    2017-08-10

    Kidney transplantation from donors with expanded criteria has increased the pool of kidneys at the cost of a higher risk of short and long-term graft dysfunction. The main issue lies in determining which kidneys will offer acceptable function and survival compared with the risk represented by surgery and subsequent immunosuppression. The objective of our article is to review the current evidence on the tools for predicting the functionality of kidney transplantation from cadaveric donors with expanded criteria and determining the validity for their use in standard practice. We conducted a systematic literature review according to the PRISM criteria, through Medline (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and using the keywords (in isolation or in conjunction) "cadaveric renal transplantation; kidney graft function appraisal, graft function predictors". We selected prospective and retrospective series and review articles. A total of 375 articles were analysed, 39 of which were ultimately selected for review. The predictors of functionality include the following: The donor risk indices; the calculation of the renal functional weight or the assessment of the nephronic mass; the measurement of vascular resistances during perfusion in hypothermia; the measurement of the donor's biomarkers in urine and in the perfusion liquid; the measurement of functional and reperfusion parameters in normothermia; and the measurement of morphological parameters (microscopic and macroscopic) of the target organ. In this article, we present an explanatory summary of each of these parameters, as well as their most recent evidence on this issue. None of the reviewed parameters in isolation could reliably predict renal function and graft survival. There is a significant void in terms of the macroscopic assessment of kidney transplantation. We need to continue developing predictors of renal functionality to accurately define the distribution of each currently available donor kidney. Copyright © 2017

  13. Kidney dysfunction after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersting, S.

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a widely accepted approach for malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic diseases. Unfortunately complications can occur because of the treatment, leading to treatment-related mortality. We studied kidney dysfunction after allogeneic SCT in 2 cohorts of

  14. Calciphylaxis following kidney transplantation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanvesakul Rajesh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Calciphylaxis occurring after kidney transplantation is rare and rarely reported. It results in chronic non-healing wounds and is associated with a poor prognosis and is often fatal. We present a case of proximal lower limb calciphylaxis that occurred early after kidney transplantation. The patient had no classic associated risk factors. He had previously had a total parathyroidectomy but had normal serum calcium-phosphate product and parathyroid hormone levels. The clinical outcome of this case was favorable and highlights some fundamental issues relating to management. Case presentation A 70-year-old British Caucasian man with end-stage renal failure secondary to IgA nephropathy presented six months post kidney transplantation with cutaneous calciphylaxis lesions involving the medial aspect of the thigh bilaterally. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rapid onset cutaneous calciphylaxis occurring soon after kidney transplantation that was associated with a favorable outcome. Cutaneous calciphylaxis lesions should be promptly managed with meticulous wound care, antimicrobial therapy and the correction of calcium-phosphate product where indicated.

  15. En bloc kidney transplantation: ultrasonography assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenal, F.; Ganado, T.; Merino, M.S.; Contreras, E.; Hernandez, J.; Prats, D.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of our study is to assess the utility of ultrasonography in the study of the complications associated with en bloc kidney transplantation. Twenty-three recipients of double transplants from donors under the age of 3 years were studied. Ultrasound (mode B: pulsed Doppler and color Doppler) was performed within the first three postoperative days and was repeated at 6 and 12 months. The morphology of the graft and renal blood flow were assessed, and the indices of pulsatility, resistance and acceleration were measured. Four patients required graft explanation: three due to massive hemorrhagic infarction and one due to venous thrombosis. Vascular complications were detected in five transplants (21.7%), urological complications in four (17.4%) and medical complications in two (8.7%). The most common vascular complication was unilateral renal artery stenosis. Color Doppler ultrasound diagnosed all the medical and urological complications and three of the five cases of vascular pathology (60%). Renal size was seen to be increased during the first postoperative year. The ultrasonographic study is more difficult to perform in en bloc kidney transplantation than in single kidney grafting: however, given its marked sensitivity in the detection of postransplantation complications. Doppler ultrasound is the imaging technique of choice in the determination of the cause of deteriorated kidney function. (Author) 15 refs

  16. Geographic disparity in kidney transplantation under KAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Ruck, Jessica M; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary G; Bae, Sunjae; Segev, Dorry L; Gentry, Sommer E

    2017-12-12

    The Kidney Allocation System fundamentally altered kidney allocation, causing a substantial increase in regional and national sharing that we hypothesized might impact geographic disparities. We measured geographic disparity in deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT) rate under KAS (6/1/2015-12/1/2016), and compared that with pre-KAS (6/1/2013-12/3/2014). We modeled DSA-level DDKT rates with multilevel Poisson regression, adjusting for allocation factors under KAS. Using the model we calculated a novel, improved metric of geographic disparity: the median incidence rate ratio (MIRR) of transplant rate, a measure of DSA-level variation that accounts for patient casemix and is robust to outlier values. Under KAS, MIRR was 1.75 1.81 1.86 for adults, meaning that similar candidates across different DSAs have a median 1.81-fold difference in DDKT rate. The impact of geography was greater than the impact of factors emphasized by KAS: having an EPTS score ≤20% was associated with a 1.40-fold increase (IRR =  1.35 1.40 1.45 , P geographic disparities with KAS (P = .3). Despite extensive changes to kidney allocation under KAS, geography remains a primary determinant of access to DDKT. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. OCULAR PATHOLOGY IN PATIENTS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Moshetova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes in eyes are present in all patients with chronic kidney disease. A study to detect ocular patho- logy in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure after kidney transplantation in the early and late postopera- tive period compared with patients receiving replacement therapy with hemodialysis. Revealed that in the early post-transplant period in recipients of kidneyas in patients on hemodialysis, continued angioretinopatiya, 40% of patients had «dry eye syndrome». In the delayed post-transplant period, patients showed significant impro- vement in the retina and retinal vessels, the improvement of spatial-temporal parameters of visual perception. However, a decrease of visual acuity on the background of the development of posterior subcapsular cataract caused by prolonged corticosteroid, and an increased incidence of viral and bacterial conjunctivitis. 

  18. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Moelgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    kidney transplant patients. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 173 adult kidney transplant patients with a mean (+/-SD) age of 53.4 +/- 11.7 y and a median graft age of 7.4 y (interquartile range: 3.3-12.7 y). Serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (S-PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25....... Low S-25(OH)D concentrations were associated with 1) increased S-PTH concentrations (P = 0.0002), independently of S-1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations, and 2) decreased S-1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations (P = 0.002), independently of graft function. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovitaminosis D is common among Danish kidney...

  19. [Cadaveric kidney transplantation: a model with limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardell Bergadà, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    The first successful kidney transplant in Spain was performed in 1965. It's been forty years already and currently Spain is the country with the highest cadaver donation rates worldwide. The so-called Spanish model of transplantation is well known for its organization and excellent results. These results are the consequence of a perfect network organization. Furthermore, the organ procurement organization--Organización Nacional de Trasplantes--, regional coordinators, national health system hospital network, hospital transplant coordinators, and all professionals involved in the process of donation and transplantation have perfectly well defined functions and work with the common objective of optimizing resources and making the most of the opportunities. Provided that one of the main characteristics of the Spanish model is the possibility of adaptation to the moments necessities, we proceed to review and evaluate it from its beginning to current days.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the transplanted kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennerholm, S.; Backman, U.; Bohman, S.O.; Hemmingsson, A.; Nyman, R.; Uppsala Univ. Hospital; Huddinge Hospital

    1990-01-01

    In this study, long-term renal transplants were investigated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the results were correlated to histopathology and graft function. Seventeen patients were investigated with MR one to 10 years after transplantation and with simultaneous ultrasonographically guided cortical needle biopsy and function tests. Histopathology included semiquantitative grading of degree of fibrosis and quantitation of ratios of tubular structures to interstitial tissue. The correlation between the histopathological assessment of interstitial fibrosis and graft function was good. Poor differentiation between the renal cortex and the renal medulla at MR imaging was correlated to high degree of interstitial fibrosis in the kidney transplants as well as to reduced graft function. MR examination may thus be of value in the evaluation of long-term renal transplants with chronic functional changes. (orig./MG)

  1. Second Kidney Transplant in a Patient with Artificial Urinary Sphincter

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin Tansley; Sertaç Çimen; Sanem Güler Çimen; Mark Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is regarded as the gold standard treatment for post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. Kidney transplantation is gold standard treatment for end stage renal disease. Since both AUS implantation and renal transplant surgeries are relatively common, a co-occurrence is likely and a patient with AUS may need a kidney transplant. Herein, we report a patient with an AUS who underwent second kidney transplantation. Since the iliac fossa ipsilateral to the AUS part...

  2. Renal cancer in kidney transplanted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascà, Giovanni M; Sandrini, Silvio; Cosmai, Laura; Porta, Camillo; Asch, William; Santoni, Matteo; Salviani, Chiara; D'Errico, Antonia; Malvi, Deborah; Balestra, Emilio; Gallieni, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Renal cancer occurs more frequently in renal transplanted patients than in the general population, affecting native kidneys in 90% of cases and the graft in 10 %. In addition to general risk factors, malignancy susceptibility may be influenced by immunosuppressive therapy, the use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) as compared with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and the length of dialysis treatment. Acquired cystic kidney disease may increase the risk for renal cancer after transplantation, while autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease does not seem to predispose to cancer development. Annual ultrasound evaluation seems appropriate in patients with congenital or acquired cystic disease or even a single cyst in native kidneys, and every 2 years in patients older than 60 years if they were on dialysis for more than 5 years before transplantation. Immunosuppression should be lowered in patients who develop renal cancer, by reduction or withdrawal of CNI. Although more evidence is still needed, it seems reasonable to shift patients from CNI to everolimus or sirolimus if not already treated with one of these drugs, with due caution in subjects with chronic allograft nephropathy.

  3. [Calcification in nonfunctioning transplanted kidneys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Sánchez, R J; Fernández, E J; Peces, C

    2007-01-01

    Failed renal allografts often are left in situ in patients who revert to chronic dialysis therapy or who undergo retransplantation. These organs may be the site of massive calcification despite their lack of physiological function. Calcification of an endstage renal allograft is sometimes found incidentally. We report here two patients who developed extensive calcification of the renal graft, one was on chronic hemodialysis and the other had a second renal transplantation with normal renal function. The precise pathogenesis of calcification and the factors which determine its tissue localization are unclear. Factors postulated to promote the development of metastatic calcification include an elevated calcium phosphate product, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, aluminium toxicity and duration of dialytic therapy. In some cases local factors related with the chronic inflammatory rejection process are probably involved as well. However, the exact relative contribution of these factors remains unresolved. Unless specific clinical indications are present, transplant nephrectomy is not necessary for calcified end-stage renal allografts.

  4. Immunosuppression Adherence in Stable Kidney Transplant Patients Converted From Immediate- to Prolonged-Release Tacrolimus in Clinical Practice: A Norwegian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadollah Abedini, MD, PhD

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions. There was disparity between high, patient-perceived and low, actual adherence. Converting stable KTPs from IR-T to PR-T in routine practice did not impact long-term adherence to immunosuppression; renal function remained stable.

  5. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  6. Gut microbiota and tacrolimus dosing in kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Lee

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus dosing to establish therapeutic levels in recipients of organ transplants is a challenging task because of much interpatient and intrapatient variability in drug absorption, metabolism, and disposition. In view of the reported impact of gut microbial species on drug metabolism, we investigated the relationship between the gut microbiota and tacrolimus dosing requirements in this pilot study of adult kidney transplant recipients. Serial fecal specimens were collected during the first month of transplantation from 19 kidney transplant recipients who either required a 50% increase from initial tacrolimus dosing during the first month of transplantation (Dose Escalation Group, n=5 or did not require such an increase (Dose Stable Group, n=14. We characterized bacterial composition in the fecal specimens by deep sequencing of the PCR amplified 16S rRNA V4-V5 region and we investigated the hypothesis that gut microbial composition is associated with tacrolimus dosing requirements. Initial tacrolimus dosing was similar in the Dose Escalation Group and in the Stable Group (4.2 ± 1.1 mg/day vs. 3.8 ± 0.8 mg/day, respectively, P=0.61, two-way between-group ANOVA using contrasts but became higher in the Dose Escalation Group than in the Dose Stable Group by the end of the first transplantation month (9.6 ± 2.4 mg/day vs. 3.3 ± 1.5 mg/day, respectively, P<0.001. Our systematic characterization of the gut microbial composition identified that fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was 11.8% in the Dose Escalation Group and 0.8% in the Dose Stable Group (P=0.002, Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, P<0.05 after Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple hypotheses. Fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was positively correlated with future tacrolimus dosing at 1 month (R=0.57, P=0.01 and had a coefficient ± standard error of 1.0 ± 0.6 (P=0.08 after multivariable linear

  7. Circulating chemokine ligand levels before and after successful kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Elmoselhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokine ligands (CCLs play a pivotal role in tissue injury before and after kidney transplantation. Meanwhile, transplantation improves patient’s survival and diminishes morbidity. It is hypothesized, then, that kidney transplantation diminishes pre-transplant (pre-TX levels of circulating inflammatory CCLs. This retrospective study compared circulating levels and profiles of CCLs before transplantation (pre-TX and after transplantation (post-TX. Methods Nineteen CCLs (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, 21, 24, 26, 27, CXCL 5, 8, 10, 12 and 13 were measured in 47 stable post-TX recipients, and their stored pre-TX plasma was analyzed by multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay. Twenty normal controls were included for comparisons. Normalized data was presented as mean ± SD and non-normalized data as median (5–95 % CI. Significance was measured at p < 0.01. Arbitrary upper and lower margins for each CCL at the 95 % CI or 2SD levels in each group were chosen to calculate the percentile of patients in the other group who exceeded these limits. Significant CCL levels present in more than 75 % of patients in a group that exceeded the arbitrary upper or lower set margins in the other two groups were labeled as preferentially characteristic for the respective group. Results More than 75 % of pre- and post-TX patients had levels that exceeded the upper control for CCL1, 11, 15 and CCL15, CCL26 and CXCL13 levels, respectively. More than 75 % of pre- and post-TX patients exceeded the lower control for CCL3, 21, and CCL5 limits, respectively. More than 75 % of post-TX patients demonstrated elevated levels of CCL2, 3, 21, 26 and CXCL13 above the upper pre-TX cut offs. Meanwhile, more than 75 % of post-TX patients exceeded the lower pre-TX levels for CCL1, 4, 5, 8, 13, 15, 17, 24 and CXCL8 and10. Pre-TX was preferentially characterized by elevated CCL1 and 15 and diminished CCL3 and 21. Post-TX was preferentially

  8. Alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, G; Burke, G W

    2008-01-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for both the quality of life and survival in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the immunosuppressive regimen which allows optimal kidney transplant outcome remains elusive. One of the more promising induction agents, Alemtuzumab, was introduced to kidney transplantation by Calne in the late 1990s with low dose cyclosporine A monotherapy, with the hope of establishing 'prope' or near tolerance. Subsequent pilot studies with Alemtuzumab alone or monotherapy (DSG, Rapa) demonstrated high rates of acute rejection (AR) along with occasional humoral components that lead to abandoning the concept of Alemtuzumab as a 'magic bullet' to achieve tolerance, prope or otherwise. A number of programs (including our own) has since modified maintenance immunosuppression using low dose tacrolimus, and shown acceptable rates of AR, with relatively low incidence of viral infection and lymphoproliferative disorders along with cost benefit. However, there are only three prospective, randomized studies which are small with one year or less follow-up, and most published series utilize historical control groups with relatively short follow-up. As extrapolation from short-term data is far from secure, long-term, prospective, randomized studies with Alemtuzumab will be necessary to determine the optimal immunosuppressive regimen.

  9. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha A Abdalhamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis is an uncommon infection in Saudi Arabia. It can establish latency and cause an autoinfection in humans that lasts for years. The infection can get reactivated during immunosuppression and can result in a life-threatening Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. We present three cases of renal transplant recipients who developed Strongyloides infection following transplantation. A bronchoalveolar lavage specimen, a duodenal biopsy and/or a stool specimen from these patients revealed evidence of S. stercoralis larvae. The first two patients received kidneys from the same deceased donor, a native of Bangladesh, an area that is highly endemic for S. stercoralis. The data suggest that the first two cases might be donor derived. High-risk donors and recipients should be screened for Strongyloides infection to initiate treatment before transplantation thus reducing morbidity and mortality.

  10. [The second kidney transplantation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virseda Rodríguez, Julio Antonio

    2015-05-01

    The first two living donor kidney transplants in our country (isotransplant and homotransplant respectively) were reported in 1961. We reviewed the clinical history of the renal homotransplant performed between father and son, more than half a century ago, by Carlos Younger de la Peña and Ramiro Rivera at "La Paloma' Clinic in Madrid. We comment on the organizational, legal, immunobiological and technical difficulties in those times when the successful future of transplantation was barely in sight. From the XXI Century we can see the long path of renal transplantation during the XX century. Despite all the initial troubles and failures our present must recognize, and so does it, the work and dedication of the pioneers.

  11. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Incidence and Risk Factors of Persistent Hyperparathyroidism After Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, K; Fujii, H; Ishimura, T; Fujisawa, M; Nishi, S

    Persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation is related to graft function, but pre-transplantation risk factors of persistent hyperparathyroidism have not been evaluated in detail. We enrolled 86 patients who had undergone kidney transplantation between 2008 and 2014. Nine patients showed persistent hyperparathyroidism characterized by the following: 1) serum parathyroid hormone levels >65 pg/mL and serum calcium levels >10.5 mg/dL at 1 year after kidney transplantation; 2) parathyroidectomy after kidney transplantation; and 3) reintroduction of cinacalcet after kidney transplantation. Compared with other patients, these 9 patients had significantly longer duration of dialysis therapy (186 ± 74 mo vs 57 ± 78 mo) and more frequent treatment with cinacalcet during dialysis (89% vs 12%). Multivariate analysis showed that dialysis vintage, calcium phosphate products, and cinacalcet use before kidney transplantation were independent risk factors of persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed 72 months as the cutoff value of dialysis vintage and 55 as the cutoff value of calcium phosphate products. In conclusion, dialysis vintage >6 years, calcium phosphate products >55 (mg/dL) 2 , and cinacalcet use before kidney transplantation are strong predictors of persistent hyperparathyroidism. High-risk patients should be evaluated for parathyroid enlargement, and parathyroidectomy must be considered before kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DEMOGRAPHIC GEOGRAPHY OF KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION IN CHILDREN IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kaabak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to one of the most difficult issues of world pediatrics – kidney transplantation. It displays the register of transplantations in children conducted at 2 leading Moscow clinics in this sphere of medicine. The article presents the authors’ experience of kidney transplantation, data on transplant survivability and discussion of the long-term results obtained in children from Moscow and other regions of the Russian Federation.

  14. Phosphate and FGF-23 homeostasis after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baia, Leandro C.; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Navis, Gerjan; de Borst, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated phosphate metabolism is a common consequence of chronic kidney disease, and is characterized by a high circulating level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, hyperparathyroidism, and hyperphosphataemia. Kidney transplantation can elicit specific alterations to phosphate metabolism that

  15. Change in glomerular volume and its clinicopathological impact after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akimitsu; Yamamoto, Izumi; Katsumata, Haruki; Yamakawa, Takafumi; Mafune, Aki; Nakada, Yasuyuki; Koike, Kentaro; Mitome, Jun; Miki, Jun; Yamada, Hiroki; Tanno, Yudo; Ohkido, Ichiro; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Both immunological and non-immunological etiologies affect graft function after kidney transplantation, including acute rejection, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, and a recurrence of glomerulonephritis. Glomerular enlargement or glomerular sclerosis due to glomerular hyperfiltration related to increased renal blood flow is another cause. Although the glomerular volume in baseline biopsies predicts late allograft function, the relationship between allograft function and the annual changes in glomerular volume after kidney transplantation are unclear. We investigated changes in glomerular volume after kidney transplantation and their clinicopathological relationship. We enrolled 23 patients with stable kidney function without an episode of rejection or any complication resulting in a functional decrease in the graft. We measured glomerular volume (GV) using the Weibel-Gomez method and glomerular density (GD) using 0,1 h biopsy samples as baseline controls and 1 yr biopsy samples and investigated the association between the changes in them and clinical parameters, including graft function, proteinuria, and renal hemodynamic markers, including effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and filtration fraction (FF). The ERPF was calculated from a 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renogram. The GV and ERPF increased significantly 1 yr after kidney transplantation. In contrast, proteinuria decreased significantly and Δproteinuria (1 yr - 1 month after transplantation) was correlated with ΔGV (P Glomerular enlargement 1 yr after transplantation may be related to improved proteinuria. It is possible that glomerular enlargement serves as a renal adaptation after kidney transplantation. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. Immunologic monitoring in kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natavudh Townamchai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transplant biopsy has always been the gold standard for assessing the immune response to a kidney allograft (Chandraker A: Diagnostic techniques in the work-up of renal allograft dysfunction—an update. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 8:723–728, 1999. A biopsy is not without risk and is unable to predict rejection and is only diagnostic once rejection has already occurred. However, in the past two decades, we have seen an expansion in assays that can potentially put an end to the “drug level” era, which until now has been one of the few tools available to clinicians for monitoring the immune response. A better understanding of the mechanisms of rejection and tolerance, and technological advances has led to the development of new noninvasive methods to monitor the immune response. In this article, we discuss these new methods and their potential uses in renal transplant recipients.

  17. Robotic kidney transplantation with intraoperative regional hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Ronney; Ghani, Khurshid R; Sood, Akshay; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Kumar, Ramesh K; Jeong, Wooju; Bhandari, Mahendra; Kher, Vijay; Menon, Mani

    2014-04-01

    To describe a novel and reproducible technique of robotic kidney transplantation (RKT) that requires no repositioning, and permits intraoperative regional hypothermia. A GelPOINT™ (Applied Medical, Santa Ranchero, CA, USA) access port was used for delivery of ice-slush and introduction of the graft kidney. The new RKT technique using ice-slush has been performed in 39 patients. At a mean follow-up of 3 months all of the grafts functioned. There was a marked reduction in pain and analgesic requirement compared with patients undergoing open KT, with a propensity towards quicker graft recovery and lower complication rate. RKT has been shown to be safe and feasible in patients undergoing living-donor related KT. A prospective trial is underway to assess outcomes definitively. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  18. Chikungunya in kidney transplant recipients: A series of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrotti, Lígia Camera; Lopes, Max Igor Banks Ferreira; Nascimento, Ana Patrícia do; Caiaffa-Filho, Hélio; Lemos, Francine Brambate Carvalhinho; Reusing, José Otto; Sejas, Odeli Nicole Encinas; David-Neto, Elias; Azevedo, Luiz Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) is a mosquito-borne virus (CHIKV) infection that recently appeared in the Americas and thousands of confirmed cases have been reported in Brazil since the first autochthonous cases were reported in September 2014. We reported four cases of CHIK in kidney transplant recipients. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive CHIKV real-time polymerase chain reaction in two cases and positive CHIKV-IgM serology in two patients. The time between transplantation and CHIKV infection ranged from 2 to 11 years. All of them had arthralgia, and 3 of them had fever. Other symptoms were mild conjunctivitis, rash, and retro-orbital pain. Kidney function remained stable in all cases. In three patients prednisone doses were temporally increased and the symptoms disappeared concurrently with the increase of the dose. As for the fourth patient, the prednisone dose remained unchanged and yet she improved. Other immunosuppressive drugs were not changed for the four cases. As far as we know, there are only two previously reported cases of CHIK among solid organ transplant recipients besides the four cases reported here. Despite the small number of cases, we can speculate that the use of immunosuppression might have played a role in the paucity of symptoms and the gradual complete recovery with no complication. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Commercial Kidney Transplantation: Attitude, Knowledge, Perception, and Experience of Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahbi, Fatma; Al Salmi, Issa

    2017-07-01

    Kidney transplantation is the gold standard for patients with end-stage kidney disease. In view of shortages of available organs, long wait times for possible transplantation, and strict regulation, many patients opt for commercial transplantation. This study elicits the reasons and motivations for patients with end-stage kidney disease to elect for commercial transplant. A questionnaire-based evaluation was conducted during the period from July 2015 until late December 2015. It consisted of 29 multiple choice questions and was distributed to all patients who underwent commercial kidney transplantation. One hundred and fifty patients were approached to participate and 106 agreed. Of the participants, 60% were male with an average age of 41.5 (SD 14.8) years and ranged from 18 to 83 years. The majority (82%) of our participants were educated ranging from primary to college level. The major reason (71%) for these participants to obtain commercial transplants was stated as the unavailability of a live related donor. Thirteen percent stated that they objected to getting a kidney donated from a family member, and 9% stated that they were worried about taking a kidney from a family member. Finally, 3% of participants stated that they needed prompt transplant and could not wait for a long time for transplant investigations and the workup associated with this program. The study showed that the most common underlying cause for seeking commercial transplantation is the unavailability of a national transplant program, particularly transplantation from deceased sources. All western ethical arguments turn out to become of vital importance in developing countries, because transplantation is the cheapest renal replacement therapy. However, it must be emphasized that commercial transplants should not be an alternative to building a national transplant initiative. The national diseased program must be a priority with full financial and administrative support. All government

  20. Does graft mass impact on pediatric kidney transplant outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltran, Luciana de Santis; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar Koch; Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Verrastro, Carlos Gustavo Yuji; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the evolution of renal size and function in pediatric transplant patients according to the graft mass/recipient size ratio. Fifty pediatric renal transplant recipients were followed over 2 years. Grafts were weighed, and three different graft mass/m(2) ratios were determined: (1) low graft mass (58 g/m(2), range 31-57 g/m(2)), (2) median (142 g/m(2), range 59-141 g/m(2)) and high (267 g/m(2), range 143-353 g/m(2)). Patients underwent repeated ultrasound Doppler scans and repeated measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; 1 week and 1, 6, 12 and 24 months), urinary retinol-binding protein (RBP) and proteinuria (1 week and 6, 12 and 24 months). The volume of renal tissue increased by 12 ± 5.6 cm(3) at 24 months (p = 0.035) in the low graft mass and decreased by -14 ± 7 cm(3) (p = 0.046) in the high graft mass. The eGFR increased when either low (30 ± 5 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p < 0.001) or median (19 ± 4 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p < 0.001) graft mass was transplanted but remained stable when high graft mass was transplanted. The resistive index (RI) presented a significant decrease throughout early follow-up in the transplants involving low and median graft mass, whereas a slight rise was observed in those involving high graft mass. A significant difference was apparent 6 months post-transplant. Transplants of low and median graft mass were associated with an initial higher urinary RBP. No significant differences in proteinuria were detected. Small kidneys undergo increases in volume and function without escalation of either proteinuria or urinary RBP, characterizing an adequate adaptation to the recipient. Children receiving larger kidneys present a reduction in volume, stable GFR and higher RI at 6 months.

  1. Erthics, justice and the sale of kidneys for transplantation purposes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Living kidney donor transplantations are complex; add to that financial compensation to the donor and one enters an ethical maze. Debates on whether the buying and selling of kidneys should be allowed are mainly between utilitarians, deontologists and virtue ethicists as legal transplants are more common in the Western ...

  2. Kidney Transplant Outcomes After Primary, Repeat and Kidney After Nonrenal Solid Organ Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Puneet; Gao, Xiaotian; Mehta, Rajil; Landsittel, Douglas; Wu, Christine; Nusrat, Rabeeya; Puttarajappa, Chethan; Tevar, Amit D; Hariharan, Sundaram

    2016-06-01

    Improvements in renal allograft outcomes have permitted kidney transplantation after prior kidney allograft failure as well as after nonrenal solid organ transplantation. This study compares renal allograft outcomes in the 3 groups, that is, primary, repeat, and kidney after nonrenal solid organ transplantation, where transplant group was coded as a time-dependent variable. We retrospectively reviewed registry data for kidney transplant recipients at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from January 2000 to December 2011. We compared overall graft survival between the 3 groups using Cox regression modeling. We calculated 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival and half-lives for each group where feasible. The study cohort (N = 2014) consisted of group A (primary kidney transplant, n = 1578, with 7923.2 years of follow-up time), group B (repeat kidney transplant, n = 314, with 1566.7 years of follow-up time) and group C (kidney post-nonrenal solid organ transplant, n = 176, with 844.8 years of follow-up time). Of the 1578 patients in the primary kidney transplant group, 74 later received a repeat transplant and thus also have follow-up counted in the repeat kidney transplant group. The median follow-up was 56, 53, and 55 months, respectively. The 5-year actuarial and death-censored graft survival was 68.69%, 68.79%, and 66.48% and 65.53%, 67.68%, and 62.92%, respectively (P = 0.70). There was no difference in overall graft survival in the Cox-adjusted analysis (group B: odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.26; P = 0.79; group C: odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.23; P = 0.76). The adjusted kidney graft survivals in the 3 groups were similar.

  3. Low predictive value of positive transplant perfusion fluid cultures for diagnosing postoperative infections in kidney and kidney-pancreas transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, Meaghan P

    2012-12-01

    Infection following transplantation is a cause of morbidity and mortality. Perfusion fluid (PF) used to preserve organs between recovery and transplantation represents a medium suitable for the growth of microbes. We evaluated the relevance of positive growth from PF sampled before the implantation of kidney or kidney-pancreas (KP) allografts.

  4. [Towards the development of living donor kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Marie-Alice

    2016-12-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Organ preservation and viability in kidney and liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, Marcus Hubertus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Organ preservation for transplantation. The easy way or best method? Kidney and liver transplantations are routinely performed nowadays to treat end stage organ diseases. However, the increasing gap between demand and supply, has necessitated the transplantation community to expand donor criteria

  6. Management of Minerals and Bone Disorders after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Mineral and bone disorders (MBD), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Recent findings Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (PTH, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on post-transplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. Summary MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well-established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed. PMID:22614626

  7. When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... new (donor) kidney in the body dialysis , a therapeutic process that does the work of the kidneys ... Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) Urine Test: Calcium Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Word! Kidney Chronic Kidney ...

  8. Recommendations for donation after circulatory death kidney transplantation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heurn, L. W. Ernest; Talbot, David; Nicholson, Michael L.; Akhtar, Mohammed Z.; Sanchez-Fructuoso, Ana I.; Weekers, Laurent; Barrou, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors provides an invaluable source for kidneys for transplantation. Over the last decade, we have observed a substantial increase in the number of DCD kidneys, particularly within Europe. We provide an overview of risk factors associated with DCD kidney

  9. Preemptive kidney transplantation: an ethical challenge for organ allocation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2017-01-01

    Preemptive transplants are advisable in advanced stages of kidney disease. The clinical advantages of preemptive transplantation over dialysis are evident. Nevertheless, preemptive transplantations raise ethical concerns, particularly regarding the allocation of medical resources. The present article proposes some criteria for organ allocation policies regarding preemptive transplantations: criteria regarding medical benefit and justice are absolutely essential when addressing the issue of organ allocation, but other ethical values should also be taken into account. The "principle of double effect" offers useful pointers.

  10. Vitamin D status in children and adolescents with kidney transplants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Louise Aarup; Nielsen, Pia Rude; Thiesson, Helle Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Brodersen LA, Nielsen PR, Thiesson HC, Marckmann P. Vitamin D status in children and adolescents with kidney transplants. Pediatr Transplantation 2011: 15: 384-389. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:  Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in adult kidney-transplanted patients. The knowledge....... The study included 35 patients with a functioning graft. Their mean age was 12.0 yr, and the mean graft age was 2.8 yr. Forty percent of the patients were vitamin D insufficient (P-25-hydroxyvitamin D 40-75 nm), and 14% were deficient (P-25-hydroxyvitamin D ...... of vitamin D status in kidney-transplanted children and adolescents is sparse. The present study investigated the vitamin D status of a cohort of kidney-transplanted children and adolescents, and the association between vitamin D status and plasma concentrations of PTH, ionized calcium, and phosphate...

  11. Living-donor kidney transplant from a type a donor to a type a subgroup recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Norichika; Nishimura, Kenji; Yoshida, Yasuyuki; Hirai, Toshiaki; Kishikawa, Hidefumi; Ichikawa, Yasuji

    2015-04-01

    Type A subgroup is rare in Japan, and kidney transplant to a type A subgroup recipient is rare worldwide. A 65-year-old man presented for living-donor kidney transplant. Blood group testing showed that his wife (kidney donor) had blood group type A. The patient (recipient) had a type A subgroup because reverse blood grouping showed a weak reaction with A1 antigen. Further testing showed that the recipient had type A subgroup between Ax and Ael because adsorption elution experiments and flow cytometry showed a few A antigens that were not detected on forward grouping, and DNA analysis was not consistent with Ael. The patient was given a milder protocol for immunosuppressive preoperative therapy than typically used for ABO-incompatible kidney transplant; mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone were started 3 weeks and cyclosporine 2 weeks before transplant, rituximab (100 mg) was given once, and double filtration plasmapheresis and plasma exchange were not used. Follow-up at 9 months after transplant showed stable clinical status and no allograft rejection. In summary, the present case showed that when type A subgroup recipient has low level of anti-A1 antibody and is receiving a kidney transplant from a blood type A donor, milder immunosuppressive preoperative therapy appears safe.

  12. An economic assessment of contemporary kidney transplant practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, David; Schnitzler, Mark A; Xiao, Huiling; Irish, William; Tuttle-Newhall, Elizabeth; Chang, Su-Hsin; Kasiske, Bertram L; Alhamad, Tarek; Lentine, Krista L

    2018-02-16

    Kidney transplant is the optimal therapy for end stage renal disease, prolonging survival and reducing healthcare spending. Prior economic analyses of kidney transplant using Markov models, have generally assumed compatible, low risk, donors. The economic implications of using deceased donor kidneys with high kidney donor profile index (KPDI) scores, ABO incompatible or HLA incompatible living donors has not been assessed. The costs of transplant and dialysis were compared using discrete event simulation over a 10-year period, using data from the United States Renal Data System, Vizient ™ (Irving, Texas), and literature review. Graft failure rates and expenditures were adjusted for donor characteristics. All transplant options were associated with improved survival compared with dialysis (transplant: 5.20-6.34 quality adjusted life years [QALY] vs. dialysis: 4.03 QALY). Living donor and low KDPI deceased donor transplants were cost saving compared with dialysis, while transplants using high KDPI deceased donor, ABO incompatible or HLA incompatible living donors were cost effective (living donor transplant to 80,486 for HLA incompatible donors compared with $72,476 for dialysis. In conclusion, kidney transplant is cost-effective across all donor types despite higher costs for marginal organs and innovative living donor practices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards Improving the Transfer of Care of Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J S; Wright, A J; Delmonico, F L; Newell, K A

    2017-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients require specialized medical care and may be at risk for adverse health outcomes when their care is transferred. This document provides opinion-based recommendations to facilitate safe and efficient transfers of care for kidney transplant recipients including minimizing the risk of rejection, avoidance of medication errors, ensuring patient access to immunosuppressant medications, avoidance of lapses in health insurance coverage, and communication of risks of donor disease transmission. The document summarizes information to be included in a medical transfer document and includes suggestions to help the patient establish an optimal therapeutic relationship with their new transplant care team. The document is intended as a starting point towards standardization of transfers of care involving kidney transplant recipients. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. [Current immunologic aspects of kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, V; Dreikorn, K; Opelz, G

    1982-09-01

    The results of clinical kidney transplantation are mainly dependent on immunologic factors many of which are unknown or of unspecified importance. Blood transfusions have a favorable effect on graft prognosis, although our knowledge about optimal transfusion protocols and transfusion-induced mechanisms is still incomplete. The value of HLA-typing is controversial: whereas compatibility of the "classical" HLA-A,B,C antigens improves graft survival only moderately, HLA-DR typing, routinely performed for the last 3 years only, might be of greater importance. In addition, non-HLA systems, such as endothelial/monocytic antigens or the Lewis blood group system, appear to play a role in graft rejection. The individual immune reactivity a recipient to a large extent determines the fate of a graft. The multifactorial dependence of graft prognosis is discussed in this report.

  15. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Moelgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    -25(OH)D 40-75 nmol/L], and an additional 29% had moderate-to-severe vitamin D deficiency [S-25(OH)D vitamin D supplementation (positive association) were independent determinants of S-25(OH)D concentrations...... transplant patients and is associated with reduced concentrations of S-1,25(OH)(2)D and increased S-PTH concentrations. Sun avoidance and vitamin D supplementation are important determinants of vitamin D status. The observed hypovitaminosis D might be corrected by intensified routine vitamin D......BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency has been found in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine vitamin D status and determinants and metabolic correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a population of adult Danish...

  16. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Moelgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    (OH)D], and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [S-1,25(OH)(2)D] were measured. Dietary and supplementary intake of vitamin D, avoidance of solar ultraviolet B exposure, and selected lifestyle factors were assessed in a subgroup (n = 97). RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of the patients had vitamin D insufficiency [S....... Low S-25(OH)D concentrations were associated with 1) increased S-PTH concentrations (P = 0.0002), independently of S-1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations, and 2) decreased S-1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations (P = 0.002), independently of graft function. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovitaminosis D is common among Danish kidney...... transplant patients and is associated with reduced concentrations of S-1,25(OH)(2)D and increased S-PTH concentrations. Sun avoidance and vitamin D supplementation are important determinants of vitamin D status. The observed hypovitaminosis D might be corrected by intensified routine vitamin D...

  17. Ethics, Justice and the Sale of Kidneys for Transplantation Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Slabbert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Living kidney donor transplantations are complex; add to that financial compensation to the donor and one enters an ethical maze. Debates on whether the buying and selling of kidneys should be allowed are mainly between utilitarians, deontologists and virtue ethicists as legal transplants are more common in the Western world. The pros and cons of each theory in relation to the sale of human organs are analysed, after which the foundational principles for all bio-ethical judgments; beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice are also scrutinised in seeking to justify the sale of human kidneys for transplantation purposes in a country with a human rights culture.

  18. Kidney transplant in a patient with Schizophrenia. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo F. Agranatti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a female patient, aged 42, with long-term schizophrenia and end-stage chronic kidney disease. After approximately two years undergoing replacement therapy, she is put on the waiting list for deceased donor kidney transplant. She receives a transplant from a deceased donor with good progress and favorable adaptation to the intercurrent diseases occurring during the course of the process. This case represents a possibility for patients diagnosed with schizophrenia; they may receive a kidney transplant with good progress, highlighting different aspects to be considered in order to guarantee the success of the procedure.

  19. Impact of transplant nephrectomy on peak PRA levels and outcome after kidney re-transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittelbach-Helmrich, Dietlind; Pisarski, Przemyslaw; Offermann, Gerd; Geyer, Marcel; Thomusch, Oliver; Hopt, Ulrich Theodor; Drognitz, Oliver

    2014-06-24

    To determine the impact of transplant nephrectomy on peak panel reactive antibody (PRA) levels, patient and graft survival in kidney re-transplants. From 1969 to 2006, a total of 609 kidney re-transplantations were performed at the University of Freiburg and the Campus Benjamin Franklin of the University of Berlin. Patients with PRA levels above (5%) before first kidney transplantation were excluded from further analysis (n = 304). Patients with graft nephrectomy (n = 245, NE+) were retrospectively compared to 60 kidney re-transplants without prior graft nephrectomy (NE-). Peak PRA levels between the first and the second transplantation were higher in patients undergoing graft nephrectomy (P = 0.098), whereas the last PRA levels before the second kidney transplantation did not differ between the groups. Age adjusted survival for the second kidney graft, censored for death with functioning graft, were comparable in both groups. Waiting time between first and second transplantation did not influence the graft survival significantly in the group that underwent nephrectomy. In contrast, patients without nephrectomy experienced better graft survival rates when re-transplantation was performed within one year after graft loss (P = 0.033). Age adjusted patient survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 94.1% and 86.3% vs 83.1% and 75.4% group NE+ and NE-, respectively (P PRA levels that normalize before kidney re-transplantation. In patients without nephrectomy of a non-viable kidney graft timing of re-transplantation significantly influences graft survival after a second transplantation. Most importantly, transplant nephrectomy is associated with a significantly longer patient survival.

  20. Treatment of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders after kidney transplant with rituximab and conversion to m-TOR inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Rios, John Fredy; Gómez de Los Ríos, Sandra Milena; Serna-Higuita, Lina María; Ocampo-Kohn, Catalina; Aristizabal-Alzate, Arbey; Gálvez-Cárdenas, Kenny Mauricio; Zuluaga-Valencia, Gustavo Adolfo

    2016-12-30

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders are serious complications of organ transplantation which treatment is not yet standardized. To describe the clinical response, overall and graft survival of patients in our center with this complication after kidney transplantation, which received rituximab as part of their treatment as well as conversion to m-TOR. Retrospective study, which included patients, diagnosed with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders after kidney transplantation from January 2011 to July 2014. Eight cases were found with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Most had monomorphic histology, 85% were associated with Epstein-Barr virus, 25% of patients had tumor involvement of the renal graft, and 12.5% ​​had primary central nervous system lymphoma. All patients were managed with reduction of immunosuppression, conversion to m-TOR (except one who lost the graft at diagnosis) and rituximab-based therapy. The overall response rate was 87.5% (62.5% complete response, 25% partial response). Survival was 87.5% with a median follow-up of 34 months. An additional patient lost the graft, with chronic nephropathy already known. All the remaining patients had stable renal function. There are no standardized treatment regimens for lymphoproliferative disorders after kidney transplantation, but these patients can be managed successfully with reduction of immunosuppression, conversion to m-TOR and rituximab-based schemes.

  1. TRANSPLANTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stage kidney disease. There is good evidence that transplantation improves both the quality and quantity of life in renal transplant recipients when compared with dialysis.1,2. Living donor kidney transplantation has gained popularity, not only owing ...

  2. Calcium and phosphorus metabolism in stable renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Hamid T; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Azar, Sima Abedi; Tubbs, R Shane; Safa, Javid; Etemadi, Jalal; Ardalan, Mohammad R

    2007-12-01

    This study sought to elucidate the status of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone in patients following kidney transplant. In this cross-sectional study, 20 renal transplant recipients were evaluated. For each patient, age, sex, time since transplant, and body weight were recorded. Inclusion criteria were age > 14 years and good allograft function defined as a serum creatinine level urine calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, and uric acid, as well as concentrations of hemoglobin, serum creatinine, calcium, and phosphorus were measured. To obtain a mean value of serum intact parathyroid hormone in transplant recipients at our center, serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were additionally quantitated in another group of 30 renal transplant recipients. The mean hemoglobin level was 135.6 +/- 17.7 g/L, the mean serum creatinine level was 105.0 +/- 15.3 micromol/L, and the mean serum calcium and phosphorus levels were 2.25 +/- 0.17 mmol/L (normal range, 2.02-2.60 mmol/L) and 1.28 +/- 0.24 mmol/L (normal range, 0.81-1.61 mmol/L), respectively. The mean serum intact parathyroid hormone level was 33.17 +/- 14.67 ng/L (normal range, 10-60 ng/L). Mean 24-hour urine calcium and phosphorus values were 2.32 +/- 1.68 mmol/day (normal, 2.49-6.24 mmol/day) and 19.77 +/- 8.31 mmol/day (normal, 12.91-41.98 mmol/day), respectively. A positive correlation was found between serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels (r = +0.71, P = .006). Hemoglobin level was negatively correlated with serum phosphorus level (r = -0.65, P = .003) and sex (r = -0.57, P = .003) and positively correlated with urine creatinine levels (r = +0.69, P = .001). Renal transplant recipients with stable allograft function may have normal serum calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone levels. However, presence of hypocalciuria and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase levels might imply impaired calcium metabolism in these patients.

  3. Psychosocial aspects of medication nonadherence after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Moors-Tielen (Mirjam)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Patients have to take immunosuppressive medication after kidney transplantation to prevent rejection of the graft. This thesis investigated patients’ adherence behavior, attitudes and beliefs about the immunosuppressive regime. The research questions were (1) What is

  4. Infectious complications in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, J. A.; Brennan, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    Since the initial successful kidney transplantations in humans, the field of renal transplantation has made significant progress. Patient survival and graft survival have improved tremendously. Our armamentarium of immunosuppressive drugs and antimicrobial agents has expanded, as our understanding of their effects and proper utilization. Enhanced surgical techniques also improved the overall survival of kidney recipients. However, infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. In this article, we provide an overview of infections in kidney transplant recipients, a detailed illustration of specific infectious agents with a focus on cytomegalovirus, and finally we lay some general principles for limiting the burden of infectious complications in kidney transplants through proper infection control measures. (author)

  5. The everyday of people waiting for kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Rezende Ferreira Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the everyday of people experiencing the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Methods: this is a qualitative research, based on Heideggerian phenomenology. 14 deponents participated in hemodialysis and registered on the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Phenomenological interview with the research question: How is the experience awaiting the kidney transplant? Color marking technique for analyzing demarcating lines that show similarity, of these, emerged the essential structures that enabled the units of meaning. Results: changing lifestyles, imposing a routine and rigidity of treatment signaling everyday stress and exhaustion of hemodialysis being. Emerging from the modes of gossip, curiosity, and bureaucracy, unfolding-inauthentic and impersonal regarding their care. Conclusion: hemodialysis dependence and awaiting kidney transplantation transfer care for family/professional caregivers. To understand the everyday marked by impositions and restrictions, the reflection about how professional health interaction/being-care becomes important.

  6. Recurrence of diabetic kidney disease in a type 1 diabetic patient after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyumura, Izumi; Honda, Kazuho; Babazono, Tetsuya; Horita, Shigeru; Murakami, Toru; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2015-07-01

    Post-transplant hyperglycaemia of diabetic patients may cause recurrent diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in kidney allografts. We report a patient with slowly progressive DKD with calcineurin inhibitor toxicity (CNI) toxicity after the kidney transplantation. A 28-year-old female with type 1 diabetes mellitus underwent successful kidney transplantation from her mother in April 2003, and the kidney graft survived for more than 10 years. She was treated with combined immunosuppressive therapy consisting of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. After transplantation, she continued to take insulin injection four times per day, but her glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was above 10%. Protocol allograft kidney biopsies performed 5 and 10 years after transplantation revealed the recurrence of slowly progressive diabetic kidney disease. In addition, arteriolar hyalinosis partly associated with calcineurin inhibitor toxicity (CNI) was detected with progression. Post-transplant hyperglycaemia causes recurrent diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in kidney allografts, but its progression is usually slow. For long-term management, it is important to prevent the progression of the calcineurin inhibitor arteriolopathy, as well as maintain favourable glycaemic control. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. Combined heart-kidney transplantation after total artificial heart insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzza, A; Czer, L S C; Ihnken, K A; Sasevich, M; Trento, A; Ramzy, D; Esmailian, F; Moriguchi, J; Kobashigawa, J; Arabia, F

    2015-01-01

    We present the first single-center report of 2 consecutive cases of combined heart and kidney transplantation after insertion of a total artificial heart (TAH). Both patients had advanced heart failure and developed dialysis-dependent renal failure after implantation of the TAH. The 2 patients underwent successful heart and kidney transplantation, with restoration of normal heart and kidney function. On the basis of this limited experience, we consider TAH a safe and feasible option for bridging carefully selected patients with heart and kidney failure to combined heart and kidney transplantation. Recent FDA approval of the Freedom driver may allow outpatient management at substantial cost savings. The TAH, by virtue of its capability of providing pulsatile flow at 6 to 10 L/min, may be the mechanical circulatory support device most likely to recover patients with marginal renal function and advanced heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased deoposition of 111indium labelled platelets in chronically rejected kidney transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leithner, C.; Syre, G.

    1982-01-01

    Increased deposition of 111 In-oxine labelled autologous platelets in chronically rejected kidney transplants was demonstrated using a gamma-camera and by measurement of a platelet uptake index (PUI). In this group of patients the PUI correlated indirectly with the platelet half-life and was statistically different from the PUI found in stable transplant patients who acted as controls. It is therefore suggested that platelets may play a key role in chronic rejection by the release of a mitogenic factor which promotes the development of obliterative arterial lesions in the transplant. (orig.)

  9. Acute rejection episodes after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamida Fethi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute rejection episodes (AREs are a major determinant of renal allograft survival. The incorporation of new immunosuppressive agents explains, at least partially, the improvement seen in the results of transplantation in recent years. The objectives of this study are to analyze the incidence and severity of AREs, their risk factors and their influence on graft and patient survival. We retrospectively studied 280 kidney transplants performed in adults at the Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, between 1986 and 2004. The diagnosis of ARE was based on clinical data and response to treatment. Allograft biopsies were performed in ten cases. The treatment of AREs consisted of pulse methylprednisolone and anti-thymocyte globulin. There were 186 males (66.4% and 94 females (33.6%, and their mean age was 31 ± 8.9 years. Overall, the 280 study patients experienced a total of 113 AREs. Of them, 85 had only one ARE, 28 had two to three and none had more than three AREs. A total of 68 AREs were completely re-versible, 42 were partially reversible while three could not be reversed with treatment. The mean inci-dence of AREs was 40.4%. The incidence was > 45% between 1986 and 1997, decreased to 20.5% between 1998 and 2000 and to 9% between 2001 and 2004. Graft survival rates in patients with and without AREs were respectively 91% and 93% at three years, 82% and 90% at five years and 73% and 83% at 10 years. We found a decrease in the incidence of AREs in recent years in our study patients, and this was related to the introduction of sensitized cross-match and the newer immunosuppressive agents, particularly MMF. Additionally, AREs had a deleterious impact on late graft survival in our study population.

  10. Changes of perceived control after kidney transplantation : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, Torben; Niesing, Jan; van der Heide, Jaap Homan; Westerhuis, Ralf; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    AimsThe aim of this study was to determine if kidney transplantation is associated with increases of perceived control and how changes of perceived control affect the course of psychological distress until 1year after transplantation. BackgroundLow levels of perceived control are associated with

  11. Warts in a cohort of Danish kidney transplanted patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Claus; Sand, Carsten; Hansen, Jesper Melchior

    2012-01-01

    There are no published clinical studies evaluating the impact of warts on quality of life after transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of self-reported skin warts and skin cancer and their impact on quality of life in kidney transplanted patients, as measured...... cutaneous cancer. A total of 285 (52%) patients replied that they had warts, and these increased with time since last transplantation, with a p-value...

  12. Giardia lamblia infection after pancreas-kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Ann Abkjaer; Horneland, Rune; Birn, Henrik; Svensson, My

    2016-01-18

    Infection is a common complication of solid organ transplantation. It is associated with an increased risk of acute cellular rejection and loss of graft function. The most common infections are due to bacteria and viruses, including transmission of cytomegalovirus from donor to recipient. In the past years, an increasing number of parasitic infections have been documented in transplant recipients. We describe the first reported case of intestinal Giardia lamblia transmission following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Intravenous Renal Cell Transplantation for Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    cells from a single donor, a critical point since many ESRD patients never get renal transplants due to shortage of organs for donation (13). The... Transplantation for Polycystic Kidney Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jesus H. Dominguez CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : Indiana University School of...sections were examined under the fluorescent microscope to identify the location and number of transplanted cells in all the organs harvested. One half

  14. Increasing access to kidney transplantation in countries with limited resources: the Indian experience with kidney paired donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kute, Vivek B; Vanikar, Aruna V; Shah, Pankaj R; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2014-10-01

    According to the Indian chronic kidney disease registry, in 2010 only 2% of end stage kidney disease patients were managed with kidney transplantation, 37% were managed with dialysis and 61% were treated conservatively without renal replacement therapy. In countries like India, where a well-organized deceased donor kidney transplantation program is not available, living donor kidney transplantation is the major source of organs for kidney transplantation. The most common reason to decline a donor for directed living donation is ABO incompatibility, which eliminates up to one third of the potential living donor pool. Because access to transplantation with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-desensitization protocols and ABO incompatible transplantation is very limited due to high costs and increased risk of infections from more intense immunosuppression, kidney paired donation (KPD) promises hope to a growing number of end stage kidney disease patients. KPD is a rapidly growing and cost-effective living donor kidney transplantation strategy for patients who are incompatible with their healthy, willing living donor. In principle, KPD is feasible for any centre that performs living donor kidney transplantation. In transplant centres with a large living donor kidney transplantation program KPD does not require extra infrastructure, decreases waiting time, avoids transplant tourism and prevents commercial trafficking. Although KPD is still underutilized in India, it has been performed more frequently in recent times. To substantially increase donor pool and transplant rates, transplant centres should work together towards a national KPD program and frame a uniform acceptable allocation policy. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  15. Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E C; Segev, D L; Engels, E A

    2013-03-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk, but it is unknown if cancer risk differs across race and ethnicity as in the general population. US kidney recipients (N = 87,895) in the Transplant Cancer Match Study between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated for racial/ethnic differences in risk for six common cancers after transplantation. Compared to white recipients, black recipients had lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.60, pblack and Hispanic recipients had larger increases in kidney cancer risk with transplantation (SIRs: 8.96 in blacks, 5.95 in Hispanics vs. 4.44 in whites), and only blacks had elevated prostate cancer risk following transplantation (SIR: 1.21). Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after transplantation mirror general population patterns, except for kidney and prostate cancers where differences reflect the effects of end-stage renal disease or transplantation. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. Disability following kidney transplantation: the link to medication coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slakey, D P; Rosner, M

    2007-01-01

    There is no uniformity regarding patient disability following kidney transplantation. Given improved results of patient and graft survival, and the link between insurance, medication coverage and disability, efforts must be made to define disability after a successful transplant. We conducted an individual questioner study of kidney transplant patients to determine factors relating to patient-perceived disability. Seventy patients participated in the study. Patient perception of disability did not correlate with education or ethnicity. Most patients believed they were disabled on dialysis and this did not change following transplantation. While 42 (60%) of the patients felt that they could work, either full-time or part-time, only 20 (28%) were actually working or in school. Most patients believe that working will eliminate disability status and, therefore, insurance and medication coverage. Patients considered disability more related to their status as a kidney transplant patient than any specific physical limitations. The link, whether real or perceived, between 'disability' and immunosuppressive medication coverage is a significant barrier for many patients. The transplant community must reach some degree of consensus regarding post-transplant activity restrictions. The transplant community needs to find a way to take an active role in post-transplant education and employment.

  17. Urinary Obstruction of Transplanted Kidney Caused by Uterine Adenomyosis and 2-Year Posthysterectomy Psoas Abscess in Conjunction with Transplanted Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Takezawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary obstruction of the transplanted kidney caused by uterine leiomyoma is an extremely rare condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are only two reports in English literature. Psoas abscess secondary to renal graft pyelonephritis is also uncommon. We present this unusual case and its treatment course. A 43-year-old female presented with renal dysfunction. She was started on peritoneal dialysis from the age of 26 years and received kidney transplantation from her mother (living donor at the age of 27 years. Computed tomography (CT revealed right hydronephrosis and a large uterine mass compressing the distal ureter of the transplanted kidney. After a simple total hysterectomy, her renal function improved. Two years following the hysterectomy, she experienced painful urination, fever, right abdominal pain, and right lower limb pain. CT and T2-weighed magnetic resonance imaging of her pelvis demonstrated right psoas abscess in conjunction with transplanted kidney. She was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics alone, which resulted in a good response. Urinary obstruction of the transplanted kidney caused by uterine leiomyoma is an extremely rare condition. Psoas abscess secondary to transplanted kidney pyelonephritis is also rare. We should keep these rare diseases in mind when treating such cases.

  18. Immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalić, Jelena; Veličković-Radovanović, Radmila; Mitić, Branka; Paunović, Goran; Cvetković, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    To assess the degree of immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant patients (KTPs) and to determine if there is a difference in the rate of adherence to tacrolimus (Tac), cyclosporine (CsA) and sirolimus (Sir). From a total of 63 KTPs treated at the Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Centre Niš, Serbia, 60 participated in the study by responding to questionnaires. They were divided into the adherence group (n = 43) and the nonadherence group (n = 17) according to their degree of adherence which was measured using a validated survey form, the simplified medication adherence questionnaire. The KTP adherence to the different immunosuppressive regimens (Tac, CsA and Sir) was compared. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test. Adherence was observed in 43 (71.7%) patients, and only 17 (28.3%) did not follow the prescribed therapy. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower in the nonadherence group (38.52 ± 18.22 ml/min) than in the adherence group (52.43 ± 16.91 ml/min, p adherers and the nonadherers (6.30 ± 2.06 vs. 5.0 ± 1.52 ng/ml, p adherence. Nonadherence was associated with worse graft function and a lower Tac level. Knowledge about the degree of adherence could help the early identification of nonadherent patients and the development of strategies to improve this. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. The risk factors for diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effat Razeghi; Monireh Amerian; Peimaneh Heydarian

    2010-01-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is an adverse complication of kidney transplantation, associated with decreased graft and patient survival. We investigated the risk factors for PTDM and their relation to graft rejection in our kidney transplant recipients. We prospectively included 109 consecutive first kidney transplant recipients transplanted at the Sina Hospital in Tehran from June 2003 to May 2004. Patients were excluded if they had diabetes at the time of transplantation either as the cause of kidney failure or as a comorbidity. PTDM was defined by fasting blood sugar =126 mg/dL or random blood sugar =200 mg/dL on two occasions and the need for insulin therapy and/or oral hypoglycemic drugs for at least two weeks. Thirty non-diabetic transplant recipients were diagnosed as having PTDM during the six month followup period after transplantation. Sixty non-PTDM controls, matched for age, sex and immun suppressive regimen, and transplanted as closely as possible to the PTDM cases, were randomly selected. The risk factors for PTDM were investigated in these 90 transplant recipients. Age older than 50 years (P = 0.04), history of hypertension (P = 0.02), polycystic kidney disease (P = 0.015), duration on dialysis more than one year (P < 0.0001), family history of diabetes mellitus (P < 0.0001), mean daily dose of prednisolone =15 mg/day (P < 0.0001) and cyclosporine =240 mg/day (P < 0.0001) were all more in the PTDM group. Also, the mean serum triglycerides was higher (P = 0.019) and there was an increased risk of graft rejection (P < 0.0001) in the PTDM group (Author).

  20. Difficult conversations: Australian Indigenous patients' views on kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Jeannie; Anderson, Kate; Cunningham, Joan; Preece, Cilla; Snelling, Paul; Cass, Alan

    2017-10-11

    Indigenous Australians suffer a disproportionate burden of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) but are significantly less likely to receive a transplant. This study explores Indigenous ESKD patients' views on transplantation as a treatment option. The Improving Access to Kidney Transplants (IMPAKT) research program investigated barriers to kidney transplantation for Indigenous Australians. An interview study, conducted in 2005-2006, elicited illness experience narratives from 146 Indigenous patients, including views on transplant. Interviews were conducted at 26 sites that collectively treat the majority of Indigenous ESKD patients. Key themes were identified via team consensus meetings, providing a flexible framework and focus for continued coding. Four inter-related themes were identified in patient commentary: a very high level (90% of respondents) of positive interest in transplantation; patients experienced a range of communication difficulties and felt uninformed about transplant; family involvement in decision-making was constrained by inadequate information; and patients needed to negotiate cultural and social sensitivities around transplantation. Indigenous ESKD patients demonstrated an intense interest in transplantation preferring deceased over living kidney donation. Patients believe transplant is the path most likely to support the re-establishment of their 'normal' family life. Patients described themselves as poorly informed; most had only a rudimentary knowledge of the notion of transplant but no understanding of eligibility criteria, the transplant procedure and associated risks. Patients experienced multiple communication barriers that - taken together - undermine their engagement in treatment decision-making. Families and communities are disempowered because they also lack information to reach a shared understanding of transplantation. Cultural sensitivities associated with transplantation were described but these did not appear to constrain patients

  1. Post-kidney transplant large bowel lymphoproliferative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD is a serious complication of organ transplantation. The gastrointestinal (GI tract is a common site involved, but non-specific signs and symptoms often delay the diagnosis. We report a case of EBV-associated GI-PTLD in a 68-year-old kidney transplant patient who received the kidney ten months earlier. He presented with chronic diarrhea and developed massive pneumo-peritoneum secondary to multiple colonic perforations.

  2. Mycobacterium avium complex disseminated infection in a kidney transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, J; Rammaert, B; Laurent, S; Lanternier, F; Pol, S; Franck, N; Mamzer, M F; Dupin, N; Lortholary, O

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infections are well known in immunocompromised patients, notably in human immunodeficiency virus infection, but remain scarcely described in kidney transplantation. Moreover, cutaneous involvement in this infection is very unusual. We describe here a disseminated infection caused by MAC in a kidney transplant recipient revealed by cutaneous lesions. This case highlights the need for an exhaustive, iterative microbiologic workup in the context of an atypical disease presentation in a renal transplant patient, regardless of the degree of immunosuppression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Outcomes of Pediatric Kidney Transplantation in Recipients of a Previous Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, G; Zhang, B; Liu, C; Goebel, J; Zhang, Y; Nehus, E

    2017-07-01

    Children who receive a non-renal solid organ transplant may develop secondary renal failure requiring kidney transplantation. We investigated outcomes of 165 pediatric kidney transplant recipients who previously received a heart, lung, or liver transplant using data from 1988 to 2012 reported to the United Network for Organ Sharing. Patient and allograft survival were compared with 330 matched primary kidney transplant (PKT) recipients. Kidney transplantation after solid organ transplant (KASOT) recipients experienced similar allograft survival: 5- and 10-year graft survival was 78% and 60% in KASOT recipients, compared to 80% and 61% in PKT recipients (p = 0.69). However, KASOT recipients demonstrated worse 10-year patient survival (75% KASOT vs. 97% PKT, p transplants performed from 2006 to 2012 were separately investigated. Since 2006, KASOT and PKT recipients had similar 5-year graft survival (82% KASOT vs. 83% PKT, p = 0.48), although 5-year patient survival of KASOT recipients remained inferior (90% KASOT vs. 98% PKT, p Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. QUALITY OF LIFE EVALUATION IN RECIPIENTS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Volynchik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life analysis of kidney graft recipients includes complex assessment of physical, psychological and social status and also certain laboratory and clinical studies. However we suppose that significance of the study might increase considerably if it would be multicenter. The objective of the present publication is to organize such a multicenter study. Obviously, quality of life of recipients with functioning transplanted kidney is undoubtedly of scientific interest and needs further extended studies that might contribute to better interpretation of long-term results after kidney transplantation

  5. Recommendations for donation after circulatory death kidney transplantation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heurn, L W Ernest; Talbot, David; Nicholson, Michael L; Akhtar, Mohammed Z; Sanchez-Fructuoso, Ana I; Weekers, Laurent; Barrou, Benoit

    2016-07-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors provides an invaluable source for kidneys for transplantation. Over the last decade, we have observed a substantial increase in the number of DCD kidneys, particularly within Europe. We provide an overview of risk factors associated with DCD kidney function and survival and formulate recommendations from the sixth international conference on organ donation in Paris, for best-practice guidelines. A systematic review of the literature was performed using Ovid Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Topics are discussed, including donor selection, organ procurement, organ preservation, recipient selection and transplant management. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  6. Transplantation of infant kidneys - the surgical technique en bloc and transplant position variation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Due to the ever-present lack of kidney transplant grafts, more and more organs obtained from the so-called “marginal donors” group are accepted, which can provide suboptimal effect of transplantation, depending on their characteristics and/or implantation techniques. Case report. We presented a case with successful variation of kidney position with modified approach of kidney transplantation from an infant to an adult female patient with normal postoperative recovery. Urethral anastomosis was performed without antireflux procedure and this has not led to the development of reflux disease at an early stage. Conclusion. The position of a pair of kidneys proved to be satisfactory despite the growth of the kidney to the expected size and relatively small pelvis. There were no problems with venous stasis and kidney function from the very beginning was good.

  7. Pneumonia after kidney transplant: incidence, risk factors, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sitki; Ersoy, Alparslan; Akalin, Halis

    2014-06-01

    Pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in recipients of solid-organ transplant. We aimed to determine risk factors for development of pneumonia and associated deaths in kidney transplant recipients. A retrospective review of medical records was performed for all kidney transplant recipients from December 1988, to April 2011. The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia was made from symptoms, clinical findings, and chest radiography. The diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia was made according to published criteria. Laboratory and serologic tests, radiographic findings, cultures of respiratory specimens, and tissue biopsies were reviewed. In 406 kidney transplant recipients, there were 82 patients (20%) who had 111 episodes of pneumonia, including 49 nosocomial episodes of pneumonia (44%). Bacterial infections were the most common cause (34 episodes [31%]). In multivariate analysis, significant risk factors associated with pneumonia episodes were older age, hypertension, cardiac disease, history of acute graft rejection, and not using everolimus/mycophenolate mofetil/prednisolone protocol. There were 28 episodes that resulted in death (25%), including 20 nosocomial episodes (71%). In multivariate analysis, significant risk factors associated with death from pneumonia episodes were antibiotic use in the previous 3 months, high C-reactive protein, and low albumin. Cutoff values for increased risk of death from pneumonia included C-reactive protein > 10 mg/dL and procalcitonin > 8.8 ng/mL. Recipients of kidney transplant may be at risk for pneumonia and associated death. Nosocomial pulmonary infections may be associated with marked morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients.

  8. Underutilization of A2 ABO incompatible kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Robert R; Parsons, Ronald F; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Mustafa, Moiz; Cassuto, James; Vivek, Kumar; Noorchashm, Hooman; Naji, Ali; Levine, Matthew H; Abt, Peter L

    2012-01-01

    ABO compatibility creates a disadvantage for O and B renal allograft candidates. A2 ABO incompatible transplant may decrease waiting times and generate equivalent graft survival to an ABO compatible transplant. Death-censored graft survival was compared between A recipients and O, B, and AB recipients of an A2 allograft with multivariate Cox regression models utilizing data from the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) between 1997 and 2007. Eighty-five percent of A2 kidneys were transplanted into ABO compatible recipients vs. 15% into ABO incompatible recipients. Rates of A2 incompatible kidney transplants did not increase over the study period (14.8% to 14.6%). Mean wait time for A2→O kidneys was 337 vs. 684 d for O→O and for A2→B kidneys, 542 vs. 734 d for B→B. Adjusted relative risk of graft loss at five-yr was similar between O, B, and AB recipients compared to A recipients of an A2 allograft, corresponding to a five-yr graft survival of 84%, 86.2%, 86.1%, and 86.1%, respectively. A2 incompatible kidney transplantation is underutilized. Graft outcomes are similar among A2 compatible and incompatible recipients. Shorter waiting time and improved access might be achieved if A2 kidneys are considered in all blood groups. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Complications of therapeutic apheresis in pediatric kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Mattia; Vidal, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    In the setting of kidney transplantation, therapeutic apheresis (TA) is employed both for pre-intervention procedures and during the post-transplant period. In pediatric nephrology units, TA is usually performed as a therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) with dialysis equipment, and using non-plasma replacement fluids. In children undergoing kidney transplantation, complications of TPE are mainly related to its depletive properties combined with the iatrogenic immunodeficiency status of the patient. Moreover, the use of small central venous catheters and the equipment standardized for adults can increase the risk of adverse events. Focusing on these preconditions, TA in kidney-transplanted children should be performed in specialized centers with specific protocols and a trained staff. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Routine ultrasonography surveillance of native kidneys for renal cell carcinoma in kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jeffrey A; Gonzalez, Stevan A; Fischbach, Bernard V; Yango, Angelito F; Rajagopal, Arthi; Rice, Kim M; Saim, Muhammad; Barri, Yousri M; Melton, Larry B; Klintmalm, Goran B; Chandrakantan, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a high incidence in the kidney transplant population and annual surveillance detects these tumors early in their natural history. Minimal guidelines exist regarding RCC surveillance in ESRD patients awaiting transplant. A retrospective review of our kidney transplant database examined the outcomes of annual ultrasonographic surveillance during initial kidney transplant evaluation and upon annual reassessment. Of 2642 patients listed for transplant, 145 patients were found to have masses during initial kidney transplant evaluation or annual imaging consistent with new complex cystic disease or RCC. A total of 71 patients had RCC identified, with 52 found on initial kidney transplant evaluation and 19 identified on annual surveillance. Male gender and African-American race were independently associated with RCC (P<.05). RCC was detected a median of 2.0 years after listing (two annual ultrasonography studies). Patients with complex cysts were more likely to undergo transplantation (48.7%) compared to patients with RCC (21.1%; P<.001). There was no significant difference in survival between RCC patients and those found to have complex cystic disease, suggesting incidental RCC can be diagnosed early in the natural history and at a curable stage through implementation of a biennial surveillance program. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Different techniques of vessel reconstruction during kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multiple renal arteries (MRAs represent a surgical challenge by the difficulty in performing anastomoses, bleeding and stenosis. MRAs should be preserved and special attention should be paid to accessory polar arteries. All renal arteries (RAs must be reconstructed and prepared for safe anastomosis. The paper decribed the different techniques of vessel reconstruction during kidney transplantation including important steps within recovery of organs, preparation and implantation. Methods. In a 16-year period (1996-2012 of kidney transplantation in the Military Medical Academy, Belgrade, a total of 310 living donors and 44 human cadaver kidney transplantations were performed, of which 28 (8% kidneys had two or more RAs. Results. All the transplanted kidneys had immediate function. We repaired 20 cases of donor kidneys with 2 arteries, 4 cases with three RAs, one case with 4 RAs, one case with 4 RAs and renal vein reconstruction, one case with 3 arteries and additional polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE graft reconstruction, one case with transected renal artery and reconstruction with 5 cm long deceased donor external iliac artery. There were no major complications and graft failure. At a minimum of 1-year follow-up, all the patients showed normal renal function. Conclusion. Donor kidney transplantation on a contralateral side and “end-to-end” anastomosis of the renal artery to the internal iliac artery (IIA is our standard procedure with satisfactory results. Renal artery reconstruction and anastomosis with IIA is a safe and highly efficient procedure and kidneys with MRAs are not contraindicated for transplantation. A surgical team should be fully competent to remove cadaveric abdominal organs to avoid accidental injuries of organs vessels.

  12. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cancer Risk After Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, EC; Segev, DL; Engels, EA

    2014-01-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk, but it is unknown if cancer risk differs across race and ethnicity as in the general population. U.S. kidney recipients (N=87,895) in the Transplant Cancer Match Study between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated for racial/ethnic differences in risk for six common cancers after transplantation. Compared to white recipients, black recipients had lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.60, pkidney (aIRR 2.09, pcancer (aIRR 2.14, pcancer (aIRR 0.72, p=0.05). Colorectal cancer incidence was similar across groups. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) measured the effect of transplantation on cancer risk and were similar for most cancers (p≥0.1). However, black and Hispanic recipients had larger increases in kidney cancer risk with transplantation (SIRs: 8.96 in blacks, 5.95 in Hispanics vs. 4.44 in whites), and only blacks had elevated prostate cancer risk following transplantation (SIR: 1.21). Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after transplantation mirror general population patterns, except for kidney and prostate cancers where differences reflect the effects of end-stage renal disease or transplantation. PMID:23331953

  13. Ethical issues in kidney transplantation – reflections from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Olusesan Fadare

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Olusesan Fadare1, Babatunde L Salako21Department of Medicine, Kogi State Specialist Hospital, Lokoja; 2Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAbstract: Organ transplantation has become a life-saving procedure for many disease conditions hitherto considered incurable. Kidney transplantation, now the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, is the commonest solid organ transplantation carried out in the world at the moment and it is the only solid organ transplantation done in Nigeria. This procedure, in addition to prolonging lives, also provides better quality of life and is evaluated as cost-effective, because it makes more resources available to other sectors of the economy. Organ transplantation in general and kidney transplantation in particular are fraught with ethical issues and dilemmas worldwide. Some of the ethical issues arising in the setting of developing countries like Nigeria may differ from those in countries where this procedure is established. Informed consent of the donor and the recipient is a major requirement for both organ donation and transplantation. Regarding donation, the ethical issues may differ depending on the type of organ donation, ie, whether it is living-related, living-unrelated, cadaveric, or from brain-dead individuals. Commodification of organs is identified as an ethical dilemma, and arguments for and against this practice are put forward here. Confidentiality of donor information, fairness and equity in donor selection, and access to kidney transplantation when needed are also discussed. Finally, the issue of safety of organ harvesting for the donor and of the transplantation process itself, and the possible long-term consequences for both parties are investigated.Keywords: kidney transplantation, ethical issues, developing countries, Nigeria

  14. Apolipoprotein L1 Gene Effects on Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Barry I; Locke, Jayme E; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M; Julian, Bruce A

    2017-11-01

    The pathogenesis of many common etiologies of nephropathy has been informed by recent molecular genetic breakthroughs. It now is apparent that the ethnic disparity in the risk for nondiabetic chronic kidney disease between African Americans and European Americans is explained largely by variation in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1). The presence of two APOL1 renal risk variants markedly increases an individual's risk for kidney disease. In transplantation, kidneys from deceased African Americans with two APOL1 renal risk variants have shorter survival intervals after engraftment, regardless of the ethnicity of the recipient. Precision medicine will transform the clinical practice of nephrology and kidney transplantation, and play an important role in the allocation of kidneys from deceased and living kidney donors with recent African ancestry. This article reviews existing data on APOL1 in deceased-donor and living-donor kidney transplantation. It considers the impact of including APOL1 genotyping in decisions on the allocation and discard of deceased-donor kidneys, as well as the selection of living donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Zonulin, iron status, and anemia in kidney transplant recipients: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyszko, Jolanta; Koc-Zorawska, E; Levin-Iaina, N; Malyszko, Jacek

    2014-10-01

    In patients after kidney transplantation, anemia is relatively common and is associated with impaired kidney function, subclinical inflammatory state, and immunosuppressive treatment. Zonulin-prehaptoglobin-2, a newly discovered protein, is necessary for integrity of intracellular tight junctions in the gut. Taking into consideration iron metabolism, including its absorption in the gut, we designed a cross-sectional study to look for the possible interactions among zonulin, iron status, and anemia in kidney transplant recipients. The study was performed on 72 stable kidney transplant recipients and 22 healthy volunteers. Zonulin, iron status, and inflammatory markers were assessed with the use of commercially available kits. Zonulin was significantly lower in kidney allograft recipients than in healthy volunteers (P Zonulin correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.33; P Zonulin was not affected by sex, type of immunosuppressive therapy, presence of diabetes, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, or cause of end-stage renal disease. Zonulin was not related to any of the iron parameters studied. In multiple regression analysis, predictors of zonulin were total protein and thyroglobulin-binding protein, explaining 46% of variation. Zonulin, with its poorly defined function, does not seem to play a role in the anemia in kidney allograft recipients; however, it seems to be related to the absorption process in the gut.

  16. Management of Pneumonia in Kidney Transplantation to Prevent Further Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiko Goto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP among kidney transplant recipients is emerging worldwide. It is important to control nosocomial PJP infection. A delay in diagnosis and treatment increases the number of reservoir patients and the number of cases of respiratory failure and death. Owing to the large number of kidney transplant recipients compared to other types of organ transplantation, there are greater opportunities for them to share the same time and space. Although the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX as first choice in PJP prophylaxis is valuable for PJP that develops from infections by trophic forms, it cannot prevent or clear colonization, in which cysts are dominant. Colonization of P. jirovecii is cleared by macrophages. While recent immunosuppressive therapies have decreased the rate of rejection, over-suppressed macrophages caused by the higher levels of immunosuppression may decrease the eradication rate of colonization. Once a PJP cluster enters these populations, which are gathered in one place and uniformly undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for kidney transplantation, an outbreak can occur easily. Quick actions for PJP patients, other recipients, and medical staff of transplant centers are required. In future, lifelong prophylaxis may be required even in kidney transplant recipients.

  17. Changing Paradigms in the Management of Rejection in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Maier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of review: P4 medicine denotes an evolving field of medicine encompassing predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine. Using the example of kidney allograft rejection because of donor-recipient incompatibility in human leukocyte antigens, this review outlines P4 medicine’s relevance to the various stages of the kidney transplant cycle. Sources of information: A search for English articles was conducted in Medline via OvidSP (up to August 18, 2016 using a combination of subject headings (MeSH and free text in titles, abstracts, and author keywords for the concepts kidney transplantation and P4 medicine. The electronic database search was expanded further on particular subject headings. Findings: Available histocompatibility methods exemplify current applications of the predictive and preventive domains of P4 medicine in kidney transplant recipients’ care. Pharmacogenomics are discussed as means to facilitate personalized immunosuppression regimens and promotion of active patient participation as a means to improve adherence. Limitations: For simplicity, this review focuses on rejection. P4 medicine, however, should more broadly address health concerns in kidney transplant recipients, including competing outcomes such as infections, malignancies, and cardiovascular disease. This review highlights how biomarkers to evaluate these competing outcomes warrant validation and standardization prior to their incorporation into clinical practice. Implications: Consideration of all 4 domains of the P4 medicine framework when caring for and/or studying kidney transplant recipients has the potential of increasing therapeutic efficiency, minimizing adverse effects, decreasing health care costs, and maximizing wellness. Technologies to gauge immune competency, immunosuppression requirements, and early/reversible immune-mediated injuries are required to optimize kidney transplant care.

  18. Changing Paradigms in the Management of Rejection in Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Mirela; Takano, Tomoko; Sapir-Pichhadze, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: P4 medicine denotes an evolving field of medicine encompassing predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine. Using the example of kidney allograft rejection because of donor-recipient incompatibility in human leukocyte antigens, this review outlines P4 medicine’s relevance to the various stages of the kidney transplant cycle. Sources of information: A search for English articles was conducted in Medline via OvidSP (up to August 18, 2016) using a combination of subject headings (MeSH) and free text in titles, abstracts, and author keywords for the concepts kidney transplantation and P4 medicine. The electronic database search was expanded further on particular subject headings. Findings: Available histocompatibility methods exemplify current applications of the predictive and preventive domains of P4 medicine in kidney transplant recipients’ care. Pharmacogenomics are discussed as means to facilitate personalized immunosuppression regimens and promotion of active patient participation as a means to improve adherence. Limitations: For simplicity, this review focuses on rejection. P4 medicine, however, should more broadly address health concerns in kidney transplant recipients, including competing outcomes such as infections, malignancies, and cardiovascular disease. This review highlights how biomarkers to evaluate these competing outcomes warrant validation and standardization prior to their incorporation into clinical practice. Implications: Consideration of all 4 domains of the P4 medicine framework when caring for and/or studying kidney transplant recipients has the potential of increasing therapeutic efficiency, minimizing adverse effects, decreasing health care costs, and maximizing wellness. Technologies to gauge immune competency, immunosuppression requirements, and early/reversible immune-mediated injuries are required to optimize kidney transplant care. PMID:28270929

  19. The transplant team's support of kidney transplant recipients to take their prescribed medications: a collective responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison; Low, Jac Kee; Manias, Elizabeth; Crawford, Kimberley

    2016-08-01

    To obtain an understanding of how health professionals support the kidney transplant patient to take their medications as prescribed long term. Kidney transplantation requires stringent adherence to complex medication regimens to prevent graft rejection and to maintain general well-being. Medication nonadherence is common in kidney transplantation, emerging in the first few months post-transplantation, leading to poor patient outcomes. Exploratory qualitative design. Five focus groups were conducted with a total of seven renal nurse transplant coordinators, two renal transplant nurse unit managers, seven nephrologists, seven pharmacists, four social workers, and one consumer representative representing all five hospitals offering adult kidney transplantation in Victoria, Australia in 2014. The views of two general practitioners who were unable to attend the focus groups were incorporated into the data set. All data underwent thematic analysis. Analysis revealed that adherence was a collective responsibility involving the whole of the transplant team and the patient via education blitz in hospital, identifying and managing nonadherence, promotion of self-advocacy, and the partnership between the patient and health professional. Patients were directed how to take their complex medications to be self-empowered, yet the partnership between the patient and health professional limited the patient's voice. Although medication adherence was a collective responsibility, communication was often one-way chiefly as a result of staffing and time constraints, hindering effective partnerships necessary for medication adherence. Expert skills in communication and adherence counselling are necessary to identify barriers affecting medication adherence. Patients need to be systematically screened, prepared and supported long-term within an accommodating healthcare system for the reality of caring for their transplanted kidney. Kidney transplant recipients require systematic

  20. Ganciclovir-Resistant Cytomegalovirus Infection in a Kidney Transplant Recipient Successfully Treated with Foscarnet and Everolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghi, Viola; Comai, Giorgia; Baraldi, Olga; Liviano D'Arcangelo, Giovanni; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; La Manna, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a major cause of morbidity, graft failure, and death in kidney transplant recipients. We describe a case of a 53-year-old CMV-seronegative man who underwent renal transplant from a CMV-positive donor and who developed ganciclovir- (GCV-) resistant CMV infection. Foscarnet was started while immunosuppressive therapy was modified with the introduction of everolimus minimizing tacrolimus dosage. Only two weeks after the start of this treatment regimen was the patient's viral load negative. At two-year follow-up the patient has no clinical or laboratory signs of CMV infection and a good and stable renal function or graft survival. In our case, administration of an mTOR inhibitor combined with foscarnet led to rapid and persistent viral clearance without compromising short- and medium-term graft function. This combination therapy supports the need for the kidney transplant community to individualize a target therapy for each type of GCV-resistant CMV infection.

  1. Acute rejection episodes after kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamida, Fethi Ben; Barbouch, Samia; Helal, Imed; Kaaroud, Hayet; Fatma, Lilia Ben; Hedri, Hafedh; Abderrahim, Ezzeddine; Kheder, Adel; Bardi, Rafika; Abdallah, Taieb Ben; Ayed, Khaled; Maiz, Hedi Ben

    2009-01-01

    Obesity in nontransplant patients has been associated with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and proteinuria. To determine whether renal transplant recipients with an elevated BMI have worse long term graft survival, we prospectively studied 92 patients transplanted between April 1999 and July 2000. Weight (Wt) and height of the patients were recorded prior to transplantation and two weeks, one, two and three years post transplantation. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and blood pressure were checked monthly, while triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were obtained 3 monthly for 3 years post transplantation. Graft dysfunction was defined as serum Cr> 1.8 mg/dL. While BMI and Wt of the patients before transplantation did not show any significant correlation with chronic renal allograft dysfunction (CRAD), patients with higher Wt and BMI two weeks after transplantation showed an increased risk of developing CRAD during the three year post transplant independent of other risk factors (P< 0.05). Patients with greater Wt loss in the first two weeks post transplantation showed a decreased risk of developing CRAD in the following 3 years (P< 0.001). Our study suggests that high Wt and BMI are significantly associated with worse graft survival 3 years post renal transplantation. (author)

  2. A case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome diagnosed after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Min Park

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS diagnosed after kidney transplantation in Korea. RHS is a disease caused by latent varicella-zoster characterized to involve geniculate ganglion of the seventh cranial nerve. Patients who have undergone kidney transplantation can be easily affected by viral infections because of their immune-compromised status. A 35-year-old man with hypertensive end-stage renal disease underwent kidney transplantation. Two months after surgery, the recipient was diagnosed with RHS and treated with antivirals and steroids. However, after using the antiviral agents for the recommended duration, facial paralysis occurred as a new presentation and he required further treatment. Otalgia and periauricular vesicles improved, but the facial palsy remained.

  3. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Schreiber

    Full Text Available Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272. Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001 and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001. Median β-Crosslaps (CTx and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001 and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001, respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002 and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001 in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn't differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic.

  4. The bioethics and utility of selling kidneys for renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, E; Lipschutz, J M; Bloom, R D; Lipschutz, J H

    2008-06-01

    In the 53 years since kidney transplantation was first performed, this procedure has evolved from a highly speculative biomedical endeavor to a medically viable and often standard course of therapy. Long-term survival is markedly improved among patients who receive a kidney compared with patients who remain on the waiting list for such an organ. As outcomes have improved and more clinical indications have emerged, the number of people awaiting transplantation has grown significantly. In stark contrast to the robust expansion of the waiting list, the number of available deceased donors has remained relatively constant over the last several years. The current mechanism for procuring kidneys relies on voluntary donations by the general public, with the primary motivation being altruism. However, in light of the ever-increasing waiting list, it is the researchers' belief that the current system needs to be revised if supply is ever going to meet demand. In response to this critical organ shortage, different programs have been developed in an attempt to increase organ donation. At present, however, no solution to the problem has emerged. This report begins by outlining the scope of the problem and current legislation governing the procurement of transplantable organs/tissues in the United States. It continues with an overview of different proposals to increase supply. It concludes by exploring some of the controversy surrounding the proposal to increase donation using financial incentives. Though the following discussion certainly has implications for other transplantable organs, this report focuses on kidney transplantation because the waiting list for kidneys is by far the longest of all waiting lists for solid organs; and, as kidney transplant carries the smallest risk to living donors, it is the least ethically problematic.

  5. Functional genomics in renal transplantation and chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilflingseder, J.

    2010-01-01

    For the past decade, the development of genomic technology has revolutionized modern biological research. Functional genomic analyses enable biologists to study genetic events on a genome wide scale. Examples of applications are gene discovery, biomarker determination, disease classification, and drug target identification. Global expression profiles performed with microarrays enable a better understanding of molecular signature of human disease, including acute and chronic kidney disease. About 10 % of the population in western industrialized nations suffers from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment of end stage renal disease, the final stage of CKD is performed by either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis or renal transplantation. The preferred treatment is renal transplantation, because of the higher quality of life. But the pathophysiology of the disease on a molecular level is not well enough understood and early biomarkers for acute and chronic kidney disease are missing. In my studies I focused on genomics of allograft biopsies, prevention of delayed graft function after renal transplantation, anemia after renal transplantation, biocompatibility of hemodialysis membranes and peritoneal dialysis fluids and cardiovascular diseases and bone disorders in CKD patients. Gene expression profiles, pathway analysis and protein-protein interaction networks were used to elucidate the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of the disease or phenomena, identifying early biomarkers or predictors of disease state and potentially drug targets. In summery my PhD thesis represents the application of functional genomic analyses in chronic kidney disease and renal transplantation. The results provide a deeper view into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of kidney disease. Nevertheless, future multicenter collaborative studies, meta-analyses of existing data, incorporation of functional genomics into large-scale prospective clinical trials are needed and will give biomedical

  6. Optimising utilisation of kidneys from very young deceased donors: the technique of en bloc kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziting; Yap, Hui Kim; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Tiong, Ho Yee

    2015-08-01

    Kidneys of paediatric deceased donors were previously considered suboptimal for older recipients. An 18-month-old deceased donor was made available via Singapore's Medical (Therapy, Education and Research) Act. To the best of our knowledge, she is the youngest local donor. We herein report a case of successful kidney transplantation, using the en bloc technique, to a 15-year-old girl with renal failure secondary to bilateral cystic dysplastic kidney.

  7. Pre-transplant history of mental health concerns, non-adherence, and post-transplant outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumabay, Franz Marie; Novak, Marta; Bansal, Aarushi; Mitchell, Margot; Famure, Olusegun; Kim, S Joseph; Mucsi, Istvan

    2018-02-01

    The association between pre-transplant mental health concerns and non-adherence and post-transplant outcomes after kidney transplantation is not fully established. We examined the relationship between a pre-transplant history of mental health concerns and non-adherence and post-transplant outcomes among kidney transplant recipients. In this retrospective single center cohort study of adult kidney transplant recipients (n=955) the associations between the history of mental health concerns or non-adherence and the time from kidney transplant to biopsy proven acute rejection; death-censored graft failure and total graft failure were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Mean (SD) age was 51 (13) years, 61% were male and 27% had a history of diabetes. Twenty-two and 11% of patients had mental health concerns and non-adherence, respectively. Fifteen percent of the patients had acute rejection, 5.6% had death-censored graft failure and 13.0% had total graft failure. The history of mental health concerns was not associated with acute rejection, death-censored graft failure or total graft failure. Patients with versus without a history of non-adherence tended to have higher cumulative incidence of acute rejection (23.3% [95% CI: 16.1, 33.2] vs. 13.6% [95% CI: 11.4, 16.2]) and death-censored graft failure (15.0% [95% CI: 6.9, 30.8] vs. 6.4% [95% CI: 4.7, 8.7]) (log rank p=0.052 and p=0.086, respectively). These trends were not significant after multivariable adjustment. In summary, a history of pre-transplant mental health concerns or non-adherence is not associated with adverse outcomes in patients who completed transplant workup and received a kidney transplant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kidney Biopsies May Help Predict Renal Function After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Raimund H; Huskey, Janna; Kowalewska, Jolanta; Moiz, Abdul; Perkins, James; Davis, Connie L; Leca, Nicolae

    2016-10-01

    Renal biopsy has been proposed to determine the cause or reversibility of renal failure for patients with end-stage liver disease and may be useful in the kidney allocation. Nevertheless, little data exist to validate the usefulness of kidney biopsies in this patient population. We evaluated the utility of renal biopsies in a cohort of 59 consecutive liver transplant candidates with renal impairment of unclear etiology referred to determine the need for simultaneous liver kidney transplantation (SLK) versus liver alone transplantation (LAT). Pathological diagnoses, patient outcomes and the usefulness of biopsy results in predicting renal recovery were analyzed. Our biopsy complication rate was relatively low with only 2.9% and 4.2% serious complications occurring with transjugular and percutaneous renal biopsies, respectively. The most common pathological diagnoses on renal biopsies were membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (23%) followed by IgA nephropathy (19%) and acute tubular injury (19%). Simultaneous liver kidney transplantation was recommended for patients with greater than 40% global glomerular sclerosis, or with interstitial fibrosis greater than 30% or for patients on hemodialysis for 2 months or longer. The best histological predictor for posttransplant glomerular filtration rate in the LAT group was the extent of global glomerulosclerosis (P = 0.0001). Based on biopsy criteria, we were able to avoid kidney allocation to 70% of our patients with renal dysfunction. Over the first year posttransplant, SLK and LAT patients had comparable estimated glomerular filtration rates. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis did not demonstrate a difference in patient survival between patients who underwent LAT versus SLK. Renal biopsy can be relatively safe in this population, may help elucidate the etiology of renal failure, may predict post-LAT kidney function, and may be helpful in kidney allocation for liver transplant candidates.

  9. Tacrolimus, a forgotten agent in kidney transplant leukopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, P.; Freitas, C.; Silva, H.; Aguiar, P.; Santos, T.; Cabral, J.; Rocha, G.; Almeida, M.; Pedroso, S.; Martins, L.; Dias, L.; Castro-Henriques, A.; Cabrita, A.

    2013-01-01

    Leukopenia in kidney transplant patients is frequent, it causes potentially life-threatening complications, but it is often poorly characterized. Opportunistic infections, immunologic disturbances and drug-related toxicity are principal causes of single or multilineage cytopenias. Tacrolimus-induced leukopenia is a less recognized but frequent complication. We describe one patient with leukopenia developing within seven months after renal transplant. After excluding other potential causes,...

  10. Sirolimus use and cancer incidence among US kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, E L; Gustafson, S K; Kasiske, B L; Israni, A K; Snyder, J J; Hess, G P; Engels, E A; Segev, D L

    2015-01-01

    Sirolimus has anti-carcinogenic properties and can be included in maintenance immunosuppressive therapy following kidney transplantation. We investigated sirolimus effects on cancer incidence among kidney recipients. The US transplant registry was linked with 15 population-based cancer registries and national pharmacy claims. Recipients contributed sirolimus-exposed time when sirolimus claims were filled, and unexposed time when other immunosuppressant claims were filled without sirolimus. Cox regression was used to estimate associations with overall and specific cancer incidence, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers (not captured in cancer registries). We included 32,604 kidney transplants (5687 sirolimus-exposed). Overall, cancer incidence was suggestively lower during sirolimus use (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-1.11). Prostate cancer incidence was higher during sirolimus use (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-3.02). Incidence of other cancers was similar or lower with sirolimus use, with a 26% decrease overall (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.96, excluding prostate cancer). Results were similar after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics. This modest association does not provide strong evidence that sirolimus prevents posttransplant cancer, but it may be advantageous among kidney recipients with high cancer risk. Increased prostate cancer diagnoses may result from sirolimus effects on screen detection. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. New Onset Diabetes Mellitus after Kidney Transplantation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mette; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker; Hansen, Jesper Melchior

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: This study aimed to investigate the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in a prospective study of 97 nondiabetic uremic patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Included were 57 kidney recipients (Tx group, age 39 13 years) and 40 uremic...... patients remaining on the waiting list for kidney transplantation (uremic controls, age 47 11 years). All were examined at baseline before possible transplantation and after 12 months. The prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and insulin secretion index (Isecr) were...

  12. The impact of kidney transplantation on insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten B; Hornum, Mads; van Hall, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of kidney transplantation (KTx) on insulin sensitivity affecting glucose metabolism. 9 nondiabetic patients awaiting living donor KTx were examined prior to transplantation with an oral glucose tolerance test and a 3-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. The clamp...... was repeated 6 months after KTx. Nine age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched individuals with normal kidney function served as controls. Endogenous glucose production and glucose disappearance rate (N = 6) were measured in a subgroup of patients with corresponding controls. Results presented as mean...

  13. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis in a kidney transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Kulkarni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 66-year-old diabetic patient who presented with muscle weakness 2 weeks after kidney transplantation. Her immunosuppressive regimen included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. She was found to have hyperkalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Tacrolimus levels were in therapeutic range. All other drugs such as beta blockers and trimethoprim – sulfamethoxazole were stopped. She did not respond to routine antikalemic measures. Further evaluation revealed type 4 renal tubular acidosis. Serum potassium levels returned to normal after starting sodium bicarbonate and fludrocortisone therapy. Though hyperkalemia is common in kidney transplant recipients, determining exact cause can guide specific treatment.

  14. SIMULTANEOUS PANCREAS-KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION: EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sh. Khubutia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: evaluation of the incidence of early postoperative complications after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation.Materials and methods. The analysis of early postoperative complications after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation is presented in the paper, the most rational diagnostic algorithms, non-surgical and surgical complications’ treatment; the outcomes of the SPKT are reported.Results. 15,6% of patients experienced surgical complications, 12,5% – immunological complications, 12,5% – infectious complications, 6,25% – complications of the immunosuppressive therapy. 1-year patient survival after SPKT was 91,4%; pancreas graft survival – 85,7%; kidney graft survival – 88,6%.Conclusion. The incidence of early postoperative complications after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation remains signifi cant in spite of progressive improvement of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation due to surgical technique improvement, introduction of new antibacterial and immunosuppressive agents. Data, we recovered, fully correspond to the data obtained from the global medical community.

  15. SERS-Based Prognosis of Kidney Transplant Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jingmao

    Kidney transplant is the predominant procedure of all organ transplants around the world. The number of patients on the waiting list for a kidney is growing rapidly, yet the number of donations does not keep up with the fast-growing need. This thesis focuses on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analysis of urine samples for prognosis of kidney transplant outcome, which can potentially let patients have a more timely treatment as well as expand the organ pool for transplant. We have observed unique SERS spectral features from urine samples of kidney transplant recipients that have strong associations with the kidney acute rejection (AR) based on the analysis of urine one day after the transplant. Our ability to provide an early prognosis of transplant outcome is a significant advance over the current gold standard of clinical diagnosis, which occurs weeks or months after the surgical procedure. The SERS analysis has also been applied to urine samples from deceased kidney donors. Excellent classification ability was achieved when the enhanced PCA-LDA analysis was used to classify and identify urine samples from different cases. The sensitivity of the acute tubular necrosis (ATN) class is more than 90%, which can indicate the usable kidneys in the high failure risk category. This analysis can help clinicians identify usable kidneys which would be discarded using conventional clinic methods as high failure risk. To investigate the biomarkers that cause the unique SERS features, an HPLC-SERS-MS approach was established. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to separate the urinary components to reduce the sample complexity. The mass spectrometry (MS) was used to determine the formulas and the structures of the biomarkers. The presence of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and adenine in urine samples were confirmed by both MS and SERS analysis. Succinylmonocholine, a metabolite of suxamethonium, has a potential to be the biomarker that causes

  16. Commercial kidney transplantation: Trends, outcomes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Many experts believe that commercial organ transplants continue unabated despite international efforts to curb them. The aim was to determine the trends, outcomes and challenges of commercial living unrelated renal transplants (LURT) as seen in our institution. Materials and Methods: A ...

  17. Decreased kidney function and crystal deposition in the tubules after kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratta, Piero; Fogazzi, Giovanni Battista; Canavese, Caterina; Airoldi, Andrea; Fenoglio, Roberta; Bozzola, Cristina; Ceballos-Picot, Irène; Bollée, Guillaume; Daudon, Michel

    2010-09-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is an autosomal recessive purine enzyme defect that results in the inability to utilize adenine, which consequently is oxidized by xanthine dehydrogenase to 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA), an extremely insoluble substance eventually leading to crystalluria, nephrolithiasis, and kidney injury. We describe a case of APRT deficiency not diagnosed until the evaluation of a poorly functioning kidney transplant in a 67-year-old white woman. After the transplant, there was delayed transplant function, urine specimens showed crystals with unusual appearance, and the transplant biopsy specimen showed intratubular obstruction by crystals identified as 2,8-DHA using infrared spectroscopy. APRT enzymatic activity was undetectable in red blood cell lysates, and analysis of the APRT gene showed 1 heterozygous sequence variant, a duplication of T at position 1832. The patient was treated with allopurinol, 300 mg/d, and transplant function progressively normalized. Because patients with undiagnosed APRT deficiency who undergo kidney transplant may risk losing the transplant because of an otherwise treatable disease, increased physician awareness may hasten the diagnosis and limit the morbidity associated with this disease. Copyright (c) 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Magnesium Supplements on Insulin Secretion After Kidney Transplantation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laecke, Steven; Caluwe, Rogier; Huybrechts, Inge; Nagler, Evi V; Vanholder, Raymond; Peeters, Patrick; Van Vlem, Bruno; Van Biesen, Wim

    2017-08-29

    BACKGROUND Hypomagnesemia is associated with a disturbed glucose metabolism. Insulin hypo-secretion predicts diabetes in the general population and in transplant recipients. We aimed to assess whether magnesium improves insulin secretion and glycemic control after transplantation in prevalent hypomagnesemic kidney transplant recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted an open-label, randomized, parallel-group study. Eligible participants were adults more than 4 months after kidney transplantation on tacrolimus with persisting serum magnesium concentrations food-frequency questionnaire. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS Magnesium with a mean daily dose of 688±237mg in the treatment group failed to lead to significant differences between the 2 groups in FPIR, fasting glucose, HbA1c, or HOMA-IR. Persisting hypomagnesemia was very common and associated with more insulin hypo-secretion, glucose intolerance, and lower dietary magnesium intake (142±56 versus 202±90 mg; p=0.015) as compared to patients with a rise in serum magnesium over 6 months. CONCLUSIONS Magnesium supplementation does not improve insulin secretion in stable hypomagnesemic kidney transplant recipients on tacrolimus. Persisting hypomagnesemia is associated with impaired glucose tolerance, insulin hypo-secretion, and dietary factors.

  19. Aspects of the blood chemistry of kidney transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnic M. L. Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Normal renal function is a prerequisite for maintaining the normal balance of calcium and phosphorus. The incidence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH2D, or calcitriol deficiency in renal transplant patients is 50%. The causes are multifactorial, including low availability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD. Although kidney transplant is the treatment of choice, some patients maintain bone changes resulting from the interplay of several factors, such as persistence of mineral disorders due to graft dysfunction and effect of immunosuppressive drugs.Objective:To evaluate the dynamics of some biochemical parameters after kidney transplant.Material and methods:Thirteen patients followed from pre-transplant to three months post-transplant, with measurements of creatinine, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25(OHD, and calcitriol.Results:Normalization of calcium was observed in 10 of the 13 patients (77%, and only one did not have phosphate levels reduced after transplant; all patients presented elevated PTH in pre-transplant, four of which (31% maintained this change; nine of the 13 patients (69% had low levels of 25(OHD, which remained essentially unchanged after transplantation. Low pre-transplant levels of calcitriol were observed in 46% of the patients, and remained in only one. This patient had a very low pre-transplant level of 25(OHD (8 ng/ml that did not change after surgery. A possible explanation for this is the reduced substrate availability for 1-alpha-hydroxylase.Conclusion:Our data, in agreement with the literature, confirm that even patients with good outcomes after renal transplantation can still present important biochemical changes associated with deterioration of bone quality.

  20. Effectiveness of Multimedia for Transplant Preparation for Kidney Transplant Waiting List Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthanakit, C; Junchotikul, P; Sittiudomsuk, R; Saiyud, A; Pratumphai, P

    2016-04-01

    A multimedia program could effectively advise patients about preparing for transplantation while on the waiting list for a kidney transplant. This study aimed to compare knowledge about transplant preparation for patients on a kidney transplant waiting list before and after participating in a multimedia program, and to evaluate patient satisfaction with the multimedia program. Research design was quasiexperimental with the use of 1 group. Subjects were 186 patients on the kidney transplant waiting list after HLA matching in Ramathibodi Hospital. The questionnaires were developed by the researchers. The statistical tools used were basic statistics, percentage, average, standard deviation, and the difference of score between before and after participation in the multimedia program (t test). The evaluation knowledge for transplant preparation for kidney transplant waiting list patients after participating in the multimedia program averaged 85.40%, and there was an increased improvement of score by an average 3.27 out of a possible full score of 20 (P multimedia program had good average, 4.58. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical Activity in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ashley; Hu, Susie L; Bostom, Andrew

    2018-02-23

    Physical activity has known health benefits and is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in the general population. Relatively few data are available for physical activity in kidney transplant recipients. Compared to the general population, physical activity levels are lower overall in kidney recipients, although somewhat higher compared to the dialysis population. Recipient comorbid condition, psychosocial and socioeconomic factors, and long-term immunosuppression use negatively affect physical activity. Physical inactivity in kidney recipients may be associated with reduced quality of life, as well as increased mortality. Interventions such as exercise training appear to be safe in kidney transplant recipients and are associated with improved quality of life and exercise capacity. Additional studies are required to evaluate long-term effects on cardiovascular risk factors and ultimately cardiovascular disease outcomes and patient survival. Currently available data are characterized by wide variability in the interventions and outcome measures investigated in studies, as well as use of small sample-sized cohorts. These limitations highlight the need for larger studies using objective and standardized measures of physical activity and physical fitness in kidney transplant recipients. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection following Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aims. Post-transplant tuberculosis (TB is a problem in successful long-term outcome of renal transplantation recipients. Our objective was to describe the pattern and risk factors of TB infection and the prognosis in our transplant recipients. Patients and Methods. This study was a retrospective review of the records of 491 renal transplant recipients in our hospital during the period from January 1986 to December 2009. The demographic data, transplant characteristics, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, treatment protocol, and long-term outcome of this cohort of patients were analyzed. Results. 16 patients (3,2% developed post-transplant TB with a mean age of 32,5 ± 12,7 (range: 13–60 years and a mean post-transplant period of 36,6months (range: 12,3 months–15,9 years. The forms of the diseases were pulmonary in 10/16 (62,6%, disseminated in 3/16 (18,7%, and extrapulmonary in 3/16 (18,7%. Graft dysfunction was observed in 7 cases (43,7% with tissue-proof acute rejection in 3 cases and loss of the graft in 4 cases. Hepatotoxicity developed in 3 patients (18,7% during treatment. Recurrences were observed in 4 cases after early stop of treatment. Two patients (12.5% died. Conclusion. Extra pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis were observed in third of our patients. More than 9months of treatment may be necessary to prevent recurrence.

  3. Dialysis Facility Transplant Philosophy and Access to Kidney Transplantation in the Southeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Jennifer; Browne, Teri; Plantinga, Laura; Pastan, Stephen O; Sauls, Leighann; Krisher, Jenna; Patzer, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of dialysis facility treatment philosophy on access to transplant. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between the dialysis facility transplant philosophy and facility-level access to kidney transplant waitlisting. A 25-item questionnaire administered to Southeastern dialysis facilities (n = 509) in 2012 captured the facility transplant philosophy (categorized as 'transplant is our first choice', 'transplant is a great option for some', and 'transplant is a good option, if the patient is interested'). Facility-level waitlisting and facility characteristics were obtained from the 2008-2011 Dialysis Facility Report. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between the dialysis facility transplant philosophy and facility waitlisting performance (dichotomized using the national median), where low performance was defined as fewer than 21.7% of dialysis patients waitlisted within a facility. Fewer than 25% (n = 124) of dialysis facilities reported 'transplant is our first option'. A total of 131 (31.4%) dialysis facilities in the Southeast were high-performing facilities with respect to waitlisting. Adjusted analysis showed that facilities who reported 'transplant is our first option' were twice (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.0-3.9) as likely to have high waitlisting performance compared to facilities who reported that 'transplant is a good option, if the patient is interested'. Facilities with staff who had a more positive transplant philosophy were more likely to have better facility waitlisting performance. Future prospective studies are needed to further investigate if improving the kidney transplant philosophy in dialysis facilities improves access to transplantation.

  4. Physical Activity and Kidney Injury in Pediatric and Young Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mattie F; George, Roshan P; Warshaw, Barry; Wang, Elizabeth; Greenbaum, Larry A

    2016-12-01

    To quantify physical activity and grip strength in pediatric kidney transplant recipients and describe attitudes about exercise and exercise counseling given concerns about allograft injury. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 101 kidney transplant recipients (7-21 years old) >6 months post-transplant. Patients completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. We asked about activity limitations and provider counseling. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regression were used to determine independent predictors of PAQ score and grip strength z score. We enrolled 101 of 122 eligible patients. Median PAQ score was 2.2 (range 0-5) and was lower compared with controls (P < .001). The average grip strength z score was -1.1 and -0.7 in the right and left hand, respectively. Predictors of lower grip strength were younger age (P = .036), non-African American race (P = .029), lower height z score (P = .010), and longer percentage of lifetime with kidney disease (P = .029). Although 49% and 67% limited exercise before and after transplant, respectively, 67% reported increased activity after transplant. By parent report, provider counseling included limiting certain activities (71%) and encouraging regular exercise (45%). Physical activity and grip strength are low after kidney transplant. Patients perceive an emphasis on exercise limitations rather than the benefits of regular exercise. Interventions that encourage physical activity may be beneficial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Kidney transplant outcomes following the introduction of hand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has become the procedure of choice for living donor kidney transplantation in many centres. We report on our experience with hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN). We concentrated on graft function and postoperative surgical complications in the ...

  6. Predictors of perceived health status in patients after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, J.; van Dijk, J.P.; Nagyova, I.; Zezula, I.; Geckova, A.M.; Roland, R.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Patients after kidney transplantation have decreased mortality, morbidity and better quality of life compared to people on dialysis. Major efforts are being directed towards research into graft and patient survival. Research into quality of life is less intensive. The aim of this study

  7. Nonadherence Behaviors and Some Related Factors in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Pari; Shahgholian, Nahid; Ghadami, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the renal replacement therapy of choice for most patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), however, adherence to the recommended lifestyle is critical for a positive prognosis. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence to immunosuppressive therapy and lifestyle recommendations along with some related factors among kidney transplant patients. In this descriptive analytical study, all patients completed a questionnaire regarding medication intake and lifestyle recommendations (preventing of infection, self-monitoring, prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and sun protection). The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the level of adherence (good, partial, poor, and nonadherent) indicated in their responses. Most kidney recipients were adherent to their drug prescriptions, but were partial, poor, or nonadherent regarding lifestyle recommendations. Increased passage of time since transplantation and low family support and educational level resulted in nonadherence. Men showed greater adherence to medication intake than women. Patients with lower number of drugs and reported drug side-effects illustrated better adherence to medication intake. Women adhered to infection protection recommendations more than men, and older and married patients adhered to cardiovascular prevention recommendations more than others. However, younger patients showed greater adherence to self-monitoring recommendations, and singles, young individuals, and women were adherent to sun protection recommendations. Nonadherence is common among kidney transplant recipients. Thus, it is necessary to determine patients who are at risk of nonadherence and to introduce more educational programs to improve their adherence and their quality of life (QOL).

  8. Living donor kidney transplantation in the hemodialysis-naive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Preemptive (P) living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) provides better survival rates, quality of life and economic saving. However, the extent of these advantages over those with a short period of pre-LDKT dialysis is not known. Objectives: Evaluation of the patients' characteristics and short-term outcomes ...

  9. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of transplanted kidneys: Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wypych-Klunder, Katarzyna; Adamowicz, Andrzej; Lemanowicz, Adam; Szczęsny, Wojciech; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    An aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of DWI in the early period after kidney transplantation. We also aimed to compare ADC and eADC values in the cortex and medulla of the kidney, to estimate image noise and variability of measurements, and to verify possible relation between selected labolatory results and diffusion parameters in the transplanted kidney. Examinations were performed using a 1.5 T MR unit. DWI (SE/EPI) was performed in the axial plane using b-values of 600 and 1000. ADC and eADC measurements were performed in four regions of interest within the renal cortex and in three regions within the medulla. Relative variability of results and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were calculated. The analysis included 15 patients (mean age 52 years). The mean variability of ADC was significantly lower than that of eADC (6.8% vs. 10.8%, respectively; p30 ml/min./1.73 m(2) (p<0.05). Diffusion-weighted imaging of transplanted kidneys is technically challenging, especially in patients in the early period after transplantation. From a technical point of view, the best quality parameters offer quality ADC measurement in the renal cortex using b1000. ADC and eADC values in the renal cortex measured at b1000 present a relationship with eGFR.

  10. The management of urethral stricture after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Libo; Lin, Tao; Wazir, Romel; Wang, Kunjie; Lu, Yiping

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the incidence and causes of urethral stricture after kidney transplantation, as well as analyze its diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Clinical data of patients who developed urethral stricture after living-donor kidney transplantation in our center between January 2007 and June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Urethral stricture occurred in 8 of the 677 eligible kidney recipients (1.18 %) during the study period; the complication occurred at a mean of 4.4 months (range 2-7 months) after transplantation. Cystoscope-related iatrogenic injury and urinary tract infection seemed to be the most likely causes. In addition to frequency and dysuria, three patients had hydronephrosis and four had elevated serum creatinine levels. Urethrography showed that the urethral stricture was anterior in two patients and posterior in the remaining six. Two patients were treated by urethral dilation, four by internal urethrotomy and two by urethra reconstruction surgery. All patients urinated readily after treatment and four patients with impaired renal function recovered. Urethral strictures after kidney transplantation are rare, and they can be safely and effectively treated by urethral dilation, internal urethrotomy or urethra reconstruction. Avoiding iatrogenic injury and shortening catheterization time may help reduce the risk of this complication.

  11. Nutritional status and intrarenal resistive indices after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolonko, A; Chudek, J; Kujawa-Szewieczek, A; Wiȩcek, A

    2013-05-01

    Obesity predicts vascular stiffness, which is prevalent among kidney transplant patients. However, the influence of obesity has not been established on parameters of renal vascular resistance variation. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of nutritional status on intrarenal resistive parameters as measured in the early period after successful kidney transplantation by Doppler ultrasound. Both pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) in the kidney graft were measured by Doppler sonography twice: at 2 to 4 days and before hospital discharge (mean 22 days; 95% confidence interval 21-23) after transplantation. Nutritional status was scored according to World Health Organization criteria. Among 513 patients, 29 were underweight; 280, normal; 166, overweight; and 38, obese. Both PI and RI values were significantly increased consistent with recipient nutritional status (analysis of variance: P underweight or normal weight groups. Multivariate analysis revealed an influence of body mass index on PI and RI measurements before hospital discharge to be independent of other variables, including recipient age, prior delayed graft function and cold ischemia time. Excessive nutritional status was associated with increased renal vascular resistance among kidney transplant patients. Nutritional status should be considered for the proper interpretation of intrarenal Doppler measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Shifting Paradigms in Live Kidney Donation and Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Lafranca (Jeffrey)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Although patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be successfully treated with haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, kidney transplantation is by far the best therapeutic option for the majority of patients with ESRD. Regretfully, the shortage in donor organs

  13. URETERO-VESICAL ANASTOMOTIC COMPLICATIONS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shkodkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents statistical analysis of vesico-ureteric reflux and uretero-vesical obstruction incidence after kidney transplantation depending on technique mode. In this item prevalence of chronic pyelonephritis and spe- cies of causative agent data are analyzed. The necessity of effective methods to accomplish the uretero-vesical anastomosis is suggested. 

  14. Kidney Transplantation Rates Across Glomerulonephritis Subtypes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼShaughnessy, Michelle M; Liu, Sai; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Lafayette, Richard A; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2017-10-01

    Whether kidney transplantation rates differ by glomerulonephritis (GN) subtype remains largely unknown. Using the US Renal Data System, we identified all adult patients with end-stage renal disease attributed to 1 of 6 GN subtypes who initiated dialysis in the US (1996-2013). Patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) served as "external" non-GN comparators. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, with death considered a competing risk, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for first kidney transplantation, controlling for year, demographics, comorbidities, socioeconomic factors, and Organ Procurement Organization. Among 718 480 patients studied, unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted transplant rates differed considerably across GN subtypes. Adjusted transplant rates were highest for patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) (referent) and lower for all other groups: focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.77-0.82), membranous nephropathy (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.93), membranoproliferative GN (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76-0.92), lupus nephritis (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66-0.71), vasculitis (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.61-0.70), DN (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.47-0.52), ADPKD (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.82-0.88). Reduced kidney transplantation rates among comparator groups were driven more so by lower rates of waitlisting (HRs vs IgAN, ranged from 0.49 for DN to 0.92 for membranous nephropathy or ADPKD) than by lower rates of deceased donor kidney transplantation after waitlisting (rates were only significantly lower, vs IgAN, for those with secondary GN subtypes: lupus nephritis [HR,0.91; 95% CI, 0.86-0.97], vasculitis [HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94), DN [HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.69-0.77]). Identifying underlying reasons for apparent disease-specific barriers to kidney transplantation might inform center-specific transplant candidate selection procedures, along with national organ allocation policies, leading

  15. Transplantation of Horseshoe Kidney from Living, Genetically Unrelated Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuro Kikkawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of renal transplantation using a horseshoe kidney from a living, genetically unrelated donor. The recipient was a 60-year-old man with diabetic nephropathy, and the donor was the 63-year-old wife of the recipient with a horseshoe kidney free of complications. Computed tomography showed two renal arteries and one renal vein on the left side, and the isthmus was perfused by several accessory arteries and veins. To demarcate the boundary of the isthmus, the left renal artery was ligated and cannulated for in situ perfusion. Furthermore, the isthmus was clamped, and the boundary of the isthmus was confirmed. The kidney was divided at the left margin of the perfused boundary. The cut ends of the isthmus were closed by sutures. The left kidney was transplanted into the right iliac fossa of the recipient. Asymptomatic fluid collection occurred on the cut surface at the isthmus of the donor, and this fluid decreased in due course. On the other hand, the recipient experienced no surgical complication or rejection, while maintaining serum creatinine levels of 2.00–2.20 mg/dL over a 22-month follow-up period. Horseshoe kidneys may be used for transplantation in selected cases after a detailed preoperative evaluation.

  16. Color Doppler indexes in early phase after kidney transplantation and their association with kidney function on six month follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Doppler ultrasonography (DU and measurement of its indexes, resistive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI, is used to investigate transplanted kidney hemodynamic status and function. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between Doppler indexes in the early phase after transplantation with long-term transplanted kidney function. Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional study on 38 newly kidney transplant patients, we performed DU with assessment of its indexes within 48 hours, 1 week, and 6 months after kidney transplantation. Serum creatinine after stability and 6 months after kidney transplantation were assessed. Cyclosporine level was measured 1 week after kidney transplantation and compared with DU indexes. Results: About 71% of kidney transplanted patients reached their normal initial creatinine level(cr<1.5 mg/ dl and 28% of all patients were involved in kidney dysfunction after 6 months (increase in basic creatinine level more than 25%.There was no significant difference between mean RI and PI in patients with normal and disturbed kidney function based on creatinine level in early posttransplantation period but there was linear correlation between mean RI and PI within 48 hours and 1 week with kidney function after 6 months. Also no association between cyclosporine level and RI and PI was shown. There was a direct association between age and the levels of RI and PI 6 months after transplantation. Conclusion: This study suggests assessment of RI and PI in early period after transplantation and can be used as predictive parameters for long-term function of transplanted kidney and RI more than 0.80 in early phase after transplantation has an acceptable sensitivity and specificity to predict long-term kidney dysfunction.

  17. Anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate-Correa, Javier; Henríquez-Palop, Fernando; Martín-Núñez, Ernesto; Hernández-Carballo, Carolina; Ferri, Carla; Pérez-Delgado, Nayra; Muros-de-Fuentes, Mercedes; Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Navarro-González, Juan F

    Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant patients. Experimental and clinical studies in non-transplant kidney disease patients have found this molecule to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this exploratory study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney-transplant recipients. Thirty one kidney transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism completed 3 months of treatment with oral paricalcitol (1μg/day). Serum concentrations and gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed at the beginning and end of the study. Paricalcitol significantly decreased parathyroid hormone levels with no changes in calcium and phosphorous. It also reduced serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by 29% (P<0.05) and 9.5% (P<0.05) compared to baseline, respectively. Furthermore, gene expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased by 14.1% (P<0.001) and 34.1% (P<0.001), respectively. The ratios between pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), both regarding serum concentrations and gene expression, also experienced a significant reduction. Paricalcitol administration to kidney transplant recipients has been found to have beneficial effects on inflammation, which may be associated with potential clinical benefits. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Hyperuricemia, chronic kidney disease and kidney transplant (part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Miriam Obregón

    2016-03-01

    or tophi where they must face treatment must be addressed, prioritizing the interaction with the drugs used in transplantation. It must be considered that most of the available information comes from the analysis of general population, therefore studies on this population group are particularly required.

  19. Predicting and preventing readmissions in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, Kelly L; Fleming, James N; Staino, Carmelina; Casale, Jillian P; Boyle, Kimberly M; Pilch, Nicole A; Meadows, Holly B; Mardis, Caitlin R; McGillicuddy, John W; Nadig, Satish; Bratton, Charles F; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Taber, David J

    2016-07-01

    A lack of research exploring post-transplant process optimization to reduce readmissions and increasing readmission rates at our center from 2009 to 2013 led to this study, aimed at assessing the effect of patient and process factors on 30-d readmission rates after kidney transplantation. This was a retrospective case-control study in adult kidney transplant recipients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to assess patient and process determinants of 30-d readmissions. 384 patients were included; 30-d readmissions were significantly associated with graft loss and death (p = 0.001). Diabetes (p = 0.049), pharmacist identification of poor understanding or adherence, and prolonged time on hemodialysis prior to transplant were associated with an increased risk of 30-d readmissions. After controlling for risk factors, readmission rates were only independently predicted by pharmacist identification of patient lack of understanding or adherence regarding post-transplant medications and dialysis exposure for more than three yr (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.10-4.71, p = 0.026 and OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.22, 3.70, respectively), both of which were significantly modified by history of diabetes. Thirty-d readmissions are attributable to both patient and process-level factors. These data suggest that a lack of post-transplant medication knowledge in high-risk patients drives early hospital readmission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Radionuclide assessment of renal function in the transplanted kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Yukiko; Maki, Masako; Nara, Shigeko; Hiroe, Michiaki; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Shigeta, Akiko; Toma, Hiroshi; Kohno, Hiroko

    1985-01-01

    The ability of radionuclide renal function to detect rejection and to presume the prognosis of the transplanted kidney was evaluated in 70 patients. Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), excretory index (EI) and perfusion index (PI) were examined by I-123 OIH and Tc-99 m DTPA. Numbers of the study in various status were as follows; 51 studies in good function, 43 in acute rejection and 18 in chronic rejection. Significant reduction in ERPF and EI and increase of PI were observed in the acute rejection (p<0.01). In the chronic rejection, there was a progressive decrease of ERPF (p<0.01). The patients were divided into two groups: group A; 46 patients with good function more than 9 months after transplantation and group B; 20 patients of whom recurrence of hemodialysis or nephectomy was done. In living transplantation, ERPF of group B at the first week after transplantation was remarkably lower than group A (p<0.05). In cadaveric transplantation, ERPF of group B at the sixth week was lower than that of group B (p<0.05). This study indicates that serial measurements of renal function by radionuclide methods may provide the state of rejection and prognosis of the transplanted kidney. (author)

  1. [De novo urologic tumors in kidney transplant patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Faba, O; Breda, A; Gausa, L; Palou, J; Villavicencio, H

    2015-03-01

    The ability of a transplant recipient to accept a graft depends on the ability of immunosuppressive drugs to regulate the immune system. Such treatments have been associated with tumor promotion and progression. A systematic literature review was carried out. Electronic searches were performed in PubMed database. The searching criterion was "urological tumors in kidney transplant recipients". The most important issues regarding incidence, urological tumor-specific features, and relevant ones about the treatment are summarized. In renal transplant, 15% of all tumors are urological neoplasias; furthermore, they are the leading neoplastic cause of death. In transplant population the incidence rate of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), transitional cell bladder carcinoma (TCBC), testicular carcinoma (TC) and prostate cancer are increased 15, 3, 3 and 2 times respectively. Treatments used in transplant patients are similar to those employed in the general population:radical nephrectomy for the native kidney and conservative surgery for the graft are indicated for RCC. Radical prostatectomy is technically feasible for localized PC.Regarding to transitional cell carcinoma BCG or MMC is not contraindicated. The incidence rate of cancer has increased among transplant population. These tumors can be managed following the same criteria than in general population. Because in this population the prognosis is worse for the immunosuppression, closer monitoring is required. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcome of kidney transplant in primary, repeat, and kidney-after-nonrenal solid-organ transplantation: 15-year analysis of recent UNOS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Husseini, A; Aghil, A; Ramirez, J; Sawaya, B; Rajagopalan, N; Baz, M; Mei, X; Davenport, D L; Gedaly, R

    2017-11-01

    The number of nonrenal solid-organ transplants increased substantially in the last few decades. Many of these patients develop renal failure and receive kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient and kidney allograft survival in primary, repeat, and kidney-after-nonrenal organ transplantation using national data reported to United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) from January 2000 through December 2014. Survival time for each patient was stratified into the following: Group A (comparison group)-recipients of primary kidney transplant (178 947 patients), Group B-recipients of repeat kidney transplant (17 819 patients), and Group C-recipients of kidney transplant performed after either a liver, heart, or lung transplant (2365 patients). We compared survivals using log-rank test. Compared to primary or repeat kidney transplant, patient and renal allograft survival was significantly lower in those with previous nonrenal organ transplant. Renal allograft and patient survival after liver, heart, or lung transplants are comparable. Death was the main cause of graft loss in patients who had prior nonrenal organ transplant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin binding to monocytes in kidney transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, W.A.; Wielechowski, K.S.; Mahajan, S.K.; Migdal, S.D.; McDonald, F.D.

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate glucose tolerance following renal transplantation, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), with evaluation of hormonal responses to the intravenous glucose load and percent specific 125 I-insulin binding to peripheral blood monocytes, were studied in eight clinically stable kidney transplant recipients. For comparison purposes, identical studies were done in eight control subjects and seven clinically stable hemodialysis patients. One transplant recipient was glucose intolerant, with fasting hyperglycemia, elevated HbA1C, and abnormal glucose decay constant. Impaired pancreatic insulin release appeared to be the major factor accounting for his glucose intolerance. The seven glucose-tolerant transplant recipients had significantly increased insulin release during IVGTT compared to control subjects, and significant correlations were found among insulin release, glucose decay constant, and fasting blood sugar in those patients. Insulin binding to monocytes was significantly greater in transplant recipients than control subjects due to an increase in insulin binding capacity per cell. A significant correlation was found between percent specific 125 I-insulin binding and steroid dose, expressed as mg/kg body weight/day, in those patients. Thus, chronic steroid administration does not cause glucose intolerance in transplant recipients who manifest steroid-associated increases in pancreatic insulin release and cellular insulin binding capacity

  4. Rituximab: An emerging therapeutic agent for kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kahwaji

    2009-10-01

    summary, we will make recommendations based on existing literature and our extensive experience at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center for using rituximab in renal transplantation.Keywords: kidney transplant, rituximab, desensitization, rejection, review

  5. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Valdes-Cañedo, Francisco; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Seoane-Pillado, Maria Teresa; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study was carried out in order to estimate cancer incidence after transplantation. For each patient, information included donor and recipient characteristics, patients and graft survival and cancer incidence after transplantation. Incident cancer is considered as new cases of cancer after the transplant with anatomopathological confirmation. Their location will be classified according to the ICD-9. The analysis will be calculated using the indirect standardisation method. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the Spanish general population will be obtained from the Carlos III Health Institute, the National Epidemiology Centre of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Crude first, second and third-year post-transplantation cancer incidence rates will be calculated for male and female recipients. The number of cases of cancer at each site will be calculated from data in the clinical records. The expected number of cancers will be calculated from data supplied by the Carlos III Health Institute. For each tumour location we will estimate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using sex-specific cancer incidence rates, by dividing the incidence rate for the transplant patients by the rate of the general population. The 95% confidence intervals of the SIRs and their associated p-values will be calculated by assuming that the observed cancers follow a Poisson distribution. Stratified analysis will be performed to examine the variation in the SIRs with sex and length of follow-up. Competing risk survival analysis

  6. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Maintenance Phase Kidney Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, N; Nakazawa, S; Yamanaka, K; Kakuta, Y; Abe, T; Kaimori, J-Y; Imamura, R; Nonomura, N; Takahara, S

    2016-04-01

    Current adherence to dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease was evaluated in kidney transplant patients in the maintenance phase. A total of 268 maintenance phase kidney transplant patients were included in the study. Estimated daily intakes of oral protein and salt were calculated from 24-h urinary excretion of nitrogen and sodium, respectively. Dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease, as issued in 2014 by the Japanese Society of Nephrology, were used as the basis for assessing diet. The study included 114 female patients and 154 male patients. The mean age, posttransplantation years, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and 24-h urinary excretion of protein were 56.3 years, 11.2 years, 22.0 kg/m(2), 42.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 321 mg/d, respectively. Estimated daily protein and salt intakes were 0.98 ± 0.26 g/kg/d and 9.3 ± 3.9 g/d. Only 47 patients (17.5%) in the case of salt intake and 105 patients (39.2%) in the case of protein intake were within reference values. The 24-h urinary protein excretion of the daily salt intake-adherent group (adherence rate to dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease in kidney transplant patients was low. The 24-h urinary protein excretion of the daily salt intake-adherent group was significantly less than that of the nonadherent group. Dietary therapy for these patients may have the potential to improve kidney graft function and survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Can deceased donor with recurrent primary brain tumor donate kidneys for transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation from deceased donors is in its infancy in India. Cadaver organ donation was accepted legally in 1994 by the “Human Organs Transplantation Act.” Marginal donors are now accepted by many centers for kidney transplantation. We report a case of procurement of both kidneys from a young deceased donor having recurrent primary brain tumor, transplanted into two adult recipients with successful outcome.

  8. Twenty-year survivors of kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, C

    2012-12-01

    There have been few studies of patients with renal allografts functioning for more than 20 years. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with ultra long-term (>20 year) renal allograft survival and to describe the clinical features of these patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Irish Renal Transplant Database and included 1174 transplants in 1002 patients. There were 255 (21.74%) patients with graft function for 20 years or more. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (HR 1.01, CI 1.01-1.02), gender (male HR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45), acute rejection (HR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.45) and transplant type (living related donor vs. deceased donor) (HR 0.52, CI 0.40-0.66) as significantly associated with long-term graft loss. Median serum creatinine was 115 μmol\\/L. The 5-year graft survival in 20-year survivors was 74.7%. The mean age at death was 62.7 years (±10.6). The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease and malignancy. The two major causes of graft loss were death (with function) and interstitial fibrosis\\/tubular atrophy. Comorbidities included skin cancer (36.1%), coronary heart disease (17.3%) and other malignancies (14.5%). This study identifies factors associated with long-term allograft survival and a high rate of morbidity and early mortality in long-term transplant recipients.

  9. Use of indium-111-oxinate-labelled granulocytes and thrombocytes in kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, E.A. van; Schoot, J.B. van der; Hardeman, M.R.; Surachno, S.; Veen, J.H. ten; Vreeken, J.; Wilmink, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The diagnostic use of 111 In-oxinate-labelled granulocytes and thrombocytes in kidney graft rejection was studied in 39 transplant patients. Normal values were established for the deposition of these cells in stable, functioning kidney grafts. Although some 111 In granulocyte accumulation occurred in the graft during rejection, the increase was too slight to render the method suitable for the early diagnosis of rejection. Significant increased 111 In thrombocyte deposition was found during rejection periods, although large differences were observed in the degree of accumulation. Severity or type of rejection may relate to these differences. Post-transplantation follow-up by 111 In thrombocyte scintigraphy did not result in a much earlier diagnosis of rejection than classic clinical signs. However, more frequent bedside activity determinations might do so. (author)

  10. Renal Allograft Outcome After Simultaneous Heart and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupper, Avishay; Grupper, Ayelet; Daly, Richard C; Pereira, Naveen L; Hathcock, Matthew A; Kremers, Walter K; Cosio, Fernando G; Edwards, Brooks S; Kushwaha, Sudhir S

    2017-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease frequently accompanies end-stage heart failure and may result in consideration of simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation (SHKT). In recent years, there has been a significant increase in SHKT. This single-center cohort consisted of 35 patients who underwent SHKT during 1996 to 2015. The aim of this study was to review factors that may predict better long-term outcome after SKHT. Thirteen patients (37%) had delayed graft function (DGF) after transplant (defined as the need for dialysis during the first 7 days after transplant), which was significantly associated with mechanical circulatory support device therapy and high right ventricular systolic pressure before transplant. Most of the recipients had glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥50 ml/min/1.73 m 2 at 1 and 3 years after transplant (21 of 26 [81%] and 20 of 21 [95%], respectively). Higher donor age was associated with reduced 1-year GFR (p = 0.017), and higher recipient pretransplant body mass index was associated with reduced 3-year GFR (p = 0.008). There was a significant association between DGF and reduced median GFR at 1 and 3 years after transplant (p transplant were 97%, 91%, and 86% respectively. In conclusions, our data support good outcomes after SHKT. Mechanical circulatory support device therapy and pulmonary hypertension before transplant are associated with DGF, which is a risk factor for poor long-term renal allograft function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Significance of Pre- and Post-Transplant BAFF Levels in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Min

    Full Text Available It is well known that pre-transplant B cell activating factor (BAFF levels are associated with the development of de novo anti-HLA antibodies and antibody mediated rejection post-transplant. However, the clinical significance of BAFF values at allograft rejection has not been determined. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of pre-transplant BAFF level as well as post-transplant BAFF levels measured when indication biopsy was done. We checked for anti-HLA antibodies in 115 kidney transplant recipients who required allograft biopsy due to an increase in serum creatinine. With the same serum specimen, we measured BAFF levels, and in 78 of these patients, pre-transplant BAFF and anti-HLA antibody levels were detected as well. Patients in each group were divided into tertiles according to BAFF levels. We investigated the relationship between BAFF levels and the occurrence of anti-HLA antibodies. Pre-transplant BAFF levels showed significant association with pre-transplant sensitization, and also with early rejection (Tertile 3, 26.9% vs. Tertile 1, 11.5%; P<0.05. Post-transplant BAFF levels showed significant association with pre-transplant sensitization, but did not show association with anti-HLA antibodies and positive donor-specific antibodies at the time of biopsy. We did not find any association between post-transplant BAFF levels and allograft biopsy results, Banff scores and microvascular inflammation scores. In conclusion, pre-transplant BAFF levels are associated with pre-transplant sensitization and are useful in predicting allograft rejection. But post-transplant BAFF levels measured at the time of indication biopsy are not associated with the appearance of de novo HLA-DSA, allograft rejection, biopsy findings and other allograft outcomes.

  12. Pharmacokinetic study of mycophenolic acid in Iranian kidney transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rezaee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters of mycophenolic acid (MPA in Iranian kidney transplant patients. Methods: Plasma MPA concentration of mycophenolate mofetile (MMF 1 gram two times a day was measured in 21 Iranian kidney transplant recipients receiving treatment. Patients who entered the study had been transplanted for more than 3 months and their drug level was supposed to be at steady state. MMF concentration was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: The plasma MPA concentration-time curve was characterized by an early sharp peak at about 1 hour postdose. The mean Area Under Curve (AUC, Cmax and Tmax were 47.0±18.3 µg.h/ml, 18.6±8.5 µg/ml and 1.0±0.5 hours respectively. Conclusion: The plasma MPA concentration-time curve pattern of Iranian patients was similar and consistent with previously reported profiles in other populations taking the same dose. Keywords: Mycophenolate mofetil, Mycophenolic acid, Pharmacokinetics, Area Under Curve, Kidney transplantation

  13. Longitudinal assessment of myocardial function in childhood chronic kidney disease, during dialysis, and following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumman, Rawan K; Ramroop, Ronand; Chanchlani, Rahul; Ghany, Mikaeel; Hebert, Diane; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Parekh, Rulan S; Mertens, Luc; Grattan, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis are associated with increased long-term cardiovascular risk. We examined subclinical alterations in myocardial mechanics longitudinally in children with CKD, during dialysis, and following renal transplantation. Forty-eight children with CKD (stage III or higher) who received kidney transplants from 2008 to 2014 were included in a retrospective study and compared to 192 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Measurements of cardiac systolic and diastolic function were performed, and global longitudinal strain (GLS) and circumferential strain (GCS) were measured by speckle-tracking echocardiography at CKD, during dialysis, and 1 year following kidney transplantation. Mixed-effects modeling examined changes in GLS and GCS over different disease stages. Children with CKD had a mean age of 10 ± 5 years and 67% were male. Eighteen children received preemptive transplantation. Children with CKD had increased left ventricular mass, lower GLS, and impaired diastolic function (lower E/A ratio and E' velocities) than healthy children. Changes in left ventricular diastolic parameters persisted during dialysis and after renal transplantation. Dialysis was associated with reduced GLS compared to CKD (β = 1.6, 95% confidence interval 0.2-3.0); however, this was not significant after adjustment for systolic blood pressure and CKD duration. Post-transplantation GLS levels were similar to those at CKD assessment. GCS was unchanged during dialysis but significantly improved following transplantation. There are differences in diastolic parameters in childhood CKD that persist during dialysis and after transplantation. Systolic parameters are preserved, with significant improvement in systolic myocardial deformation following transplantation. The impact of persistent diastolic changes on long-term outcomes requires further investigation.

  14. Effect of paricalcitol on mineral bone metabolism in kidney transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego Utiel, Francisco José; Bravo Soto, Juan Antonio; Merino Pérez, María José; González Carmelo, Isabel; López Jiménez, Verónica; García Álvarez, Teresa; Acosta Martínez, Yelenei; Mazuecos Blanca, María Auxiliadora

    2015-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is highly prevalent in kidney transplant recipients, and commonly results in hypercalcaemia; an association to osteopenia and bone fractures has also been observed. Paricalcitol has proved effective to control secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease in both dialysed and non-dialysed patients, with a low hypercalcaemia incidence. Currently available experience on paricalcitol use in kidney transplant recipients is scarce. Our main aim was to show the effect of paricalcitol on mineral bone metabolism in kidney transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. A retrospective multicentre study in kidney transplant recipients aged>18 years with a 12-month or longer post-transplantation course, stable renal function, having received paricalcitol for more than 12 months, with available clinical follow-up for a 24-month period. A total of 69 patients with a 120 ± 92-month post-transplantation course were included. Baseline creatinine was 2.2 ± 0.9 mg/dl y GFR-MDRD was 36 ± 20 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Paricalcitol doses were gradually increased during the study: baseline 3.8 ± 1.9 μg/week, 12 months 5.2 ± 2.4 μg/week; 24 months 6.0 ± 2.9 μg/week (P10mg/dl showed gradually decreasing levels. Fifteen (21.7%) patients had received prior calcitriol therapy. When shifted to paricalcitol, such patients required paricalcitol doses significantly larger than those not having received calcitriol. Paricalcitol was used concomitantly to cinacalcet in 11 patients with significant PTH reductions being achieved; clinical course was similar to other patients and paricalcitol doses were also similar. Paricalcitol is an effective therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant recipients. Overall, no significant changes were observed in calcium and phosphorus levels or urinary excretion. Patients having previously received calcitriol required higher paricalcitol doses. When used in patients receiving cinacalcet

  15. Hypothermic machine perfusion in kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Deken, Julie; Kocabayoglu, Peri; Moers, Cyril

    Purpose of reviewThis article summarizes novel developments in hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) as an organ preservation modality for kidneys recovered from deceased donors.Recent findingsHMP has undergone a renaissance in recent years. This renewed interest has arisen parallel to a shift in

  16. Ultrasonic microbubble contrast agents and the transplant kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, D.H., E-mail: davidhkay@doctors.org.u [Department of Radiology, Western Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Mazonakis, M.; Geddes, C. [Department of Renal Medicine, Western Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Baxter, G. [Department of Radiology, Western Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Aim: To evaluate the potential application of microbubble agents in the immediate post-transplant period, by studying contrast uptake and washout, and to correlate these values with clinical indices, and thus, assess the potential prognostic value of this technique. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 20 consecutive renal transplant patients within 7 days of transplantation. Sonovue was administered as an intravenous bolus with continuous imaging of the transplant kidney at low mechanical index (MI) for 1 min post-injection. These data were analysed off-line by two observers, and time intensity curves (TIC) for the upper, mid, and lower poles constructed. Within each pole, a region of interest (5 mm square) was placed over the cortex, medullary pyramid, and interlobar artery, resulting in a total of nine TIC for each patient. TIC parameters included the arrival time (AT), time to peak (TTP), peak intensity (Max), gradient of the slope (M), and the area under curve (AUC). Results: For both observers there was good agreement for all values measured from the cortex and medulla, but poor interobserver correlation for the vascular values. In addition, there was only agreement for these values in the upper and mid-pole of the transplant with poor agreement for the lower pole values. The mid-pole of the transplant kidney was chosen as the point of measurement for subsequent studies. Mid-pole values were correlated with clinical data and outcome over the 3-month post-transplant period. Renal microbubble perfusion correlated with the transplant estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 3 months post-transplantation (p = 0.016). Discussion: In conclusion, this is the first study to confirm reproducibility of the Sonovue TIC data in transplant patients and to quantify regional variation and perfusion. The statistically significant estimates of transplant perfusion may be of future benefit to transplant recipients and potentially utilized as a prognostic tool

  17. Ultrasonic microbubble contrast agents and the transplant kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, D.H.; Mazonakis, M.; Geddes, C.; Baxter, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the potential application of microbubble agents in the immediate post-transplant period, by studying contrast uptake and washout, and to correlate these values with clinical indices, and thus, assess the potential prognostic value of this technique. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 20 consecutive renal transplant patients within 7 days of transplantation. Sonovue was administered as an intravenous bolus with continuous imaging of the transplant kidney at low mechanical index (MI) for 1 min post-injection. These data were analysed off-line by two observers, and time intensity curves (TIC) for the upper, mid, and lower poles constructed. Within each pole, a region of interest (5 mm square) was placed over the cortex, medullary pyramid, and interlobar artery, resulting in a total of nine TIC for each patient. TIC parameters included the arrival time (AT), time to peak (TTP), peak intensity (Max), gradient of the slope (M), and the area under curve (AUC). Results: For both observers there was good agreement for all values measured from the cortex and medulla, but poor interobserver correlation for the vascular values. In addition, there was only agreement for these values in the upper and mid-pole of the transplant with poor agreement for the lower pole values. The mid-pole of the transplant kidney was chosen as the point of measurement for subsequent studies. Mid-pole values were correlated with clinical data and outcome over the 3-month post-transplant period. Renal microbubble perfusion correlated with the transplant estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 3 months post-transplantation (p = 0.016). Discussion: In conclusion, this is the first study to confirm reproducibility of the Sonovue TIC data in transplant patients and to quantify regional variation and perfusion. The statistically significant estimates of transplant perfusion may be of future benefit to transplant recipients and potentially utilized as a prognostic tool

  18. Initial report of the Korean Organ Transplant Registry: the first report of national kidney transplantation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, C; Koo, T Y; Jeong, J C; Kim, M; Yang, J; Lee, J; Min, S I; Lee, J E; Kim, M S; Kwon, O J; Kim, S J; Kim, Y H; Kim, Y H; Choi, B S; Choi, S J N; Lee, D-H; Chung, S Y; Cho, W H; Kim, Y S

    2014-01-01

    A national organ transplant registry is an indispensable organizational requirement for patient care, research, and planning. Even though the Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) has established a database for a waiting list, organ allocation, and incidence of organ transplantation since 2000, an integrated registry including post-transplantation data is needed for better understanding of organ transplantation. Recently, the Korean Society for Transplantation (KST) and the Korean Center for Disease Control (KCDC) designed a web-based organ transplant registry, named the Korean Organ Transplant Registry (KOTRY). As an initial project of KOTRY, we retrospectively analyzed kidney transplantations (KTs) performed in 2009 and 2010. A total of 2292 KTs (91.9%) from 46 hospitals (80.7%) were collected and analyzed. Ninety-five elements related to KT were selected and analyzed. Proportions of male recipients and retransplantations were 58.4% and 7.1%, respectively. Even though glomerulonephritis was the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (28.4%), the number of diabetic nephropathy cases was increasing. The living donor (LD) to deceased donor (DD) ratio was 1.69:1. Because of a serious organ shortage in Korea, DD kidneys with a low initial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of transplants for O(+) recipients. The epidemiological profile of transplantation is different from country to country. The number of organ transplantations in East Asian countries is rapidly growing, however, there are few epidemiological data about this region in the literature. With the establishment of KOTRY, it was possible to present the first nationwide epidemiological data of Korean KTs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Minimizing racial disparity regarding receipt of a cadaver kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozminkowski, R J; White, A J; Hassol, A; Murphy, M

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the impact of race on waiting list entry and receipt of a cadaver kidney transplant, after accounting for self-reported income, health and functional status, and patients' attitudes about dialysis and transplantation as treatment alternatives. Previous studies did not account for these race-related factors and therefore produced biased estimates of the impact of race on waiting list entry and receipt of a transplant. Data for this investigation came from a telephone survey of a national sample of 456 end-stage renal disease patients and from files maintained by the United Network for Organ Sharing and the Health Care Financing Administration. Proportional hazard models were estimated with these data. The results indicated that approximately 60% of the differences between black and white waiting list entry rates and 52% of the black-white differences in transplantation rates were due to race-related differences in socioeconomic status, health and functional status, severity of illness, biological factors, the existence of contraindications to transplantation, transplant center characteristics, and patients' attitudes about dialysis and transplantation. Potential ways to narrow racial differences further include better education about treatment alternatives for black patients, more vigorous efforts to obtain donor organs from minorities, continued research and thoughtful policy on the access-related impacts of United Network for Organ Sharing point system variances, and consolidation of some smaller waiting lists into larger regional lists.

  20. Polycystic kidney disease and cancer after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, James B; Calvet, James P; Yu, Alan S L; Lynch, Charles F; Wang, Connie J; Kasiske, Bertram L; Engels, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most common form of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), is a disorder with characteristics of neoplasia. However, it is not known whether renal transplant recipients with PKD have an increased risk of cancer. Data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, which contains information on all solid organ transplant recipients in the United States, were linked to 15 population-based cancer registries in the United States. For PKD recipients, we compared overall cancer risk with that in the general population. We also compared cancer incidence in PKD versus non-PKD renal transplant recipients using Poisson regression, and we determined incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, dialysis duration, and time since transplantation. The study included 10,166 kidney recipients with PKD and 107,339 without PKD. Cancer incidence in PKD recipients was 1233.6 per 100,000 person-years, 48% higher than expected in the general population (standardized incidence ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.37 to 1.60), whereas cancer incidence in non-PKD recipients was 1119.1 per 100,000 person-years. The unadjusted incidence was higher in PKD than in non-PKD recipients (IRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20). However, PKD recipients were older (median age at transplantation, 51 years versus 45 years for non-PKD recipients), and after multivariable adjustment, cancer incidence was lower in PKD recipients than in others (IRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91). The reason for the lower cancer risk in PKD recipients is not known but may relate to biologic characteristics of ADPKD or to cancer risk behaviors associated with ADPKD. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Cholelithiasis in patients on the kidney transplant waiting list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Thiago Scandiuzzi Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of cholecystopathy in chronic renal patients awaiting kidney transplants. INTRODUCTION: The prevalence and management of cholelithiasis in renal transplant patients is not well established. METHODS: A total of 342 chronic renal failure patients on the waiting list for a kidney transplant were studied. Patients were evaluated for the presence of cholelithiasis and related symptoms, previous cholecystectomies and other abdominal surgeries, time on dialysis, and general data (gender, age, number of pregnancies, and body mass index. RESULTS: Cholelithiasis was found in 41 out of 342 patients (12%. Twelve of these patients, all symptomatic, had previously undergone cholecystectomies. Five out of 29 patients who had not undergone surgery were symptomatic. Overall, 17 patients (41.5% were symptomatic. Their mean age was 54 (range 32-74 years old; 61% were female, and their mean body mass index was 25.4. Nineteen (76% out of 25 women had previously been pregnant, with an average of 3.6 pregnancies per woman. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of cholelithiasis was similar to that reported in the literature for the general population. However, the high frequency of symptomatic patients points toward an indication of routine pre-transplant cholecystectomy to avoid serious post-transplant complications.

  2. Management of leukopenia in kidney and pancreas transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica L; Gatesman, Mandy; Roskopf-Somerville, Julie; Stratta, Robert; Farney, Alan; Sundberg, Aimee

    2008-01-01

    Leukopenia is frequently observed in the setting of solid organ transplantation. The risk factors, natural history, and outcomes associated with leukopenia post-transplantation have not been well defined. We retrospectively studied 102 adult kidney and/or pancreas transplant recipients over a one-yr period of time. By defining leukopenia as a white blood cell count leukopenia or neutropenia was 58% (59/102); the first episode occurred at a mean of 91 d post-transplant. A significant increase in the incidence of leukopenia was found in patients who either received alemtuzumab induction (42% with alemtuzumab vs. 9% with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction, p leukopenia was reducing the dose of mycophenolate mofetil and/or valganciclovir. When granulocyte stimulating factors were used, a mean of 3.1 doses were needed to successfully manage the leukopenia. Although leukopenia was a common finding in our study of kidney and/or pancreas transplant recipients, there was no difference in the rates of infection or acute rejection in patients with and without leukopenia.

  3. Optimized donor management and organ preservation before kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Heiko M; Yard, Benito A; Krämer, Bernhard K; Benck, Urs; Schnülle, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is a major medical improvement for patients with end-stage renal disease, but organ shortage limits its widespread use. As a consequence, the proportion of grafts procured from extended criteria donors (ECD) has increased considerably, but this comes along with increased rates of delayed graft function (DGF) and a higher incidence of immune-mediated rejection that limits organ and patient survival. Furthermore, most grafts are derived from brain dead organ donors, but the unphysiological state of brain death is associated with significant metabolic, hemodynamic, and pro-inflammatory changes, which further compromise patient and graft survival. Thus, donor interventions to preserve graft quality are fundamental to improve long-term transplantation outcome, but interventions must not harm other potentially transplantable grafts. Several donor pretreatment strategies have provided encouraging results in animal models, but evidence from human studies is sparse, as most clinical evidence is derived from single-center or nonrandomized trials. Furthermore, ethical matters have to be considered especially concerning consent from donors, donor families, and transplant recipients to research in the field of donor treatment. This review provides an overview of clinically proven and promising preclinical strategies of donor treatment to optimize long-term results after kidney transplantation. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  4. The value of Doppler ultrasound in predicting delayed graft function occurrence after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocny, Grzegorz; Bachul, Piotr; Chang, Ea-Sle; Kulig, Piotr

    The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of blood flow velocity and vascular resistance measured by Doppler ultrasound in terms of pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) respectively, in the occurrence of delayed graft function (DGF) after kidney transplantation. This prospective study enrolled kidney transplant recipients operated from January 2005 to April 2009 in the 1st Department of General, Oncological and Gastroenterological Surgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland. The medical records of 53 kidney transplant recipients from deceased donors were reviewed. PI and RI values of the graft arcuate artery were calculated immediately after blood flow restoration and on the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th post-operative day. DGF was observed in 20 patients (37.7%), while 33 patients (62.3%) had immediate restoration of the kidney function. The mean intraoperative values of RI and PI from patients with DGF were significantly higher in comparison to patients without DGF (0.9 vs. 0.74, p PI values remained stable and significantly higher in DGF group. The highest sensitivity of RI to predict DGF occurrence was observed intraoperatively and on the first postoperative day, with values of 77.8% and 72.2%, respectively. The risk of DGF occurrence with intraoperative RI value ≥0.9 increased by 13-fold, and with intraoperative PI value ≥1.9 by 12-fold. This increase was even more prominent during the first post-operative day with RI value ≥0.9 or PI value ≥1.9 with 19-fold increase in the risk of DGF occurrence. According to our study, the utilization of Doppler ultrasound with measurement of hemodynamic parameters (PI, RI), play a crucial role in predicting the outcomes of kidney transplantation.

  5. Clinical and pathological features of donor/recipient body weight mismatch after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Akimitsu; Yamamoto, Izumi; Nakada, Yasuyuki; Mafune, Aki; Katsumata, Haruki; Furuya, Maiko; Koike, Kentaro; Miki, Jun; Yamada, Hiroki; Tanno, Yudo; Ohkido, Ichiro; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that a donor/recipient body weight mismatch affects long-term graft survival and graft function after kidney transplantation. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. To address the mechanisms, we compared the pathological and physiological features between patients with a donor/recipient body weight mismatch and those without a mismatch 1 yr after kidney transplantation. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation with the donor/recipient body weight ratio. We examined allograft biopsy specimens from 10 recipients with stable kidney function, with body weight mismatch (donor/recipient body weight ratio [D/R BWR] mismatch. We measured glomerular volume (GV) using the Weibel-Gomez method and glomerular density (GD) defined by nonsclerotic glomerular number/renal cortical area as pathological findings. The physiological parameters included estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria (mg/day). These data were evaluated to identify a correlation with D/R BWR. The pathological features showed that GV and GD were identical in the two groups. However, when glomerular enlargement was defined by ΔGV (GV at the 1-yr biopsy minus GV at baseline biopsy), ΔGV was higher in mismatch cases compared with that in cases without a mismatch (10.6 ± 4.6 vs. 5.5 ± 7.1 × 10(5) μm(3) ; P = 0.049). Furthermore, D/R BWR was significantly correlated with ΔGV (P = 0.03, r = -0.436). eGFR values were physiologically identical between the two groups, but the mismatch cases had significantly higher proteinuria levels than that of the cases without a mismatch at 1 yr after kidney transplantation. A donor/recipient body weight mismatch could affect glomerular enlargement and increased proteinuria 1 yr after kidney transplantation. How these two features affect long-term graft survival and function must be addressed in the future. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Increased prevalence of malnutrition and reduced lean body mass in overweight/obese kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Małgorzewicz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are common in subjects after kidney transplantation. On the other hand, features of malnutrition are also frequently recognized in this group of patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of both abnormalities in a cohort of stable kidney recipients and to assess whether obesity precludes malnutrition in transplanted patients. We also investigated associations between the nutritional status, graft function and adipokines concentrations. The study was performed in 80 prevalent kidney transplant patients and in a control group which consisted of 23 healthy volunteers. Body composition (% of fat, lean body mass (LBM, water content was measured by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance (Body Composition Manager. Nutritional status was determined by a 7–point Subjective Global Assessment (SGA, anthropometric measurements and s-albumin concentration. C–reactive protein (CRP, Il–6 and plasminogen activator inhibitor–1 (PAI–1 were used as markers of inflammatory status. Concentration of leptin, adiponectin and visfatin were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean age was 52.4±13.9 years (45 men and 35 women. Diabetes mellitus was present in 29% (n=23 of them. Mean time after transplantation (transplantation vintage was 82.5±56.5 months (median=73 months. Mean eGFR was 41.7±14.9 ml/min (4 points MDRD, BMI was 25.7±4.2. Overweight was present in 41% of the patients and obesity in 14%. On the basis of SGA evaluation, signs of malnutrition were observed in 48% of the subjects. Malnutrition was present in 64% (21/33 of the overweight patients and in 91% (10/11 of the obese patients. Transplantation vintage was directly associated with fat mass and inversely associated with LBM. Malnourished patients (SGA had a longer transplantation vintage. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in transplanted patients as compared to controls. In multivariate analysis, leptin was an independent predictor of serum

  7. Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Zhang, Minghua; Fan, Junming

    2015-10-12

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Rising ESKD prevalence has substantially increased numbers of kidney transplants performed. Maintenance immunosuppression is long-term treatment to prevent acute rejection and deterioration of graft function. Although immunosuppressive treatment using drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs, such as cyclosporin A (CsA) or tacrolimus) reduce acute rejection rates, long-term allograft survival rates are not significantly enhanced. CNI-related adverse effects contribute to reduced quality of life among kidney transplant recipients. Adjuvant immunosuppressive therapies that could offer a synergetic immunosuppressive effect, while minimising toxicity and reducing side effects, have been explored recently. Cordyceps sinensis, (Cordyceps) a traditional Chinese medicine, is used as an adjuvant immunosuppressive agent in maintenance treatment for kidney transplantation recipients in China, but there is no consensus about its use as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplantation recipients. This review aimed to evaluate the benefits and potential adverse effects of Cordyceps as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplant recipients. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register through contact with the Trials Search Co-ordinator to 7 September 2015 using search terms relevant to this review. We also searched Chinese language databases and other resources. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the benefits and potential side effects of Cordyceps sinensis for kidney transplant recipients, irrespective of blinding or publication language. An inclusion criterion was that baseline immunosuppressive therapy must be the same in all study arms. Two authors extracted data. We derived risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) for continuous data with 95

  8. Clinical Significance of Pre- and Post-Transplant BAFF Levels in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ji Won; Kim, Kyoung Woon; Kim, Bo-Mi; Doh, Kyoung Chan; Choi, Min Seok; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong-Soo; Oh, Eun-Jee; Chung, Byung Ha

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that pre-transplant B cell activating factor (BAFF) levels are associated with the development of de novo anti-HLA antibodies and antibody mediated rejection post-transplant. However, the clinical significance of BAFF values at allograft rejection has not been determined. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of pre-transplant BAFF level as well as post-transplant BAFF levels measured when indication biopsy was done. We checked for anti-HLA antibodies in 115 kidney transplant recipients who required allograft biopsy due to an increase in serum creatinine. With the same serum specimen, we measured BAFF levels, and in 78 of these patients, pre-transplant BAFF and anti-HLA antibody levels were detected as well. Patients in each group were divided into tertiles according to BAFF levels. We investigated the relationship between BAFF levels and the occurrence of anti-HLA antibodies. Pre-transplant BAFF levels showed significant association with pre-transplant sensitization, and also with early rejection (Tertile 3, 26.9% vs. Tertile 1, 11.5%; PBAFF levels showed significant association with pre-transplant sensitization, but did not show association with anti-HLA antibodies and positive donor-specific antibodies at the time of biopsy. We did not find any association between post-transplant BAFF levels and allograft biopsy results, Banff scores and microvascular inflammation scores. In conclusion, pre-transplant BAFF levels are associated with pre-transplant sensitization and are useful in predicting allograft rejection. But post-transplant BAFF levels measured at the time of indication biopsy are not associated with the appearance of de novo HLA-DSA, allograft rejection, biopsy findings and other allograft outcomes.

  9. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping strategies, and psychosocial adjustment following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; Lombardo, Caterina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Poli, Luca; Bennardi, Linda; Giordanengo, Luca; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Violani, Cristiano

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relations between appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping, and adjustment dimensions following kidney transplantation (KT). Two models were tested: (1) the main effects model proposing that stress appraisal and coping strategies are directly associated with adjustment dimensions; and (2) the moderating model of stress proposing that each coping strategy interacts with stress appraisal. Importantly, there is a lack of research examining the two models simultaneously among recipients of solid organ transplantation. A total of 174 KT recipients completed the questionnaires. Predictors of post-transplant adjustment included appraisal of transplant-related stressors and coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused). Adjustment dimensions were psychological distress, worries about the transplant, feelings of guilt, fear of disclosure of transplant, adherence, and responsibility for the functioning of the new organ. The main and moderating effects were tested with regression analyses. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping were related to all adjustment dimensions, except of adherence and responsibility. Task-oriented coping was positively related to responsibility. Avoidance-oriented coping was negatively correlated with adherence. Only 1 out of 18 hypothesized interactive terms was significant, yielding a synergistic interaction between appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping on the sense of guilt. The findings have the potential to inform interventions promoting psychosocial adjustment among KT recipients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Hypertension in kidney transplantation is associated with an early renal nerve sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriello, Alessandro; Rovella, Valentina; Borri, Filippo; Anemona, Lucia; Giannini, Elena; Giacobbi, Erica; Saggini, Andrea; Palmieri, Giampiero; Anselmo, Alessandro; Bove, Pierluigi; Melino, Gerry; Valentina, Guardini; Tesauro, Manfredi; Gabriele, D'Urso; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    Normalization of arterial pressure occurs in just a few patients with hypertensive chronic kidney disease undergoing kidney transplantation. Hypertension in kidney transplant recipients may be related to multiple factors. We aimed to assess whether hypertension in kidney-transplanted patients may be linked to reinnervation of renal arteries of the transplanted kidney. We investigated renal arteries innervation from native and transplanted kidneys in three patients 5 months, 2 years and 11 years after transplantation, respectively. Four transplanted kidneys from non-hypertensive patients on immunosuppressive treatment without evidence of hypertensive arteriolar damage were used as controls. . Evidence of nerve sprouting was observed as early as 5 months following transplantation, probably originated from ganglions of recipient patient located near the arterial anastomosis and was associated with mild hypertensive arteriolar damage. Regeneration of periadventitial nerves was already complete 2 years after transplantation. Nerve density tended to reach values observed in native kidney arteries and was associated with hypertension-related arteriolar lesions in transplanted kidneys. Control kidneys, albeit on an immunosuppressive regimen, presented only a modest regeneration of sympathetic nerves. . Our results suggest that the considerable increase in sympathetic nerves, as found in patients with severe arterial damage, may be correlated to hypertension rather than to immunosuppressive therapy, thus providing a morphological basis for hypertension recurrence despite renal denervation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  11. [Improving treatment adherence in kidney transplantation: a major challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Michèle

    2014-06-01

    The kidney transplant recipient is faced not only with the perspective of taking immunosuppressive drugs lifelong, but also the possibility of other long-term treatments prescribed for preexisting conditions, complications, or side effects. Proper management, and most importantly patient adherence, can become a complex challenge. Here we recall current definitions and describe methods for measuring treatment adherence, followed by a discussion on the prevalence of non-adherence in kidney transplant recipients, its effect on graft survival, and factors predictive of non-adherence. Ways of improving adherence are examined, leading to the conviction that helping patients take their medications regularly would probably have a greater impact on graft survival than marketing a new immunosuppressive agent. Copyright © 2014 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Choice of fluids in the perioperative period of kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Castro, Alejandro; Ortiz-Lasa, María; Peñasco, Yhivian; González, Camilo; Blanco, Carmen; Rodriguez-Borregan, Juan Carlos

    Normal saline has traditionally been the resuscitation fluid of choice in the perioperative period of kidney transplantation over balanced potassium solutions. However, the problems arising from hyperchloraemia triggered by the infusion of normal saline have led to studies being conducted that compare this solution with balanced solutions. From this narrative review it can be concluded that the use of balanced crystalloids containing potassium in the perioperative period of kidney transplantation can be considered safe. These solutions do not affect serum potassium levels any more than normal saline, whilst maintaining a better acid-base balance in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Prospective study of urinary tract infection surveillance after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Sanchez Roberto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI remains one of the main complications after kidney transplantation and it has serious consequences. Methods Fifty-two patients with kidney transplantation were evaluated for UTI at 3-145 days (mean 40.0 days after surgery.. Forty-two received a graft from a live donor and 10 from a deceased donor. There were 22 female and 30 male patients, aged 11-47 years. Microscopic examinations, leukocyte esterase stick, and urinary culture were performed every third day and weekly after hospitalization. A positive culture was consider when patients presented bacterial counts up to 105 counts. Results UTI developed in 19/52 (37% patients at 3-75 days (mean 19.5 days after transplantation. Recurrent infection was observed in 7/52 (13.4% patients at days 17-65. UTI was more frequent in patients who received deceased grafts compared with live grafts (7/10, 70% vs. 12/42, 28%; p vs. 8/22, 36.35%; p Escherichia coli (31.5%, Candida albicans (21.0% and Enterococcus spp. (10.5%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter cloacae and Micrococcus spp. Secondary infections were produced by (7/19, 36.8%. Enterococcus spp. (57%, E. coli (28% and Micrococcus spp. (14.2%. Antibiotic resistance was 22% for ciprofloxacin and 33% for ampicillin. Therapeutic alternatives were aztreonam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, netilmicin and fosfomycin. Conclusions Surveillance of UTI for the first 3 months is a good option for improving quality of life of kidney transplantation patients and the exit of graft function especially for female patients and those receiving deceased grafts. Antibiograms provided a good therapeutic alternative to patients who presented with UTIs after receiving a kidney allograft.

  14. Nonadherence behaviors and some related factors in kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Hedayati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is the renal replacement therapy of choice for most patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, however, adherence to the recommended lifestyle is critical for a positive prognosis. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence to immunosuppressive therapy and lifestyle recommendations along with some related factors among kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, all patients completed a questionnaire regarding medication intake and lifestyle recommendations (preventing of infection, self-monitoring, prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and sun protection. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the level of adherence (good, partial, poor, and nonadherent indicated in their responses. Results: Most kidney recipients were adherent to their drug prescriptions, but were partial, poor, or nonadherent regarding lifestyle recommendations. Increased passage of time since transplantation and low family support and educational level resulted in nonadherence. Men showed greater adherence to medication intake than women. Patients with lower number of drugs and reported drug side-effects illustrated better adherence to medication intake. Women adhered to infection protection recommendations more than men, and older and married patients adhered to cardiovascular prevention recommendations more than others. However, younger patients showed greater adherence to self-monitoring recommendations, and singles, young individuals, and women were adherent to sun protection recommendations. Conclusions: Nonadherence is common among kidney transplant recipients. Thus, it is necessary to determine patients who are at risk of nonadherence and to introduce more educational programs to improve their adherence and their quality of life (QOL.

  15. Integrated Kidney Exosome Analysis for the Detection of Kidney Transplant Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongmin; Lin, Hsing-Ying; Assaker, Jean Pierre; Jeong, Sangmoo; Huang, Chen-Han; Kurdi, A; Lee, Kyungheon; Fraser, Kyle; Min, Changwook; Eskandari, Siawosh; Routray, Sujit; Tannous, Bakhos; Abdi, Reza; Riella, Leonardo; Chandraker, Anil; Castro, Cesar M; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho; Azzi, Jamil R

    2017-11-28

    Kidney transplant patients require life-long surveillance to detect allograft rejection. Repeated biopsy, albeit the clinical gold standard, is an invasive procedure with the risk of complications and comparatively high cost. Conversely, serum creatinine or urinary proteins are noninvasive alternatives but are late markers with low specificity. We report a urine-based platform to detect kidney transplant rejection. Termed iKEA (integrated kidney exosome analysis), the approach detects extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by immune cells into urine; we reasoned that T cells, attacking kidney allografts, would shed EVs, which in turn can be used as a surrogate marker for inflammation. We optimized iKEA to detect T-cell-derived EVs and implemented a portable sensing system. When applied to clinical urine samples, iKEA revealed high level of CD3-positive EVs in kidney rejection patients and achieved high detection accuracy (91.1%). Fast, noninvasive, and cost-effective, iKEA could offer new opportunities in managing transplant recipients, perhaps even in a home setting.

  16. Low rates of vaccination in listed kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H; Boyle, S M; Malat, G; Sharma, A; Bias, T; Doyle, A M

    2016-02-01

    Despite clear consensus and strong recommendations, vaccination rates of kidney transplant (KT) recipients have remained below targets. As vaccination is most effective if it is given prior to transplantation and the initiation of immunosuppression, patients should ideally have their vaccination status assessed and optimized in the pre-transplant period. We performed a retrospective chart review to characterize vaccination rates and factors associated with gaps in vaccination in a single-center population of waitlisted patients being evaluated for kidney transplantation. We evaluated 362 KT patients. Three-quarters were receiving dialysis at the time of evaluation. Immunization rates were low with 35.9% of patients having completed vaccination for Pneumococcus, 55% for influenza, 6.9% for zoster, and 2.5% for tetanus. On multivariable analysis, patients who received other vaccines, including influenza, tetanus, or zoster vaccine (odds ratio [OR] 10.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.65-19.71) were more likely to receive pneumococcal vaccine. Blacks (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.12-0.47) were less likely to receive pneumococcal vaccine compared to whites. Patients on dialysis, and those active on the waiting list were more likely to receive pneumococcal vaccine than other groups (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.44-5.51, and OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.08-3.14, respectively). We found that the overall immunization rate against common vaccine-preventable infections was low among patients evaluated for kidney transplantation. A significant gap remains between recommendations and vaccine uptake in clinical practice among this high-risk population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Need for optimized immunosuppression in elderly kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, L J; Staeck, Oliver; Halleck, Fabian; Liefeldt, Lutz; Bamoulid, Jamal; Budde, K

    2015-10-01

    The proportion of elderly kidney transplant candidates is increasing worldwide due to higher number of patients with end-stage renal disease in aging societies. Accordingly, organ allocation policies in this population were adjusted in several countries. The European Senior Program is the most prominent example, where elderly patients (≥65years) receive elderly (≥65years) donor organs with acceptable results. Because of age-dependent changes in the immune response and higher susceptibility to immunosuppressant side effects, outcomes in elderly patients are different compared to younger kidney transplant recipients. However, elderly patients do reject, especially poorly matched elderly donor organs. This warrants tailored immunosuppressive regimes with regard to the age-related changes of the immune system. Rejection therapies may have detrimental side effects in the seniors and are frequently leading to over-immunosuppression (malignancy and infections) in long-term therapy. It is hypothesized that after initial graft adaptation elderly patients may benefit from less immunosuppression in order to lower cancer risk and reduce infection rates and cardiovascular comorbidities. Current evidence on recommended standard immunosuppressive therapy was mainly derived from trials, where elderly patients were excluded or only a minority. In order to improve immunosuppressive therapy in elderly transplant recipients, current immunosuppressive regimes have to be re-investigated in this growing population. Up to date, only a few well-designed prospective studies were performed in elderly populations and demonstrate the need for effective immunosuppression in the first months after transplantation. It is evident that novel treatment strategies and adequately powered prospective clinical trials are needed to establish time-adapted immunosuppressive regimens according to the needs of this vulnerable group of kidney transplant recipients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  18. [Skeletal changes in the kidney transplant patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzincolo, C; Bagni, B; Bedani, P L; Ghedini, M; Scutellari, P N

    1994-06-01

    The skeletal status was investigated with noninvasive diagnostic procedures in 44 renal transplant patients (mean time since intervention: 5 to 195 months) treated with steroid and azathioprine (21 cases) or with steroid, azathioprine and cyclosporine (23 cases). 38.6% of the patients had reduced renal function (creatininemia: 1.6-3.0 mg/dl). Our patients underwent biochemical and hormonal tests of bone metabolism, digital radiographs of the skeleton and bone mineral density measurement with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic QDR 1000). All the patients exhibited moderate to severe osteopenia at both radiographic and densitometric investigations; the risk of fracture was high in 47% of cases. Radiographic signs of vertebral fractures were observed in 4.5% of cases. Other major radiographic patterns were the aseptic necrosis of femoral head (9%), of carpal bone (4.5%) and of humeral head (2.2%). Fibrous osteitis was demonstrated in three patients. Geodes in the wrist were also observed. The correlation of bone densitometry values and time since renal transplantation was statistically significant (r = 0.381; p < 0.01). Moreover, the grade of osteopenia correlated with serum levels of calcitonin and calcitriol--the latter especially in the patients with severe osteopenia.

  19. Three-year post-transplant medicare payments in kidney transplant recipients: Associations with pre-transplant comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Machnicki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the influence of pre-transplant comorbidities on post-transplant expenditures. We estimated the associations between pre-transplant comorbidities and post-transplant Medicare costs, using several comorbidity classification systems. We included recipients of first-kidney deceased donor transplants from 1995 through 2002 for whom Medicare was the primary payer for at least one year pre-transplant (N = 25,175. We examined pre-transplant comorbidities as classified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM codes from Medicare claims with the Clinical Cla-ssifications Software (CCS and Charlson and Elixhauser algorithms. Post-transplant costs were calcu-lated from payments on Medicare claims. We developed models considering Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN variables plus: 1 CCS categories, 2 Charlson, 3 Elixhauser, 4 num-ber of Charlson and 5 number of Elixhauser comorbidities, independently. We applied a novel regression methodology to account for censoring. Costs were estimated at individual and population levels. The comorbidities with the largest impact on mean Medicare payments included cardiovascular disease, ma-lignancies, cerebrovascular disease, mental conditions and functional limitations. Skin ulcers and infec-tions, rheumatic and other connective tissue disease and liver disease also contributed to payments and have not been considered or described previously. A positive graded relationship was found between costs and the number of pre-transplant comorbidities. In conclusion, we showed that expansion beyond the usually considered pre-transplant comorbidities with inclusion of CCS and Charlson or Elixhauser comorbidities increased the knowledge about comorbidities related to augmented Medicare payments. Our expanded methodology can be used by others to assess more accurately the financial implications of renal transplantation to Medicare and individual transplant centers.

  20. Balanced anestesia versus total intravenous anestesia for kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesti, C; Sacco, T; Morelli, G; Bocci, M G; Ciocchetti, P; Vitale, F; Perilli, V; Sollazzi, L

    2006-01-01

    An ideal anesthetic regimen for kidney transplantation should be able to assure haemodynamic stability to obtain an optimal graft reperfusion. The aim of this study was to compare 2 regimens of anesthesia for patients submitted to kidney transplantation. We studied 40 patients: 20 subjects (Group A) received balanced anesthesia with thiopental, fentanyl and isoflurane, to the others 20 (Group B), a total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanyl was given. In both groups muscle relaxation was obtained with a bolus of cisatracurium followed by a continuous infusion. We performed standard clinical, invasive blood pressure and central venous pressure monitoring. Hemodyna-mic data have been collected at standard times. During the postoperative period we evaluated the recovery (Aldrete Score) in the recovery room and the analgesia (VAS) at 1, 6, 24 h after the end of surgery. The trend of hemodynamic parameters did not show statistically significant differences between the 2 groups. We observed statistically significant differences concerning the quality of the recovery and the postoperative analgesia. The recovery in group B was faster than in group A, but in group A the pain control was better than in group B at least during the first postoperative hour. For their pharmacokinetic properties, propofol, remifentanyl and cisatracurium allow to obtain a good control of the hemodynamic parameters and a fast and safe recovery of consciousness. Total intravenous anesthesia regimen seems to be an alternative to the balanced anesthesia for patients undergoing kidney transplantation.

  1. Anesthesia Management in Aortic Dissection in Patients Undergoing Kidney Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Muharrem; Erdil, Feray; Sanlı, Mukadder; Aydogan, Mustafa Said; Durmus, Mahmut

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplant is a last resort to increase the life expectancy and quality of life in patients with renal failure. Aortic dissection is a disease that requires emergency intervention; it is characterized by sudden life-threatening back or abdominal pain. In the case described, constant chest pain that increased with respiration was present on examination of a 28-year-old man (85 kg, 173 cm) who presented at our emergency department complaining of severe back pain. He had undergone a kidney transplant in 2004 from his mother (live donor). He was diagnosed with acute Type II aortic dissection and was scheduled for emergent surgery. Because there were no surgical or anesthetic complications, the patient with 79 and 89 minutes aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass durations was sent, intubated, to intensive care unit. When nephrotoxic agents are avoided and blood flow is stabilized, cardiovascular surgery with cardio-pulmonary bypass may be performed seamlessly in patients who have undergone a kidney transplant.

  2. Sexual dysfunction after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, J S; Ulrich, C; Hörstrup, J H

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) is the treatment of choice for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) because it improves survival, is cost-effective, and can mitigate secondary complications of diabetes. Patient-reported outcomes...... such as quality of life (QoL) have recently received increased attention among transplant recipients. However, the impact of erectile dysfunction on patient QoL has not been investigated in this high-risk group with a history of diabetes and uremia. We applied the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF......) to describe the prevalence and severity of self-reported changes in erectile function after transplantation, comparing the quality of well-being (QWB) index of subgroups of 101 consecutive male SPK recipients with varying degrees of erectile function. Only 21% of patients did not suffer from erectile...

  3. Microsporidia Infection in a Mexican Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Xavier Hernández-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms of the microsporidia group are obligated intracellular protozoa that belong to the phylum Microspora; currently they are considered to be related or belong to the fungi reign. It is considered an opportunistic infection in humans, and 14 species belonging to 8 different genera have been described. Immunocompromized patients such as those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, also HIV serum-negative asymptomatic patients, with poor hygienic conditions, and recipients of bone marrow or solid organ transplantation are susceptible to develop deinfection. Sixty transplanted patients with renal microsporidia infection have been reported worldwide. The aim of this paper is to inform about the 2nd case of kidney transplant and microsporidia infection documented in Mexico.

  4. Clinical outcome of kidney transplantation from deceased donors with acute kidney injury by Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Hyun; Jeong, Eun-Gyo; Chang, Ji Yeun; Kim, Yaeni; Kim, Ji-Il; Moon, In Sung; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Byung Ha

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the outcome of kidney transplantation (KT) from deceased donors with acute kidney injury (AKI), as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Of 156 deceased donors, kidneys from 43 donors (27.6%) with AKI were transplanted into 57 recipients (AKI group). Another 147 recipients received kidneys from donors without AKI (non-AKI group). We compared the incidence of delayed graft function, allograft function for 1 year after KT, and long-term (5 and 10 years) graft survival rate between the 2 groups. Delayed graft function developed more frequently in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group (42.1% vs 12.2%; Pdiet in renal disease equation-showed a significantly deteriorating pattern at 2 weeks and 1, 3, and 6 months after KT compared with that in the non-AKI group (P<.05 for comparisons at each time point). However, allograft function at 12 months after KT and the long-term allograft and patient survival rates did not differ between the AKI and non-AKI groups. In KT from deceased donors, the AKI group that received kidneys with AKI, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, showed a higher delayed graft function rate and lower allograft function for 6 months after KT but no effect on allograft function 1 year after KT and on long-term allograft survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES AND CLINICAL TRIALS IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Moysyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999 living-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT is one of the priorities in the work of our Center. More than 45% of kidney transplants performed annually are the LDKTs. Long-term outcomes of the fi rst 357 LDKTs demonstrate good 10-year patient and graft survival: 93,5% and 73,0%, respectively. In this group we identify the risk factors of poor graft survival: age of the recipient less than 18 years, duration of dialysis before transplantation more than 24 months and creatinine level at discharge more than 130 mmol/L. The next step was the introduction of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in clinical practice in 2009. In 2011 we start the AB0-incompatibleLDKT (iAB0 program. Effective desensitization procedure and satisfactory results of iAB0 transplants (3-year patient and graft survival: 100% and 87.5%, respectively, as well as the availability of Luminex technology allowed us to start the clinical trials in patients with pre-existing high levels of anti-HLA antibodies. In this article we both analyze our current results, and focus on topical issues requiring further research.

  6. Laparoscopic transplantation of metanephroi: A first step to kidney xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Donoso, C D; García-Dominguez, X; Jiménez-Trigos, E; García-Valero, L; Vicente, J S; Marco-Jiménez, F

    2015-11-01

    Embryonic kidney xenotransplantation could represent a new solution to the scarcity of kidneys for transplantation. To determine the feasibility of allogeneic laparoscopic transplantation of metanephroi (M) in rabbits. Microscopic dissection was conducted to obtain metanephroi from 14-day-old (24M), 15-day-old (20M) and 16-day-old (26M) embryos. Using single-port abdominal laparoscopy, a spinal needle was inserted percutaneously, through which the metanephroi were deposited (using an epidural catheter) close to a patent blood vessel in the retroperitoneal fat. Seventy metanephroi were transplanted to 18 rabbits. Three weeks later, the animals were examined through open surgery. We compared the embryonic maturity, the morphometric variables of the metanephroi and the development rate of the transplanted metanephroi. The lower time limit for the extraction of metanephroi from the rabbits was day 14. Three weeks after transplantation, only 3/24 14-day-old metanephroi grew at minimal expression (12.5%). In contrast, 10/20 (50%) 15-day-old and 12/26 (46.1%) 16-day-old metanephroi grew. These metanephroi had differentiated sufficiently for the glomeruli, proximal and distal tubules and collecting ducts to develop normally. We detected no relevant immunological changes in the peripheral blood. We have described for the first time in the literature the allogeneic laparoscopic transplantation of metanephroi from embryos as a feasible and noninvasive technique. The recipients did not require immunosuppression. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Should we perform kidney transplants on foreign nationals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Marie-Chantal; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2014-12-01

    In Canada, there are currently no guidelines at either the federal or provincial level regarding the provision of kidney transplantation services to foreign nationals (FN). Renal transplant centres have, in the past, agreed to put refugee claimants and other FNs on the renal transplant waiting list, in part, because these patients (refugee claimants) had health insurance through the Interim Federal Health Programme to cover the costs of medication and hospital care. However, severe cuts recently made to this programme have forced clinicians to question whether they should continue with transplants for FNs, for financial and ethical reasons. This paper first examines different national policies (eg, in Canada, USA, France and the UK) to map the diversity of approaches regarding transplantation for FNs, and then works through different considerations commonly used to support or oppose the provision of organs to these patients: (1) the organ shortage; (2) the free-rider problem; (3) the risk of becoming a transplant destination; (4) the impact on organ donation rates; (5) physicians' duties; (6) economic concerns; (7) vulnerability. Using a Canadian case as a focus, and generalising through a review of various national policies, we analyse the arguments for and against transplantation for FNs with a view to bringing clarity to what is a sensitive political and clinical management issue. Our aim is to help transplant centres, clinicians and ethicists reflect on the merits of possible options, and the rationales behind them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Preemptive kidney transplantation in elderly recipients with kidneys discarded of very old donors: A good alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Hernández, Ana; Rojas-Rivera, Jorge; Gonzalez, Esther; Hernández, Eduardo; Polanco, Natalia; Praga, Manuel; Andrés, Amado

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of organs is a major hurdle in kidney transplantation, and one solution to the problem is to extend the age of the donor. However, organs from older donors are often discarded due to the macroscopic appearance of the parenchyma or major vessels. On the other hand, a large number of elderly patients are potential candidates for kidney transplantation, while many kidneys from elderly deceased donors are discarded due to a lack of age-matched recipients. In addition, a large number are often discarded due to the lack of compatible recipients among elderly patients undergoing chronic dialysis. A possible solution to avoid this wastage of kidneys potentially suitable for transplantation could be the performance of preemptive kidney transplantation (PKT) in carefully selected elderly patients. PKT improves graft and patient survival compared to other renal replacement therapy options. There is no information about PKT in elderly patients receiving kidneys from elderly deceased donors. From 2007 to 2012, we performed a prospective observational study comparing 26 elderly patients receiving PKT with a control group of 26 elderly patients receiving a first transplant after prior dialysis. Mean age of recipients was 74.3±2.9 years and mean age of donors was 73.8±4.1 years. Induction immunosuppression was similar in both groups. Death-censored graft survival was 96% in the PKT group and 68% in the control group (p=0.02), at 5 years after transplantation. Immediate and delayed graft function occurred in 92% and 3.8%, respectively, of patients in the PKT group and 53% and 34.6% of patients in the control group (p=0.005). Acute rejection was significantly more frequent in PKT patients (23.1% vs 3.8%, p=0.043). At the end of follow-up time 35.5±20.1 months, the glomerular filtration rate was similar in both groups (42.2±11.7 vs 41.7±11.2ml/min, p-value=0.72). Patient survival was similar in the two groups. Elderly patients with end stage of renal disease non

  9. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Mølgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency has been found in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine vitamin D status and determinants and metabolic correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a population of adult Danish......(OH)D], and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [S-1,25(OH)(2)D] were measured. Dietary and supplementary intake of vitamin D, avoidance of solar ultraviolet B exposure, and selected lifestyle factors were assessed in a subgroup (n = 97). RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of the patients had vitamin D insufficiency [S......-25(OH)D 40-75 nmol/L], and an additional 29% had moderate-to-severe vitamin D deficiency [S-25(OH)D vitamin D supplementation (positive association) were independent determinants of S-25(OH)D concentrations...

  10. Lymphocyte-depleting induction and steroid minimization after kidney transplantation : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naesens, Maarten; Berger, Stefan; Biancone, Luigi; Crespo, Marta; Djamali, Arjang; Hertig, Alexandre; Öllinger, Robert; Portolés, José; Zuckermann, Andreas; Pascual, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Steroid minimization after kidney transplantation has become more widely practiced as transplant clinicians seek the potential benefits such as reduced cardiovascular risk factors, improved growth in pediatric patients, and improved compliance with the immunosuppression regimen. Steroid avoidance

  11. Factors determining social participation in the first year after kidney transplantation : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Siirike F.; van Son, Willem J.; van Sonderen, Eric L. P.; de Jong, Paul E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background. This study describes changes in social participation in the first year after kidney transplantation and examines the influence of clinical factors, health status, transplantation-related symptoms, and psychological characteristics on change in social participation. Methods. A prospective

  12. Cryptococcosis in kidney transplant recipients in a Chinese university hospital and a review of published cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-li Yang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Cryptococcosis is a serious infection among kidney transplant recipients in mainland China. It has unique characteristics, such as a relatively long time to onset after kidney transplantation, and diverse clinical manifestations. Treatment with intrathecal injection of amphotericin B is considered effective for central nervous system involvement. The findings of this study also highlight the urgent need for multicenter, prospective, and multidisciplinary clinical studies and education on cryptococcosis in kidney transplant recipients in China.

  13. Aspirin resistance as cardiovascular risk after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Barbara; Varga, Adam; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Andras; Papp, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Szakaly, Peter

    2014-05-01

    International surveys have shown that the leading cause of death after kidney transplantation has cardiovascular origin with a prevalence of 35-40%. As a preventive strategy these patients receive aspirin (ASA) therapy, even though their rate of aspirin resistance is still unknown. In our study, platelet aggregation measurements were performed between 2009 and 2012 investigating the laboratory effect of low-dose aspirin (100 mg) treatment using a CARAT TX4 optical aggregometer. ASA therapy was considered clinically effective in case of low ( i.e., below 40%) epinephrine-induced (10 μM) platelet aggregation index. Rate of aspirin resistance, morbidity and mortality data of kidney transplanted patients (n = 255, mean age: 49 ± 12 years) were compared to a patient population with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (n = 346, mean age: 52.6 ± 11 years). Rate of aspirin resistance was significantly higher in the renal transplantation group (RT) compared to the positive control group (PC) (35.9% vs. 25.6%, p diabetes mellitus in the RT group (p < 0.05). The subgroup analysis revealed significantly higher incidence of infarction and stroke in the ASA resistant RT group compared to the RT patients without ASA resistance (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the incidence of myocardial infarction and hypertension was significantly higher in the non-resistant RT group than in the group of PC patients without ASA resistance (p < 0.05). These results may suggest that the elevated rate of aspirin resistance contributes to the high cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation.

  14. Complicated diverticulitis in kidney transplanted patients: analysis of 717 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, A; Santangelo, M; Federico, S; Carrano, R; La Tessa, C; Carlomagno, N; Palmieri, D G; Calogero, A; Piantadosi, M; Renda, A

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to investigate possible risk factors for diverticulitis in kidney transplant recipients affected by colonic diverticulosis. We investigated 717 patients transplanted between 2000 and 2010. Diverticular disease was endoscopically diagnosed in 17 of 717 examined patients. Eight patients were diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD); 9 of 17 patients underwent emergency surgery. We performed Hartmann's procedure on all patients, with a second stage performed at least 6 months later. Although the incidence of colonic diverticular perforation in kidney transplanted patients is similar to that observed in the general population, perforation in immunosuppressed patients is associated with a higher morbidity/mortality rate. In our study, the incidence of perforation is 1.25% (9 of 717), with almost half of the cases observed in patients with ADPKD (4 of 9). Such an observation is consistent with published data, in which patients with ADPKD are reported to more frequently develop colonic diverticulosis and its complications. One possible explanation might be related to a belated diagnosis of diverticulitis, which could initially simulate an inflammatory disease as a consequence of renal cysts. Also, steroids seem to be a predisposing factor for colonic perforation in these patients. A timely surgery can significantly reduce mortality. In cases of elective surgery, mortality and morbidity are similar to those of immunocompetent patients; accordingly, this is the goal to be pursued. Early signs and symptoms are often masked by immunosuppressive therapy. In these patients, surgeons should always perform (1) abdominal computed tomography scanning and, in the presence of diverticulitis, reduce or withdraw immunosuppressive therapy; and (2) early surgery, with Hartmann's procedure being, in our opinion, the best choice. Before transplantation, elective surgery for colonic resection should be considered in patients with ADPKD or with a

  15. Psychological rejection of the transplanted organ and graft dysfunction in kidney transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Látos M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melinda Látos,1 György Lázár,1 Zoltán Horváth,1 Victoria Wittmann,1 Edit Szederkényi,1 Zoltán Hódi,1 Pál Szenohradszky,1 Márta Csabai2 1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 2Psychology Institute, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Abstract: Interdisciplinary studies suggest that the mental representations of the transplanted organ may have a significant effect on the healing process. The objective of this study was to examine the representations of the transplanted organ and their relationship with emotional and mood factors, illness perceptions, and the functioning of the transplanted organ. One hundred and sixty-four kidney transplant patients were assessed using the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, the Beck’s Depression Scale, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and the Transplanted Organ Questionnaire. Medical parameters were collected from the routine clinical blood tests (serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels and biopsy results. Our most outstanding results suggest that kidney-transplanted patients’ illness representations are associated with health outcomes. The Transplanted Organ Questionnaire “psychological rejection” subscale was connected with higher serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels. Logistic regression analysis showed that psychological rejection subscale, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and Posttraumatic Growth Questionnaire total scores were associated with graft rejection. These results may serve as a basis for the development of complex treatment interventions, which could help patients to cope with the bio-psycho-social challenges of integrating the new organ as part of their body and self. Keywords: anxiety, depression, illness representations, posttraumatic growth, psychological rejection, renal transplantation

  16. Recipient characteristics and outcome of pediatric kidney transplantation at the King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Iftikhar A R; Al-Maghrabi, Mohammad; Kassim, Mohammad Salah; Tawfeeq, Mansour; Al-Saif, Faisal; Al-Oraifi, Ibrahim; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed; Alsaghier, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    The success of a pediatric kidney transplantation program can only be judged by reviewing its results. We aim to audit our short-term outcome of pediatric kidney transplantation at the King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam. A retrospective chart review was performed to collect data about recipient demographics, etiology of end-stage kidney disease, type of dialysis, type of donor and outcome. Between September 2008 and April 2012, 35 pediatric kidney trans-plantations (need to encourage preemptive transplantation and living donation in this population.

  17. Unusual Pathology in a Kidney from a Heart-Transplant Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Larcher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is often observed after heart transplantation. In this setting, acute tubular necrosis is the main histological finding on kidneys. We report the unusual pathology found in a kidney from a heart-transplant patient. The patient experienced several hemodynamic insults, massive transfusion, and implantation of a mechanical circulatory-support device before heart transplantation: there was prolonged AKI after transplantation. A kidney biopsy revealed acute tubular necrosis and renal hemosiderosis, which was probably related to the transfusion and to mechanical circulatory-support device-induced intravascular hemolysis. Assessment of iron during resuscitation could have prevented, at least partly, AKI.

  18. Neuropsychological assessment in kidney and liver transplantation candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, S S; Guimaro, M S; Prade, C V; Ferraz-Neto, B H; Karam, C H; Andreoli, P B A

    2008-04-01

    Chronic renal and liver diseases are associated with cognitive and intellectual impairment, which can be irreversible even after kidney or liver transplantation. We sought to investigate the presence of cognitive deficits in organ transplantation candidates. From May 2005 to March 2006, 35 organ transplantation candidates, of mean age 46.71 (+/- 13.01) years, 54.3% including females and 7.29 (+/- 4.22) years mean formal schooling. Of those, 27 (77%) were renal and 8 (23%), liver transplantation candidates. All subjects underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery designed to evaluate attention performance, executive functions, memory, language, visuaospatial, and intellectual skills. We found impairments in attention performance (attention span [34.3%], sustained attention [76.5%], and divided attention [77.8%]), executive functions (category formation [58.3%], errors [61.5%], and perseverative errors [30.4%]), memory (working memory [57.1%], verbal [37.1%] and visual short-term memory [31.4%], verbal [25.7%] and visual long-term memory [51.4], verbal learning [42.9%], interference susceptibility [42.9%], and verbal recognition memory [20.6%]), language (comprehension [38.1%], and vocabulary [30.8%]), visuaospatial (45.8%), and intellectual skills (50.0%). Neuropsychological (cognitive) deficits in transplant candidates are frequent, regardless of the kind of transplantation. The deficits involve several cognitive skills, such as attentional processes, executive functions, memory, language, visuaospatial, and intellectual skills. Therefore, we concluded that a pretransplant neuropsychological assessment is an important measure to detect impairments and to help understand how these difficulties can interfere with patient self-care before and after transplantation.

  19. Progression of urinary protein excretion after kidney transplantation: A marker for poor long-term prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego Hinojosa, Josefa; Gentil Govantes, Miguel Angel; Cabello Díaz, Mercedes; Rodriguez Benot, Alberto; Mazuecos Blanca, Auxiliadora; Osuna Ortega, Antonio; Bedoya Pérez, Rafael; Castro De La Nuez, Pablo; Alonso Gil, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Post-transplantation proteinuria is a risk factor for graft failure. A progressive decline in renal graft function is a predictor for mortality in kidney transplant patients. To assess the development and the progression of urinary protein excretion (UPE) in the first year post-transplant in recipients of kidney transplants and its effect on patient and graft outcomes. We analysed 1815 patients with 24-h UPE measurements available at 3 and 12 months post-transplant. Patients were divided based on their UPE level: below 300 mg, 300-1000 mg and over 1000 mg (at 3 and 12 months), and changes over time were analysed. At 3 months, 65.7% had UPE below 300 mg/24 h, 29.6% 300-1000 mg/24 h and 4.7% over 1000 mg/24h. At one year, 71.6% had UPE below 300 mg/24 h, 24.1% 300-1000 mg/24 h and 4.4% over 1000 mg/24 h. In 208 patients (12%), the UPE progressed, in 1233 (70.5%) it remained stable and in 306 (17.5%) an improvement was observed. We found that the level of UPE influenced graft survival, particularly if a progression occurred. Recipient's age and renal function at one year were found to be predictive factors for mortality, while proteinuria and renal function were predictive factors for graft survival. Proteinuria after transplantation, essentially when it progresses, is a marker of a poor prognosis and a predictor for graft survival. Progression of proteinuria is associated with poorer renal function and lower graft survival rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. An observational study of health literacy and medication adherence in adult kidney transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Demian, Maryam N.; Shapiro, R. Jean; Thornton, Wendy Loken

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a high prevalence of non-adherence to immunosuppressants in kidney transplant recipients. Although limited health literacy is common in kidney recipients and is linked to adverse outcomes in other medical populations, its effect on medication adherence in kidney transplant recipients remains poorly understood. The objective was to investigate the effect of lower health literacy on immunosuppressant adherence. Methods Kidney recipients who were at least 6 months post-transp...

  1. A qualitative assessment of personal and social responsibility for kidney disease: the Increasing Kidney Disease Awareness Network Transplant Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence; Lyles, Courtney Rees; Galvin, Georgia; Sabin, Janice; Davis, Connie; Dick, Andre; Young, Bessie A

    2011-01-01

    Limited qualitative research has explored opinions of kidney disease health care providers regarding racial and ethnic disparities in access to and receipt of kidney transplantation. Key informant interviews were conducted among transplant nephrologists, nephrologists, transplant social workers, and transplant coordinators to determine barriers to transplantation among African Americans compared to whites with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-eight interviews were audio recorded and transcribed to hardcopy for content analysis. Grounded theory was used to determine dominant themes within the interviews. Reliability and validity were ensured by several coinvestigators independently sorting verbatim responses used for generating themes and subsequent explanations. Several major categories arose from analysis of the transcripts. Under the category of personal and social responsibility for kidney transplantation, interviews revealed 4 major themes: negative personal behaviors, acquisition of and lack of self-treatment of comorbid conditions, lack of individual responsibility, and the need for more social responsibility. Many providers perceived patients as being largely responsible for the development of ESRD, while some providers expressed the idea that more social responsibility was needed to improve poor health status and disparities in kidney transplantation rates. Kidney disease health providers seemed torn between notions of patients' accountability and social responsibility for racial disparities in chronic kidney disease and ESRD. Further research is needed to clarify which aspects contribute most to disparities in access to transplantation.

  2. Evaluation of renographic and metabolic parameters in human kidney transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A. [Barcelone, Univ. (Spain). Lab. of Biophysics and Bioengineering; Vigues, F.; Franco, E. [Hospital of Bellvitge, Bellvitge (Spain). Service of Urology; Puchal, R. [Hospital of Bellvitge, Bellvitge (Spain). Service of Nuclear Medicine; Bartrons, R.; Ambrosio, S. [Barcelona, Univ. (Spain). Faculty of Odontology, Laboratory of Biochemistry

    1997-03-01

    Background: the aim of this work is to demonstrate that the value of the mean transit time (MTT) obtained from the {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 renogram deconvolution is related to the levels of adenine nucleotides determined in cortical biopsies from transplanted kidneys. Methods: the functional state was estimated by means of the MTT and the initial height (HO) of the renal retention function obtained from the {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 renogram deconvolution and by the measure of adenine nucleotides obtained from biopsies. We studied 30 kidney graft recipients, 25 normal functioning grafts (NFG) and 5 with acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Results: the MTT is significantly longer for ATN (p<0.001). The initial uptake values (HO) are significantly lower for ATN (p<0.001). The sum of adenine nucleotides (SAN) is significantly greater for NFG than for ATN (p<0.001). The values of the MTT seem to reflect the energy state of the cells in transplanted kidney. Conclusion: the analysis of MTT may be indicative of the functional metabolic recovery and thus it may be predictive of the renal graft function at least in the same extent than the biochemical analysis of a cortical renal biopsy immediately after blood reperfusion of the tissue.

  3. A case of tacrolimus-induced encephalopathy after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Uk Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of tacrolimus-induced encephalopathy after successful kidney transplantation. An 11-year-old girl presented with sudden onset of neurologic symptoms, hypertension, and psychiatric symptoms, with normal kidney function, after kidney transplantation. The symptoms improved after cessation of tacrolimus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed acute infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA territory in the right frontal lobe. Three days later, she had normal mental function and maintained normal blood pressure with left hemiparesis. Follow-up MRI was performed on D19, showing new infarct lesions at both cerebral hemispheres. Ten days later, MRI showed further improvement, but brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT showed mild reduction of uptake in both the anterior cingulate gyrus and the left thalamus. One month after onset of symptoms, angiography showed complete resolution of stenosis. However, presenting as a mild fine motor disability of both hands and mild dysarthria, what had been atrophy at both centrum semiovale at 4 months now showed progression to encephalomalacia. There are two points of interest in this case. First, encephalopathy occurred after administration of tacrolimus and improved after discontinuation of the drug. Second, the development of right-side hemiplegia could not be explained by conventional MRI; but through diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT of white matter tract, visualization was possible.

  4. Concurrent validity of kidney transplant questionnaire in US renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisholm-Burns MA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Marie A Chisholm-Burns1,2, Steven R Erickson3, Christina A Spivey1, Rainer WG Gruessner2, Bruce Kaplan4 1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, AZ; 2Department of Surgery, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, MI; 4Department of Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Valid instrumentation in the assessment of health-related quality of life (HQoL in renal transplant recipients is critical to identifying particular nuances and determinants of HQoL in this population. Therefore, the validity of disease-specific instruments to measure HQoL in renal transplant recipients, such as the Kidney Transplant Questionnaire (KTQ, needs further investigation. The objective of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the KTQ in adult US renal transplant recipients using the well established SF-12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2 as the comparison instrument. Methods: One hundred and fourteen renal transplant recipients met the following inclusion criteria for this study, ie, were at least 21 years of age, more than two years post-transplant, and receiving immunosuppressant therapy. Subjects were asked to complete a series of HQoL instruments, ie, the KTQ and the SF-12v2 (physical component summary [PCS-12] and mental component summary [MCS-12]. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and correlational analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent validity of the HQoL instruments. Results: Among 100 participants (87.7% response rate, the majority of participants were male (52%, had deceased donor transplants (63%, and received Medicare benefits (84%. PCS-12 was positively correlated with three of five KTQ subscales (P < 0.05, ie, KTQ-physical (r = 0.43, KTQ-fatigue (r = 0.42, and KTQ-uncertainty/fear (r = 0.2. MCS-12 was positively correlated

  5. Cancer Incidence among Heart, Kidney, and Liver Transplant Recipients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwai-Fong; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Ke, Hung-Yen; Lin, Yi-Chang; Lin, Feng-Yen; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Population-based evidence of the relative risk of cancer among heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from Asia is lacking. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a population-based cohort study of transplant recipients (n = 5396), comprising 801 heart, 2847 kidney, and 1748 liver transplant recipients between 2001 and 2012. Standardized incidence ratios and Cox regression models were used. Compared with the general population, the risk of cancer increased 3.8-fold after heart transplantation, 4.1-fold after kidney transplantation and 4.6-fold after liver transplantation. Cancer occurrence showed considerable variation according to transplanted organs. The most common cancers in all transplant patients were cancers of the head and neck, liver, bladder, and kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Male recipients had an increased risk of cancers of the head and neck and liver, and female kidney recipients had a significant risk of bladder and kidney cancer. The adjusted hazard ratio for any cancer in all recipients was higher in liver transplant recipients compared with that in heart transplant recipients (hazard ratio = 1.5, P = .04). Cancer occurrence varied considerably and posttransplant cancer screening should be performed routinely according to transplanted organ and sex.

  6. Living kidney transplantation between brothers with unrecognized renal amyloidosis as the first manifestation of familial Mediterranean fever: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Afonso, Sara; Peces, Carlos; Nevado, Julián; Selgas, Rafael

    2017-08-31

    Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and polyserositis and by the onset of reactive amyloid-associated amyloidosis. Amyloidosis due to familial Mediterranean fever can lead to end-stage renal disease, culminating in kidney transplantation for some patients. In this study, we report the clinical outcome of two brothers with familial Mediterranean fever who were the inadvertent donor and recipient, respectively, of a kidney. Subsequently, they were diagnosed with renal amyloidosis secondary to familial Mediterranean fever and were successfully treated with anakinra and colchicine. Two brothers with familial Mediterranean fever and renal amyloidosis were the inadvertent donor and recipient, respectively, of a kidney. The recipient had presented recurrent acute febrile episodes of familial Mediterranean fever, developed nephrotic syndrome secondary to amyloidosis and needed bilateral nephrectomy and chronic dialysis. His elder brother, in apparent good health, donated his left kidney to his brother. Immediately after the kidney transplantation, both the donor and recipient presented massive proteinuria, impaired renal function and elevated serum amyloid A levels. Biopsies of the brothers' kidneys showed amyloidosis. Genetic studies thereafter revealed a homozygous variant for the MEFV gene (NM_000243.2.c.2082G > A; p.M694I) in both brothers. At this point, both the donor and recipient were treated with colchicine and anakinra, resulting in improved renal function, decreased proteinuria, undetectable serum amyloid A levels and stable renal function at 62 months of follow-up and no major adverse effects. In familial Mediterranean fever, analyses of the MEFV gene should be performed in potential live kidney donors from a direct family member (either between siblings or between parents and children). In addition, genetic studies are required when consanguinity is suspected between members involved in

  7. Association Between Pretransplant Cancer and Survival in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Dag Olav; Grotmol, Tom; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Hartmann, Anders; Midtvedt, Karsten; Reisæter, Anna V; Mjøen, Geir; Pihlstrøm, Hege K; Næss, Hege; Holdaas, Hallvard

    2017-10-01

    Kidney transplantation in recipients with a previous malignancy is often deferred 2 to 5 years after cancer treatment due to fear of cancer recurrence. In Norway, the required waiting period has been 1 year. We compared patient and graft survival of recipients with pretransplant cancer to the outcomes of matched recipients without such cancer (comparators) using Cox regression. From 1963 to 2010, 377 (6.4%) of 5867 recipients had a pretransplant cancer. During a median follow-up of 6.8 years, 256 recipients died, 35 (13.7%) from recurrent cancer and 27 (10.5%) from de novo cancer. Uncensored and death-censored graft loss occurred in 263 and 46 recipients, respectively. All-cause mortality was similar as in comparators (hazard ratio [HR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.20]; P = 0.40), death-censored graft loss was lower (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.84; P = 0.002), and uncensored graft loss was similar (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.87-1.12; P = 0.87). Cancer mortality was higher than in comparators (HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.51-2.56; P cancer mortality or all-cause mortality (both P > 0.45). Results were similar within cancer subgroups, with most data in patients with a history of kidney cancer, prostate cancer, urothelial cancer, and skin squamous cell carcinoma. Kidney transplant recipients with a pretransplant cancer had a similar overall patient and graft survival as recipients without such cancer. Cancer mortality was increased, particularly during the first 5 years after transplantation. A short waiting period was not associated with mortality.

  8. Kidney transplantation from deceased donors with elevated serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinat, Anja; Leerhoff, Sabine; Paul, Andreas; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Schulze, Maren; Witzke, Oliver; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C

    2016-12-01

    Elevated donor serum creatinine has been associated with inferior graft survival in kidney transplantation (KT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of elevated donor serum creatinine on short and long-term outcomes and to determine possible ways to optimize the use of these organs. All kidney transplants from 01-2000 to 12-2012 with donor creatinine ≥ 2 mg/dl were considered. Risk factors for delayed graft function (DGF) were explored with uni- and multivariate regression analyses. Donor and recipient data were analyzed with uni- and multivariate cox proportional hazard analyses. Graft and patient survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Seventy-eight patients were considered. Median recipient age and waiting time on dialysis were 53 years and 5.1 years, respectively. After a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 63 patients are alive. 1, 3, and 5-year graft and patient survival rates were 92, 89, and 89 % and 96, 93, and 89 %, respectively. Serum creatinine level at procurement and recipient's dialysis time prior to KT were predictors of DGF in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0164 and p = 0.0101, respectively). Charlson comorbidity score retained statistical significance by multivariate regression analysis for graft survival (p = 0.0321). Recipient age (p = 0.0035) was predictive of patient survival by multivariate analysis. Satisfactory long-term kidney transplant outcomes in the setting of elevated donor serum creatinine ≥2 mg/dl can be achieved when donor creatinine is <3.5 mg/dl, and the recipient has low comorbidities, is under 56 years of age, and remains in dialysis prior to KT for <6.8 years.

  9. Acute Rejection After Kidney Transplantation Associates With Circulating MicroRNAs and Vascular Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijkerk, Roel; Florijn, Barend W; Khairoun, Meriem; Duijs, Jacques M G J; Ocak, Gurbey; de Vries, Aiko P J; Schaapherder, Alexander F; Mallat, Marko J K; de Fijter, Johan W; Rabelink, Ton J; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Reinders, Marlies E J

    2017-07-01

    Acute rejection (AR) of kidney transplants is associated with the loss of endothelial integrity, microvascular rarefaction and, ultimately, graft dysfunction. Circulating angiogenic microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as markers for microvascular injury. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of AR after kidney transplantation on systemic vascular injury and the associated circulating miRNA profile. Systemic vascular injury was determined by measuring capillary tortuosity and density within the oral mucosa as well as by assessing circulating levels of angiopoietin-2/angiopoietin-1 ratio, vascular endothelial growth factor and soluble thrombomodulin. After a pilot study, we selected 48 miRNAs to assess the AR- and microvascular injury associated circulating miRNAs. In stable transplant recipients (n = 25) and patients with AR (n = 13), which were also studied longitudinally (1, 6, and 12 months post-AR), we found an AR-associated increase in markers of systemic vascular injury, of which vascular endothelial growth factor and soluble thrombomodulin normalized within 1 year after AR. Of the 48 selected miRNAs, 8 were either decreased (miR-135a, miR-199a-3p, and miR-15a) or increased (miR-17, miR-140-3p, miR-130b, miR-122 and miR-192) in AR. Of these, miR-130b, miR-199a, and miR-192 associated with markers of vascular injury, whereas miR-140-3p, miR-130b, miR-122, and miR-192 normalized within 1 year after AR. AR after kidney transplantation is characterized by systemic microvascular injury and associates with specific circulating miRNA levels.

  10. Impact of the New Kidney Allocation System on Perioperative Outcomes and Costs in Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, David J; DuBay, Derek; McGillicuddy, John W; Nadig, Satish; Bratton, Charles F; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K

    2017-04-01

    In December 2014, a new kidney allocation system (KAS) was implemented nationwide with the goal of improving longevity matching, increasing access to sensitized patients, and improving racial/ethnic disparities. National cohort study of US kidney transplantation programs, analyzing hospital-level outcomes (October 2012 to June 2016) using University HealthSystem Consortium data. In-hospital outcomes and costs were analyzed for trends over time using interrupted time series analysis with segmented regression. There were 38,016 kidney transplantation procedures analyzed during the 3.8-year period. Over time, there was a mean increase of 2.7 cases/month (95% CI -0.02 to 5.4; p = 0.059), unaffected by KAS (18.9 case increase; p = 0.5601). Implementation of KAS led to significant changes in patient demographics, including a decrease in age (-2.8 years; p costs ($2,429; 95% CI $594 to $4.263); and 7-day (2.2%), 14-day (2.6%), and 30-day (2.7%) readmission rates. Policy changes in organ allocation can have a significant impact on perioperative costs and outcomes, which can have a downstream influence on transplantation center perisurgical care processes. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electronically-measured adherence to immunosuppressive medications and kidney function after deceased donor kidney transplantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israni, Ajay K.; Weng, Francis L.; Cen, Ye-Ying; Joffe, Marshall; Kamoun, Malek; Feldman, Harold I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications can result in allograft rejection and eventually allograft loss. Methods In a racially diverse population, we utilized microelectronic cap monitors to determine the association of adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication and kidney allograft outcomes post-transplantation. This prospective cohort study enrolled 243 patients from eight transplant centers to provide adherence and kidney allograft outcomes data. To determine the association of adherence with change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), we fit mixed effects models with the outcome being change in eGFR over time. We also fit Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association of adherence with time to persistent 25% and 50% decline in eGFR. Results The distribution of adherence post-transplant was as follows: 164 (68%), 49 (20%) and 30 (12%) had >85–100%, 50–85% and adherence, respectively. 79 (33%) and 36 (15%) of the subjects experienced a persistent 25% decline in eGFR or allograft loss and 50% decline in eGFR or allograft loss during follow-up. Adherence was not associated with acute rejection or 25% decline or 50% decline in eGFR. In the adjusted and unadjusted model, adherence and black race were not associated with change in eGFR over time. Conclusions Non-adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication, was not associated with kidney allograft outcomes. PMID:20977496

  12. Electronically measured adherence to immunosuppressive medications and kidney function after deceased donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israni, Ajay K; Weng, Francis L; Cen, Ye-Ying; Joffe, Marshall; Kamoun, Malek; Feldman, Harold I

    2011-01-01

    Non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications can result in allograft rejection and eventually allograft loss. In a racially diverse population, we utilized microelectronic cap monitors to determine the association of adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication and kidney allograft outcomes post-transplantation. This prospective cohort study enrolled 243 patients from eight transplant centers to provide adherence and kidney allograft outcomes data. To determine the association of adherence with change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), we fit mixed effects models with the outcome being change in eGFR over time. We also fit Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association of adherence with time to persistent 25% and 50% decline in eGFR. The distribution of adherence post-transplant was as follows: 164 (68%), 49 (20%), and 30 (12%) had >85-100%, 50-85%, and adherence, respectively. Seventy-nine (33%) and 36 (15%) of the subjects experienced a persistent 25% decline in eGFR or allograft loss and 50% decline in eGFR or allograft loss during follow-up. Adherence was not associated with acute rejection or 25% decline or 50% decline in eGFR. In the adjusted and unadjusted model, adherence and black race were not associated with change in eGFR over time. Non-adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication was not associated with kidney allograft outcomes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of transplanted kidneys: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wypych-Klunder, Katarzyna; Adamowicz, Andrzej; Lemanowicz, Adam; Szczęsny, Wojciech; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    An aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of DWI in the early period after kidney transplantation. We also aimed to compare ADC and eADC values in the cortex and medulla of the kidney, to estimate image noise and variability of measurements, and to verify possible relation between selected labolatory results and diffusion parameters in the transplanted kidney. Examinations were performed using a 1.5 T MR unit. DWI (SE/EPI) was performed in the axial plane using b-values of 600 and 1000. ADC and eADC measurements were performed in four regions of interest within the renal cortex and in three regions within the medulla. Relative variability of results and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were calculated. The analysis included 15 patients (mean age 52 years). The mean variability of ADC was significantly lower than that of eADC (6.8% vs. 10.8%, respectively; p<0.0001). The mean variability of measurements performed in the cortex was significantly lower than that in the medulla (6.2% vs. 11.5%, respectively; p<0.005). The mean SNR was higher in the measurements using b600 than b1000, it was higher in ADC maps than in the eADC maps, and it was higher in the cortex than in the medulla. ADC and eADC measured at b1000 in the cortex were higher in the group of the patients with eGFR ≤30 ml/min./1.73 m 2 as compared to patients with eGFR >30 ml/min./1.73 m 2 (p<0.05). Diffusion-weighted imaging of transplanted kidneys is technically challenging, especially in patients in the early period after transplantation. From a technical point of view, the best quality parameters offer quality ADC measurement in the renal cortex using b1000. ADC and eADC values in the renal cortex measured at b1000 present a relationship with eGFR

  14. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Noha A; Hassanein, Safaa M; Leil, Marwa M; NasrAllah, Mohamed M

    2015-11-01

    To explore and compare complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practice among subsets of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal allograft recipients. Cross-sectional survey questionnaire. Three outpatient nephrology clinics and dialysis centers in Egypt. A total of 1005 subjects were included in the study (560 predialyis patients with CKD 3-4, 245 patients on hemodialysis, and 200 transplant recipients). Face to face interview with CKD patients. The survey inquired about epidemiological data, types, sources, and patterns of CAM used as well as the effect of CAM use on the patients' interaction with modern medicine and clinical caregivers. (1) Prevalence and types of CAM used by CKD patients; (2) Associations and correlates of CAM use including epidemiological features, impact of CAM use on adherence to conventional treatment and interaction of the users with modern medical systems; (3) Differences in CAM practice between subsets of CKD patients viz. hemodialysis patients, CKD 3-4, and transplant recipients. Overall, 522 patients (52%) were using CAM (64% of predialyis patients, 33% of dialysis patients, and 40.5% of transplant recipients, P transplant recipients were more likely to report P Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Drug Interaction between Sirolimus and Ranolazine in a Kidney Transplant Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Masters

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The case of a kidney transplant recipient who experienced a probable drug interaction between sirolimus and ranolazine is reported. Summary. The narrow therapeutic window of immunosuppressive therapy in transplant recipients requires close monitoring for potential drug-drug interactions. The patient, a 57-year-old Caucasian male kidney transplant recipient, was stable for years on sirolimus as his primary immunosuppressive agent and had a history of chronic angina, for which he was prescribed ranolazine. Upon addition and dose escalation of ranolazine, whole blood sirolimus levels more than tripled, rising to immeasurably high concentrations. After holding sirolimus on multiple occasions and reducing dosage more than 50%, blood levels returned to therapeutic range, while continuing ranolazine. Conclusion. Since ranolazine is a documented P-GP and CYP3A inhibitor, and sirolimus a known substrate for both pathways, it is proposed that ranolazine inhibition of P-GP and CYP3A4 contributed to the significant elevation in sirolimus exposure. No alternative causes for the rise in sirolimus exposure were found, and assessment with the Drug Interaction Probability Scale finds this interaction to be probable. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for this interaction to cause elevated sirolimus exposure and subsequent increase in clinical effect or toxicity, in this case overimmunosuppression.

  16. Normothermic Ex Vivo Kidney Perfusion for the Preservation of Kidney Grafts prior to Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaths, J Moritz; Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Echeverri, Juan; Louis, Kristine S; Foltys, Daniel B; Strempel, Mari; Yip, Paul; John, Rohan; Mucsi, Istvan; Ghanekar, Anand; Bagli, Darius; Robinson, Lisa; Selzner, Markus

    2015-07-15

    Kidney transplantation has become a well-established treatment option for patients with end-stage renal failure. The persisting organ shortage remains a serious problem. Therefore, the acceptance criteria for organ donors have been extended leading to the usage of marginal kidney grafts. These marginal organs tolerate cold storage poorly resulting in increased preservation injury and higher rates of delayed graft function. To overcome the limitations of cold storage, extensive research is focused on alternative normothermic preservation methods. Ex vivo normothermic organ perfusion is an innovative preservation technique. The first experimental and clinical trials for ex vivo lung, liver, and kidney perfusions demonstrated favorable outcomes. In addition to the reduction of cold ischemic injury, the method of normothermic kidney storage offers the opportunity for organ assessment and repair. This manuscript provides information about kidney retrieval, organ preservation techniques, and isolated ex vivo normothermic kidney perfusion (NEVKP) in a porcine model. Surgical techniques, set up for the perfusion solution and the circuit, potential assessment options, and representative results are demonstrated.

  17. Kidney transplant recipients' attitudes about using mobile health technology for managing and monitoring medication therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Robert B; McGillicuddy, John W; Treiber, Frank A; Taber, David J

    2016-01-01

    To assess smartphone ownership, use of mobile health (mHealth) applications, and willingness to use this technology to facilitate medication management after kidney transplantation. A survey was developed with the use of previously validated questions and administered to stable adult kidney recipients from May to July 2015. Descriptive and comparative statistics were used to assess willingness to utilize mHealth technology as it related to sociodemographics, medication adherence, and medication side effects. Comparisons were also made to a survey administered in 2012. The primary outcome was the incidence of cell phone and smartphone ownership, willingness to use mHealth, immunosuppressant side effects, and self-reported nonadherence. A total of 142 patients were approached, and 139 (98%) agreed to participate; 96% of respondents indicated mobile phone ownership, 61% owned a smartphone, 30% had prior knowledge of mHealth, and 7% were already using an mHealth app; 78% reported a positive attitude toward the use of mHealth for medication management. Smartphone ownership has nearly doubled since 2012 (61% vs. 35%; P smartphones (75% vs. 46%; P effects did not appreciably influence a patient's willingness to use mHealth. Among recipients of kidney transplants, smartphone ownership has dramatically increased, and recipients have a positive attitude toward the use of mHealth for medication management. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Employment 12 months after kidney transplantation: An in-depth bio-psycho-social analysis of the Swiss Transplant Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Danuser

    Full Text Available Return to work with or after a chronic disease is a dynamic process influenced by a variety of interactions between personal, work, societal and medical resources or constraints. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for employment 12 months after transplantation in kidney patients, applying a bio-psycho-social model.All kidney patients followed in the Swiss Transplant Cohort between May 2008 and December 2012, aged 18 to 65 were assessed before, 6 and 12 months after transplantation.Of the 689 included patients, 56.2% worked 12 months post- transplantation compared to 58.9% pre-transplantation. Age, education, self-perceived health (6 months post- transplantation, pre- transplantation employment and receiving an organ from a living donor are significant predictors of employment post- transplantation. Moreover, while self-perceived health increased post- transplantation, depression score decreased only among those employed 12 months post- transplantation. Pre- transplantation employment status was the main predictor for post- transplantation employment (OR = 18.6 and was associated with sex, age, education, depression and duration of dialysis. An organ from a living donor (42.1% was more frequent in younger patients, with higher education, no diabetes and shorter waiting time to surgery.Transplantation did not increase employment in end-stage kidney disease patients but helped maintaining employment. Pre-transplantation employment has been confirmed to be the most important predictor of post-transplantation employment. Furthermore, socio-demographic and individual factors predicted directly and indirectly the post-transplantation employment status. With living donor, an additional predictor linked to social factors and the medical procedure has been identified.

  19. Pulmonary infections after kidney transplantation: analysis of CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Feng; Liu Shiyuan; Li Li; Gao Xin; Liu Kai; Li Huimin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review the CT findings in patients with pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation and to determine the characteristic features in different infections. Methods: The medical records were reviewed in 446 patients with pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation and 121 patients who had pulmonary thin-section CT were included in this study. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were interpreted independently by two thoracic radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ 2 test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: (1) Time course: 65 (14.6%) patients initially had pulmonary infection in the first 30 days, 147 (32.9%) between 1 and 3 months, 91 (20.4%) between 3 and 6 months, 23 (5.2%) between 6 and 12 months, 120 (26.9%)after 12 months of transplantation. In the first month after procedure, bacterial infection (4/5,80.0%) was the most common infection, bacterial (34/41,82.9%), mixed (19/41,46.3%) and vires infections (11/41,26.8%) were seen commonly 1 to 6 months following transplant, the incidence of fungal (14/38, 36.8%) and mycobacterial (5/38,13.2%) infections was increased after 12 months of transplantation. (2)Pathogens: Bacterial (34,28%) and mixed infections (34,28%) were the most common, followed by fungus infection (9, 7%), TB(7,6%)and cytomegalovims (5,4%). (3)CT findings: Ground-glass attenuations (69,57.0%) was the most common findings of pneumonia, followed by reticular or linear opacities (68,56.2%), nodules (66,54.5%), pleural thickening (41,33.9%), consolidations (31,25.6%), tree-in-bud patterns (24, 19.8%), pleural effusion (22,18.2%), and bronchovascular bundle thickening (16,13.2%). Ground-glass attenuation was commonly seen in cytomegalovims pneumonia (4,80.0%), and nodule was commonly observed in bacterial infection (23,67.6%), tree-in-bud pattern was the most common finding in pulmonary tuberculosis(4, P=0.049). There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of

  20. De Novo Heart Failure After Kidney Transplantation: Trends in Incidence and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenihan, Colin R; Liu, Sai; Deswal, Anita; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2018-03-29

    Heart failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following kidney transplantation. Some studies in the general population have shown that the incidence of heart failure has decreased during the past 20 years. However, it is not currently known whether such a trend exists in the kidney transplantation population. Retrospective observational cohort study. Adult patients included in the US Renal Data System who underwent their first kidney transplantation in the United States between 1998 and 2010 with at least 6 months of continuous Medicare parts A and B coverage before transplantation and no prior evidence for a diagnosis of heart failure before kidney transplantation. Calendar year of transplantation and calendar year of posttransplantation heart failure diagnosis. De novo posttransplantation heart failure defined using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes and mortality following de novo posttransplantation heart failure diagnosis. Secular trends in de novo post-kidney transplantation heart failure were examined using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Within a study cohort of 48,771 patients, 7,269 developed de novo heart failure within 3 years of kidney transplantation, with a median time to heart failure of 0.76 years. The adjusted HR for heart failure with death as competing risk comparing patients who underwent transplantation in 2010 with those who underwent transplantation in 1998 was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.60-0.79). No temporal trend in mortality following a diagnosis of post-kidney transplantation heart failure was observed. Potential residual confounding from either incorrectly ascertained or unavailable confounders. The cohort was limited to Medicare beneficiaries. Adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics, the risk for developing de novo post-kidney transplantation heart failure has declined significantly between 1998 and 2010, with no apparent change in subsequent mortality. Copyright © 2018

  1. Stressors and coping resources of Australian kidney transplant recipients related to medication taking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jac Kee; Crawford, Kimberley; Manias, Elizabeth; Williams, Allison

    2017-06-01

    To understand the stressors related to life post kidney transplantation, with a focus on medication adherence, and the coping resources people use to deal with these stressors. Although kidney transplantation offers enhanced quality and years of life for patients, the management of a kidney transplant post surgery is a complex process. A descriptive exploratory study. Participants were recruited from five kidney transplant units in Victoria, Australia. From March-May 2014, patients who had either maintained their kidney transplant for ≥8 months or had experienced a kidney graft loss due to medication nonadherence were interviewed. All audio-recordings of interviews were transcribed verbatim and underwent Ritchie and Spencer's framework analysis. Participants consisted of 15 men and 10 women aged 26-72 years old. All identified themes were categorised into: (1) Causes of distress and (2) Coping resources. Post kidney transplantation, causes of distress included the regimented routine necessary for graft maintenance, and the everlasting fear of potential graft rejection, contracting infections and developing cancer. Coping resources used to manage the stressors were first, a shift in perspective about how easy it was to manage a kidney transplant than to be dialysis-dependent and second, receiving external help from fellow patients, family members and health care professionals in addition to using electronic reminders. An individual well-equipped with coping resources is able to deal with stressors better. It is recommended that changes, such as providing regular reminders about the lifestyle benefits of kidney transplantation, creating opportunities for patients to share their experiences and promoting the usage of a reminder alarm to take medications, will reduce the stress of managing a kidney transplant. Using these findings to make informed changes to the usual care of a kidney transplant recipient is likely to result in better patient outcomes. © 2016 John

  2. Healthcare professionals can assist patients with managing post-kidney transplant expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Kimberley; Low, Jac Kee; Manias, Elizabeth; Williams, Allison

    2017-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment option for end-stage kidney disease. However, transplantation is not a cure and the prospective recipient needs to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of receiving a transplant before agreeing to have the transplant. The objective of this commentary is to demonstrate that many kidney transplant recipients have unrealistic expectations of what life after transplantation involves. After monitoring participants in a randomised controlled trial through the first 12 months post-transplantation, we question whether patients understood the impact of receiving a transplant. In our study, participants were not prepared for the considerable time and effort involved in adhering to their medications. Participants felt challenged by the constant hospital, pathology and pharmacy visits; they were fearful that their transplant could reject; and they struggled with adapting to their new way of living. This paper offers new insights into understanding the life of patients post transplantation and the challenges of informing patients about the consequences of kidney transplantation. Understanding the challenges faced by new transplant recipients can help health professionals educate patients about life post-transplantation so patients have a genuine understanding of what they are consenting to, which is likely to enhance medication adherence and ultimately, graft success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Concordance of outcomes of pairs of kidneys transplanted into different recipients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, Carol

    2012-09-01

    Kidney transplant outcomes are influenced by donor characteristics, including age and gender. Additional donor factors, both genetic and environmental, also influence graft outcome. We aim to assess the strength of donor factors in determining kidney transplant outcomes by comparing paired kidneys from a single donor transplanted into different recipients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of outcomes of pairs of deceased donor kidneys transplanted in our centre between 1992 and 2008. We examined the relationship within pairs for eGFR at 1 year and at 5 years post-transplant using Spearman\\'s Correlation and the concordance of pairs of transplant kidneys with respect to the occurrence of acute rejection and delayed graft function (DGF). A total of 652 recipient pairs were analysed. Spearman\\'s correlation for eGFR was 0.36 at 1 year and 0.36 at 5 years post-transplant. The incidence of DGF was 11%. The odds ratio of DGF occurring if the contralateral kidney had DGF was 5.99 (95% CI, 3.19-11.25). There is a significant degree of relationship within pairs of kidneys transplanted from the same donor for serum creatinine at 1 year and 5 years post-transplant and also for the occurrence of delayed graft function.

  4. The Natural History of Clinical Operational Tolerance After Kidney Transplantation Through Twenty-Seven Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouard, S.; Pallier, A.; Renaudin, K.; Foucher, Y.; Danger, R.; Devys, A.; Cesbron, A.; Guillot-Guegen, C.; Ashton-Chess, J.; Le Roux, S.; Harb, J.; Roussey, G.; Subra, J.F.; Villemain, F.; Legendre, C.; Bemelman, F.J.; Orlando, G.; Garnier, A.; Jambon, H.; Le Monies De Sagazan, H.; Braun, L.; Noel, C.; Pillebout, E.; Moal, M.C.; Cantarell, C.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Ranbant, M.; Testa, A.; Soulillou, J.P.; Giral, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report here on a European cohort of 27 kidney transplant recipients displaying operational tolerance, compared to two cohorts of matched kidney transplant recipients under immunosuppression and patients who stopped immunosuppressive drugs and presented with rejection. We report that a lower

  5. Live related kidney transplant: a rare case report of graft survival 22 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kidney transplant is the most appropriate renal replacement therapy in terms of survival, quality of life and long term cost. We report 81 years old Nigerian whose kidney transplant lasted for 22 years. He encountered various challenges including complications relating to the long term impact of immunosuppression and ...

  6. To evaluate vascular complications of transplant kidney examined by multislice spiral CT angiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Qian; Fan Miao; Luo Xiaomei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of multislice CT angiography (MSCTA) in vascular complications of transplant kidney. Methods: Six transplant kidneys were undergone enhanced MSCT scanning postoperation. MPR, CPR, VR and VP reformation were performed to observe transplant kidney's parenchyma, renal artery, and renal vein. To analysis all the reconstruction technique and find the advantage and shortage of them. Results: One case showed enhanced function of transplant kidney decreased. Vascular stenosis was found in one case and false aneurysm was found in another transplant kidney. Transplant kidney were enhanced normal in the left three cases. MPR couldn't reconstruct all the tortuous vessel of renal hilus in one plane. But all six cases could expose the vessel of renal hilus very clearly in coronal section and sagittal plane of CPR. Six cases of VR could observe the vessel direction and lesions outside vessel through rotate the reconstruction image. VP could see through inside the vessel of transplant kidney. Conclusion: MSCTA has an important role as an imaging technique to evaluate vascular complications of transplant kidney, it can replace DSA. (authors)

  7. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Laura V; Dobrowolski, Linn C; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J O N; Riphagen, Ineke J; Krediet, C T Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-06-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We therefore studied the effects of dietary sodium restriction on BP and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Two-center randomized crossover trial. Stable outpatient kidney transplant recipients with creatinine clearance > 30mL/min, BP ≥120/80mmHg, receiving stable RAAS blockade therapy. 6-week regular-sodium diet (target, 150mmol/24 h) and a 6-week low-sodium diet (target, 50mmol/24 h). Main outcome parameters were systolic and diastolic BP, UAE, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the end of each diet period. Dietary adherence was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. We randomly assigned 23 kidney transplant recipients, of whom 22 (mean age, 58±8 [SD] years; 50% men; mean eGFR, 51±21mL/min/1.73m(2)) completed the study. One patient withdrew from the study because of concerns regarding orthostatic hypotension on the low-sodium diet. Sodium excretion decreased from 164±50mmol/24 h during the regular-sodium diet to 87±55mmol/24 h during the low-sodium diet (mean difference, -77 [95% CI, -110 to -44] mmol/24 h; Padherence to sodium diet was achieved in 86% of patients. In stable kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade, dietary sodium restriction effectively reduces BP without affecting eGFR. Dietary sodium restriction is relevant to BP management in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin k intake and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein levels in kidney transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Y Boxma

    Full Text Available Vitamin K is essential for activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP. Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n = 60 with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42-77] (median [interquartile range] ml/min, who were 75 [35-188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP. Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p = 0.06 and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p500 pmol/L in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies.

  9. Kidney transplant survival in pediatric and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acott Phil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a perception that kidney transplant recipients transferred from pediatric centers to adult care have an increased risk of graft loss. It is not clear whether young adults transplanted in adult centers also suffer from high graft loss rates. Methods We examined death censored graft survival in 3 cohorts of young patients transplanted at a single center. Pediatric (PED patients transplanted at the pediatric center were compared to a cohort of young adults (YAD; age 18- Results In a multivariate Cox model for death-censored graft survival, PED survival was statistically similar to the YAD (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.44, 1.7, p = 0.66, however the ADL cohort (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25, 0.82, p = 0.009 demonstrated better survival. Admitted non-adherence rates were not different among cohorts. Patients were transferred within a narrow age window (18.6 ± 1.0 age in years but at a wide range of times from the date of transplantation (5.1 ± 3.5 years and with a wide range of graft function (serum creatinine 182 ± 81 μmol/L. Conclusions The perception that pediatric transfers do poorly reflects advanced graft dysfunction in some at the time of transfer. The evidence also suggests that it is not the transfer of care that is the critical issue but rather recipients, somewhere between the ages of 11-14 and 25, are a unique and vulnerable cohort. Effective strategies to improve outcomes across this age group need to be identified and applied consistently.

  10. Patterns of growth after kidney transplantation among children with ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Doris; Thomas, Lena; Steffens, Rena; Pavičić, Leo; Gellermann, Jutta; Froede, Kerstin; Querfeld, Uwe; Haffner, Dieter; Živičnjak, Miroslav

    2015-01-07

    Poor linear growth is a frequent complication of CKD. This study evaluated the effect of kidney transplantation on age-related growth of linear body segments in pediatric renal transplant recipients who were enrolled from May 1998 until August 2013 in the CKD Growth and Development observational cohort study. Linear growth (height, sitting height, arm and leg lengths) was prospectively investigated during 1639 annual visits in a cohort of 389 pediatric renal transplant recipients ages 2-18 years with a median follow-up of 3.4 years (interquartile range, 1.9-5.9 years). Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess age-related changes and predictors of linear body segments. During early childhood, patients showed lower mean SD scores (SDS) for height (-1.7) and a markedly elevated sitting height index (ratio of sitting height to total body height) compared with healthy children (1.6 SDS), indicating disproportionate stunting (each Pgrowth and almost complete normalization of sitting height index by adult age (0.4 SDS; Pdisease, bone maturation, steroid exposure, degree of metabolic acidosis and anemia, intrauterine growth restriction, and parental height were significant predictors of linear body dimensions and body proportions (each PChildren with ESRD present with disproportionate stunting. In pediatric renal transplant recipients, a sustained increase in standardized leg length and total body height is observed from preschool until adult age, resulting in restoration of body proportions in most patients. Reduction of steroid exposure and optimal metabolic control before and after transplantation are promising measures to further improve growth outcome. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Long-term safety in living kidney donors for paediatric transplantation. Single-centre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Benlloch, J; Román Ortiz, E; Mendizabal Oteiza, S

    There is enough evidence concerning the short-term safety of living donors after kidney transplantation. However, long-term complications continue to be studied, with a particular interest in young donors. Previous studies have been conducted in older donors for adult renal patients. We present a study of long-term complications in kidney donors for our paediatric population. We carried out a long-term donor study for the 54 living kidney-donor transplantations performed at our department from 1979 to June 2014. We monitored the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) on the basis of 24-hour urine creatinine clearance, 24-hour proteinuria and the development of arterial hypertension in the 48 donors who were followed up for more than one year. Only the 39 patients who were exclusively followed up by our department have been included in the results analysis. GFR through creatinine clearance was stable after an initial decrease. No proteinuria was observed in any of the cases. One patient developed chronic kidney disease (CKD), which resulted in a cumulative incidence of 2%. GFR below 60mL/min/1.73 m 2 was not reported in any other patients. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 25% of donors, 90% of which were treated with antihypertensives. Risk of CKD and hypertension in living kidney donors for paediatric recipients, who are carefully monitored throughout their evolution, is similar to that of the general population. Therefore, this technique appears to be safe in both the short and long term. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonadherence to immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplant recipients: can technology help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerini, Erika; Bruno, Fulvio; Citterio, Franco; Schena, Francesco P

    2016-10-01

    End-stage kidney disease is a life-threatening condition that compels patients to accept either dialysis or transplant. Kidney transplantation is the best choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease because it ensures higher quality of life and longer survival rates than other choices, with less cost for the healthcare system. However, in order for renal recipients to maintain the functioning graft they must take lifelong immunosuppressive medications, with possible side effects and low medication adherence. It is known that low medication adherence in kidney transplant recipients may cause poor outcomes, chronic graft rejection, and graft failure. In this review, the authors give an overview of nonadherence in the transplant setting. In addition, they analyze the role of different technologies as an aid to improve adherence, with a focus on mobile-phone based solutions to monitor and enhance kidney transplant recipient compliance.

  13. Increasing the Supply of Kidneys for Transplantation by Making Living Donors the Preferred Source of Donor Kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    Testa, Giuliano; Siegler, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract At the present time, increasing the use of living donors offers the best solution to the organ shortage problem. The clinical questions raised when the first living donor kidney transplant was performed, involving donor risk, informed consent, donor protection, and organ quality, have been largely answered. We strongly encourage a wider utilization of living donation and recommend that living donation, rather than deceased donation, become the first choice for kidney transplantation....

  14. The Critical Role of Innate Immunity in Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiari, David; Podestà, Manuel Alfredo; Ponticelli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    For a long time now, kidney transplant rejection has been considered the consequence of either cellular or antibody-mediated reaction as a part of adaptive immunity response. The role of innate immunity, on the other hand, had been unclear for many years and was thought to be only ancillary. There is now consistent evidence that innate immune response is a condition necessary to activate the machinery of rejection. In this setting, the communication between antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes is of major importance. Indeed, T cells are unable to cause rejection if innate immunity is not activated. This field is currently being explored and several experiments in animal models have proved that blocking innate immunity activation can promote tolerance of the graft instead of rejection. The aim of this review is to systematically describe all the steps of innate immunity response in kidney transplant rejection, from antigen recognition to T-cells activation, with a focus on clinical consequences and possible future perspectives. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Severe Necrotizing Adenovirus Tubulointerstitial Nephritis in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Parasuraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses (AdV are emerging pathogens with a prevalence of 11% viruria and 6.5% viremia in kidney transplant recipients. Although AdV infection is common, interstitial nephritis (ADVIN is rare with only 13 biopsy proven cases reported in the literature. We report a case of severe ADVIN with characteristic histological features that includes severe necrotizing granulomatous lesion with widespread tubular basement membrane rupture and hyperchromatic smudgy intranuclear inclusions in the tubular epithelial cells. The patient was asymptomatic at presentation, and the high AdV viral load (quantitative PCR>2,000,000 copies/mL in the urine and 646,642 copies/mL in the serum confirmed the diagnosis. The patient showed excellent response to a combination of immunosuppression reduction, intravenous cidofovir, and immunoglobulin therapy resulting in complete resolution of infection and recovery of allograft function. Awareness of characteristic biopsy findings may help to clinch the diagnosis early which is essential since the disseminated infection is associated with high mortality of 18% in kidney transplant recipients. Cidofovir is considered the agent of choice for AdV infection in immunocompromised despite lack of randomized trials, and the addition of intravenous immunoglobulin may aid in resolution of infection while help prevention of rejection.

  16. Plasma Nitration of High-Density and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Receiving Kidney Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bakillah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional abnormalities of high-density lipoprotein (HDL could contribute to cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients. We measured a validated marker of HDL dysfunction, nitrated apolipoprotein A-I, in kidney transplant recipients to test the hypothesis that a functioning kidney transplant reduces serum nitrated apoA-I concentrations. Methods. Concentrations of nitrated apoA-I and apoB were measured using indirect sandwich ELISA assays on sera collected from each transplant subject before transplantation and at 1, 3, and 12 months after transplantation. Patients were excluded if they have history of diabetes, treatment with lipid-lowering medications or HIV protease inhibitors, prednisone dose > 15 mg/day, nephrotic range proteinuria, serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL, or active inflammatory disease. Sera from 18 transplanted patients were analyzed. Four subjects were excluded due to insufficient data. Twelve and eight patients had creatinine < 1.5 mg/dL at 3 and 12 months after transplantation, respectively. Results. Nitrated apoA-I was significantly reduced at 12 months after transplantation (p=0.039. The decrease in apoA-I nitration was associated with significant reduction in myeloperoxidase (MPO activity (p=0.047. In contrast to apoA-I, nitrated apoB was not affected after kidney transplantation. Conclusions. Patients with well-functioning grafts had significant reduction in nitrated apoA-I 12 months after kidney transplantation. Further studies are needed in a large cohort to determine if nitrated apoA-I can be used as a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk stratification in chronic kidney disease.

  17. Renal vessel reconstruction in kidney transplantation using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vascular graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Mohamed H; Thomas, Anil A; Mohan, Ponnusamy; Hickey, David P

    2007-04-01

    We report a rare experience in reconstructing short renal vessels in kidney transplantation using polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) vascular grafts. The short renal vessels in three kidney grafts were managed by the interposition of PTFE vascular grafts. Two grafts were from deceased donors and the third was a renal auto-transplant graft. PTFE grafts were used to lengthen short renal veins in two kidney grafts and a short renal artery in one. The warm ischaemia time was under 1 h and all kidneys functioned well post-operatively. Excellent blood perfusion in the three renal grafts was present on postoperative MAG 3 renal scan. No intra-operative or post-operative complications were encountered. In the three described patients, the use of PTFE vascular graft presented no additional morbidity to the kidney transplant operation and no post-oerative complication was related to its use. However, more data are necessary to conclude that PTFE graft can be used safely in kidney transplantation.

  18. [Evolution of living donor kidney transplantation: historic, statistical, national and own experience data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altes Ineva, María Pilar; Alonso Paz, Pastor; Abadia, Harry; Izquierdo Reyes, Laura; Oppenheimer, Federico; Alvarez-Vijande, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Despite representing a small percentage of the transplant activity in our country, living donor kidney transplantation is a good alternative for the future because the needs exceed the offer of cadaver donor organs. We present the evolution of living donor kidney transplantation in Spain from the beginning in accordance to the ONT (Organización Nacional de trasplantes), and our current situation in comparison with other countries, as well as data obtained from the experience in our hospital which began in 1965.

  19. Clinical outcomes of 11,436 kidney transplants performed in a single center - Hospital do Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Medina Pestana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Kidney transplantation is considered a cost-effective treatment compared to dialysis but accounts for a significant percentage of the public health care resources. Therefore, efficient systems capable of performing high number of procedures are attractive and sustainable. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes of 11,436 kidney transplants regularly performed in a single transplant dedicated center over the last 18 years. Methods: This was a retrospective study performed in a single specialized transplant center. All consecutive patients who underwent transplantation between 08/18/1998 and 12/31/2015 were included in the analysis. Results: The annual number of transplants increased from 394 in 1999 to 886 in 2015, with a progressive reduction in the proportion of living donor kidney transplants (70% vs. 23% and yielding over 8869 patients in regular follow up. Of 11,707 kidney transplants performed, 5348 (45.7% were from living, 3614 (30.9% standard and 1618 (13.8% expanded criteria deceased donors, 856 (7.3% pediatric and 271 (2.3% simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplants. Comparing 1998-2002 and 2011-2014, five-years graft survival increased for kidney transplants performed with living donors (83.3% vs. 93.1%, p < 0.001, standard deceased donors (60.7% vs. 79.7%, p < 0.001, expanded criteria donors (46.5% vs. 71.5%, p < 0.001 and for the pediatric population (79.8% vs. 80.9%, p = 0.684. Conclusion: The implementation of a dynamic and efficacious health care system was associated with a progressive increase in the number of kidney transplants, in the cumulative number of patients in follow up and a shift from living related to deceased donor kidney transplants, with associated progressive increase in patient and graft survivals.

  20. Attitudes towards medication non-adherence in elderly kidney transplant patients: A Q methodology study

    OpenAIRE

    Moors-Tielen, Mirjam; Exel, Job; Buren, M.C.; Maasdam, L.; Weimar, Willem

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Non-adherence to the post-transplant regime is a common problem in kidney transplant patients and may lead to rejection or even graft failure. This study investigated attitudes towards the post-transplant regime of immunosuppressive medication among the ever growing population of elderly kidney recipients.Methods. Q methodology was used to explore attitude profiles. Participants (> 65 years) were asked to rank-order opinion statements on issues associated with (non-)ad...

  1. Late antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation during Gram-negative sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Weerd (Annelies); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); H. van der Hoek (Hans); M. van Groningen (Marian); W. Weimar (Willem); M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel); M. Agteren (Madelon)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The major challenge in ABO-incompatible transplantation is to minimize antibody-mediated rejection. Effective reduction of the anti-ABO blood group antibodies at the time of transplantation has made ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation a growing practice in our hospital

  2. Attitudes towards medication non-adherence in elderly kidney transplant patients: A Q methodology study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Moors-Tielen (Mirjam); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); M.C. Buren; L. Maasdam; W. Weimar (Willem)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Non-adherence to the post-transplant regime is a common problem in kidney transplant patients and may lead to rejection or even graft failure. This study investigated attitudes towards the post-transplant regime of immunosuppressive medication among the ever growing

  3. Diagnostic Performance of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Kidney Transplantation Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Simon; Svensson, My; Jørgensen, Hanne Mari Skou

    2015-01-01

    or a combination of coronary CTA and SPECT to rule out obstructive CAD seems recommendable in kidney transplant candidates. (ACToR-Study: Angiographic CT of Renal Transplantation Candidate–Study; NCT01344434) Key Words coronary angiography; coronary computed tomography angiography; renal transplantation...

  4. Utility of HLA Antibody Testing in Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalinka, Ana

    2015-01-01

    HLA antigens are polymorphic proteins expressed on donor kidney allograft endothelium and are critical targets for recipient immune recognition. HLA antibodies are risk factors for acute and chronic rejection and allograft loss. Solid-phase immunoassays for HLA antibody detection represent a major advance in sensitivity and specificity over cell-based methods and are widely used in organ allocation and pretransplant risk assessment. Post-transplant, development of de novo donor–specific HLA antibodies and/or increase in donor-specific antibodies from pretransplant levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Although single antigen bead assays have allowed sensitive detection of recipient HLA antibodies and their specificities, a number of interpretive considerations must be appreciated to understand test results in clinical and research contexts. This review, which is especially relevant for clinicians caring for transplant patients, discusses the technical aspects of single antigen bead assays, emphasizes their quantitative limitations, and explores the utility of HLA antibody testing in identifying and managing important pre- and post-transplant clinical outcomes. PMID:25804279

  5. Family strategies for achieving medication adherence in pediatric kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerski, Lisa; Perrazo, Lauren; Goebel, Jens; Pai, Ahna L H

    2011-01-01

    Although nonadherence is well documented and strategies for adherence have been shown to be critical to overcoming barriers and improving overall adherence rates, it is unknown how family strategy use is related to adherence in the pediatric renal transplant population. The aims of this study were to assess (a) the strategies used by adolescents with kidney transplants and their caregivers to adhere to the posttransplant oral medication regimen and (b) the relationship of these strategies to objective adherence rates. Semistructured interviews to assess self-management were administered to 17 adolescents (14-18 years) and 17 caregivers. Adherence to oral immunosuppressant medication, measured via electronic monitors, was determined also for a subset of 13 dyads. Common strategies endorsed by families included the following: making it part of the routine (88.2%), verbal reminders by caregiver (82.4%), caregiver verifying medication was taken (76.5%), placing medication in a convenient location (76.5%), and using a pillbox (70.6%). A greater number of family-endorsed strategies were correlated with higher levels of adherence. Of those strategies spontaneously endorsed, only caregiver reminders to take medication and caregiver verification that medications were taken were related significantly to higher adherence rates. The findings highlight the importance of identification and use of specific strategies to improve adherence rates of pediatric renal transplant recipients and emphasize the need for continued caregiver involvement in the promotion of adherence to the treatment regimen.

  6. Use of the SCOT solution in kidney transplantation: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billault, C; Vaessen, C; Van Glabeke, E; Rolland, E; Ourahma, S; Dimitru, L; Richard, F; Eugène, M; Barrou, B

    2006-09-01

    This article reports preliminary findings relating to the use of a new preservation solution, the Solution de Conservation des Organes et des Tissus (SCOT), in renal transplantation. This fourth-generation solution combines an extracellular-like composition with 20 kDa polyethylene-glycol, known for its cell-protection capacity and immunocamouflage properties. We have reported preliminary data obtained in 29 transplantations (25 cadaveric donors and 4 living related donors) between December 2004 and November 2005. The SCOT solution was used for both in situ flush and static preservation. We compared primary organ nonfunction and delayed graft function rates as well as blood creatinine levels in recipients of grafts processed with SCOT solution, versus University of Wisconsin solution (paired for age with the previous group) and with EuroCollins solution (historic data). We observed delayed graft-function in 10% of the SCOT-processed group, 14% in the University of Wisconsin solution group, and 23% of the EuroCollins group. No case of primary organ nonfunction was reported. Creatinine levels in both SCOT and University of Wisconsin solution groups were similar. We did not observe any humoral or cellular graft rejection in the first 3 months after transplantation. In light of these preliminary results, the use of SCOT is safe for kidney preservation in the human setting. Further experience is warranted to assess the clinical consequences of its immunocamouflage properties as described in animal models.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients more than 6 months post-transplant: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Francis L; Chandwani, Sheenu; Kurtyka, Karen M; Zacker, Christopher; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Demissie, Kitaw

    2013-01-01

    Background Among kidney transplant recipients, non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications frequently precedes allograft loss. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients. Methods We performed a single-center, cross-sectional study of kidney transplant recipients who were at least 6 months post-transplant. We measured self-reported adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Adherence Scale (ITAS, which is scored f...

  8. Impact of Kidney Transplantation on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanian, Tayebeh; Ranjbar, Akram; Alipour, Masoumeh; Ganji, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Iraj

    2015-09-01

    Hemodialysis patients face oxidative stress and inflammation induced by both kidney dysfunction and hemodialysis procedure. These are supposed to be partly responsible for the excessive cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. We investigated the impact of kidney transplantation on the biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. In a prospective cohort study on 32 kidney transplant candidates on hemodialysis, biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were compared before and 3 months after kidney transplantation and were compared with each other as well as their values in the kidney allograft donors as the controls. These biomarkers included total antioxidant capacity, total thiol molecules, lipid peroxidation, plasma catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and C-reactive protein. The mean age of the patients was 38.0 ± 15.5 years. The levels of total antioxidant capacity, total thiol molecules, and activity of glutathione peroxidase were significantly lower and the level of activity of plasma superoxide dismutase was significantly higher in the hemodialysis patients before transplantation as compared to the values for the controls and after transplantation. Lipid peroxidation was significantly higher in the patients before transplantation compared to the controls. A significantly higher level of C-reactive protein was noted in the hemodialysis patients as compared to their levels after transplantation and also C-reactive protein in the controls. These results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation are elevated in hemodialysis patients which could be improved partly and significantly by restoration of kidney function after kidney transplantation.

  9. Renal transplantation induces mitochondrial uncoupling, increased kidney oxygen consumption, and decreased kidney oxygen tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazova, Diana A; Friederich-Persson, Malou; Joles, Jaap A; Verhaar, Marianne C

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is an acknowledged pathway to renal injury and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and is known to reduce renal oxygen tension (Po2). We hypothesized that renal I/R increases oxidative damage and induces mitochondrial uncoupling, resulting in increased oxygen consumption and hence kidney hypoxia. Lewis rats underwent syngenic renal transplantation (TX) and contralateral nephrectomy. Controls were uninephrectomized (1K-CON) or left untreated (2K-CON). After 7 days, urinary excretion of protein and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were measured, and after 14 days glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal blood flow, whole kidney Qo2, cortical Po2, kidney cortex mitochondrial uncoupling, renal oxidative damage, and tubulointerstitial injury were assessed. TX, compared with 1K-CON, resulted in mitochondrial uncoupling mediated via uncoupling protein-2 (16 ± 3.3 vs. 0.9 ± 0.4 pmol O2 · s(-1)· mg protein(-1), P < 0.05) and increased whole kidney Qo2 (55 ± 16 vs. 33 ± 10 μmol O2/min, P < 0.05). Corticomedullary Po2 was lower in TX compared with 1K-CON (30 ± 13 vs. 47 ± 4 μM, P < 0.05) whereas no significant difference was observed between 2K-CON and 1K-CON rats. Proteinuria, oxidative damage, and the tubulointerstitial injury score were not significantly different in 1K-CON and TX. Treatment of donors for 5 days with mito-TEMPO reduced mitochondrial uncoupling but did not affect renal hemodynamics, Qo2, Po2, or injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate increased mitochondrial uncoupling as an early event after experimental renal transplantation associated with increased oxygen consumption and kidney hypoxia in the absence of increases in markers of damage. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Outcomes of Kidney Transplantations Under the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation's Type Z Benefit Package at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamugas, G E P; Arakama, M-H I; Danguilan, R A; Ledesma, D

    2016-04-01

    Under the Universal Health Care Program of the Department of Health, the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PHIC) launched the Case Type Z benefit package for kidney transplantation, providing the largest amount (USD $13,300.00) for any single medical procedure. The objective of this study was to describe under the PHIC Case Type Z Benefit Package for kidney transplantation at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute and kidney transplantation outcomes under this package. Included in the benefit were standard risk recipients between 10 and 70 years of age with at least 1 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR match with the donor, panel-reactive antibody (PRA) less than 20%, and absence of donor-specific antibody (DSA). Previous transplantations, malignancy, hepatitis B and C, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity, cytomegalovirus (CMV) R-/D+, congestive heart failure, and liver cirrhosis were exclusion criteria. Patients were evaluated by a medical social worker according to their family's financial status. Since June 2012, a total of 261 patients have received the benefit, with 44 under service, 37 with fixed co-pay and 180 with variable co-pay. Of the living donor kidney transplants, 98% had immediate graft function, with 2.3% (6/261) acute rejection rates at 1 year. The total cost of hospitalization was within the benefit for living donor kidney transplants (less than USD 8000.00) but exceeded it in all cases of deceased donor kidney transplants. The successful use of and excellent outcomes under the Case Type Z benefit demonstrated how collaboration among government agencies, health care providers, and pharmaceutical companies could result in a program that improved the access to health care for Filipino patients with end-stage renal disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Benefits of early biopsy on the outcome of kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, J; Kompatzki, A; Norambuena, R; Arenas, J; Dell'Oro, A; Bustamante, A; Pinochet, R; Cabello, J M; Alvarez, S; Pais, E; Llanos, R; Cortes-Monroy, G

    2005-10-01

    Delayed graft function has been associated with worse long-term kidney allograft survival. Adequate diagnosis of the etiology of dysfunction is crucial, often requiring routine early biopsies. The aim of this article was to report the results and safety of early kidney allograft biopsies and how they influenced its management. Between September 1994 and July 2004, 134 renal transplant recipients were prescribed cyclosporine (CsA; Neoral, Novartis, Chile), steroids, and a third agent (azathioprine in 92% of the graft recipients). Thirty-four patients (26%) had a kidney biopsy performed within the first week because of allograft dysfunction. The main diagnosis was acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in 22 patients (65%), whereas 6 (18%) were diagnosed with an acute rejection episode (ARE), allowing prompt initiation of therapy with reversal of rejection in 4 of them. Two patients (6%) showed signs of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) induced by CsA, which subsided following a switch from CsA to tacrolimus (Prograf Pharmainvesti, Chile). In 2 patients, the biopsy specimen showed signs of CsA nephrotoxicity that reverted following dose reduction. Finally, in 2 patients, the biopsy specimen showed chronic nephropathy of donor origin, which had not been previously recognized, resulting in graft loss. There was only one major complication related to the biopsy, intraperitoneal bleeding that required surgical treatment. Early allograft biopsy is safe and, in a significant number of cases (30%), it detects important allograft pathology (ARE, TMA, and drug toxicity), which when adequately and promptly treated may rescue the graft.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Clinical Decision Aid to Improve Access to Kidney Transplantation: iChoose Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Patzer

    2016-05-01

    Discussion: Engaging patients in health care choices can increase patient empowerment and improve knowledge and understanding of treatment choices. If the effectiveness of iChoose Kidney has a greater impact on patients with low health literacy, lower socioeconomic status, and minority race, this decision aid could help reduce disparities in access to kidney transplantation.

  13. Assessment of acute kidney injury with T1 mapping MRI following solid organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peperhove, Matti; Vo Chieu, Van Dai; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hartung, Dagmar; Tewes, Susanne; Wacker, Frank; Hueper, Katja; Jang, Mi-Sun; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haller, Hermann; Gueler, Faikah; Warnecke, Gregor; Fegbeutel, Christiane; Haverich, Axel; Lehner, Frank; Braesen, Jan Hinrich

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T1 times in renal cortex and medulla and the corticomedullary difference were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA adjusted for multiple comparison with the Tukey test, and T1 times were correlated with renal function using Pearson's correlation. Compared to healthy volunteers T1 times were significantly increased after solid organ transplantation in the renal cortex (healthy volunteers 987 ± 102 ms; kidney transplantation 1299 ± 101 ms, p < 0.001; lung transplantation 1058 ± 96 ms, p < 0.05) and to a lesser extent in the renal medulla. Accordingly, the corticomedullary difference was diminished shortly after solid organ transplantation. T1 changes were more pronounced following kidney compared to lung transplantation, were associated with the stage of renal impairment and significantly correlated with renal function. T1 mapping may be helpful for early non-invasive assessment of acute kidney injury and renal pathology following major surgery such as solid organ transplantation. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of acute kidney injury with T1 mapping MRI following solid organ transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peperhove, Matti; Vo Chieu, Van Dai; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hartung, Dagmar; Tewes, Susanne; Wacker, Frank; Hueper, Katja [Hannover Medical School, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Jang, Mi-Sun; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haller, Hermann; Gueler, Faikah [Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Warnecke, Gregor; Fegbeutel, Christiane; Haverich, Axel [Hannover Medical School, Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Lehner, Frank [Hannover Medical School, General, Abdominal and Transplant Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Braesen, Jan Hinrich [Pathology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T1 times in renal cortex and medulla and the corticomedullary difference were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA adjusted for multiple comparison with the Tukey test, and T1 times were correlated with renal function using Pearson's correlation. Compared to healthy volunteers T1 times were significantly increased after solid organ transplantation in the renal cortex (healthy volunteers 987 ± 102 ms; kidney transplantation 1299 ± 101 ms, p < 0.001; lung transplantation 1058 ± 96 ms, p < 0.05) and to a lesser extent in the renal medulla. Accordingly, the corticomedullary difference was diminished shortly after solid organ transplantation. T1 changes were more pronounced following kidney compared to lung transplantation, were associated with the stage of renal impairment and significantly correlated with renal function. T1 mapping may be helpful for early non-invasive assessment of acute kidney injury and renal pathology following major surgery such as solid organ transplantation. (orig.)

  15. Recipient characteristics and outcome of pediatric kidney transplantation at the king fahad specialist hospital-dammam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar A. R. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of a pediatric kidney transplantation program can only be judged by reviewing its results. We aim to audit our short-term outcome of pediatric kidney transplantation at the King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam. A retrospective chart review was performed to collect data about recipient demographics, etiology of end-stage kidney disease, type of dialysis, type of donor and outcome. Between September 2008 and April 2012, 35 pediatric kidney trans-plantations (<16 year were performed of a total of 246 kidney transplants (14.2%. The mean age was 8.1 years, with a mean weight of 23.3 kg, and there were 21 (60% boys in the study. Kidney dysplasia/hypoplasia was the most common etiology (51.4%. Pre-emptive kidney transplantation was performed in six (17% patients. Peritoneal dialysis was the most common mode of dialysis [24 (69% children]. Living donation was the source of kidney allografts in 13 (37% cases. During a mean follow-up of 1.5 years, one patient died and one graft was lost due to kidney vein thrombosis. The one year patient and graft survival rates were 97% and 94%, respectively. Efforts should now be focused on achieving optimal long-term results. There is also a need to encourage pre-emptive transplantation and living donation in this population.

  16. The discussion of sexual dysfunction before and after kidney transplantation from the perspective of the renal transplant surgeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ek, Gaby F.; Krouwel, Esmée M.; Van Der Veen, Els; Nicolai, Melianthe P. J.; Ringers, Jan; Den Oudsten, Brenda L.; Putter, Hein; Pelger, Rob C. M.; Elzevier, Henk W.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a common problem in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and endures in 50% of patients after kidney transplantation (KTx), diminishing patients' expectations of life after KTx. Unfortunately, SD is often ignored by renal care providers. Research questions as part of

  17. The Evolution of Living Kidney Donation and Transplantation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Huded, Jill; McElroy, Lisa; Ladner, Daniela P; Lindquist, Lee A

    2015-12-01

    Kidney transplantation is a good option for adults aged 65 and older with end-stage renal disease because it has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality, improve quality of life, and is more cost-effective than other renal replacement options. However, older age has been a deterrent to access to the deceased donor waiting list, and individuals aged 65 and older have a lower probability of being referred to and listed for transplantation compared to younger adults. Because the deceased organ supply is limited, living donor kidney transplantation offers an effective alternative for older adults facing long waiting times for cadaveric organs. This article describes the evolution of living kidney donation and transplantation in older adults over 15 years using the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database. Between 1997 and 2011, 28,034 kidney transplantations were performed in adults aged 65 and older. Living-donor and cadaveric kidney transplantation increased in older adults over the 15-year period. Offspring are the most common living donors in this age group, followed by unrelated donors (e.g., friends), whereas the most common donors in younger transplant recipients are spouses, siblings, and parents. The number of living kidney donors aged 65 and older is slowly increasing, although the total number of transplants in this age group remains low. The expansion of living-donor kidney transplantation in the aging population may offer a solution for organ shortage and thereby improve the quality of life of older adults. More research is needed to understand the older donor-recipient relationship and barriers to transplantation in this population. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Peri-operative kidney injury and long-term chronic kidney disease following orthotopic heart transplantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskote, Aparna; Burch, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Significant advances in cardiac intensive care including extracorporeal life support have enabled children with complex congenital heart disease and end-stage heart failure to be supported while awaiting transplantation. With an increasing number of survivors after heart transplantation in children, the complications from long-term immunosuppression, including renal insufficiency, are becoming more apparent. Severe renal dysfunction after heart transplant is defined by a serum creatinine level >2.5 mg/dL (221 μmol/L), and/or need for dialysis or renal transplant. The degree of renal dysfunction is variable and is progressive over time. About 3-10 % of heart transplant recipients will go on to develop severe renal dysfunction within the first 10 years post-transplantation. Multiple risk factors for chronic kidney disease post-transplant have been identified, which include pre-transplant worsening renal function, recipient demographics and morbidity, peri-transplant haemodynamics and long-term exposure to calcineurin inhibitors. Renal insufficiency increases the risk of post-transplant morbidity and mortality. Hence, screening for renal dysfunction pre-, peri- and post-transplantation is important. Early and timely detection of renal insufficiency may help minimize renal insults, and allow prompt implementation of renoprotective strategies. Close monitoring and pre-emptive management of renal dysfunction is an integral aspect of peri-transplant and subsequent post-transplant long-term care.

  19. Successful Transplantation of a Split Crossed Fused Ectopic Kidney into a Patient with End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L. Mekeel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential donors with congenital renal anomalies but normal renal function are often overlooked because of a possible increase in technical difficulty and complications associated with the surgery. However, as the waiting list for a deceased donor kidney transplant continues to grow, it is important to consider these kidneys for potential transplant. This paper describes the procurement of a crossed fused ectopic kidney, and subsequent parenchymal transection prior to transplantation as part of a combined simultaneous kidney pancreas transplant. The transplant was uncomplicated, and the graft had immediate function. The patient is now two years from transplant with excellent function.

  20. Treatment of Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Durlik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is a relatively rare but severe complication in kidney transplantation associated with increased risk of graft loss. Diagnosis of acute and chronic AMR is based on typical histological hallmarks, deposition of C4d in peritubular capillaries and presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA. Many novel and attractive treatment options have become available in recent years: antibody removal and production inhibition (plasmapheresis, IVIg, B cell depletion (rituximab, plasma cell depletion and apoptosis (bortezomib, and complement activation inhibition (eculizumab. Standard therapy is based on PP and IVIg. Preliminary results with new agents are encouraging but require randomised clinical trials and long-term follow-up.

  1. Multiple Organ Failure Associated With Coxsackie Virus in a Kidney Transplant Patient: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretagostini, R; Lai, Q; Pettorini, L; Garofalo, M; Poli, L; Melandro, F; Montalto, G M; Berloco, P B

    2016-03-01

    Viral myocarditis can emerge with various symptoms, including fatal arrhythmia and cardiogenic shock, potentially evolving in chronic myocarditis or dilatative cardiomyopathy. We report a case of a kidney transplant patient affected by coxsackie viral myocarditis. A 49-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea and fever in August 2014. He underwent living donor kidney transplantation in 1986 and polar graft resection for papillary carcinoma in 2012. The initial investigation showed pulmonary congestion, pancreatitis, increased serum troponin I, and increased liver enzyme levels. Echocardiogram revealed an ejection fraction (EF) of 20% and PAPS 45 mm Hg. He underwent coronary stent implantation, started hemodialysis, and continued on low-dose steroid immunosuppressive therapy. The clinical course improved rapidly, but endomyocardial biopsy showed acute myocarditis. Further investigation revealed a high antibody titer against coxsackievirus B4 and B5. Pancreatic enzyme levels normalized 2 months after patient admission; his cardiac condition improved after 6 months. The patient has been followed for 1 year, and his left ventricular EF is stable (45%). Viral myocarditis represents a serious clinical condition requiring a fast therapeutic intervention. This patient's clinical course suggests that changes in his immunosuppressive therapy were associated with progressive amelioration of his viral myocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a kidney transplantation program--inverted funnel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Rouchi, Alireza Heidary; Khatami, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    The history of organ shortage has been approached differently by different countries. This review tries to discuss the inverted funnel approach of Iran. The whole history of transplants in the country can be divided in three phases of legally regulated living unrelated kidney donation, legislation of brain death donation and lastly how it has been implemented. In each phase, there have been attempts to clarify the role of each sector: the government, professionals, and the public. Based on more than 20 years of experience, it has been shown that kidney transplants from brain dead donors (BDDs) increased from 0.4 per million population (pmp) in 2000 to 2.9 pmp in 2005, 7.9 in 2010, and 15.1 pmp in 2013 and it could eventually change the rate from living source from 20.1 pmp, 24.5 pmp, 21.8 pmp, and 19.5 pmp in these years, respectively. It has been shown that the government began to take part when it was convinced that an organ procurement program from BDDs is not a luxury program but can lessen the economic burden on the health budget and be supported by legislations and budget allocation. Professionals took the responsibility not only to make decision makers and the public aware of the subject and adapt the national protocols to consider the general population concerns, but also to train as many medical teams as possible nationwide. Persistence and publishing the results can pave the way for the public to accept the program and take their own responsibilities to solve the problem of organ shortage by taking the opportunity to give life to others after the death of a loved one.

  3. The intrinsic renal compartment syndrome: new perspectives in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrler, Tanja; Tischer, Anne; Meyer, Andreas; Feiler, Sergej; Guba, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Rentsch, Markus; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2010-01-15

    Inflammatory edema after ischemia-reperfusion may impair renal allograft function after kidney transplantation. This study examines the effect of edema-related pressure elevation on renal function and describes a simple method to relieve pressure within the renal compartment. Subcapsular pressure at 6, 12, 24, 48 hr, and 18 days after a 45 min warm ischemia was determined in a murine model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Renal function was measured by Tc-MAG3 scintigraphy and laser Doppler perfusion. Structural damage was assessed by histologic analysis. As a therapeutic approach, parenchymal pressure was relieved by a standardized circular 0.3 mm incision at the lower pole of the kidney capsule. Compared with baseline (0.9+/-0.3 mm Hg), prolonged ischemia was associated with a sevenfold increase in subcapsular pressure 6 hr after ischemia (7.0+/-1.0 mm Hg; P<0.001). Pressure levels remained significantly elevated for 24 hr. Without therapy, a significant decrease in functional parameters was found with considerably reduced tubular excretion rate (33+/-3.5%, P<0.001) and renal perfusion (64.5+/-6.8%, P<0.005). Histologically, severe tissue damage was found. Surgical pressure relief was able to significantly prevent loss of tubular excretion rate (62.5+/-6.8%, P<0.05) and renal blood flow (96.2+/-4.8%; P<0.05) and preserved the integrity of renal structures. Our data support the hypothesis of the existence of a renal compartment syndrome as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Surgical pressure relief effectively prevented functional and structural renal impairment, and we speculate that this approach might be of value for improving graft function after renal transplantation.

  4. [Clinical pharmacist and medication reconciliation in kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme-Obry, Fabienne; Belaiche, Stéphanie; Hazzan, Marc; Ramdan, Nassima; Noël, Christian; Odou, Pascal; Décaudin, Bertrand

    2018-02-21

    Drug related problems (DRP) can lead to severe consequences in kidney recipients. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the clinical pharmacist interventions on the incidence of DRP. The number of DRP were evaluated according to 3periods: Without intervention, with medication reconciliation at admission, and with medication reconciliation at admission associated with an interview with the clinical pharmacist at discharge. Patients concerned were mainly men, 55years old (median age), stage3 of CKD, transplanted for less than 3months or more than 1year, with cardiovascular risk factors and receiving an average of 9drugs/day. Among the DRP, 20% were avoidable and severe in most cases. In period1, 27.7% patients had at least 1DRP, in period2, 21.3% patients had at least 1DRP, and in period3, 17.4% of patients had at least 1DRP (P=0.03). One hundred and ten patients had medication reconciliation at admission with a mean of 0.6unintentional discrepancies per patient (omission in 81% of cases). The main drugs involved concerned the digestive-metabolic (24.5%), cardiovascular (23%), and nervous (23%) system. Sixty-eight interviews at discharge were realized and revealed self-medication habits. Our study shows that medication reconciliation at admission associated with an interview with the clinical pharmacist at discharge can help to reduce DRP in kidney recipients. Further studies are needed to confirm our results. Copyright © 2017 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. African American kidney transplantation survival: the ability of immunosuppression to balance the inherent pre- and post-transplant risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malat, Gregory E; Culkin, Christine; Palya, Aniruddha; Ranganna, Karthik; Kumar, Mysore S Anil

    2009-10-22

    Among organ transplant recipients, the African American population historically has received special attention. This is because secondary to their disposition to certain disease states, for example hypertension, an African American patient has a propensity to reach end-stage renal disease and require renal replacement earlier than a Caucasian patient. Regardless of the initiative to replace dialysis therapy with organ transplantation, the African American patient has many barriers to kidney transplantation, thus extending their time on dialysis and waiting time on the organ transplant list. These factors are among the many negative causes of decreased kidney graft survival, realized before kidney transplantation. Unfortunately, once the African American recipient receives a kidney graft, the literature documents that many post-transplant barriers exist which limit successful outcomes. The primary post-transplant barrier relates to designing proper immunosuppression protocols. The difficulty in designing protocols revolves around (i) altered genetic metabolism/lower absorption, (ii) increased immuno-active cytokines and (iii) detrimental effects of noncompliance. Based on the literature, dosing of immunosuppression must be aggressive and requires a diligent practitioner. Research has indicated that, despite some success with proven levels of immunosuppression, the African American recipient usually requires a higher 'dose per weight' regimen. However, even with aggressive immunosuppressant dosing, African Americans still have worse outcomes than Caucasian recipients. Additionally, many of the targeted sites of action that immunosuppression exerts its effects on have been found to be amplified in the African American population. Finally, noncompliance is the most discouraging inhibitor of long-term success in organ transplantation. The consequences of noncompliance are biased by ethnicity and affect the African American population more severely. All of these factors

  6. Anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Donate-Correa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant patients. Experimental and clinical studies in non-transplant kidney disease patients have found this molecule to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this exploratory study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney-transplant recipients. Methods: Thirty one kidney transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism completed 3 months of treatment with oral paricalcitol (1 μg/day. Serum concentrations and gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed at the beginning and end of the study. Results: Paricalcitol significantly decreased parathyroid hormone levels with no changes in calcium and phosphorous. It also reduced serum concentrations of interleukin (IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α by 29% (p < 0.05 and 9.5% (p < 0.05 compared to baseline, respectively. Furthermore, gene expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased by 14.1% (p < 0.001 and 34.1% (p < 0.001, respectively. The ratios between pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, both regarding serum concentrations and gene expression, also experienced a significant reduction. Conclusions: Paricalcitol administration to kidney transplant recipients has been found to have beneficial effects on inflammation, which may be associated with potential clinical benefits. Resumen: Antecedentes y objetivos: El paricalcitol, un activador selectivo del receptor de la vitamina D, se utiliza en el tratamiento del hiperparatiroidismo secundario en el receptor de trasplante renal. Estudios tanto clínicos como experimentales realizados en pacientes renales no trasplantados muestran propiedades antiinflamatorias para esta molécula. En

  7. [Effect of clinical pathway of health education in patients with kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Yan, Jin; Ye, Qifa; Ming, Yingzi; Cheng, Ke; Liu, Lifang; Yang, Ling; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of clinical pathway of health education in patients with kidney transplantation. A total of 116 patients with kidney transplantation were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group (n=58 in each group). The patients in the control group received traditional health education, and the patients in the experimental group experienced the clinical pathway of health education. The effect of health education was assessed and compared. There was significant difference in the effect of health education between the two groups (Ppathway of health education in patients after kidney transplantation can significantly improve the effect of health education.

  8. CORRECTION OF DISTURBANCES OF THE NUTRITION STATUS IN PATIENTS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Zuglova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 52 patients (39 female and 13 male were included. All of them were undergoing kidney trans- plantation. Duration of the period after transplantation was from 1 year to 22 years. There was an analysis of nutrition status in patients with long-term kidney transplantation. In this article discusses the role of diet therapy and its particular components in correction of metabolic disorders and reducing the risk for development of complications (cardiovascular, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, etc. in patients with long-term after kidney transplantation

  9. The role of procurement biopsies in acceptance decisions for kidneys retrieved for transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiske, Bertram L; Stewart, Darren E; Bista, Bipin R; Salkowski, Nicholas; Snyder, Jon J; Israni, Ajay K; Crary, Gretchen S; Rosendale, John D; Matas, Arthur J; Delmonico, Francis L

    2014-03-01

    There is a shortage of kidneys for transplant, and many patients on the deceased donor kidney transplant waiting list would likely benefit from kidneys that are currently being discarded. In the United States, the most common reason given for discarding kidneys retrieved for transplant is procurement biopsy results. This study aimed to compare biopsy results from discarded kidneys with discard attributed to biopsy findings, with biopsy results from comparable kidneys that were successfully transplanted. In this retrospective, observational, case-control study, biopsy reports were examined from 83 kidneys discarded in 2010 due to biopsy findings (cases), 83 contralateral transplanted kidneys from the same donor (contralateral controls), and 83 deceased donors randomly matched to cases by donor risk profile (randomly matched controls). A second procurement biopsy was obtained in 64 of 332 kidneys (19.3%). The quality of biopsy reports was low, with amounts of tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation, arteriolar hyalinosis, and acute tubular necrosis often not indicated; 69% were wedge biopsies and 94% used frozen tissue. The correlation between first and second procurement biopsies was poor; only 25% of the variability (R(2)) in glomerulosclerosis was explained by biopsies being from the same kidney. The percentages of glomerulosclerosis overlapped substantially between cases, contralateral controls, and randomly matched controls: 17.1%±15.3%, 9.0%±6.6%, and 5.0%±5.9%, respectively. Of all biopsy findings, only glomerulosclerosis>20% was independently correlated with discard (cases versus contralateral controls; odds ratio, 15.09; 95% confidence interval, 2.47 to 92.41; P=0.003), suggesting that only this biopsy result was used in acceptance decisions. One-year graft survival was 79.5% and 90.7% in contralateral and randomly matched controls, respectively, versus 91.6% among all deceased donor transplants in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients

  10. Strategies to increase the donor pool and access to kidney transplantation: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, U.; Oberbauer, R.; Pascual, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this position article, DESCARTES (Developing Education Science and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States) board members describe the current strategies aimed at expanding living and deceased donor kidney pools. The article focuses on the recent progress in desensitization and kidney...... paired exchange programmes and on the expanded criteria for the use of donor kidneys and organs from donors after circulatory death. It also highlights differences in policies and practices across different regions with special regard to European Union countries. Living donor kidney paired exchange......, the deceased donor Acceptable Mismatch Programme and kidneys from donors after circulatory death are probably the most promising innovations for expanding kidney transplantation in Europe over the coming decade. To maximize success, an effort is needed to standardize transplant strategies, policies...

  11. Long-term allograft survival after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, E Gómez; Hernández, J P Campos; López, F J Márquez; Garcia, J Ruiz; Montemayor, V Garcia; Curado, F Anglada; Vallejo, M Leva; López, J C Regueiro; Cabello, M D Navarro; Aljama, P; Tapia, M J Requena

    2013-01-01

    Technical and medical advances over the past few years have produced an important increase in the functionality of renal allografts. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with allograft survival 15 years after transplantation in our series. A retrospective study of kidney transplantations was carried out at Reina Sofia Hospital in Cordoba from February 1979 to December 1997, with follow-up through June 2012. A subanalysis of the series was undertaken, and Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model regression used to achieve the main objective of the study. A total of 487 renal allografts with a mean follow-up of 114 months were studied, of which 37% (n = 180) survived for >15 years. Of the 180 patients, the main causes of graft failure were chronic allograft nephropathy in 29 (66%) and patient death in 13 (29.5%). Multivariate analysis identified the number of HLA mismatches (hazard ratio [HR] 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.56), panel reactive antibodies (HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.28-5.26), and delayed graft function (HR 11.25, 95% CI 1.33-95.28) as being significantly associated with graft loss after 15 years. The high immunologic risk of the patients was independently associated with graft loss. Delayed graft function was the most important factor in the speed of graft failure beyond 15 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying the risk of incompatible kidney transplantation: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orandi, B J; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Massie, A B; Zachary, A A; Montgomery, J R; Van Arendonk, K J; Stegall, M D; Jordan, S C; Oberholzer, J; Dunn, T B; Ratner, L E; Kapur, S; Pelletier, R P; Roberts, J P; Melcher, M L; Singh, P; Sudan, D L; Posner, M P; El-Amm, J M; Shapiro, R; Cooper, M; Lipkowitz, G S; Rees, M A; Marsh, C L; Sankari, B R; Gerber, D A; Nelson, P W; Wellen, J; Bozorgzadeh, A; Gaber, A O; Montgomery, R A; Segev, D L

    2014-07-01

    Incompatible live donor kidney transplantation (ILDKT) offers a survival advantage over dialysis to patients with anti-HLA donor-specific antibody (DSA). Program-specific reports (PSRs) fail to account for ILDKT, placing this practice at regulatory risk. We collected DSA data, categorized as positive Luminex, negative flow crossmatch (PLNF) (n = 185), positive flow, negative cytotoxic crossmatch (PFNC) (n = 536) or positive cytotoxic crossmatch (PCC) (n = 304), from 22 centers. We tested associations between DSA, graft loss and mortality after adjusting for PSR model factors, using 9669 compatible patients as a comparison. PLNF patients had similar graft loss; however, PFNC (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-2.23, p = 0.007) and PCC (aHR = 5.01, 95% CI: 3.71-6.77, p < 0.001) were associated with increased graft loss in the first year. PLNF patients had similar mortality; however, PFNC (aHR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.28-3.26; p = 0.003) and PCC (aHR = 4.59; 95% CI: 2.98-7.07; p < 0.001) were associated with increased mortality. We simulated Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services flagging to examine ILDKT's effect on the risk of being flagged. Compared to equal-quality centers performing no ILDKT, centers performing 5%, 10% or 20% PFNC had a 1.19-, 1.33- and 1.73-fold higher odds of being flagged. Centers performing 5%, 10% or 20% PCC had a 2.22-, 4.09- and 10.72-fold higher odds. Failure to account for ILDKT's increased risk places centers providing this life-saving treatment in jeopardy of regulatory intervention. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Young Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients: Nonadherent and Happy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Meys, Karlijn; Kerner, Roy; Weimar, Willem; Roodnat, Joke; Cransberg, Karlien

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate (a) the extent to which age at first renal replacement therapy, achievement of developmental milestones, satisfaction of psychological needs, and coping were related to subjective well-being and medication adherence among young adult kidney transplant recipients; and (b) the relationship between subjective well-being and immunosuppressive medication adherence. A cross-sectional, interview study was conducted among renal transplant patients aged 20 to 30 years. In addition to sociodemographic and medical characteristics, concepts measured were: subjective well-being (Positive And Negative Affect Schedule; Satisfaction With Life Scale), medication adherence (Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medication Scale), dispositional coping (Brief COPE), achievement of developmental milestones (Course of Life Questionnaire), and satisfaction of psychological needs (Basic Psychological Needs Scale). Sixty-two patients participated (66% men; mean age, 26 years). Sixty-five percent were classified as nonadherent in the past month. In contrast, subjective self-rated overall adherence was high. None of the variables measured were related to nonadherence. Higher feelings of competence and autonomy, and timely achievement of social and psychosexual developmental milestones were related to higher subjective well-being. Well-being and adherence did not differ according to age at diagnosis or first renal replacement therapy. Two thirds of participants were classified as nonadherent which conflicts with participants' own high rating of medication adherence. This emphasizes the need for continued adherence support among young adult transplant recipients; however, no targets for interventions were found in this study. Potential targets for interventions aimed at improving well-being include competence and autonomy.

  14. Rhabdomyolysis associated with cytomegalovirus infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H-Y; Kim, K-H; Park, S-C; Lee, J-H; Choi, J-Y; Cho, J-H; Park, S-H; Kim, Y-L; Kim, H-K; Huh, S; Kim, C-D

    2014-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a pathological syndrome caused by skeletal muscle cell damage that affects the integrity of the cellular membrane and leads to the release of toxic intracellular constituents into the bloodstream. Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) has rarely been reported as a cause of rhabdomyolysis, CMV infection could be considered as a possible cause because of its clinical significance in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We report 2 cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with CMV infection in KTRs. A 64-year-old woman (Case 1) and a 65-year-old man (Case 2), who had each received a kidney from a living unrelated donor, were admitted with complaints of weakness in both legs and myalgia. Laboratory findings revealed highly increased creatine phosphokinase and myoglobinuria. In both cases, no recent alterations of medications had occurred, and other causes of rhabdomyolysis--such as trauma, alcohol, drugs, and electrolyte abnormalities - were excluded. CMV pp65 antigen was positive, and patients were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis associated with CMV infection. Both patients recovered without complications after ganciclovir treatment. In conclusion, CMV infection should be considered as a possible cause of rhabdomyolysis in KTRs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Delayed Graft Function in Living-Donor Kidney Transplant: A Middle Eastern Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaibi, Torki; Ahmadpoor, Pedram; Allawi, Ali Abdulmajid Dyab; Habhab, Wael Taher; Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Nafar, Mohsen; Glotz, Denis

    2016-02-01

    With an increased incidence of living-donor kidney transplants, in response to increasing unmet needs for renal transplant, a clear understanding of determinants of posttransplant outcomes is essential. The importance of delayed graft function in deceased-donor kidney transplant is now part of conventional medical wisdom, due to the large amount of evidence focused on this aspect. However, the same is not true for living-donor kidney transplant, partly due to lack of evidence on this crucial clinical question and partly due to lack of awareness about this issue. The current review aims to highlight the importance of delayed graft function as a crucial determinant of outcomes in living-donor kidney transplant. An exhaustive search of online medical databases was performed with appropriate search criteria to collect evidence about delayed graft function after living-donor kidney transplant, with a special focus on studies from the Middle East. Data on incidence, impact, risk factors, and possible prevention modalities of delayed graft function in patients undergoing living-donor kidney transplant are presented. A key finding of this review is that contemporary incidence rates reported from the Middle East are comparatively higher than those reported from outside the region. Although in absolute terms the incidence is lower than deceased donor kidney transplant, the effects of delayed graft function on graft rejection and graft and patient survival are sufficiently large to warrant the formulation of specific treatment protocols. Key to formulating prevention and treatment strategies is identifying discrete risk factors for delayed graft function. Although this evidence is scant, an overview has been provided. Further studies examining different aspects of delayed graft function incidence after living-donor kidney transplant are urgently needed to address a so far little known clinical question.

  16. Cost analysis of living donor kidney transplantation in China: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyu; Zhang, Lei; Han, Shu; Zhu, Youhua; Wang, Liming; Zhou, Meisheng; Zeng, Li

    2012-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the most cost-effective option for the treatment of end-stage renal disease, but the financial aspects of kidney transplantation have not yet been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the hospital cost of living donor kidney transplantation in China and to identify factors associated with the high cost. Demographic and clinical data of 103 consecutive patients who underwent living donor kidney transplantation from January 2007 to January 2011 at our center were reviewed, and detailed hospital cost of initial admission for kidney transplantation was analyzed. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was computed to determine predictors affecting the total hospital cost. The median total hospital cost was US $10,531, of which 69.2% was for medications, 13.2% for surgical procedures, 11.4% for para clinics, 3.7% for accommodations, 0.5% for nursing care, and 2.0% for other miscellaneous medical services. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression model for overall cost of transplantation revealed that the length of hospital stay, induction therapy, steroid-resistant rejection, maintenance therapy, infection status and body weight were independent predictors affecting the total hospitalization cost. Although the cost of living donor kidney transplantation in China is much lower than that in developed countries, it is a heavy burden for both the government and the patients. As medications formed the greater proportion of the total hospitalization cost, efforts to reduce the cost of drugs should be addressed.

  17. Kidney transplantation search filters for PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Embase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher W C; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Shariff, Salimah Z; Wilczynski, Nancy; McKibbon, Ann; Rehman, Faisal; Garg, Amit X

    2012-03-15

    Clinicians commonly search bibliographic databases such as Medline to find sound evidence to guide patient care. Unfortunately, this can be a frustrating experience because database searches often miss relevant articles. We addressed this problem for transplant professionals by developing kidney transplantation search filters for use in Medline through PubMed and Ovid Technologies, and Embase. We began by reading the full-text versions of 22,992 articles from 39 journals published across 5 years. These articles were labeled relevant to kidney transplantation or not forming our "gold standard." We then developed close to five million kidney transplantation filters using different terms and their combinations. Afterward, these filters were applied to development and validation subsets of the articles to determine their accuracy and reliability in identifying articles with kidney transplantation content. The final kidney transplantation filters used multiple terms in combination. The best performing filters achieved 97.5% sensitivity (95% confidence interval, 96.4%-98.5%), and 98.0% specificity (95% confidence interval, 97.8%-98.3%). Similar high performance was achieved for filters developed for Ovid Medline and Embase. Proof-of-concept searches confirmed more relevant articles are retrieved using these filters. These kidney transplantation filters can now be used in Medline and Embase databases to improve clinician searching.

  18. Medical nutrition therapy in chronic kidney disease; from dialysis to transplant: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Leal-Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease has direct implications in nutritional status, causing anorexia and muscular catabolism. These situations are frequent in kidney renal replacement therapy in which nutritional disorders and inflammatory mechanisms associated with therapy often lead to the development of protein-energy wasting. Nutrition therapy has shown an adequate therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat metabolic alterations, reducing surgical and nutritional complication risks in kidney transplantation patients. The current case reports nutritional intervention on a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient who was subsequently prescribed to automatic peritoneal dialysis and, finally, kidney transplant from a living donor.

  19. Predicting adherence to health care recommendations using health promotion behaviours in kidney transplant recipients within 1-5 years post-transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Su-Yueh; Fetzer, Susan J; Lee, Po-Chang; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2011-12-01

    This study examined health promotion behaviours of kidney transplant recipients, 1-5 years after transplant and identified the risk factors predicting non-adherence to post-transplant recommendations. Non-adherence to health care recommendations and health promotion behaviours is one of the top three reasons for graft loss following kidney transplantation. A cross-sectional study. Kidney transplant recipients (n=101) in southern Taiwan completed a self reported survey, the Kidney Transplant Health Promotion Behavior and Healthcare Provider Support survey. Kidney transplant patients had better adherence with medication and least adherence with regular exercise health promotion behaviours. Age, post kidney transplant time, health care provider support and financial satisfaction accounted for 37·2% of the explained variance in monitoring and management for rejection and infection. Marital status, post kidney transplant time and gender accounted for 16·2% of the explained variance in infection prevention. Age was the sole predictor of exercise (odds ratio=1·08, p=0·025). Health promotion behaviours declined with time and perceived healthcare provider support decreased at the third (p=0·04) post kidney transplant year. In this study, young, single, males were identified as requiring specific strategies to improve post kidney transplant health promotion behaviours. The need for health promotion must be continually reinforce by healthcare providers throughout the lifespan of a kidney transplant recipient. Understanding the changes of health behaviours of post kidney transplant recipients and their risk factors, healthcare providers can be more aware of the needs of patients in maintaining health promotion behaviours. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. [Health management system in outpatient follow-up of kidney transplantation patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Xie, Jinliang; Yao, Hui; Liu, Ling; Tan, Jianwen; Geng, Chunmi

    2014-07-01

    To develop a health management system for outpatient follow-up of kidney transplant patients. Access 2010 database software was used to establish the health management system for kidney transplantation patients in Windows XP operating system. Database management and post-operation follow-up of the kidney transplantation patients were realized through 6 function modules including data input, data query, data printing, questionnaire survey, data export, and follow-up management. The system worked stably and reliably, and the data input was easy and fast. The query, the counting and printing were convenient. Health management system for patients after kidney transplantation not only reduces the work pressure of the follow-up staff, but also improves the efficiency of outpatient follow-up.

  1. Treatment of urinary lithiasis following kidney transplantation with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha-dan; Wang, Qing-tang; Chen, Wei-guo

    2011-05-01

    The incidence of urinary lithiasis following kidney transplantation is very low, and decision-supporting data are not available. The aim of this study was to review the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis following kidney transplantation, which is of realistic significance to reduce urinary lithiasis following kidney transplantation, prolong the survival of renal allografts. The incidence, diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis in ten patients following kidney transplantation were analyzed retrospectively. Seven out of these patients had stones sized approximately 0.4 - 1.1 cm, and they were treated with low-voltage, low-frequency extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Two patients had stones sized lithiasis relapse. The diagnosis and treatment of renal allograft lithiasis are challenging. After prompt and appropriate treatment, the prognosis was satisfactory, and permanent renal functional impairment did not occur in most patients.

  2. Pharmacodynamic Monitoring of Tacrolimus-based Immunosuppression in CD14+ Monocytes after Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Kannegieter (Nynke); D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); M. Dieterich (Marjolein); G.N. de Graav (Gretchen); R. Kraaijeveld (Rens); A.T. Rowshani (Ajda); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); C.C. Baan (Carla)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: Monocytes significantly contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury and allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. However, the knowledge about the effects of immunosuppressive drugs on monocyte activation is limited. Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for

  3. Management of the kidney transplant patient with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ignatius Y S; Walzer, Natasha; Aggarwal, Nidhi; Tzvetanov, Ivo; Cotler, Scott; Benedetti, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis C (HCV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. Renal transplantation confers a survival advantage in HCV-infected patients. Renal transplant candidates with serologic evidence of HCV infection should undergo a liver biopsy to assess for fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with Metavir fibrosis score ≤3 and compensated cirrhosis should be evaluated for interferon-based therapy. Achievement of sustained virological response (SVR) may reduce the risks for both posttransplantation hepatic and extrahepatic complications such as de novo or recurrent glomerulonephritis associated with HCV. Patients who cannot achieve SVR and have no live kidney donor may be considered for HCV-positive kidneys. Interferon should be avoided after kidney transplant except for treatment of life-threatening liver injury, such as fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Early detection, prevention, and treatment of complications due to chronic HCV infection may improve the outcomes of kidney transplant recipients with chronic HCV infection.

  4. Abnormal bone and mineral metabolism in kidney transplant patients--a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprague, S.M.; Belozeroff, V.; Danese, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    for English language articles published between January 1990 and October 2006 that contained Medical Subject Headings and key words related to secondary or persistent hyperparathyroidism and kidney transplant. RESULTS: Parathyroid hormone levels decreased significantly during the first 3 months after...

  5. Recent advances in kidney transplantation: a viewpoint from the Descartes advisory board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Daniel; Oberbauer, Rainer; Heemann, Uwe; Viklicky, Ondrej; Peruzzi, Licia; Mariat, Christophe; Crespo, Marta; Budde, Klemens; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2018-01-12

    Transplantation medicine is a rapidly evolving field. Keeping afloat of the published literature to offer the best clinical care to our patients is a daunting task. As part of its educational mission, the Descartes advisory board identified seven topics in kidney transplantation where there has been substantial progresses over the last years: kidney allocation within Eurotransplant; kidney exchange strategies; kidney machine perfusion strategies; the changing landscape of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies; the new immunosuppressive drugs in the pipeline; strategies for immunosuppression minimization; and the continuous enigma of focal segmental glomerular sclerosis recurrence after transplantation. Here, we have summarized the main knowledge and the main challenges of these seven topics with the aim to provide transplant professionals at large with key bullet points to successfully understand these new concepts.

  6. Inguinal Herniation of a Transplant Kidney Ureter: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Pourafkari, Marina; Ghofrani, Mishka; Riahi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction is relatively common after renal transplantation. A rare cause is the inguinal herniation of the transplant ureter. We report a case of late allograft renal transplant failure due to ureteral herniation as well as ureterovesical junction stenosis.

  7. Which genetic determinants should be considered for tacrolimus dose optimization in kidney transplantation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruckmueller, H; Werk, Anneke Nina; Renders, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Tacrolimus is established as immunosuppressant after kidney transplantation. Polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) gene contributes significantly to tacrolimus dose requirements. Recently, CYP3A4*22 was reported to additionally affect tacrolimus pharmacokinetics (PK......). In addition, there are further polymorphic genes, possibly influencing CYP3A activity (pregnan x receptor NR1I2, P450 oxidoreductase POR and peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor alpha PPRA). We aimed to investigate combined effects of these gene variants on tacrolimus maintenance dose and PK in stable...... were considered separately. A subset was investigated for comprehensive PK parameters. RESULTS:: Tacrolimus dose, trough concentration and trough concentration/dose ratio did not differ between the German and Danish cohort. CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*22 contributed to dose requirements only in the German...

  8. Hypertension and obesity after pediatric kidney transplantation: management based on pathophysiology: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice G John

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension after pediatric renal transplant is a common and important risk factor for graft loss and patient survival. The mechanism of post kidney transplant hypertension is complex and multifactorial. Control of blood pressure in renal transplant patients is important but often times blood pressures remain uncontrolled. The management of hypertension and obesity in pediatric kidney transplant patients is based on the pathophysiology. Compared to the general pediatric hypertensive population, special attention needs to be focused on the additional impact of immunosuppressive medications side effects and interactions, recurrent disease, and donor and recipient comorbidities such as obesity on blood pressure control with thoughtful consideration of the risk of graft failure. In general, there is a need for prospective studies in pediatric kidney transplant patients to understand the pathophysiology of hypertension and obesity and the appropriate approach to achieve a balance between the primary need to avoid rejection and the need to lower blood pressure and prevent obesity.

  9. Arterial spin labeling MRI for assessment of perfusion in native and transplanted kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Nathan S; Sadowski, Elizabeth A; Wentland, Andrew L; Grist, Thomas M; Seo, Songwon; Djamali, Arjang; Fain, Sean B

    2011-01-01

    To apply a magnetic resonance arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique to evaluate kidney perfusion in native and transplanted kidneys. This study was compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and approved by the institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Renal perfusion exams were performed at 1.5 T in a total of 25 subjects: 10 with native and 15 with transplanted kidneys. A flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL sequence was performed with respiratory triggering in all subjects and under free-breathing conditions in five transplant subjects. Thirty-two control/tag pairs were acquired and processed using a single-compartment model. Perfusion in native and transplanted kidneys was compared above and below an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) threshold of 60 ml/min per 1.73 m² and correlations with eGFR were determined. In many of the transplanted kidneys, major feeding vessels in the coronal plane required a slice orientation sagittal to the kidney. Renal motion during the examination was observed in native and transplant subjects and was corrected with registration. Cortical perfusion correlated with eGFR in native (r=0.85, P=.002) and transplant subjects (r=0.61, P=.02). For subjects with eGFR >60 ml/min per 1.73 m², native kidneys demonstrated greater cortical (P=.01) and medullary (P=.04) perfusion than transplanted kidneys. For subjects with eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m², native kidneys demonstrated greater medullary perfusion (P=.04) compared to transplanted kidneys. Free-breathing acquisitions provided renal perfusion measurements that were slightly lower compared to the coached/triggered technique, although no statistical differences were observed. In conclusion, FAIR-ASL was able to measure renal perfusion in subjects with native and transplanted kidneys, potentially providing a clinically viable technique for monitoring kidney function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  10. Surgical complications in kidney transplantation: no evidence for a learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Thomas; Schumacher, Marc; Dell-Kuster, Salome; Rosenthal, Rachel; Dickenmann, Michael; Steiger, Jürg; Bachmann, Alexander; Gürke, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether surgical complications after kidney transplantation correlate with surgeon's experience and whether individual surgeons' complication rates improve during their learning process. Retrospective analysis: A generalized linear mixed-effects model was used to identify risk factors for surgical complications. Plots of cumulative sums of complications were used to evaluate the individual surgeons' performance. Single-center experience of a teaching hospital in Switzerland. Consecutive kidney transplant recipients operated from 1962 until 2003. A total of 1496 kidney transplants were analyzed; 73% were from deceased donors and 27% from living donors. At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 352 patients (24%). Male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.74), donor's age (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06-1.24 per decade increment), and third or fourth vs. first or second transplant in a recipient (OR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.02-8.24) were significantly associated with surgical complications. The surgeon's transplant experience was not found to be associated with surgical complications. Even surgeons with an experience of less than 10 kidney transplants did not have higher complication rates, 30-day mortality, or 1-year graft survival. Individual surgeons' complication rates analyzed by cumulative sum plots did not improve with increasing experience. We present the largest single-center study on surgical complications after kidney transplantation, with unique data on the surgeon's experience for every single procedure. We found no evidence for a learning curve during training for kidney transplantation. We conclude that carefully selected experienced general and vascular surgeons can achieve good results in kidney transplantation after a relatively short training period. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct and Indirect Effects of Cytomegalovirus-induced gamma-delta T Cells after Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel eCouzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite effective anti-viral therapies, cytomegalovirus (CMV is still associated with direct (CMV disease and indirect effects (rejection and poor graft survival in kidney transplant recipients. Recently, an unconventional T cell population (collectively designated as Vδ2neg γδ T cells has been characterized during the anti-CMV immune response in all solid-organ and bone-marrow transplant recipients, neonates, and healthy people. These CMV-induced γδ T cells undergo a dramatic and stable expansion after CMV infection, in a conventional ‘adaptive’ manner. Similarly as CMV-specific CD8+ αβ T cells, they exhibit an effector/memory TEMRA phenotype and cytotoxic effector functions. Activation of Vd2neg gd T cells by CMV-infected cells involves the TCR and still ill-defined co-stimulatory molecules such LFA-1. A multiple of Vd2neg gd TCR ligands are apparently recognized on CMV-infected cells, the first one identified being the MHC-related molecule endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR. A singularity of CMV-induced Vd2neg gd T cells is to acquire CD16 expression and to exert an antibody-dependent cell-mediated inhibition on CMV replication, which is controlled by a specific cytokine microenvironment. Beyond the well-demonstrated direct anti-CMV effect of Vδ2neg γδ T cells, unexpected indirect effects of these cells have been also observed in the context of kidney transplantation. CMV-induced Vδ2neg γδ T cells have been involved in surveillance of malignancy subsequent to long term immunosuppression. Moreover, CMV-induced CD16+ γδ T cells are cell effectors of antibody-mediated rejection of kidney transplants, and represent a new physiopathological contribution to the well-known association between CMV infection and poor graft survival. All these basic and clinical studies paved the road to the development of a future γδ T cell-based immunotherapy. In the meantime, γδ T cell monitoring should prove a valuable immunological

  12. Low dose of mycophenolate mofetil is enough in desensitized kidney transplantation using rituximab

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Chung Hee; Kim, Hyosang; Yu, Hoon; Shin, Eunhye; Cho, Hyungjin; Yang, Won Seok; Han, Duck Jong; Park, Su-Kil

    2015-01-01

    Background Rituximab is widely used in kidney transplantation. However, it is not clear whether the conventional doses of maintenance immunosuppressant in rituximab-treated kidney transplantation (KT) are appropriate. In our previous study, decreasing mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) dose due to infection did not increase the incidence of rejection or graft failure. Based on these experiences, we developed a new protocol with a lower dose of MMF and studied its clinical outcomes in rituximab-treat...

  13. Severity of diverticulitis in patients with polycystic kidney disease without transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Maile E; Mathis, Kellie L; Kelley, Scott R

    2017-12-01

    Patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) who have had a kidney transplant have an increased risk of diverticular disease and complicated diverticulitis. Literature is limited regarding the severity of diverticulitis in patients with PKD who have not had a transplant. We aim to assess whether patients with PKD, with and without renal transplant, have a similar course of diverticulitis. A retrospective review of all adult PKD patients at our institution diagnosed with diverticulitis between 2000 and 2016 was conducted. Patients without documented PKD and diverticulitis were excluded. We compared PKD patients with and without renal transplantation. A total of 41 patients were identified. Mean age was 60 (± 12), and 56% were female. Fourteen patients had undergone renal transplantation. Five (19%) non-transplant patients had complicated diverticulitis, compared to 43% (n = 6) transplanted (p = 0.33). Fifteen (56%) non-transplant and 8 (57%) transplant patients had recurrent diverticulitis (p = 1.00). Three (11%) non-transplant and 5 (36%) transplanted patients had recurrent complicated diverticulitis. Eight (30%) non-transplant and 7 (50%) transplant patients underwent surgery (p = 0.31). All 8 non-transplant patients underwent sigmoid resection with primary anastomosis without diversion. In the transplant group, 3 Hartmann procedures and 1 sigmoid resection with and 3 without diversion were performed. There was one in-hospital death in each group. In our group of patients, there was no difference in rate of recurrent diverticulitis, diverticulitis complications, or operative intervention in patients with PKD with and without renal transplant. The renal transplant group had a higher rate of recurrent, complicated diverticulitis.

  14. Tumor-resected kidney transplant – a quality of life survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundararajan S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Siva Sundararajan,1 Bulang He,1,2 Luc Delriviere,1,2 1WA Liver and Kidney Surgical Transplant Service, Department of General Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia Background: To overcome the organ shortage, a program to use kidney grafts after excision of a small renal tumor (tumor resected kidney [TRK] was implemented in February 2007. All recipients were over 55 years old according to the selection criteria. The aim of this study is to assess the quality of life after kidney transplant in this cohort. Methods: From February 2007 to July 2013, 27 patients received a kidney graft after excision of the small kidney tumor. All patients were given the modified 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36 questionnaire with additional information regarding concerns about tumor recurrence and whether they would choose TRK transplantation or prefer to stay on dialysis if they have an option again. Results: Of them, 20 returned the completed questionnaire. There is no tumor recurrence on a mean follow-up of 38 months. The mean scores in all eight domains of the SF-36 were higher posttransplantation. The differences were statistically significant. Ninety-five percent of recipients would prefer to have TRK transplantation rather than remain on dialysis. Eighty percent of patients had no or minimal concerns regarding tumor recurrence. Conclusion: The patients who had kidney transplantation by using the graft after excision of a small tumor have achieved excellent quality of life. It is an important alternative for the solution of organ shortage in kidney transplantation. The concern of tumor recurrence is minimal. Performing a further study is worthwhile, with prospective data collection and a control group. Keywords: quality of life, kidney transplant, tumor, small renal cell carcinoma

  15. Dispositional optimism and coping strategies in patients with a kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Requena, Gemma; Cantarell-Aixendri, M Carmen; Parramon-Puig, Gemma; Serón-Micas, Daniel

    2014-01-01

     Dispositional optimism is a personal resource that determines the coping style and adaptive response to chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between dispositional optimism and coping strategies in patients with recent kidney transplantation and evaluate the differences in the use of coping strategies in accordance with the level of dispositional optimism.  Patients who were hospitalised in the nephrology department were selected consecutively after kidney transplantation was performed. The evaluation instruments were the Life Orientation Test-Revised, and the Coping Strategies Inventory. The data were analysed with central tendency measures, correlation analyses and means were compared using Student’s t-test.   66 patients with a kidney transplant participated in the study. The coping styles that characterised patients with a recent kidney transplantation were Social withdrawal and Problem avoidance. Correlations between dispositional optimism and coping strategies were significant in a positive direction in Problem-solving (p<.05) and Cognitive restructuring (p<.01), and inversely with Self-criticism (p<.05). Differences in dispositional optimism created significant differences in the Self-Criticism dimension (t=2.58; p<.01).  Dispositional optimism scores provide differences in coping responses after kidney transplantation. Moreover, coping strategies may influence the patient’s perception of emotional wellbeing after kidney transplantation.

  16. Factors that determine self-reported immunosuppressant adherence in kidney transplant recipients: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Chueh; Yang, Ya-Chen; Huang, Hsiu-Li; Chiang, Yang-Jen; Tsai, Yu-Hsia

    2017-01-01

    To determine the factors related to immunosuppressant therapy adherence in kidney transplant recipients in Taiwan. Adherence to immunosuppressant treatment is critical after kidney transplantation. Thus, the factors associated with self-reported medication adherence in kidney transplant recipients warrant investigation. The study used a cross-sectional and correlation design. A convenience sample of 145 kidney transplant recipients was included. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data during 2012-2013. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the factors related to immunosuppressant therapy adherence. Over half of the participants were female (54·5%), mean age was 45·5 years, and mean year after transplant was 7·4. The mean score for medication adherence was 29·73 (possible score range 7-35). The results of the multivariate linear regression analysis showed that gender (male), low income with a high school or college education, years after transplantation and concerns about medication taking were negatively associated with adherence. Medication self-efficacy was positively associated with adherence. Therapy-related factors, partnerships with healthcare professionals and having private healthcare insurance did not significantly relate to immunosuppressant therapy adherence. Kidney transplant recipients demonstrated a high level of adherence. Strategies to enhance patients' self-efficacy and alleviate concerns about medication may promote medication adherence. Male patients, those with a lower income and those with a higher education level, should be a focus of efforts to maintain adherence to the medication regimen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. New Organ Allocation System for Combined Liver-Kidney Transplants and the Availability of Kidneys for Transplant to Patients with Stage 4-5 CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, William S; Bia, Margaret J

    2017-05-08

    A new proposal has been created for establishing medical criteria for organ allocation in recipients receiving simultaneous liver-kidney transplants. In this article, we describe the new policy, elaborate on the points of greatest controversy, and offer a perspective on the policy going forward. Although we applaud the fact that simultaneous liver-kidney transplant activity will now be monitored and appreciate the creation of medical criteria for allocation in simultaneous liver-kidney transplants, we argue that some of the criteria proposed, especially those for allocating a kidney to a liver recipient with AKI, are too liberal. We call on the nephrology community to follow the consequences of this new policy and push for a re-examination of the longstanding policy of allocating kidneys to multiorgan transplant recipients before all other candidates. The charge to protect our system of equitable organ allocation is very challenging, but it is a challenge that we must embrace. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Practices in the evaluation of potential kidney transplant recipients who are elderly: A survey of U.S. transplant centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbrot, Didier A; Fleishman, Aaron; Rodrigue, James R; Norman, Silas P; Samaniego, Milagros

    2017-10-01

    Limited data exist regarding the evaluation and selection of older candidates for transplantation. To help guide the development of program protocols and help define research questions in this area, we surveyed U.S. transplant centers regarding their current practices in the evaluation of older kidney transplant candidates. We emailed a 28-question survey to the medical and surgical directors of 190 adult kidney transplant programs in the USA. We received usable responses from 59 programs, a 31.1% response rate. Most (76.3%) programs do not have absolute age cutoffs for listing patients, but for the 22.0% of programs that do have cutoffs, the mean age was 79, range 70-90. Nearly one-third (29.2%) of programs require a minimum life expectancy to list for transplant, reporting a mean of 4.5 years life expectancy, (range 2-10). Programs vary significantly in evaluating candidates living in a nursing home or with cognitive impairments. Practices regarding the evaluation of older transplant candidates vary widely between U.S. programs. Further studies are needed on the impact of age and other comorbidities on transplant outcomes, to help guide decisions on which older patients are most appropriate for transplant listing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Outcomes of Kidney Transplantation Abroad: A Single-Center Canadian Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Kevin; Sultan, Heebah; Li, Yanhong; Famure, Olusegun; Kim, S Joseph

    2016-03-01

    An increasing demand for kidney transplantation has enticed some patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) to venture outside their country of residence, but their posttransplant outcomes may be suboptimal. We compared the risks and clinical outcomes among tourists, or patients who pursue a kidney transplant abroad, versus patients who received a transplant at the Toronto General Hospital (TGH). A single-center, 1:3 matched (based on age at transplant, time on dialysis, and year of transplant) cohort study was conducted. Forty-five tourists were matched with 135 domestic transplant recipients between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to assess graft and patient outcomes. Among the 45 tourists, the majority (38 of 45) traveled to the Middle East or Far East Asia, and most received living donor kidney transplants (35 of 45). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models showed that tourists had a higher risk for the composite outcome of acute rejection, death-censored graft failure, or death with graft function (DWGF; hazard ratio [HR] 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-4.07). Tourists also showed a higher risk for the individual end points of acute rejection, DWGF, and posttransplant hospitalizations. Patients going abroad for kidney transplantation may have inferior outcomes compared to domestic patients receiving kidney transplants. Patients who are contemplating an overseas transplant need to be aware of the increased risk of adverse posttransplant outcomes and should be appropriately counseled by transplant professionals during the pretransplant evaluation process. © 2016, NATCO.

  20. Human Leukocyte Antigen Mismatch and Steroid Maintenance in Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, B; Sureshkumar, K K

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the impact of chronic steroid maintenance (CSM) vs early steroid withdrawal (ESW) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) stratified by the level of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch. Adult KTRs between 2001 and 2011 who received antibody induction followed by calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) maintenance with or without steroid were identified from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing (OPTN/UNOS) database. Using multivariate analysis, graft and patient outcomes were compared for CSM vs ESW in KTRs stratified by HLA mismatch levels separately for depleting and nondepleting antibody-induced patients. Among 43,096 study patients, 26,582 received depleting induction (zero HLA mismatch = 5324 [CSM = 3416; ESW = 1908]; 5-6 HLA mismatch = 21,258 [CSM = 13,739; ESW = 7519]) and 16,514 patients received nondepleting induction (zero HLA mismatch = 4109 [CSM = 3453; ESW = 656]; 5-6 HLA mismatch = 12,405 [CSM = 10,890; ESW = 1515]). Adjusted graft failure risks for CSM vs ESW groups for zero HLA mismatch patients were as follows: HR 1.13, P = .07 (depleting induction); HR 1.30, P = .01 (nondepleting induction). Graft outcomes were similar for CSM vs ESW in 5-6 HLA mismatch groups for both induction types. Adjusted patient death risks were significantly higher for CSM vs ESW with depleting (HR 1.3, P = .003) and nondepleting (HR 1.45, P = .006) induction in zero HLA mismatch patients and only with depleting induction in 5-6 HLA mismatch groups (HR 1.16, P mismatch in KTRs selected for antibody induction and CNI/MMF maintenance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Respiratory Tract Infection Caused by Fonsecaea monophora After Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleinman, Isabella Barbosa; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Nucci, Marcio; Quintella, Danielle Carvalho; Halpern, Márcia; Akiti, Tiyomi; Barreiros, Glória; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Santoro-Lopes, Guilherme

    2017-12-01

    Fonsecaea spp. are melanized fungi which cause most cases of chromoblastomycosis. The taxonomy of this genus has been revised, now encompassing four species, with different pathogenic potential: F. pedrosoi, F. nubica, F. pugnacius, and F. monophora. The latter two species present wider clinical spectrum and have been associated with cases of visceral infection, most often affecting the brain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of proven case of F. monophora respiratory tract infection. A Brazilian 57-year-old-female patient underwent kidney transplantation on January 12, 2013. On the fourth postoperative month, the patient presented with fever, productive cough, and pleuritic pain in the right hemithorax. A thoracic CT scan showed a subpleural 2.2-cm nodular lesion in the right lung lower lobe, with other smaller nodules (0.5-0.7 cm) scattered in both lungs. Bronchoscopy revealed a grayish plaque on the right bronchus which was biopsied. Microscopic examination demonstrated invasion of bronchial mucosa by pigmented hyphae. Culture from the bronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage samples yielded a melanized mold, which was eventually identified as F. monophora. She started treatment with voriconazole (400 mg q.12h on the first day, followed by 200 mg q.12h). After 4 weeks of therapy, voriconazole dose was escalated to 200 mg q.8h and associated with amphotericin B (deoxycolate 1 mg/kg/day) because of a suspected dissemination to the brain. The patient eventually died of sepsis 8 weeks after the start of antifungal therapy. In conclusion, F. monophora may cause respiratory tract infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

  2. Simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation after bridging with the CardioWest total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewski, Dawn E; Pierce, Christopher C; Staley, Linda L; Wong, Raymond; Scott, Robert R; Steidley, Eric E; Gopalan, Radha S; DeValeria, Patrick; Lanza, Louis; Mulligan, David; Arabia, Francisco A

    2009-10-01

    End-stage renal failure is often considered a relative contraindication for total artificial heart implantation due to the increased risk of mortality after transplantation. We report the successful treatment of a patient having heart and renal failure with the CardioWest (SynCardia Inc, Tucson, AZ) total artificial heart for bridge-to-cardiac transplantation of a heart and kidney.

  3. Effectiveness of Different Kidney Exchange Mechanisms on Improving Living Donor Transplantation in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Contreras; Javier Dominguez

    2010-01-01

    Chile has a very low cadaveric organ donation rate; at the same time, living donor transplantation activity is low. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact on the number and quality of transplants of the potential application of different mechanisms for kidney exchange from living donors to patients on Chile's waiting list.

  4. Nighttime kidney transplantation is associated with less pure technical graft failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozdemir-van Brunschot, D.M.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Jagt, M.F.P. van der; D'Ancona, F.C.H.; Donders, R.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Hilbrands, L.B.; Warle, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To minimize cold ischemia time, transplantations with kidneys from deceased donors are frequently performed during the night. However, sleep deprivation of those who perform the transplantation may have adverse effects on cognitive and psychomotor performance and may cause reduced cognitive

  5. Hospital Readmissions in Diabetic Kidney Transplant Recipients with Peripheral Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Michelle; Kamal, Layla; Ajaimy, Maria; Akalin, Enver; Kayler, Liise

    2018-04-28

    The benefits of kidney transplantation in diabetic patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) are unclear. While patients may have improved survival compared to dialysis, the burden of care after transplant has not been assessed. We performed a retrospective review of adult diabetic kidney-only transplant recipients with and without PVD transplanted from January 2012 until June 30, 2015. Of 203 diabetic kidney transplant recipients, 56 (27.6%) had PVD and 147 (72.4%) had no PVD. At a median of 3.14 years follow up there were no significant differences in 30-, 90-, or 1-year readmission rates. At 1 year after transplant, PVD patients were significantly more likely to have a greater sum of unplanned inpatient days (44.6% versus 27.9% with ≥10 inpatient days, p=0.03) and at least one reoperation (28.6% vs. 8.7%, pPVD had significantly increased rates of non-graft related operations of which 31.2% were PVD related. Diabetic patients with PVD utilize more resources after kidney transplant, spending more time in the hospital and undergoing more post-transplant operations. The causes of readmission are predominantly related to progression of PVD rather than allograft complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum microRNAs as new diagnostic biomarkers for pre- and post-kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, W; Yang, M; Li, F; Chen, H; Chen, J; Ou, M; Zhang, Y; Lin, H; Xue, W; Dai, Y

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we compared the expression levels of 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) between patients who had undergone kidney transplantation and healthy individuals in a search for a new diagnostic biomarker after kidney transplantation. We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to investigate the expression levels of miR-181a, miR-483-5p, and miR-557 in the serum of 15 kidney transplantation patients before transplantation on the first, third, and seventh days after transplantation. The study was performed in the Guilin 181st Hospital between 2010 and 2012. The results of this study may assist with early diagnosis and treatment and contribute to our understanding of the pathological parameters. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the area under the curve of each equation to predict evolution to rejection. ROC curves were performed to explore miRNAs to predict rejection occurrence after transplantation showed pre-transplantation expression levels of miR-181a to be a potential factor with a significant area under the curve (AUC = 0.985, P  .05). Serum miR-181a, miR-483-5p, and miR-557 could serve as circulating biomarkers for the early diagnosis of active situations of before and after kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Persistent hyperparathyroidism is a major risk factor for fractures in the five years after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, P; Caillard, S; Javier, R M; Braun, L; Heibel, F; Borni-Duval, C; Muller, C; Olagne, J; Moulin, B

    2013-10-01

    The risk of fractures after kidney transplantation is high. Hyperparathyroidism frequently persists after successful kidney transplantation and contributes to bone loss, but its impact on fracture has not been demonstrated. This longitudinal study was designed to evaluate hyperparathyroidism and its associations with mineral disorders and fractures in the 5 posttransplant years. We retrospectively analyzed 143 consecutive patients who underwent kidney transplantation between August 2004 and April 2006. The biochemical parameters were determined at transplantation and at 3, 12 and 60 months posttransplantation, and fractures were recorded. The median intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 334 ng/L (interquartile 151-642) at the time of transplantation and 123 ng/L (interquartile 75-224) at 3 months. Thirty fractures occurred in 22 patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for PTH at 3 months (area under the ROC curve = 0.711, p = 0.002) showed that a good threshold for predicting fractures was 130 ng/L (sensitivity = 81%, specificity = 57%). In a multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for fracture were PTH >130 ng/L at 3 months (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 7.5, 95% CI 2.18-25.50), and pretransplant osteopenia (AHR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.07-7.26). In summary, this study demonstrates for the first time that persistent hyperparathyroidism is an independent risk factor for fractures after kidney transplantation. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Living kidney donor transplants over a 16-year period in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The number of patients on the waiting list is increasing due to an imbalance between organ supply and demand. This has led to an increase in the number of living donor transplants in most parts of the world. The benefits to ...

  9. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation: A fourteen-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In countries without a national organization for retrieval and distribution of organs of the deceased donors, problem of organ shortage is still not resolved. In order to increase the number of kidney transplantations we started with the program of living unrelated - spousal donors. The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcome and renal graft function in patients receiving the graft from spousal and those receiving ghe graft from living related donors. Method. We retrospectively identified 14 patients who received renal allograft from spousal donors between 1996 and 2009 (group I. The control group consisted of 14 patients who got graft from related donor retrieved from the database and matched than with respect to sex, age, kidney disease, immunological and viral pretransplant status, the initial method of the end stage renal disease treatment and ABO compatibility. In the follow-up period of 41 ± 38 months we recorded immunosuppressive therapy, surgical complications, episodes of acute rejection, CMV infection and graft function, assessed by serum creatinine levels at the beginning and in the end of the follow-up period. All patients had pretransplant negative cross-match. In ABO incompatible patients pretransplant isoagglutinine titer was zero. Results. The patients with a spousal donor had worse HLA matching. There were no significant differences between the groups in surgical, infective, immunological complications and graft function. Two patients from the group I returned to hemodialysis after 82 and 22 months due to serious comorbidities. Conclusion. In spite of the worse HLA matching, graft survival and function of renal grafts from spousal donors were as good as those retrieved from related donors.

  10. Survey of Canadian Kidney Transplant Specialists on the Management of Morbid Obesity and the Transplant Waiting List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Chan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is associated with increased surgical complications and long-term cardiovascular mortality. Studies of access in kidney transplantation have found a bias against obese patients on the wait-listing. Objective: To determine the current state of clinical practice for the management of obesity in kidney transplantation. Design: A survey in two versions, PDF and traditional paper, composed of categorical questions. Setting: A pan-Canadian survey of transplant nephrologists and surgeons. Methods: The survey PDF was distributed electronically to the Kidney Group of the Canadian Society of Transplantation. A shorter, hardcopy version was distributed subsequently at a national transplant meeting. Results: There were 47 responses, including almost every Canadian adult transplant program. Most (81% reported the use of a body mass index limit for access to the waiting list. However, only 40% reported a strict enforcement. There were several instances of intra-hospital disagreements regarding the use of a policy, among the centers with multiple responses. The body mass index limit was most commonly 40 kg/m 2 (62%, followed by 35 kg/m 2 (36%. Despite the body mass index limit, few centers (30% reported having a weight management program. The reported experience with bariatric surgery was small, though nearly all replied that they would refer to a bariatric specialist in the future. Limitations: This national survey provides a broad assessment of clinical practice. The distinction between an official policy and informal clinical tendencies is difficult. The results cannot be used to support any specific limit or policy. Conclusions: This survey found that the body mass index limit for access to the kidney transplant waiting list was common in Canada. Several inconsistencies suggest a lack of official policy. To achieve equity in access, clear guidelines for obesity should be established and enforced. Bariatric surgery has the promise of

  11. Survey of Canadian Kidney Transplant Specialists on the Management of Morbid Obesity and the Transplant Waiting List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gabriel; Soucisse, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased surgical complications and long-term cardiovascular mortality. Studies of access in kidney transplantation have found a bias against obese patients on the wait-listing. To determine the current state of clinical practice for the management of obesity in kidney transplantation. A survey in two versions, PDF and traditional paper, composed of categorical questions. A pan-Canadian survey of transplant nephrologists and surgeons. The survey PDF was distributed electronically to the Kidney Group of the Canadian Society of Transplantation. A shorter, hardcopy version was distributed subsequently at a national transplant meeting. There were 47 responses, including almost every Canadian adult transplant program. Most (81%) reported the use of a body mass index limit for access to the waiting list. However, only 40% reported a strict enforcement. There were several instances of intra-hospital disagreements regarding the use of a policy, among the centers with multiple responses. The body mass index limit was most commonly 40 kg/m 2 (62%), followed by 35 kg/m 2 (36%). Despite the body mass index limit, few centers (30%) reported having a weight management program. The reported experience with bariatric surgery was small, though nearly all replied that they would refer to a bariatric specialist in the future. This national survey provides a broad assessment of clinical practice. The distinction between an official policy and informal clinical tendencies is difficult. The results cannot be used to support any specific limit or policy. This survey found that the body mass index limit for access to the kidney transplant waiting list was common in Canada. Several inconsistencies suggest a lack of official policy. To achieve equity in access, clear guidelines for obesity should be established and enforced. Bariatric surgery has the promise of rapid weight loss. Resource allocation to study obesity in transplant patients will be essential.

  12. Recurrence of Crystalline Nephropathy after Kidney Transplantation in APRT Deficiency and Primary Hyperoxaluria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Bollée

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of review: To provide transplant physicians with a summary of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT deficiency and primary hyperoxaluria and, focussed on kidney transplantation, and to discuss interventions aimed at preventing and treating the recurrence of crystalline nephropathy in renal transplant recipients. Source of information: Pubmed literature search. Setting: Primary hyperoxaluria and APRT deficiency are rare inborn errors of human metabolism. The hallmark of these diseases is the overproduction and urinary excretion of compounds (2,8 dihydroxyadenine in APRT deficiency, oxalate in primary hyperoxaluria that form urinary crystals. Although recurrent urolithiasis represents the main clinical feature of these diseases, kidney injury can occur as a result of crystal precipitation within the tubules and interstitium, a condition referred to as crystalline nephropathy. Some patients develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD and may become candidates for kidney transplantation. Since kidney transplantation does not correct the underlying metabolic defect, transplant recipients have a high risk of recurrence of crystalline nephropathy, which can lead to graft loss. In some instances, the disease remains undiagnosed until after the occurrence of ESRD or even after kidney transplantation. Key messages: Patients with APRT deficiency or primary hyperoxaluria may develop ESRD as a result of crystalline nephropathy. In the absence of diagnosis and adequate management, the disease is likely to recur after kidney transplantation, which often leads to rapid loss of renal allograft function. Primary hyperoxaluria, but not APRT deficiency, becomes a systemic disease at low GFR with oxalate deposition leading to malfunction in non-renal organs (systemic oxalosis. We suggest that these diagnoses should be considered in patients with low glomerular filtration rate (GFR and a history of kidney stones. In APRT

  13. Nighttime kidney transplantation is associated with less pure technical graft failure

    OpenAIRE

    Brunschot, Denise M. D. ?zdemir-van; Hoitsma, Andries J.; van der Jagt, Michel F. P.; d?Ancona, Frank C.; Donders, Rogier A. R. T.; van Laarhoven, Cees J. H. M.; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Warl?, Michiel C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To minimize cold ischemia time, transplantations with kidneys from deceased donors are frequently performed during the night. However, sleep deprivation of those who perform the transplantation may have adverse effects on cognitive and psychomotor performance and may cause reduced cognitive flexibility. We hypothesize that renal transplantations performed during the night are associated with an increased incidence of pure technical graft failure. Methods A retrospective analysis of da...

  14. Post Kidney Transplant Tuberculosis in Nigeria: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis has been reported to be one of the most serious bacterial infections after transplant and occur up to 20 times more frequently in transplant recipients than in the general population. Renal transplant is available in few centers in the country and the post transplant population is increasing, but to our ...

  15. Kidney transplantation in a patient with absent right common iliac artery and congenital renal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Ming Tay

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Kidney transplantation in such cases is safe and we recommend routine pre-operative imaging of patients known to have congenital genitourniary abnormalities. The kidney should be implanted heterotopically to the contralateral side of the vascular anomaly and care must be taken to preserve vascular supply to the lower limbs.

  16. First clinical experience with polysol solution: pilot study in living kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemachers, M.-C. J. M.; Bemelman, F. J.; Idu, M. M.; van Donselaar-van der Pant, K. A. M. I.; van de Berg, P. J. E. J.; Reitsma, J. B.; Legemate, D. A.; Florquin, S.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Doorschodt, B. M.; van Gulik, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the safety of the new organ preservation solution polysol solution in the clinical setting of living kidney transplantation. We conducted a prospective pilot study in nine adult donor-recipient couples using polysol solution for washout and cold storage of kidney grafts.

  17. Kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death: uncontrolled versus controlled donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, E.R.; Snoeijs, M.G.; Winkens, B.; Christaans, M.H.; Heurn, L.W. van

    2011-01-01

    Kidney donation after cardiac death has been popularized over the last decade. The majority of these kidneys are from controlled donors. The number of organs for transplantation can be further increased by uncontrolled donors after cardiac death. The outcome of uncontrolled compared to controlled

  18. Feasibility and Acceptability of the TALK Social Worker Intervention to Improve Live Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyer, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2012-01-01

    Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with…

  19. The effects of kidney transplantation on sleep, melatonin, circadian rhythm and quality of life in kidney transplant recipients and living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russcher, Marije; Nagtegaal, J Elsbeth; Nurmohamed, S Azam; Koch, Birgit C P; van der Westerlaken, Monique M L; van Someren, Eus J W; Bakker, Stephan J L; Ter Wee, Pieter M; Gaillard, Carlo A J M

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is an important medical problem in patients with end-stage renal disease. It might be related to the disruption of the body's circadian clock since nocturnal levels of its key biomarker melatonin are markedly reduced. We aimed at investigating whether a change in renal function due to kidney transplantation or donation would modify sleep, melatonin levels, circadian rhythmicity, and quality of life in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) and living donors (LD). In KTR, we assessed saliva melatonin concentrations, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness prior to and at 2 weeks and 3 months after transplantation. In LD, we assessed these parameters prior to and at 3 months after donation. We additionally assessed 24-hour core body temperature (cBT), 24-hour blood pressure profile, and quality of life (QoL) prior to and 3 months after transplantation. Twenty-three KTR and 23 LD completed the study. Regarding sleep, the amount of nighttime awake minutes tended to be reduced in recipients after transplantation (p = 0.05). Nocturnal melatonin concentrations did not change with transplantation or donation. Blood pressure dipping profile and the two circadian markers dim-light melatonin onset and time of core body temperature minimum did not change. Nevertheless, KTR reported that daytime sleepiness and QoL had improved. Objectively nocturnal sleep quality marginally improved after transplantation. Subjectively patients reported improved QoL and daytime sleepiness scores. Changes in renal function were not associated with modified melatonin secretion or circadian rhythmicity.

  20. Growth, chronic kidney disease and pediatric kidney transplantation: is it useful to use recombinant growth hormone in Colombian children with renal transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, D A; López, L F; Ovalle, D F; Buitrago, J; Rodríguez, D; Lozano, E

    2011-11-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the best treatment for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In recent times, knowledge concerning the effect of CKD and kidney transplantation over the normal growth rate has increased; now it is known that 40% of children with CKD do not reach the expected height for age. Growth retardation has been associated with the type of nephropathy, metabolic and endocrine disorders that are secondary to kidney disease, immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticoids, and suboptimal function of renal allograft. Nowadays, we know better the role of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in growth retardation we can see it in children with CKD or recipients of renal allograft. Several studies have shown that administration of recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) has a positive effect on the longitudinal growth of children and teenagers who have received a kidney transplant. On the other hand, there have been reported side effects associated with using rhGH; however, these are not statistically significant. In this article, we show a small review about growth in children with CKD and/or recipients of renal allografts the growth pattern of three children who were known by the Transplant Group of National University of Colombia, and the results obtained with the use of rhGH in one of these cases. We want to show the possibility of achieving a secure use of rhGH in children with CKD and its use as a therapeutic option for treating the growth retardation in children with kidney transplantation, and set out the need of typifying the growth pattern of Colombian children with CKD and/or who are recipients of renal allografts through multicenter studies to propose and analyze the inclusion of rhGH in the therapeutic scheme of Colombian children with these two medical conditions. rhGH could be a useful tool for treating children with CKD or kidney transplantation who have not reached the expected longitudinal growth for age. However

  1. Long-term results of conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus in 150 maintenance kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Cyril; Kamar, Nassim; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Guitard, Joëlle; Esposito, Laure; Lavayssière, Laurence; Nogier, Marie-Béatrice; Cointault, Olivier; Ribes, David; Rostaing, Lionel

    2012-04-01

    This retrospective single-center study evaluated long-term renal function after conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus-based immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients. From 2001 to 2009, one hundred fifty kidney transplant recipients were converted from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus at least 3 months after transplant. After a mean follow-up of 171 weeks, 56.7% of converted patients remained on sirolimus. The 5-year survival rate of the patients (including intent-to-treat) and grafts was 85.5% and 83.6%. Patients on sirolimus showed significant improvement in renal function with a creatinine clearance of 50.9 ± 20.7 and 52.9 ± 20.8 mL/minute at month 0 and month 24. Independent predictive factors associated with a stable estimated glomerular filtration rate at the last follow-up of sirolimus patients were (1) having a living donor, (2) absence of anti-HLA alloantibodies at month 0, and (3) cyclosporine versus tacrolimus used before conversion. Adverse effects were reported in 134 patients (89.3%). They included (1) hospitalization for infection (n=52), (2) de novo proteinuria (n=40), and (3) eight patients with biopsy-proven acute rejection. Sirolimus was stopped and replaced by calcineurin inhibitors in 37 patients after a mean of 16 months treatment. After stopping sirolimus, renal-allograft function remained stable at 2 years. Conversion of calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus in kidney transplant recipients was associated with improved renal function. The reintroduction of calcineurin inhibitors was safe in patients who were withdrawn from sirolimus owing to adverse effects.

  2. Diffuse vascular damage in a transplanted kidney: an indication for nuclear magnetic resonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdese, M; Consiglio, V; Mezza, E; Savio, D; Guarena, C; Rossetti, M; Messina, M; Soragna, G; Suriani, C; Rabbia, C; Segoloni, G P; Piccoli, G B

    2005-06-01

    Vascular lesions are an increasing challenge after renal transplantation due to the wider indications for recipients and acceptance criteria for donors. Diagnostic approach and prognostic interpretation are still matter of controversy. The case reported herein may summarize some of the issues in this regard. A 54-year-old woman, on renal replacement therapy since 1974, and a kidney graft recipient from 1975 to 1999, received a second graft in 2001. The donor age was 65 years (cold ischemia 22 hours; two mismatches). The early posttransplant follow-up was characterized by delayed graft function, hypertension, and diabetes. During the initial hypertension workup, renal graft ultrasound (US) Doppler demonstrated increased vascular resistances, stable over time (resistance index 0.74 to 0.77); renal scintiscan displayed homogeneously parenchymoa and angio-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an homogeneous parenchymal vascularization. Initial immunosuppression with tacrolimus and steroids was modulated by adding mycophenolate mofetil to taper tacrolimus (to reduce nephrotoxicity and hypertension). Despite this, kidney function slowly deteriorated; serum creatinine reached 3 to 3.5 mg/dL by the second year. After a severe hypertensive crisis with unchanged scintiscan and US doppler examinations, angio-MRI revealed the almost complete disappearance of parenchymal enhancement beyond the lobar arteries. A renal biopsy confirmed the severe vascular damage. The patient was switched to rapamycine and a low-dose of an angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. She did relatively well (serum creatinine 2.2 to 3 mg/dL) for 6 months, when rapid functional impairment forced her to restart hemodialysis. This case, almost paradigmatic of the problems occurring when the rigid vasculature of long-term dialysis patients is matched with "marginal kidneys," suggests that MRI may be a sensible good to define vascular damage in the grafted kidney.

  3. A2 incompatible kidney transplantation does not adversely affect graft or patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Rachel C; Feurer, Irene D; Shaffer, David

    2016-05-01

    The new United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) kidney allocation system (KAS) incorporates A2 and A2B to B transplantation to reduce wait times for blood group B candidates. Few studies have employed multicenter data or comprehensively defined donor-to-recipient ABO classification systems. We retrospectively analyzed UNOS data from 1987-2013 to evaluate the effect of A2 incompatible (A2i) kidney transplantation on graft and patient survival. Records of 314 056 adults (340 150 transplants) were classified as A2i (560 transplants in A2 to B or O, A2B to B) or compatible. Methods included Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Graft survival after A2i transplant (median = 116 months) did not differ (log-rank p ≥ 0.101) from any compatible class (medians = 106-119 months); there was no effect of A2i on patient survival (log-rank p ≥ 0.286). After adjusting for age, race, donor type, pancreas, or previous kidney transplant, A2i was not associated with graft (p ≥ 0.263) or patient (p ≥ 0.060) survival in this largest cohort to date. A2i kidney transplantation does not adversely affect graft or patient survival. A2i kidney transplantation has been included in the new KAS and represents a viable option for transplant centers to increase transplant volume and reduce wait times for disadvantaged B waitlist recipients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... kidneys may be needed. Treatments for end-stage kidney disease may include dialysis or a kidney transplant .

  5. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in the Presence of a Transplanted Kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverberg, Daniel, E-mail: silverberg-d@msn.com; Yalon, Tal; Halak, Moshe [The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, The Department of Vascular Surgery (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo present our experience performing endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in kidney transplanted patients.MethodsA retrospective review of all patients who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) performed at our institution from 2007 to 2014. We identified all patients who had previously undergone a kidney transplant. Data collected included: comorbidities, preoperative imaging modalities, indication for surgery, stent graft configurations, pre- and postoperative renal function, perioperative complications, and survival rates.ResultsA total of 267 EVARs were performed. Six (2 %) had a transplanted kidney. Mean age was 74 (range, 64–82) years; five were males. Mean time from transplantation to EVAR was 7.5 (range, 2–12) years. Five underwent preoperative planning with noncontrast modalities only. Devices used included bifurcated (n = 3), aortouniiliac (n = 2), and tube (n = 1) stent grafts. Technical success was achieved in all patients. None experienced deterioration in renal function. Median follow-up was 39 (range, 6–51) months. Four patients were alive at the time of the study. Two patients expired during the period of follow-up from unrelated causes.ConclusionsEVAR is an effective modality for the management of AAAs in the coexistence of a transplanted kidney. It can be performed with minimal morbidity and mortality without harming the transplanted kidney. Special consideration should be given to device configuration to minimize damage to the renal graft.

  6. De novo inflammatory bowel disease after pediatric kidney or liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Melissa A; Braun, Hillary J; Evason, Kim; Rhee, Sue; Perito, Emily R

    2017-02-01

    A subset of children who receive a liver and/or kidney transplant develop de novo inflammatory bowel disease-like chronic intestinal inflammation, not explained by infection or medications, following transplant. We have conducted a single-center, retrospective case series describing the unique clinical and histologic features of this IBD-like chronic intestinal inflammation following solid organ transplant. At our center, nine of 327 kidney or liver recipients developed de novo IBD following transplant (six liver, two kidney, one liver-kidney). Most children presented with prolonged hematochezia and diarrhea and were treated with aminosalicylates. At time of diagnosis, five were not currently using mycophenolate mofetil for transplant immunosuppression. Histologic and endoscopic findings at IBD diagnosis included inflammation, ulcerations, granulomas, and chronic colitis. Since diagnosis, no patients have required surgical intervention, or escalation to biologic therapy, nor developed stricturing or perianal disease. In this case series, de novo post-transplant IBD developed in 4% of pediatric liver and/or kidney recipients; however, it often does not fit the classic patterns of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. First successful combined heart and kidney transplant in Iran: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Zargham-Hossein; Mirhosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Fakhri, Mohammad; Mozaffary, Amirhossein; Lotfaliany, Mojtaba; Nejatollahi, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Marashi, Seyed-Ali; Behzadnia, Neda; Sharif-Kashani, Babak

    2013-08-01

    Combined heart and kidney transplant has become an accepted therapy for patients with coexisting heart and kidney failure. This method, compared with single-organ transplant, has a better outcome. Here, we report the first successful combined heart and kidney transplant in Iran. The patient was a 36-year-old man with end-stage renal disease owing to IgA nephropathy, admitted to Masih Daneshvari Hospital in Tehran, Iran for progressive dyspnea and chest pain. In-patient evaluations revealed cardiomyopathy leading to end-stage heart failure. Owing to concurrent heart and kidney end-stage diseases, combined cardiorenal transplant was done. Eight months after his transplant, routine follow-ups have not shown any signs of acute rejection. He is now New York Heart Association functional class I. Both cardiac and renal functions are within normal ranges. Good outcome during follow-up for this case justifies simultaneous heart plus kidney transplants as an alternate treatment for patients with advanced disease of both organs.

  8. Changes in Pre- and Post-Exercise Gene Expression among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Transplant Recipients.

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    Dawn K Coletta

    Full Text Available Decreased insulin sensitivity blunts the normal increase in gene expression from skeletal muscle after exercise. In addition, chronic inflammation decreases insulin sensitivity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an inflammatory state. How CKD and, subsequently, kidney transplantation affects skeletal muscle gene expression after exercise are unknown.Study cohort: non-diabetic male/female 4/1, age 52±2 years, with end-stage CKD who underwent successful kidney transplantation. The following were measured both pre-transplant and post-transplant and compared to normals: Inflammatory markers, euglycemic insulin clamp studies determine insulin sensitivity, and skeletal muscle biopsies performed before and within 30 minutes after an acute exercise protocol. Microarray analyses were performed on the skeletal muscle using the 4x44K Whole Human Genome Microarrays. Since nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT plays an important role in T cell activation and calcineurin inhibitors are mainstay immunosuppression, calcineurin/NFAT pathway gene expression was compared at rest and after exercise. Log transformation was performed to prevent skewing of data and regression analyses comparing measures pre- and post-transplant performed.Markers of inflammation significantly improved post-transplantation. Insulin infusion raised glucose disposal slightly lower post-transplant compared to pre-transplant, but not significantly, thus concluding differences in insulin sensitivity were similar. The overall pattern of gene expression in response to exercise was reduced both pre-and post-transplant compared to healthy volunteers. Although significant changes were observed among NFAT/Calcineurin gene at rest and after exercise in normal cohort, there were no significant differences comparing NFAT/calcineurin pathway gene expression pre- and post-transplant.Despite an improvement in serum inflammatory markers, no significant differences in glucose disposal were observed post-transplant

  9. Acute myeloid leukemia after kidney transplantation: a case report and literature review

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    Francesca Cardarelli

    Full Text Available Abstract The incidence of malignancy is greater in kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population, though the higher risk is not equally distributed to all types of cancers. In face of the increased longevity of renal transplant recipients, certain cancers, such as acute leukemias, are becoming more prevalent. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML typically presents with cytopenias and infections, both common findings after kidney transplantation. Therefore, the diagnosis of AML may be initially overlooked in these patients. We report the case of a 33-year-old man who presented with fever, pancytopenia and acute worsening of his renal allograft function 9 years after a living unrelated kidney transplant. After initial negative infectious work-up, a kidney biopsy revealed C4d-positive antibody-mediated rejection in combination with scattered atypical inflammatory cells. A subsequent bone marrow biopsy confirmed AML. He underwent successful induction chemotherapy with daunorubucin and cytarabine and ultimately achieved a complete remission. However, he developed a Page kidney with worsening renal function and abdominal pain three weeks after biopsy in the setting of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. Herein, we discuss the prevalence, risk factors, presentation and management of leukemia after kidney transplantation.

  10. The relation between serum testosterone levels and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with kidney transplantation

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    Hulya Colak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between serum testos-terone levels and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF in patients after kidney transplantation and with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Seventy-five male patients, aged between 18 and 68 years, who had kidney transplantation at least six months earlier, were enrolled into the study. Only renal transplant recipients and CKD patients with a creatinine level of 0.05. Serum testosterone levels were independent risk factors affecting IVC collapse index, systolic BP and LA. m-TORi and CNIs drugs might have no negative effect on serum testosterone levels, and improvement of the serum testosterone levels after transplantation might have a positive contribution on cardiac risk factors.

  11. Osteonecroses in children with chronical renal diseases before and after kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, H.C.; Mehls, O.; Willich, E.; Twittenhof, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    From 1969 to 1980 202 children suffering from chronic renal insufficiency underwent treatment in the Children's Hospital of Heidelberg University. In 36 patients kidney transplantations were performed. Two children developed femoral head necroses before transplantation without corticosteroid therapy. Three patients developed femoral head necroses in one or both sides within one to 24 months after kidney transplantation. All children with femoral head necrosis were suffering from congenital renal disease and had a history of servere renal osteodystrophy which was followed by severe coxa vara. Coxa vara and the resulting faulty loading seem to be essential factors for the development of femoral head necrosis in patients with renal insufficiency before and after kidney transplantation. (orig.) [de

  12. [Laparoscopic resection of the transplanted kidney for renal cell carcinoma T1N0M0].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorenko, V I; Trushkin, R N; Lubennikov, A E; Kolesnikov, N O

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic resection of the transplanted kidney has been very rarely reported in the literature. On the one hand, this is due to the extremely low incidence of tumors of renal transplants. On the other hand, these patients are usually managed by open surgery due to difficulties in laparoscopic resection because of the scar tissue in the kidney area. Other options, though rarely performed, are cryosurgery and radiofrequency ablation of the tumor. In this article we report our own experience with a patient who underwent laparoscopic resection of renal transplant for renal cell carcinoma T1aN0M0 19 years after kidney transplantation. The tumor sized 27 cm was found incidentally by routine ultrasound. The operative time was 115 minutes, the renal ischemia time - 28 min. No intra- and postoperative complications were observed. Histological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma, surgical margins were negative. The patient was discharged on the 7th day after the surgery, no graft dysfunction was observed.

  13. Prevalence and Causes of Proteinuria in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Data from a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan Sibel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Proteinuria after renal transplantation increases the risk of graft failure and mortality. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and causes of proteinuria in kidney transplant recipients. Methods. All kidney transplant recipients followed up in our clinic were included in the study. As a center protocol 24-hour urine collections were used to quantify protein excretion with 3-month intervals posttransplantation during the first year, and yearly thereafter. The etiology of chronic kidney disease and demographic characteristics of the study group were obtained from outpatient records. Data regarding the immunosuppressive regimens used, 24-hour proteinuria levels and creatinine clearences, new-onset hypertension, new-onset diabetes mellitus, rejection episodes, infections like cytomegalovirus (CMV and polyoma (BK, and biopsy findings were noted. Results. A total of 260 kidney transplant recipients (97 females, mean age 42.3±12.3 years were evaluated. Median follow-up period was 36 months; 137 of all transplantations were from living donors. Mean age of donors was 42.7±15 years and 133 were female. Proteinuria with protein excretion ≥300 mg/d was present in 35.4% of patients. The most common cause of biopsy-proven proteinuria was transplant-specific conditions (acute rejection, and borderline changes. Conclusion. The prevalence of proteinuria was 35.4%. The transplant-specific diagnoses were the most likely causes. Even in nonnephrotic ranges it was associated with decreased graft survival.

  14. Inflammation and oxidation: do they improve after kidney transplantation? Relationship with mortality after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, Laura; Iglesias, Eva; Pastor, María Cruz; Barallat, Jaume; Juega, Javier; Bancu, Ioana; Lauzurica, Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are characterized by a state of inflammation and oxidative stress that seems to improve after kidney transplantation (KT). Nevertheless, there is controversy regarding what is the best marker that better define inflammation and specially oxidative stress. To evaluate the biomarkers which are associated with improvements in inflammation and lipid peroxidation in patients who have undergone KT. To evaluate the relationship between inflammation, lipid peroxidation and mortality in KT. 196 KT (between 2003 and 2008). 67.9% men; median age: 51.9 years. Inflammation markers analyzed previous KT and 3 months after KT: c-reactive protein(CRP), interleukin 6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNFα), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor alpha(sTNFRα), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R). Lipid peroxidation markers analyzed: oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and anti-oxLDL antibodies. Calculation of glomerular filtration rate after KT: MDRD equation. Following KT, there is a significant decrease in CRP (p = 0.006), IL-6 (p = 0.0037), TNFα (p inflammation but not lipid oxidative state. KT patients who died had a higher inflammatory state (with higher levels of IL-6 and sTNFRα), a worse lipid oxidative state and a worse renal function 3 months after KT. Age, anti-oxLDL and renal function at 3 months after KT were independent risk factors for mortality.

  15. Increased resistin in brain dead organ donors is associated with delayed graft function after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Resistin increases during several inflammatory diseases and after intracerebral bleeding or head trauma. Resistin activates the endothelium and may initiate an inflammatory response. No data are available on resistin in brain dead donors (DBD) that regularly manifest a pronounced inflammatory state. Methods We analyzed plasma resistin in 63 DBDs and correlated results with donor variables and the postoperative course following kidney transplantation using organs from these donors. Endocan and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were also studied. Twenty-six live kidney donors (LD) and the corresponding kidney transplantations were used as controls. Results DBDs had higher resistin (median/range 30.75 ng/ml, 5.41–173.6) than LD (7.71 ng/ml, 2.41–15.74, p organ retrieval are associated with DGF after kidney transplantation. The resistin increase seems related to the inflammatory state after brain death but not to the cause of death. PMID:24070260

  16. Endothelial Cells in Antibody-Mediated Rejection of Kidney Transplantation: Pathogenesis Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

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    Shuo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR has been identified as a main obstacle for stable immune tolerance and long survival of kidney allografts. In spite of new insights into the underlying mechanisms of AMR, accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment are still challenges in clinical practice. Endothelium is the first barrier between recipients’ immune systems and grafts in vascularized organ transplants. Considering that endothelial cells express a number of antigens that can be attacked by various allo- and autoantibodies, endothelial cells act as main targets for the recipients’ humoral immune responses. Importantly, emerging evidence has shown that endothelial cells in transplants could also initiate protective mechanisms in response to immune injuries. A better understanding of the role of endothelial cells during the pathogenesis of AMR might provide novel therapeutic targets. In the present review, we summarize the antigens expressed by endothelial cells and also discuss the activation and accommodation of endothelial cells as well as their clinical implications. Collectively, the progress discussed in this review indicates endothelial cells as promising targets to improve current diagnosis and therapeutic regimens for AMR.

  17. Identification of expanded T-cell clones by spectratyping in nonfunctioning kidney transplants

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    Cappuccilli M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Cappuccilli,1 Gabriele Donati,1 Giorgia Comai,1 Olga Baraldi,1 Diletta Conte,1 Irene Capelli,1 Valeria Aiello,1 Andrea Pession,2 Gaetano La Manna1 1Department of Experimental Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES, Nephrology, Dialysis, and Renal Transplant Unit, 2Molecular Laboratory of Pediatrics, Hematology–Oncology Unit, St Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Background: The aim of this study was the application of complementarity-determining region-3 spectratyping analysis to determine T-cell-repertoire complexity and to detect T-cell-clone expansion, as a measure of immune response in nonfunctioning kidney transplants (group hemodialysis-transplant [HD-Tx], nontransplanted dialysis patients (group hemodialysis [HD], and normal subjects as controls (group C.Patients and methods: Analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR diversity by spectratyping was applied to peripheral blood samples collected from 21 subjects: eight in group HD-Tx, seven in group HD, and six in group C.Results: Considering the extent of the skew in TCR variable region repertoires as a measure of clonal T cells, we found that the number of altered spectra showed a progressive increase from normal subjects to dialysis patients and to nonfunctioning kidney transplants, respectively. Healthy subjects had the lowest number of altered spectra, and patients with nonfunctioning kidney transplants the highest. Differences were significant for group HD-Tx vs group C (P=0.017 and group HD vs group C (P=0.015, but not between nonfunctioning kidney-transplant recipients and dialysis patients (group HD-Tx vs group HD.Conclusion: Although dialysis appears to be a weaker trigger for clonal expansion of T cells, our data suggest that the utilization of complementarity-determining region-3 spectratyping analysis of the TCR repertoire might be useful to monitor specific immunoactivation in patients before and after kidney transplantation. Keywords: dialysis

  18. Benefits of a transfer clinic in adolescent and young adult kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Rory F; Toulany, Alene; Kaufman, Miriam; Schiff, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients have worse graft outcomes than older and younger age groups. Difficulties in the process of transition, defined as the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents with chronic health conditions from child to adult-centered health care systems, may contribute to this. Improving the process of transition may improve adherence post-transfer to adult care services. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a kidney transplant transfer clinic for adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients transitioning from pediatric to adult care improves adherence post-transfer. We developed a joint kidney transplant transfer clinic between a pediatric kidney transplant program, adult kidney transplant program, and adolescent medicine at two academic health centers. The transfer clinic facilitated communication between the adult and pediatric transplant teams, a face-to-face meeting of the patient with the adult team, and a meeting with the adolescent medicine physician. We compared the outcomes of 16 kidney transplant recipients transferred before the clinic was established with 16 patients who attended the clinic. The primary outcome was a composite measure of non-adherence. Non-adherence was defined as either self-reported medication non-adherence or displaying two of the following three characteristics: non-attendance at clinic, non-attendance for blood work appointments, or undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels within 1 year post-transfer. The two groups were similar at baseline, with non-adherence identified in 43.75 % of patients. Non-adherent behavior in the year post-transfer, which included missing clinic visits, missing regular blood tests, and undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels, was significantly lower in the cohort which attended the transfer clinic (18.8 versus 62.5 %, p = 0.03). The median change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the year following transfer

  19. Benefits of a Transfer Clinic in Adolescent and Young Adult Kidney Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory F. McQuillan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients have worse graft outcomes than older and younger age groups. Difficulties in the process of transition, defined as the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents with chronic health conditions from child to adult-centered health care systems, may contribute to this. Improving the process of transition may improve adherence post-transfer to adult care services. Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a kidney transplant transfer clinic for adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients transitioning from pediatric to adult care improves adherence post-transfer. Methods: We developed a joint kidney transplant transfer clinic between a pediatric kidney transplant program, adult kidney transplant program, and adolescent medicine at two academic health centers. The transfer clinic facilitated communication between the adult and pediatric transplant teams, a face-to-face meeting of the patient with the adult team, and a meeting with the adolescent medicine physician. We compared the outcomes of 16 kidney transplant recipients transferred before the clinic was established with 16 patients who attended the clinic. The primary outcome was a composite measure of non-adherence. Non-adherence was defined as either self-reported medication non-adherence or displaying two of the following three characteristics: non-attendance at clinic, non-attendance for blood work appointments, or undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels within 1 year post-transfer. Results: The two groups were similar at baseline, with non-adherence identified in 43.75 % of patients. Non-adherent behavior in the year post-transfer, which included missing clinic visits, missing regular blood tests, and undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels, was significantly lower in the cohort which attended the transfer clinic (18.8 versus 62.5 %, p = 0.03. The median change in estimated glomerular

  20. Acute kidney injury in stable COPD and at exacerbation

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    Barakat MF

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MF Barakat,1 HI McDonald,1 TJ Collier,1 L Smeeth,1 D Nitsch,1 JK Quint1,2 1Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Background: While acute kidney injury (AKI alone is associated with increased mortality, the incidence of hospital admission with AKI among stable and exacerbating COPD patients and the effect of concurrent AKI at COPD exacerbation on mortality is not known.Methods: A total of 189,561 individuals with COPD were identified from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Using Poisson and logistic regressions, we explored which factors predicted admission for AKI (identified in Hospital Episode Statistics in this COPD cohort and concomitant AKI at a hospitalization for COPD exacerbation. Using survival analysis, we investigated the effect of concurrent AKI at exacerbation on mortality (n=36,107 and identified confounding factors.Results: The incidence of AKI in the total COPD cohort was 128/100,000 person-years. The prevalence of concomitant AKI at exacerbation was 1.9%, and the mortality rate in patients with AKI at exacerbation was 521/1,000 person-years. Male sex, older age, and lower glomerular filtration rate predicted higher risk of AKI or death. There was a 1.80 fold (95% confidence interval: 1.61, 2.03 increase in adjusted mortality within the first 6 months post COPD exacerbation in patients suffering from AKI and COPD exacerbation compared to those who were AKI free.Conclusion: In comparison to previous studies on general populations and hospitalizations, the incidence and prevalence of AKI is relatively high in COPD patients. Coexisting AKI at exacerbation is prognostic of poor outcome. Keywords: acute renal failure, mortality, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, prognosis

  1. Recent Changes in Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorders and Associated Fractures After Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Peggy; Kiener, Clotilde; Javier, Rose-Marie; Braun, Laura; Cognard, Noelle; Gautier-Vargas, Gabriela; Heibel, Francoise; Muller, Clotilde; Olagne, Jerome; Moulin, Bruno; Ohlmann, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    The management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders has recently changed. We investigated the modifications of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder with a special focus on the incidence of fractures in the first year after kidney transplantation (KT). We retrospectively compared 2 groups of patients who consecutively underwent transplantation at our center 5 years from each other. Group 1 consisted of patients (n = 152) transplanted between 2004 and 2006, whereas patients in group 2 (n = 137) underwent KT between 2009 and 2011. During the end-stage renal disease phase at the time of transplant, cinacalcet, and native vitamin D were used significantly more frequently in group 2. Median intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower and severe hyperparathyroidism decreased significantly. Vitamin D deficiency dropped from 64% to 20%. After transplantation, persistent hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid hormone > 130 ng/L) and bone turnover markers were significantly reduced in group 2. Native vitamin D supplementation increased over time, whereas the use of active vitamin D was unchanged. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly higher. The fracture incidence at 1 year decreased significantly (3.1% vs 9.1%; P = 0.047). No steroid sparing was observed in group 2. Bisphosphonates after KT were more frequently used in group 2. Recent changes in clinical practice are associated with reductions in pretransplant and posttransplant hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, and fracture risk after KT.

  2. Beneficial Effect of Conversion to Belatacept in Kidney-Transplant Patients with a Low Glomerular-Filtration Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Belliere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Belatacept has been found to be efficient at preserving good kidney function in maintenance kidney-transplant patients. Herein, we report on the use of belatacept as a rescue therapy for two kidney-transplant patients presenting with severe adverse events after treatment with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs and mammalian target-of-rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors. Two kidney-transplant patients developed severely impaired kidney function after receiving CNIs. The use of everolimus was associated with severe angioedema. Belatacept was then successfully used to improve kidney function in both cases, even though estimated glomerular-filtration rate before conversion was <20 mL/min. These case reports show that belatacept can be used as a rescue therapy, even if kidney function is very low in kidney-transplant patients who cannot tolerate CNIs and/or mTOR inhibitors.

  3. Cognitive dysfunction and depression in adult kidney transplant recipients: baseline findings from the FAVORIT Ancillary Cognitive Trial (FACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiency may be treatable risk factors for cognitive impairment and decline. Hyperhomocysteinemia, cognitive impairment and depression all are common in individuals with kidney disease, including kidney transplant recipient. Accordingly, we assessed the prevalenc...

  4. Case Report: First Reported Combined Heart-Liver Transplant in a Patient With a Congenital Solitary Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R M; Kamgar, M; Hasnain, H; Khorsan, R; Nsair, A; Kaldas, F; Baas, A; Bunnapradist, S; Wilson, J M

    2018-02-16

    We report a case of successful combined heart liver transplant in a patient with a congenital solitary kidney. The patient had normal renal function before combined heart-liver transplantation and developed acute kidney injury requiring slow continuous dialysis and subsequent intermittent dialysis for almost 8 weeks post transplantation. Her renal function recovered and she remains off dialysis now 7 months post transplantation. She only currently has mild chronic renal insufficiency. We believe this is the first reported case of successful heart liver transplant in a patient with a congenital solitary kidney. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effect of Statins on Patients and Graft Survival in Kidney Transplant Recipients: a Survival Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Zohre; Moteshaker Arani, Mahdi; Salesi, Mahmood; Safiabadi, Mahdi; Einollahi, Behzad

    2017-10-01

    Modifying cardiovascular risk factors is very important for the patients after kidney transplantation. Statins are a potentially beneficial intervention for kidney transplant patients, and the effect of statins on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease varies according to the stages. This systematic review summarizes the potential beneficial effects of statins on kidney allograft outcome. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by literature search using the PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar. Articles published after 2000 reporting hazard ratios (HRs) for the effect of statins on patient and graft survival of kidney transplant patients were included. Seven articles were included in the systematic review, involving 1870 kidney transplant patients that received statins and 3339 kidney transplant patients as the control group. Statins has no protective effect on transplant rejection, graft survival or patient survival after kidney transplantation. The effect of statins on graft survival, however, was significant when adjusted for factors such as age, sex, and serum creatinine level (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.92; P = .003). Similarly, patient survival was significantly better with statin use (adjusted HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.88; P = .003). The present study may provide valuable information on the potential beneficial effects of statins in kidney allograft recipients. Meta-analysis showed that the use of statins correlated independently with improved patient and graft survival after kidney transplantation.

  6. Intestinal perforation caused by tuberculosis in a kidney transplant patient who was extensively evaluated for tuberculosis prior to transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rendering, H.; Zijlstra, J.G.; van Son, W.J.; De Maar, E.F.; Manson, W.L.; van der Werf, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    A 47-year-old man from Armenia presented at the emergency department with abdominal pain. He had had a kidney transplant 2 years earlier for renal failure caused by amyloidosis that was secondary to familial Mediterranean fever. He was also known to have chronic hepatitis B with persistent viraemia.

  7. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  8. Leukopenia in kidney transplant patients with the association of valganciclovir and mycophenolate mofetil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, S; Nolasco, F; Sousa, J; Ferreira, A; Possante, M; Pinto, J R; Barroso, E; Santos, J R

    2008-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral infection after transplantation. Valganciclovir (VGC) is established for prophylaxis and treatment of CMV infections, but leukopenia which appears in 10% to 13% (severe in 4.9%) is the principal side effect. We have recently noted an increased incidence of leukopenia and severe neutropenia among our renal transplant patients and thought to identify the associated factors. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all kidney transplantations performed between January 2005 and December 2006. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), tacrolimus, and steroids. VGC was used for targeted prophylaxis and preemptive therapy of CMV infection, with doses adjusted to renal function. Of the 64 patients undergoing renal transplantation 13 (20.3%) developed leukopenia within 3 +/- 2 months after transplantation with severe neutropenia in 5 (7.8%). All patients were on MMF and VGC (VGC 605 +/- 296 mg/d). Leukopenia was significantly associated with simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation and with second kidney transplantations (P leukopenia was higher among patients under VGC since day 1 of transplantation (P = .008) with maximal incidence observed among patients prescribed 900 mg/d as opposed to those on lower doses (P leukopenia on MMF-tacrolimus treated patients or regimens. Low-dose VGC for CMV prophylaxis appeared to be as effective as high-dose treatment, and associated less frequently with leukopenia and neutropenia.

  9. Kidney transplantation from hepatitis B virus core antibody-positive donors: prophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroux, M; Corona, D; Ekser, B; Giaquinta, A; Tallarita, T; De Martino, C; Gentile, F; Virgilio, C; Gagliano, M; Fiamingo, P; Veroux, P

    2011-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus core antibody (HBcAb)-positive organ donors have the potential to transmit infection to transplant recipients. We investigated the use of a single dose of 2000 IU of hepatitis B immunoglobulin in 18 patients among a population of 54 kidney transplant recipients from HBcAb-positive deceased donors. Twelve recipients were HBcAb-positive before transplantation. Among the other 42 patients, 5 (11.9%) seroconverted from HBcAb-negative to HBcAb-positive, whereas one HBcAb-positive recipient became hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive with clinical signs of active hepatitis 6 years after transplantation. In the 18 patients who underwent prophylaxis, we did not find any seroconversion or hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission. Graft and patient survival of HBcAb-positive kidney transplants did not differ significantly with a matched population of HBcAb-negative transplantation. These results suggest that kidney transplantation from HBcAb-positive donors is safe with a low rate of HBV transmission. A prophylaxis with a single shot of hepatitis B immunoglobulin may be effective in reducing the risk of HBV seroconversion or reactivation and may be suggested in all naïve or HBcAb-positive transplant recipients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The incidence of post-transplant cancer among kidney transplant recipients is associated with the level of tacrolimus exposure during the first year after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Shelly; Rahamimov, Ruth; Green, Hefziba; Fox, Benjamin D; Mor, Eytan; Gafter, Uzi; Chagnac, Avry; Rozen-Zvi, Benaya

    2017-07-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy plays a major role in the development of post-transplant cancer. In this nested case-control study of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), we investigated whether the incidence of post-transplant cancer is associated with the level of tacrolimus exposure over time. We screened the Rabin Medical Center database for adults who received kidney transplants between 2001 and 2014 and developed post-transplant cancer (excluding basal and squamous cell skin cancers). They were matched against KTRs without cancer. All patients received a maintenance immunosuppressive treatment with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. The degree of exposure to tacrolimus was estimated as the time-weighted average (tTWA) value of tacrolimus blood levels. The tTWA was calculated as the area under the curve divided by time at 1, 6, and 12 months after transplantation and at time of cancer diagnosis. Thirty-two cases were matched against 64 controls. tTWA values above 11 ng/mL at 6 and 12 months after transplantation were associated with odds ratio (OR) of 3.1 (95% CI 1.1-9) and 11.7 (95% CI = 1.3-106), respectively, for post-transplant cancer; and with OR of 5.2 (95% CI 1.3-20.5) and 14.1 (95% CI = 1.5-134.3), respectively, for cancer diagnosed more than 3 years after transplantation. Exposure to a tacrolimus time-weighted average level above 11 ng/mL at 6 or 12 months after kidney transplantation is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer.

  11. Increasing the supply of kidneys for transplantation by making living donors the preferred source of donor kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Giuliano; Siegler, Mark

    2014-12-01

    At the present time, increasing the use of living donors offers the best solution to the organ shortage problem. The clinical questions raised when the first living donor kidney transplant was performed, involving donor risk, informed consent, donor protection, and organ quality, have been largely answered. We strongly encourage a wider utilization of living donation and recommend that living donation, rather than deceased donation, become the first choice for kidney transplantation. We believe that it is ethically sound to have living kidney donation as the primary source for organs when the mortality and morbidity risks to the donor are known and kept extremely low, when the donor is properly informed and protected from coercion, and when accepted national and local guidelines for living donation are followed.

  12. The Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Smoking on Mortality and Kidney Transplantation in End-Stage Kidney Disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-07

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and tobacco use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and clinical impact of COPD on mortality and kidney transplantation among patients who begin dialysis therapy is unclear. Methods: We explored the clinical impact of COPD and continued tobacco use on overall mortality and kidney transplantation in a national cohort study of US dialysis patients. National data on all dialysis patients (n = 769,984), incident between May 1995 and December 2004 and followed until October 31, 2006, were analyzed from the United States Renal Data System. Prevalence and period trends were determined while multivariable Cox regression evaluated relative hazard ratios (RR) for death and kidney transplantation. Results: The prevalence of COPD was 7.5% overall and increased from 6.7 to 8.1% from 1995-2004. COPD correlated significantly with older age, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, malnutrition, poor functional status, and tobacco use. Adjusted mortality risks were significantly higher for patients with COPD (RR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.18-1.21), especially among current smokers (RR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.25-1.32), and varied inversely with advancing age. In contrast, the adjusted risks of kidney transplantation were significantly lower for patients with COPD (RR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.41-0.54, for smokers and RR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.50-0.58, for non-smokers) than without COPD [RR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.70-0.75, for smokers and RR = 1.00 for non-smokers (referent category)]. Conclusions: Patients with COPD who begin dialysis therapy in the US experience higher mortality and lower rates of kidney transplantation, outcomes that are far worse among current smokers.

  13. Tamm-Horsfall protein in urine after uninephrectomy/transplantation in kidney donors and their recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S

    1997-01-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is a large glycoprotein with unknown physiological function synthesized in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Urinary THP has recently been suggested as being suitable for monitoring the functional state of transplanted kidneys. In the present study...... of THP were measured 2 days before nephrectomy and 5, 12, 26 and 54 days after nephrectomy/transplantation in 22 healthy living kidney donors and in 16 of their recipients. In the donors, THP excretion rate of the kidney to remain in the donor was 22.3 micrograms/min before and 33.7 micrograms/min at 5...... days after uninephrectomy (p kidney rose from 47 ml/min before to 61 ml/min at 5 days after uninephrectomy (p kidney...

  14. Evidence for a need to mandate kidney transplant living donor registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Mahmoud; Ragheb, Ahmed; Hassan, Abubaker; Shoker, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Kidney disease is a global public health problem of growing proportions. Currently the best treatment for end-stage renal failure is transplantation. Living organ donation remains a complex ethical, moral and medical issue. It is based on a premise that kidney donation is associated with short-term minimal risks to harm the donor, and is outweighed by the definite advantages to the recipient. A growing number of patients with end-stage renal disease and shortage of kidney donors poses a pressing need to expand the criteria needed to accept kidney donors. The current donor registries are structured and are driven to expand donor pool. As living kidney donation is not without risks, more attention should be given to protect the donor health. After kidney donation, mild to moderate renal insufficiency may occur. Renal insufficiency, even mild, is associated with increased risks of hypertension, proteinuria and cardiovascular morbidity. We, therefore, foresee a need to mandate the establishment of renal transplant donor registries at all transplanting programs as a prerequisite to protect the long-term well being of kidney donors. These registries can collect the database necessary to develop standards of practice and guidelines for future kidney donation.

  15. Effects of recipient’s pre-transplant triglyceride abnormalities on early renal function recovery after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-wei ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of recipient's pre-transplant triglyceride (TG abnormalities on early graft function (EGF after kidney transplantation. Methods According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 154 identified living-kidney transplant recipients in the 309 Hospital of Chinese PLA from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2014 were enrolled in present study, including 124 males and 30 females, and aged of 31.9±8.4 years. The cohort was divided into two groups: TG normal group (0.401.70mmol/L or require lipid lowering therapy, n=47. The incidences of poor early graft renal function (PEGF, slow graft function (SGF and delayed graft function (DGF were compared between the two groups, and then the serum creatinine (Scr levels were compared among the patients showing immediate graft function (IGF at 3rd, 7th and 30th day after transplantation. The ROC curve was drawn up taking TG as diagnosis index to explore the optimal cut-off value for predicting PEGF, SGF and DGF after transplantation. Results Compared with the TG normal group, the TG abnormalities group showed significantly higher incidence of PEGF and DGF (P<0.05. Among the IGF patients, the TG abnormalities group showed higher Scr level at the 7th and 30th day after transplantation (P<0.05. The area under ROC curve (AUC reflected TG levels for PEGF, SGF and DGF were 0.774, 0.704 and 0.818, respectively (P<0.05. The optimal cut-off values were all 1.37mmol/L. Conclusions Recipients with abnormal pre-transplant TG level may have worse EGF after renal transplantation. The risk of developing PEGF, SGF and DGF tends to emerge when pre-transplant TG level is higher than 1.37mmol/L. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.05.12

  16. Transplantation of a horseshoe kidney from a living donor: Case report, long term outcome and donor safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo-Janeiro, Jaime Manuel; Orozco, Eduardo Prado; Reyes, Francisco J.Roberto Enríquez; de la Rosa Paredes, René; de Lara Cisneros, Luis G.Vázquez; Espinosa, Alfonso Lozano; Naylor, Jesús Mier

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The use of a horseshoe kidney in renal transplant remains controversial, when it is found in the evaluation of a living donor, anatomical, surgical and ethical issues are involved. Presentation of Case An uncomplicated horseshoe kidney was detected in a 51-year-old woman who was the only suitable donor for her 30-year-old son. Kidneys were fused in the inferior pole and no vascular or urinary abnormalities were detected during imaging evaluation. The surgical procedure was approved by the hospital transplant committee. A laparotomy was performed by means of a medial upper incision. The isthmus of the kidney was divided using a harmonic scalpel and the left segment was used; it had 2 arteries too distant to create a common one, thus anastomosed separately. The renal vein was side-to-side anastomosed to the right external iliac vein and a Lich-Gregoir ureteral implant was made. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications in the donor who currently remains asymptomatic. Recipient developed a delayed graft function (DGF), and was discharged on the 12th day after surgery. After 24 months of surgery, renal function has remained stable with a serum creatinine of 128 μmol/L (1.45 mg/dL). Discussion There are 7 reports of a horseshoe kidney from living donors in 8 patients without morbidity and a good long term outcome of all recipients. Conclusion If we anticipate a low operative risk and there is a suitable anatomy, we may consider the use of horseshoe kidneys from living donors a viable alternative. PMID:26299249

  17. [Health related quality of life and kidney transplantation: a comparison with population values at 6 months post-transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Requena, Gema; Cantarell Aixendri, M Carmen; Rodriguez Urrutia, Amanda; Seron Micas, Daniel

    2014-05-06

    Transplantation is an effective treatment for end stage renal failure. The aim of this study was to compare patient's perceived health related quality of life (HRQoL) with population values, at one moth and 6 moths of kidney post-transplantation. The Questionnaire of Quality of Life in Kidney Disease was administered during the first month and also at the 6 months following transplantation. A comparison with the general population was done with the generic part of the questionnaire. In the statistical analyses, typical standardized scores were used. In this study 72 patients were included with a median age of 57 years. At the 6 month post-transplantation, the patient's HRQoL showed values that were similar to the general population. When we compared the HRQoL at the first month and at the 6 month post-transplantation, the differences of HRQoL were significant in all dimensions, except on the General health and Emotional role. At 6 moths after transplantation, there was an improvement in the perceived HRQoL that was similar to the general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of insulin resistance indexes in a stable renal transplant population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, LH; De Vries, APJ; Van Son, WJ; Van Der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Gansevoort, RT; De Jong, PE; Gans, ROB; Bakker, SJL

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of established insulin resistance indexes, based on fasting blood parameters, in a stable renal transplant population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin

  19. Validation of insulin resistance indexes in a stable renal transplant population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; van Son, Willem J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of established insulin resistance indexes, based on fasting blood parameters, in a stable renal transplant population. Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and

  20. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in kidney transplant recipients: A single-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is characterized by a combination of cardiovascular (CV risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and alterations in glucose homeostasis. Insulin resistance is suggested to be the common pathogenic background. This syndrome is also a risk factor for diabetes and chronic kidney disease. In renal transplant recipients, MS has been shown to be an independent risk factor for chronic allograft dysfunction, graft failure, new-onset diabetes, and CV disease. We performed a cross-sectional study on 106 stable renal transplant recipients to detect MS between January 2013 and August 2013. This syndrome was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Patients with history of diabetes mellitus were excluded from the study. In this group of patients, 56 (52.8% had MS. There were 32 males (57.1% and 24 females (42.9%. The mean age of the MS group was significantly higher than the non-MS group. The mean serum creatinine was higher in the MS group than the non-MS group, but there was no significant difference between them (P >0.05. The calculated glomerular filtration rate was also similar in the two groups (P >0.05. The patients with MS had higher body weight (64.61 ± 14.17 kg vs. 58.76 ± 11.70 kg, P 25 kg/m2 in the MS group was 75% versus 25% in the non-MS group (P <0.05. Since MS is an important and common risk factor in renal transplant recipients, we have to try to prevent it by educating the patients to control it by modifying their lifestyle. Efforts toward promoting healthy diets, physical activity, and blood pressure control must be undertaken.

  1. Clusterin in kidney transplantation: novel biomarkers versus serum creatinine for early prediction of delayed graft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianta, Timothy J; Peake, Philip W; Pickering, John W; Kelleher, Michaela; Buckley, Nicholas A; Endre, Zoltan H

    2015-01-01

    Current methods for rapid detection of delayed graft function (DGF) after kidney transplantation are unreliable. Urinary clusterin is a biomarker of kidney injury but its utility for prediction of graft dysfunction is unknown. In a single-center, prospective cohort study of renal transplant recipients (N=81), urinary clusterin was measured serially between 4 hr and 7 days after transplantation. The utility of clusterin for prediction of DGF (hemodialysis within 7 days of transplantation) was compared with urinary interleukin (IL)-18, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1, serum creatinine, and clinical variables. At 4 hr after reperfusion, anuria was highly specific, but of low sensitivity for detection of DGF. At 4 hr, receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that urinary clusterin, IL-18, kidney injury molecule-1, and NGAL concentration were predictive of DGF. After adjusting for preoperative clinical variables and anuria, clusterin and IL-18 independently enhanced the clinical model for prediction of DGF. Kidney injury molecule-1 only modestly improved the prediction of DGF, whereas NGAL, serum creatinine, and the creatinine reduction ratio did not improve on the clinical model. At 12 hr, the creatinine reduction ratio independently predicted DGF. Both urinary clusterin and IL-18 are useful biomarkers and may allow triaging of patients with DGF within 4 hr of transplantation. Relative performance of biomarkers for prediction of graft function is time-dependant. Early and frequent measurements of serum creatinine and calculation of the creatinine reduction ratio also predict DGF within 12 hr of reperfusion.

  2. Outcomes of kidney transplant tourism in children: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Abdul; Al Khalidi, Lina; Ahmed, Bushra Q; Opelz, Gerhard; Schaefer, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Transplant tourism is a necessity for children with end-stage renal disease living in regions without established local transplantation programs. The use of kidneys from living unrelated donors (LURDs) was common practice in Asia prior to the recent global condemnation of commercial organ transplantation. Objective information on the outcomes of pediatric transplant tourism is scarce. Here, we report the Dubai experience with 45 renal allograft transplantations performed outside the United Arab Emirates (UAE) between 1993 and 2009. Transplantation from 33 LURDs, ten living related donors (LRDs) and two deceased donors was performed in 14 different countries. The mean number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A/B/DR allele matches was 1.4 +/- 0.8 in the LURD graft recipients and 3.9 +/- 0.7 in the LRD recipients. Outcomes were compared with those of a matched group of 3,150 pediatric LRD transplantations from the Collaborative Transplant Study (CTS). Ten-year patient survival was 100% in the LRD patients, 91.2% in the LURD patients, and 92% in the CTS patients. The three deaths in the LURD group occurred within the first 4 months after transplantation and were related to acute rejection. One-year and 10-year graft survival was 100% in the LRD group and 94.8% and 66.7% in the CTS-LRD groups, vs 87.8% and 43.4% in the LURD group. Major viral infections [Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella zoster (VZV)] were four-times more common in patients that had received LURD grafts than in those that had received LRD grafts. In conclusion, whereas LRD kidney transplantation performed abroad yields excellent long-term results, transplantation of LURD kidneys is fraught with a high complication rate affecting graft and even early patient survival.

  3. Renal and obstetric outcomes in pregnancy after kidney transplantation: Twelve-year experience in a Singapore transplant center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwek, Jia Liang; Tey, Vanessa; Yang, Liying; Kanagalingam, Devendra; Kee, Terence

    2015-09-01

    Renal and obstetric outcomes in pregnancy after kidney transplantation in Singapore were last studied in 2002. A review of these outcomes in Singapore is now timely following advances in transplant and obstetric medicine. The aim was to evaluate the renal and obstetric outcomes in pregnancy after kidney transplantation in a Singapore tertiary center. Kidney transplant recipients who underwent pregnancy after transplantation at Singapore General Hospital between January 2001 and December 2012 were identified. Data on demographics, comorbidities and clinical outcomes were collected. There were 10 pregnancies identified in nine recipients. The median age of recipient at childbearing was 34.6 years (IQR, 32.8-36.8) and the median interval from transplantation to conception was 69 months (IQR, 38-97). There was no difference between the median pre-pregnancy estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (47.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2); IQR, 38.4-56.8) and median eGFR at time of last post-partum follow up (43.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2); IQR, 34.5-48.7, P = 0.549). Borderline allograft rejection occurred in one recipient (10.0%) 36 days after birth due to non-adherence to immunosuppressive medication, with subsequent allograft loss 37 months after birth. No mortalities were recorded during the study period. All the 10 pregnancies (100%) ended in singleton live births. Pre-eclampsia occurred in five pregnancies (50.0%), and there were seven (70.0%) preterm deliveries. The median gestational age was 35.4 weeks (IQR, 32.6-38.2) and the median birthweight was 2353 g (IQR, 1811-2648). Post-transplantation pregnancies ended successfully with no significant worsening of allograft function, but they were associated with risks to both recipients and newborns. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Efficacy of interferon for chronic hepatitis C virus-related hepatitis in kidney transplant candidates on hemodialysis: results after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas-Taltavull, T; Baliellas, C; Benasco, C; Serrano, T T; Casanova, A; Pérez, J L; Guerrero, L; González, M T; Andres, E; Gil-Vernet, S; Casais, L A

    2001-04-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN) may have undesirable effects on a functioning graft. The aim of this study was to evaluate IFN treatment in kidney transplant candidates during the hemodialysis period as well as the results after transplantation. A total of 29 noncirrhotic hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (based on long-term rise in ALT, HCV serology, HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction methods, and histological evidence) were included. Tolerability to IFN treatment, pre- and posttransplantation therapeutic results, and long-term outcome were recorded. IFN regimen consisted of 3 million units (MU) times per week after hemodialysis sessions for 6 months, followed by 1.5 MU after each hemodialysis session for an additional 6 months. All patients gave informed consent for participation. IFN therapy was fairly well tolerated. Adverse effects due to IFN toxicity, renal disease, or causes related to the immunological properties of IFN were observed in 24% of patients. At the end of treatment, ALT had normalized in 23/28 patients (82.1%), and HCV RNA had cleared in 23/28 patients (82.1%). During follow-up, HCV RNA was persistently negative in 18 patients (64%, including transplant recipients). A total of 14 patients (nine HCV RNA-negative) received a kidney transplant. Mean follow-up after the procedure was 41 +/- 28 months. In all, 12 patients had a functioning graft, one had acute vascular rejection, and one died of carcinoma. All transplanted patients maintained normal ALT levels, and eight remained HCV RNA-negative. Treatment results in our study population were better than those observed in the general population. The long-term response achieved, which was maintained after transplantation, supports the use of IFN for HCV hepatitis in kidney transplant candidates under hemodialysis.

  5. Attitude of medical professionals regarding controversial issues in kidney donation/transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a dire need to evaluate new strategies to bridge the wide kidney demand-supply gap. The current study examined the attitude of medical professionals regarding controversial issues pertaining to transplantation. A questionnaire, presenting controversial issues related to kidney transplantation, in an agree-disagree format with supporting reasons, was employed. The research was exploratory. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The sample comprised 140 doctors from Mumbai (mean = 38.1 years, standard deviation = 17.95; Males = 44.3%, Females = 55.7%. Whereas 47.1% of the participants felt that live donors should be given incentives for kidney donation, others (52.9% disagreed, fearing commercialization and illegal activities. The eligibility of patients with HIV/hepatitis for a transplant was denied by 52.9% because of poor outcomes, with the others (47.1% maintaining that these individuals too had a right to live. A substantial majority (90.7% of the participants maintained that organ donors should be given priority in the event of a future need for an organ because their previous humane act should be rewarded (47.1%. Most of the participants (91.4% felt that individuals from the higher socioeconomic strata should not receive preference for kidney transplantation. A majority (77.1% of them were also against kidney selling getting legalized. Compulsory possession of a donor card elicited mixed responses, with some accepting (56.4%, but others rejecting (43.6% this idea as donation was perceived to be a voluntary act (33.6%. While compulsory kidney donation found favor with 44.3%, it found disfavor with others (55.7%. This study will benefit transplant healthcare personnel to formulate new policies in relation to kidney donation/transplantation.

  6. Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome post Kidney Transplantation: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami eAlasfar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS is a rare disorder characterized by over-activation and dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. Its estimated prevalence is 1-2 per million. The disease is characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy, which causes anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. aHUS has more severe course compared to typical (Infection-induced HUS and is frequently characterized by relapses that leads to end stage renal disease (ESRD. For a long time, kidney transplantation for these patients was contraindicated because of high rate of recurrence and subsequent renal graft loss. The post-kidney transplantation recurrence rate largely depends on the pathogenetic mechanisms involved. However, over the past several years, advancements in the understanding and therapeutics of aHUS have allowed successful kidney transplantation in these patients. Eculizumab, which is a complement C5 antibody that inhibits complement factor 5a (C5a and subsequent formation of the membrane attack complex, has been used in prevention and treatment of post-transplant aHUS recurrence. In this paper, we present two new cases of aHUS patients who underwent successful kidney transplantation in our center with the use of prophylactic and maintenance eculizumab therapy that have not been published before. The purpose of reporting these two cases is to emphasize the importance of using eculizumab as a prophylactic therapy to prevent aHUS recurrence post transplant in high-risk patients. We will also review the current understanding of the genetics of aHUS, the pathogenesis of its recurrence after kidney transplantation, and strategies for prevention and treatment of post-transplant aHUS recurrence.

  7. De Novo Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Kidney Allograft 20 Years after Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Banshodani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC in a kidney allograft is rare. We report the successful diagnosis and treatment of a de novo RCC in a nonfunctioning kidney transplant 20 years after engraftment. A 54-year-old man received a kidney transplant from his mother when he was 34 years old. After 10 years, chronic rejection resulted in graft failure, and the patient became hemodialysis-dependent. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT for the evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms revealed a solid 13 mm tumor in the kidney graft. The tumor was confirmed on ultrasound examination. This tumor had not been detected on a surveillance noncontrast CT scan. Needle biopsy showed that the tumor was an RCC. Allograft nephrectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed that the tumor was a Fuhrman Grade 2 RCC. XY-fluorescence hybridization analysis of the RCC showed that the tumor cells were of donor origin. One year after the surgery, the patient is alive and has no evidence of tumor recurrence. Regardless of whether a kidney transplant is functioning, it should periodically be imaged for RCC throughout the recipient’s lifetime. In our experience, ultrasonography or CT with intravenous contrast is better than CT without contrast for the detection of tumor in a nonfunctioning kidney transplant.

  8. Risk of cancer in retransplants compared to primary kidney transplants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Roberto S; Lynch, Charles F; Engels, Eric A

    2015-10-01

    Recipients of kidney transplantation have elevated risk of developing cancer. There are limited data on cancer risk in recipients of kidney retransplantation. We used data from the Transplant Cancer Match Study, which links the U.S. transplant registry with 15 cancer registries. Cancer incidence in recipients of kidney retransplantation and primary kidney transplants was compared utilizing Poisson regression, adjusting for demographic and medical characteristics. We assessed 109 224 primary recipients and 6621 retransplants. Compared to primary recipients, retransplants were younger (median age 40 vs. 46 yr), had higher PRA, and more often received induction with polyclonal antibodies (43% vs. 25%). A total of 5757 cancers were observed in primary recipients and 245 in retransplants. Overall cancer risk was similar in retransplants compared with primary recipients (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.06, 95% CI 0.93-1.20, adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, PRA, and use of polyclonal induction). However, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurred in excess among retransplants (adjusted IRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.45-2.77), based on 514 cases in primary recipients and 43 cases in retransplants. Overall cancer risk did not differ in retransplants compared to primary recipients. Increased risk of RCC may be explained by the presence of acquired cystic kidney disease, which is more likely to develop with additional time with kidney disease and time spent on dialysis waiting for retransplantation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Spanish validation of the "kidney transplant questionnaire": a useful instrument for assessing health related quality of life in kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Pablo; Ortega, Francisco; Ortega, Teresa; Valdés, Covadonga; García-Mendoza, Mónica; Gómez, Ernesto

    2003-10-17

    There is a growing interest in the evaluation of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among patients undergoing Renal Replacement Therapy. In Spain, no specific questionnaire exists for kidney transplant patients. Here we present the Spanish validation of the first specific HRQoL assessment tool: the kidney transplant questionnaire (KTQ). Prospective study of 31 patients on transplant waiting list who received the first kidney. Patients were evaluated before transplant and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, using the KTQ and the SF-36 Health Survey. Feasibility, validity, reliability, and sensibility to change were evaluated. Mean time of administration of the KTQ was 12 minutes. Correlation coefficients among KTQ dimensions range between 0.32 and 0.72. Correlation coefficients of KTQ dimensions with SF-36 PCS were low (r0.4) except for Physical Symptom dimension (r = 0.33). Cronbach's Alpha was satisfactory for all KTQ dimensions (Physical Symptoms = 0.80; Fatigue = 0.93; Uncertainty/Fear = 0.81; Emotional= 0.90) except Appearance (0.69). Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between 0.63 and 0.85, similar to those of the original KTQ version. Results of validation study show that feasibility, validity, reliability and sensibility to change of the Spanish version of the KTQ are similar to those of the original version.

  10. Spanish validation of the "Kidney Transplant Questionnaire": a useful instrument for assessing health related quality of life in kidney transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdés Covadonga

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in the evaluation of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL among patients undergoing Renal Replacement Therapy. In Spain, no specific questionnaire exists for kidney transplant patients. Here we present the Spanish validation of the first specific HRQoL assessment tool: the kidney transplant questionnaire (KTQ. Methods Prospective study of 31 patients on transplant waiting list who received the first kidney. Patients were evaluated before transplant and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, using the KTQ and the SF-36 Health Survey. Feasibility, validity, reliability, and sensibility to change were evaluated. Results Mean time of administration of the KTQ was 12 minutes. Correlation coefficients among KTQ dimensions range between 0.32 and 0.72. Correlation coefficients of KTQ dimensions with SF-36 PCS were low (r0.4 except for Physical Symptom dimension (r = 0.33. Cronbach's Alpha was satisfactory for all KTQ dimensions (Physical Symptoms = 0.80; Fatigue = 0.93; Uncertainty/Fear = 0.81; Emotional= 0.90 except Appearance (0.69. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between 0.63 and 0.85, similar to those of the original KTQ version. Conclusions Results of validation study show that feasibility, validity, reliability and sensibility to change of the Spanish version of the KTQ are similar to those of the original version.

  11. Lack of Association between Epstein-Barr Virus and Epithelial Malignancies Developed after Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung Seon; Kang, Kyeong Hee; Kang, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2003-10-01

    Organ transplant recipients are at high risk of developing malignancies due to immunosuppressive regimens. Unlike post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (PTLDs), where Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays an etiological role, there are conflicting data regarding the association of EBV with post-transplant epithelial malignancies. In order to clarify the role of EBV in carcinomas that develop after solid-organ transplantation, the presence of EBV infection in the carcinomas of post-kidney transplant patients was examined. The presence of EBV infection in skin carcinoma (PTSC), gastric carcinoma (PTGC) and urothelial carcinoma (PTUC), which developed in the patients under an immune suppression regime following kidney transplantation, was examined. Tumors from the patients without organ transplantation were also used as a comparison in the study. The study group included five nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs), one Hodgkin's disease (HD), one B-cell non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma (NHL) and one hypopharynx (HPC) tumor. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analysis, using sera from the same patients, confirmed that all of the tested patients were previously infected with EBV. From in situ hybridization, no EBER positive cells were detected in any of the tumor tissues obtained from the three kidney transplant recipients (PTSC, PTGC and PTUC) or in the NHL and HPC tissues. In contrast, all five of the NPC and HD tissues showed strong EBER positivity. These results suggest that there is a strong association of EBV with NPC and HD as previously reported, while no such strong association of EBV was found with epithelial malignancies that developed after kidney transplantation.

  12. Clazakizumab in Highly-HLA Sensitized Patients Awaiting Renal Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-26

    Kidney Failure, Chronic; End-Stage Renal Disease; Transplant Glomerulopathy; Transplant;Failure,Kidney; Kidney Transplant Failure and Rejection; Antibody-mediated Rejection; Kidney Transplant; Complications

  13. Successful three-way kidney paired donation transplantation: The first Indian report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Kute

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing transplantation opportunities for patients with incompatible live donors through kidney paired donation (KPD is an important strategy for easing the crisis in organ availability. KPD is can overcome the barriers when the only living potential donors are deemed unsuitable owing to an incompatibility of blood type, of human leukocyte antigen cross-match, or both. In KPD, the incompatibility problems with two donor recipient pairs can be solved by exchanging donors. In the absence of well-organized deceased donor program, or transplantation with desensitization protocol and ABO incompatible transplantation, living donor KPD promises hope to the growing number of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease in India. We report our first successful three-way KPD transplantation from India. In an era of organ shortage, this approach is relevant to encourage wider participation from KPD donors and transplant centers to prevent commercial transplantation.

  14. Kidney donor profile in Spain: risks factors and characteristics of the organs rejected for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, B; Cañón, J; Naya, M T; Cuende, N; Garrido, G; Fernández-Zincke, E

    2003-01-01

    During recent years organ donation in Spain has increased by 100%, with important changes seen in the donor profile. Mean age has increased by more than 10 years, being nowadays more than 33% of our donors over 60 years. Ten years ago road traffic trauma was the main cause of death, while now most of our donors die due to stroke and only 21% die in a traffic accident. This changes lead to an increase in the number of kidneys discarded for transplantation every year. Among the 2517 kidneys retrieved during 2001, 567 were discarded, mainly due to different glomerular, interstitial or vascular pathologic damage. The older is the donor the higher is the percentage of kidneys discarded. It has to be underlined that an increased number of livers from donors, whose kidneys could not be used, are being grafted (141 in 2001 over 281 donors from whom no kidney could be grafted and over a total number of 1335 donors). Only 5% of kidneys were discarded due to technical problems. An important number of kidneys were discarded due to malignancy suspicion or diagnosis (12.3%). Organ donation has improved but kidney transplantation did not in parallel, due to the increasing number of kidneys discarded for transplantation in close relation with the evolution of donor's characteristics. Organ donation rate is around 33 donors per million population while efficient organ donation rate is around 30 donors per million. Only from 67% of donors both kidneys can be grafted and from 20% of donors no kidney can be used. These data will not change our policy, at least by the moment, we will continue to evaluate every potential brain death donor with the aim of studying if organs can be used. It is true that in 50% of cases over 70 years no organ can be used after retrieval and microscopic exam, but in the other 50% we can proceed.

  15. Tragic choices and moral compromise: the ethics of allocating kidneys for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmaster, Barry; Hooker, Cliff

    2013-09-01

    For almost a decade, the Kidney Transplantation Committee of the United Network for Organ Sharing has been striving to revise its approach to allocating kidneys from deceased donors for transplantation. Two fundamental values, equality and efficiency, are central to distributing this scarce resource. The prevailing approach gives primacy to equality in the temporal form of first-come, first-served, whereas the motivation for a new approach is to redeem efficiency by increasing the length of survival of transplanted kidneys and their recipients. But decision making about a better way of allocating kidneys flounders because it is constrained by the amorphous notion of "balancing" values. This article develops a more fitting, productive approach to resolving the conflict between equality and efficiency by embedding the notion of compromise in the analysis of a tragic choice provided by Guido Calabresi and Philip Bobbitt. For Calabresi and Bobbitt, the goals of public policy with respect to tragic choices are to limit tragedy and to deal with the irreducible minimum of tragedy in the least offensive way. Satisfying the value of efficiency limits tragedy, and satisfying the value of equality deals with the irreducible minimum of tragedy in the least offensive way. But both values cannot be completely satisfied simultaneously. Compromise is occasioned when not all the several obligations that exist in a situation can be met and when neglecting some obligations entirely in order to fulfill others entirely is improper. Compromise is amalgamated with the notion of a tragic choice and then used to assess proposals for revising the allocation of kidneys considered by the Kidney Transplantation Committee. Compromise takes two forms in allocating kidneys: it occurs within particular approaches to allocating kidneys because neither equality nor efficiency can be fully satisfied, and it occurs over the course of sequential approaches to allocating kidneys that cycle between

  16. 2222 kidney transplantations at the University Hospital Basel: a story of success and new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeier, Caroline; Georgalis, Argyrios; Hirt-Minkowski, Patricia; Amico, Patrizia; Hoenger, Gideon; Voegele, Thomas; Brun, Nicole; Bock, Andreas; Wolff, Thomas; Guerke, Lorenz; Bachmann, Alexander; Hopfer, Helmut; Dickenmann, Michael; Steiger, Jürg; Schaub, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate changes in kidney allograft donor/recipient characteristics and outcomes at our centre. We retrospectively reviewed all 2222 kidney transplantations performed between 1967 and 2015. The population was divided into four eras on the basis of time intervals corresponding to major changes in immunosuppression and pretransplant risk stratification: (i.) 1967-1980 (n = 231), (ii.) 1981-1997 (n = 883), (iii.) 1998-2004 (n = 437), (iv.) 2005-2015 (n = 671). In deceased donor transplants, we observed a continuous increase of the median recipient (45, 51, 56 and 58 years; p 15 ml/min. Despite increasing donor and recipient age, outcomes improved, illustrating ongoing progress in kidney transplantation. A major new challenge is to match the functional capacity of the donor organ with the anticipated lifespan of the recipient.

  17. Perioperative Concerns for Profound Metabolic Alkalosis During Kidney Transplantation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Ju; Kim, Yong Beom; Kim, Hong Soon; Lee, Kyung Cheon; Jo, Youn Yi

    2016-11-01

    Profound metabolic alkalosis is an uncommon consideration for the anesthetic management of kidney transplantation. Serum total carbon dioxide content and complex electrolyte abnormalities might be important diagnostic clues for the presence of metabolic alkalosis in the absence of arterial blood gas analysis. A 34-year-old female visited Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, South Korea during year 2015. She experienced aggravated renal function due to chronic hypokalemia and severe hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, induced by laxative abuse, and underwent ABO incompatible kidney transplantation. Serum total carbon dioxide content remained high (about 60 mEq/L) over eight months of monthly follow-up prior to kidney transplantation. The authors described their anesthetic experience of profound metabolic alkalosis with complex electrolyte abnormalities and provided a review of relevant literature.

  18. Recommendations for the use of everolimus in de novo kidney transplantation: False beliefs, myths and realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Julio; Diekmann, Fritz; Fernández-Rivera, Constantino; Gómez-Marqués, Gonzalo; Gutiérrez-Dalmau, Alex; Pérez-Sáez, María José; Sancho-Calabuig, Asunción; Oppenheimer, Federico

    The immunosuppressive combination most commonly used in de novo kidney transplantation comprises a calcineurin inhibitor (CI), tacrolimus, a mycophenolic acid derivative and steroids. The evidence which underlies this practice is based in the Symphony trial with controlled follow-up of one year, in which no comparator group included the combination CI-mTOR inhibitor. Different high-quality clinical trials support the use of everolimus as a standard immunosuppressive drug associated with reduced exposure of a CI in kidney transplantation. This combination could improve health related outcomes in kidney transplantation recipients. The present recommendations constitute an attempt to summarise the scientific evidence supporting this practice, discuss false beliefs, myths and facts, and offer specific guidelines for safe use, avoiding complications. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-Integrated Information and Communication Technologies in the Kidney Transplantation Process in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres Penteado, Alissa; Fábio Maciel, Rafael; Erbs, João; Feijó Ortolani, Cristina Lucia; Aguiar Roza, Bartira; Torres Pisa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The entire kidney transplantation process in Brazil is defined through laws, decrees, ordinances, and resolutions, but there is no defined theoretical map describing this process. From this representation it's possible to perform analysis, such as the identification of bottlenecks and information and communication technologies (ICTs) that support this process. The aim of this study was to analyze and represent the kidney transplantation workflow using business process modeling notation (BPMN) and then to identify the ICTs involved in the process. This study was conducted in eight steps, including document analysis and professional evaluation. The results include the BPMN model of the kidney transplantation process in Brazil and the identification of ICTs. We discovered that there are great delays in the process due to there being many different ICTs involved, which can cause information to be poorly integrated.

  20. Soluble Co-Signaling Molecules Predict Long-Term Graft Outcome in Kidney-Transplanted Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendreras, Susana G.; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Menéndez, Aurora; Bravo-Mendoza, Cristina; González-Vidal, Ana; Coto, Eliecer; Díaz-Corte, Carmen; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; López-Larrea, Carlos; Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Co-signaling molecules are responsible for full T-cell activation after solid organ transplantation. Their increased expression can lead to the release of a soluble form that can modulate the immune response post-transplantation. We analyzed the presence of co-signaling molecules (sCD30, sCD40, sCD137, sCTLA-4, sCD80, sCD28, sCD40L, sPD-1, and sPD-L1) in serum from kidney-transplanted patients (n = 59) obtained at different times (before transplantation, and 15 days, 3 months and 1 year post-transplantation) and their contribution to graft outcome was evaluated using principal component analysis. Before transplantation, high levels of soluble co-signaling molecules (mainly sCD30, sCD137 and sCD40) were detected in all patients. These molecules were modulated soon after receiving an allograft but never attained similar levels to those of healthy controls. A signature based on the determination of six soluble co-stimulatory (sCD30, sCD40, sCD137 and sCD40L) and co-inhibitory (sPD-1 and sPD-L1) molecules at 3 months post-transplantation allowed a group of patients to be identified (27.12%) with a worse long-term graft outcome. Patients with high levels of soluble molecules showed a progressive and gradual deterioration of kidney function (increased creatinine and proteinuria levels and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate) over time and a higher risk of graft loss at 6 years post-transplantation than patients with low levels of these molecules (62.55% versus 5.14%, pmolecules in kidney-transplanted patients whose quantification at 3 months post-transplantation might be a useful biomarker of immune status and help to predict long-term graft evolution. PMID:25478957

  1. Living donor kidney transplantation: "beauty and the beast"!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    The report by Terasaki and colleagues in 1995 that the outcomes of spousal and biologically unrelated transplants were essentially the same as for 1-haplotype matched living related transplants changed the course of clinical transplantation. This article, entitled metaphorically "Beauty and the Beast", describes the dramatic change in the practice of living donor transplantation that followed. In the ensuing two decades, biologically unrelated living donor transplantation became commonplace in the developed world and reached its apotheosis in cross-country living donor paired exchange programs that have made transplantation accessible to many whose donors were deemed "incompatible". Such exchanges can indeed be thought of as a "thing of beauty". Sadly, the same observation was abused to exploit vulnerable donors, and the "beast" in the form of transplant tourism became a feature of transplantation in the developing world. The responsibility of the transplant community to protect the welfare of living donors and their recipients and the key role of trust in the evaluation of living donors is discussed.

  2. Competitive Market Analysis of Transplant Centers and Discrepancy of Wait-Listing of Recipients for Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, P S; Saidi, R F; Cutie, C J; Ko, D S C

    2015-01-01

    There are over 250 kidney transplant programs in the USA. To determine if highly competitive regions, defined as regions with a higher number of transplant centers, will approve and wait-list more end-stage renal disease (ESRD) candidates for transplant despite consistent incidence and prevalence of ESRD nationwide. ESRD Network and OPTN data completed in 2011 were obtained from all transplant centers including listing data, market saturation, market share, organs transplanted, and ESRD prevalence. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) was used to measure the size of firms in relation to the industry to determine the amount of competition. States were separated into 3 groups (HHI1800 considered highly concentrated). The percentage of ESRD patients listed in competitive, moderate, and highly concentrated regions were 19.73%, 17.02%, and 13.75%, respectively. The ESRD listing difference between competitive versus highly concentrated was significant (pmarket share. Our analysis of the available national data suggests a discrepancy in access for ESRD patient to transplantation due to transplant center competition.

  3. Risk of peritoneal dialysis catheter-associated peritonitis following kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Andrew M; Riutta, Stephen D; Peterson, Joshua M; Gagin, Galina; Fritze, Danielle M; Barrett, Meredith; Sung, Randall S; Woodside, Kenneth J; Lu, Yee

    2018-01-02

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients have equivalent or slightly better kidney transplant outcomes when compared to hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, given the risk for postoperative infection, we sought to determine the risk factors for PD catheter-associated infections for patients who do not have the PD catheter removed at the time of engraftment. Demographic and outcomes data were collected from 313 sequential PD patients who underwent kidney transplant from 2000 to 2015. Risk factors for postoperative peritonitis were analyzed using logistical regression. Of 329 patients with PD catheters at transplant, 16 PD catheters were removed at engraftment. Of the remaining 313 patients, 8.9% suffered post-transplant peritonitis. On univariate analysis, patients with peritonitis were significantly more likely to have used the PD catheter or HD within 6 weeks after transplant. Multivariate analysis had similar findings, with increased risk for those using the PD catheter after transplant, with a trend for those who underwent HD only within 6 weeks of transplant. These results suggest that delayed graft function requiring any type of dialysis is associated with increased post-transplant peritonitis risk. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A type I interferon signature characterizes chronic antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascio, Federica; Pontrelli, Paola; Accetturo, Matteo; Oranger, Annarita; Gigante, Margherita; Castellano, Giuseppe; Gigante, Maddalena; Zito, Anna; Zaza, Gianluigi; Lupo, Antonio; Ranieri, Elena; Stallone, Giovanni; Gesualdo, Loreto; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) represents the main cause of kidney graft loss. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition, we characterized the molecular signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and, separately, of CD4(+) T lymphocytes isolated from CAMR patients, compared to kidney transplant recipients with normal graft function and histology. We enrolled 29 patients with biopsy-proven CAMR, 29 stable transplant recipients (controls), and 8 transplant recipients with clinical and histological evidence of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy. Messenger RNA and microRNA profiling of PBMCs and CD4(+) T lymphocytes was performed using Agilent microarrays in eight randomly selected patients per group from CAMR and control subjects. Results were evaluated statistically and by functional pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) and validated in the remaining subjects. In PBMCs, 45 genes were differentially expressed between the two groups, most of which were up-regulated in CAMR and were involved in type I interferon signalling. In the same patients, 16 microRNAs were down-regulated in CAMR subjects compared to controls: four were predicted modulators of six mRNAs identified in the transcriptional analysis. In silico functional analysis supported the involvement of type I interferon signalling. To further confirm this result, we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in an independent group of patients, observing that the activation of type I interferon signalling was a specific hallmark of CAMR. In addition, in CAMR patients, we detected a reduction of circulating BDCA2(+) dendritic cells, the natural type I interferon-producing cells, and their recruitment into the graft along with increased expression of MXA, a type I interferon-induced protein, at the tubulointerstitial and vascular level. Finally, interferon alpha mRNA expression was significantly increased in CAMR compared to control

  5. The development of D antibodies after D-mismatched kidney transplantation in a setting of reduced immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Thomas H P M; Vanderlocht, Joris; Straat, Ron J M H E; van Smaalen, Tim C; Bos, Gerard M J; Beckers, Erik A; Christiaans, Maarten H L; Henskens, Yvonne M C

    2018-01-01

    D antigens are not taken into account in the allocation of solid organs. Female transplant recipients with D antibodies as a consequence of D-mismatched kidney transplantation may develop hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn in future pregnancies. We examined D antibody development in transplant recipients who received D-mismatched kidney transplantation in absence of D prophylaxis and in a setting of reduced immunosuppression. From 1993 until 2015, a total of 1355 kidney patients received transplantations in our center of whom 156 received a D-mismatched graft. A retrospective analysis was conducted; frozen stored sera obtained from transplant recipients 3 months after transplantation were tested for irregular red blood cell (RBC) antibodies using a three-cell screening and an identification panel. In the case of D antibody positivity, additional testing was performed 1 month before transplantation. In seven of 156 (4.5%) transplant recipients we found irregular RBC antibodies after transplantation, of which five (3.2%) were determined to be D antibodies. We observed only one (0.6%) recipient without D antibodies before transplantation. Although the risk of D antibody development is considerably lower after D-mismatched kidney transplantation than D-mismatched pregnancy, anti-D prophylaxis may still be advisable for female transplant recipients of childbearing age. © 2017 AABB.

  6. Influence of socioeconomic status on allograft and patient survival following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Frank L; O'Kelly, Patrick; Donohue, Fionnuala; ÓhAiseadha, Coilin; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan; deFreitas, Declan G; Johnson, Howard; Conlon, Peter J; O'Seaghdha, Conall M

    2015-06-01

    Whether socioeconomic status confers worse outcomes after kidney transplantation is unknown. Its influence on allograft and patient survival following kidney transplantation in Ireland was examined. A retrospective, observational cohort study of adult deceased-donor first kidney transplant recipients from 1990 to 2009 was performed. Those with a valid Irish postal address were assigned a socioeconomic status score based on the Pobal Hasse-Pratschke deprivation index and compared in quartiles. Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used to investigate any significant association of socioeconomic status with patient and allograft outcomes. A total of 1944 eligible kidney transplant recipients were identified. The median follow-up time was 8.2 years (interquartile range 4.4-13.3 years). Socioeconomic status was not associated with uncensored or death-censored allograft survival (hazard ratio (HR) 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.00, P = 0.33 and HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.99-1.00, P = 0.37, respectively). Patient survival was not associated with socioeconomic status quartile (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.93-1.08, P = 0.88). There was no significant difference among quartiles for uncensored or death-censored allograft survival at 5 and 10 years. There was no socioeconomic disparity in allograft or patient outcomes following kidney transplantation, which may be partly attributable to the Irish healthcare model. This may give further impetus to calls in other jurisdictions for universal healthcare and medication coverage for kidney transplant recipients. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. PIRCHE-II Is Related to Graft Failure after Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Geneugelijk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Individual HLA mismatches may differentially impact graft survival after kidney transplantation. Therefore, there is a need for a reliable tool to define permissible HLA mismatches in kidney transplantation. We previously demonstrated that donor-derived Predicted Indirectly ReCognizable HLA Epitopes presented by recipient HLA class II (PIRCHE-II play a role in de novo donor-specific HLA antibodies formation after kidney transplantation. In the present Dutch multi-center study, we evaluated the possible association between PIRCHE-II and kidney graft failure in 2,918 donor–recipient couples that were transplanted between 1995 and 2005. For these donors–recipients couples, PIRCHE-II numbers were related to graft survival in univariate and multivariable analyses. Adjusted for confounders, the natural logarithm of PIRCHE-II was associated with a higher risk for graft failure [hazard ratio (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04–1.23, p = 0.003]. When analyzing a subgroup of patients who had their first transplantation, the HR of graft failure for ln(PIRCHE-II was higher compared with the overall cohort (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.10–1.34, p < 0.001. PIRCHE-II demonstrated both early and late effects on graft failure in this subgroup. These data suggest that the PIRCHE-II may impact graft survival after kidney transplantation. Inclusion of PIRCHE-II in donor-selection criteria may eventually lead to an improved kidney graft survival.

  8. PIRCHE-II Is Related to Graft Failure after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneugelijk, Kirsten; Niemann, Matthias; Drylewicz, Julia; van Zuilen, Arjan D.; Joosten, Irma; Allebes, Wil A.; van der Meer, Arnold; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Baas, Marije C.; Hack, C. Erik; van Reekum, Franka E.; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Kamburova, Elena G.; Bots, Michiel L.; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Sanders, Jan Stephan; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Lambeck, Annechien J.; Bungener, Laura B.; Roozendaal, Caroline; Tilanus, Marcel G. J.; Vanderlocht, Joris; Voorter, Christien E.; Wieten, Lotte; van Duijnhoven, Elly M.; Gelens, Mariëlle; Christiaans, Maarten H. L.; van Ittersum, Frans J.; Nurmohamed, Azam; Lardy, Junior N. M.; Swelsen, Wendy; van der Pant, Karlijn A.; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.; Bemelman, Fréderike J.; Hoitsma, Andries; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; de Fijter, Johan W.; Betjes, Michiel G. H.; Heidt, Sebastiaan; Roelen, Dave L.; Claas, Frans H.; Otten, Henny G.; Spierings, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Individual HLA mismatches may differentially impact graft survival after kidney transplantation. Therefore, there is a need for a reliable tool to define permissible HLA mismatches in kidney transplantation. We previously demonstrated that donor-derived Predicted Indirectly ReCognizable HLA Epitopes presented by recipient HLA class II (PIRCHE-II) play a role in de novo donor-specific HLA antibodies formation after kidney transplantation. In the present Dutch multi-center study, we evaluated the possible association between PIRCHE-II and kidney graft failure in 2,918 donor–recipient couples that were transplanted between 1995 and 2005. For these donors–recipients couples, PIRCHE-II numbers were related to graft survival in univariate and multivariable analyses. Adjusted for confounders, the natural logarithm of PIRCHE-II was associated with a higher risk for graft failure [hazard ratio (HR): 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04–1.23, p = 0.003]. When analyzing a subgroup of patients who had their first transplantation, the HR of graft failure for ln(PIRCHE-II) was higher compared with the overall cohort (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.10–1.34, p < 0.001). PIRCHE-II demonstrated both early and late effects on graft failure in this subgroup. These data suggest that the PIRCHE-II may impact graft survival after kidney transplantation. Inclusion of PIRCHE-II in donor-selection criteria may eventually lead to an improved kidney graft survival. PMID:29556227

  9. Hypertension in standard criteria deceased donors is associated with inferior outcomes following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder P; Farney, Alan C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Gautreaux, Michael; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Hartmann, Erica; Doares, William; Iskandar, Samy; Adams, Patricia; Stratta, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension may be a either a cause or an effect of kidney disease. Although hypertension is an important component of the expanded criteria donor definition, risks of transplanting deceased donor kidneys from hypertensive standard criteria donors (SCD) are less well understood. Retrospective single-center study in all adult patients who received a deceased donor kidney transplant from a SCD to evaluate the role of donor hypertension as a pre-transplant risk factor for death-censored graft loss (DCGL) and renal function. From October 2001 through May 2008, 297 kidney transplants were performed from donation after brain death SCDs. A total of 47 (15.8%) grafts were lost, including 19 (6.4%) deaths with functioning grafts. Univariate analysis of death-censored cases (n = 278) identified history of donor hypertension, cold ischemia time (CIT) >30 h, and African American (AA) recipients as significant pre-transplant risk factors predictive for DCGL at five yr follow-up (mean 38 months, all p hypertension (relative risk 2.2, p = 0.04) to be a significant risk factor for DCGL, whereas CIT >30 h and AA recipient ethnicity showed only trends toward DCGL. Renal function as determined by serum creatinine levels was significantly higher in recipients of hypertensive compared with non-hypertensive SCD kidneys at all time points out to 48 months follow-up and the disparity in renal function increased over time. Transplanting SCD kidneys from hypertensive donors is associated with worse graft function and an increased risk of graft loss. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. An observational study of health literacy and medication adherence in adult kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, Maryam N; Shapiro, R Jean; Thornton, Wendy Loken

    2016-12-01

    There is a high prevalence of non-adherence to immunosuppressants in kidney transplant recipients. Although limited health literacy is common in kidney recipients and is linked to adverse outcomes in other medical populations, its effect on medication adherence in kidney transplant recipients remains poorly understood. The objective was to investigate the effect of lower health literacy on immunosuppressant adherence. Kidney recipients who were at least 6 months post-transplant and outpatients of Vancouver General Hospital in B.C., Canada were recruited through invitation letters. A total of 96 recipients completed the Health Literacy Questionnaire, which provides a multifactorial profile of self-reported health literacy and the Transplant Effects Questionnaire-Adherence subscale measuring self-reported immunosuppressant adherence. Hierarchical linear regression was used to analyze the association between health literacy and adherence after controlling for identified risk factors of non-adherence. Our sample was on average 53 years old, 56% male and 9 years post-transplant. Kidney recipients reported low levels of health literacy on scales measuring active health management and critical appraisal of information and 75% reported non-perfect adherence. Worse adherence was associated with poorer overall health literacy (Δ R 2 = 0.08, P = 0.004) and lower scores on six of nine of the health literacy factors. Poorer health literacy is associated with lower immunosuppressant adherence in adult kidney transplant recipients suggesting the importance of considering a recipient's level of health literacy in research and clinical contexts. Medication adherence interventions can target the six factors of health literacy identified as being risk factors for lower medication adherence.

  11. Nephrologists' management of patient medications in kidney transplantation: results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Kimberley; Low, Jac Kee; Manias, Elizabeth; Walker, Rowan; Toussaint, Nigel D; Mulley, William; Dooley, Michael; Ierino, Francesco L; Hughes, Peter; Goodman, David J; Williams, Allison

    2015-10-01

    Medication adherence is essential in kidney transplant recipients to reduce the risk of rejection and subsequent allograft loss. The aim of this study was to delineate what 'usual care' entails, in relation to medication management, for adult kidney transplant recipients. An online survey was developed to explore how nephrologists promote and assess medication adherence, the management of prescriptions, the frequency of clinic appointments and the frequency of clinical screening tests. Nephrologists from all acute kidney transplant units in Victoria, Australia, were invited to participate. Data were collected between May and June 2014. Of 60 nephrologists invited to participate, 22 completed the survey (response rate of 36.6%). Respondents had a mean age of 49.1 ± 10.1 years, with a mean of 20.1 ± 9.9 years working in nephrology and 14 were men. Descriptive analysis of responses showed that nephrologists performed frequent screening for kidney graft dysfunction that may indicate medication non-adherence, maintained regular transplant clinic visits with patients and emphasized the importance of medication education. However, time constraints during consultations impacted on extensive patient education and the long-term medication follow-up support was often delivered by the renal transplant nurse coordinator or pharmacist. This study highlighted that nephrologists took an active approach in the medication management of kidney transplant recipients, which may assist with facilitating long-term graft survival. Ultimately, promoting medication adherence needs to be patient centred, involving an interdisciplinary team of nephrologists, pharmacists and renal transplant nurse coordinators, working together with the patient to establish optimal adherence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The first experience of successful pregnancy after simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation with reno-portal transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tkachenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of pregnancy management and delivery after simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLKT. The article contains general historic and statistic information, and presents the first real world clinical case of favorable pregnancy outcome in patient after simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation with reno-portal transposition.

  13. Probability of deceased donor kidney transplantation based on % PRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, I C; Alberú, J; Arvizu, A; Hernández-Mendez, E A; De-Santiago, A; González-Tableros, N; López, M; Castelán, N; Contreras, A G; Morales-Buenrostro, L E; Gabilondo, B; Vilatobá, M

    2013-06-01

    Sensitization to HLA antigens creates an obstacle for the accessibility and success of kidney transplantation (KT). Highly sensitized patients have longer waiting times and some may never receive a KT. To determine the probability of patients on the deceased donor (DD) waiting list to receive a KT based on the panel reactive antibody percentage (% PRA) in our center. The DD waiting list from our institution was analyzed from 01/05 to 08/12 documenting the clinical variables from donor and potential recipients (ABO blood group), lymphocyte cross-match [CxM (CDC-AHG)] results, highest % PRA determination, and time on the waiting list. The patients were classified into 4 groups based on the % PRA: 0%, 1-19%, 20-79% and 80-100%. The data was analyzed using odds ratio and logistic regression (significant pPRA for the whole group was 22 ± 32%, median [md] 0 (0-98). A total of 100 patients received KT (mean waiting time 2.2 ± 1.7 years, 12 days-7 years) and their mean % PRA was 11.6 ± 24, md 0 (0-94) vs. 31.4 ± 37 md 8.5 (0-98) in those who have not received a KT. An association between the % PRA group and KT (pPRA vs. >0% was higher (OR 2.12, 1.17-3.84). There was no difference between the 0% vs. 1-19% group (OR 1); differences were observed between 0% vs. 20-79% (OR 2.5, 1.18-5.3) and 0% vs. 80-100% (OR 5, 1.67-14.9). For every percent increase in the PRA above 20%, the risk of not receiving a KT increased by 5% (1-9, pPRA although a higher risk for not receiving a KT becomes evident with a PRA >20%. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The position held by mercury bichloride uptake in kidney transplant exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhas, M.; Schoutens, A.; Lemmens, P.

    1976-01-01

    Fewer and fewer biological examinations are practised on kidney transplant patients under out-patient care. The nephron balance is assessed through a renal mercury bichloride uptake measurement, an ideal examination for transplant patients because less affected transitorily than glomerular filtration. Carried out in the early stages the method gives prognostic information which will help to guide the social and professional reintegration of the patient [fr

  15. Clinical applications of remote ischaemic preconditioning in native and transplant acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Veighey, Kristin; MacAllister, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a composite of the injury sustained during a period of reduced or absent blood flow to a tissue or organ and the additional insult sustained upon reperfusion that limits the amount of tissue that can be salvaged. IR injury plays a central role in both native and transplant acute kidney injury (AKI). Native AKI is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hospital inpatients, and transplant AKI contributes to graft dysfunction, ultimately limitin...

  16. Malignancies of the normotic kidney and ureter in renal transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannibal, D.; Gross-Fengels, W.; Hesse, U.

    1991-01-01

    There is an 4.2-23% incidence of cancer in renal transplant recipients. A closely meshed radiological follow-up is important as shown in 3 patients who developed a carcinoma of the kidney or ureter within 1-5 years after renal transplantation. This includes routine sonography of the whole abdomen, in case of pathological findings CT respectively MRI, i.v. urography, retrograde urography and angiography if needed. (orig.) [de

  17. A case of tacrolimus-induced supraventricular arrhythmia after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ra Kim

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressive drug often administered to transplant recipient patients and exhibits a variety of adverse cardiovascular effects. CASE REPORT We report a case of a 53-year-old Asian female who developed various arrhythmic phenomena including atrial premature complexes and supraventricular tachycardia after administration of tacrolimus. CONCLUSION Tacrolimus-associated arrhythmia after kidney transplantation may be life-threatening, and so patients undergoing this procedure should be carefully monitored.

  18. Experience of using advagraf after kidney transplantation in the Sklifosofsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pinchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the advagraf as the main immunosuppressant in renal transplant recipients in the early postoperative period has been assessed. A good tolerability of the medicament has been confirmed. Satisfactory performance of renal graft function recovery after surgery was marked. Recommendations on the use of the advagraf in the early terms after kidney transplantation, including a condition of a violation of the gastrointestinal tract function.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness : a comparison between children with renal transplantation and children with congenital solitary functioning kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Lubrano, R.; Tancredi, G.; Falsaperla, R.; Elli, M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with end-stage renal disease are known to have a cardiorespiratory fitness significantly reduced. This is considered to be an independent index predictive of mortality mainly due to cardiovascular accidents. The effects of renal transplantation on cardiorespiratory fitness are incompletely known. We compared the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) of children with a functioning renal transplant with that of children with congenital solitary functioning kidney, taking into consideration a...

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness: a comparison between children with renal transplantation and children with congenital solitary functioning kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrano, Riccardo; Tancredi, Giancarlo; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Elli, Marco

    2016-10-06

    Children with end-stage renal disease are known to have a cardiorespiratory fitness significantly reduced. This is considered to be an independent index predictive of mortality mainly due to cardiovascular accidents. The effects of renal transplantation on cardiorespiratory fitness are incompletely known. We compared the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) of children with a functioning renal transplant with that of children with congenital solitary functioning kidney, taking into consideration also the amount of weekly sport activity.

  1. Satisfactory Usage of a Lacerated Kidney for Transplantation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, H; Peng, L; Song, L; Qi, Z; Yu, S

    2015-09-01

    Organ shortage is the main bottleneck in the wait-list for transplantation; therefore, expanding the donor pool is an effective way to solve the problem. Usage of the traumatized liver for transplantation has been applied, but the use of lacerated kidneys for transplant donor is rarely reported. We reported a successful case of donation after brain death. The donor committed suicide by jumping from a campus dormitory building. One of the donated kidneys was severely injured. Two lacerations measured 4 × 1 × 1 cm in the medial margin of the graft and 1 × 1 × 1.5 cm in the front side of the graft, respectively. After repair with continuous absorbable suture, the lacerated kidney was transplanted to a recipient. The post-transplantation renal function gradually recovered. Furthermore, serious complications, such as large amounts of hemorrhage, delayed graft function, or urinary fistula did not occur. The serum creatinine dropped from 1232 μmol/L to 120 μmol/L and maintained normal range after surgery. In addition, the daily urine output was normal. At day 12 after operation, the patient was discharged. Our case shows that the use of a lacerated donor kidney appears to be feasible, but long-term effects need further observation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of T Cell Costimulation via DNAM-1 in Kidney Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Kraus

    Full Text Available DNAX accessory protein-1 (DNAM-1, CD226 is a co-stimulatory and adhesion molecule expressed mainly by natural killer cells and T cells. DNAM-1 and its two ligands CD112 and CD155 are important in graft-versus-host disease, but their role in solid organ transplantation is largely unknown. We investigated the relevance of this pathway in a mouse kidney transplantation model. CD112 and CD155 are constitutively expressed on renal tubular cells and strongly upregulated in acutely rejected renal allografts. In vitro DNAM-1 blockade during allogeneic priming reduced the allospecific T cell response but not the allospecific cytotoxicity against renal tubular epithelial cells. Accordingly, absence of DNAM-1 in recipient mice or absence of CD112 or CD155 in the kidney allograft did not significantly influence renal function and severity of rejection after transplantation, but led to a higher incidence of infarcts in CD112 and CD155 deficient kidney allografts. Thus, DNAM-1 blockade is not effective in preventing transplant rejection. Despite of being highly expressed, CD112 and CD155 do not appear to play a major immunogenic role in kidney transplantation. Considering the high incidence of renal infarcts in CD112 and CD155 deficient grafts, blocking these molecules might be detrimental.

  3. Current status on the evaluation and management of the highly sensitized kidney transplant recipient.