WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable hypothetical vignettes

  1. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  2. Astrophysical implications of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2008-01-01

    We analyze macroscopic effects of TeV-scale black holes, such as could possibly be produced at the LHC, in what is regarded as an extremely hypothetical scenario in which they are stable and, if trapped inside Earth, begin to accrete matter. We examine a wide variety of TeV-scale gravity scenarios, basing the resulting accretion models on first-principles, basic, and well-tested physical laws. These scenarios fall into two classes, depending on whether accretion could have any macroscopic effect on the Earth at times shorter than the Sun's natural lifetime. We argue that cases with such effect at shorter times than the solar lifetime are ruled out, since in these scenarios black holes produced by cosmic rays impinging on much denser white dwarfs and neutron stars would then catalyze their decay on timescales incompatible with their known lifetimes. We also comment on relevant lifetimes for astronomical objects that capture primordial black holes. In short, this study finds no basis for concerns that TeV-scale...

  3. Astrophysical implications of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze macroscopic effects of TeV-scale black holes, such as could possibly be produced at the LHC, in what is regarded as an extremely hypothetical scenario in which they are stable and, if trapped inside Earth, begin to accrete matter. We examine a wide variety of TeV-scale gravity scenarios, basing the resulting accretion models on first-principles, basic, and well-tested physical laws. These scenarios fall into two classes, depending on whether accretion could have any macroscopic effect on the Earth at times shorter than the Sun's natural lifetime. We argue that cases with such an effect at shorter times than the solar lifetime are ruled out, since in these scenarios black holes produced by cosmic rays impinging on much denser white dwarfs and neutron stars would then catalyze their decay on time scales incompatible with their known lifetimes. We also comment on relevant lifetimes for astronomical objects that capture primordial black holes. In short, this study finds no basis for concerns that TeV-scale black holes from the LHC could pose a risk to Earth on time scales shorter than the Earth's natural lifetime. Indeed, conservative arguments based on detailed calculations and the best-available scientific knowledge, including solid astronomical data, conclude, from multiple perspectives, that there is no risk of any significance whatsoever from such black holes.

  4. Vignette equivalence and response consistency; the case of job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.; van Praag, B.M.S.; Theodossiou, I.

    2011-01-01

    We compare reported job satisfaction with vignette evaluations of hypothetical jobs by using a British, Greek and Dutch data set, containing 95 randomly assigned vignettes. In order to test comparability of international data sets recently the method of anchoring vignettes has been introduced by

  5. Practice Patterns for Outpatients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A Case Vignette-based Survey Among French Cardiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bauters

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: When not guided by high-level recommendations, practice patterns for routine clinical situations in stable CAD vary considerably. Future clinical trials should address these clinical interrogations.

  6. Possibility of hypothetical stable micro black hole production at future 100 TeV collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, A.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pshirkov, M.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Pushchino (Russian Federation)

    2017-12-15

    We study the phenomenology of TeV-scale black holes predicted in theories with large extra dimensions, under the further assumption that they are absolutely stable. Our goal is to present an exhaustive analysis of safety of the proposed 100 TeV collider, as it was done in the case of the LHC. We consider the theories with different number of extra dimensions and identify those for which a possible accretion to macroscopic size would have timescales shorter than the lifetime of the Solar system. We calculate the cross sections of the black hole production at the proposed 100 TeV collider, the fraction of the black holes trapped inside the Earth and the resulting rate of capture inside the Earth via an improved method. We study the astrophysical consequences of stable micro black holes existence, in particular its influence on the stability of white dwarfs and neutron stars. We obtain constraints for the previously unexplored range of higher-dimensional Planck mass values. Several astrophysical scenarios of the micro black hole production, which were not considered before, are taken into account. Finally, using the astrophysical constraints we consider the implications for future 100 TeV terrestrial experiments. We exclude the possibility of the charged stable micro black holes production. (orig.)

  7. First Equals Most Important? Order Effects in Vignette-Based Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auspurg, Katrin; Jäckle, Annette

    2017-01-01

    To measure what determines people's attitudes, definitions, or decisions, surveys increasingly ask respondents to judge vignettes. A vignette typically describes a hypothetical situation or object as having various attributes (dimensions). In factorial surveys, the values (levels) of dimensions are experimentally varied, so that their impact on…

  8. Online Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla

    2016-03-01

    Interest in on-line learning is increasing rapidly. A few years ago members of the LivePhoto Physics Group1 received collaborative NSF Grants2 to create short, single-topic, on-line activities that invite introductory physics students to make individual predictions about a phenomenon and test them though video observations or analysis. Each Vignette is designed for web delivery as: (1) an ungraded homework assignment or (2) an exercise to prepare for a class or tutorial session. Sample IVVs are available at the ComPadre website http://www.compadre.org/ivv/. Portions of Vignettes on mechanics topics including Projectile Motion, Circular Motion, the Bullet-Block phenomenon, and Newton's Third Law will be presented. Those attending this talk will be asked to guess what predictions students are likely to make about phenomena in various IVVs. These predictions can be compared to those made by students who completed Vignettes. Finally, research on the impact of Vignettes on student learning and attitudes will be discussed. Co-PI Robert Teese, Rochester Institute of Technology.

  9. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  10. Vignettes in College Developmental Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri-Gold, Maria T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses providing developmental learners with the opportunity to hear and respond to vignettes (short, descriptive literary sketches such as those in "The House on Mango Street"). Notes that the activity allowed students to experiment with another writing style and to use figurative language in a creative way. (RS)

  11. Using vignettes to study family consumption processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2010-01-01

    . Following an overview of methodological and practical problems of studying consumption interaction processes in families, a discussion of how vignettes may be used to enhance knowledge of family decision-making processes in real-life contexts is presented. Design implications are discussed and strategies...... for applying the vignette method are outlined and illustrated by two recent studies of proenvironmental consumer behavior in a family context. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits and the possible pitfalls of using vignettes.......The use of vignettes for qualitative consumer research is discussed in this article. More specifically, vignettes are proposed as a useful research technique for conducting systematic and rigorous studies of consumer interaction processes, in particular as these relate to family consumption issues...

  12. Communication: Hypothetical ultralow-density ice polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takahiro; Hirata, Masanori; Yagasaki, Takuma; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Tanaka, Hideki

    2017-09-01

    More than 300 kinds of porous ice structures derived from zeolite frameworks and space fullerenes are examined using classical molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that a hypothetical zeolitic ice phase is less dense and more stable than the sparse ice structures reported by Huang et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 671, 186 (2017)]. In association with the zeolitic ice structure, even less dense structures, "aeroices," are proposed. It is found that aeroices are the most stable solid phases of water near the absolute zero temperature under negative pressure.

  13. Access to resources shapes maternal decision making: evidence from a factorial vignette experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kushnick

    Full Text Available The central assumption of behavioral ecology is that natural selection has shaped individuals with the capacity to make decisions that balance the fitness costs and benefits of behavior. A number of factors shape the fitness costs and benefits of maternal care, but we lack a clear understanding how they, taken together, play a role in the decision-making process. In animal studies, the use of experimental methods has allowed for the tight control of these factors. Standard experimentation is inappropriate in human behavioral ecology, but vignette experiments may solve the problem. I used a confounded factorial vignette experiment to gather 640 third-party judgments about the maternal care decisions of hypothetical women and their children from 40 female karo Batak respondents in rural Indonesia. This allowed me to test hypotheses derived from parental investment theory about the relative importance of five binary factors in shaping maternal care decisions with regard to two distinct scenarios. As predicted, access to resources--measured as the ability of a woman to provide food for her children--led to increased care. A handful of other factors conformed to prediction, but they were inconsistent across scenarios. The results suggest that mothers may use simple heuristics, rather than a full accounting for costs and benefits, to make decisions about maternal care. Vignettes have become a standard tool for studying decision making, but have made only modest inroads to evolutionarily informed studies of human behavior.

  14. The validity of vignettes in cross country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across...

  15. Hypothetical Insurance and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Ben; Lazenby, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    What level of government subsidy of higher education is justified, in what form, and for what reasons? We answer these questions by applying the hypothetical insurance approach, originally developed by Ronald Dworkin in his work on distributive justice. On this approach, when asking how to fund and deliver public services in a particular domain,…

  16. Vignette method in sociological research: Methodological principles and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers prospects for the new sociological method - vignette method - based mainly on foreign studies that developed, applied and summarized the results of the method application. The authors trace the history of the method in the Western and Russian traditions focusing on the topics of research in different fields, including sensitive issues. The theoretical part of the article is illustrated by the examples of vignettes introduced by different authors, in which the specifics of vignettes design and usage in sociological studies is shown. From the perspective of the analysis of meanings, beliefs, and explanatory schemes the authors demonstrate similarities of the method of vignettes and ethnographic interviews; underline advantages and disadvantages of the method as well as its restrictions; provide the key principles for vignettes design in different types of studies. The article considers two strategies of analysis of vignettes data - qualitative and quantitative - and emphasizes the importance of combinatorial-logic techniques, in particular DSM-method, within quantitative strategy and the principle of ‘deepening’ - within qualitative strategy. The authors provide examples of vignettes developed in their own research to show the capabilities of the method.

  17. Using Critical Thinking Vignettes To Evaluate Student Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerden, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    In an associate degree nursing program, students role play nurse-client interactions using case study prompts. The vignettes are designed to represent complex practice situations and allow students to demonstrate critical thinking and nursing skills. (SK)

  18. Palliative chemotherapy or watchful waiting? A vignettes study among oncologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedoot, C. G.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Heisterkamp, S. H.; Bakker, P. J. M.; de Graeff, A.; de Haan, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the preferences of oncologists for palliative chemotherapy or watchful waiting and the factors considered important to that preference. Methods: Sixteen vignettes (paper case descriptions), varying on eight patient and treatment characteristics, were designed to assess the

  19. A Vignette Study of Older Adults' Preferences for Intergenerational Transfers in the Context of Competition Between Grandparents and Grandchildren in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Silverstein, Merril

    2017-05-20

    The objective of this analysis was to examine older adults' preferences for economic support in the context of competition between grandparents and grandchildren for the middle generation's financial resources in rural China. Specifically, it examined how relative need, lineage, and gender of grandchildren depicted in a vignette were evaluated and how personal characteristics of the evaluators influenced beliefs for which generation should receive more support. The sample consisted of 989 older adults participating in three waves of a longitudinal study in Anhui Province, China. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to examine how older respondents evaluated the relative priority of grandparents versus grandchildren in their claim for monetary assistance using a hypothetical vignette with randomized conditions. Relatively greater need of either the vignette grandparent or grandchild increased their priority to receive economic support. The vignette granddaughter was most disadvantaged in the competition with her paternal grandparent. Respondents who were single, in worse functional health, and whose children all migrated gave the vignette grandparent greater priority; those who coresided with children gave the vignette grandparent lower priority. Findings support the altruistic perspective on filial support and the corporate group/mutual aid model of family functioning, within the family system that differentiates patrilineal from matrilineal lines of descent. Under budget constraints, selective children are considered to have legitimate claims on the resources of the middle generation, tempering filial piety toward aging parents. Lack of personal resources plays a role in whether self-interest shapes beliefs that favor older over younger generations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Obstetrical Providers' Management of Chronic Pain in Pregnancy: A Vignette Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Edmonds, Brownsyne; McKenzie, Fatima; Austgen, MacKenzie B; Ashburn-Nardo, Leslie; Matthias, Marianne S; Hirsh, Adam T

    2017-05-01

    Describe obstetrical providers' management of a hypothetical case on chronic pain in pregnancy and determine whether practices differ based on patient race. This was a self-administered survey at a clinical conference. Seventy-six obstetrician-gynecologists and one nurse practitioner were surveyed. A case-vignette described a pregnant patient presenting with worsening chronic lower back pain, requesting an opioid refill and increased dosage. We varied patient race (black/white) across two randomly assigned identical vignettes. Providers indicated their likelihood of prescribing opioids, drug testing, and referring on a 0 (definitely would not) to 10 (definitely would) scale; rated their suspicions/concerns about the patient on a 0-10 VAS scale; and ranked those concerns in order of importance. We calculated correlation coefficients, stratifying analyses by patient race. Providers were not inclined to refill the opioid prescription (median = 3.0) or increase the dose (median = 1.0). They were more likely to conduct urine drug tests on white than black patients ( P = 0.008) and more likely to suspect that white patients would divert the medication ( P =0.021). For white patients, providers' highest-ranked concern was the patient's risk of abuse/addiction, whereas, for black patients, it was harm to the fetus. Suspicion about symptom exaggeration was more closely related to decisions about refilling the opioid prescriptions and increasing the dose for black patients (r = -0.357, -0.439, respectively), whereas these decisions were more closely correlated with concerns about overdose for white patients (r = -0.406, -0.494, respectively). Provider suspicion and concerns may differ by patient race, which may relate to differences in pain treatment and testing. Further study is warranted to better understand how chronic pain is managed in pregnancy.

  1. Adherence to infection prevention and control guidelines: A vignette-based study of decision-making and risk-taking in young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowmer, Grace; Latchford, Gary; Duff, Alistair; Denton, Miles; Dye, Louise; Lawton, Clare; Lee, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Balancing cystic fibrosis (CF) care with demands of normal life is associated with decreased adherence to infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines. Adults with CF, aged 18-25years, were invited to participate via UK CF Trust social media platforms. An online survey evaluated participants' decision-making in nine clinician-rated vignettes and assessed the perceived influence of infection-related information sources. Participants (n=87, mean 21.4years [SD=2.45]; 75% female) were less likely to engage in the high-risk scenarios, although demonstrated greater awareness of cross-infection than environmental risks. Associations between risk-perception and willingness to participate in five vignette-based hypothetical activities were significant (prisk-levels but are not always based on robust knowledge. They also show some inclination towards engaging in risky behaviours. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Earth System Science Education Experience: Personal Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, M.; Aron, J.; Maranto, G.; Reider, D.; Wake, C.

    2006-12-01

    Colleges and universities across the country and around the world have embraced the Earth system approach to gain deeper understanding of the interrelationships of processes that define the home planet. The Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education, a product of the NASA/USRA Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century Program (ESSE 21), represents a synthesis of community understanding of the content and process of teaching and learning about Earth as a system. The web-based Design Guide serves faculty from multiple disciplines who wish to adopt an ESS approach in their own courses or programs. Illustrating the nine topical sections of the Design Guide are a series of short vignettes telling the story of how ESS is being used in the classroom, how ESS has contributed to institutional change and personal professional development, how ESS is being implemented at minority serving institutions, and the impact of ESS education on student research. Most vignettes are written from a personal perspective and reflect a direct experience with Earth System Science Education. Over forty vignettes have been assembled aiming to put a face on the results of the systemic reform efforts of the past fifteen years of the ESSE programs, documenting the sometimes intangible process of education reform to be shared with those seeking examples of ESS education. The vignettes are a vital complement to the Design Guide sections, and are also available as a separate collection on the Design Guide and ESSE 21 web sites.

  3. Testing the specifications of parametric models using anchoring vignettes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Vonkova, H.

    Comparing assessments on a subjective scale across countries or socio-economic groups is often hampered by differences in response scales across groups. Anchoring vignettes help to correct for such differences, either in parametric models (the compound hierarchical ordered probit (CHOPIT) model and

  4. Validating the Use of Vignettes for Subjective Threshold Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Delaney, L.; Harmon, C.; Kapteyn, A.; Smith, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Comparing self-assessed indicators of subjective outcomes such as health, work disability, political efficacy, job satisfaction, etc. across countries or socio-economic groups is often hampered by the fact that different groups use systematically different response scales. Anchoring vignettes have

  5. Analysis of vignette method data in sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the vignette method as a projective technique that can be an alternative for the traditional methods in mass surveys. The authors present an example of the study of the social representations of an intelligent man with the vignette method: identify the meaning of the concept ‘social representations’ suggested by S. Moscovici, a scientist who introduced its conceptualization and empirical interpretation; and describe the structure of social representations which consists of a ‘core’ and a ‘periphery’ according to the theory of J.-C. Abric. The article shows the process of creating vignettes, choosing their number and conditions for the tool application. The main emphasis is made on the analysis of data obtained through the vignette method by calculating indices, discriminant analysis and logistic regression, and the explanation for the application of these three techniques is given. The authors describe the research procedure, the creation of the tool and the sample; compare the results of each method of analysis. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression data confirm each other, which is an important verification of the results of different methods of analysis.

  6. Seclusion as a necessary vs. an appropriate intervention: a vignette study among mental health nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann-Poll, P.S.; Smit, A.; Koekkoek, B.W.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a vignette study, mental health nurses were asked to score vignettes on necessity and appropriateness using a Likert scale. Sixty-nine clinical nurses from four mental health institutes scored 64 vignettes on necessity (there is no alternative) and appropriateness (seclusion supports patients'

  7. Situational and Dispositional Determinants of College Men's Perception of Women's Sexual Desire and Consent to Sex: A Factorial Vignette Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgreen, Ashton M; Mattson, Richard E; Wagner, Samantha A; Ortiz, Edwin G; Johnson, Matthew D

    2017-11-01

    Sexual victimization of women by men on college campuses is a growing societal concern, with research identifying a host of situational and characterological factors that may predict men's likelihood to engage in sexual misconduct. In the present study, we examined the relative contribution and potential interplay of these various determinants on college men's perceptions of women's sexual desire and consent in hypothetical dating scenarios depicting a sexual interaction. We found that the men ( N = 145) in this sample (a) conflated sexual desire with consent, (b) varied their appraisals of consent and desire depending on whether and how the woman in the vignette communicated consent or refusal, (c) perceived higher levels of consent if the man in the vignette had intercourse with the woman previously and as a function of escalating sexual intimacy in the ongoing interaction, (d) endorsed higher levels of perceived desire and consent across situations if they more strongly held rape-supportive attitudes, and (e) moderated their association between situational factors and perceptions of a woman's sexual intentions based on their endorsement of rape myths and a hypermasculine ideology. We conclude that efforts to prevent sexual violence among college students may benefit from being modeled on our findings that some men are likelier to infer consent regardless of the situation, that specific situational factors can foster misperceptions of consent across men in general, and that certain individuals in particular situations may pose the greatest risk for sexual misconduct.

  8. The Normative Source of Kantian Hypothetical Imperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Camillia

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a critique of Christine Korsgaard’s interpretation of Kantian instrumental reason. Korsgaard understands Kantian hypothetical imperatives to share a common normative source with the categorical imperative – namely self-legislating, human rational agency. However, her reading of Kantian hypothetical imperatives is problematic for three reasons. Firstly, Korsgaard’s agent-centred approach renders incoherent Kant’s analytic-synthetic division. Secondly, by minimising the dualis...

  9. Nursing diagnoses determined by first year students: a vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdioğlu Yönt, Gülendam; Korhan, Esra Akın; Erdemir, Firdevs; Müller-Staub, Maria

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine the ability of first year students in identifying nursing diagnoses. In a descriptive evaluation study, an expert-validated vignette containing 18 nursing diagnoses was used. The students determined 15 nursing diagnoses. The highest percentages of diagnoses identified were disturbed sleep pattern and nutrition imbalance. Students also considered medical diagnoses as nursing diagnoses: hypertension and tachycardia. Despite the fact that students were only at the end of their first semester and had limited clinical experience, they successfully identified the majority of nursing diagnoses. Patient case study vignettes are recommended for education. To foster students' knowledge and experience, it is also suggested that evaluating nursing diagnoses in clinical practicals becomes a requirement. © 2013 NANDA International, Inc.

  10. Reducing hypothetical bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests an addition to Cheap Talk, an Opt-Out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results suggest that adding an Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents....

  11. Using a Qualitative Vignette to Explore a Complex Public Health Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michaela; Harrison, Paul; Swinburn, Boyd; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This article discusses how qualitative vignettes were combined with interviews to explore a complex public health issue; that is, promoting unhealthy foods and beverages to children and adolescents. It outlines how the technique was applied in practice and the combination of vignette-based interviews with a broader approach involving Gadamerian hermeneutics. Twenty-one participants from the public health community and the marketing and food and beverage industries took part in vignette-based interviews between March and September 2012. Overall, the qualitative vignette method afforded an efficient, generally well-received technique that effectively explored the issue of promoting unhealthy foods and beverages to children and adolescents. The vignette provided structure to interviews but allowed certain responses to be investigated in greater depth. Through this research, we argue that qualitative vignettes allow researchers to explore complex public health issues. This article also provides a valuable resource for researchers seeking to explore this technique. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Age and Sex Effects in Anchoring Vignette Studies: Methodological and Empirical Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Anchoring vignettes are an increasingly popular tool for identifying and correcting for group differences in use of subjective ordered response categories. However, existing techniques to maximize response consistency (use of the same standards for self-ratings as for vignette-ratings, which center on matching vignette characters’ demographic characteristics to respondents’ own characteristics, appear at times to be ineffective or to pose interpretive difficulties. Specifically, respondents often appear to neglect instructions to treat vignette characters as age peers. Furthermore, when vignette characters’ sex is matched to respondents’ sex, interpretation of sex differences in rating style is rendered problematic. This study applies two experimental manipulations to a national American sample (n=1,765 to clarify best practices for enhancing response consistency. First, an analysis of two methods of highlighting vignette characters’ age suggests that both yield better response consistency than previous, less prominent means. Second, a comparison of ratings of same- and opposite-sex vignette characters suggests that, with avoidable exceptions, the sex of the respondent rather than of the vignette character drives observed sex differences in rating style. Implications for interpretation and design of anchoring vignette studies are discussed. Findings also show significant sex, educational, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating health, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating political efficacy. These findings underscore the incomparability of unadjusted subjective self-ratings across demographic groups.

  13. Women's Behavioral Responses to the Threat of a Hypothetical Date Rape Stimulus: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, RaeAnn E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Wendorf, Angela R; Cahill, Shawn P

    2016-05-01

    One in four college women experience sexual assault on campus; yet, campuses rarely provide the in-depth self-defense programs needed to reduce sexual assault risk. Further, little is known about the range of possible behaviors elicited by sexual assault threat stimuli besides assertion. To fill this gap, the aim of the current study was to explore qualitative themes in women's intended behavioral responses to a hypothetical sexual assault threat, date rape, by using a laboratory-controlled threat. College women (N = 139) were randomly assigned to one of four different levels of sexual assault threat presented via an audio-recorded vignette. Participants articulated how they would hypothetically respond to the experimentally assigned threat. Responses were blinded and analyzed using Consensual Qualitative Research methodology. Six major themes emerged: assertion, compliance/acceptance, conditional decision making, avoidance, expressions of discomfort, and allusion to future contact. Although almost all participants described assertion, a number of non-assertive responses were described that are not currently recognized in the literature. These non-assertive responses, including compliance/acceptance, conditional decision making, and avoidance, may represent unique behavioral response styles and likely reflect the complex psychological process of behavioral response to threat. The variety of themes found illustrates the great range of behavioral responses to threat. This broad range is not currently well represented or measured in the literature and better understanding of these responses can inform future interventions, advocacy efforts, and policies focused on sexual assault.

  14. Acceptability of hypothetical dengue vaccines among travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Christine M; MacLeod, William B; Hamer, Davidson H; Sanchez-Vegas, Carolina; Chen, Lin H; Wilson, Mary E; Karchmer, Adolf W; Yanni, Emad; Hochberg, Natasha S; Ooi, Winnie W; Kogelman, Laura; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2013-01-01

    Dengue viruses have spread widely in recent decades and cause tens of millions of infections mostly in tropical and subtropical areas. Vaccine candidates are being studied aggressively and may be ready for licensure soon. We surveyed patients with past or upcoming travel to dengue-endemic countries to assess rates and determinants of acceptance for four hypothetical dengue vaccines with variable efficacy and adverse event (AE) profiles. Acceptance ratios were calculated for vaccines with varied efficacy and AE risk. Acceptance of the four hypothetical vaccines ranged from 54% for the vaccine with lower efficacy and serious AE risk to 95% for the vaccine with higher efficacy and minor AE risk. Given equal efficacy, vaccines with lower AE risk were better accepted than those with higher AE risk; given equivalent AE risk, vaccines with higher efficacy were better accepted than those with lower efficacy. History of Japanese encephalitis vaccination was associated with lower vaccine acceptance for one of the hypothetical vaccines. US-born travelers were more likely than non-US born travelers to accept a vaccine with 75% efficacy and a risk of minor AEs (p = 0.003). Compared with North American-born travelers, Asian- and African-born travelers were less likely to accept both vaccines with 75% efficacy. Most travelers would accept a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine if one were available. Travelers valued fewer potential AEs over increased vaccine efficacy. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  15. Using Clinical Vignettes to Assess Quality of Care for Acute Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Gidengil MD, MPH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Overprescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs is common. Our objective was to develop and validate a vignette-based method to estimate clinician ARI antibiotic prescribing. We surveyed physicians (n = 78 and retail clinic clinicians (n = 109 between January and September 2013. We surveyed clinicians using a set of ARI vignettes and linked the responses to electronic health record data for all ARI visits managed by these clinicians during 2012. We then created a new measure of antibiotic prescribing, the comprehensive ARI management rate. This was defined as not prescribing antibiotics for antibiotic-inappropriate diagnoses and prescribing guideline-concordant antibiotics for antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses (and also included appropriate use of streptococcal testing for the pharyngitis vignettes. We compared the vignette-based and chart-based comprehensive ARI management at the clinician level. We then identified the combination of vignettes that best predicted comprehensive ARI management rates, using a partitioning algorithm. Responses to 3 vignettes partitioned clinicians into 4 groups with chart-based comprehensive ARI management rates of 61% (n = 121, 50% (n = 47, 31% (n = 12, and 22% (n = 7. Responses to 3 clinical vignettes can identify clinicians with relatively poor quality ARI antibiotic prescribing. Vignettes may be a mechanism to target clinicians for quality improvement efforts.

  16. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-\\'{a}-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  17. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocuous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-a-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  18. The value of case-based teaching vignettes in clinical microbiology rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Jennifer O; Kraft, Colleen S; Burd, Eileen M; Armstrong, Wendy S; Guarner, Jeannette

    2014-03-01

    To describe the implementation and evaluation of a case-based microbiology curriculum during daily microbiology rounds. Vignettes consist of short cases with images and questions that facilitate discussion among microbiologists, pathologists, infectious disease physicians, and trainees (residents and fellows). We performed a survey to assess the value of these vignettes to trainees. Motivation to come to rounds on time increased from 60% to 100%. Trainees attending rounds after implementation of the vignettes perceived the value of microbiology rounds to be significantly higher compared with those who attended rounds before implementation (P = .04). Pathology residents found that vignettes were helpful for retaining knowledge (8.3 of 10 points). The vignettes have enhanced the value of microbiology rounds by serving as a formalized curriculum exposing trainees from multiple specialties to various microbiology topics. Emphasis on interdisciplinary interactions between clinical and laboratory personnel was highlighted with this case-based curriculum.

  19. Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Roszko

    2015-01-01

    Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian The article focuses on the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian. The purpose for comparing and contrasting the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality is not only to identify all the lexemes in both languages but also find the answer to the following question: whether the morphological exponents of hypothetical modality (so-called modus relativus) familiar to the Lithuanian language have/...

  20. Interviewing asylum seekers : A vignette study on the questions asked to assess credibility of claims about origin and persecution

    OpenAIRE

    van Veldhuizen, Tanja S.; Horselenberg, Robert; Landström, Sara; Granhag, Pär Anders; van Koppen, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current vignette study is to map the style, type, and themes of questions that are asked when assessing the credibility of asylum seekers' claims. Sixty-five officials from the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket), were asked to respond to one out of four different vignettes that contained fictitious asylum narratives. Each vignette presented the types of problems often encountered by officials at the migration board. Two of the vignettes contained no evidence of the ori...

  1. Video consultation use by Australian general practitioners: video vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwa, Moyez; Meng, Xingqiong

    2013-06-19

    There is unequal access to health care in Australia, particularly for the one-third of the population living in remote and rural areas. Video consultations delivered via the Internet present an opportunity to provide medical services to those who are underserviced, but this is not currently routine practice in Australia. There are advantages and shortcomings to using video consultations for diagnosis, and general practitioners (GPs) have varying opinions regarding their efficacy. The aim of this Internet-based study was to explore the attitudes of Australian GPs toward video consultation by using a range of patient scenarios presenting different clinical problems. Overall, 102 GPs were invited to view 6 video vignettes featuring patients presenting with acute and chronic illnesses. For each vignette, they were asked to offer a differential diagnosis and to complete a survey based on the theory of planned behavior documenting their views on the value of a video consultation. A total of 47 GPs participated in the study. The participants were younger than Australian GPs based on national data, and more likely to be working in a larger practice. Most participants (72%-100%) agreed on the differential diagnosis in all video scenarios. Approximately one-third of the study participants were positive about video consultations, one-third were ambivalent, and one-third were against them. In all, 91% opposed conducting a video consultation for the patient with symptoms of an acute myocardial infarction. Inability to examine the patient was most frequently cited as the reason for not conducting a video consultation. Australian GPs who were favorably inclined toward video consultations were more likely to work in larger practices, and were more established GPs, especially in rural areas. The survey results also suggest that the deployment of video technology will need to focus on follow-up consultations. Patients with minor self-limiting illnesses and those with medical

  2. Studying medical communication with video vignettes: a randomized study on how variations in video-vignette introduction format and camera focus influence analogue patients’ engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie N. C. Visser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Video vignettes are used to test the effects of physicians’ communication on patient outcomes. Methodological choices in video-vignette development may have far-stretching consequences for participants’ engagement with the video, and thus the ecological validity of this design. To supplement the scant evidence in this field, this study tested how variations in video-vignette introduction format and camera focus influence participants’ engagement with a video vignette showing a bad news consultation. Methods Introduction format (A = audiovisual vs. B = written and camera focus (1 = the physician only, 2 = the physician and the patient at neutral moments alternately, 3 = the physician and the patient at emotional moments alternately were varied in a randomized 2 × 3 between-subjects design. One hundred eighty-one students were randomly assigned to watch one of the six resulting video-vignette conditions as so-called analogue patients, i.e., they were instructed to imagine themselves being in the video patient’s situation. Four dimensions of self-reported engagement were assessed retrospectively. Emotional engagement was additionally measured by recording participants’ electrodermal and cardiovascular activity continuously while watching. Analyses of variance were used to test the effects of introduction format, camera focus and their interaction. Results The audiovisual introduction induced a stronger blood pressure response during watching the introduction (p = 0.048, η partial 2 $$ {\\eta}_{partial}^2 $$ = 0.05 and the consultation part of the vignette (p = 0.051, η partial 2 $$ {\\eta}_{partial}^2 $$ = 0.05, when compared to the written introduction. With respect to camera focus, results revealed that the variant focusing on the patient at emotional moments evoked a higher level of electrodermal activity (p = 0.003, η partial 2 $$ {\\eta}_{partial}^2 $$ = 0.06, when compared

  3. Using vignettes to study nurse practitioners' performance in suspected domestic violence situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagan, M J

    2000-01-01

    Vignettes have often been used to evaluate students or collect data in nursing research. The format is familiar to most nursing students as well as nurses and nurse researchers. This article presents the development and testing of the Nurse Practitioner Performance Tool (NPPT) which used vignettes as an approach to nurse practitioner performance evaluation. In this example, vignettes were used in a quasi-experimental design to collect data from Adult and Family Nurse Practitioners (A/FNP). The focus was on the diagnosis and intervention performance of the A/FNPs when addressing suspected cases of domestic violence.

  4. Abortion attitudes in context: a multidimensional vignette approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Jason D; Kimberly, Claire

    2014-11-01

    The effects of relationship status, rationale for considering abortion (life circumstance versus health issue), and the male partner's wishes on abortion attitudes were examined using a multiple-segment factorial vignette with a probability sample of 532 Kentucky households. Respondents expressed strong opinions in the absence of contextual details, yet many shifted the direction of their strongly-held positions once contextual information was revealed that challenged their initial assumptions. Results confirm and extend prior research by indicating that attitudes are strongly held but are simultaneously highly responsive to context. The validity of surveys and polls that attempt to measure global attitudes toward abortion, such as pro-choice versus pro-life, in the absence of contextual details is therefore questioned. The full context of one's life and situation is weighed in the abortion decision-making process, and our findings indicate that attitudes toward abortion are largely responsive and reflective of that context as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Compulsive buying disorder: a review and a case vignette].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Hermano; Lobo, Daniela Sabbatini S; Fuentes, Daniel; Black, Donald W

    2008-05-01

    Compulsive buying disorder was first described as a psychiatric syndrome in the early twentieth century. Its classification remains elusive, and investigators have debated its potential relationship to mood, substance use, obsessive-compulsive, and impulse control disorders. The objective of this study is to present a review of compulsive buying disorder and present a case vignette. Two databases were reviewed (Medline and PsycINFO) in search for articles published in the last 40 years. Selected terms included oniomania, compulsive buying, and compulsive shopping. Other relevant articles were also identified through reference lists. Compulsive buying disorder is a prevalent and chronic condition that is found worldwide, sharing commonalities with impulse control disorders. In clinical samples, women make up more than 80% of subjects. Its etiology is unknown, but neurobiologic and genetic mechanisms have been proposed. The disorder is highly comorbid with mood, substance use, eating and impulse control disorders. Treatment recommendations derived from the literature and clinical experience suggest that problem shoppers can benefit from psychosocial interventions. Cognitive-behavioral group models appear promising. Medication trials have reported mixed results. The identification and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity is also a key aspect of treatment. In order to determine the validity of compulsive buying disorder, future work should focus on psychopathology and neurobiological findings unique to the syndrome.

  6. Testing QCD with Hypothetical Tau Leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1998-10-21

    We construct new tests of perturbative QCD by considering a hypothetical {tau} lepton of arbitrary mass, which decays hadronically through the electromagnetic current. We can explicitly compute its hadronic width ratio directly as an integral over the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation cross section ratio, R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}. Furthermore, we can design a set of commensurate scale relations and perturbative QCD tests by varying the weight function away from the form associated with the V-A decay of the physical {tau}. This method allows the wide range of the R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}} data to be used as a probe of perturbative QCD.

  7. The effects of physical activity vignettes on physical activity-related social cognitions among people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, Brianne L; Ginis, Kathleen A Martin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of informational portrait vignettes for enhancing physical activity-related psychosocial cognitions in adults with spinal cord injury (n = 90). Using the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA), participants were classified as being in the motivational or volitional phase of behavior change. Half of the participants were randomly allocated to read an experimental vignette, which described the physical activity behaviours, thoughts, and feelings of a character demographically similar to the reader. The remainder read a control vignette. Social cognitions were measured one-week before, and immediately after reading the vignette. Analyses revealed no significant effects of the vignettes on social cognitions (p > 0.05). Informational portrait vignettes describing a physically active person with SCI and targeting multiple HAPA-based social cognitions are not recommended as a physical activity promotional strategy for people with SCI. The effectiveness of other types of vignettes should be examined. Until further research is completed to determine whether social comparison strategies play a meditational role in accounting for the impact of a tailored informational portrait vignette to alter leisure time physical activity among those with spinal cord injury, these types of informational intervention should not be utilized in a rehabilitation, or real-world, setting. Although informational portrait vignettes may not be effective in altering leisure time physical activity social cognitions among those with spinal cord injury, different types of vignettes, such as composite vignettes, should be explored.

  8. In silico Structural and Functional Annotation of Mycoplasma genitalium Hypothetical Protein MG_377

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Paul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium, a Gram-positive sexually transmitted pathogen, has been associated with urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. The complete sequence of the M. genitalium G37 genome revealed that it consists of 94 hypothetical proteins with unknown function in addition to functional proteins. In the present study, the MG_377 hypothetical protein of M. genitalium was selected for analyzing and modeling by different bioinformatics tools and databases. According to primary and secondary structure analyses, MG_377 is a stable hydrophilic protein containing a significant proportion of α-helices; besides, it is a cytoplasmic protein based on subcellular localization predictions. Homology modeling method was applied to generate its 3D structure using SWISS-MODEL server where the template PDB 1ZXJ with 84.4% sequence identity with the hypothetical protein was exploited. Several evaluations of quality assessment and validation parameters specified the generated protein model as reliable with fairly good quality. Functional genomics analysis carried out by InterProScan, Pfam and NCBI-CDD suggested that the hypothetical protein may contain Trigger factor/SurA domain. Moreover, comparative genomics analysis recommended MG_377 as a non-homologous protein essential for the organism. Further experimental validation would help to identify the actual function of MG_377 as well as to confirm the utility of the protein as drug targets.

  9. Energy Considerations of Hypothetical Space Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2007-01-01

    The energy requirements of hypothetical, propellant-less space drives are compared to rockets. This serves to provide introductory estimates for potential benefits and to suggest analytical approaches for further study. A "space drive" is defined as an idealized form of propulsion that converts stored potential energy directly into kinetic energy using only the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space. For Earth-to-orbit, the space drive uses 3.7 times less energy. For deep space travel, energy is proportional to the square of delta-v, whereas rocket energy scales exponentially. This has the effect of rendering a space drive 150-orders-of-magnitude better than a 17,000-s Specific Impulse rocket for sending a modest 5000 kg probe to traverse 5 ly in 50 years. Indefinite levitation, which is impossible for a rocket, could conceivably require 62 MJ/kg for a space drive. Assumption sensitivities and further analysis options are offered to guide further inquires.

  10. A hypothetical study of populations under constant mortality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R B

    1976-03-01

    28 countries with different characteristics have been selected in order to observe the amount of time it takes for these different countries to reach stable age distributions. The individual populations by sex and age were projected for 150 years in 5-year intervals with the present constant mortality and fertility schedules by component method. Observations have been made by considering the following characteristics of population when it has acquired stability: age distribution; the rate of growth, birthrate, and mortality rate; the population change; the intrinsic rate of growth, birthrate and mortality rate; and approximate time taken to stabilize the population. The initial age distribution has a significant part in the amount of time it takes for a population to acquire stability, and its intrinsic rate of growth is mostly dependent upon the existing age distribution of that population. The time taken for a country's population to become stable depends upon the age distribution, fertility and mortality schedules at the beginning. It has been observed that countries having a higher intrinsic rate of growth take comparatively less time in acquiring stability than the countries having a lower intrinsic rate of growth. The mortality and fertility schedules of a country is another important phenomenon. The populations of the different countries at the point of stability were growing according to their rates of growth. No specific trend of population growth could be found among the groups of countries. Time taken for stabilizing the population is completely based upon age distributions, fertility and mortality schedules a particular country was having at the beginning. The range of time taken for different countries to acquire stability generally ranged from 100 to 135 years. Among the different countries the relationship for the time it takes to acquire stability has not been established. This is a hypothetical approach in order to obtain some idea as to how a

  11. Genital Responses to Rape Vignettes Among Young Men: The Influence of Mood and Directed Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalumière, Martin L; Fairweather, Annabree; Harris, Grant T; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Seto, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Although it is clear that men with a history of sexual assaults against women produce higher relative genital responses to rape vignettes in the laboratory than do men without such a history, it remains unclear what aspects of the vignettes are eliciting these responses, and whether the genital responses are affected by situational factors. The antisocial tendencies hypothesis states that many men are inhibited by cues of violence, suffering, and coercion in rape vignettes, but other men, particularly antisocial and sexually aggressive men, are not so inhibited. In this study, we investigated whether the hypothesized inhibition to rape vignettes among nonoffenders could be affected by manipulation of mood and directed attention. A total of 48 young men were exposed to audio-recorded vignettes describing mutually consenting and nonviolent sexual interactions, mutually consenting and violent sexual interactions, nonconsenting and violent sexual interactions, and nonsexual and nonviolent social interactions (within-subjects). Participants were randomly assigned to a mood manipulation designed to induce a happy, neutral, or sad mood (between-subjects). All were asked to pay attention to either sex words or violent words while listening to the vignettes (within-subjects). As is typically observed, genital responses were lower (inhibited) when vignettes included cues of violence or nonconsent. Both happy and sad mood inductions reduced this inhibition, so that men induced into a happy or sad mood showed greater relative responding to cues of violence or nonconsent compared with men in a neutral mood. The attention manipulation had no significant effect. Results suggest that genital responses to rape cues can be situationally influenced, but not necessarily as predicted by the antisocial tendencies hypothesis.

  12. New vignettes for the experimental manipulation of injury cause in prospective mild traumatic brain injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Karen A; Edmed, Shannon L

    2016-01-01

    This study developed standardized vignettes that depict a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) from one of several causes and subjected them to formal expert review. A base vignette was developed using the World Health Organization operational criteria for mild TBI. Eight specific causes (e.g. sport vs assault) were examined. A convenience sample of mild TBI experts with a discipline background of Neuropsychology from North America, Australasia and Europe (n = 21) used an online survey to evaluate the vignettes and rated the role of cause on outcome. The vignette suite was rated as fitting the mild TBI WHO operational diagnostic criteria at least moderately well. When compared to other factors, cause was not rated as significantly contributing to outcome. When evaluated in isolation, approximately half of the sample rated cause as important or very important and at least two of three clinical outcomes were associated with a different cause. The vignettes may be useful in experimental mild TBI research. They enable the injury parameters to be controlled so that the effects of cause can be isolated and examined empirically. Such studies should advance understanding of the role of this factor in mild TBI outcome.

  13. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Adjust Self-Reported Personality: A Comparison Between Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Weiss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from self-report tools cannot be readily compared between cultures due to culturally specific ways of using a response scale. As such, anchoring vignettes have been proposed as a suitable methodology for correcting against this difference. We developed anchoring vignettes for the Big Five Inventory-44 (BFI-44 to supplement its Likert-type response options. Based on two samples (Rwanda: n = 423; Philippines: n = 143, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the measure both before and after applying the anchoring vignette adjustment. Results show that adjusted scores had better measurement properties, including improved reliability and a more orthogonal correlational structure, relative to scores based on the original Likert scale. Correlations of the Big Five Personality Factors with life satisfaction were essentially unchanged after the vignette-adjustment while correlations with counterproductive were noticeably lower. Overall, these changed findings suggest that the use of anchoring vignette methodology improves the cross-cultural comparability of self-reported personality, a finding of potential interest to the field of global workforce research and development as well as educational policymakers.

  14. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Adjust Self-Reported Personality: A Comparison Between Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Selina; Roberts, Richard D.

    2018-01-01

    Data from self-report tools cannot be readily compared between cultures due to culturally specific ways of using a response scale. As such, anchoring vignettes have been proposed as a suitable methodology for correcting against this difference. We developed anchoring vignettes for the Big Five Inventory-44 (BFI-44) to supplement its Likert-type response options. Based on two samples (Rwanda: n = 423; Philippines: n = 143), we evaluated the psychometric properties of the measure both before and after applying the anchoring vignette adjustment. Results show that adjusted scores had better measurement properties, including improved reliability and a more orthogonal correlational structure, relative to scores based on the original Likert scale. Correlations of the Big Five Personality Factors with life satisfaction were essentially unchanged after the vignette-adjustment while correlations with counterproductive were noticeably lower. Overall, these changed findings suggest that the use of anchoring vignette methodology improves the cross-cultural comparability of self-reported personality, a finding of potential interest to the field of global workforce research and development as well as educational policymakers. PMID:29593621

  15. In Silico screening for functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanderhoff May

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The definition of a hypothetical protein is a protein that is predicted to be expressed from an open reading frame, but for which there is no experimental evidence of translation. Hypothetical proteins constitute a substantial fraction of proteomes of human as well as of other eukaryotes. With the general belief that the majority of hypothetical proteins are the product of pseudogenes, it is essential to have a tool with the ability of pinpointing the minority of hypothetical proteins with a high probability of being expressed. Results Here, we present an in silico selection strategy where eukaryotic hypothetical proteins are sorted according to two criteria that can be reliably identified in silico: the presence of subcellular targeting signals and presence of characterized protein domains. To validate the selection strategy we applied it on a database of human hypothetical proteins dating to 2006 and compared the proteins predicted to be expressed by our selecting strategy, with their status in 2008. For the comparison we focused on mitochondrial proteins, since considerable amounts of research have focused on this field in between 2006 and 2008. Therefore, many proteins, defined as hypothetical in 2006, have later been characterized as mitochondrial. Conclusion Among the total amount of human proteins hypothetical in 2006, 21% have later been experimentally characterized and 6% of those have been shown to have a role in a mitochondrial context. In contrast, among the selected hypothetical proteins from the 2006 dataset, predicted by our strategy to have a mitochondrial role, 53-62% have later been experimentally characterized, and 85% of these have actually been assigned a role in mitochondria by 2008. Therefore our in silico selection strategy can be used to select the most promising candidates for subsequent in vitro and in vivo analyses.

  16. Referring patients to specialists: A structured vignette survey of Australian and British GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Hooi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia and in the United Kingdom (UK access to specialists is sanctioned by General Practitioners (GPs. It is important to understand how practitioners determine which patients warrant referral. Methods A self-administered structured vignette postal survey of General Practitioners in Western Australia and the United Kingdom. Sixty-four vignettes describing patients with colorectal symptoms were constructed encompassing six clinical details. Nine vignettes, chosen at random, were presented to each individual. Respondents were asked if they would refer the patient to a specialist and how urgently. Logistic regression and parametric tests were used to analyse the data Results We received 260 completed questionnaires. 58% of 'cancer vignettes' were selected for 'urgent' referral. 1632/2367 or 69% of all vignettes were selected for referral. After adjusting for clustering the model suggests that 38.4% of the variability is explained by all the clinical variables as well as the age and experience of the respondents. 1012 or 42.8 % of vignettes were referred 'urgently'. After adjusting for clustering the data suggests that 31.3 % of the variability is explained by the model. The age of the respondents, the location of the practice and all the clinical variables were significant in the decision to refer urgently. Conclusion GPs' referral decisions for patients with lower bowel symptoms are similar in the two countries. We question the wisdom of streaming referrals from primary care without a strong evidence base and an effective intervention for implementing guidelines. We conclude that implementation must take into account the profile of patients but also the characteristics of GPs and referral policies.

  17. Analysis of Dog Adoption Success and Failure Using Surveys With Vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E; Murphy, Nancy C

    2016-01-01

    Adoption success of dogs who serve as companion animals was analyzed via surveys with vignettes. The researchers administered surveys with vignettes to animal shelter employees, veterinarians, and other animal-care professionals in Eastern North Carolina. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to identify variables that were perceived to influence adoption success. Dog size, personality, behavior, and level of obedience training were found to be significant perceived influencers of adoption success. Prospective caregiver characteristics such as gender and level of activity were shown to be perceived as significant. Guidance on the practical use of the logistic regression model is provided, and limitations of the study are described.

  18. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    as a means to re-scale across sample populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocuous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-à-vis the standard Chopit model....

  19. Teachers’ accuracy in identifying ADHD status and their intended classroom management strategies for students with and without ADHD: a vignette study in South-Korea and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean and German teachers’ accurate diagnosis and their intentions of using classroom management strategies (CMS for the hypothetical student depicted in the vignette types. Participants and procedure Through a disproportional stratified sampling procedure, matched 264 Korean and 264 German teachers were distributed. Kos (2004’ eight vignettes were slightly modified due to the different cultural background. SPSS 22.0 was used to analyze the data. Results Within a culture, 68.20% of Korean and 48.90% of German teachers were able to correctly identify attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD status. Teachers in both countries intend to use emotional support the most, followed by proactive strategies. Across cultures, a significant difference was found between Korean and German teachers with regard to their accuracy in identifying students’ ADHD status. Korean teachers showed higher accuracy than German teachers. Significant differences between the two countries were also observed regarding teachers’ intentions of using corrective and proactive strategies. Korean teachers use more corrective strategies, and German teachers use more proactive strategies. Regarding emotional support, no significant differences were found between Korean and German teachers. Conclusions This study can be a preliminary resource for developing a specific CMS for students with ADHD for both countries. It is suggested that the current status of teachers’ specific CMS for students with ADHD should be investigated in order to develop more specialized CMS for these students. It is worth conducting a meta-analysis of this issue to assess the most effective CMS for students with ADHD in the classroom.

  20. In Silico screening for functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desler, Claus; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Sanderhoff, May

    2009-01-01

    eukaryotes. With the general belief that the majority of hypothetical proteins are the product of pseudogenes, it is essential to have a tool with the ability of pinpointing the minority of hypothetical proteins with a high probability of being expressed. RESULTS: Here, we present an in silico selection...... strategy where eukaryotic hypothetical proteins are sorted according to two criteria that can be reliably identified in silico: the presence of subcellular targeting signals and presence of characterized protein domains. To validate the selection strategy we applied it on a database of human hypothetical...... proteins dating to 2006 and compared the proteins predicted to be expressed by our selecting strategy, with their status in 2008. For the comparison we focused on mitochondrial proteins, since considerable amounts of research have focused on this field in between 2006 and 2008. Therefore, many proteins...

  1. Interviewing asylum seekers : A vignette study on the questions asked to assess credibility of claims about origin and persecution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuizen, Tanja S.; Horselenberg, Robert; Landström, Sara; Granhag, Pär Anders; van Koppen, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current vignette study is to map the style, type, and themes of questions that are asked when assessing the credibility of asylum seekers' claims. Sixty-five officials from the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket), were asked to respond to one out of four different vignettes

  2. Guideline adherence rates and interprofessional variation in a vignette study of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemeier, H.; de Vries, W. J.; van het Loo, M.; Kahan, J. P.; Klazinga, N.; Grol, R.; Rigter, H.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the appropriateness of and variation in intention-to-treat decisions in the management of depression in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Mailed survey with 22 paper cases (vignettes) based on a population study. SETTING: A random sample from four professional groups in the Dutch mental

  3. Clinical Case Vignettes: A Promising Tool to Assess Competence in the Management of Agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Gillian L; Vestal, Heather S; Stoklosa, Joseph B; Valcourt, Stephanie C; Peabody, John W; Keary, Christopher J; Nejad, Shamim H; Caminis, Argyro; Huffman, Jeff C

    2017-06-01

    While standardized patients (SPs) remain the gold standard for assessing clinical competence in a standardized setting, clinical case vignettes that allow free-text, open-ended written responses are more resource- and time-efficient assessment tools. It remains unknown, however, whether this is a valid method for assessing competence in the management of agitation. Twenty-six psychiatry residents partook in a randomized controlled study evaluating a simulation-based teaching intervention on the management of agitated patients. Competence in the management of agitation was assessed using three separate modalities: simulation with SPs, open-ended clinical vignettes, and self-report questionnaires. Performance on clinical vignettes correlated significantly with SP-based assessments (r = 0.59, p = 0.002); self-report questionnaires that assessed one's own ability to manage agitation did not correlate with SP-based assessments (r = -0.06, p = 0.77). Standardized clinical vignettes may be a simple, time-efficient, and valid tool for assessing residents' competence in the management of agitation.

  4. Healthcare-seeking behaviour in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from clinical vignettes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Mebratie (Anagaw); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); Z. Yilma (Zelalem); D. Abebaw (Degnet); G. Alemu (Getnet ); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objectives: To investigate the determinants of healthcare-seeking behaviour using five contextrelevant clinical vignettes. The analysis deals with three issues: whether and where to seek modern care and when to seek care. Setting: This study is set in 96 villages

  5. Exploring Weight Management Recommendations across Australian Community Pharmacies Using Case Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L.; Hussainy, Safeera Y.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in the overweight and obese population, it is critical that pharmacy staff are able to provide weight management advice to women at different stages of their life. This study utilized case vignettes to identify pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' current weight management recommendations to women of different ages, life stages…

  6. The New Friends Vignettes: Measuring Parental Psychological Control that Confers Risk for Anxious Adjustment in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the links between preschoolers' internalizing problems and anxiety-related social difficulties and two aspects of maternal and paternal psychological control: overprotection and critical control. Some 115 mothers and 92 fathers completed the New Friends Vignettes (NFV), a new measure of psychological control and…

  7. Using Scenarios and Vignettes in Cross-Cultural Business Communication Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Considers how vignettes or scenarios are particularly effective tools for instruction in cross-cultural business communication and negotiations; they serve the same function as a story that a trainer or professor might use to bring a particular issue to life. Suggests that teachers in intercultural or international business communication should…

  8. Vignette Research on Messy and Confusing Problems in Primary Mental Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. (Dineke Smit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The average primary care psychologist feels an ever-widening gap between objective, measurable reality as described and the complex and dynamic reality they experience. To obtain a better understanding of this complex dynamic reality, we conducted an exploratory mixed-method study of primary care psychologists. We asked our participants to write vignettes about messy and confusing problems in the complex context of mental healthcare. We then examined the data in portions, exposed the patterns in the data, and subsequently analysed all in conjunction. The 113 vignettes showed experiences of psychologists dealing not only with the patient, but also with the family of the patient and/or employers, working together with other healthcare professionals, struggling with dilemmas and having mixed feelings. However, using the Cynafin Framework, 36% of the vignettes were still rated as simple. Was it because those vignettes contained fewer words (p = .006? Or because it is difficult to grasp complexity when cause and effect are intertwined with emotions, norms and values? In the discussion, we suggest examining a complex dynamic system in terms of both the consistency of its various elements and the dynamics of the system. We also discuss how to optimize the system’s adaptive self-organizing ability and how to challenge ourselves to invent negative feedback loops that can keep the complex system in equilibrium.

  9. Moral foundations vignettes: a standardized stimulus database of scenarios based on moral foundations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Scott; Iyengar, Vijeth; Cabeza, Roberto; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Research on the emotional, cognitive, and social determinants of moral judgment has surged in recent years. The development of moral foundations theory (MFT) has played an important role, demonstrating the breadth of morality. Moral psychology has responded by investigating how different domains of moral judgment are shaped by a variety of psychological factors. Yet, the discipline lacks a validated set of moral violations that span the moral domain, creating a barrier to investigating influences on judgment and how their neural bases might vary across the moral domain. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by developing and validating a large set of moral foundations vignettes (MFVs). Each vignette depicts a behavior violating a particular moral foundation and not others. The vignettes are controlled on many dimensions including syntactic structure and complexity making them suitable for neuroimaging research. We demonstrate the validity of our vignettes by examining respondents' classifications of moral violations, conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and demonstrating the correspondence between the extracted factors and existing measures of the moral foundations. We expect that the MFVs will be beneficial for a wide variety of behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of moral cognition.

  10. Alcohol's Effects on Women's Risk Detection in a Date-Rape Vignette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Marci; Fuqua, Wayne R.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have established that alcohol is a risk factor for date rape for both victims and perpetrators. Objective: The authors tried to experimentally address the link between alcohol consumption and women's risk detection abilities in a risky sexual vignette. Participants: The authors recruited 42 women from undergraduate classrooms at a…

  11. THE STUDY OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS BY THE VIGNETTE METHOD: A QUANTITATIVE INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж В Пузанова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the prospects of creating vignettes as a new method in empirical sociology. It is a good alternative to the conventional mass survey methods. The article consists of a few sections differing by the focus. The vignette method is not popular among Russian scientists, but has a big history abroad. A wide range of problems can be solved by this method (e.g. the prospects for guardianship and its evaluation, international students’ adaptation to the educational system, social justice studies, market-ing and business research, etc.. The vignette method can be used for studying different problems including sensitive questions (e.g. HIV, drugs, psychological trauma, etc., because it is one of the projective techniques. Projective techniques allow to obtain more reliable information, because the respondent projects one situation on the another, but at the same time responds to his own stimulus. The article considers advantages and disadvantages of the method. The authors provide information about the limitations of the method. The article presents the key principles for designing and developing the vignettes method depending on the research type. The authors provide examples of their own vignettes tested in the course of their own empirical research. The authors highlight the advantages of the logical-combinatorial approaches (especially the JSM method with its dichotomy for the analysis of data in quantitative research. Also they consider another method of the analysis of the data that implies the technique of “steeping”, i.e. when the respondent gets new information step by step, which extends his previous knowledge.

  12. Sexual Assault Disclosure: The Effect of Victim Race and Perpetrator Type on Empathy, Culpability, and Service Referral for Survivors in a Hypothetical Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Cortney A; Garza, Alondra D

    2018-03-01

    The aftermath of sexual assault warrants further attention surrounding the responses provided by those to whom survivors disclose, especially when perpetrator type or victim race may affect whether the bystander response is supportive or attributes culpability to the victim. Disclosure responses have significant consequences for survivors' posttrauma mental health and formal help-seeking behavior. The current study used a sample of 348 self-report, paper-and-pencil surveys administered during the fall 2015 semester to a purposive sample of undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.94 years old at a midsized, Southern public university. Survey design included a randomly assigned 2 × 2 hypothetical sexual assault disclosure vignette. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of perpetrator type (stranger vs. acquaintance) and victim race (White vs. Black) on empathic concern, culpability attributions, and resource referral. Between-subjects factorial ANOVA and multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were estimated to identify the role of vignette manipulations, participant-sexual victimization history, and rape myth acceptance on empathy, culpability, and resource referral for the sexual assault survivor portrayed in the vignette. Multivariate analyses included main effects and moderation models. Findings revealed increased culpability and decreased resource referral for victims of acquaintance rape as compared with stranger rape, independent of victim race. Although no direct victim race effects emerged in the multivariate analyses, race moderated the effect of culpability on resource referral indicating culpability attributions decreased resource referral, but only when the victim was Black . Implications from the results presented here include a continued focus on bystander intervention strategies, empathy-building techniques, and educational programming targeting potential sexual assault disclosees and race stereotypes that

  13. Factors affecting physicians’ intentions to communicate personalized prognostic information to cancer patients at the end of life: An experimental vignette study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Paul K.J.; Dieckmann, Nathan F.; Holt, Christina; Gutheil, Caitlin; Peters, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effects of personalized numeric prognostic information on physicians’ intentions to communicate prognosis to cancer patients at the end of life, and to identify factors that moderate these effects. Methods A factorial experiment was conducted in which 93 Family Medicine physicians were presented with a hypothetical case vignette depicting an end-stage gastric cancer patient seeking prognostic information. Physicians’ intentions to communicate prognosis were assessed before and after provision of personalized prognostic information, while emotional distress of the patient and ambiguity (manifest by imprecision) of the prognostic estimate were varied between subjects. General linear models were used to test the effects of personalized prognostic information, patient distress, and ambiguity on prognostic communication intentions, and explored potential moderating effects of: 1) perceived patient distress, 2) perceived credibility of prognostic models, 3) physician numeracy (objective and subjective), and 4) physician aversion to risk and ambiguity. Results Provision of personalized prognostic information increased prognostic communication intentions (pcommunication intentions was positively associated with higher perceived credibility of prognostic models (p=.007, η2=.10), higher objective numeracy (p=.01, η2=.09), female sex (p=.01, η2=.08), and lower perceived patient distress (p=.02, η2=.07). Intentions to communicate available personalized prognostic information were positively associated with higher perceived credibility of prognostic models (p=.02, η2=.09), higher subjective numeracy (p=.02, η2=.08), and lower ambiguity aversion (p=.06, η2=.04). Conclusions Provision of personalized prognostic information increases physicians’ prognostic communication intentions to a hypothetical end-stage cancer patient, and situational and physician characteristics moderate this effect. More research is needed to confirm these findings and

  14. Preferences for cancer investigation: a vignette-based study of primary-care attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Bigwood, Lin; Peters, Tim J; Walter, Fiona M; Hamilton, Willie

    2014-02-01

    The UK lags behind many European countries in terms of cancer survival. Initiatives to address this disparity have focused on barriers to presentation, symptom recognition, and referral for specialist investigation. Selection of patients for further investigation has come under particular scrutiny, although preferences for referral thresholds in the UK population have not been studied. We investigated preferences for diagnostic testing for colorectal, lung, and pancreatic cancers in primary-care attendees. In a vignette-based study, researchers recruited individuals aged at least 40 years attending 26 general practices in three areas of England between Dec 6, 2011, and Aug 1, 2012. Participants completed up to three of 12 vignettes (four for each of lung, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers), which were randomly assigned. The vignettes outlined a set of symptoms, the risk that these symptoms might indicate cancer (1%, 2%, 5%, or 10%), the relevant testing process, probable treatment, possible alternative diagnoses, and prognosis if cancer were identified. Participants were asked whether they would opt for diagnostic testing on the basis of the information in the vignette. 3469 participants completed 6930 vignettes. 3052 individuals (88%) opted for investigation in their first vignette. We recorded no strong evidence that participants were more likely to opt for investigation with a 1% increase in risk of cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1·02, 95% CI 0·99-1·06; p=0·189), although the association between risk and opting for investigation was strong when colorectal cancer was analysed alone (1·08, 1·03-1·13; p=0·0001). In multivariable analysis, age had an effect in all three cancer models: participants aged 60-69 years were significantly more likely to opt for investigation than were those aged 40-59 years, and those aged 70 years or older were less likely. Other variables associated with increased likelihood of opting for investigation were shorter travel times to

  15. Instructional Vignettes in Publication and Journalism Ethics in Radiology Research: Assessment via a Survey of Radiology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Ginocchio, Luke A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the potential usefulness of written instructional vignettes relating to publication and journalism ethics in radiology via a survey of radiology trainees. A literature review was conducted to guide the development of vignettes, each describing a scenario relating to an ethical issue in research and publication, with subsequent commentary on the underlying ethical issue and potential approaches to its handling. Radiology trainees at a single institution were surveyed regarding the vignettes' perceived usefulness. A total of 21 vignettes were prepared, addressing institutional review board and human subjects protection, authorship issues, usage of previous work, manuscript review, and other miscellaneous topics. Of the solicited trainees, 24.7% (16/65) completed the survey. On average among the vignettes, 94.0% of the participants found the vignette helpful; 19.9 received prior formal instruction on the issue during medical training; 40.0% received prior informal guidance from a research mentor; and 42.0% indicated that the issue had arisen in their own or a peer's prior research experience. The most common previously experienced specific issue was authorship order (93.8%). Free-text responses were largely favorable regarding the value of the vignettes, although also indicated numerous challenges in properly handling the ethical issues: impact of hierarchy, pressure to publish, internal politics, reluctance to conduct sensitive conversations with colleagues, and variability in journal and professional society policies. Radiology trainees overall found the vignettes helpful, addressing commonly encountered topics for which formal and informal guidance were otherwise lacking. The vignettes are publicly available through the Association of University Radiologists (AUR) website and may foster greater insights by investigators into ethical aspects of the publication and journalism process, thus contributing to higher quality

  16. Comparing hypothetical versus non-hypothetical methods for measuring willingness to pay in a food context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Carrasco, L.; Brugarolas, M.; Martínez-Poveda, A.; Ruiz-Martínez, J.J.

    2015-07-01

    Choosing a valid procedure to measure willingness to pay (WTP) is crucial for designating optimum price policies or for evaluating the demand for new products. This study compares two methods for obtaining WTP in a food context: a random nth price auction and an open-ended contingent valuation (CV) question. Participants were regular salad tomato buyers of Alicante and they were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments. The products about which they would show their WTP were traditional tomato varieties. Both treatments were divided into three stages: in the first stage the only available information was a reference price for the tomatoes. In stages 2 and 3 we revealed the local origin and the organic grown of the tomatoes respectively. Our results show that in the auction the percentage of participants willing to pay the same or more than the reference price was between 20 and 30%. In the CV method this percentage was between 40 and 65%. The mean WTP in the auction, considering the whole of the individuals, was situated between 1.90 and 2.13 €/kg. These same results obtained through the CV were situated between 2.54 and 3.21 €/kg. The results confirmed the findings of previous papers in which the hypothetical bias of CV was clarified because it yields higher values for WTP than the auction, especially when referring to the number of individuals willing to pay more. Additionally, hedonic price models were estimated for the prices obtained by both methods with the result that in all the models, WTP was directly related to the price paid for the latest purchase of tomatoes. (Author)

  17. Shifting college students' epistemological framing using hypothetical debate problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    Developing expertise in physics problem solving requires the ability to use mathematics effectively in physical scenarios. Novices and experts often perceive the use of mathematics in physics differently. Students' perceptions and how they frame the use of mathematics in physics play an important role in their physics problem solving. In this study, we examined students' epistemological framing about using mathematics in physics in two types of problems: a conventional problem and a hypothetical debate problem. We found that when solving a conventional physics problem, students tended to frame problem solving in physics as rote equation chasing, i.e., plugging quantities into a memorized physics equation. In hypothetical debate problems, students were more likely to be involved in quantitative or qualitative sense making. We conclude that hypothetical debate problems might be used as an instructional tool for engaging students in sense making while using mathematics in physics. Thus, it might be potentially useful for developing more expertlike problem solving expertise.

  18. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  19. Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Roszko

    2015-11-01

    To analyse both the languages there is used the method of theoretical contrastive studies, which the most important features are: (1 orienting the studies from the content grounds to the formal grounds, (2 using a semantic interlanguage as tertium comparationis. First of all, the content of hypothetical modality and its definition and paraphrase is given here. Next, the gradational character of this category is discussed. There are distinguished six groups of lexemes expressing the corresponding degrees of hypothetical modality — from a shadow of uncertainty (minimal degree of probability to an almost complete certainty (maximum degree of probability. The experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus is widely applied in the studies.

  20. Bridging information requirements and information needs assessment: do scenarios and vignettes provide a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Urquhart

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to compare the philosophies of the vignette and critical incident techniques in information behaviour research, with the methodologies used in object oriented analysis such as use case scenarios and CRC (class, responsibility, collaboration cards. The principles of object oriented analysis are outlined, noting the emphasis on obtaining the "storyline" or "scripts" for information requirements analysis through use cases and CRC cards.  The critical incident technique and vignettes are used to obtain valid interpretations of users" information behaviour, using a storyline approach for data collection (and analysis which is similar to that of object oriented analysis. Some examples illustrate how techniques developed in object oriented analysis could be used for data display in information behaviour studies. Concludes that the methods developed by software engineering could be adapted usefully for information behaviour research.

  1. Passive Facebook use, Facebook addiction, and associations with escapism: an experimental vignette study

    OpenAIRE

    Young, LN; Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD; Howard, CJ

    2017-01-01

    There is relatively little research considering motivations of passive Facebook use. However, research regarding motivations of general Facebook use indicates that people use Facebook to escape – and that escapism may motivate passive Facebook use. Research also suggests that using Facebook to escape is associated with Facebook addiction. Using an experimental vignette design, the present research investigated whether passive Facebook use is motivated by escapism and whether this escape motiv...

  2. Exploring attitudes towards victims of crime among video game players: a vignette study

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, L; Griffiths, MD

    2013-01-01

    Research on video game playing has focused mainly on the effects of such games in relation to aggression and attitudes towards perpetrators and towards crime. The present research was designed to investigate gamers’ attitudes towards victims of crimes and incidents that were designed to mirror those portrayed in violent video games. Vignettes were used during interviews to explore 50 participants’ attitudes towards different types of victims. The results indicate that long-term playing of vio...

  3. Citizen Data Science for Social Good in Complex Systems: Case Studies and Vignettes from Recent Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The confluence of massive amounts of openly available data, sophisticated machine learning algorithms and an enlightened citizenry willing to engage in data science presents novel opportunities for crowd sourced data science for social good. In this submission, I present vignettes of data science projects that I have been involved in and which have impact in various spheres of life and on social good. Complex systems are all around us: from social networks to transportation sys...

  4. Weaving together peer assessment, audios and medical vignettes in teaching medical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibaih, Mohammad; Khan, Lateef M

    2015-12-06

    The current study aims at exploring the possibility of aligning peer assessment, audiovisuals, and medical case-report extracts (vignettes) in medical terminology teaching. In addition, the study wishes to highlight the effectiveness of audio materials and medical history vignettes in preventing medical students' comprehension, listening, writing, and pronunciation errors. The study also aims at reflecting the medical students' attitudes towards the teaching and learning process. The study involved 161 medical students who received an intensive medical terminology course through audio and medical history extracts. Peer assessment and formative assessment platforms were applied through fake quizzes in a pre- and post-test manner. An 18-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback towards the teaching and learning process. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using the SPSS software. The students did better in the posttests than on the pretests for both the quizzes of audios and medical vignettes showing a t-test of -12.09 and -13.60 respectively. Moreover, out of the 133 students, 120 students (90.22%) responded to the survey questions. The students gave positive attitudes towards the application of audios and vignettes in the teaching and learning of medical terminology and towards the learning process. The current study revealed that the teaching and learning of medical terminology have more room for the application of advanced technologies, effective assessment platforms, and active learning strategies in higher education. It also highlights that students are capable of carrying more responsibilities of assessment, feedback, and e-learning.

  5. CDE Perspectives of Providing New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Education Using Formal Vignettes and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Neesha; Johnson, Kim; Cullen, Karen; Hamm, Terri; Bisordi, Jean; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the 4 Parent Education Through Simulation-Diabetes (PETS-D) nurse certified diabetes educators' (CDEs) perspectives of teaching parents of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) early diabetes management skills using formal vignettes and a human patient simulator/human patient simulation (HPS) to augment/enhance the teaching-learning process. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Four CDEs were interviewed by phone about their teaching experiences. Meticulous notes were taken. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The vignettes (and use of HPS) provided structure, especially for parents who were struggling to learn. Certified diabetes educators described a short learning curve to master the use of the HPS manikin. Human patient simulation-enhanced education was described as helpful for teaching multiple caregivers about diabetes. Certified diabetes educators also described factors that affect parent learning, mechanical issues with the HPS, and additional space requirements for HPS-enhanced education. Conclusion Vignettes and HPS-enhanced education can successfully be used to educate parents of children with new-onset T1DM and were preferred by the CDEs when compared with previous teaching strategies. The results of this study support the use of both vignette-based and HPS-enhanced education when a child is newly diagnosed with T1DM. Further studies need to be done to see if these effects persist with different populations, during different stages of the disease, and for individuals with other chronic illnesses.

  6. How much dentists are ethically concerned about overtreatment; a vignette-based survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Ali; Berg, Isabelle; Finkel, Christina; Yazdani, Shahram; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Juergens, Philipp; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2015-06-19

    Overtreatment (or unnecessary treatment) is when medical or dental services are provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate. This study aimed to investigate how a group of dentists in Switzerland, a wealthy country known to have high standards of healthcare including dentistry, evaluated the meaning of unnecessary treatments from an ethical perspective and, assessed the expected frequency of different possible behaviors among their peers. A vignette describing a situation that is susceptible for overtreatment of a patient was presented to a group of dentists. The vignette was followed by five options. A questionnaire including the vignette was posted to 2482 dentists in the German-speaking areas of Switzerland. The respondents were asked to rate each option according to their estimation about its prevalence and their judgment about the degree to which the behavior is ethically sound. 732 completed questionnaires were returned. According to the responses, the most ethical and the most unethical options are considered to be the most and the least prevalent behaviors among dentists practicing in Switzerland, respectively. Suggesting unnecessary treatments to patients seems to be an ethically unacceptable conduct in the eyes of a sample of dentists in Switzerland. Although the respondents believed their colleagues were very likely to behave in an ethical way in response to a situation that is susceptible to overtreatment, they still seemed to be concerned about the prevalence of unethical behaviors in this regard.

  7. Borderline personality disorder in men: A literature review and illustrative case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Adam; Parker, Gordon

    2017-11-01

    The aim is to review the salient literature on borderline personality disorder (BPD) in men and link those findings with case vignettes. We provide a literature review and then report case examples of those who met DSM and clinical BPD criteria, and consider the extent to which the small male sub-set corresponded developmentally and phenomenologically with prototypic BPD in women. The review considered phenomenological, epidemiological, biological and developmental BPD factors, finding BPD men evidence elevated substance abuse, and 'externalising' patterns of behavior, antisocial personality traits, violent self-harm and interpersonal aggression, whereas women display more 'internalising' strategies. The five male vignettes enriched the literature review providing support for gender differences reported in our review. The literature and case vignette findings should assist clinicians in recognising that BPD in men may not be as rare as generally viewed, and which may reflect BPD being commonly viewed as weighted to women and being misdiagnosed as an antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An Exploration of Industry Expert Perception of Equine Welfare Using Vignettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelie DuBois

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a larger Delphi survey project, equine professionals (n = 14 were presented with twelve short scenarios in which a horse’s welfare could be compromised. They were asked to rank each scenario (with 0 indicating no welfare concerns and 5 indicating a situation where immediate intervention was necessary, provide justification for their ranking, and give examples of what might have been the motivation behind the scenario. The wide range within vignette scores demonstrated the diversity of opinion even among a relatively small group of equine professionals. Qualitative analysis of responses to vignettes suggested that respondents typically ranked situations higher if they had a longer duration and the potential for greater or longer-lasting consequences (e.g., serious injury. Respondents were also the most sensitive to situations in which the horse’s physical well-being (e.g., painful experience was, or could be, compromised. Financial reasons, ignorance, and human convenience were also areas discussed as potential motivators by survey respondents. Overall, responses from the vignettes allowed for a picture of welfare perception based on personal values.

  9. Towards a formalization of the Hypothetical Monopoly Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2008-01-01

    We provide the first formalization ever of the HypotheticalMonopoly Test (HMT) to identify relevant markets. This reveals that the outcome of the test crucially depends on the intensity of competition. For two types of competition intensities, one related to market structure and one related to firm

  10. Numerical Hydrodynamic Study of Hypothetical Levee Setback Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ER D C /C HL T R- 18 -1 Flood and Coastal Systems Research and Development Program Numerical Hydrodynamic Study of Hypothetical Levee...public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the...nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering , geospatial sciences

  11. Identification of a hypothetical membrane protein interactor of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 1. Identification of a hypothetical membrane protein interactor of ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. K Aruna Tirtha Chakraborty Savithri Nambeesan Abdul Baru Mannan Alfica Sehgal Seema R Bhalchandra Shobhona Sharma. Articles Volume 29 Issue 1 March 2004 ...

  12. Evaluation of hypothetical (153)Gd source for use in brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Behmadi, Marziyeh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dosimetric parameters of a hypothetical (153)Gd source for use in brachytherapy and comparison of the dosimetric parameters with those of (192)Ir and (125)I sources. Dose rate constant, the radial dose function and the two dimensional (2D) anisotropy function data for the hypothetical (153)Gd source were obtained by simulation of the source using MCNPX code and then were compared with the corresponding data reported by Enger et al. A comprehensive comparison between this hypothetical source and a (192)Ir source with similar geometry and a (125)I source was performed as well. Excellent agreement was shown between the results of the two studies. Dose rate constant values for the hypothetical (153)Gd, (192)Ir, (125)I sources are 1.173 cGyh(-1) U(-1), 1.044 cGyh(-1) U(-1), 0.925 cGyh(-1) U(-1), respectively. Radial dose function for the hypothetical (153)Gd source has an increasing trend, while (192)Ir has more uniform and (125)I has more rapidly falling off radial dose functions. 2D anisotropy functions for these three sources indicate that, except at 0.5 cm distance, (192)Ir and (125)I have more isotropic trends as compared to the (153)Gd source. A more uniform radial dose function, and 2D anisotropy functions with more isotropy, a much higher specific activity are advantages of (192)Ir source over (153)Gd. However, a longer half-life of (153)Gd source compared to the other two sources, and lower energy of the source with respect to (192)Ir are advantages of using (153)Gd in brachytherapy versus (192)Ir source.

  13. Variations in GPs' decisions to investigate suspected lung cancer: a factorial experiment using multimedia vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheringham, Jessica; Sequeira, Rachel; Myles, Jonathan; Hamilton, William; McDonnell, Joe; Offman, Judith; Duffy, Stephen; Raine, Rosalind

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer survival is low and comparatively poor in the UK. Patients with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer commonly consult primary care, but it is unclear how general practitioners (GPs) distinguish which patients require further investigation. This study examined how patients' clinical and sociodemographic characteristics influence GPs' decisions to initiate lung cancer investigations. A factorial experiment was conducted among a national sample of 227 English GPs using vignettes presented as simulated consultations. A multimedia-interactive website simulated key features of consultations using actors ('patients'). GP participants made management decisions online for six 'patients', whose sociodemographic characteristics systematically varied across three levels of cancer risk. In low-risk vignettes, investigation (ie, chest X-ray ordered, computerised tomography scan or respiratory consultant referral) was not indicated; in medium-risk vignettes, investigation could be appropriate; in high-risk vignettes, investigation was definitely indicated. Each 'patient' had two lung cancer-related symptoms: one volunteered and another elicited if GPs asked. Variations in investigation likelihood were examined using multilevel logistic regression. GPs decided to investigate lung cancer in 74% (1000/1348) of vignettes. Investigation likelihood did not increase with cancer risk. Investigations were more likely when GPs requested information on symptoms that 'patients' had but did not volunteer (adjusted OR (AOR)=3.18; 95% CI 2.27 to 4.70). However, GPs omitted to seek this information in 42% (570/1348) of cases. GPs were less likely to investigate older than younger 'patients' (AOR=0.52; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.7) and black 'patients' than white (AOR=0.68; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.95). GPs were not more likely to investigate 'patients' with high-risk than low-risk cancer symptoms. Furthermore, they did not investigate everyone with the same symptoms equally. Insufficient data gathering

  14. Development and validation of a virtual human vignette to compare nurses' assessment and intervention choices for pain in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFond, Cynthia M; Van Hulle Vincent, Catherine; Lee, Sangyoon; Corte, Colleen; Hershberger, Patricia E; Johnson, Andrew; Park, Chang G; Wilkie, Diana J

    2015-02-01

    As virtual experiences are increasingly used in health care training and research, it is important that adequate processes are applied for developing valid scenarios. We describe the development and validation of virtual human (VH) vignettes, computer-generated scenarios with animated patients and clinical information, for a mixed-methods study regarding nurses' assessment and intervention choices for critically ill children's pain. We followed the case development and review process for high-fidelity simulation case scenarios, including the use of validated written vignettes and content experts. Forty nurses described their pain assessment and intervention choices for the newly derived VH vignettes and completed a pain questionnaire. Nurses' reports of VH vignette consistency with their professional experience and recognition of VH facial expressions were evaluated to establish face validity. Their pain ratings for the VH and written (questionnaire) vignettes were evaluated for convergent validity. Qualitative content analysis, descriptive statistics, correlations, and paired t tests were used. Most nurses (68.4%) supported vignette consistency with their professional experience. Facial expression recognition was 98.4%. Smiling children's pain was rated significantly lower than grimacing children in both VH and written vignettes. Pain was rated significantly lower for grimacing children in the VH vignettes than the written vignettes. Virtual human vignette pain ratings were strongly correlated with their written counterparts. This process was effective for developing VH vignettes that demonstrated good face validity with participants and convergent validity with written vignettes. Virtual human vignettes may be useful in studying the influence of facial actions on nurses' choices for children's pain assessment and treatment.

  15. Genome-wide screens for expressed hypothetical proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2012-01-01

    A hypothetical protein (HP) is defined as a protein that is predicted to be expressed from an open reading frame, but for which there is no experimental evidence of translation. HPs constitute a substantial fraction of proteomes of human as well as of other organisms. With the general belief...... that the majority of HPs are the product of pseudogenes, it is essential to have a tool with the ability of pinpointing the minority of HPs with a high probability of being expressed....

  16. Structural and Functional Annotation of Hypothetical Proteins of O139

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries threat of cholera is a significant health concern whenever water purification and sewage disposal systems are inadequate. Vibrio cholerae is one of the responsible bacteria involved in cholera disease. The complete genome sequence of V. cholerae deciphers the presence of various genes and hypothetical proteins whose function are not yet understood. Hence analyzing and annotating the structure and function of hypothetical proteins is important for understanding the V. cholerae. V. cholerae O139 is the most common and pathogenic bacterial strain among various V. cholerae strains. In this study sequence of six hypothetical proteins of V. cholerae O139 has been annotated from NCBI. Various computational tools and databases have been used to determine domain family, protein-protein interaction, solubility of protein, ligand binding sites etc. The three dimensional structure of two proteins were modeled and their ligand binding sites were identified. We have found domains and families of only one protein. The analysis revealed that these proteins might have antibiotic resistance activity, DNA breaking-rejoining activity, integrase enzyme activity, restriction endonuclease, etc. Structural prediction of these proteins and detection of binding sites from this study would indicate a potential target aiding docking studies for therapeutic designing against cholera.

  17. Doctors' decisions when faced with contradictory patient advance directives and health care proxy opinion: a randomized vignette-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Monica; Perrier, Arnaud; Rudaz, Sandrine; Dayer, Pierre; Perneger, Thomas V

    2015-03-01

    Sometimes a written advance directive contradicts the opinion of a health care proxy. How this affects doctors' decision making is unknown. To quantify the influence of contradictory instructions on doctors' decisions. All the generalists and internists in French-speaking Switzerland were mailed the questionnaire. Respondents (43.5%) evaluated three vignettes that described medical decisions for incapacitated patients. Each vignette was produced in four versions: one with an advance directive, one with a proxy opinion, one with both, and one with neither (control). In the first vignette, the directive and proxy agreed on the recommendation to forgo a medical intervention; in the second, the advance directive opposed, but the proxy favored the intervention; and in the third, the roles were reversed. Each doctor received one version of each vignette, attributed at random. The outcome variables were the doctor's decision to forgo the medical intervention and the rating of the decision as difficult. Written advance directives and proxy opinions significantly influenced doctors' decision making. When both were available and concordant, they reinforced each other (odds ratio [OR] of forgoing intervention 35.7, P proxy disagreed, the resulting effect was to forgo the intervention (ORs 2.1 and 2.2 for the two discordant vignettes, both P proxy opinions result in a weak preference for abstention from treatment and increase the difficulty of the decision. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fact or fiction: exploring the use of real stories in place of vignettes in interviews with informal carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Julie M; Heathcote, Kathryn; Wibberley, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    To consider the development and use of real stories rather than vignettes in interviews. Effective interprofessional working critically informed by the perspectives of informal carers was considered by the research team to be under-researched. It was proposed initially to use fictional vignettes as triggers in interviews with informal carers. It could be argued that the vignette does not represent the voice of the individual or may only represent a particular experience. Stories acknowledge a person's expertise in his or her experiences. A decision was made early in the design process to use real stories instead of vignettes. A descriptive naturalistic design using a participatory approach. Two stories were developed by the researcher and two informal carers, and then used in interviews with other carers to explore their experiences and perceptions of interprofessional working. The paper provides a discussion of an alternative approach to data collection. The stories promoted a sense of support for the participants, which they gained from listening to and sharing stories of caring. This approach offered a different experience for the carers from the standard interview format. The paper describes the use of real stories in interviews, which is not a commonly reported method. Carers were involved in both the development and the use of the stories in the interviews. Those interviewed valued the credibility gained by using these real stories, as opposed to constructed vignettes. Using stories in this way contributes to methodological development, which allows perceptions and experiences to be captured.

  19. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  20. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  1. Physicians' pharmacogenomics information needs and seeking behavior: a study with case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heale, Bret S E; Khalifa, Aly; Stone, Bryan L; Nelson, Scott; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Genetic testing, especially in pharmacogenomics, can have a major impact on patient care. However, most physicians do not feel that they have sufficient knowledge to apply pharmacogenomics to patient care. Online information resources can help address this gap. We investigated physicians' pharmacogenomics information needs and information-seeking behavior, in order to guide the design of pharmacogenomics information resources that effectively meet clinical information needs. We performed a formative, mixed-method assessment of physicians' information-seeking process in three pharmacogenomics case vignettes. Interactions of 6 physicians' with online pharmacogenomics resources were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for prominent themes. Quantitative data included information-seeking duration, page navigations, and number of searches entered. We found that participants searched an average of 8 min per case vignette, spent less than 30 s reviewing specific content, and rarely refined search terms. Participants' information needs included a need for clinically meaningful descriptions of test interpretations, a molecular basis for the clinical effect of drug variation, information on the logistics of carrying out a genetic test (including questions related to cost, availability, test turn-around time, insurance coverage, and accessibility of expert support).Also, participants sought alternative therapies that would not require genetic testing. This study of pharmacogenomics information-seeking behavior indicates that content to support their information needs is dispersed and hard to find. Our results reveal a set of themes that information resources can use to help physicians find and apply pharmacogenomics information to the care of their patients.

  2. Measuring Concurrency Attitudes: Development and Validation of a Vignette-Based Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Anna B; Ramirez, Catalina; DeVellis, Robert F; Agans, Robert; Schoenbach, Victor J; Adimora, Adaora A

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent sexual partnerships (partnerships that overlap in time) may contribute to higher rates of HIV transmission in African Americans. Attitudes toward a behavior constitute an important component of most models of health-related behavior and behavioral change. We have developed a scale, employing realistic vignettes that appear to reliably measure attitudes about concurrency in young African American adults. Vignette-based items to assess attitudes about concurrency were developed following focus groups and cognitive testing of items adapted from existing scales assessing psychosocial constructs surrounding related sexual behaviors. The new items were included in a telephone survey of African American adults (18-34 years old) in Eastern North Carolina immediately before and after a radio campaign designed to discourage concurrency. We performed an exploratory factor analysis on each sample (pre- and post-campaign) to cross-validate results. We retained factors with a primary loading of ≥0.50 and no secondary loading >0.30. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used to evaluate internal reliability. Associations in the predicted direction between the mean responses to items on the final factor and known correlates of concurrency validated the scale. Factor analysis in a random pre-campaign subsample yielded a one-factor 6-item scale with acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.79). As expected, the attitude factor was positively associated with participation in concurrent partnerships, whether assessed by self-report (r = 0.298, pnetwork pattern.

  3. The utility of vignettes to stimulate reflection on professionalism: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeo, E C; Holmboe, E S; Ross, K; Chesluk, B; Ginsburg, S

    2013-08-01

    Professionalism remains a substantive theme in medical literature. There is an emerging emphasis on sociological and complex adaptive systems perspectives that refocuses attention from just the individual role to working within one's system to enact professionalism in practice. Reflecting on responses to professional dilemmas may be one method to help practicing physicians identify both internal and external factors contributing to (un) professional behavior. We present a rationale and theoretical framework that supports and guides a reflective approach to the self assessment of professionalism. Guided by principles grounded in this theoretical framework, we developed and piloted a set of vignettes on professionally challenging situations, designed to stimulate reflection in practicing physicians. Findings show that participants found the vignettes to be authentic and typical, and reported the group experience as facilitative around discussions of professional ambiguity. Providing an opportunity for physicians to reflect on professional behavior in an open and safe forum may be a practical way to guide physicians to assess themselves on professional behavior and engage with the complexities of their work. The finding that the focus groups led to reflection at a group level suggests that effective reflection on professional behavior may require a socially interactive process. Emphasizing both the behaviors and the internal and external context in which they occur can thus be viewed as critically important for understanding professionalism in practicing physicians.

  4. Demand curves for hypothetical cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Natalie R; Johnson, Matthew W

    2014-03-01

    Drug purchasing tasks have been successfully used to examine demand for hypothetical consumption of abused drugs including heroin, nicotine, and alcohol. In these tasks, drug users make hypothetical choices whether to buy drugs, and if so, at what quantity, at various potential prices. These tasks allow for behavioral economic assessment of that drug's intensity of demand (preferred level of consumption at extremely low prices) and demand elasticity (sensitivity of consumption to price), among other metrics. However, a purchasing task for cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals has not been investigated. This study examined a novel Cocaine Purchasing Task and the relation between resulting demand metrics and self-reported cocaine use data. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing hypothetical purchases of cocaine units at prices ranging from $0.01 to $1,000. Demand curves were generated from responses on the Cocaine Purchasing Task. Correlations compared metrics from the demand curve to measures of real-world cocaine use. Group and individual data were well modeled by a demand curve function. The validity of the Cocaine Purchasing Task was supported by a significant correlation between the demand curve metrics of demand intensity and O max (determined from Cocaine Purchasing Task data) and self-reported measures of cocaine use. Partial correlations revealed that after controlling for demand intensity, demand elasticity and the related measure, P max, were significantly correlated with real-world cocaine use. Results indicate that the Cocaine Purchasing Task produces orderly demand curve data, and that these data relate to real-world measures of cocaine use.

  5. Demand Curves for Hypothetical Cocaine in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Natalie R.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Drug purchasing tasks have been successfully used to examine demand for hypothetical consumption of abused drugs including heroin, nicotine, and alcohol. In these tasks drug users make hypothetical choices whether to buy drugs, and if so, at what quantity, at various potential prices. These tasks allow for behavioral economic assessment of that drug's intensity of demand (preferred level of consumption at extremely low prices) and demand elasticity (sensitivity of consumption to price), among other metrics. However, a purchasing task for cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals has not been investigated. Objectives This study examined a novel Cocaine Purchasing Task and the relation between resulting demand metrics and self-reported cocaine use data. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire assessing hypothetical purchases of cocaine units at prices ranging from $0.01 to $1,000. Demand curves were generated from responses on the Cocaine Purchasing Task. Correlations compared metrics from the demand curve to measures of real-world cocaine use. Results Group and individual data were well modeled by a demand curve function. The validity of the Cocaine Purchasing Task was supported by a significant correlation between the demand curve metrics of demand intensity and Omax (determined from Cocaine Purchasing Task data) and self-reported measures of cocaine use. Partial correlations revealed that after controlling for demand intensity, demand elasticity and the related measure, Pmax, were significantly correlated with real-world cocaine use. Conclusions Results indicate that the Cocaine Purchasing Task produces orderly demand curve data, and that these data relate to real-world measures of cocaine use. PMID:24217899

  6. Consequences of a hypothetical incident for different sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Garion, C; Jimenez, J M; Parma, V; Perin, A; Schmidt, R; Tavian, L; Tock, J P; van Weelderen, R

    2011-01-01

    During the 2009 long shutdown, the LHC machine has been partially consolidated by adding safety relief devices in order to better protect the cryostats against large helium release and consequently to mitigate the risks of collateral damages. After recalling the present relief valve implementation and other mitigations related to the collateral damages, this paper describes the damage process of a hypothetical incident, presents its consequences for the different sectors and for beam energies up to 5 TeV with emphasis on the induced downtime.

  7. Effects of hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation on the electrical infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Evrenosoglu, C. Yaman; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Phadke, Arun; Thorp, James; Vullikanti, Anil

    2013-01-01

    We study the impacts of a hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation (IND) on the electrical infrastructure and its cascading effects on other urban inter-dependent infrastructures of a major metropolitan area in the US. We synthesize open source information, expert knowledge, commercial software and Google Earth data to derive a realistic electrical transmission and distribution network spanning the region. A dynamic analysis of the geo-located grid is carried out to determine the cause of malfunction of components, and their short-term and long-term effect on the stability of the grid. Finally a detailed estimate of the cost of damage to the major components of the infrastructure is provided.

  8. Association of unconscious race and social class bias with vignette-based clinical assessments by medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adil H; Sexton, Janel; Sriram, N; Cooper, Lisa A; Efron, David T; Swoboda, Sandra; Villegas, Cassandra V; Haut, Elliott R; Bonds, Morgan; Pronovost, Peter J; Lipsett, Pamela A; Freischlag, Julie A; Cornwell, Edward E

    2011-09-07

    Studies involving physicians suggest that unconscious bias may be related to clinical decision making and may predict poor patient-physician interaction. The presence of unconscious race and social class bias and its association with clinical assessments or decision making among medical students is unknown. To estimate unconscious race and social class bias among first-year medical students and investigate its relationship with assessments made during clinical vignettes. A secure Web-based survey was administered to 211 medical students entering classes at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, in August 2009 and August 2010. The survey included the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess unconscious preferences, direct questions regarding students' explicit race and social class preferences, and 8 clinical assessment vignettes focused on pain assessment, informed consent, patient reliability, and patient trust. Adjusting for student demographics, multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether responses to the vignettes were associated with unconscious race or social class preferences. Association of scores on an established IAT for race and a novel IAT for social class with vignette responses. Among the 202 students who completed the survey, IAT responses were consistent with an implicit preference toward white persons among 140 students (69%, 95% CI, 61%-75%). Responses were consistent with a preference toward those in the upper class among 174 students (86%, 95% CI, 80%-90%). Assessments generally did not vary by patient race or occupation, and multivariable analyses for all vignettes found no significant relationship between implicit biases and clinical assessments. Regression coefficient for the association between pain assessment and race IAT scores was -0.49 (95% CI, -1.00 to 0.03) and for social class, the coefficient was -0.04 (95% CI, -0.50 to 0.41). Adjusted odds ratios for other vignettes ranged from 0.69 to 3.03 per unit

  9. Evaluation of Nuclide Release Scenarios for a Hypothetical LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-11-01

    A program for the safety assessment and performance evaluation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository system has been developed. Utilizing GoldSim (GoldSim, 2006), the program evaluates nuclide release and transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various disruptive natural and manmade events and scenarios that can occur after a waste package failure. We envisaged and illustrated these events and scenarios as occurring after the closure of a hypothetical LILW repository, and they included the degradation of various manmade barriers, pumping well drilling, and natural disruptions such as the sudden formation of a preferential flow pathway in the far-field area of the repository. Possible enhancement of nuclide transport facilitated by colloids or chelating agents is also dealt with. We used the newly-developed GoldSim template program, which is capable of various nuclide release scenarios and is greatly suited for simulating a potential repository given the geological circumstances in Korea, to create the detailed source term and near-field release scheme, various nuclide transport modes in the far-field geosphere area, and the biosphere transfer. Even though all parameter values applied to the hypothetical repository were assumed, the illustrative results, particularly the probabilistic calculations and sensitivity studies, may be informative under various scenarios

  10. On the hypothetical utilization of atmospheric potential energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Frisius

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric potential energy is typically divided into an available and a nonavailable part. In this article a hypothetical utilization of a fraction of the nonavailable potential energy is described. This part stems from the water vapor that can be converted into the liquid phase. An energy gain results when the potential energy of the condensate relative to a reference height exceeds the energy necessary to condensate the water vapor. It is shown that this can be the case in a saturated atmosphere without convective available potential energy. Finally, simulations with the numerical cloud model HURMOD are performed to estimate the usability of the device in practice. Indeed, a positive energy output results in a simulation with immediate gathering of the condensate. On the contrary, potential energy gained falls significantly short of the necessary energy for forming the condensate when a realistic cloud microphysical scheme allowing re-evaporation of condensate is applied. Taken together it can be concluded that, a utilization of atmospheric potential energy is hypothetically possible but the practical realization is probably not feasible.

  11. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  12. Using case vignettes to measure HIV-related stigma among health professionals in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Zhao, Yu; Lin, Chunqing; Detels, Roger; Wu, Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined Chinese health professionals’ attitudes towards patients with AIDS vs patients with hepatitis B. Methods A representative sample of 1101 Chinese health professionals was used. Prejudicial attitudes and willingness to interact were measured based on two case vignettes. Results Statistical analyses revealed that health professionals had negative biases against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and reported much less willingness to interact with AIDS patients than hepatitis B patients. Perceived risk of infection at work was also negatively associated with willingness to interact with patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, but relationships varied by profession. Conclusions This study underscores the importance of developing and implementing stigma reduction interventions in health care settings to address attitudinal biases and discrimination in clinical practice. PMID:17175545

  13. Switch from distress to well-being by strong emotions: Speculations on three clinical vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanchini, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Starting from three clinical vignettes representing two mental disorders and different approaches to their treatment, we ask whether and how an unexpected event occurring at a particular time in a person's life could provoke such strong emotions as to determine a sudden transition from a state of severe distress to one of well-being. In this transition, we postulate that a major role is played by biological tendencies and brain plasticity under the influence of psychotherapy and positive emotions, emotions--especially trust, the sense of being cared for, and falling in love--that are awakened by openness to novelty and to the Other. Neurobiologically, a sudden improvement could be ascribed to an oxytocinergic action that, combined with dopaminergic circuits, can restore a state of well-being, safe attachment, and gratification. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. US primary care physicians' opinions about conscientious refusal: a national vignette experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Simon G; Yoon, John D; Curlin, Farr A

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has found that physicians are divided on whether they are obligated to provide a treatment to which they object and whether they should refer patients in such cases. The present study compares several possible scenarios in which a physician objects to a treatment that a patient requests, in order to better characterise physicians' beliefs about what responses are appropriate. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 1504 US primary care physicians using an experimentally manipulated vignette in which a patient requests a clinical intervention to which the patient's physician objects. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine how vignette and respondent characteristics affected respondent's judgements. Among eligible respondents, the response rate was 63% (896/1427). When faced with an objection to providing treatment, referring the patient was the action judged most appropriate (57% indicated it was appropriate), while few physicians thought it appropriate to provide treatment despite one's objection (15%). The most religious physicians were more likely than the least religious physicians to support refusing to accommodate the patient's request (38% vs 22%, OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.86). This study indicates that US physicians believe it is inappropriate to provide an intervention that violates one's personal or professional standards. Referring seems to be physicians' preferred way of responding to requests for interventions to which physicians object. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Epidemic meningococcal disease: synthesis of a hypothetical immunoepidemiologic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiss, J M

    1982-01-01

    A hypothetical model of the epidermic behavior of Neisseria meningitidis, based upon the induction of susceptibility to disseminated disease by circulating IgA, is presented. The model is based on the assumption that epidemic susceptibility is acquired as a result of induction of serum IgA by cross-reacting enteric bacteria, the priming organism. Co-colonization with the appropriate strain of N. meningitidis then may result in disseminated disease. Colonization by either bacterium in the absence of the other results in reinforcement of the commensal relationship. Slow, silent, fecal-oral transmission of the priming organism determines the time/space characteristics of an epidemic; interruption of fecal-oral transmission aborts it. Aerosol transmission of the meningococcus determines the magnitude of an epidemic. Independent, age-related acquisition of both capsular polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide antibodies provides immunity in the absence of aberrantly high levels of co-specific serum IgA.

  16. Decision making by pension fund trustees in the face of demographic and economic shocks: a vignette study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Koedijk, C.G.; Slager, A.

    2012-01-01

    How do pension fund trustees deal with demographic and economic shocks? We examine this issue by using a vignette study among pension fund trustees in the Netherlands. Trustees show asymmetric reactions to shocks in the level of reserves of pension funds. Pension premiums are upwardly flexible but

  17. Situated Performances in a Graduate Teacher Education Course: An Inquiry into the Impact of Cultural and Political Vignettes (CPVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry investigates teachers' perceptions regarding the impact of Cultural and Political Vignettes (CPVs) and situated performance activities in their graduate teacher education course, Literacy Instruction for Diverse Learners, at a large urban university in New York City. The study involved a pedagogical strategy that the author created…

  18. Factors that drive insulin-dosing decisions of diabetes care providers: a vignette-based study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, A. C. R.; Schopman, J. E.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Peek, N.; Holleman, F.

    2015-01-01

    To test how certain patient factors would influence the decision of Dutch care providers regarding insulin dose adjustments. We hypothesize that some of these decisions would diverge from recent evidence and consensus statements. We developed narrative vignettes describing clinical scenarios of

  19. Using Video Vignettes of Historical Episodes for Promoting Pre-Service Teachers' Ideas about the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Gultekin

    2017-01-01

    This study used video vignettes of historical episodes from documentary films as a context and instructional tool to promote pre-service science teachers' (PSTs) conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The participants received explicit-reflective NOS instruction, and were introduced to techniques to be able to use scenes from documentary…

  20. Modeling a Hypothetical 170Tm Source for Brachytherapy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enger, Shirin A.; D'Amours, Michel; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To perform absorbed dose calculations based on Monte Carlo simulations for a hypothetical 170 Tm source and to investigate the influence of encapsulating material on the energy spectrum of the emitted electrons and photons. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo code version 9.2 patch 2 was used to simulate the decay process of 170 Tm and to calculate the absorbed dose distribution using the GEANT4 Penelope physics models. A hypothetical 170 Tm source based on the Flexisource brachytherapy design with the active core set as a pure thulium cylinder (length 3.5 mm and diameter 0.6 mm) and different cylindrical source encapsulations (length 5 mm and thickness 0.125 mm) constructed of titanium, stainless-steel, gold, or platinum were simulated. The radial dose function for the line source approximation was calculated following the TG-43U1 formalism for the stainless-steel encapsulation. Results: For the titanium and stainless-steel encapsulation, 94% of the total bremsstrahlung is produced inside the core, 4.8 and 5.5% in titanium and stainless-steel capsules, respectively, and less than 1% in water. For the gold capsule, 85% is produced inside the core, 14.2% inside the gold capsule, and a negligible amount ( 170 Tm source is primarily a bremsstrahlung source, with the majority of bremsstrahlung photons being generated in the source core and experiencing little attenuation in the source encapsulation. Electrons are efficiently absorbed by the gold and platinum encapsulations. However, for the stainless-steel capsule (or other lower Z encapsulations) electrons will escape. The dose from these electrons is dominant over the photon dose in the first few millimeter but is not taken into account by current standard treatment planning systems. The total energy spectrum of photons emerging from the source depends on the encapsulation composition and results in mean photon energies well above 100 keV. This is higher than the main gamma-ray energy peak at 84 keV. Based on our

  1. Comparison of potentially real versus hypothetical food outcomes in delay and probability discounting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stephen H; Rasmussen, Erin B

    2018-04-01

    Much of the research on human delay and probability discounting involves the use of hypothetical outcomes, in which participants indicate preferences for outcomes but do not receive them. Research generally shows that hypothetical and potentially real outcomes are discounted at similar rates. One study, however, shows that potentially real cigarettes are discounted more steeply than hypothetical cigarettes in smokers, calling into question the generality of the finding that potentially real and hypothetical money are discounted at similar rates. Using a within-subject design, we tested the extent to which potentially real and hypothetical monetary (Experiment 1) and food-related (Experiment 2) outcomes were discounted at similar rates. We found mixed results for monetary outcomes, in that potentially real outcomes were discounted more steeply than hypothetical outcomes when all participants were included; however, this effect disappeared when only systematic responders were used. In addition, potentially real and hypothetical monetary outcomes were significantly correlated. For food-related outcomes, we found robust and consistent effects that potentially real and hypothetical food outcomes are discounted similarly and that they correlate strongly. Generally, these findings suggest that using hypothetical outcomes generate similar levels of discounting, in particular for food, which is useful for researchers interested in characterizing food-related impulsivity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A hypothetical severe reactor accident in Sosnovyj Bor, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, J.; Toivonen, H.; Poellaenen, R.; Nordlund, G.

    1993-12-01

    Individual doses and short-term radiological consequences from a hypothetical severe accident at the Russian nuclear power plant in Sosnovyj Bor were estimated for two sites in Finland. The sites are Kotka, located 140 km from the plant, and Helsinki, 220 km from the plant. The release was assumed to start immediately after the shutdown of the reactor (a 1000 MW RBMK unit) which had been operating at nominal power level for a long time. An effective release height of 500 m was assumed. The prevailing meteorological conditions during the release were taken to present the situation typical of the area (effective wind speed 9 m/s, neutral dispersion conditions). The release fractions applied in the study were of the same order as in the Chernobyl accident, i.e. 100% for noble gases, 60% for iodines, 40% for cesium and 1-10% for other radiologically important nuclides. The release was assumed to last 24 hours. However, half of the nuclides were released during the first hour. No attention was paid to the actual sequence of events that could lead to such release characteristics and time behaviour. The concentration and dose calculations were performed with a modified version of the computer code OIVA developed in Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Inhalation dose and external doses from the release plume and from the deposited activity were calculated for adults only, and no sheltering was considered. (11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.)

  3. Intersubassembly incoherencies and grouping techniques in LMFBR hypothetical overpower accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilburn, N.P.

    1977-10-01

    A detailed analysis was made of the FTR core using the 100-channel MELT-IIIA code. Results were studied for the transient overpower accident (where 0.5$/sec and 1$/sec ramps) and in which the Damage Parameter and the Failure Potential criteria were used. Using the information obtained from these series of runs, a new method of grouping the subassemblies into channels has been developed. Also, it was demonstrated that a 7-channel representation of the FTR core using this method does an adequate job of representing the behavior during a hypothetical disruptive transient overpower core accident. It has been shown that this new 7-channel grouping method does a better job than an earlier 20-channel grouping. It has also been demonstrated that the incoherency effects between subassemblies as shown during the 76-channel representation of the reactor can be adequately modeled by 7-channels, provided the 7-channels are selected according to the criteria stated in the report. The overall results of power and net reactivity were shown to be only slightly different in the two cases of the 7-channel and the 76-channel runs. Therefore, it can be concluded that any intersubassembly incoherencies can be modeled adequately by a small number of channels, provided the subassemblies making up these channels are selected according to the criteria stated

  4. A fuel freezing model for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor hypothetical core disruptive accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, F.R.; Erdman, C.; Wayne, D.

    1985-01-01

    A proposed fuel freezing mechanism for molten UO2 fuel penetrating a steel channel was investigated in the course of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor hypothetical core disruptiv accident safety studies. The fuel crust deposited on an underlying melting steel wall was analyzed as being subjected to two stresses one due to the pressure difference between the flowing fuel and the stagnant molten steel layer, and the other resulting from the temperature variation through the crust thickness. Analyses based on the proposed freezing mechanism and comparisons with fuel freezing experiments confirmed that fuel freezing occurs in three modes. For initially low steel wall temperatures, the fuel crust was stable and grew to occlude the channel. At high steel wall temperatures (above 1070 K), instantaneous wall melting leading to steel entrainment was calculated to occur with final penetration depending on the refreezing of the entrained steel. Between these two extremes, the stress developed within the crust at the steel melting front exceeds the critical buckling value, the crust ruptures, and steel is injected into the fuel flow. Freezing is dominated by the fuel/steel mixture. The theoretical penetration distances and freezing times were in good agreement with the experimental results with no more than 20% error involved.

  5. A Vignette (User's Guide) for “An R Package for Statistical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    StatCharrms is a graphical user front-end for ease of use in analyzing data generated from OCSPP 890.2200, Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) and OCSPP 890.2300, Larval Amphibian Gonad Development Assay (LAGDA). The analyses StatCharrms is capable of performing are: Rao-Scott adjusted Cochran-Armitage test for trend By Slices (RSCABS), a Standard Cochran-Armitage test for trend By Slices (SCABS), mixed effects Cox proportional model, Jonckheere-Terpstra step down trend test, Dunn test, one way ANOVA, weighted ANOVA, mixed effects ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA, and Dunnett test. This document provides a User’s Manual (termed a Vignette by the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN)) for the previously created R-code tool called StatCharrms (Statistical analysis of Chemistry, Histopathology, and Reproduction endpoints using Repeated measures and Multi-generation Studies). The StatCharrms R-code has been publically available directly from EPA staff since the approval of OCSPP 890.2200 and 890.2300, and now is available publically available at the CRAN.

  6. Using Patient Case Video Vignettes to Improve Students’ Understanding of Cross-cultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryder, Brian; Mazan, Jennifer; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Cyganska, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and assess whether simulated patient case videos improve students’ understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication in health care. Design. Third-year pharmacy students (N=159) in a health care communications course participated in a one-hour lecture and two-hour workshop on the topic of cross-cultural communication. Three simulated pharmacist-patient case vignettes highlighting cross-cultural communication barriers, the role of active listening, appropriate use of medical interpreters, and useful models to overcome communication barriers were viewed and discussed in groups of 20 students during the workshop. Assessment. A pre-lecture and post-workshop assessed the effect on students’ understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication. Understanding of cross-cultural communication concepts increased significantly, as did comfort level with providing cross-cultural care. Conclusion. Use of simulated patient case videos in conjunction with an interactive workshop improved pharmacy students' understanding of and comfort level with cross-cultural communication skills and can be useful tools for cultural competency training in the curriculum. PMID:28496276

  7. Using Patient Case Video Vignettes to Improve Students' Understanding of Cross-cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sally; Cryder, Brian; Mazan, Jennifer; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Cyganska, Angelika

    2017-04-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and assess whether simulated patient case videos improve students' understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication in health care. Design. Third-year pharmacy students (N=159) in a health care communications course participated in a one-hour lecture and two-hour workshop on the topic of cross-cultural communication. Three simulated pharmacist-patient case vignettes highlighting cross-cultural communication barriers, the role of active listening, appropriate use of medical interpreters, and useful models to overcome communication barriers were viewed and discussed in groups of 20 students during the workshop. Assessment. A pre-lecture and post-workshop assessed the effect on students' understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication. Understanding of cross-cultural communication concepts increased significantly, as did comfort level with providing cross-cultural care. Conclusion. Use of simulated patient case videos in conjunction with an interactive workshop improved pharmacy students' understanding of and comfort level with cross-cultural communication skills and can be useful tools for cultural competency training in the curriculum.

  8. Combining aptamers and in silico interaction studies to decipher the function of hypothetical proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suravajhala, Prashanth; Burri, Harsha Vardhan Reddy; Heiskanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    We present the potential role of aptamers in elucidating the function of hypothetical proteins, as well as the possibilities provided by bioinformatics for establishing a benchmark for aptamer-protein prediction methods. With these future perspectives, the role of hypothetical proteins as target ...

  9. Adolescents' explicit and implicit evaluations of hypothetical and actual peers with different bullying participant roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, J Loes; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2017-07-01

    This study examined how adolescents evaluate bullying at three levels of specificity: (a) the general concept of bullying, (b) hypothetical peers in different bullying participant roles, and (c) actual peers in different bullying participant roles. Participants were 163 predominantly ethnic majority adolescents in The Netherlands (58% girls; M age =16.34years, SD=0.79). For the hypothetical peers, we examined adolescents' explicit evaluations as well as their implicit evaluations. Adolescents evaluated the general concept of bullying negatively. Adolescents' explicit evaluations of hypothetical and actual peers in the bullying roles depended on their own role, but adolescents' implicit evaluations of hypothetical peers did not. Adolescents' explicit evaluations of hypothetical peers and actual peers were different. Hypothetical bullies were evaluated negatively by all classmates, whereas hypothetical victims were evaluated relatively positively compared with the other roles. However, when adolescents evaluated their actual classmates, the differences between bullies and the other roles were smaller, whereas victims were evaluated the most negatively of all roles. Further research should take into account that adolescents' evaluations of hypothetical peers differ from their evaluations of actual peers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Explaining the discrepancy between intentions and actions: the case of hypothetical bias in contingent valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Franklin Carvajal

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to account for intention-behavior discrepancies by applying the theory of planned behavior to contingent valuation. College students (N = 160) voted in hypothetical and real payment referenda to contribute $8 to a scholarship fund. Overestimates of willingness to pay in the hypothetical referendum could not be attributed to moderately...

  11. 47 CFR 69.608 - Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance. 69.608 Section 69.608 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... net balance. The hypothetical net balance shall be equal to a Carrier Common Line revenue requirement...

  12. Can a Repeated Opt-Out Reminder remove hypothetical bias in discrete choice experiments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    hypothetical bias in stated DCE. The data originates from a field experiment concerning consumer preferences for a novel food product made from cricket flour. Utilizing a between-subject design with three treatments, we find significantly higher marginal willingness to pay values in hypothetical than...

  13. Using vignettes to tap into moral reasoning in public health policy: practical advice and design principles from a study on food advertising to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L; Taylor, Emily; Hoang, Sylvia; Cook, Brian

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we describe a process for designing and applying vignettes in public health policy research and practice. We developed this methodology for a study on moral reasoning underpinning policy debate on food advertising to children. Using vignettes prompted policy actors who were relatively entrenched in particular ways of speaking professionally about a controversial and ethically challenging issue to converse in a more authentic and reflective way. Vignettes hold benefits and complexities. They can focus attention on moral conflicts, draw out different types of evidence to support moral reasoning, and enable simultaneous consideration of real and ideal worlds. We suggest a process and recommendations on design features for crafting vignettes for public health policy.

  14. Using vignettes to assess contributions to the work of addressing child mental health problems in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissow, Lawrence S; Zafar, Waleed; Fothergill, Kate; Ruble, Anne; Slade, Eric

    2016-01-22

    To further efforts to integrate mental health and primary care, this study develops a novel approach to quantifying the amount and sources of work involved in shifting care for common mental health problems to pediatric primary care providers. Email/web-based survey of a convenience sample (n = 58) of Maryland pediatricians (77% female, 58% at their site 10 or more years; 44% in private practice, 52 % urban, 48 % practicing with a co-located mental health provider). Participants were asked to review 11 vignettes, which described primary care management of child/youth mental health problems, and rate them on an integer-based ordinal scale for the overall amount of work involved compared to a 12th reference vignette describing an uncomplicated case of ADHD. Respondents were also asked to indicate factors (time, effort, stress) accounting for their ratings. Vignettes presented combinations of three diagnoses (ADHD, anxiety, and depression) and three factors (medical co-morbidity, psychiatric co-morbidity, and difficult families) reported to complicate mental health care. The reference case was pre-assigned a work value of 2. Estimates of the relationship of diagnosis and complicating factors with workload were obtained using linear regression, with random effects at the respondent level. The 58 pediatricians gave 593 vignette responses. Depression was associated with a 1.09 unit (about 50%) increase in work (95% CL .94, 1.25), while anxiety did not differ significantly from the reference case of uncomplicated ADHD (p = .28). Although all three complicating factors increased work ratings compared with the reference case, family complexity and psychiatric co-morbidity did so the most (.87 and 1.07 units, respectively, P work were physician time, physician mental effort, and stress; those least strongly associated were staff time, physician physical effort, and malpractice risk. Pediatricians working with co-located mental health providers gave higher work

  15. Attitude of young psychiatrists toward coercive measures in psychiatry: a case vignette study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wake Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every psychiatrist must pay careful attention to avoid violating human rights when initiating coercive treatments such as seclusion and restraint. However, these interventions are indispensable in clinical psychiatry, and they are often used as strategies to treat agitated patients. In this study, we investigated young psychiatrists' attitudes toward psychiatric coercive measures. Methods A total of 183 young psychiatrists participated as subjects in our study. A questionnaire with a case vignette describing a patient with acute psychosis was sent to the study subjects via the Internet or by mail. This questionnaire included scoring the necessity for hospitalization, and the likelihood of prescribing seclusion and/or restraint, on a 9-point Likert scale (with 9 indicating strong agreement. Results There was general agreement among the study subjects that the case should be admitted to a hospital (8.91 ± 0.3 and secluded (8.43 ± 1.0. The estimated length of hospitalization was 13.53 ± 6.4 weeks. Regarding the likelihood of prescribing restraint, results showed great diversity (5.14 ± 2.5 on 9-point scale; psychiatrists working at general hospitals scored significantly higher (6.25 ± 2.5 than those working at university hospitals (5.02 ± 2.3 or psychiatric hospitals (4.15 ± 2.6. A two-group comparison of the length of inpatient care revealed a significant difference between those psychiatrists who scored 1-3 (n = 55, 14.22 ± 7.4 wks and those who scored 7-9 (n = 62, 12.22 ± 4.0 regarding the need to use restraint. Conclusion Our results may reflect the current dilemma in Japanese psychiatry wherein psychiatrists must initiate coercive measures to shorten hospitalization stays. This study prompted its subject psychiatrists to consider coercive psychiatric treatments.

  16. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  17. Hypothetical Source Crater for Australasian Tektites: Moving from Indochina to Northwest China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, J.; Řanda, Z.; Kameník, J.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.

    2016-08-01

    We argue against the generally accepted hypothetical location of the unknown source crater for Australasian tektites to Indochina, and present a hypothesis of a possible location of the AAT source crater in deserts of NW China.

  18. Analysis of hypothetical LMFBR whole-core accidents in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, D.R.; Deitrich, L.W.; Brown, N.W.; Waltar, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    Methods used for analysis of material behaviour, accident phenomenology and integrated accident calculations are reviewed. Applications of these methods to hypothetical LOF and TOP accidents are discussed. Recent results obtained from applications to FFTF and CRBRP are presented. (author)

  19. `No One Should Destroy the Forest': Using photo-based vignette interviews to understand Kenyan teachers' views of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Miller, Zachary D.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    In the midst of the current environmental crisis, scientists, academics, authors, and politicians worldwide are urging citizens to create sustainable communities. However, there is little capability to build a sustainable society without an informed, active, and engaged populous. This requires more than just environmentally knowledgeable citizens. It requires a society that understands the principles of the environment and can also exemplify them in daily life. In order to create a more environmentally literate world, there has been a push for environmental education integrated into schools. This qualitative study sought to examine Kenyan teachers' perspectives on the human-nature interaction by conducting vignette focus-group interviews. It is a subject not widely explored but vital for conservation not only in this area, but also other areas that seek to have an ecological informed populous. The vignettes were created using photographs and explanations of the photographs that the participants collected and emailed to the authors. For the focus-group vignette interviews, there were a total of 55 participants (30 females and 25 males). After InVivo analysis, we had 6 codes (resentment, pride, perils, blame, pragmatism, and self-interested) within 3 major themes. This study has implications for informing science education to combat these traditions of subjecting students to a science curriculum that demotes Kenyan cultural heritage and lifestyle. By incorporating local knowledge such as the ideas discussed in this paper into Kenyan science education, Kenyans can reach one of most challenging objectives of education, which is to produce children who are fundamentally aware of their environment.

  20. [Science in the crosshairs of enlightenment. Significance of hypothetical thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    To further the enlightenment primarily or even only by means of science was the hope of most representatives of the movement of the enlightenment which gave its name to a whole period of European cultural history. Only a few of its representatives, like Montesquieu and Rousseau, doubted for good reasons, whether and how the goals of the enlightenment can be reached at all by the means of science alone. In his Discours préliminaires to the Encyclopédie D'Alembert still wanted to limit science proper to the narrower field of those kinds of research which were strictly based on observations and calculations alone. In this way he remained committed to Descartes' ideal method of receiving authentic knowledge only by deduction from evident axioms or fundamental theorems. Pascal's casual discovery of the calculation of probabilities allowed to apply mathematics on the hidden laws of the apparent casualties of the human life world. Bacon's project of empirical science as a rational and methodological art of conducting experiments could replace the methodological ideal of science more geometrico. Lichtenberg's refined sensibility for the subjunctive linguistic forms of hypothetical thinking indicates a new understanding of inventing and testing hypotheses as the two most important methods of the experimental sciences when compared to the formal sciences of logic and mathematics. Whoever is studying the history of science of modern times in the cross wire of the enlightenment, will realize soon that science has always been in need of being illuminated about its own chances, risks and side effects. The project of enlightenment through science had to be complemented by the project of an enlightenment about science right from its beginning. Because of the implicit risks and side effects the project of enlightenment has to be enlightenment despite of science and because of science. On the one hand, as a special form of human practice the sciences are directed towards

  1. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  2. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  3. Expression profiling of hypothetical genes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris leads to improved functional annotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Dwayne A.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Drury, Elliott C.; Redding, Alyssa M.; Yen, Huei-Che B.; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Keasling, Jay D.; Wall, Judy D.

    2008-10-27

    Hypothetical and conserved hypothetical genes account for>30percent of sequenced bacterial genomes. For the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, 347 of the 3634 genes were annotated as conserved hypothetical (9.5percent) along with 887 hypothetical genes (24.4percent). Given the large fraction of the genome, it is plausible that some of these genes serve critical cellular roles. The study goals were to determine which genes were expressed and provide a more functionally based annotation. To accomplish this, expression profiles of 1234 hypothetical and conserved genes were used from transcriptomic datasets of 11 environmental stresses, complemented with shotgun LC-MS/MS and AMT tag proteomic data. Genes were divided into putatively polycistronic operons and those predicted to be monocistronic, then classified by basal expression levels and grouped according to changes in expression for one or multiple stresses. 1212 of these genes were transcribed with 786 producing detectable proteins. There was no evidence for expression of 17 predicted genes. Except for the latter, monocistronic gene annotation was expanded using the above criteria along with matching Clusters of Orthologous Groups. Polycistronic genes were annotated in the same manner with inferences from their proximity to more confidently annotated genes. Two targeted deletion mutants were used as test cases to determine the relevance of the inferred functional annotations.

  4. Global profiling of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Expression of hypothetical genes and improved functional annotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picone, Alex F. [Biatech, Bothell WA; Galperin, Michael Y. [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Romine, Margaret [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Higdon, Roger [Biatech, Bothell WA; Makarova, Kira S. [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Kolker, Natali [Biatech, Bothell WA; Anderson, Gordon A [ORNL; Qiu, Xiaoyun [ORNL; Babnigg, Gyorgy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Beliaev, Alexander S [ORNL; Edlefsen, Paul [Biatech, Bothell WA; Elias, Dwayne A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Gorby, Dr. Yuri A. [J. Craig Venter Institute; Holzman, Ted [Biatech, Bothell WA; Klappenbach, Joel [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lipton, Mary S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); McCue, Lee Ann [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Monroe, Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pinchuk, Grigoriy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Purvine, Samuel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Serres, Margrethe H. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Tsapin, Sasha [University of Southern California; Zakrajsek, Brian A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Zhu, Wenguang [Harvard University; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lawrence, Charles E. [Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY; Riley, Monica [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Collart, Frank [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); YatesIII, John R. [Scripps Research Institute, The, La Jolla, CA; Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Nealson, Kenneth H. [University of Southern California; Fredrickson, James K [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2005-01-01

    The gamma-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is a metabolically versatile organism that can reduce a wide range of organic compounds, metal ions, and radionuclides. Similar to most other sequenced organisms, approximate to40% of the predicted ORFs in the S. oneidensis genome were annotated as uncharacterized "hypothetical" genes. We implemented an integrative approach by using experimental and computational analyses to provide more detailed insight into gene function. Global expression profiles were determined for cells after UV irradiation and under aerobic and suboxic growth conditions. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses confidently identified 538 hypothetical genes as expressed in S. oneidensis cells both as mRNAs and proteins (33% of all predicted hypothetical proteins). Publicly available analysis tools and databases and the expression data were applied to improve the annotation of these genes. The annotation results were scored by using a seven-category schema that ranked both confidence and precision of the functional assignment. We were able to identify homologs for nearly all of these hypothetical proteins (97%), but could confidently assign exact biochemical functions for only 16 proteins (category 1; 3%). Altogether, computational and experimental evidence provided functional assignments or insights for 240 more genes (categories 2-5; 45%). These functional annotations advance our understanding of genes involved in vital cellular processes, including energy conversion, ion transport, secondary metabolism, and signal transduction. We propose that this integrative approach offers a valuable means to undertake the enormous challenge of characterizing the rapidly growing number of hypothetical proteins with each newly sequenced genome.

  5. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    Full Text Available Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between

  6. Using respondents' uncertainty scores to mitigate hypothetical bias in community-based health insurance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfouet, Hermann Pythagore Pierre; Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Malin, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Community-based health insurance has been implemented in several developing countries to help the poor to gain access to adequate health-care services. Assessing what the poor are willing to pay is of paramount importance for policymaking. The contingent valuation method, which relies on a hypothetical market, is commonly used for this purpose. But the presence of the hypothetical bias that is most often inherent in this method tends to bias the estimates upward and compromises policymaking. This paper uses respondents' uncertainty scores in an attempt to mitigate hypothetical bias in community-based health insurance in one rural setting in Cameroon. Uncertainty scores are often employed in single dichotomous choice surveys. An originality of the paper is to use such an approach in a double-bounded dichotomous choice survey. The results suggest that this instrument is effective at decreasing the mean WTP.

  7. Differences in Behavior and Brain Activity during Hypothetical and Real Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin; Mobbs, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Real behaviors are binding consequential commitments to a course of action, such as harming another person, buying an Apple watch, or fleeing from danger. Cognitive scientists are generally interested in the psychological and neural processes that cause such real behavior. However, for practical reasons, many scientific studies measure behavior using only hypothetical or imagined stimuli. Generalizing from such studies to real behavior implicitly assumes that the processes underlying the two types of behavior are similar. We review evidence of similarity and differences in hypothetical and real mental processes. In many cases, hypothetical choice tasks give an incomplete picture of brain circuitry that is active during real choice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The Influence of Hypothetical Death Scenarios on Multidimensional End-of-Life Care Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassel, Kara B; Utz, Rebecca; Supiano, Katherine; McGee, Nancy; Latimer, Seth

    2018-01-01

    Differences in end-of-life (EOL) care preferences (eg, location of death, use of life-sustaining treatments, openness to hastening death, etc) based on hypothetical death scenarios and associated physical and/or cognitive losses have yet to be investigated within the palliative care literature. The purpose of this study was to explore the multidimensional EOL care preferences in relation to 3 different hypothetical death scenarios: pancreatic cancer (acute death), Alzheimer disease (gradual death), and congestive heart failure (intermittent death). General linear mixed-effects regression models estimated whether multidimensional EOL preferences differed under each of the hypothetical death scenarios; all models controlled for personal experience and familiarity with the disease, presence of an advance directive, religiosity, health-related quality of life, and relevant demographic characteristics. A national sample of healthy adults aged 50 years and older (N = 517) completed electronic surveys detailing their multidimensional preferences for EOL care for each hypothetical death scenario. The average age of the participants was 60.1 years (standard deviation = 7.6), 74.7% were female, and 66.1% had a college or postgraduate degree. Results revealed significant differences in multidimensional care preferences between hypothetical death scenarios related to preferences for location of death (ie, home vs medical facility) and preferences for life-prolonging treatment options. Significant covariates of participants' multidimensional EOL care preferences included age, sex, health-related quality of life, and religiosity. Our hypothesis that multidimensional EOL care preferences would differ based on hypothetical death scenarios was partially supported and suggests the need for disease-specific EOL care discussions.

  9. A history of the American Board of Surgery: vignettes from the certifying examination: The Edgar J. Poth Memorial Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The American Board of Surgery was established in 1937 to certify surgeons who through training, experience, and examination meet the highest standards of surgical care. This lecture was given as the Edgar Poth lecture at the April 2015 meeting of the Southwestern Surgical Congress. Dr Poth was a surgical educator from the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston who was President of the Southwestern in 1963. The paper presents the history of the founding of the American Board of Surgery, with particular emphasis on the certifying examination-Part 2. Vignettes of occurrences associated with the "Oral" examination are given. The examination has changed substantially from a 2-day event involving an actual surgical procedure to the 90-minute quiz given today. The oral examinations remain an important part in the process of certification of surgeons of the highest quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating Mental Health Literacy in the Workplace: Development and Psychometric Properties of a Vignette-Based Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Sandra; Zanhour, Mona; Patten, Scott B; Stuart, Heather; MacDermid, Joy

    2017-12-01

    Purpose Early intervention and support for workers with mental health problems may be influenced by the mental health literacy of the worker, their colleagues and their supervisor. There are gaps, however, in our understanding of how to develop and evaluate mental health literacy within the context of the workplace. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new Mental Health Literacy tool for the Workplace (MHL-W). Methods The MHL-W is a 16-question, vignette-based tool specifically tailored for the workplace context. It includes four vignettes featuring different manifestations of mental ill-health in the workplace, with parallel questions that explore each of the four dimensions of mental health literacy. In order to establish reliability and construct validity, data were collected from 192 healthcare workers who were participating in a mental health training project. Baseline data was used to examine the scale's internal consistency, factor structure and correlations with general knowledge ratings, confidence ratings, attitudes towards people with mental illness, and attitudes towards seeking help. Paired t-tests were used to examine pre and post intervention scores in order to establish responsiveness of the scale. Results There was strong support for internal consistency of the tool and a one-factor solution. As predicted, the scores correlated highly with an overall rating of knowledge and confidence in addressing mental health issues, and moderately with attitudes towards seeking professional help and (decreased) stigmatized beliefs. It also appears to be responsive to change. Conclusions The MHL-W scale is promising tool to track the need for and impact of mental health education in the workplace.

  11. Cross-cultural clinical judgment bias in personality disorder diagnosis by forensic psychiatrists in the UK: a case-vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, Christopher; Grounds, Adrian

    2007-08-01

    Previous research in the UK has suggested that cross-cultural bias in personality disorder diagnosis might partly account for the smaller proportion of Black, relative to White, patients with personality disorder in secure psychiatric hospitals. Using the case-vignette method, we investigated cross-cultural clinical judgment bias in the diagnosis of personality disorder in African Caribbean men by 220 forensic psychiatrists in the UK. In the vignette describing possible DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder, Caucasians were 2.8 times more likely to be given a diagnosis of personality disorder than African Caribbeans. Diagnosis also varied according to the ethnicity of the clinicians. No cross-cultural bias was found in the vignette describing possible DSM-IV borderline personality disorder. These findings are important in relation to recent policies for offenders and others with personality disorder, and to the current focus on delivering race equality in mental health services in the UK. Ongoing debates about the strengths and limitations of the case-vignette method are also discussed.

  12. School Superintendents' Perceptions of Ethically Just Responses to a Teacher Sexting Vignette: Severity of Administrator Response, Superintendent Personality, and Offender Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived ethics of the decisions superintendents make in response to a situation with a teacher that was value-laden, potentially volatile, and potentially affected by the teachers' gender or ethnicity. Superintendents (N = 123) each read one of 12 versions of a vignette depicting a sexting incident between a…

  13. How College Students' Conceptions of Newton's Second and Third Laws Change through Watching Interactive Video Vignettes: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Changing student conceptions in physics is a difficult process and has been a topic of research for many years. The purpose of this study was to understand what prompted students to change or not change their incorrect conceptions of Newtons Second or Third Laws in response to an intervention, Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs), designed to…

  14. An experimental study exploring the impact of vignette gender on the quality of university students’ mental health first aid for peers with symptoms of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bethan Davies

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background University students have high rates of depression, and friends are often the most commonly-used source of support for emotional distress in this population. This study aimed to explore students’ ability to provide effective support for their peers with depressive symptoms and the factors influencing the quality of their mental health first aid (MHFA skills, including students’ gender, course of study, and gender of student experiencing depression. Methods Via an online survey, students at two British universities (N = 483 were quasi-randomly allocated to view a video vignette of either a male or female student depicting symptoms of depression. An open-ended question probed MHFA actions they would take to help the vignette character, which were rated using a standardised scoring scheme based on MHFA guidelines. Results Students reported low MHFA scores (mean 2.89, out of possible 12. The most commonly reported action was provision of support and information, but only eight (1.6 % students stated an intention to assess risk of harm. Those studying clinically non-relevant degrees with limited mental health content reported poorer MHFA (p = <0.001 and were less confident about their ability to support a friend with depression (p = 0.04. There was no main effect of vignette gender, but within the group of students on non-relevant courses the male vignette received significantly poorer MHFA than the female vignette (p = 0.02. A significant three-way interaction found that male participants studying non-relevant degrees who viewed a male vignette had poorer MHFA compared to females studying non-relevant degrees who viewed the female vignette (p = 0.005. Conclusions Most students lack the necessary MHFA skills to support friends suffering from symptoms of depression, or to help them get appropriate support and prevent risk of harm. Students on courses which do not include mental health related content are

  15. Large-Scale Evaluation of Quality of Care in 6 Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia Using Clinical Performance and Value Vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, John W; DeMaria, Lisa; Smith, Owen; Hoth, Angela; Dragoti, Edmond; Luck, Jeff

    2017-09-27

    A significant determinant of population health outcomes is the quality of care provided for noncommunicable diseases, obstetric, and pediatric care. We present results on clinical practice quality in these areas as measured among nearly 4,000 providers working at more than 1,000 facilities in 6 Eastern European and Central Asian countries. This study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2013 in Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirov Province in Russia, and Tajikistan. Using a probability proportional-to-size sampling technique, based on number of hospital beds, we randomly selected within each country 42 hospitals and their associated primary health care clinics. Physicians and midwives within each clinical area of interest were randomly selected from each hospital and clinic and asked how they would care for simulated patients using Clinical Performance and Value (CPV) vignettes. Facility administrators were also asked to complete a facility survey to collect structural measures of quality. CPV vignettes were scored on a scale of 0% to 100% for each provider. We used descriptive statistics and t tests to identify significant differences in CPV scores between hospitals and clinics and rural vs. urban facilities, and ANOVA to identify significant differences in CPV scores across countries. We found that quality of care, as concurrently measured by performance on CPV vignettes, was generally poor and widely variable within and between countries. Providers in Kirov Province, Russia, had the highest overall performance, with an average score of 70.8%, while providers in Albania and Tajikistan had the lowest average score, each at 50.8%. The CPV vignettes with the lowest scores were for multiple noncommunicable disease risk factors and birth asphyxia. A considerable proportion (11%) of providers performed well on the CPV vignettes, regardless of country, facility, or structural resources available to them. Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia are

  16. The impact of arbitrarily applicable relational responding on evaluative learning about hypothetical money and shock outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Molet, Mikael; Davies, Lynette

    2017-08-01

    Evaluative learning comprises changes in preferences after co-occurrences between conditioned stimuli (CSs) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) of affective value. Co-occurrences may involve relational responding. Two experiments examined the impact of arbitrary relational responding on evaluative preferences for hypothetical money and shock outcomes. In Experiment 1, participants were trained to make arbitrary relational responses by placing CSs of the same size but different colours into boxes and were then instructed that these CSs represented different intensities of hypothetical USs (money or shock). Liking ratings of the CSs were altered in accordance with the underlying bigger/smaller than relations. A reversal of preference was also observed: the CS associated with the smallest hypothetical shock was rated more positively than the CS associated with the smallest amount of hypothetical money. In Experiment 2, procedures from Relational Frame Theory (RFT) established a relational network of more than/less than relations consisting of five CSs (A-B-C-D-E). Overall, evaluative preferences were altered, but not reversed, depending on (a) how stimuli had been related to one another during the learning phase and (b) whether those stimuli referred to money or shocks. The contribution of RFT to evaluative learning research is discussed.

  17. The use of hypothetical cohorts in estimating demographic parameters under conditions of changing fertility and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, H; Hill, K

    1981-02-01

    The indirect methods of demographic estimation available to date are often inadequate to estimate levels in the presence of trends. The use of measures relative to hypothetical cohorts to minimize the effects of trends and estimate period levels is described. Procedures allowing the estimation of inter-survey levels of fertility, child mortality and adult mortality are illustrated using data from Thailand and Peru.

  18. Physicians' willingness to grant requests for assistance in dying for children: a study of hypothetical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrakking, A.M.; Heide, van der A.; Looman, C.W.; Delden, van J.J.M.; Philipsen, B.D.; Maas, van der P.J.; Wal, van der G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the willingness of Dutch physicians to use potentially life-shortening or lethal drugs for severely ill children. STUDY DESIGN: We asked 63 pediatricians about their approach to 10 hypothetical cases of children with cancer. The age of the child (15, 11, or 6 years), the child's

  19. fMRI evidence of a hot-cold empathy gapin hypothetical and real aversive choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical bias is the common finding that hypothetical monetary values for goods are higher than real values. We extend this research to the domain of bads such as consumer and household choices made to avoid aversive outcomes (e.g., insurance. Previous evidence of hot-cold empathy gaps suggest food disgust is likely to be strongly underestimated in hypothetical (cold choice. Depending on relative underestimation of food disgust and pain of spending, the hypothetical bias for aversive bads can go in the typical direction for goods, disappear, or reverse in sign. We find that the bias is reversed in sign—subjects pay more to avoid bads when choice is real. fMRI shows that real choice more strongly activates striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (reward regions and shows distinct activity in insula and amygdala (disgust and fear regions. The neural findings suggest ways to exogeneously manipulate or record brain activity in order to create better forecasts of actual consumer choice.

  20. study and analysis of asa river hypothetical dam break using hec-ras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    Impounded reservoirs provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, hydropower and water supply but they also carry potential risks. Spontaneous dam break phenomenon can occur and the resultant flooding may cause substantial loss of life and property damage downstream of the dam. A hypothetical dam ...

  1. Comparison of SAS3A and MELT-III predictions for a transient overpower hypothetical accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilburn, N.P.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison is made of the predictions of the two major codes SAS3A and MELT-III for the hypothetical unprotected transient overpower accident in the FFTF. The predictions of temperatures, fuel restructuring, fuel melting, reactivity feedbacks, and core power are compared

  2. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-01

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe - in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  3. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe, in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  4. The effect of internals vent valves on reflood following a hypothetical PWR LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falotico, R.N.; Peddicord, K.L.; Oehlberg, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of internals vent valves in alleviating the potential for core steam binding and reducing the conventional loss coefficient for the venting pipework during reflood following a hypothetical PWE LOCA. The RAP code was used to construct response surfaces for the time to quench at six-foot elevation for systems with and without the valves. (author)

  5. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  7. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  8. Differential effects of real versus hypothetical monetary reward magnitude on risk-taking behavior and brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sihua; Pan, Yu; Qu, Zhe; Fang, Zhuo; Yang, Zijing; Yang, Fan; Wang, Fenghua; Rao, Hengyi

    2018-02-27

    Human decisions are more easily affected by a larger amount of money than a smaller one. Although numerous studies have used hypothetical money as incentives to motivate human behavior, the validity of hypothetical versus real monetary rewards remains controversial. In the present study, we used event-related potential (ERP) with the balloon analogue risk task to investigate how magnitudes of real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk-taking behavior and feedback-related negativity (FRN). Behavioral data showed that participants were more risk averse after negative feedback with increased magnitude of real monetary rewards, while no behavior differences were observed between large and small hypothetical monetary rewards. Similarly, ERP data showed a larger FRN in response to negative feedback during risk taking with large compared to small real monetary rewards, while no FRN differences were observed between large and small hypothetical monetary rewards. Moreover, FRN amplitude differences correlated with risk-taking behavior changes from small to large real monetary rewards, while such correlation was not observed for hypothetical monetary rewards. These findings suggest that the magnitudes of real and hypothetical monetary rewards have differential effects on risk-taking behavior and brain activity. Real and hypothetical money incentives may have different validity for modulating human decisions.

  9. Testing the effectiveness of certainty scales, cheap talk, and dissonance-minimization in reducing hypothetical bias in contingent valuation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Morrison; Thomas C. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Stated preference methods such as contingent valuation and choice modeling are subject to various biases that may lead to differences between actual and hypothetical willingness to pay. Cheap talk, follow-up certainty scales, and dissonance minimization are three techniques for reducing this hypothetical bias. Cheap talk and certainty scales have received considerable...

  10. Cost-effectiveness models for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : cross-model comparison of hypothetical treatment scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Martine; Feenstra, Talitha L; Asukai, Yumi; Borg, Sixten; Hansen, Ryan N; Jansson, Sven-Arne; Samyshkin, Yevgeniy; Wacker, Margarethe; Briggs, Andrew H; Lloyd, Adam; Sullivan, Sean D; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    OBJECTIVES: To compare different chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cost-effectiveness models with respect to structure and input parameters and to cross-validate the models by running the same hypothetical treatment scenarios. METHODS: COPD modeling groups simulated four hypothetical

  11. The management of acute adverse effects of breast cancer treatment in general practice: a video-vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwa, Moyez; Long, Anne; Shaw, Tim; Pagey, Georgina; Halkett, Georgia; Pillai, Vinita; Meng, Xingqiong

    2014-09-03

    There has been a focus recently on the use of the Internet and email to deliver education interventions to general practitioners (GPs). The treatment of breast cancer may include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or hormone treatment. These treatments may have acute adverse effects. GPs need more information on the diagnosis and management of specific adverse effects encountered immediately after cancer treatment. The goal was to evaluate an Internet-based educational program developed for GPs to advise patients with acute adverse effects following breast cancer treatment. During phase 1, participants viewed 6 video vignettes of actor-patients reporting 1 of 6 acute symptoms following surgery and chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatment. GPs indicated their diagnosis and proposed management through an online survey program. They received feedback about each scenario in the form of a specialist clinic letter, as if the patient had been seen at a specialist clinic after they had attended the GP. This letter incorporated extracts from local guidelines on the management of the symptoms presented. This feedback was sent to the GPs electronically on the same survey platform. In phase 2, all GPs were invited to manage similar cases as phase 1. Their proposed management was compared to the guidelines. McNemar test was used to compare data from phases 1 and 2, and logistic regression was used to explore the GP characteristics that were associated with inappropriate case management. A total of 50 GPs participated. Participants were younger and more likely to be female than other GPs in Australia. For 5 of 6 vignettes in phase 1, management was consistent with expert opinion in the minority of cases (6%-46%). Participant demographic characteristics had a variable effect on different management decisions in phase 1. The variables modeled explained 15%-28% of the differences observed. Diagnosis and management improved significantly in phase 2, especially for diarrhea

  12. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  13. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  14. An experimental study exploring the impact of vignette gender on the quality of university students' mental health first aid for peers with symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, E Bethan; Wardlaw, John; Morriss, Richard; Glazebrook, Cris

    2016-02-25

    University students have high rates of depression, and friends are often the most commonly-used source of support for emotional distress in this population. This study aimed to explore students' ability to provide effective support for their peers with depressive symptoms and the factors influencing the quality of their mental health first aid (MHFA) skills, including students' gender, course of study, and gender of student experiencing depression. Via an online survey, students at two British universities (N = 483) were quasi-randomly allocated to view a video vignette of either a male or female student depicting symptoms of depression. An open-ended question probed MHFA actions they would take to help the vignette character, which were rated using a standardised scoring scheme based on MHFA guidelines. Students reported low MHFA scores (mean 2.89, out of possible 12). The most commonly reported action was provision of support and information, but only eight (1.6%) students stated an intention to assess risk of harm. Those studying clinically non-relevant degrees with limited mental health content reported poorer MHFA (p = students on non-relevant courses the male vignette received significantly poorer MHFA than the female vignette (p = 0.02). A significant three-way interaction found that male participants studying non-relevant degrees who viewed a male vignette had poorer MHFA compared to females studying non-relevant degrees who viewed the female vignette (p = 0.005). Most students lack the necessary MHFA skills to support friends suffering from symptoms of depression, or to help them get appropriate support and prevent risk of harm. Students on courses which do not include mental health related content are particularly ill-equipped to support male students, with male students receiving the poorest quality MHFA from fellow male students on these courses. MHFA training has the potential to improve outcomes for students with depression, and could have a

  15. Application of an infiltration evaluation methodology to a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    This report provides an analysis of infiltration and percolation at a hypothetical low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility was carried out. The analysis was intended to illustrate general issues of concern in assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. Among the processes considered in the analysis were precipitation, runoff, information, evaporation, transpiration, and redistribution. The hypothetical facility was located in a humid environment characterized by frequent and often intense precipitation events. The facility consisted of a series of concrete vaults topped by a multilayer cover. Cover features included a sloping soil surface to promote runoff, plant growth to minimize erosion and promote transportation, a sloping clay layer, and a sloping capillary barrier. The analysis within the root zone was carried out using a one-dimensional, transient simulation of water flow. Below the root zone, the analysis was primarily two-dimensional and steady-state

  16. Challenging evidence-based decision-making: a hypothetical case study about return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Randi W; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-03-01

    A hypothetical case study about return to work was used to explore the process of translating research into practice. The method involved constructing a case study derived from the characteristics of a typical, sick-listed employee with non-specific low back pain in Norway. Next, the five-step evidence-based process, including the Patient, Intervention, Co-Interventions and Outcome framework (PICO), was applied to the case study. An inductive analysis produced 10 technical and more fundamental challenges to incorporate research into intervention decisions for an individual with comorbidity. A more dynamic, interactive approach to the evidence-based practice process is proposed. It is recommended that this plus the 10 challenges are validated with real life cases, as the hypothetical case study may not be replicable. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Fuel assembly loads during a hypothetical blowdown event in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabel, J.; Bosanyi, B.; Kim, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    As a consequence of a hypothetical sudden break of the main coolant pipe of a PWR, RPV-internals and fuel assemblies (FA's) are undergoing horizontal and vertical motions. FA's may impact against each other, against core shroud or against lower core support. The corresponding impact loads must be absorbed by the FA spacer grids and guide thimbles. In this paper FA-loads are calculated with and without consideration of Fluid-Structure-Interaction (FSI) effects for assumed different break sizes of the main coolant pipe. The analysis has been performed for a hypothetical cold leg break of a typical SIEMENS-4 loop plant. For this purpose the codes DAPSY/DAISY (GRS, Germany) were coupled with the structural code KWUSTOSS (SIEMENS). It is shown that the FA loads obtained in calculations with consideration of FSI effects are by a factor of 2-4 lower than those obtained in the corresponding calculations without consideration of FSI. (author)

  18. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  19. Interpersonal deviance and consequent social impact in hypothetically schizophrenia-prone men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborowski, M J; Garske, J P

    1993-08-01

    Interpersonal deviance is central to the theory of and research on schizotypal psychopathology. The present study investigated interpersonal deviance and its corresponding impact among hypothetically schizotypic, or schizophrenia-prone, men, defined by high scores on the Perceptual Aberration-Magical Ideation (Per-Mag) Scale. In a videotaped interview, high-scoring Ss relative to control Ss were rated as more odd (p scale and suggest that interpersonal factors may influence the eventual adjustment of high-scoring individuals.

  20. Use of clinical vignette questionnaires to investigate the variation in management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca and acute glaucoma in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Constance N; Downes, Martin J; Jones, Gareth; Wigfall, Corinne; Dean, Rachel S; Brennan, Marnie L

    2018-01-06

    There is little peer-reviewed research assessing therapeutic effectiveness in canine eye disease. Current treatments used in first opinion and ophthalmology referral practices are also somewhat poorly documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the current management of canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and acute primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) by veterinary surgeons. Questionnaires using clinical vignettes were administered to a cross section of general practitioners ('GPs') and veterinarians engaged in or training for postgraduate ophthalmology practice ('PGs'). Similar treatment recommendations for KCS (topical cyclosporine, lubricant, antibiotic) were given by both groups of veterinarians with the single exception of increased topical antibiotic use by GPs. Treatment of acute glaucoma diverged between groups: PGs were much more likely to recommend topical prostaglandin analogues and a wider array of both topical and systemic treatments were recommended by both groups. Systemic ocular hypotensive agents were suggested infrequently. Our results suggest that treatments may vary substantially in ocular conditions, particularly in conditions for which neither guidelines nor high-quality evidence exists. This study highlights the need for novel strategies to address evidence gaps in veterinary medicine, as well as for better evaluation and dissemination of current treatment experience. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Being an outsider: nurses' statements about a vignette of an elderly resident with a schizophrenia diagnosis and dementia behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellzén, O; Kristiansen, L; Norbergh, K G

    2004-04-01

    In an exploratory study of nurses' approach to elderly people with a diagnosis of long-term schizophrenia, the aim was to investigate nurses' views of the care of an elderly fictitious person with long-term schizophrenia. All the nurses in one municipality in northern Sweden working at seven different units were investigated. A vignette, which was based on a case description in a previous study of an 84-year-old woman with severe dementia and problematic behaviour, was used after a minor alteration. In this study, the woman's age in the case description was changed from 84 to 68 years and the diagnosis was changed from severe dementia to long-term schizophrenia; otherwise, the description was the same as in the original case. The main finding was the nurses' inability to see the resident as anything other than what the 'label', the diagnosis, said. The nurses are interpreted as being caught in a dilemma of loyalty - on the one hand, the loyalty to the organization with its traditional goals and means and, on the other hand, the loyalty to the resident with her wishes in the forefront of their minds.

  2. Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Barbara; Coyle, Jeremy; Cohen, Alison K; Headen, Irene; Hubbard, Alan; Ritchie, Lorrene; Rehkopf, David H

    2017-09-01

    To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults. We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009). A hypothetical intervention was associated with a significantly reduced estimated prevalence of obesity for first (3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 5.6) and second (3.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.2) births, and twice as high in Black as in White mothers, but not significant in Hispanics. The population attributable fraction was 10.7% (95% CI = 3.3%, 18.1%) in first and 9.3% (95% CI = 2.2%, 16.5%) in second births. Development of effective weight-management interventions for childbearing women could lead to meaningful reductions in long-term obesity.

  3. EAC european accident code. A modular system of computer programs to simulate LMFBR hypothetical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wider, H.; Cametti, J.; Clusaz, A.; Devos, J.; VanGoethem, G.; Nguyen, H.; Sola, A.

    1985-01-01

    One aspect of fast reactor safety analysis consists of calculating the strongly coupled system of physical phenomena which contribute to the reactivity balance in hypothetical whole-core accidents: these phenomena are neutronics, fuel behaviour and heat transfer together with coolant thermohydraulics in single- and two-phase flow. Temperature variations in fuel, coolant and neighbouring structures induce, in fact, thermal reactivity feedbacks which are added up and put in the neutronics calculation to predict the neutron flux and the subsequent heat generation in the reactor. At this point a whole-core analysis code is necessary to examine for any hypothetical transient whether the various feedbacks result effectively in a negative balance, which is the basis condition to ensure stability and safety. The European Accident Code (EAC), developed at the Joint Research Centre of the CEC at Ispra (Italy), fulfills this objective. It is a modular informatics structure (quasi 2-D multichannel approach) aimed at collecting stand-alone computer codes of neutronics, fuel pin mechanics and hydrodynamics, developed both in national laboratories and in the JRC itself. EAC makes these modules interact with each other and produces results for these hypothetical accidents in terms of core damage and total energy release. 10 refs

  4. Structural and functional analysis of hypothetical and conserved proteins of Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enany, Shymaa

    2014-01-01

    The progress in biological technologies has led to rapid accumulation of microbial genomic sequences with a vast number of uncharacterized genes. Proteins encoded by these genes are usually uncharacterized, hypothetical, and/or conserved. In Clostridium tetani (C. tetani), these proteins constitute up to 50% of the expressed proteins. In this regard, understanding the functions and the structures of these proteins is crucially important, particularly in C. tetani, which is a medically important pathogen. Here, we used a variety of bioinformatics tools and databases to analyze 10 hypothetical and conserved proteins in C. tetani. We were able to provide a detailed overview of the functional contributions of some of these proteins in several cellular functions, including (1) evolving antibiotic resistance, (2) interaction with enzymes pathways, and (3) involvement in drug transportation. Among these candidates, we postulated the involvement of one of these hypothetical proteins in the pathogenic activity of tetanus. The structural and functional prediction of these proteins should serve in uncovering and better understanding the function of C. tetani cells to ultimately discover new possible drug targets. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of clinical experience, diagnosis, and theoretical orientation in the treatment of posttraumatic and dissociative disorders: A vignette and survey investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Krüger, Christa; Brand, Bethany L; Şar, Vedat; Ewing, Jan; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Stavropoulos, Pam; Middleton, Warwick

    2017-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the merits of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus a phased approach when prominent dissociative symptoms are present. The first aim of this study was to examine the degree to which diagnosing dissociation in two traumatized patients' vignettes influenced clinicians' preference for phase-oriented treatment and whether clinicians' treatment experience contributed to their treatment preference. The second aim was to assess the extent to which participants had observed traumatized patients worsen when treated with exposure therapy or phase-oriented therapy and whether the theoretical orientation and treatment experience of the clinician were related to the observed deterioration. In the tradition of expert and practitioner surveys, 263 clinicians completed a survey of their diagnoses and treatment preferences for two vignettes and their treatment experience, theoretical orientation, and observations of patients' deterioration. When a marked degree of dissociation was noted in the PTSD vignette, respondents favored phased approaches regardless of the diagnosis given. Reports of having observed patient deterioration during both exposure and phased therapy were predicted by years of experience. Psychodynamic therapists reported more observations of worsening during exposure therapy than cognitive behavior therapy therapists. Clinical experience treating PTSD may heighten awareness of negative therapeutic effects, potentially because experienced clinicians have a lower threshold for detecting such effects and because they are referred more challenging cases.

  6. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  7. Physicians' perception of alternative displays of clinical research evidence for clinical decision support - A study with case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slager, Stacey L; Weir, Charlene R; Kim, Heejun; Mostafa, Javed; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2017-07-01

    To design alternate information displays that present summaries of clinical trial results to clinicians to support decision-making; and to compare the displays according to efficacy and acceptability. A 6-between (information display presentation order) by 3-within (display type) factorial design. Two alternate displays were designed based on Information Foraging theory: a narrative summary that reduces the content to a few sentences; and a table format that structures the display according to the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) framework. The designs were compared with the summary display format available in PubMed. Physicians were asked to review five clinical studies retrieved for a case vignette; and were presented with the three display formats. Participants were asked to rate their experience with each of the information displays according to a Likert scale questionnaire. Twenty physicians completed the study. Overall, participants rated the table display more highly than either the text summary or PubMed's summary format (5.9vs. 5.4vs. 3.9 on a scale between 1 [strongly disagree] and 7 [strongly agree]). Usefulness ratings of seven pieces of information, i.e. patient population, patient age range, sample size, study arm, primary outcome, results of primary outcome, and conclusion, were high (average across all items=4.71 on a 1 to 5 scale, with 1=not at all useful and 5=very useful). Study arm, primary outcome, and conclusion scored the highest (4.9, 4.85, and 4.85 respectively). Participants suggested additional details such as rate of adverse effects. The table format reduced physicians' perceived cognitive effort when quickly reviewing clinical trial information and was more favorably received by physicians than the narrative summary or PubMed's summary format display. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of behavioural change in patients presenting with a diagnosis of dementia: a video vignette study with Australian general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwa, Moyez; Nichols, Pam; Magin, Parker; Pagey, Georgina; Meng, Xingqiong; Parsons, Richard; Pillai, Vinita

    2014-09-25

    To test the impact of feedback on the proposed management of standardised patients presenting with behavioural change with a diagnosis of dementia in Australian primary care. A video vignette study was performed with Australian general practitioners (GPs) in 2013. Participants viewed six pairs of matched videos depicting people presenting changed behaviour in the context of a dementia diagnosis in two phases. In both phases GPs indicated their diagnosis and management. After phase 1, GPs were offered feedback on management strategies for the patients depicted. Analyses focused on identification of change in management between the two phases of the study. Factors impacting on the intention to coordinate care for such patients were tested in a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Forty-five GPs completed the study. There was significant improvement in the proposed management of three of the six scenarios after the intervention. Older GPs were more likely to refer appropriately (OR=1.11 (1.01 to 1.23), p=0.04.). Overall referral to support agencies was more likely after the intervention (OR=2.52 (1.53 to 4.14), pmanagement of patients with behavioural problems with a diagnosis of dementia. Increasing practitioner confidence in their ability to coordinate care may increase the proportion of GPs who will respond to patients and carers in this context. Older GPs may benefit in particular. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  10. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  11. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  13. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  14. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  15. Ability to Categorize Food Predicts Hypothetical Food Choices in Head Start Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Jody S; Barton, Jennifer M; Simons, Ali L

    2018-03-01

    To investigate whether preschoolers are able to identify and categorize foods, and whether their ability to classify food as healthy predicts their hypothetical food choice. Structured interviews and body measurements with preschoolers, and teacher reports of classroom performance. Six Head Start centers in a large southeastern region. A total of 235 preschoolers (mean age [SD], 4.73 [0.63] years; 45.4% girls). Teachers implemented a nutrition education intervention across the 2014-2015 school year in which children were taught to identify and categorize food as sometimes (ie, unhealthy) and anytime (ie, healthy). Preschooler responses to a hypothetical snack naming, classifying, and selection scenario. Hierarchical regression analyses to examine predictors of child hypothetical food selection. While controlling for child characteristics and cognitive functioning, preschoolers who were better at categorizing food as healthy or unhealthy were more likely to say they would choose the healthy food. Low-contrast food pairs in which food had to be classified based on multiple dimensions were outside the cognitive abilities of the preschoolers. Nutrition interventions may be more effective in helping children make healthy food choices if developmental limitations in preschoolers' abilities to categorize food is addressed in their curriculum. Classification of food into evaluative categories is challenging for this age group. Categorizing on multiple dimensions is difficult, and dichotomous labeling of food as good or bad is not always accurate in directing children toward making food choices. Future research could evaluate further preschoolers' developmental potential for food categorization and nutrition decision making and consider factors that influence healthy food choices at both snack and mealtime. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Evacuation Speed in Hypothetical NPP Accident by Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Effective emergency response in emergency situation of nuclear power plant (NPP) can make consequences be different therefore it is regarded important when establishing an emergency response plan and assessing the risk of hypothetical NPP accident. Situation of emergency response can be totally changed when NPP accident caused by earthquake or tsunami is considered due to the failure of roads and buildings by the disaster. In this study evacuation speed has been focused among above various factors and reasonable evacuation speed in earthquake scenario has been investigated. Finally, sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Evacuation scenario can be entirely different in the situation of seismic hazard and the sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Various references were investigated and earthquake evacuation model has been developed considering that evacuees may convert their evacuation method from using a vehicle to walking when they face the difficulty of using a vehicle due to intense traffic jam, failure of buildings and roads, and etc. The population dose within 5 km / 30 km have been found to be increased in earthquake situation due to decreased evacuation speed and become 1.5 - 2 times in the severest earthquake evacuation scenario set up in this study. It is not agreed that using same emergency response model which is used for normal evacuation situations when performing level 3 probabilistic safety assessment for earthquake and tsunami event. Investigation of data and sensitivity analysis for constructing differentiated emergency response model in the event of seismic hazard has been carried out in this study

  17. Comparison of the hypothetical (57)Co brachytherapy source with the (192)Ir source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Rostami, Atefeh; Khosroabadi, Mohsen; Khademi, Sara; Knaup, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    The (57)Co radioisotope has recently been proposed as a hypothetical brachytherapy source due to its high specific activity, appropriate half-life (272 days) and medium energy photons (114.17 keV on average). In this study, Task Group No. 43 dosimetric parameters were calculated and reported for a hypothetical (57)Co source. A hypothetical (57)Co source was simulated in MCNPX, consisting of an active cylinder with 3.5 mm length and 0.6 mm radius encapsulated in a stainless steel capsule. Three photon energies were utilized (136 keV [10.68%], 122 keV [85.60%], 14 keV [9.16%]) for the (57)Co source. Air kerma strength, dose rate constant, radial dose function, anisotropy function, and isodose curves for the source were calculated and compared to the corresponding data for a (192)Ir source. The results are presented as tables and figures. Air kerma strength per 1 mCi activity for the (57)Co source was 0.46 cGyh(-1) cm 2 mCi(-1). The dose rate constant for the (57)Co source was determined to be 1.215 cGyh(-1)U(-1). The radial dose function for the (57)Co source has an increasing trend due to multiple scattering of low energy photons. The anisotropy function for the (57)Co source at various distances from the source is more isotropic than the (192)Ir source. The (57)Co source has advantages over (192)Ir due to its lower energy photons, longer half-life, higher dose rate constant and more isotropic anisotropic function. However, the (192)Ir source has a higher initial air kerma strength and more uniform radial dose function. These properties make (57)Co a suitable source for use in brachytherapy applications.

  18. Guide to General Atomic studies of hypothetical nuclear driven accidents for the Fort St. Vrain reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, T.; Tobias, M.

    1974-03-01

    The work of the General Atomic Company (GAC) in preparing those portions of the Final Safety Analysis Report for the Fort St. Vrain Reactor (FSV) having to do with hypothetical nuclear driven accidents has been reviewed and a guide to this literature has been prepared. The sources for this study are the Final Safety Analysis Report itself, the Quarterly and Monthly Progress Reports, Topical Reports, and Technical Specifications. The problems considered and the methods used are outlined. An appendix gives a systematic analysis which was used as a guide in organizing the references. (U.S.)

  19. Backbone NMR assignment of a hypothetical protein MJ0754 from Methanococcus jannaschii DSM 2661

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Yeon Hwang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available MJ0754 is an unknown hypothetical protein from hyperthermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii DSM 2661. Here we report the protein purification and NMR spectroscopic study of the N-terminal deleted truncated form of recombinant MJ0754 protein (Δ10-MJ0754. We aquired 3D NMR spectra and assigned all the backbone chemical shifts including Cα, Cβ, CO, HN, and N of Δ10-MJ0754. The secondary structure of Δ10-MJ0754 was estimated from the assigned backbone chemical shifts. This NMR result is very useful for further structural and functional study of MJ0754 protein.

  20. KADIS: a program to analyse the disassembly phase of hypothetical accidents in LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuck, P.; Jacobs, G.; Arnecke, G.

    1977-11-01

    The program KADIS models the disassembly phase during power excursions in LMFBR hypothetical accidents. KADIS is based on point kinetics in the neutronics part and on a 2-dimensional representation of the reactor core in the hydrodynamics part. The core is modeled as an ideal, compressible fluid which is heated up adiabatically during the excursion. KADIS was built up with the help of the VENUS program of Argonne National Laboratory. Several important features were added to the basic VENUS model. Therefore we give first a complete description of the mathematical models used. Secondly we provide the user with the necessary information to handle the input/output of KADIS. (orig.) [de

  1. U.S. Adult Interest in Less Harmful and Less Addictive Hypothetical Modified Risk Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Erin Keely; Persoskie, Alexander; Parascandola, Mark; Hoffman, Allison C

    2017-09-28

    Tobacco companies have a history of making health claims about their new products. Such claims are now regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. We examined consumer interest in hypothetical modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) among current, former and never established smokers, and examined whether interest was associated with beliefs about tobacco and cancer. Data were analyzed from the U.S. nationally representative 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015; N = 3,738). Interest in hypothetical MRTPs was assessed by asking participants their likelihood of using tobacco products claiming to be less addictive and less harmful than other products. About half of current smokers and a tenth of both former and never smokers reported they were "somewhat" or "very" likely to try hypothetical MRTPs claiming to be less harmful or less addictive. Female smokers, former smokers with lower smoking harm perceptions, and never smokers who are young adults or without college education expressed more interest in these products. Interest in using these products was positively associated with believing that smoking status is a changeable individual characteristic and that it is possible for tobacco products to be made without some harmful chemicals. We identified several subgroups of current, former, and never smokers who may be particularly affected by the marketing of MRTPs and therefore important to study to inform models of the potential population health impact of authorizing the marketing of MRTPs. Findings about interest in hypothetical MRTPs can inform models of how the marketing of MRTPs could affect population health. Understanding which subgroups are particularly interested in MRTPs can help determine who might be important to study to inform these models. We identified several groups who may warrant specific attention: smokers who are female, former smokers who hold low harm perceptions of smoking, never smokers who are young adults or

  2. Analysis of hypothetical LMFBR whole-core accidents in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, D.R.; Deitrich, L.W.; Brown, N.W.; Waltar, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    The issue of hypothetical whole-core accidents continues to play a significant role in assessment of the potential risk to the public associated with LMFBR operation in the USA. The paper briefly characterizes the changing nature of this role, with emphasis on the current risk-oriented perspective. It then describes the models and codes used for accident analysis in the USA which have been developed under DOE sponsorship and summarizes some specific applications of the codes to the current generation of fast reactors. An assessment of future trends in this area concludes the paper

  3. Hypothetical air ingress scenarios in advanced modular high temperature gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Considering an extremely hypothetical scenario of complete cross duct failure and unlimited air supply into the reactor vessel of a modular high temperature gas cooled ractor, it is found that the potential air inflow remains limited due to the high friction pressure drop through the active core. All incoming air will be oxidized to CO and some local external burning would be temporarily possible in such a scenario. The accident would have to continue with unlimited air supply for hundreds of hours before the core structural integrity would be jeopardized

  4. OPPORTUNITY COSTS OF REWARD DELAYS AND THE DISCOUNTING OF HYPOTHETICAL MONEY AND CIGARETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick S.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are reported to discount delayed rewards at lower rates than nonhumans. However, nonhumans are studied in tasks that restrict reinforcement during delays, whereas humans are typically studied in tasks that do not restrict reinforcement during delays. In nonhuman tasks, the opportunity cost of restricted reinforcement during delays may increase delay discounting rates. The present within-subjects study used online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk) to assess the discounting of hypothetical delayed money (and cigarettes in smokers) under four hypothetical framing conditions differing in the availability of reinforcement during delays. At one extreme, participants were free to leave their computer without returning, and engage in any behavior during reward delays (modeling typical human tasks). At the opposite extreme, participants were required to stay at their computer and engage in little other behavior during reward delays (modeling typical nonhuman tasks). Discounting rates increased as an orderly function of opportunity cost. Results also indicated predominantly hyperbolic discounting, the “magnitude effect,” steeper discounting of cigarettes than money, and positive correlations between discounting rates of these commodities. This is the first study to test the effects of opportunity costs on discounting, and suggests that procedural differences may partially account for observed species differences in discounting. PMID:25388973

  5. A flexible tool for calculating the consequences of a hypothetical nuclear accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Tabet

    Full Text Available The paper presents a parametric model, implemented on a personal computer, for calculating contamination and doses following a hypothetical nuclear accident. The model is embedded in the high level environment of Mathematica and uses the Gaussian solution for the plume structure at short and medium distances and a wedge-like behaviour for long distances calculation. Along with the usual effects, like the influence of a local wet ground deposition or the corrections due to build-up, the model deals also with other aspects, such as the long distance behaviour of the plume, by taking into account random wind direction variations. A rather sophisticated approach is used, in particular, when evaluating food contamination and doses, allowing also for consideration of a possible ban of food consumption. Several tens of functions are on hand of the user who can take full advantage of the very flexible tools introduced in the recent version 7 of Mathematica. Some examples of the power of the tool are shown with reference to the radiological consequences of an hypothetical accidental release in a EPR reactor.

  6. The effects of restaurant menu calorie labeling on hypothetical meal choices of females with disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Roberto, Christina A

    2017-03-01

    Concerns have been raised that obesity public policy measures may have harmful effects on individuals with eating disorders. However, little research has investigated this topic. We examined the impact of a popular obesity public policy, menu calorie labeling, on hypothetical food choices of women with disordered eating. Seven hundred sixteen adult females completed an online survey in which they were randomly assigned to receive a restaurant menu with or without calorie information listed. Participants selected foods representative of a meal they would choose to consume and answered questions on restaurant ordering and menu labeling. Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (Fairburn & Beglin, ) to assess global eating pathology. Diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge-eating disorder (BED) were also derived from this measure. Generalized linear modeling examined the impact of menu label condition, disordered eating, and the menu label by disordered eating interaction on hypothetical food selection and related variables. When disordered eating was examined continuously, menu labeling did not differentially affect food selections of those with elevated disordered eating (p = .45). However, when examined by eating disorder diagnosis, participants with AN or BN ordered significantly fewer (p ordered significantly more (p = .001) calories in the menu label versus no label condition. Menu labeling may decrease the calories ordered among individuals with AN or BN and increase calories ordered among individuals with BED. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluating the impacts of farmers' behaviors on a hypothetical agricultural water market based on double auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Erhu; Cai, Ximing; Brozović, Nicholas; Minsker, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Agricultural water markets are considered effective instruments to mitigate the impacts of water scarcity and to increase crop production. However, previous studies have limited understanding of how farmers' behaviors affect the performance of water markets. This study develops an agent-based model to explicitly incorporate farmers' behaviors, namely irrigation behavior (represented by farmers' sensitivity to soil water deficit λ) and bidding behavior (represented by farmers' rent seeking μ and learning rate β), in a hypothetical water market based on a double auction. The model is applied to the Guadalupe River Basin in Texas to simulate a hypothetical agricultural water market under various hydrological conditions. It is found that the joint impacts of the behavioral parameters on the water market are strong and complex. In particular, among the three behavioral parameters, λ affects the water market potential and its impacts on the performance of the water market are significant under most scenarios. The impacts of μ or β on the performance of the water market depend on the other two parameters. The water market could significantly increase crop production only when the following conditions are satisfied: (1) λ is small and (2) μ is small and/or β is large. The first condition requires efficient irrigation scheduling, and the second requires well-developed water market institutions that provide incentives to bid true valuation of water permits.

  8. Comparative analysis of chemical similarity methods for modular natural products with a hypothetical structure enumeration algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinnider, Michael A; Dejong, Chris A; Franczak, Brian C; McNicholas, Paul D; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2017-08-16

    Natural products represent a prominent source of pharmaceutically and industrially important agents. Calculating the chemical similarity of two molecules is a central task in cheminformatics, with applications at multiple stages of the drug discovery pipeline. Quantifying the similarity of natural products is a particularly important problem, as the biological activities of these molecules have been extensively optimized by natural selection. The large and structurally complex scaffolds of natural products distinguish their physical and chemical properties from those of synthetic compounds. However, no analysis of the performance of existing methods for molecular similarity calculation specific to natural products has been reported to date. Here, we present LEMONS, an algorithm for the enumeration of hypothetical modular natural product structures. We leverage this algorithm to conduct a comparative analysis of molecular similarity methods within the unique chemical space occupied by modular natural products using controlled synthetic data, and comprehensively investigate the impact of diverse biosynthetic parameters on similarity search. We additionally investigate a recently described algorithm for natural product retrobiosynthesis and alignment, and find that when rule-based retrobiosynthesis can be applied, this approach outperforms conventional two-dimensional fingerprints, suggesting it may represent a valuable approach for the targeted exploration of natural product chemical space and microbial genome mining. Our open-source algorithm is an extensible method of enumerating hypothetical natural product structures with diverse potential applications in bioinformatics.

  9. Hypothetical model of factors determining performance and sports achievement in team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trninić Marko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is formation of a comprehensive hypothetical dynamic interactional process model structured by assumed constructs, i.e. processes or mechanisms that obtain real features and influences on athlete's performance and athletic achievement. Thus there are formed and assumed reciprocal relations between high training and competition - based stress as the input variable, cognitive appraisal and interpretation as the mediator, and mood state as the moderator based on the development of the dynamic systems theory. Also, proposed model uses basic assumptions of the Action-Theory approach and it is in accordance with the contemporary socialcognitive view of team functioning in sports. Within the process model, the output variables are measures of efficacy evident through athlete's individual and team performance and athletic achievement. The situation, the team and athlete attributes, the performance and the athletic achievement are joined variables, and the individual and the collective efficacy are the consequence of their reciprocal interaction. Therefore, there are complex and reciprocal interactive processes in real sports and explorative situations amongst the attributes of athlete and team and the behaviour and situation that determine performance and athletic achievement. This is probably the result of an integrated network of reciprocal multi-causal activity of a set of stated assumed constructs from different theories. Thus the hypothetical model is an effort to describe elaborate correlations and/or interdependencies between internal and external determinants which presumably affect athlete's performance and athletic achievement.

  10. Potential radiological exposure rates resulting from hypothetical dome failure at Tank W-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The main plant area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains 12 buried Gunite tanks that were used for the storage and transfer of liquid radioactive waste. Although the tanks are no longer in use, they are known to contain some residual contaminated sludges and liquids. In the event of an accidental tank dome failure, however unlikely, the liquids, sludges, and radioactive contaminants within the tank walls themselves could create radiation fields and result in above-background exposures to workers nearby. This Technical Memorandum documents a series of calculations to estimate potential radiological exposure rates and total exposures to workers in the event of a hypothetical collapse of a Gunite tank dome. Calculations were performed specifically for tank W-10 because it contains the largest radioactivity inventory (approximately half of the total activity) of all the Gunite tanks. These calculations focus only on external, direct gamma exposures for prescribed, hypothetical exposure scenarios and do not address other possible tank failure modes or routes of exposure. The calculations were performed with established, point-kernel gamma ray modeling codes

  11. The impact of SOA for achieving healthcare interoperability. An empirical investigation based on a hypothetical adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, S; Mantas, J

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of a service-oriented prototype implementation for healthcare interoperability. A prototype framework was developed, aiming to exploit the use of service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts for achieving healthcare interoperability and to move towards a virtual patient record (VPR) paradigm. The prototype implementation was evaluated for its hypothetical adoption. The evaluation strategy was based on the initial proposition of the DeLone and McLean model of information systems (IS) success [1], as modeled by Iivari [2]. A set of SOA and VPR characteristics were empirically encapsulated within the dimensions of IS success model, combined with measures from previous research works. The data gathered was analyzed using partial least squares (PLS). The results highlighted that system quality is a partial predictor of system use but not of user satisfaction. On the contrary, information quality proved to be a significant predictor of user satisfaction and partially a strong significant predictor of system use. Moreover, system use did not prove to be a significant predictor of individual impact whereas the bi-directional relation between use and user satisfaction did not confirm. Additionally, user satisfaction was found to be a strong significant predictor of individual impact. Finally, individual impact proved to be a strong significant predictor of organizational impact. The empirical study attempted to obtain hypothetical, but still useful beliefs and perceptions regarding the SOA prototype implementation. The deduced observations can form the basis for further investigation regarding the adaptability of SOA implementations with VPR characteristics in the healthcare domain.

  12. Conceptualization of a hypothetical high-level nuclear waste repository site in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information

  13. Hypothetical Case and Scenario Description for International Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Adam David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cohn, Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Maikael A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Mancel Jordan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Ethan Rutledge [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To support more rigorous analysis on global security issues at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), there is a need to develop realistic data sets without using "real" data or identifying "real" vulnerabilities, hazards or geopolitically embarrassing shortcomings. In response, an interdisciplinary team led by subject matter experts in SNL's Center for Global Security and Cooperation (CGSC) developed a hypothetical case description. This hypothetical case description assigns various attributes related to international SNF transportation that are representative, illustrative and indicative of "real" characteristics of "real" countries. There is no intent to identify any particular country and any similarity with specific real-world events is purely coincidental. To support the goal of this report to provide a case description (and set of scenarios of concern) for international SNF transportation inclusive of as much "real-world" complexity as possible -- without crossing over into politically sensitive or classified information -- this SAND report provides a subject matter expert-validated (and detailed) description of both technical and political influences on the international transportation of spent nuclear fuel. [PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

  14. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  15. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  16. General practitioners' choices and their determinants when starting treatment for major depression: a cross sectional, randomized case-vignette survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Dumesnil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developed countries, primary care physicians manage most patients with depression. Relatively few studies allow a comprehensive assessment of the decisions these doctors make in these cases and the factors associated with these decisions. We studied how general practitioners (GPs manage the acute phase of a new episode of non-comorbid major depression (MD and the factors associated with their decisions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected GPs (1249/1431, response rate: 87.3%. We used case-vignettes about new MD episodes in 8 versions differing by patient gender and socioeconomic status (blue/white collar and disease intensity (mild/severe. GPs were randomized to receive one of these 8 versions. Overall, 82.6% chose pharmacotherapy; among them GPs chose either an antidepressant (79.8% or an anxiolytic/hypnotic alone (18.5%. They rarely recommended referral for psychotherapy alone, regardless of severity, but 38.2% chose it in combination with pharmacotherapy. Antidepressant prescription was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.74; 95%CI = 1.33-2.27, patient gender (female, OR = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.58-0.98, GP personal characteristics (e.g. history of antidepressant treatment: OR = 2.31; 95%CI = 1.41-3.81 and GP belief that antidepressants are overprescribed in France (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.48-0.82. The combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.31-2.52, patient's white-collar status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.14-2.18, and GPs' dissatisfaction with cooperation with mental health specialists (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.45-0.89. These choices were not associated with either GPs' professional characteristics or psychiatrist density in the GP's practice areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: GPs' choices for

  17. A Randomized Trial Testing the Impact of Narrative Vignettes vs. Guideline Summaries on Provider Response to a Professional Organization Clinical Policy for Safe Opioid Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Zachary F.; Metlay, Joshua P.; Sinnenberg, Lauren; Kilaru, Austin S.; Grossestreuer, Anne; Barg, Frances K.; Shofer, Frances S.; Rhodes, Karin V.; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines are known to be underused by practitioners. In response to the challenges of treating pain amidst a prescription opioid epidemic, the American College of Emergency Physicians published an evidence-based clinical policy for opioid prescribing in 2012. Evidence-based narratives, an effective method of communicating health information in a variety of settings, offer a novel strategy for disseminating guidelines to physicians and engaging providers with clinical evidence. Objectives To compare whether narrative vignettes embedded in the American College of Emergency Physician (ACEP) daily e-newsletter improved dissemination of the clinical policy to ACEP members, and engagement of members with the clinical policy, compared to traditional summary text. Methods A prospective randomized controlled study, entitled Stories to Promote Information using Narrative (SPIN) trial, was performed. Derived from qualitative interviews with 61 ACEP physicians, 4 narrative vignettes were selected and refined, using a consensus panel of clinical and implementation experts. All ACEP members were then block randomized by state of residence to receive alternative versions of a daily emailed newsletter for a total of 24 days during a 9 week period. Narrative newsletters contained a selection of vignettes that referenced opioid prescription dilemmas. Control newsletters contained a selection of descriptive text about the clinical policy using similar length and appearance to the narrative vignettes. Embedded in the newsletters were web links to the complete vignette or traditional summary text, as well as additional links to the full ACEP clinical policy and a website providing assistance with prescription drug monitoring program enrollment. The newsletters were otherwise identical. Outcomes measured were the percentage of subjects who visited any of the web pages that contained additional guideline related information and the odds of any unique physician

  18. Parent and Child Independent Report of Emotional Responses to Asthma-Specific Vignettes: The Relationship Between Emotional States, Self-Management Behaviors, and Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kelly M; Fisher, Susan G; Rhee, Hyekyun

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the emotional intelligence (EI) of parents and their children with asthma. Objectives of this study were to assess: 1) parent's and children's report of emotions in response to an asthma vignette (proxy for EI) and 2) the relationship between emotions, self-management behaviors, and symptoms. We conducted a descriptive, mixed methods study of children 7-12 years old with asthma. Parent-Child dyads (n=104) responded to an asthma vignette to gain insight into emotions, symptoms, and self-management behaviors. Additional questions assessed confidence and worry using a 5-point Likert scale. Thematic analyses and descriptive statistics were used to assess qualitative and quantitative outcomes. Children were predominantly male (58%), 7-9 (58%), and White (46%). The most common negative emotions reported by children were scared and sad. Children who sought help from an adult were less likely to report using medications compared to children who did not seek help (39.5% vs. 62.3%, p=.029). Children with low worry and high confidence had fewer symptoms compared to children reporting high worry and low confidence (symptoms: days 3.24 vs. 6.77, p=.012, nights 2.71 vs. 5.36, p=.004). Children provided appropriate emotional responses to the asthma vignette; emotions were related to self-management behaviors and symptoms. More studies are needed to specifically assess EI in this population. Parents and children with greater EI may be better able to understand their needs, engage in self-management behaviors, and communicate with their nurses, to improve their support network and ability to access services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. General practitioners’ assessment practices of patients' need for lifestyle intervention. A vignette study on the impact of social distance on general practitioners’ patient assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsvard, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    discretion, especially in preventive contexts with no clear-cut guidelines. However, despite its potential influence, few studies have focused on whether social distance has an impact on general practitioners’ assessment practices of patients, which thus seems to be a blind spot in the literature. To study...... the mechanisms facilitating the process of social distance systematically, I apply the vignette method. Drawing on Bourdieu’s theoretical framework of social distance, I examine how general practitioners assess different socially positioned patients as needy for preventive lifestyle intervention. I expect social...

  20. General practitioners’ assessment practices of patients' need for lifestyle intervention. A vignette study on the impact of social distance on general practitioners’ patient assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsvard, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    distance (e.g. lower middle class), whereas the lower social distance (e.g. upper middle class) patient assessments will be characterized by identification and a relatively more individualized approach. The analysis is based on interviews with 15 general practitioners, and analyzed through qualitative...... the mechanisms facilitating the process of social distance systematically, I apply the vignette method. Drawing on Bourdieu’s theoretical framework of social distance, I examine how general practitioners assess different socially positioned patients as needy for preventive lifestyle intervention. I expect social...... content analyses, in which I explore the patterns across the interviews....

  1. Numerical analysis of radionuclide movement from a hypothetical nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.R.; Segol, G.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the consequences of radionuclide release from a hypothetical nuclear waste repository located in bedded salt and of their subsequent transport by ground water has been performed. The study was based on available geologic and hydrologic information for the reference location. The initial run was based on a best estimate of geologic and hydrologic parameters for this reference location. Its results indicate that those isotopes which reach the natural discharge point remain below MPC levels for uncontrolled water use. The initial run was followed by a parametric study to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to the values of input parameters. This analysis shows that the model is sensitive to the assumed values of hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity and retardation factor, as expected. But this analysis also emphasizes that there exist complex interactions between such parameters which are less intuitively evident. The influence of waste leach rates is being investigated

  2. Estimates of collective doses from a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya; Togawa, Orihiko; Odano, Naoteru; Ishida, Toshihisa

    2001-01-01

    The collective dose to the Japanese population has been estimated from a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine if it sinks in an offshore region around Japan. A computer code system DSOCEAN has been used for assessing the collective dose due to radionuclides released to the ocean from a sunken nuclear submarine. The estimated collective effective dose commitment from all of the radionuclides released after the break of the fuel pellets is estimated to be 2.5 x l0 4 man·Sv. The contribution of 241 Am to the total collective effective dose commitment is the highest, followed by 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 240 Pu, 239 Pu and 241 Pu. The maximum of the estimated collective effective dose by the annual intake of marine products after radionuclide releases for one year is approximately 0.3% of the annual average dose by the natural radiation that is reported by UNSCEAR. (author)

  3. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Resnick, Paul; Adar, Eytan

    2015-01-01

    Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs), that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  4. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hullman

    Full Text Available Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs, that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  5. An analysis of reactor structural response to fuel sodium interaction in a hypothetical core disruptive accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Tashiro, M.; Sasanuma, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1976-01-01

    This study shows the effect of constraints around FSI zone on FSI phenomena and deformations of reactor structures. SUGAR-PISCES code system has been developed to evaluate the phenomena of FSI and the response of reactor structure. SUGAR calculates the phenomena of FSI. PISCES, developed by Physics International Company in U.S.A., calculates the dynamic response of reactor structure in two-dimensional, time-dependent finite-difference Lagrangian model. The results show that the peak pressure and energy by FSI and the deformation of reactor structures are about twice in case of FSI zone surrounding by blanket than by coolant. The FSI phenomena highly depend on the reactor structure and the realistic configuration around core must be considered for analyzing hypothetical core disruptive accident. This work was supported by a grant from Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. (auth.)

  6. Modelling of melting and solidification transport phenomena during hypothetical NPP severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarler, B.

    1992-01-01

    A physical and mathematical framework to deal with the transport phenomena occuring during melting and solidification of the hypothetical NPP severe accidents is presented. It concentrates on the transient temperature, velocity, and species concentration distributions during such events. The framework is based on the Mixture Continuum Formulation of the components and phases, cast in the boundary-domain integral shape structured by the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation. The formulation could cope with various solid-liquid sub-systems through the inclusion of the specific closure relations. The deduced system of boundary-domain integral equations for conservation of mass, energy, momentum, and species could be solved by the boundary element discrete approximative method. (author) [sl

  7. Important radionuclides and their sensitivity for groundwater pathway of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Chang, K.; Kim, C. L. [Nuclear Enviroment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    A radiological safety assessment was performed for a hypothetical near-surface radioactive waste repository as a simple screening calculation to identify important nuclides and to provide insights on the data needs for a successful demonstration of compliance. Individual effective doses were calculated for a conservative groundwater pathway scenario considering well drilling near the site boundary. Sensitivity of resulting ingestion dose to input parameter values was also analyzed using Monte Carlo sampling. Considering peak dose rate and assessment timescale, C-14 and I-129 were identified as important nuclides and U-235 and U-238 as potentially important nuclides. For C-14, the does was most sensitive to Darcy velocity in aquifer. The distribution coefficient showed high degree of sensitivity for I-129 release.

  8. Important radionuclides and their sensitivity for groundwater pathway of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Chang, K.; Kim, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    A radiological safety assessment was performed for a hypothetical near-surface radioactive waste repository as a simple screening calculation to identify important nuclides and to provide insights on the data needs for a successful demonstration of compliance. Individual effective doses were calculated for a conservative groundwater pathway scenario considering well drilling near the site boundary. Sensitivity of resulting ingestion dose to input parameter values was also analyzed using Monte Carlo sampling. Considering peak dose rate and assessment timescale, C-14 and I-129 were identified as important nuclides and U-235 and U-238 as potentially important nuclides. For C-14, the does was most sensitive to Darcy velocity in aquifer. The distribution coefficient showed high degree of sensitivity for I-129 release

  9. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study

  10. Dose Assessment for Public due to Packages Shipping Radioactive Materials Hypothetically Sunk on a Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumune, D.; Saegusa, T.; Suzuki, H.; Watabe, N.; Asano, H.; Maruyama, K.; Kinehara, Y

    2000-07-01

    Radioactive materials such as spent fuel (SF), PuO{sub 2} powder, high level wastes (HLW) and fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel have been transported by sea between Europe and Japan for many years. Dose assessments for the public have been performed in the past for situations assuming packages shipping radioactive materials are hypothetically sunk on a continental shelf. These studies employed various conditions and methods in their assessments and the results were not always the same. In this study, the dose assessment for all types of package was performed under the same conditions and by the same methods. The effective dose to the members of the public for all materials is lower than previous evaluations due to more realistic assumptions used in this study. These evaluated effective doses are far less than the ICRP recommended limit (1 mSv.year{sup -1} averaged over 5 years). (author)

  11. MCCI study for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor under hypothetical accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vishnu; Mukhopadhyay, Deb; Chatterjee, B.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    In case of severe core damage accident in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), large amount of molten corium is expected to come out into the calandria vault due to failure of calandria vessel. Molten corium at high temperature is sufficient to decompose and ablate concrete. Such attack could fail CV by basement penetration. Since containment is ultimate barrier for activity release. The Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) of the resulting pool of debris with the concrete has been identified as an important part of the accident sequence. MCCI Analysis has been carried out for PHWR for a hypothetical accident condition where total core material is considered to be relocated in calandria vault. Concrete ablation rate in vertical and radial direction is evaluated for rectangular geometry using MEDICIS module of ASTEC Code. Amount of gases released during MCCI is also evaluated. (author)

  12. Preliminary results of consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident using Thai meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K.; Lawawirojwong, S.; Promping, J.

    2017-06-01

    Consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident is one of the important elements of the risk assessment of a nuclear power plant. It is widely known that the meteorological conditions can significantly influence the outcomes of such assessment, since it determines the results of the calculation of the radionuclide environmental transport. This study aims to assess the impacts of the meteorological conditions to the results of the consequence assessment. The consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is used for the assessment. The results of the consequence assessment using Thai meteorological data are compared with those using Japanese meteorological data. The Thai case has following characteristics. Low wind speed made the radionuclides concentrate at the center comparing to the Japanese case. The squalls induced the peaks in the ground concentration distribution. The evacuated land is larger than the Japanese case though the relocated land is smaller, which is attributed to the concentration of the radionuclides near the release point.

  13. Research progress and recommendations on reactor pressure vessel integrity under hypothetical core melt down accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yangui; Ning Dong; Wu Zhiwei; Cao Ming; Xie Yongcheng; He Yinbiao; Yao Weida

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is very important to ensure the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel under core melt down accident. The high-temperature creep failure is the main failure mode of the reactor pressure vessel under core melt down accident. Purpose: This paper is to present an overview of research status and progress on high-temperature creep behavior of reactor pressure vessel considering the hypothetical core melt down scenario. Methods: Emphasis is placed on accomplished achievements in creep tests, scale model experiments and numerical simulation, and the domestic newly research productions on high-temperature creep behavior of reactor pressure vessel structure integrity. Conclusions: This paper also discusses the limitations of existing researches and indicates future research directions, such as multi-axis tensile tests, analysis of three-dimensional coupling temperature field, scaled model tests, and so on. (authors)

  14. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D. [and others

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  15. Environmental issues of repository licensing: an evaluation of a hypothetical high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.L.; McGinnis, J.T.; Harper, C.M.; Battelle Columbus Labs., OH)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents results of an environmental assessment conducted under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The study defined a range of potential environmental effects of constructing, operating, decommissioning, and long-term isolation of a nuclear waste repository. The analytical methodology used to determine potential environmental effects required definition of a hypothetical environmental setting and repository. Potentially applicable regulatory requirements were identified and were used as guidelines to evaluate permitting feasibility. The environmental effects of repository development were analyzed for the two major time periods of concern: short term (the period of construction, operation, and decommissioning) and long term (the isolation period after decommissioning). As a result of this analysis, major environmental uncertainties and issues were identified. 11 references, 5 figures

  16. Geologic simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. [AEGIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, G.M.; Zellmer, J.T.; Lindberg, J.W.; Foley, M.G.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes the structure and operation of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Geologic Simulation Model, a computer simulation model of the geology and hydrology of an area of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The model is used to study the long-term suitability of the Columbia Plateau Basalts for the storage of nuclear waste in a mined repository. It is also a starting point for analyses of such repositories in other geologic settings. The Geologic Simulation Model will aid in formulating design disruptive sequences (i.e. those to be used for more detailed hydrologic, transport, and dose analyses) from the spectrum of hypothetical geological and hydrological developments that could result in transport of radionuclides out of a repository. Quantitative and auditable execution of this task, however, is impossible without computer simulation. The computer simulation model aids the geoscientist by generating the wide spectrum of possible future evolutionary paths of the areal geology and hydrology, identifying those that may affect the repository integrity. This allows the geoscientist to focus on potentially disruptive processes, or series of events. Eleven separate submodels are used in the simulation portion of the model: Climate, Continental Glaciation, Deformation, Geomorphic Events, Hydrology, Magmatic Events, Meteorite Impact, Sea-Level Fluctuations, Shaft-Seal Failure, Sub-Basalt Basement Faulting, and Undetected Features. Because of the modular construction of the model, each submodel can easily be replaced with an updated or modified version as new information or developments in the state of the art become available. The model simulates the geologic and hydrologic systems of a hypothetical repository site and region for a million years following repository decommissioning. The Geologic Simulation Model operates in both single-run and Monte Carlo modes.

  17. Simulation and dose analysis of a hypothetical accident in Sanmen nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yangmo; Guo, Jianghua; Nie, Chu; Zhou, Youhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Atmospheric dispersion following a hypothetical accident in Sanmen NPP is simulated. • Japan, North Korea and Russia are slightly influenced in this accident. • In Taiwan and South Korea, population on 100% and 35% of the land should be given information about reducing dose. • In mainland China, about 284 thousand people are likely to get cancer. - Abstract: In November 2013, an AP1000 nuclear power plant (NPP) will be put into commercial operation. An atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during a severe hypothetical accident in Sanmen NPP, Zhejiang province, China, is simulated with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The accident assumes that a station blackout (SBO) accident occurred on August 25, 2011, 55% core was damaged and 49 radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. Our simulation indicates that, during this dispersion, the radioactive plume will cover the mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Russia. The radiation dose levels in Japan, North Korea and Russia are the lightest, usually less than 1 mSv. The influenced areas in these countries are 9901 km 2 , 31,736 km 2 and 2,97,524 km 2 , respectively; dose levels in Taiwan and South Korea are moderate, no more than 20 mSv. Information about reducing dose should be given to the public. Total influenced areas in these two countries are 3621 km 2 and 42,370 km 2 , which take up 100% of the land in Taiwan and 35% of the land in South Korea; the worst situation happens in mainland China. The total influenced area is 3 × 106 km 2 and 1,40,000 km 2 in this area has a dose level higher than 20 mSv. Measurement must be taken to reduce the dose. More than 284 thousand residents will face the risk of developing cancer. Furthermore, 96% of this population is mainly concentrated in Zhejiang province, where Sanmen NPP locates

  18. Computational mining for hypothetical patterns of amino acid side chains in protein data bank (PDB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Nur Syatila Ab; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a protein can provide insights regarding its function. Functional relationship between proteins can be inferred from fold and sequence similarities. In certain cases, sequence or fold comparison fails to conclude homology between proteins with similar mechanism. Since the structure is more conserved than the sequence, a constellation of functional residues can be similarly arranged among proteins of similar mechanism. Local structural similarity searches are able to detect such constellation of amino acids among distinct proteins, which can be useful to annotate proteins of unknown function. Detection of such patterns of amino acids on a large scale can increase the repertoire of important 3D motifs since available known 3D motifs currently, could not compensate the ever-increasing numbers of uncharacterized proteins to be annotated. Here, a computational platform for an automated detection of 3D motifs is described. A fuzzy-pattern searching algorithm derived from IMagine an Amino Acid 3D Arrangement search EnGINE (IMAAAGINE) was implemented to develop an automated method for searching of hypothetical patterns of amino acid side chains in Protein Data Bank (PDB), without the need for prior knowledge on related sequence or structure of pattern of interest. We present an example of the searches, which is the detection of a hypothetical pattern derived from known structural motif of C2H2 structural pattern from zinc fingers. The conservation of particular patterns of amino acid side chains in unrelated proteins is highlighted. This approach can act as a complementary method for available structure- and sequence-based platforms and may contribute in improving functional association between proteins.

  19. Geologic simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, G.M.; Zellmer, J.T.; Lindberg, J.W.; Foley, M.G.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes the structure and operation of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Geologic Simulation Model, a computer simulation model of the geology and hydrology of an area of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The model is used to study the long-term suitability of the Columbia Plateau Basalts for the storage of nuclear waste in a mined repository. It is also a starting point for analyses of such repositories in other geologic settings. The Geologic Simulation Model will aid in formulating design disruptive sequences (i.e. those to be used for more detailed hydrologic, transport, and dose analyses) from the spectrum of hypothetical geological and hydrological developments that could result in transport of radionuclides out of a repository. Quantitative and auditable execution of this task, however, is impossible without computer simulation. The computer simulation model aids the geoscientist by generating the wide spectrum of possible future evolutionary paths of the areal geology and hydrology, identifying those that may affect the repository integrity. This allows the geoscientist to focus on potentially disruptive processes, or series of events. Eleven separate submodels are used in the simulation portion of the model: Climate, Continental Glaciation, Deformation, Geomorphic Events, Hydrology, Magmatic Events, Meteorite Impact, Sea-Level Fluctuations, Shaft-Seal Failure, Sub-Basalt Basement Faulting, and Undetected Features. Because of the modular construction of the model, each submodel can easily be replaced with an updated or modified version as new information or developments in the state of the art become available. The model simulates the geologic and hydrologic systems of a hypothetical repository site and region for a million years following repository decommissioning. The Geologic Simulation Model operates in both single-run and Monte Carlo modes

  20. Testing and intercomparison of model predictions of radionuclide migration from a hypothetical area source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.S.; Yu, C.; Zeevaert, T.; Olyslaegers, G.; Amado, V.; Setlow, L.W.; Waggitt, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    This work was carried out as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS program. One aim of the work was to develop scenarios for testing computer models designed for simulating radionuclide migration in the environment, and to use these scenarios for testing the models and comparing predictions from different models. This paper presents the results of the development and testing of a hypothetical area source of NORM waste/residue using two complex computer models and one screening model. There are significant differences in the methods used to model groundwater flow between the complex models. The hypothetical source was used because of its relative simplicity and because of difficulties encountered in finding comprehensive, well-validated data sets for real sites. The source consisted of a simple repository of uniform thickness, with 1 Bq g -1 of uranium-238 ( 238 U) (in secular equilibrium with its decay products) distributed uniformly throughout the waste. These approximate real situations, such as engineered repositories, waste rock piles, tailings piles and landfills. Specification of the site also included the physical layout, vertical stratigraphic details, soil type for each layer of material, precipitation and runoff details, groundwater flow parameters, and meteorological data. Calculations were carried out with and without a cover layer of clean soil above the waste, for people working and living at different locations relative to the waste. The predictions of the two complex models showed several differences which need more detailed examination. The scenario is available for testing by other modelers. It can also be used as a planning tool for remediation work or for repository design, by changing the scenario parameters and running the models for a range of different inputs. Further development will include applying models to real scenarios and integrating environmental impact assessment methods with the safety assessment tools currently

  1. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a hypothetical dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, H. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Working Group of BIOMOVS II was initiated in Vienna in 1991 with the primary objective of comparing models which can be used to assess the long term impact of radioactive releases from uranium mill tailings, involving multiple pathways, multiple contaminants and multiple environmental receptors. A secondary objective was to examine how these models can be used to assess the fate of stable toxic elements. This is an interim report of the Working Group describing: development of a basic scenario describing a tailings system; application of models in deterministic calculations of contaminant concentrations in biosphere media, and related radiation doses, contaminant intakes and health risks; comparison of model results and review of the modelling. A hypothetical scenario has been developed for contaminant releases from a uranium mill tailings facility. The assumptions for the tailings facility and its environs have been chosen to facilitate the evaluation of potentially important processes incorporated into models. The site description is therefore idealised and does not represent any particular facility or type of facility. Atmospheric and groundwater release source terms have been chosen to facilitate comparison of models and should not be considered realistic. The time and effort taken over derivation of the scenario description and the associated preliminary modelling has been an important and valuable learning exercise. It also reflects the importance of gaining a clear picture of what is being modelled so that comparisons of model results are meaningful. Work within the exercise has contributed to new model development and to improvements and extensions to existing models. The scenario is a simplified description of a real facility and the releases which might occur. No allowance has been made for engineered features on the tailings disposal system which might reduce releases. The source terms have been chosen so as to test the models

  2. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a hypothetical dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, H.

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Working Group of BIOMOVS II was initiated in Vienna in 1991 with the primary objective of comparing models which can be used to assess the long term impact of radioactive releases from uranium mill tailings, involving multiple pathways, multiple contaminants and multiple environmental receptors. A secondary objective was to examine how these models can be used to assess the fate of stable toxic elements. This is an interim report of the Working Group describing: development of a basic scenario describing a tailings system; application of models in deterministic calculations of contaminant concentrations in biosphere media, and related radiation doses, contaminant intakes and health risks; comparison of model results and review of the modelling. A hypothetical scenario has been developed for contaminant releases from a uranium mill tailings facility. The assumptions for the tailings facility and its environs have been chosen to facilitate the evaluation of potentially important processes incorporated into models. The site description is therefore idealised and does not represent any particular facility or type of facility. Atmospheric and groundwater release source terms have been chosen to facilitate comparison of models and should not be considered realistic. The time and effort taken over derivation of the scenario description and the associated preliminary modelling has been an important and valuable learning exercise. It also reflects the importance of gaining a clear picture of what is being modelled so that comparisons of model results are meaningful. Work within the exercise has contributed to new model development and to improvements and extensions to existing models. The scenario is a simplified description of a real facility and the releases which might occur. No allowance has been made for engineered features on the tailings disposal system which might reduce releases. The source terms have been chosen so as to test the models

  3. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognostication in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury: a vignette-based study of Canadian specialty physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emily; Rasmussen, Lisa Anne; Mazer, Barbara; Shevell, Michael; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne; Yager, Jerome Y; Majnemer, Annette; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chouinard, Isabelle; Racine, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could improve prognostication in neonatal brain injury; however, factors beyond technical or scientific refinement may impact its use and interpretation. We surveyed Canadian neonatologists and pediatric neurologists using general and vignette-based questions about the use of MRI for prognostication in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic injury. There was inter- and intra-vignette variability in prognosis and in ratings about the usefulness of MRI. Severity of predicted outcome correlated with certainty about the outcome. A majority of physicians endorsed using MRI results in discussing prognosis with families, and most suggested that MRI results contribute to end-of-life decisions. Participating neonatologists, when compared to participating pediatric neurologists, had significantly less confidence in the interpretation of MRI by colleagues in neurology and radiology. Further investigation is needed to understand the complexity of MRI and of its application. Potential gaps relative to our understanding of the ethical importance of these findings should be addressed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. How College Students' Conceptions of Newton's Second and Third Laws Change Through Watching Interactive Video Vignettes: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Jonathan

    Changing student conceptions in physics is a difficult process and has been a topic of research for many years. The purpose of this study was to understand what prompted students to change or not change their incorrect conceptions of Newtons Second or Third Laws in response to an intervention, Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs), designed to overcome them. This study is based on prior research reported in the literature which has found that a curricular framework of elicit, confront, resolve, and reflect (ECRR) is important for changing student conceptions (McDermott, 2001). This framework includes four essential parts such that during an instructional event student conceptions should be elicited, incorrect conceptions confronted, these conflicts resolved, and then students should be prompted to reflect on their learning. Twenty-two undergraduate student participants who completed either or both IVVs were studied to determine whether or not they experienced components of the ECRR framework at multiple points within the IVVs. A fully integrated, mixed methods design was used to address the study purpose. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected iteratively for each participant. Successive data collections were informed by previous data collections. All data were analyzed concurrently. The quantitative strand included a pre/post test that participants took before and after completing a given IVV and was used to measure the effect of each IVV on learning. The qualitative strand included video of each participant completing the IVV as well as an audio-recorded video elicitation interview after the post-test. The qualitative data collection was designed to describe student experiences with each IVV as well as to observe how the ECRR framework was experienced. Collecting and analyzing data using this mixed methods approach helped develop a more complete understanding of how student conceptions of Newtons Second and Third Laws changed through completion of

  6. Behavioral Economics of Cigarette Purchase Tasks: Within-Subject Comparison of Real, Potentially Real, and Hypothetical Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A George; Franck, Christopher T; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Bickel, Warren K

    2016-05-01

    Hypothetical rewards are commonly used in studies of laboratory-based tobacco demand. However, behavioral economic demand procedures require confirmation that the behavior elicited from real and hypothetical reward types are equivalent, and that results attained from these procedures are comparable to other accepted tasks, such as the hypothetical purchase task. Nineteen smokers were asked to purchase 1 week's worth of cigarettes that they would consume over the following week either at one price that incrementally increased across four weekly sessions ("real" sessions) or four prices in a single session ("potentially real" session), one of which was randomly chosen to be actualized. At each session, participants also completed a hypothetical cigarette purchase task. After each week, participants reported the number of cigarettes they actually smoked. Demand was found to be equivalent under both the real and potentially real reward conditions but statistically different from the demand captured in the hypothetical purchase task. However, the amounts purchased at specific prices in the hypothetical purchase task were significantly correlated with the amount purchased at comparable prices in the other two tasks (except for the highest price examined in both tasks of $1.00 per cigarette). Number of cigarettes consumed that were obtained outside of the study was correlated with study cigarette price. Combined, these results suggest that purchasing behavior during potentially real sessions (1) was not functionally different from real sessions, (2) imposes fewer costs to the experimenter, and (3) has high levels of both internal and external validity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. An Efficient Method to Design Premature End-of-Life Trajectories: A Hypothetical Alternate Fate for Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Mar; Senent, Juan

    2015-01-01

    What would happen if, hypothetically, the highly successful Cassini mission were to end prematurely due to lack of propellant or sudden subsystem failure? A solid plan to quickly produce a solution for any given scenario, regardless of where the spacecraft is along its reference path, must be in place to safely dispose of the spacecraft and meet all planetary protection requirements. As a contingency plan for this hypothetical situation, a method to design viable high-fidelity terminating trajectories based on a hybrid approach that exploits two-body and three-body flyby transfers combined with a numerical optimization scheme is detailed in this paper.

  8. Looking for a hypothetical jovian metabolisms to explain a paucity of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    One startling find from Juno's reconnaissance of Jupiter is a factor-of-two depletion from expected concentrations of NH3 in the 7-bar region of the atmosphere. Here, we investigate hypothetical NH3-consuming metabolisms of putative jovian life. Classically, astrobiologists state life's requirements as: liquid water, sources of CHNOPS, and the availability of free energy. On Jupiter, water clouds condense at a pressure of 7 bars—a region where the temperature is 300 K—providing droplets of liquid water. With its tight gravitational grip on hydrogen, Jupiter has bountiful reductants containing CHNOPS in the form of H2O, CH4, H2S, NH3, and PH3. However, the O-rich oxidants often considered for astrobiological systems on other worlds are largely absent. Instead, hypothetical metabolisms may rely on sulfur species as electron acceptors. Exposed to ultraviolet radiation, H2S will photolyze and react to form polysulfur (Sx, where x ≥ 8). Polysulfur may contribute to the coloration of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, particularly of the Great Red Spot. Polysulfur that rains down to the region of Jupiter's atmosphere where liquid water exists can provide significant redox disequilibrium from which free energy can be liberated. For instance, the reaction 16/3 NH3 + S8 ⟶ 8 H2S + 8/3 N2has a ΔG = -38.8 kJ per mol NH3 at 300 K and 7 bars. This reaction is promising in that: 1) it recycles S8 back to H2S, which can then be lofted to higher altitudes and create more S8; 2) it creates N2, which Juno cannot detect using its microwave radiometer. In order to be a plausible metabolism, we must show: 1) that this reaction is kinetically inhibited, i.e. that abiotic processes cannot easily resolve this disequilibrium; 2) that enough S8 is produced photochemically and is transported to the 7 bar region on short enough timescales to provide the requisite disequilibrium. Finally, copious lightning in the water cloud region—the flash rate has been estimated to be 30 flashes year-1

  9. Energy Extraction from a Hypothetical MHK Array in a Section of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, J.; James, S. C.; Roberts, J. D.; Jones, C. A.; Jepsen, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    The world is facing many challenges meeting the energy demands for the future. Growing populations and developing economies as well as increasing energy expenditures highlight the need for a spectrum of energy sources. Concerns about pollution and climate change have led to increased interest in all forms of renewable energy to stabilize or decrease consumption of fossil fuels. One promising renewable is marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, which has the potential to make important contributions to energy portfolios of the future. However, a primary question remains: How much energy can be extracted from MHK devices in rivers and oceans without significant environmental effects? This study focuses on the potential energy extraction from different hypothetical MHK array configurations in a section of the Mississippi River located near to Scotlandville Bend, Louisiana. Bathymetry data, obtained from Free Flow Power Corporation (FFP) via the US Army Corps bathymetry survey library, were interpolated onto a DELFT3D curvilinear, orthogonal grid of the system using ArcGIS 9.3.1. Boundary conditions are constrained by the upstream and downstream river flow rates and gage heights obtained from USGS website. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements obtained from FFP are used for pre-array model validation. Energy extraction is simulated using momentum sinks recently coded into SNL-EFDC, which is an augmented version of US EPA’s Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). SNL-EFDC model includes a new module which considers energy removal by MHK devices and commensurate changes to the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. As expected, average velocities decrease downstream of each MHK device due to energy extraction and blunt-body form drag from the MHK support structures. Changes in the flow field can alter sediment transport dynamics around and downstream of an MHK array; various hypothetical scenarios are examined. This

  10. The clinical benefit of blood transfusion: a hypothetical experiment based on a nationwide survey of severe maternal morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, J.; Zwart, J.J.; Briet, E.; Brand, A.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is beyond doubt that blood transfusion services have added to the decline in maternal mortality in high-resource countries. To quantify the clinical benefit of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in obstetric care, we performed a hypothetical experimental study using data from a

  11. Research Ethics in Emerging Forms of Online Learning: Issues Arising from a Hypothetical Study on a MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how research ethics is evolving along with emerging online research methods and settings. In particular, it focuses on ethics issues implied in a hypothetical virtual ethnography study aiming to gain insights on participants' experience in an emergent context of networked learning, namely a MOOC--Massive Online Open…

  12. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punkkinen, Henna; Merta, Elina; Teerioja, Nea; Moliis, Katja; Kuvaja, Eveliina

    2012-10-01

    Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO(2) and NO(x). The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  14. Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse in a Hypothetical Cybersexploitation Case: The Importance of Perpetrator Honesty, Outcome Type, and Respondent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Rogers, Paul; Hood, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of child sexual abuse in a hypothetical cybersexploitation case. Men were predicted to be more negative toward the victim than were women. Victims were predicted to be more negatively judged when they consented to sex than when they did not and when they were lied to than when they were not. Two hundred and…

  15. Issues in clustered nuclear siting: a comparison of a hypothetical nuclear energy center in New Jersey with dispersed nuclear siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.M.; Morell, D.

    1976-09-01

    The report is an analysis of a hypothetical nuclear energy center (NEC) conducted in support of the recently completed study by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, mandated by the Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. The intent of the analysis of the hypothetical, or ''surrogate'', site was to inject a local and regional perspective into the assessment of technical, environmental, institutional, and socioeconomic issues which could be adequately addressed only by reference to a specific site. The hypothetical NEC site in Ocean County, New Jersey, was chosen to illustrate the problems and impacts of potential energy centers in coastal and near-coastal sites in relatively close proximity to large metropolitan areas. Earlier studies of hypothetical energy centers on the Mississippi River at River Bend, La., and on the Columbia River near Hanford, Washington, were also re-examined for their relevance to this new study effort. Neither Ocean County, nor any of the other surrogate sites, have been considered for actual construction of an NEC, nor does their selection for study purposes imply any judgement of desirability. Indeed, the major finding of the report presented is that Ocean County is a relatively poor location for an energy center, and this may well be true of many coastal locations similar to the Jersey shore. The objective in selecting surrogate sites, then, was not to find the best locations, but to select sites that would illustrate the broadest range of potential public policy and siting issues

  16. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2010-06-01

    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  17. Tsunami Simulations in the Western Makran Using Hypothetical Heterogeneous Source Models from World's Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Amin; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Keshavarz Farajkhah, Nasser

    2018-03-01

    The western segment of Makran subduction zone is characterized with almost no major seismicity and no large earthquake for several centuries. A possible episode for this behavior is that this segment is currently locked accumulating energy to generate possible great future earthquakes. Taking into account this assumption, a hypothetical rupture area is considered in the western Makran to set different tsunamigenic scenarios. Slip distribution models of four recent tsunamigenic earthquakes, i.e. 2015 Chile M w 8.3, 2011 Tohoku-Oki M w 9.0 (using two different scenarios) and 2006 Kuril Islands M w 8.3, are scaled into the rupture area in the western Makran zone. The numerical modeling is performed to evaluate near-field and far-field tsunami hazards. Heterogeneity in slip distribution results in higher tsunami amplitudes. However, its effect reduces from local tsunamis to regional and distant tsunamis. Among all considered scenarios for the western Makran, only a similar tsunamigenic earthquake to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki event can re-produce a significant far-field tsunami and is considered as the worst case scenario. The potential of a tsunamigenic source is dominated by the degree of slip heterogeneity and the location of greatest slip on the rupture area. For the scenarios with similar slip patterns, the mean slip controls their relative power. Our conclusions also indicate that along the entire Makran coasts, the southeastern coast of Iran is the most vulnerable area subjected to tsunami hazard.

  18. Identification of functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a globally occurring venereal disease, and its infection is propagated through sexual contact. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, a Gram-negative sphirochaete, is an obligate human parasite. Genome of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum SS14 strain (RefSeq NC_010741.1) encodes 1,027 proteins, of which 444 proteins are known as hypothetical proteins (HPs), i.e., proteins of unknown functions. Here, we performed functional annotation of HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum using various database, domain architecture predictors, protein function annotators and clustering tools. We have analyzed the sequences of 444 HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum and subsequently predicted the function of 207 HPs with a high level of confidence. However, functions of 237 HPs are predicted with less accuracy. We found various enzymes, transporters, binding proteins in the annotated group of HPs that may be possible molecular targets, facilitating for the survival of pathogen. Our comprehensive analysis helps to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis to provide many novel potential therapeutic interventions.

  19. Safety Assessment of a Hypothetical Near Surface Disposal at PPTN Serpong Site: Near-Field Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Erwansyah

    2000-01-01

    The near field modeling of a hypothetical surface disposal at Serpong site has been performed. Considering a realistic downward water flux of 10 -1 0 m/s through the conditioned waste zone and the concrete barriers, transport of radionuclide by advection and dispersion below the bottom of the repository was calculated using PORFLOW computer code. The result shows that the highest fluxes were observed H-3, Cs-135, Nb-94 and Ni-59, all about 10 4 Bq/a/m 2 . Intermediate fluxes were obtained for Cs-137, I-129 and Co-60. Lowest were due to Ni-63 and C-14. The effect on radionuclide fluxes by having an unsaturated soil of 1.0-m depth below the bottom of the repository also was investigated. The results indicate that the highest fluxes are due to Cs-135, Nb-94 and Ni- 59, approximately 10 4 Bq/a/m 2 . The fluxes owing to H-3 has decreased to 10 -9 Bq/a/m 2 owing to decay. Radionuclides that are not absorbed onto lateritic clay soil, C-14 and I-129 are not decreased in flux. All other radionuclides has significantly smaller fluxes compared to the ones calculated at the bottom of the repository. This indicates that the lateric clay soil at Serpong site plays an important role in retarding and dispersing the radionuclide migration towards the ground water. (author)

  20. Public acceptance of a hypothetical Ebola virus vaccine in Aceh, Indonesia: A hospital-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harapan Harapan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the acceptance towards a hypothetical Ebola virus vaccine (EVV and associated factors in a non-affected country, Indonesia. Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in four regencies of Aceh, Indonesia. A set of pre-tested questionnaires was used to obtain information on acceptance towards EVV and a range of explanatory variables. Associations between EVV acceptance and explanatory variables were tested using multi-steps logistic regression analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation. Results: Participants who had knowledge on Ebola virus disease (EVD were 45.3% (192/424 and none of the participants achieved 80% correct answers on the knowledge regarding to EVD. About 73% of participants expressed their willingness to receive the EVV. Education attainment, occupation, monthly income, have heard regarding to EVD previously, socioeconomic level, attitude towards vaccination practice and knowledge regarding to EVD were associated significantly with acceptance towards EVV in univariate analysis (P < 0.05. In the final multivariate model, socio-economic level, attitude towards vaccination practice and knowledge regarding to EVD were the independent explanatory variables for EVV acceptance. Conclusions: The knowledge of EVD was low, but this minimally affected the acceptance towards EVV. However, to facilitate optimal uptake of EVV, dissemination of vaccine-related information prior to its introduction is required.

  1. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of two hypothetical ribose-5-phosphate isomerases from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chen; Fan, Xuexin; Cao, Xiaofang; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lanfen; Su, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Two hypothetical ribose-5-phosphate isomerases from S. mutans have been produced in E. coli and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to high resolutions suitable for crystallographic analyses. Study of the enzymes from sugar metabolic pathways may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the human oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Bioinformatics, biochemical and crystallization methods were used to characterize and understand the function of two putative ribose-5-phosphate isomerases: SMU1234 and SMU2142. The proteins were cloned and constructed with N-terminal His tags. Protein purification was performed by Ni 2+ -chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. The crystals of SUM1234 diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 48.97, b = 98.27, c = 101.09 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The optimized SMU2142 crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.7, b = 54.1, c = 86.5 Å, α = 74.2, β = 73.5, γ = 83.7°. Initial phasing of both proteins was attempted by molecular replacement; the structure of SMU1234 could easily be solved, but no useful results were obtained for SMU2142. Therefore, SeMet-labelled SMU2142 will be prepared for phasing

  2. Testing the feasibility of a hypothetical whaling-conservation permit market in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Abbott, Joshua K; Fenichel, Eli P; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Perrings, Charles; Gerber, Leah R

    2017-08-01

    A cap-and-trade system for managing whale harvests represents a potentially useful approach to resolve the current gridlock in international whale management. The establishment of whale permit markets, open to both whalers and conservationists, could reveal the strength of conservation demand, about which little is known. This lack of knowledge makes it difficult to predict the outcome of a hypothetical whale permit market. We developed a bioeconomic model to evaluate the influence of economic uncertainty about demand for whale conservation or harvest. We used simulations over a wide range of parameterizations of whaling and conservation demands to examine the potential ecological consequences of the establishment of a whale permit market in Norwegian waters under bounded (but substantial) economic uncertainty. Uncertainty variables were slope of whaling and conservation demand, participation level of conservationists and their willingness to pay for whale conservation, and functional forms of demand, including linear, quadratic, and log-linear forms. A whale-conservation market had the potential to yield a wide range of conservation and harvest outcomes, the most likely outcomes were those in which conservationists bought all whale permits. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Study on recriticality of fuel debris during hypothetical severe accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Shin, S.T.

    1995-09-01

    A study has been performed to measure the potential of recriticality during hypothetical severe accident in Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). For the lumped debris configuration in the Reactor Coolant System (RCS), as found in the previous study, recriticality potential may be very low. However, if fuel debris is dispersed and mixed with heavy water in RCS, recriticality potential has been predicted to be substantial depending on thermal-hydraulic conditions surrounding fuel debris mixture. The recriticality potential in RCS is substantially reduced for the three element core design with 50% enrichment. Also, as observed in the previous study, strong dependencies of k eff on key thermal hydraulic parameters are shown. Light water contamination is shown to provide a positive reactivity, and void formation due to boiling of mixed water provides enough negative reactivity and to bring the system down to subcritical. For criticality potential in the subpile room, the lumped debris configuration does not pose a concern. Dispersed configuration in light water pool of the subpile room is also unlikely to result in criticality. However, if the debris is dispersed in the pool that is mixed with heavy water, the results indicate that a substantial potential exists for the debris to reach the criticality. However, if prompt recriticality disperses the debris completely in the subpile room pool, subsequent recriticality may be prevented since neutron leakage effects become large enough

  4. Hypothetical Reentry Thermostructural Performance of Space Shuttle Orbiter With Missing or Eroded Thermal Protection Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Gong, Leslie; Quinn, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This report deals with hypothetical reentry thermostructural performance of the Space Shuttle orbiter with missing or eroded thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. The original STS-5 heating (normal transition at 1100 sec) and the modified STS-5 heating (premature transition at 800 sec) were used as reentry heat inputs. The TPS missing or eroded site is assumed to be located at the center or corner (spar-rib juncture) of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. For cases of missing TPS tiles, under the original STS-5 heating, the orbiter can afford to lose only one TPS tile at the center or two TPS tiles at the corner (spar-rib juncture) of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. Under modified STS-5 heating, the orbiter cannot afford to lose even one TPS tile at the center or at the corner of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. For cases of eroded TPS tiles, the aluminum skin temperature rises relatively slowly with the decreasing thickness of the eroded central or corner TPS tile until most of the TPS tile is eroded away, and then increases exponentially toward the missing tile case.

  5. The Presence of Real Food Usurps Hypothetical Health Value Judgment in Overweight People123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Davies, Kirsty M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To develop more ecologically valid models of the neurobiology of obesity, it is critical to determine how the neural processes involved in food-related decision-making translate into real-world eating behaviors. We examined the relationship between goal-directed valuations of food images in the MRI scanner and food consumption at a subsequent ad libitum buffet meal. We observed that 23 lean and 40 overweight human participants showed similar patterns of value-based neural responses to health and taste attributes of foods. In both groups, these value-based responses in the ventromedial PFC were predictive of subsequent consumption at the buffet. However, overweight participants consumed a greater proportion of unhealthy foods. This was not predicted by in-scanner choices or neural response. Moreover, in overweight participants alone, impulsivity scores predicted greater consumption of unhealthy foods. Overall, our findings suggest that, while the hypothetical valuation of the health of foods is predictive of eating behavior in both lean and overweight people, it is only the real-world food choices that clearly distinguish them. PMID:27280152

  6. Point-of-views representation for hypothetical reasoning: application to decision-aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Antoine

    1992-01-01

    Most of the knowledge based Decision Support Systems must deal with two difficulties in problem solving representation: reasoning with incomplete knowledge and managing contradictory reasoning. We propose a method which answers the question of reasoning revision when a contradiction occurs, while preserving the functionalities of the De Kleer's ATMS System for simulating hypothetical reasoning. As a matter of fact, these functionalities are particularly suitable for decision aiding problems. In order to formalize the ATMS, we use a resolution method called Cat-resolution (Cayrol and Tayrac). This method allows the computation of ATMS functions relating to a set of propositional clauses by saturating this set. Owing to this choice, we can use the same principles as ATMS on the saturation trace. Each clause in the saturated set can be linked to the sets of initial clauses justifying its derivation by Cat-resolution. The reasoning inconsistency is now managed. First the user can identify the source of the inconsistency thanks to the empty clause explanation. Then he can try to restore the reasoning consistency by relaxing at least one of the initial clauses justifying the empty clause. The computation of 'partial' ATMS, representing a point of view in the decision-making problem, is more effective owing to the justifications of the derived clauses. (author) [fr

  7. Environmental release of carbon-14 gas from a hypothetical nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, M.A.; Merrell, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotopes may form gases in a spent nuclear fuel waste package due to elevated temperatures or degradation of the fuel rods. Radioactive carbon-14, as gaseous carbon dioxide, is one of the gaseous radioisotopes of concern at an underground disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Carbon-14 dioxide may accumulate inside an intact waste container. Upon breach of the container, a potentially large pulse of carbon-14 dioxide gas may be released to the surrounding environment, followed by a lower, long-term continuous release. If the waste were disposed of in an unsaturated geologic environment, the carbon-14 gas would begin to move through the unsaturated zone to the accessible environment. This study investigates the transport of radioactive carbon-14 gas in geologic porous media using a one-dimensional analytical solution. Spent nuclear fuel emplaced in a deep geologic repository located at a generic unsaturated tuff site is analyzed. The source term for the carbon-14 gas and geologic parameters was obtained from previously published materials. The one-dimensional analytical solution includes diffusion, advection, radionuclide retardation, and radioactive decay terms. Two hypothetical sites are analyzed. One is dominated by advective transport, and the other is dominated by diffusive transport. The dominant transport mechanism at an actual site depends on the site characteristics. Results from the simulations include carbon-14 dioxide travel times to the accessible environment and the total release to the environment over a 10,000-year period. The results are compared to regulatory criteria

  8. Bioinformatics and structural characterization of a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans: implication of antibiotic resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Nan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As an oral bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus mutans has been known as the aetiologic agent of human dental caries. Among a total of 1960 identified proteins within the genome of this organism, there are about 500 without any known functions. One of these proteins, SMU.440, has very few homologs in the current protein databases and it does not fall into any protein functional families. Phylogenetic studies showed that SMU.440 is related to a particular ecological niche and conserved specifically in some oral pathogens, due to lateral gene transfer. The co-occurrence of a MarR protein within the same operon among these oral pathogens suggests that SMU.440 may be associated with antibiotic resistance. The structure determination of SMU.440 revealed that it shares the same fold and a similar pocket as polyketide cyclases, which indicated that it is very likely to bind some polyketide-like molecules. From the interlinking structural and bioinformatics studies, we have concluded that SMU.440 could be involved in polyketide-like antibiotic resistance, providing a better understanding of this hypothetical protein. Besides, the combination of multiple methods in this study can be used as a general approach for functional studies of a protein with unknown function.

  9. How Long-Lived Are the Hypothetical Trojan Populations of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, D.; Dones, L.

    2002-12-01

    We investigate the possibility that fractions of the primordial populations at the triangular Lagrangian points of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have survived to the present and form (as yet unobserved) clusters of bodies coorbiting with these planets. Such leftovers would be analogs of the numerous objects (Trojans) leading and trailing the revolutions of Jupiter around the Sun. We focus on the dynamical stability of such populations over the age of the Solar System, assuming the current configuration of planets, and also discuss effects of the early radial migration of the outer planets. Our results suggest that, while Saturn's and Uranus' primordial Trojan populations should have been depleted by a factor of 100, Neptune may retain 50% of its original population of Trojans. A population of neptunian Trojans comparable to, or even larger than, Jupiter's Trojan population cannot be ruled out by existing observations. We compute the present-day sky densities of the hypothetical Trojans of the outer planets which can be used to guide observational surveys. Finally, we propose that the long-term instabilities that cause some jovian Trojans to escape the region of the Lagrange points at the present are due to three-body resonances.

  10. The labelling and reporting of euthanasia by Belgian physicians: a study of hypothetical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Tinne; Cohen, Joachim; Bilsen, Johan; Van Wesemael, Yanna; Rurup, Mette L; Deliens, Luc

    2012-02-01

    Belgium legalized euthanasia in 2002. Physicians must report each euthanasia case to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee. This study examines which end-of-life decisions (ELDs) Belgian physicians label 'euthanasia', which ELDs they think should be reported and the physician characteristics associated with correct labelling of euthanasia cases, the awareness that they should be reported and the reporting of them. Five hypothetical cases of ELDs: intensified pain alleviation, palliative/terminal sedation, euthanasia with neuromuscular relaxants, euthanasia with morphine and life-ending without patient request were presented in a cross-sectional survey of 914 physicians in Belgium in 2009. About 19% of physicians did not label a euthanasia case with neuromuscular relaxants 'euthanasia', 27% did not know that it should be reported. Most physicians labelled a euthanasia case with morphine 'intensification of pain and symptom treatment' (39%) or 'palliative/terminal sedation' (37%); 21% of physicians labelled this case 'euthanasia'. Cases describing other ELDs were sometimes also labelled 'euthanasia'. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of labelling a euthanasia case correctly were: living in Flanders, being informed about the euthanasia law and having a positive attitude towards societal control over euthanasia. Whether a physician correctly labelled the euthanasia cases strongly determined their reporting knowledge and intentions. There is no consensus among physicians about the labelling of euthanasia and other ELDs, and about which cases must be reported. Mislabelling of ELDs could impede societal control over euthanasia. The provision of better information to physicians appears to be necessary.

  11. An Application of Graphical Approach to Construct Multiple Testing Procedure in a Hypothetical Phase III Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naitee eTing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many multiple testing procedures (MTP have been developed in recent years. Among these new procedures, the graphical approach is flexible and easy to communicate with non-statisticians. A hypothetical Phase III clinical trial design is introduced in this manuscript to demonstrate how graphical approach can be applied in clinical product development. In this design, an active comparator is used. It is thought that this test drug under development could potentially be superior to this comparator. For comparison of efficacy, the primary endpoint is well established and widely accepted by regulatory agencies. However, an important secondary endpoint based on Phase II findings looks very promising. The target dose may have a good opportunity to deliver superiority to the comparator. Furthermore, a lower dose is included in case the target dose may demonstrate potential safety concerns. This Phase III study is designed as a non-inferiority trial with two doses, and two endpoints. This manuscript will illustrate how graphical approach is applied to this design in handling multiple testing issues.

  12. Planning guidance for emergency response to a hypothetical nuclear attack on Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubayr, Nasser Ali M.

    The threat of nuclear attack will remain imminent in an ever-advancing society. Saudi Arabia is not immune to this threat. This dissertation establishes planning guidance for response to a nuclear attack on Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, based on a hypothetical scenario of a nuclear detonation. A case scenario of a one-megaton thermonuclear bomb detonated at ground level over Riyadh is used to support the thesis. Previous nuclear tests and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings have been used to present possible effects on Riyadh. US planning guidance and lessons learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear plants accidents have been used to develop the emergency response guidance. The planning guidance outlines a rapid response to the nuclear detonation. Four damage zones have been identified; severe damage zone, moderate damage zone, light damage zone and dangerous fallout zone. Actions that are recommended, and those that should be avoided, have been determined for each zone. Shelter/ evacuation evaluation for blast-affected and fallout-affected areas is the basis for the recommendation that shelter in place is the best decision for the first hours to days after the attack. Guidelines for medical care response and population monitoring and decontamination are included to reduce the early and long-term effects of the attack. Recommendations to the Saudi Arabian authorities have been made to facilitate suitable preparedness and response for such an event.

  13. Sequence Analysis of Hypothetical Proteins from 26695 to Identify Potential Virulence Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abu Turab Naqvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria that is responsible for gastritis in human. Its spiral flagellated body helps in locomotion and colonization in the host environment. It is capable of living in the highly acidic environment of the stomach with the help of acid adaptive genes. The genome of H. pylori 26695 strain contains 1,555 coding genes that encode 1,445 proteins. Out of these, 340 proteins are characterized as hypothetical proteins (HP. This study involves extensive analysis of the HPs using an established pipeline which comprises various bioinformatics tools and databases to find out probable functions of the HPs and identification of virulence factors. After extensive analysis of all the 340 HPs, we found that 104 HPs are showing characteristic similarities with the proteins with known functions. Thus, on the basis of such similarities, we assigned probable functions to 104 HPs with high confidence and precision. All the predicted HPs contain representative members of diverse functional classes of proteins such as enzymes, transporters, binding proteins, regulatory proteins, proteins involved in cellular processes and other proteins with miscellaneous functions. Therefore, we classified 104 HPs into aforementioned functional groups. During the virulence factors analysis of the HPs, we found 11 HPs are showing significant virulence. The identification of virulence proteins with the help their predicted functions may pave the way for drug target estimation and development of effective drug to counter the activity of that protein.

  14. Radioactive particulate release associated with the DOT specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Raney, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    A testing program was conducted to determine the leakage of depleted uranium dioxide powder (DUO) from the inner containment components of the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions. Depleted uranium dioxide was selected as a surrogate for plutonium oxide because of the similarities in the powder characteristics, density and particle size, and because of the special handling and special facilities required for plutonium oxide. The DUO was packaged inside food pack cans in three different configurations inside the 2R vessel of the 6M container. The amount of DUO powder leakage ranged from none detectable ( -7 g) to a high of 1 x 10 -3 g. The combination of gravity, vibration and pressure produced the highest leakage of DUO. Containers that had hermetic seals (leak rates -4 atm cc/min) did not leak any detectable amount ( -7 g) of DUO under the test conditions. Impact forces had no effect on the leakage of particles with the packaging configurations used. 23 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Acceptability of a hypothetical group B strep vaccine among pregnant and recently delivered women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Donnelly, Meghan; Brewer, Sarah; Barnard, Juliana; Beaty, Brenda L; Mazzoni, Sara; O'Leary, Sean T

    2014-05-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes significant infant morbidity and mortality. Promising GBS vaccines are currently in clinical trials. Because GBS vaccines would be the first to specifically target pregnant women, we sought to assess acceptability of a hypothetical GBS vaccine. We performed an internet survey among currently pregnant or recently delivered women receiving care at one of 9Ob/Gyn practices in Colorado. Vaccine acceptability was assessed using questions based on constructs from the Health Belief Model. Multivariable analyses assessed the characteristics associated with GBS vaccine acceptability during the current/recent pregnancy. The response rate was 50% (n=231). While 78% agreed that a GBS vaccine would be a good way to protect newborns, 90% and 83% agreed, respectively, that they worried generally about the safety and effectiveness of new vaccines. Moreover, 39% believed it is generally dangerous for pregnant women to get vaccines. Seventy nine percent 'definitely' or 'probably' would have gotten a GBS vaccine in their most recent pregnancy if available. The most influential factors associated with this outcome were a strong belief in the vaccine's benefits (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 6.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.01-20.16), and low perceived barriers to vaccination (AOR 0.11, 95% CI (0.03-0.37)). A GBS vaccine may be acceptable to pregnant women but would benefit from strong provider support and education about the risks and consequences of GBS infection and the benefits to vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Presence of Real Food Usurps Hypothetical Health Value Judgment in Overweight People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Nenad; Ziauddeen, Hisham; Forwood, Suzanna E; Davies, Kirsty M; Ahern, Amy L; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M; Fletcher, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    To develop more ecologically valid models of the neurobiology of obesity, it is critical to determine how the neural processes involved in food-related decision-making translate into real-world eating behaviors. We examined the relationship between goal-directed valuations of food images in the MRI scanner and food consumption at a subsequent ad libitum buffet meal. We observed that 23 lean and 40 overweight human participants showed similar patterns of value-based neural responses to health and taste attributes of foods. In both groups, these value-based responses in the ventromedial PFC were predictive of subsequent consumption at the buffet. However, overweight participants consumed a greater proportion of unhealthy foods. This was not predicted by in-scanner choices or neural response. Moreover, in overweight participants alone, impulsivity scores predicted greater consumption of unhealthy foods. Overall, our findings suggest that, while the hypothetical valuation of the health of foods is predictive of eating behavior in both lean and overweight people, it is only the real-world food choices that clearly distinguish them.

  17. Summary of four release consequence analyses for hypothetical nuclear waste repositories in salt and granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-12-01

    Release consequence methology developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) program has now been applied to four hypothetical repository sites. This paper summarizes the results of these four studies in order to demonstrate that the far-field methodology developed under the AEGIS program offers a practical approach to the post-closure safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories sited in deep continental geologic formations. The four studies are briefly described and compared according to the following general categories: physical description of the repository (size, inventory, emplacement depth); geologic and hydrologic description of the site and the conceptual hydrologic model for the site; description of release scenario; hydrologic model implementation and results; engineered barriers and leach rate modeling; transport model implementation and results; and dose model implementation and results. These studies indicate the following: numerical modeling is a practical approach to post-closure safety assessment analysis for nuclear waste repositories; near-field modeling capability needs improvement to permit assessment of the consequences of human intrusion and pumping well scenarios; engineered barrier systems can be useful in mitigating consequences for postulated release scenarios that short-circuit the geohydrologic system; geohydrologic systems separating a repository from the natural biosphere discharge sites act to mitigate the consequences of postulated breaches in containment; and engineered barriers of types other than the containment or absorptive type may be useful.

  18. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  19. Development of Inundation Map for Hypothetical Asa Dam Break using HEC-RAS and ARC GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Balogun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Asa Dam in Ilorin, Nigeria was constructed in the1980s. The dam made of earth material has a length of 507 meters and height of 27 meters. The maximum capacity of the impoundment during the raining season is approximately 43 x 106 m3. Years after construction, tremendous physical development is taking place along the river channel starting from the dam axis towards downstream for a distance of approximately 12 km. It is estimated that several thousands of people are currently living and performing various activities within the vicinity of the river channel. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the risk involved in case of a possible dam break disaster. In view of this, a hypothetical dam break scenario was studied and analyzed using Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System computer model. Unsteady flow simulation was performed using geometric data obtained from Digital Terrain Model with 100-year, 24 hr flow event. The HEC-RAS was used in concert with HEC-GeoRAS to assess the flood hazard along the approximately 12 km river channel. The simulated water surface elevations were exported to Arc GIS to produce an inundation map that graphically indicates the extent of the flood hazard. The results show that some important locations such as industrial, residential, motor parks, recreational and places of worship along the river length are prone to significant flood impact. This map serves as an input for emergency preparation programme in the event of the dam break.

  20. Problems identified in gaining non-expert consensus for a hypothetical Wound Assessment Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Miles E

    2003-11-01

    A post-hoc analysis was carried out of a session on a wound management diploma level module that was intended to promote understanding of the complexity of wound assessment. Postregistration student nurses (n = 16) from both hospital and community settings participated in brainstorming of categories (i.e. verbatim expression) they thought should be included in a hypothetical Wound Assessment Form (WAF). Ranking of suggested categories indicated in terms of 'votes' that the most important was 'date', and the least was 'factors affecting healing'. Some categories were rejected (e.g. exudate). Category definitions and rationale were checked after 3 weeks, and compared with those of lecturers in adult nursing (n = 16) to test whether similar themes emerged amongst other non-experts. Postregistration nurses and lecturers gave similar definitions and rationale for categories. A limitation of the study was that it was opportunistic and methodology for researching consensus issues had not been investigated. Views represent nurses in a wide spread of disciplines and have to date only been compared with expert consensus derived from published literature. Themes to emerge were: the importance of WAFs to record-keeping, different understanding of terminology and the monitoring of progress and use of intuition. It was concluded that the purpose of WAFs needs clarification and research should investigate how change in wounds could take account of differences of personal perception. A new method of charting progress or deterioration is being developed.

  1. Safety assessment of the Indonesian multipurpose reactor RSG-GAS against ATWS and hypothetical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastowo, H.; Nabbi, R.; Prayoto; Ismuntoyo, R.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation on ATWS and hypothetical accidents for the Indonesian Multipurpose Reactor RSG-GAS have been undertaken by computer simulation technique. Two computer codes, namely RELAP5 and PARET-ANL, were used as the main tools. The RELAP5 was utilized to perform system analysis while the PARET-ANL code was used to perform the reactor core analysis in more detail. Two different models have been applied as a basis of the simulation: Typical Working Core model (IWC-model) consisting of four regions with different radial power factors; and the hot-channel model consisting of two regions with different radial power factors. Both RELAP5 ad PARET-ANL results showed that in the occurrence of ATWS, failure on fuel element or fuel plate was limited to the region with the most highest power factor. The results also indicated that no high pressure development occurs in that region, so that mechanical damage on the fuel element or other core components due to pressure shock did not happen.(author)

  2. Estimation of environmental flow incorporating water quality and hypothetical climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Bendangtola; Chaudhary, Shushobhit; Dhanya, C T; Kumar, Arun

    2017-05-01

    Environmental flows (Eflow, hereafter) are the flows to be maintained in the river for its healthy functioning and the sustenance and protection of aquatic ecosystems. Estimation of Eflow in any river stretch demands consideration of various factors such as flow regime, ecosystem, and health of river. However, most of the Eflow estimation studies have neglected the water quality factor. This study urges the need to consider water quality criterion in the estimation of Eflow and proposes a framework for estimating Eflow incorporating water quality variations under present and hypothetical future scenarios of climate change and pollution load. The proposed framework is applied on the polluted stretch of Yamuna River passing through Delhi, India. Required Eflow at various locations along the stretch are determined by considering possible variations in future water quantity and quality. Eflow values satisfying minimum quality requirements for different river water usage classes (classes A, B, C, and D as specified by the Central Pollution Control Board, India) are found to be between 700 and 800 m 3 /s. The estimated Eflow values may aid policymakers to derive upstream storage-release policies or effluent restrictions. Generalized nature of this framework will help its implementation on any river systems.

  3. Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

    1998-03-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask's top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer's testing of the foam and to determine the foam's stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask

  4. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  5. Why not “just for the money”? An experimental vignette study of the cognitive price effects and crowding effects of performance-related pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Jensen, Lars Engelbrecht

    2017-01-01

    Motivation crowding theory (MCT) argues that performance-related pay (PRP) can crowd out intrinsic motivation with detrimental consequences for the employees’ willingness to exert effort, but this mechanism is only expected, when PRP is perceived to be controlling. However, no studies have tested...... whether the mechanism is motivational as expected. This study finds support for these expectations using a vignette survey experimental setup of 1,152 responses (from 384 respondents). The results indicate that PRP positively affects organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), but that this effect...... is reduced significantly, when PRP is perceived as a control factor, because the importance of intrinsic motivation for effort is weakened. Thus, PRP can cause a cognitive shift from intrinsic to extrinsic orientation, but only if PRP is perceived as controlling. When PRP is perceived as non...

  6. "Una mujer trabaja doble aqui": Vignette-based focus groups on stress and work for Latina blue-collar women in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Michele M; Linnan, Laura A; Bentley, Margaret E; DeVellis, Brenda M; Meier, Andrea; Frasier, Pamela Y; Kelsey, Kristine S; Campbell, Marci K

    2007-01-01

    Latina women are a growing percentage of the working population, and very little is known about their health needs and interests. The purpose of this article is to share qualitative research results gathered from Latina women with a particular focus on exploring stress and health. This project was a substudy of Health Works in the Community, a 5-year CDC-funded multiple risk-factor reduction trial using participatory action research approaches to address smoking, healthy eating, stress, and physical activity among blue-collar women from 12 manufacturing work sites in rural, eastern North Carolina. Five focus groups were conducted with trained, bilingual facilitators using a vignette-based moderator guide that appeared particularly effective with this population. Results from the focus groups are used to make recommendations for future research with Latinas and for developing effective work-site-based interventions to address issues of stress and health within this population.

  7. Sarah's birth. How the medicalisation of childbirth may be shaped in different settings: Vignette from a study of routine intervention in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scamell, Mandie; Altaweli, Roa; McCourt, Christine

    2017-02-01

    The expansion of the medicalisation of childbirth has been described in the literature as being a global phenomenon. The vignette described in this paper, selected from an ethnographic study of routine intervention in Saudi Arabian hospitals illustrates how the worldwide spread of the bio-medical model does not take place within a cultural vacuum. To illuminate the ways in which the medicalisation of birth may be understood and practised in different cultural settings, through a vignette of a specific birth, drawn as a typical case from an ethnographic study that investigated clinical decision-making in the second stage of labour in Saudi Arabia. Ethnographic data collection methods, including participant observation and interviews. The data presented in this paper are drawn from ethnographic field notes collected during field work in Saudi Arabia, and informed by analysis of a wider set of field notes and interviews with professionals working in this context. While the medicalisation of care is a universal phenomenon, the ways in which the care of women is managed using routine medical intervention are framed by the local cultural context in which these practices take place. The ethnographic data presented in this paper shows the medicalisation of birth thesis to be incomplete. The evidence presented in this paper illustrates how local belief systems are not so much subsumed by the expansion of the bio-medical model of childbirth, rather they may actively facilitate a process of localised reinterpretation of such universalised and standardised practices. In this case, aspects of the social and cultural context of Jeddah operates to intensify the biomedical model at the expense of respectful maternity care. In this article, field note data on the birth of one Saudi Arabian woman is used as an illustration of how the medicalisation of childbirth has been appropriated and reinterpreted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives

  8. Industrial CO2 emissions in China based on the hypothetical extraction method: Linkage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Wenqin; Mao, Guozhu; Cai, Hua; Zuo, Jian; Wang, Lili; Zhao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuel-related CO 2 emissions are regarded as the primary sources of global climate change. Unlike direct CO 2 emissions for each sector, CO 2 emissions associated with complex linkages among sectors are usually ignored. We integrated the input–output analysis with the hypothetical extraction method to uncover the in-depth characteristics of the inter-sectoral linkages of CO 2 emissions. Based on China's 2007 data, this paper compared the output and demand emissions of CO 2 among eight blocks. The difference between the demand and output emissions of a block indicates that CO 2 is transferred from one block to another. Among the sectors analyzed in this study, the Energy industry block has the greatest CO 2 emissions with the Technology industry, Construction and Service blocks as its emission's primary destinations. Low-carbon industries that have lower direct CO 2 emissions are deeply anchored to high-carbon ones. If no effective measures are taken to limit final demand emissions or adjust energy structure, shifting to an economy that is low-carbon industries oriented would entail a decrease in CO 2 emission intensity per unit GDP but an increase in overall CO 2 emissions in absolute terms. The results are discussed in the context of climate-change policy. - Highlights: • Quantitatively analyze the characteristics of inter-industrial CO 2 emission linkages. • Propose the linkage measuring method of CO 2 emissions based on the modified HEM. • Detect the energy industry is a key sector on the output of embodied carbon. • Conclude that low-carbon industries are deeply anchored to high-carbon industries

  9. A hypothetical model for predicting the toxicity of high aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, C. L.; Tantra, R.; Donaldson, K.; Stone, V.; Hankin, S. M.; Ross, B.; Aitken, R. J.; Jones, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to predict nanoparticle (dimensional structures which are less than 100 nm in size) toxicity through the use of a suitable model is an important goal if nanoparticles are to be regulated in terms of exposures and toxicological effects. Recently, a model to predict toxicity of nanoparticles with high aspect ratio has been put forward by a consortium of scientists. The High aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN) model is a platform that relates the physical dimensions of HARN (specifically length and diameter ratio) and biopersistence to their toxicity in biological environments. Potentially, this model is of great public health and economic importance, as it can be used as a tool to not only predict toxicological activity but can be used to classify the toxicity of various fibrous nanoparticles, without the need to carry out time-consuming and expensive toxicology studies. However, this model of toxicity is currently hypothetical in nature and is based solely on drawing similarities in its dimensional geometry with that of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibres. The aim of this review is two-fold: (a) to present findings from past literature, on the physicochemical property and pathogenicity bioassay testing of HARN (b) to identify some of the challenges and future research steps crucial before the HARN model can be accepted as a predictive model. By presenting what has been done, we are able to identify scientific challenges and research directions that are needed for the HARN model to gain public acceptance. Our recommendations for future research includes the need to: (a) accurately link physicochemical data with corresponding pathogenicity assay data, through the use of suitable reference standards and standardised protocols, (b) develop better tools/techniques for physicochemical characterisation, (c) to develop better ways of monitoring HARN in the workplace, (d) to reliably measure dose exposure levels, in order to support future epidemiological

  10. Ultraviolet-B phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis: intraocular and crystalline lens photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainster, Martin A; Turner, Patricia L

    2010-04-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation can cause phototoxic macular injuries in young people who have been sunbathing but not sungazing and in welders. Welders have a reportedly increased risk of uveal melanoma. We analyze phakic and pseudophakic risks for solar and welding arc UV-B exposure. Optical radiation measurement, analysis, and perspective. Spectral transmittances were measured for UV-transmitting, UV-blocking, and blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs). The photoprotective performances of crystalline and intraocular lenses were analyzed using relevant epidemiologic and laboratory data and action spectra for acute retinal phototoxicity and melanoma photocarcinogenesis. Crystalline lens UV-B retinal protection is deficient in children and young adults, increasing their potential susceptibility to acute retinal phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis. UV-B radiation has sufficient energy/photon to induce primary melanomagenic DNA lesions, unlike blue light or UV-A radiation. UV-blocking and blue-blocking IOLs have negligible UV-B transmittance. UV-transmitting IOL transmittance of UV-B radiation is equivalent to that of a 15-year-old crystalline lens. If optical radiation exposure is responsible for welders' increased risk of uveal melanoma, then UV-B radiation is the most probable causative agent and spectacle wear is a potential confounding factor in epidemiologic studies of ocular melanoma. Welders under 30 years of age are at greater risk for welding maculopathy than older welders. Children, adults under 30 years of age, and pseudophakic individuals with UV-transmitting IOLs should wear sunglasses in bright environments because of the UV-B window in their crystalline lenses or IOLs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Crystal Structure of VC0702 at 2.0 Angstrom: Conserved Hypothetical Protein from Vibrio Cholerae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni,S.; Forouhar, F.; Bussiere, D.; Robinson, H.; Kennedy, M.

    2006-01-01

    VC0702, a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function from Vibrio cholerae, resides in a three-gene operon containing the MbaA gene that encodes for a GGDEF and EAL domain-containing protein which is involved in regulating formation of the extracellular matrix of biofilms in Vibrio cholerae. The VC0702 crystal structure has been determined at 2.0 Angstroms and refined to R{sub work} = 22.8% and R{sub free} = 26.3%. VC0702 crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal lattice in the C2221 space group with dimensions of a = 66.61 Angstroms, b = 88.118 Angstroms, and c = 118.35 Angstroms with a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. VC0702, which forms a mixed {alpha} + {beta} three-layered {alpha}{beta}{alpha} sandwich, belongs to the Pfam DUF84 and COG1986 families of proteins. Sequence conservation within the DUF84 and COG1986 families was used to identify a conserved patch of surface residues that define a cleft and potential substrate-binding site in VC0702. The three-dimensional structure of VC0702 is similar to that of Mj0226 from Methanococcus janeschii, which has been identified as a novel NTPase that binds NTP in a deep cleft similarly located to the conserved patch of surface residues that define an analogous cleft in VC0702. Collectively, the data suggest that VC0702 may have a biochemical function that involves NTP binding and phosphatase activity of some kind, and is likely involved in regulation of the signaling pathway that controls biofilm formation and maintenance in Vibrio cholerae.

  12. RELAP5 analyses of two hypothetical flow reversal events for the advanced neutron source reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents RELAP5 results of two hypothetical, low flow transients analyzed as part of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor safety program. The reactor design features four independent coolant loops (three active and one in standby), each containing a main curculation pump (with battery powered pony motor), heat exchanger, an accumulator, and a check valve. The first transient assumes one of these pumps fails, and additionally, that the check valve in that loop remains stuck in the open position. This accident is considered extremely unlikely. Flow reverses in this loop, reducing the core flow because much of the coolant is diverted from the intact loops back through the failed loop. The second transient examines a 102-mm-diam instantaneous pipe break near the core inlet (the worst break location). A break is assumed to occur 90 s after a total loss-of-offsite power. Core flow reversal occurs because accumulator injection overpowers the diminishing pump flow. Safety margins are evaluated against four thermal limits: T{sub wall}=T{sub sat}, incipient boiling, onset of significant void, and critical heat flux. For the first transient, the results show that these limits are not exceeded (at a 95% non-exceedance probability level) if the pony motor battery lasts 30 minutes (the present design value). For the second transient, the results show that the closest approach of the fuel surface temperature to the local saturation temperature during core flow reversal is about 39{degrees}C. Therefore the fuel remains cool during this transient. Although this work is done specifically for the ANSR geometry and operating conditions, the general conclusions may be applicable to other highly subcooled reactor systems.

  13. Hypothetical influence of non-indexed Spanish journals on the impact factor of radiological journals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel-Dasit, Alberto; Aleixandre, Rafael; Valderrama, Juan C.; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Sanfeliu, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the hypothetical changes in the 2001 impact factor of 52 radiological journals included in the Science Citation Index-Journal Citation Reports by also counting cites proceeding from 73 Spanish journals on different medical specialties. Also, to estimate the possible impact factor of the official Spanish radiology journal, Radiologia, not included in this database. Materials and methods: A modified 2001 impact factor of 52 radiological journals and Radiologia was obtained by adding the number of cites in 1999 and 2000 from the medical Spanish journals. Data were obtained by consulting the 2001 edition of the Journal Citation Reports in the 'Web of Science' database. Results: The 16,985 bibliographical references were analysed (232 of them to radiological journals). The journal with the largest increase in its 2001 impact factor (from 1.83 to 1.90) was Radiologic Clinics of North America. European Journal of Radiology was the European journal with the highest increase (from 1.084 to 1.110) in the difference between the 2001 modified and original impact factor. The modified 2001 impact factor of the 34 American journals was statistically higher (P = 0.016) than that of the 18 European journals (1.64 versus 0.93). Differences between the 2001 modified and original impact factor were slightly higher in the American journals (no statistically significant difference). The 2001 impact factor of Radiologia was 0.056. Discussion: Differences between the 2001 original and modified impact factor were small, but larger in the American journals. The 2001 impact factor of Radiologia was modest, although similar to other publications included in the Journal Citation Reports

  14. Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis and Computer Simulation in the Age of Hypotheticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Vehlken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the media history of one of the hallmark civil nuclear energy programs in Western Germany – the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR technology. Promoted as a kind of perpetuum mobile of the Atomic Age, the "German Manhattan Project" not only imported big science thinking. In its context, nuclear technology was also put forth as an avantgarde of scientific inquiry, dealing with the most complex and critical technological endeavors. In the face of the risks of nuclear technology, German physicist Wolf Häfele thus announced a novel epistemology of "hypotheticality". In a context where traditional experimental engineering strategies became inappropiate, he called for the application of advanced media technologies: Computer Simulations (CS and Systems Analysis (SA generated computerized spaces for the production of knowledge. In the course of the German Fast Breeder program, such methods had a twofold impact. One the one hand, Häfele emphazised – as the "father of the German Fast Breeder" – the utilization of CS for the actual planning and construction of the novel reactor type. On the other, namely as the director of the department of Energy Systems at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA, Häfele advised SA-based projections of energy consumption. These computerized scenarios provided the rationale for the conception of Fast Breeder programs as viable and necessary alternative energy sources in the first place. By focusing on the role of the involved CS techniques, the paper thus investigates the intertwined systems thinking of nuclear facilities’s planning and construction and the design of large-scale energy consumption and production scenarios in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as their conceptual afterlives in our contemporary era of computer simulation.

  15. Crystal Structure of VC0702 at 2.0 Angstrom: Conserved Hypothetical Protein from Vibrio Cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, S.; Forouhar, F.; Bussiere, D.; Robinson, H.; Kennedy, M.

    2006-01-01

    VC0702, a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function from Vibrio cholerae, resides in a three-gene operon containing the MbaA gene that encodes for a GGDEF and EAL domain-containing protein which is involved in regulating formation of the extracellular matrix of biofilms in Vibrio cholerae. The VC0702 crystal structure has been determined at 2.0 Angstroms and refined to R work = 22.8% and R free = 26.3%. VC0702 crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal lattice in the C2221 space group with dimensions of a = 66.61 Angstroms, b = 88.118 Angstroms, and c = 118.35 Angstroms with a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. VC0702, which forms a mixed α + β three-layered αβα sandwich, belongs to the Pfam DUF84 and COG1986 families of proteins. Sequence conservation within the DUF84 and COG1986 families was used to identify a conserved patch of surface residues that define a cleft and potential substrate-binding site in VC0702. The three-dimensional structure of VC0702 is similar to that of Mj0226 from Methanococcus janeschii, which has been identified as a novel NTPase that binds NTP in a deep cleft similarly located to the conserved patch of surface residues that define an analogous cleft in VC0702. Collectively, the data suggest that VC0702 may have a biochemical function that involves NTP binding and phosphatase activity of some kind, and is likely involved in regulation of the signaling pathway that controls biofilm formation and maintenance in Vibrio cholerae

  16. Pollutant Plume Dispersion over Hypothetical Urban Areas based on Wind Tunnel Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ziwei; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2017-04-01

    Gaussian plume model is commonly adopted for pollutant concentration prediction in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). However, it has a number of limitations being applied to pollutant dispersion over complex land-surface morphology. In this study, the friction factor (f), as a measure of aerodynamic resistance induced by rough surfaces in the engineering community, was proposed to parameterize the vertical dispersion coefficient (σz) in the Gaussian model. A series of wind tunnel experiments were carried out to verify the mathematical hypothesis and to characterize plume dispersion as a function of surface roughness as well. Hypothetical urban areas, which were assembled in the form of idealized street canyons of different aspect (building-height-to-street-width) ratios (AR = 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/12), were fabricated by aligning identical square aluminum bars at different separation apart in cross flows. Pollutant emitted from a ground-level line source into the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) was simulated using water vapour generated by ultrasonic atomizer. The humidity and the velocity (mean and fluctuating components) were measured, respectively, by humidity sensors and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) with X-wire probes in streamwise and vertical directions. Wind tunnel results showed that the pollutant concentration exhibits the conventional Gaussian distribution, suggesting the feasibility of using water vapour as a passive scalar in wind tunnel experiments. The friction factor increased with decreasing aspect ratios (widening the building separation). It was peaked at AR = 1/8 and decreased thereafter. Besides, a positive correlation between σz/xn (x is the distance from the pollutant source) and f1/4 (correlation coefficient r2 = 0.61) was observed, formulating the basic parameterization of plume dispersion over urban areas.

  17. Radiation doses estimation for hypothetical NPP Krsko accidents without and with PCFV using RASCAL software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, Josip; Konjarek, Damir; Grgic, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Calculation is done using Source Term to Dose module of RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System Consequence Analysis) software to estimate projected radiation doses from a radioactive plume to the environment. Utilizing this module, it is possible to do preliminary assessment of consequences to the environment in case of adverse reactor conditions or releases from other objects containing radioactive materials before the emergency situation has happened or in the early phase. RASCAL is simple, easy to use, fast-running tool able to provide initial estimate of radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. Upon entering rather limited amount of input parameters for the Krsko NPP, mostly key plant parameters, time dependent source term calculation is executed to determine radioactive inventory release rates for different plant conditions, release paths and availability of protective measures. These rates given for each radionuclide as a function of time are used as an input to atmospheric dispersion and transport model. Together with release rates, meteorological conditions dataset serve as input to determine the behavior of the radioactive releases that is plume in the atmosphere. So as an output, RASCAL produces a 'dispersion envelope' of radionuclide concentrations in the atmosphere. These concentrations of radionuclides in the atmosphere are further used for estimating the doses to the environment and the public downwind the release point. Throughout this paper, dose assessment is performed for two distances, close-in distance and distance out to 40 km from the source, for hypothetical NPP Krsko accidents without and with Passive Containment Filtered Vent (PCFV) system used. Obvious difference is related to released radioactivity of Iodine isotopes. Results of radioactive effluents deposition in the environment are displayed via various doze parameters, radionuclide concentrations and materials exposure rates in this particular case. (authors)

  18. Economic analysis of a hypothetical bamboo-biochar plant in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liang, Fang; Hu, Wanhe; Yang, Xiaomeng; Xiang, Hongzhong; Wang, Ge; Fei, Benhua; Liu, Zhijia

    2017-12-01

    Significant quantities of bamboo waste are generated in Zhejiang province, China. Many small businesses in this area convert this waste to biochar for use as a cooking fuel (in residential barbecues). This case study was conducted to evaluate the potential economic benefits of building and operating an industrial-sized plant in this province, yielding 500 tonnes per year. The researchers developed a conceptual design for a hypothetical biochar plant and then calculated net present value (NPV), investment payback period (PBP), internal rate of return (IRR), and sensitivity analysis. Results show that the static investment PBP would be 2.58 years, the IRR would be 38.8%, and the NPV would be US$ 486,700. The IRR would be higher than the forestry industry benchmark (11%), indicating that a production line of bamboo-biochar with the stated yield not only could generate higher profits, but also could achieve a better return on investment. Thus, this study indicates that there are good market prospects for the bamboo-biochar industry in this region. The influence of sales prices on the IRR was more than that of operational costs, indicating that a large-scale plant should be designed to produce a high-quality bamboo-biochar. Supply chain issues such as transportation distances between locations where bamboo wastes are generated and the biochar plant should be considered in advance when siting new bamboo-biochar plants. The results from this research provide guidance to those considering development of bamboo-biochar plants in other parts of China.

  19. Take Me Out to the Ballgame, but Keep Me away from the Concession Stand Workers: A Hypothetical Case Involving Negligent Volunteers at Ballparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Jennifer Cordon; York, Kenneth M.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothetical case presented in this article challenges students in a legal environment of business course to answer that question by examining key legal concepts in agency and contract law, and to conduct an ethical analysis in a case involving volunteers. Although the events in the following case are hypothetical, the contract that the…

  20. The structure of the hypothetical protein smu.1377c from Streptococcus mutans suggests a role in tRNA modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lanfen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from S. mutans, shows a similar fold to Sua5-YciO-YrdC-family proteins and indicates its functional role in tRNA modification. Members of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC protein family are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and possess a conserved α/β twisted open-sheet fold. The Escherichia coli protein YrdC has been shown to be involved in modification of tRNA. The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans, has been determined to 2.25 Å resolution. From structure analysis and comparison, it is shown that smu.1377c is a member of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC family and that it may play the same role as E. coli YrdC

  1. Groundwater Flow Modeling in the KURT site for a Case Study about a Hypothetical Geological Disposal Facility of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Nak Youl; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater flow simulations were performed to obtain data of groundwater flow used in a safety assessment for a hypothetical geological disposal facility assumed to be located in the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) site. A regional scale modeling of the groundwater flow system was carried out to make boundary conditions for a local scale modeling. And, fracture zones identified at the study site were involved in the local scale groundwater flow model. From the results of the local scale modeling, a hydraulic head distribution was indicated and it was used in a particle tracking simulation for searching pathway of groundwater from the location of the hypothetical disposal facility to the surface where the groundwater reached. The flow distance and discharge rate of the groundwater in the KURT site were calculated. It was thought that the modeling methods used in this study was available to prepare the data of groundwater flow in a safety assessment for a geological disposal facility of radioactive wastes.

  2. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting

  3. Inventory of programs. Calculation of the isotope inventory after a hypothetical accident at the Cofrentes Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albendea, M.

    2014-01-01

    Iberdrola is developing a new application to calculate the inventory of radiological material, then of a hypothetical accident, with the name of inventory. This application allows you to calculate the inventory isotopic, analysers and accurate thermal of all or part of the nucleus of the plant of Cofrentes, even of any single element, based on its history of irradiation and specific periods of decay, since the reactor at any time after the shutdown. (Author)

  4. Environmental Performance of Hypothetical Canadian Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Processes Using Life-Cycle Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Lakkana Piewkhaow; Anastassia Manuilova; Christine W. Chan; Malcolm Wilson; Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul

    2016-01-01

    The methodology of life-cycle assessment was applied in order to evaluate the environmental performance of a hypothetical Saskatchewan lignite-fueled Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electricity generation, with and without pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from a full life-cycle perspective. The emphasis here is placed on environmental performance associated with air contaminants of the comparison between IGCC systems (with and without CO2 capture) and a competing lign...

  5. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting.

  6. A critical review of Jan Beyea's report: A study of some of the consequences of hypothetical reactor accidents at Barsebaeck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoerup, H.L.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Pejtersen, V.; Lundtang Petersen, E.; Petersen, T.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Heikel Vinther, F.

    1978-04-01

    This report contains a critical review of Jan Beyea's report: A study of some of the consequences of hypothetical reactor accidents at Barsebaeck (Princeton University, January 1978). Unreasonable assumptions concerning dry deposition, plume rise, meteorological considerations, dose-response relationship and probability distributions were found in the report. It is found that the conclusions of the Beyea report are the result of a mathematical exercise rather than the results of a realistic risk evaluation for Barsebaeck. (author)

  7. Simulation of a hypothetical core disruptive accident in the mars test-facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, M.F.; Lepareux, M.

    2001-01-01

    In France, a large experimental programme MARA/MARS was undertaken in the 80's to estimate the mechanical consequences of an HCDA (Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident) and to validate the SIRIUS computer code used at that time for the numerical simulations. At the end of the 80's, it was preferred to add a HCDA sodium-bubble-argon tri-component constitutive law to the general ALE fast dynamics finite element CASTEM-PLEXUS code rather than going on developing and using the specialized SIRIUS code. The experimental results of the MARA programme were used in the 90's to validate and qualify the CASTEM-PLEXUS code. A first series of computations of the tests MARA 8, MARA 10 and MARS was realised. The simulations showed a rather good agreement between the experimental and computed results for the MARA 8 and MARA 10 tests - even if there were some discrepancies - but the prediction of the MARS structure displacements and strains was overestimated. This conservatism was supposed to come from the fact that several MARS non axisymmetric structures like core elements, pumps and heat exchangers were not represented in the CASTEM-PLEXUS model. These structures, acting as porous barriers, had a protective effect on the mock-up containment by absorbing energy and slowing down the fluid impacting the containment. For these reasons, we developed in CASTEM-PLEXUS a new HCDA constitutive law taking into account the presence of the internal structures (without meshing them) by means of an equivalent porosity method. In other respects, the process used for dealing with the fluid-structure coupling in CASTEM-PLEXUS was improved. Thus a second series of simulations of the tests MARA8 and MARA10 was realised. A simulation of the test MARS was carried out too with the same simplified representation of the peripheral structures as in order to estimate the improvement provided by the new fluid-structure coupling. This paper presents a third numerical simulation of the MARS test with the

  8. Risks and consequences of a hypothetical radiological accident on nuclear powered submarine traversing Suez canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Egypt has unique problem in Suez Canal, although there are, a number of radioactive Cargos traveling through the Canal which includes new and spent reactor fuel and about 100 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride each year, under the regulatory control of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, there is, still a major problem concerning the passage of a number of nuclear powered vessels and submarines passing through the canal several times each year. The passage of these vessels and submarines has a political situation and not under the regulatory control of the Egyptian regulatory body. In spite of all precautions that are taken, in the nuclear powered vessels and submarines from the point of view of the rugged design of the reactor plant, multiple safety systems and operation with exceptional consideration for safety. Although of all of these a potential for a serious accident may does arise, even though, its probability is minimal. The Government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to cope with any radiological accidents, which may arise inside the country. Suez Canal lies in the north east of Egypt, and passes through a zone of considerable business, agriculture and industrial activities. The zone consists of three populated provinces, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez. According to Suez Canal authority regulations it is not allowed for these vessels and submarines to be landed in port. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to discuss a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident aboard a nuclear powered submarine occurred during its passage in the Suez Canal. Such an accident will produce a radioactive cloud containing a number of radioactive materials. In such type of accidents contamination and causality zones, could extend to several kilometers. The different phases of the accident are going to be discussed and analyzed. The emergency actions taken during the accident phases are going to be presented. The

  9. Acceptability and Willingness-to-Pay for a Hypothetical Ebola Virus Vaccine in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maduka Donatus Ughasoro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is a highly virulent and transmissible disease. The largest recorded fatality from Ebola virus disease epidemic is ongoing in a few countries in West Africa, and this poses a health risk to the entire population of the world because arresting the transmission has been challenging. Vaccination is considered a key intervention that is capable of arresting further spread of the disease and preventing future outbreak. However, no vaccine has yet been approved for public use, although various recombinant vaccines are undergoing trials and approval for public use is imminent. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the acceptability of and willingness-to-pay for Ebola virus vaccine by the public.The study was a community-based cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative interventional study conducted in two communities, each in two states in Nigeria. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on respondents' knowledge of the Ebola virus, the ways to prevent the disease, and their preventive practices, as well as their acceptability of and willingness-to-pay for a hypothetical vaccine against Ebola virus disease. The association between acceptability of the vaccine and other independent variables were evaluated using multivariate regression analysis.Ebola virus disease was considered to be a very serious disease by 38.5% of the 582 respondents (224/582, prior to receiving health education on Ebola virus and its vaccine. Eighty percent (80% accepted to be vaccinated with Ebola vaccine. However, among those that accepted to be vaccinated, most would only accept after observing the outcome on others who have received the vaccine. More than 87.5% was willing to pay for the vaccine, although 55.2% was of the opinion that the vaccine should be provided free of charge.The level of acceptability of Ebola virus vaccine among respondents was impressive (though conditional, as well as their willingness to pay

  10. Low frequency (Mexico: the 1985 Michoacan Earthquake and Hypothetical Rupture in the Guerrero Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Guzman, L.; Contreras Ruíz Esparza, M.; Aguirre Gonzalez, J. J.; Alcántara Noasco, L.; Quiroz Ramírez, A.

    2012-12-01

    We present the analysis of simulations at low frequency (Mexico, by using a 3D crustal velocity model and an idealized geotechnical structure of the Valley of Mexico. Mexico's destructive earthquake history bolsters the need for a better understanding regarding the seismic hazard and risk of the region. The Mw=8.0 1985 Michoacan earthquake is among the largest natural disasters that Mexico has faced in the last decades; more than 5000 people died and thousands of structures were damaged (Reinoso and Ordaz, 1999). Thus, estimates on the effects of similar or larger magnitude earthquakes on today's population and infrastructure are important. Moreover, Singh and Mortera (1991) suggest that earthquakes of magnitude 8.1 to 8.4 could take place in the so-called Guerrero Gap, an area adjacent to the region responsible for the 1985 earthquake. In order to improve previous estimations of the ground motion (e.g. Furumura and Singh, 2002) and lay the groundwork for a numerical simulation of a hypothetical Guerrero Gap scenario, we recast the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. We used the inversion by Mendoza and Hartzell (1989) and a 3D velocity model built on the basis of recent investigations in the area, which include a velocity structure of the Valley of Mexico constrained by geotechnical and reflection experiments, and noise tomography, receiver functions, and gravity-based regional models. Our synthetic seismograms were computed using the octree-based finite element tool-chain Hercules (Tu et al., 2006), and are valid up to a frequency of 1 Hz, considering realistic velocities in the Valley of Mexico ( >60 m/s in the very shallow subsurface). We evaluated the model's ability to reproduce the available records using the goodness-of-fit analysis proposed by Mayhew and Olsen (2010). Once the reliablilty of the model was established, we estimated the effects of a large magnitude earthquake in Central Mexico. We built a kinematic rupture for a Mw=8.4 earthquake with the method of

  11. Radioactive dispersion analysis for hypothetical nuclear power plant (NPP) candidate site in Perak state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Shazmeen Daniar; Basri, Nor Afifah; Omar, Nurlyana; Koh, Meng-Hock; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saridan Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad

    2017-10-01

    Malaysia is planning to build a nuclear power plant (NPP) by 2030 to diversify the national electricity supply and resources. Selection of an NPP site must consider various factors, especially nuclear safety consideration to fulfil the nuclear safety objectives. Environmental Risk Assessment Analysis is a part of safety requirements by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) prior to the NPP commissioning process. Risk Assessments Analysis (RIA) is compulsory for the NPP site evaluation. One of RIA methods are Radioactive Dispersion Analysis using probabilistic risk analysis software. It is also important to perform studies to estimate the impact to the neighbouring population in the case of a nuclear accident at the power plant. In the present work, aimed to study the impact of a hypothetical nuclear accident by simulating the dispersion pattern of radionuclides originated from a candidate site at Manjung, Perak. The work has been performed using the HotSpot Health Physics codes. Two types of radionuclides have been considered namely 137Cs and 131I. In calculations, the initial concentration of radioactive materials of Fukushima Daiichi accident data are used which are 2.06 x 1016 Bq and 1.68 x 1017 Bq respectively for the two radionuclides. The result shows that the dispersion distance obtained from both software are not the same. It shows that 137Cs and 131I can be dispersed as far as 16 km and 80 km away from the site during radiological accident respectively, reaching major towns in Perak. Using HOTSPOT, the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) for 137Cs and 131I at major towns in Perak such as Lumut and Sitiawan are 1.2 mSv and 9.9 mSv. As for Taiping, Ipoh, Kampar, and Teluk Intan the estimated TEDE is around 0.2 mSv and 1.6 mSv respectively. In conclusion, the dispersion can reach as far as 80 km from the site. However, estimated annual effective dose is not more than 1 mSv limit, which is considered acceptable in the point of view of

  12. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-01

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be ∼ 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the regional

  13. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be approx 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the

  14. Radioactive dispersion analysis for hypothetical nuclear power plant (NPP candidate site in Perak state, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin Shazmeen Daniar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is planning to build a nuclear power plant (NPP by 2030 to diversify the national electricity supply and resources. Selection of an NPP site must consider various factors, especially nuclear safety consideration to fulfil the nuclear safety objectives. Environmental Risk Assessment Analysis is a part of safety requirements by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA prior to the NPP commissioning process. Risk Assessments Analysis (RIA is compulsory for the NPP site evaluation. One of RIA methods are Radioactive Dispersion Analysis using probabilistic risk analysis software. It is also important to perform studies to estimate the impact to the neighbouring population in the case of a nuclear accident at the power plant. In the present work, aimed to study the impact of a hypothetical nuclear accident by simulating the dispersion pattern of radionuclides originated from a candidate site at Manjung, Perak. The work has been performed using the HotSpot Health Physics codes. Two types of radionuclides have been considered namely 137Cs and 131I. In calculations, the initial concentration of radioactive materials of Fukushima Daiichi accident data are used which are 2.06 x 1016 Bq and 1.68 x 1017 Bq respectively for the two radionuclides. The result shows that the dispersion distance obtained from both software are not the same. It shows that 137Cs and 131I can be dispersed as far as 16 km and 80 km away from the site during radiological accident respectively, reaching major towns in Perak. Using HOTSPOT, the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE for 137Cs and 131I at major towns in Perak such as Lumut and Sitiawan are 1.2 mSv and 9.9 mSv. As for Taiping, Ipoh, Kampar, and Teluk Intan the estimated TEDE is around 0.2 mSv and 1.6 mSv respectively. In conclusion, the dispersion can reach as far as 80 km from the site. However, estimated annual effective dose is not more than 1 mSv limit, which is considered acceptable in the point

  15. Chronic Pain as a Hypothetical Construct: A Practical and Philosophical Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleys, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Pain has been defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.” Chronic pain is usually described as pain that has persisted for 3–6 months and/or beyond the expected time of healing. The numerical pain rating (NPR) is the customary metric and often considered as a proxy for the subjective experience of chronic pain. This definition of pain (chronic) has been of significant heuristic value. However, the definition and the models it has spawned tend to encourage the interpretation of pain as a measurable entity and implies that the patient’s experience of pain can be fully comprehended by someone other than the person in pain. Several major models of pain have been scrutinized and found to propagate the notion of pain as a ‘thing’ and fall prey to biomedical reductionism and Cartesian (mind-body) dualism. Furthermore, the NPR does not appear to capture the complexity of chronic pain and correlates poorly with other clinically meaningful outcomes. It, and other aspects of the current notion of chronic pain, appear to be an extension of our reliance on the philosophical principles of reductionism and materialism. These and other shortcomings identified in the IASP definition have resulted in an increased interest in a reexamination and possible updating of our view of pain (chronic) and its definition. The present paper describes an alternative view of pain, in particular chronic pain. It argues that chronic pain should be understood as a separate phenomenon from, rather than an extension of, acute pain and interpreted as a hypothetical construct (HC). HCs are contrasted to intervening variables (IV) and the use of HCs in science is illustrated. The acceptance of the principles of nonlinearity and emergence are seen as important characteristics. The practical implications and barriers of this

  16. Side effects and accounting aspects of hypothetical large-scale Southern Ocean iron fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oschlies

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent suggestions to slow down the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide have included ocean fertilization by addition of the micronutrient iron to Southern Ocean surface waters, where a number of natural and artificial iron fertilization experiments have shown that low ambient iron concentrations limit phytoplankton growth. Using a coupled carbon-climate model with the marine biology's response to iron addition calibrated against data from natural iron fertilization experiments, we examine biogeochemical side effects of a hypothetical large-scale Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization (OIF that need to be considered when attempting to account for possible OIF-induced carbon offsets. In agreement with earlier studies our model simulates an OIF-induced increase in local air-sea CO2 fluxes by about 73 GtC over a 100-year period, which amounts to about 48% of the OIF-induced increase in organic carbon export out of the fertilized area. Offsetting CO2 return fluxes outside the region and after stopping the fertilization at 1, 7, 10, 50, and 100 years are quantified for a typical accounting period of 100 years. For continuous Southern Ocean iron fertilization, the CO2 return flux outside the fertilized area cancels about 20% of the fertilization-induced CO2 air-sea flux within the fertilized area on a 100-yr timescale. This "leakage" effect has a radiative impact more than twice as large as the simulated enhancement of marine N2O emissions. Other side effects not yet discussed in terms of accounting schemes include a decrease in Southern Ocean oxygen levels and a simultaneous shrinking of tropical suboxic areas, and accelerated ocean acidification in the entire water column in the Southern Ocean at the expense of reduced globally-averaged surface-water acidification. A prudent approach to account for the OIF-induced carbon sequestration would account for global air-sea CO2 fluxes rather

  17. Chronic Pain as a Hypothetical Construct: A Practical and Philosophical Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Doleys

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain has been defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.” Chronic pain is usually described as pain that has persisted for 3–6 months and/or beyond the expected time of healing. The numerical pain rating (NPR is the customary metric and often considered as a proxy for the subjective experience of chronic pain. This definition of pain (chronic has been of significant heuristic value. However, the definition and the models it has spawned tend to encourage the interpretation of pain as a measurable entity and implies that the patient’s experience of pain can be fully comprehended by someone other than the person in pain. Several major models of pain have been scrutinized and found to propagate the notion of pain as a ‘thing’ and fall prey to biomedical reductionism and Cartesian (mind-body dualism. Furthermore, the NPR does not appear to capture the complexity of chronic pain and correlates poorly with other clinically meaningful outcomes. It, and other aspects of the current notion of chronic pain, appear to be an extension of our reliance on the philosophical principles of reductionism and materialism. These and other shortcomings identified in the IASP definition have resulted in an increased interest in a reexamination and possible updating of our view of pain (chronic and its definition. The present paper describes an alternative view of pain, in particular chronic pain. It argues that chronic pain should be understood as a separate phenomenon from, rather than an extension of, acute pain and interpreted as a hypothetical construct (HC. HCs are contrasted to intervening variables (IV and the use of HCs in science is illustrated. The acceptance of the principles of nonlinearity and emergence are seen as important characteristics. The practical implications and barriers

  18. Estimating hypothetical present-day insured losses for past intense hurricanes in the French Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, James; Desarthe, Jérémy; Naulin, Jean-Philippe; Garnier, Emmanuel; Liu, Ye; Moncoulon, David

    2015-04-01

    On the islands of the French Antilles, the period for which systematic meteorological measurements and historic event loss data are available is short relative to the recurrence intervals of very intense, damaging hurricanes. Additionally, the value of property at risk changes through time. As such, the recent past can only provide limited insight into potential losses from extreme storms in coming years. Here we present some research that seeks to overcome, as far as is possible, the limitations of record length in assessing the possible impacts of near-future hurricanes on insured properties. First, using the archives of the French overseas departments (which included administrative and weather reports, inventories of damage to houses, crops and trees, as well as some meteorological observations after 1950) we reconstructed the spatial patterns of hazard intensity associated with three historical events. They are: i) the 1928 Hurricane (Guadeloupe), ii) Hurricane Betsy (1956, Guadeloupe) and iii) Hurricane David (1979, Martinique). These events were selected because all were damaging, and the information available on each is rich. Then, using a recently developed catastrophe model for hurricanes affecting Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, we simulated the hypothetical losses to insured properties that the reconstructed events might cause if they were to reoccur today. The model simulated damage due to wind, rainfall-induced flooding and storm surge flooding. These 'what if' scenarios provided an initial indication of the potential present-day exposure of the insurance industry to intense hurricanes. However, we acknowledge that historical events are unlikely to repeat exactly. We therefore extended the study by producing a stochastic event catalogue containing a large number of synthetic but plausible hurricane events. Instrumental data were used as a basis for event generation, but importantly the statistical methods we applied permit

  19. Paying the price: a cross-sectional survey of Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' responses to hypothetical cigarette price rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Doran, Christopher; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Increases in tobacco taxation can lead to reductions in tobacco consumption and prevalence of use across social groups. However, use of price-minimisation strategies to manage current and future tobacco use and the role of financial stress is less understood. This study aimed to measure the effect of cigarette price increases on price-minimisation strategy endorsement and financial stress among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Community service organisation welfare recipients in NSW, Australia completed a touchscreen survey. Smoking history, financial stress, highest price to quit and responses to hypothetical cigarette price increases were assessed. Participants were 354 smokers (response rate = 79%). Most participants received income from a government pension (95%), earned price rises, significantly more participants endorsed trying to quit in response to the larger increase scenario (P price-minimisation strategies (e.g. switching to cheaper brands/products) were endorsed, but remained constant across hypothetical scenarios; level of financial stress appeared to have little influence. Smokers indicating they would not change their smoking in response to price rises had higher levels of nicotine dependence. Socially disadvantaged smokers endorsed numerous price-minimising strategies to maintain smoking at hypothetically increased costs. Larger cigarette price rises motivated more smokers to consider quitting, while price-resistant smokers appeared to have a more entrenched smoker status. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  1. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  2. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  3. How Simple Hypothetical-Choice Experiments Can Be Utilized to Learn Humans' Navigational Escape Decisions in Emergencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Haghani

    Full Text Available How humans resolve non-trivial tradeoffs in their navigational choices between the social interactions (e.g., the presence and movements of others and the physical factors (e.g., spatial distances, route visibility when escaping from threats in crowded confined spaces? The answer to this question has major implications for the planning of evacuations and the safety of mass gatherings as well as the design of built environments. Due to the challenges of collecting behavioral data from naturally-occurring evacuation settings, laboratory-based virtual-evacuation experiments have been practiced in a number of studies. This class of experiments faces the traditional question of contextual bias and generalizability: How reliably can we infer humans' behavior from decisions made in hypothetical settings? Here, we address these questions by making a novel link between two different forms of empirical observations. We conduct hypothetical emergency exit-choice experiments framed as simple pictures, and then mimic those hypothetical scenarios in more realistic fashions through staging mock evacuation trials with actual crowds. Econometric choice models are estimated based on the observations made in both experimental contexts. The models are contrasted with each other from a number of perspectives including their predictions as well as the sign, magnitude, statistical significance, person-to-person variations (reflecting individuals' perception/preference differences and the scale (reflecting context-dependent decision randomness of their inferred parameters. Results reveal a surprising degree of resemblance between the models derived from the two contexts. Most strikingly, they produce fairly similar prediction probabilities whose differences average less than 10%. There is also unexpected consensus between the inferences derived from both experimental sources on many aspects of people's behavior notably in terms of the perception of social interactions

  4. Competence of birth attendants at providing emergency obstetric care under India's JSY conditional cash transfer program for institutional delivery: an assessment using case vignettes in Madhya Pradesh province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Upadhyay, Sourabh; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-05-24

    Access to emergency obstetric care by competent staff can reduce maternal mortality. India has launched the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) conditional cash transfer program to promote institutional births. During implementation of the JSY, India witnessed a steep increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries-from 40% in 2004 to 73% in 2012. However, maternal mortality reduction follows a secular trend. Competent management of complications, when women deliver in facilities under the JSY, is essential for reduction in maternal mortality and therefore to a successful program outcome. We investigate, using clinical vignettes, whether birth attendants at institutions under the program are competent at providing appropriate care for obstetric complications. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) province. Written case vignettes for two obstetric complications, hemorrhage and eclampsia, were administered to 233 birth attendant nurses at 73 JSY facilities. Their competence at (a) initial assessment, (b) diagnosis, and (c) making decisions on appropriate first-line care for these complications was scored. The mean emergency obstetric care (EmOC) competence score was 5.4 (median = 5) on a total score of 20, and 75% of participants scored below 35% of the maximum score. The overall score, although poor, was marginally higher in respondents with Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) training, those with general nursing and midwifery qualifications, those at higher facility levels, and those conducting >30 deliveries a month. In all, 14% of respondents were competent at assessment, 58% were competent at making a correct clinical diagnosis, and 20% were competent at providing first-line care. Birth attendants in the JSY facilities have low competence at EmOC provision. Hence, births in the JSY program cannot be considered to have access to competent EmOC. Urgent efforts are required to effectively increase the

  5. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  6. Discourse Analysis of the Documentary Method as "Key" to Self-Referential Communication Systems? Theoretic-Methodological Basics and Empirical Vignettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian-Claudio Gentile

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Niklas LUHMANN is well known for his deliberate departure from the classical focus on studying individual actions and directing attention on the actors' relatedness through so called (autopoietic communication systems. In contrast to the gain of a new perspective of observation his focus on autopoietic systems is simultaneously its biggest methodological obstacle for the use in social and management sciences. The present contribution considers the above shift on a theoretical level and with a specific qualitative method. It argues for a deeper understanding of systemic sense making and its enactment in a systematic and comprehensible way. Central to this approach is its focus on groups. Using group discussions as the method of data collection, and the "documentary method" by Ralf BOHNSACK (2003 as a method of data analysis, the article describes a methodologically grounded way to record the self-referential systems proposed by LUHMANN's system theory. The theoretical considerations of the paper are illustrated by empirical vignettes derived from a research project conducted in Switzerland concerning the social responsibility of business. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003156

  7. Preventive management plans recorded by Dental Therapists and Oral Health Therapists using clinical vignettes for adolescents accessing Public Oral Health Services, NSW Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoe, Angela V; Blinkhorn, Anthony S; Taylor, Jane; Blinkhorn, Fiona A

    2015-04-25

    To investigate factors that influence Dental Therapists and Oral Health Therapists (Therapists) plan preventive oral health care for adolescents attending New South Wales (NSW) Public Oral Health Services. A cross-sectional postal survey using two clinical vignettes were used to record the preventive care treatment plans offered by Therapists working across sixteen NSW Local Health Districts (LHDs). Data were tabulated and Chi square statistics were used in the analysis. One hundred and seventeen Therapists returned questionnaires giving a 64.6% response rate. The participants highlighted the importance of offering oral hygiene instruction (97.0%); dietary advice (95.0%) and topical fluoride applications (74.0%). Recommended home use products included fluoride toothpaste 5000ppmF (59.0%) and casein phosphopeptide amorphous phosphates plus fluoride (CPP-ACPF) paste (57.7%). Over 50% used fissure sealants. More respondents (88%) would utilise Motivational Interviewing strategies for a patient with dental caries concerns, however, only 63% would use this technique for a patient in pain (pdental disease, suggesting a need for Clinical Directors to consider providing more advice to Therapists on the scientific basis of preventing dental caries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. ATHENA-2D: A computer code for simulation of hypothetical recriticality accidents in a thermal neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    In a damaged light water reactor core (as in the aftermath of a Three-Mile-Island-like core meltdown), water reflood is performed to carry off decay heat. The severely degraded geometry of the fuel debris bed may increase core reactivity with water reflood. Sufficient boron poisoning of the reflood water is therefore very important. One hypothetical accident is the reintroduction of cooling water that is insufficiently borated, resulting in the damaged reactor attaining criticality in this uncontrolled configuration. The goal in simulating this accident is the prediction of the energy release from the resulting transient

  9. The retardation effect of structural graphite on the release of fission products in case of hypothetical accidents of HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniotakis, N.; Decken, C.B. von der

    1982-01-01

    In case of a hypothetical core heat up accident of an HTR the structural graphite of the reactor causes under certain circumstances a very important retardation of the release of fission products into the containment building of the plant. A model is presented which describes the transport phenomena in the graphite structure extensively taking into account specially the macro-structure of the graphite. It is shown by parameter variations under which conditions one can expect a large retardation effect and quantitative values of this retardation, which can be very important, are given. (author)

  10. Potential consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Leningrad nuclear power plant. Potential release, fallout and predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.; Bartnicki, J.; Balonov, M.

    2012-06-15

    The report describes different hypothetical accident scenarios at the Leningrad nuclear power plant for both RBMK and VVER-1200 reactors. The estimated release is combined with different meteorological scenarios to predict possible fallout of radioactive substances in Norway. For a hypothetical catastrophic accident at an RBMK reactor combined with a meteorological worst case scenario, the consequences in Norway could be considerable. Foodstuffs in many regions would be contaminated above the food intervention levels for radioactive cesium in Norway. (Author)

  11. Potential consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Leningrad nuclear power plant. Potential release, fallout and predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.; Bartnicki, J.; Balonov, M.

    2012-06-01

    The report describes different hypothetical accident scenarios at the Leningrad nuclear power plant for both RBMK and VVER-1200 reactors. The estimated release is combined with different meteorological scenarios to predict possible fallout of radioactive substances in Norway. For a hypothetical catastrophic accident at an RBMK reactor combined with a meteorological worst case scenario, the consequences in Norway could be considerable. Foodstuffs in many regions would be contaminated above the food intervention levels for radioactive cesium in Norway. (Author)

  12. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  13. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  14. Hypothetical scenario exercises to improve planning and readiness for drinking water quality management during extreme weather events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Cunliffe, David; Khan, Stuart J

    2017-03-15

    Two hypothetical scenario exercises were designed and conducted to reflect the increasingly extreme weather-related challenges faced by water utilities as the global climate changes. The first event was based on an extreme flood scenario. The second scenario involved a combination of weather events, including a wild forest fire ('bushfire') followed by runoff due to significant rainfall. For each scenario, a panel of diverse personnel from water utilities and relevant agencies (e.g. health departments) formed a hypothetical water utility and associated regulatory body to manage water quality following the simulated extreme weather event. A larger audience participated by asking questions and contributing key insights. Participants were confronted with unanticipated developments as the simulated scenarios unfolded, introduced by a facilitator. Participants were presented with information that may have challenged their conventional experiences regarding operational procedures in order to identify limitations in current procedures, assumptions, and readily available information. The process worked toward the identification of a list of specific key lessons for each event. At the conclusion of each simulation a facilitated discussion was used to establish key lessons of value to water utilities in preparing them for similar future extreme events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The gene expression data of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on Affymetrix gene chips provide insight into regulatory and hypothetical genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Liu Casey S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains a leading infectious disease with global public health threat. Its control and management have been complicated by multi-drug resistance and latent infection, which prompts scientists to find new and more effective drugs. With the completion of the genome sequence of the etiologic bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is now feasible to search for new drug targets by sieving through a large number of gene products and conduct genome-scale experiments based on microarray technology. However, the full potential of genome-wide microarray analysis in configuring interrelationships among all genes in M. tuberculosis has yet to be realized. To date, it is only possible to assign a function to 52% of proteins predicted in the genome. Results We conducted a functional-genomics study using the high-resolution Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip. Approximately one-half of the genes were found to be always expressed, including more than 100 predicted conserved hypotheticals, in the genome of M. tuberculosis during the log phase of in vitro growth. The gene expression profiles were analyzed and visualized through cluster analysis to epitomize the full details of genomic behavior. Broad patterns derived from genome-wide expression experiments in this study have provided insight into the interrelationships among genes in the basic cellular processes of M. tuberculosis. Conclusion Our results have confirmed several known gene clusters in energy production, information pathways, and lipid metabolism, and also hinted at potential roles of hypothetical and regulatory proteins.

  16. Personality and Behavior in Social Dilemmas: Testing the Situational Strength Hypothesis and the Role of Hypothetical Versus Real Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, José H

    2016-02-01

    Previous research aimed at testing the situational strength hypothesis suffers from serious limitations regarding the conceptualization of strength. In order to overcome these limitations, the present study attempts to test the situational strength hypothesis based on the operationalization of strength as reinforcement contingencies. One dispositional factor of proven effect on cooperative behavior, social value orientation (SVO), was used as a predictor of behavior in four social dilemmas with varying degree of situational strength. The moderating role of incentive condition (hypothetical vs. real) on the relationship between SVO and behavior was also tested. One hundred undergraduates were presented with the four social dilemmas and the Social Value Orientation Scale. One-half of the sample played the social dilemmas using real incentives, whereas the other half used hypothetical incentives. Results supported the situational strength hypothesis in that no behavioral variability and no effect of SVO on behavior were found in the strongest situation. However, situational strength did not moderate the effect of SVO on behavior in situations where behavior showed variability. No moderating effect was found for incentive condition either. The implications of these results for personality theory and assessment are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Using surveillance data to simulate the impact of a hypothetical pre-entry tuberculosis screening programme in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsu, L; Uchimura, K; Izumi, K; Ohkado, A; Kato, S

    2018-05-01

    Despite a growing burden of foreign-born tuberculosis (TB) patients, Japan does not currently practise pre-entry tuberculosis (TB) screening among foreign-born entrants. To evaluate the impact of a hypothetical pre-entry TB screening programme among new foreign-born entrants into Japan. Using publicly available sources, we estimated 1) the number of prevalent TB cases, defined as bacteriologically or clinically confirmed cases among new foreign-born entrants into Japan in 2015, and 2) the yield from a hypothetical pre-entry TB screening programme under three scenarios: Scenario A, in which screening would be required of all applicants intending to stay for 3 months; Scenario B, screening among applicants for visas for settlement purposes; and Scenario C, screening among student and technical intern visa applicants. The numbers of prevalent TB cases under Scenarios A, B and C were respectively 492, 54 and 248 out of a total of 328 791, 21 554 and 182 879 applicants, respectively 276, 29 and 137 of whom would be detected via the pre-entry screening programme, giving an yield of respectively 83.9, 134.5 and 74.9 per 100 000 screened under each scenario. The yield was the highest under Scenario B; however, the impact was greatest under Scenario A, in that it detected the greatest number of patients and thus contributed the most in reducing the burden of foreign-born TB cases in Japan.

  18. An in silico Approach for Structural and Functional Annotation of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium Hypothetical Protein R_27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is a major cause of illness in most developing countries, including Bangladesh. In quest of new potential drug against Typhoid fever, the current study was designed to elucidate structural and functional details of S. typhi hypothetical protein (HP R_27. HP R_27 has the primary amino acid sequences available only. The structural annotation was determined by ProtParam, SOPMA, and CELLO. The three-dimensional (3D structure of HP R_27 predicted through homology modeling by using Phyre2. The 3D structure then refined and verified by ModRefiner, PROCHECK, ERRAT, QMEAN. The functional annotation was also performed by InterProScan, SMART, Pfam, NCBI-CDD and found Phospholipase D-like and DNA repair activity. Multiple sequence alignment also supported the existence of PLD-like domain and DNA repair protein domain in the selected hypothetical protein sequences. Finally, the cavity of drug binding was also identified to assist further molecular docking study and potent inhibitor identification. This in silico approach can be further utilized in molecular drug design for other clinically significant pathogens.

  19. Access to community care for people with dementia and their informal carers : Case vignettes for a European comparison of structures and common pathways to formal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, A; Stephan, A; Verbeek, H; Verhey, F; Kerpershoek, L; Wolfs, C; de Vugt, M; Woods, R T; Røsvik, J; Selbaek, G; Sjölund, B M; Wimo, A; Hopper, L; Irving, K; Marques, M J; Gonçalves-Pereira, M; Portolani, E; Zanetti, O; Meyer, G

    2017-06-14

    People with dementia and their informal carers often do not receive appropriate professional support or it is not received at the right time. Description and comparison of common pathways to formal community dementia care in eight European countries as a part of the transnational Actifcare project. The German team was responsible for creating an individual case scenario as a starting point. The research teams in Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the United Kingdom were then asked to describe a common pathway to formal dementia care by writing their own vignette using the provided individual case scenario. A transnational qualitative content analysis was used to identify the following categories as being the most important: involved professionals, dementia-specific and team-based approaches, proactive roles, and financial aspects. General practitioners (GPs) are described as being the most important profession supporting the access to formal care in all the involved countries. In some countries other professionals take over responsibility for the access procedure. Dementia-specific approaches are rarely part of standard care; team-based approaches have differing significances in each of the countries. Informal carers are mainly proactive in seeking formal care. The Nordic countries demonstrate how financial support enhances access to the professional system. Enhanced cooperation between GPs and other professions might optimize access to formal dementia care. Team-based approaches focusing on dementia care should be developed further. Informal carers should be supported and relieved in their role. Financial barriers remain which should be further investigated and reduced.

  20. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  1. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  2. Sizing of type B package tie-downs on the basis of criteria related to hypothetical road transport accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalippou, C.

    1986-01-01

    The aim is to guarantee intactness of the type B package containment system under hypothetical road accident conditions. Some experiments performed in France have led to analytical studies taking into account: a) the head-on collision, which is modelised by a uniform deceleration of 35 g, b) the side-on collision, which is modelised by a colliding object 3 times heavier than the package and an impact at 31.9 km/h. In the first case, the adopted criterion is the holding of the package on the vehicle by the strenght of the stowing members (tie-downs and chocks). In the second case, the adopted criterion is the desired breaking of the tie-downs in order to undamage package containment system; therefore it is assumed that no chock is acting against lateral impacts. Analytical and abacus methods have been developed for sizing the strenght of the stowing members in respect with the two above criteria [fr

  3. Structural properties of hypothetical CeBa2Cu3O7 compound from LSDA+DMFT calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuszczek Maciej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hypothetical stoichiometric CeBa2Cu3O7 (Ce123 compound, which has not been synthesized as a single phase yet, was studied by the density functional theory (DFT. We utilized a method which merges the local spin density approximation (LSDA with the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT to account for the electronic correlations. The LSDA+DMFT calculations were performed in the high-temperature range. The particular emphasis was put on the pressure-induced changes in the electronic band structure related to strongly correlated 4f states. The computational results indicate the occurrence of a large negative volumetric thermal expansion coefficient near T = 500 K and a trace of a low-volume isostructural metastable state at high temperatures.

  4. Conserved hypothetical protein Rv1977 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains contains sequence polymorphisms and might be involved in ongoing immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Liu, Haican; Wang, Xuezhi; Li, Guilian; Qiu, Yan; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wan, Kanglin

    2015-01-01

    Host immune pressure and associated parasite immune evasion are key features of host-pathogen co-evolution. A previous study showed that human T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are evolutionarily hyperconserved and thus it was deduced that M. tuberculosis lacks antigenic variation and immune evasion. Here, we selected 151 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from China, amplified gene encoding Rv1977 and compared the sequences. The results showed that Rv1977, a conserved hypothetical protein, is not conserved in M. tuberculosis strains and there are polymorphisms existed in the protein. Some mutations, especially one frameshift mutation, occurred in the antigen Rv1977, which is uncommon in M.tb strains and may lead to the protein function altering. Mutations and deletion in the gene all affect one of three T cell epitopes and the changed T cell epitope contained more than one variable position, which may suggest ongoing immune evasion.

  5. Cues of High and Low Body Weight Negatively Influence Adults' Perceptions and Ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Volk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by presenting adults with normal faces as well as faces that were digitally altered to display high or low body weight. Cues of abnormal body weight significantly, and negatively, influenced adults’ ratings of adoption preference, health, and cuteness. Effect sizes were larger for cues of high body weight. Thus, infant and child facial cues of abnormal body weight may represent a relative risk factor to the quality of adult care obtained by children with abnormal body weight.

  6. Dose assessment for public by packages shipping radioactive materials hypothetically sunk on the continental shelf. Annex 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Saegusa, Toshiari; Watabe, Naohito; Asano, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Koki; Kinehara, Yoshiki

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive materials such as spent fuel (SF), PuO 2 powder, high level wastes (HLW) and fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel have been transported by sea between Europe and Japan. Dose assessments for public have been performed in the past when the packages shipping radioactive materials were hypothetically sunk on the continental shelf. These studies employed various conditions and methods in their assessments and the results were not always the same. In this study, the dose assessment for these packages was performed under the same conditions and by the same methods. The effective dose equivalents of radiation exposure to the public for all materials become smaller than the previous evaluations due to more realistic assumption in this study. These evaluated results are far less than the effective dose equivalent limit (1 mSv year -1 ) by the ICRP recommendation. (author)

  7. A comparison between tandem and ovoids and interstitial gynecologic template brachytherapy dosimetry using a hypothetical computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, I-Chow J.; Speight, Joycelyn; Hai, Jenny; Vigneault, Eric; Phillips, Theodore; Pouliot, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose distribution within the clinical target volume between two gynecologic brachytherapy systems - the tandem and ovoids and the Syed-Neblett gynecologic template - using a hypothetical computer model. Methods and Materials: Source positions of an intracavitary system (tandem and ovoids) and an interstitial system (GYN template) were digitized into the Nucletron Brachytherapy Planning System. The GYN template is composed of a 13-catheter implant (12 catheters plus a tandem) based on the Syed-Neblett gynecologic template. For the tandem and ovoids, the dwell times of all sources were evenly weighted to produce a pear-shaped isodose distribution. For the GYN template, the dwell times were determined using volume optimization. The prescribed dose was then normalized to point A in the intracavitary system and to a selected isodose line in the interstitial system. The treated volume in the two systems was kept approximately the same, and a cumulative dose-volume histogram of the treated volume was then generated with the Nucletron Brachytherapy Planning System to use for comparison. To evaluate the dose to a hypothetical target, in this case the cervix, a 2-cm-long, 3-cm-diameter cylinder centered along the tandem was digitized as the clinical target volume. The location of this hypothetical cervix was based on the optimal application of the brachytherapy system. A visual comparison of clinical target coverage by the treated volume on three different orthogonal planes through the treated volume was performed. The percentage dose-volume histograms of the target were generated for comparison. Multiple midline points were also placed at 5-mm intervals away from the tandem in the plane of the cervix to simulate the location of potential bladder and rectal dose points. Doses to these normal structures were calculated for comparison. Results: Although both systems covered the hypothetical cervix adequately, the interstitial system had a better

  8. Thermal-hydraulics of wave propagation and pressure distribution under hypothetical steam explosion conditions in the ANS reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; N-Valenit, S.; Kim, S.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes salient aspects of the modeling and analysis framework for evaluation of dynamic loads, wave propagation, and pressure distributions (under hypothetical steam explosion conditions) around key structural boundaries of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor core region. A staged approach was followed, using simple thermodynamic models for bounding loads and the CTH code for evaluating realistic estimates in a staged multidimensional framework. Effects of nodalization, melt dispersal into coolant during explosion, single versus multidirectional dissipation, energy level of melt, and rate of energy deposition into coolant were studied. The importance of capturing multidimensional effects that simultaneously account for fluid-structural interactions was demonstrated. As opposed to using bounding loads from thermodynamic evaluations, it was revealed that the ANS reactor system will not be vulnerable to vertically generated missiles that threaten containment if realistic estimates of energetics are used (from CTH calculations for thermally generated steam explosions without significant aluminum ignition).

  9. Vignettes in Gravitation and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sriramkumar, L

    2012-01-01

    This book comprises expository articles on different aspects of gravitation and cosmology that are aimed at graduate students. The topics discussed are of contemporary interest assuming only an elementary introduction to gravitation and cosmology. The presentations are to a certain extent pedagogical in nature, and the material developed is not usually found in sufficient detail in recent textbooks in these areas.

  10. Modeling fates and impacts for bio-economic analysis of hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.; Etkin, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The oil spill risks associated with four submerged rock pinnacles near Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay are being evaluated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Oil spill modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The scenarios are hypothetical vessel grounding on the pinnacles. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). The frequency distribution of oil fates and impacts was determined by first running each scenario in stochastic mode. The oil fates and biological effects of the spills were the focus of this paper. It was shown that diesel and crude oil spills would have greater impacts in the water column than heavy fuel or gasoline because gasoline is more volatile and less toxic and because heavy oil spills would be small in volume. It was determined that the major impacts and damage to birds would be low due to the high dilution potential of the bay. It was also noted that dispersants would be very effective in reducing impacts on wildlife and the shoreline. These results are being used to evaluate the cost-benefit analysis of removing the rocks versus the risk of an oil spill. The work demonstrates a statistically quantifiable method to estimate potential impacts that could be used in ecological risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. 15 refs., 13 tabs., 11 figs

  11. Role of Fault Attributions and Other Factors in Adults' Attitudes Toward Hypothetical Children With an Undesirable Characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadian, Taylor W; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Jones, Tucker L; Barnett, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    A total of 184 adults read descriptions of six hypothetical children with various undesirable characteristics (i.e., being extremely overweight, extremely aggressive, extremely shy, a poor student, a poor athlete, displaying symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Following each description, the participants were asked to rate how much they disagree or agree that the child, the child's parents, and the child's biological condition (i.e., "something wrong inside the child's body or brain") are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the undesirable characteristic. In addition, the participants were asked to rate their attitude toward each child using a 100-point "feeling thermometer." Analyses of the participants' various fault attribution ratings revealed that they tended to agree more strongly that a child's parents and his/her biological condition are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the child's undesirable characteristic than is the child him/herself. Despite the participants' reluctance to blame a hypothetical child for his/her undesirable characteristic, regression analyses revealed that, in general, the more they blamed the child for the onset of his/her undesirable characteristic, the more negative their attitude was toward the child. However, the participants' ratings of the extent to which the child's parents or biological condition are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the child's undesirable characteristic were not found to be associated with their attitude toward any of the children. Similarities and differences between the present findings and those reported in prior studies involving younger individuals are addressed.

  12. Pediatrician’s cough and cold medication prescription for hypothetical cases – A cross-sectional multi-centric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Chandelia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concerns over inappropriate use of cough and cold medication (CCM in children have been raised. In addition to being ineffective, these are now considered toxic for young children. Despite this fact studies from some regions have shown high use of these medications by physicians. However data on pediatricians and from India are negligible. Aim: To study the burden and patterns of cough and cold medications use by pediatricians for hypothetical cases. Methods: In this cross-sectional study; 172 pediatricians of various hospitals of Delhi and Haryana were enrolled from February 15 to March 15, 2012. They were contacted personally by authors and asked to write their prescriptions for two hypothetical case scenarios [having cough and cold] of two different age groups; (1 less than 2 years and (2 2–5 years. We made two categories as recommendations exist for children less than 2 years while recommendations for the second category are underway. Results were summarized as percentages, counts and; presented in tables and figures. Chi square test was used to establish association between categorical variables of subgroups. Results: Response rate was 93%. The most used CCM was antihistaminics (82% and systemic sympathomimetics (48%. The use of CCM was significantly less in teaching hospitals as compared to non-teaching (77% vs. 95%; p-value – 0.025. However there was no statistical difference in the practice of post graduates and more senior pediatricians (p value-0.895. No difference in CCM use in two age groups {(82% (less than 2 years vs. 85% (2–5 years; p-value – 0.531} was observed. Conclusion: Overall use of CCM is still high irrespective of patient age, pediatrician’s seniority or hospital setting. Efforts should be made to create awareness among the pediatricians regarding cautious use of these medications.

  13. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  14. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  15. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  16. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  17. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  18. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  19. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  20. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  1. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  2. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  3. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  4. Determinants of physician empathy during medical education: hypothetical conclusions from an exploratory qualitative survey of practicing physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy is an outcome-relevant physician characteristic and thus a crucial component of high-quality communication in health care. However, the factors that promote and inhibit the development of empathy during medical education have not been extensively researched. Also, currently there is no explicit research on the perspective of practicing physicians on the subject. Therefore the aim of our study was to explore physicians’ views of the positive and negative influences on the development of empathy during their medical education, as well as in their everyday work as physicians. Method We administered a written Qualitative Short Survey to 63 physicians in seven specialties. They were able to respond anonymously. Our open-ended question was: “What educational content in the course of your studies and/or your specialist training had a positive or negative effect on your empathy?” We analyzed the data using thematic content analysis following Mayring’s approach. Results Forty-two physicians took part in our survey. All together, they mentioned 68 specific factors (37 positive, 29 negative, 2 neutral) from which six themes emerged: 1. In general, medical education does not promote the development of empathy. 2. Recognizing the psycho-social dimensions of care fosters empathy. 3. Interactions with patients in medical practice promote empathy. 4. Physicians’ active self-development through reflective practice helps the development of empathy. 5. Interactions with colleagues can both promote and inhibit empathy through their role modeling of empathic and non-empathic behavior. 6. Stress, time pressure, and adverse working conditions are detrimental to empathy development. Conclusions Our results provide an overview of what might influence the development of clinical empathy, as well as hypothetical conclusions about how to promote it. Reflective practice seems to be lacking in current medical curricula and could be incorporated. Raising physicians

  5. Results of calculations of external gamma radiation exposure rates from local fallout and the related radionuclide compositions of two hypothetical 1-MT nuclear bursts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, H.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents data on calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and local surface deposition of related radionuclides resulting from two hypothetical 1-Mt nuclear bursts. Calculations are made of the debris from two types of bombs: one containing /sup 235/U as a fissionable material (designated oralloy), the other containing /sup 238/U (designated tuballoy). 4 references.

  6. In-silico structural and functional characterization of a V. cholerae O395 hypothetical protein containing a PDZ1 and an uncommon protease domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avirup Dutta

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of epidemic cholera, has been a constant source of concern for decades. It has constantly evolved itself in order to survive the changing environment. Acquisition of new genetic elements through genomic islands has played a major role in its evolutionary process. In this present study a hypothetical protein was identified which was present in one of the predicted genomic island regions of the large chromosome of V. cholerae O395 showing a strong homology with a conserved phage encoded protein. In-silico physicochemical analysis revealed that the hypothetical protein was a periplasmic protein. Homology modeling study indicated that the hypothetical protein was an unconventional and atypical serine protease belonging to HtrA protein family. The predicted 3D-model of the hypothetical protein revealed a catalytic centre serine utilizing a single catalytic residue for proteolysis. The predicted catalytic triad may help to deduce the active site for the recruitment of the substrate for proteolysis. The active site arrangements of this predicted serine protease homologue with atypical catalytic triad is expected to allow these proteases to work in different environments of the host.

  7. Imagined Contact Improves Intentions towards a Hypothetical Peer with Asperger Syndrome but Not Attitudes towards Peers with Asperger Syndrome in General

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleva, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. First, to investigate whether the imagined contact method (an indirect method of contact) can improve behavioural intentions towards a hypothetical peer with Asperger syndrome (AS). Second, to test whether the effect of the method can be generalised on attitudes towards young people with AS in general.…

  8. Computer simulations of a 1/5-scale experiment of a Mark I boiler water reactor pressure-suppression system under hypothetical LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, L.L.

    1978-01-01

    The CHAMP computer code was employed to simulate a plane-geometry cross section of a Mark I boiling water reactor toroidal pressure suppression system air discharge experiment under hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on a 1 / 5 -scale model of the Peach Bottom Nuclear Power Plant

  9. Can You Tell Me Something about Yourself?: Self-Presentation in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hypothetical and Real Life Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander; Banerjee, Robin; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Koot, Hans M.

    2010-01-01

    The self-presentation skills of children and adolescents with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder (HFASD) and typically developing (TD) controls were compared, in response to both hypothetical and real life situations. In both situations, 26 HFASD and 26 TD participants were prompted to describe themselves twice, first in a baseline…

  10. The recognition of child abuse and the perceived need for intervention by school personnel of primary schools: Results of a vignette study on the influence of case, school personnel, and school characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderfaeillie, Johan; De Ruyck, Karolien; Galle, Johan; Van Dooren, Erik; Schotte, Chris

    2018-03-07

    In 2015, 523 reports of suspected child abuse and neglect (CAN) were brought to the attention of the Confidential Center of Child Abuse and Neglect (CCCAN) of Brussels. Around 38% of these reports came from school personnel. This study investigated which factors affect the recognition of CAN by school personnel of Dutch-speaking primary education in Brussels and their intervention need. Two hundred seventy-nine staff members of 16 schools professionally working with children, filled in a Questionnaire Assessment of Situations of CAN. The instrument consists of 24 vignettes describing CAN. Respondents were asked questions regarding recognition and intervention need about each vignette. Detection, severity assessment, the need for professional help, the need for referral to a CCCAN and the need to involve judicial authorities were mainly associated with case characteristics. Although most situations of CAN were detected, situations of emotional abuse were less often recognized. Situations involving non-Western victims were considered to be more severe and the perceived need for involvement of professional help, CCCAN and judicial authorities was larger. Ethnic stereotypes affect the actions undertaken in case of CAN. Awareness of these reactions may result in equal treatment for all victims. Staff characteristics were little associated with detection and intervention need. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Compras compulsivas: uma revisão e um relato de caso Compulsive buying disorder: a review and a Case Vignette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermano Tavares

    2008-05-01

    , and investigators have debated its potential relationship to mood, substance use, obsessive-compulsive, and impulse control disorders. The objective of this study is to present a review of compulsive buying disorder and present a case vignette. METHOD: Two databases were reviewed (Medline and PsycINFO in search for articles published in the last 40 years. Selected terms included oniomania, compulsive buying, and compulsive shopping. Other relevant articles were also identified through reference lists. RESULTS: Compulsive buying disorder is a prevalent and chronic condition that is found worldwide, sharing commonalities with impulse control disorders. In clinical samples, women make up more than 80% of subjects. Its etiology is unknown, but neurobiologic and genetic mechanisms have been proposed. The disorder is highly comorbid with mood, substance use, eating and impulse control disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment recommendations derived from the literature and clinical experience suggest that problem shoppers can benefit from psychosocial interventions. Cognitive-behavioral group models appear promising. Medication trials have reported mixed results. The identification and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity is also a key aspect of treatment. In order to determine the validity of compulsive buying disorder, future work should focus on psychopathology and neurobiological findings unique to the syndrome.

  12. Altruistic reasoning in adolescent-parent dyads considering participation in a hypothetical sexual health clinical trial for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Noé Rubén; Williams, Camille Y; Ipp, Lisa S; Catallozzi, Marina; Rosenthal, Susan L; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2016-04-01

    Altruism is a well-established reason underlying research participation. Less is known about altruism in adolescent-parent decision-making about clinical trials enrolling healthy adolescents. This qualitative investigation focused on identifying spontaneous statements of altruism within adolescent-parent (dyadic) discussions of participation in a hypothetical phase I clinical trial related to adolescent sexual health. Content analysis revealed several response patterns to each other's altruistic reasoning. Across 70 adolescent-parent dyads in which adolescents were 14-17 years of age and 91% of their parents were mothers, a majority (61%) of dyadic discussions included a statement reflecting altruism. Parents responded to adolescents' statements of altruism more frequently than adolescents responded to parents' statements. Responses included: expresses concern, reiterates altruistic reasoning, agrees with altruistic reasoning, and adds to/expands altruistic reasoning. Since an altruistic perspective was often balanced with concerns about risk or study procedures, researchers cannot assume that altruism will directly lead to study participation. Optimizing the informed consent process for early phase clinical trials involving healthy adolescents may include supporting parents to have conversations with their adolescents which will enhance their capacity to consider all aspects of trial participation.

  13. Improving environmental assessments by integrating Species Sensitivity Distributions into environmental modeling: examples with two hypothetical oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Mearns, Alan J

    2015-04-15

    A three dimensional (3D) trajectory model was used to simulate oil mass balance and environmental concentrations of two 795,000 L hypothetical oil spills modeled under physical and chemical dispersion scenarios. Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD) for Total Hydrocarbon Concentrations (THCs) were developed, and Hazard Concentrations (HC) used as levels of concern. Potential consequences to entrained water column organisms were characterized by comparing model outputs with SSDs, and obtaining the proportion of species affected (PSA) and areas with oil concentrations exceeding HC5s (Area ⩾ HC5). Under the physically-dispersed oil scenario ⩽ 77% of the oil remains on the water surface and strands on shorelines, while with the chemically-dispersed oil scenario ⩽ 67% of the oil is entrained in the water column. For every 10% increase in chemical dispersion effectiveness, the average PSA and Area ⩾ HC5 increases (range: 0.01-0.06 and 0.50-2.9 km(2), respectively), while shoreline oiling decreases (⩽ 2919 L/km). Integrating SSDs into modeling may improve understanding of scales of potential impacts to water column organisms, while providing net environmental benefit comparison of oil spill response options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PBDOWN - a computer code for simulating core material discharge and thermal to mechanical energy conversion in LMFBR hypothetical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1981-01-01

    PBDOWN is a computer code that simulates the blowdown of confined boiling materials ('pools') into a colder upper coolant plenum as time dependent ejection and expansion with consideration of a few selected exchange processes. Its application is restricted to situations resulting from hypothetical loss of flow (LOF) accidents in LMFBR's, where enough voiding has occured, that in core sodium vapor pressures become negligible. PBDOWN considers one working fluid for the discharge process (either fuel or steel) and a maximum of two working fluids (either fuel and sodium or steel and sodium) for the expansion process in the upper coolant plenum. Entrainment of sodium at the accelerated bubble liquid interfaces is mechanistically calculated by a Taylor instability entrainment model. Simulation of a hemispherical expansion form together with this mechanistic entrainment model gives a new integrated calculation of the time dependent sodium mass in the bubble. The paper summarizes the basic equations and assumptions of this computer model. Sample results compare different heat transfer and Na entrainment models during steel and fuel driven discharge processes. Mechanistic sodium entrainment simulation for SNR-type reactors coupled with a realistic heat transfer model is shown to reduce the integral mechanical work potential by a factor of 1.3 to 2.0 over the isentropic energy of the discharge working fluids. (orig.)

  15. Calculation of isodose curves from initial neutron radiation of a hypothetical nuclear explosion using Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marcos P.C.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Andrade, Edson R.; Silva, Ademir X.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear explosions are usually described in terms of its total yield and associated shock wave, thermal radiation and nuclear radiation effects. The nuclear radiation produced in such events has several components, consisting mainly of alpha and beta particles, neutrinos, X-rays, neutrons and gamma rays. For practical purposes, the radiation from a nuclear explosion is divided into i nitial nuclear radiation , referring to what is issued within one minute after the detonation, and 'residual nuclear radiation' covering everything else. The initial nuclear radiation can also be split between 'instantaneous or 'prompt' radiation, which involves neutrons and gamma rays from fission and from interactions between neutrons and nuclei of surrounding materials, and 'delayed' radiation, comprising emissions from the decay of fission products and from interactions of neutrons with nuclei of the air. This work aims at presenting isodose curves calculations at ground level by Monte Carlo simulation, allowing risk assessment and consequences modeling in radiation protection context. The isodose curves are related to neutrons produced by the prompt nuclear radiation from a hypothetical nuclear explosion with a total yield of 20 KT. Neutron fluency and emission spectrum were based on data available in the literature. Doses were calculated in the form of ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons H*(10) n - . (author)

  16. Collective radiation doses following a hypothetical, very severe accident to an irradiated fuel transport flask containing AGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1985-05-01

    Studies of the consequences of very severe, although unlikely, accidents to irradiated fuel transport flasks are made in order to evaluate risks. If an irradiated fuel transport flask carrying AGR fuel were damaged in a hypothetical accident involving a severe impact followed by a prolonged fire, a small proportion of caesium and other fission products might be released to the atmosphere from the gap inventory of broken fuel pins. The consequent radiation dose to the public would arise predominantly by direct irradiation from ground deposits and the ingestion of slightly contaminated foodstuffs. Although these collective doses must generally be estimated with the aid of computer codes, it is shown here that the worst case, when a high proportion of the radioactivity is deposited in a densely population area, can be assessed approximately by a much simpler method, an approach which is of great value in explaining the calculation in a manner that can be readily understood. A comparison is made between the simple approach and equivalent results from the NECTAR code, the worst case is compared with an ensemble average over all weather conditions, and the relative contributions of the two main routes to collective dose are discussed. (author)

  17. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a conserved hypothetical protein XC1692 from Xanthomonas campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Huang, Zhao-Wei; Wei, Kun-Chou; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Gao, Fei Philip; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-01-01

    A conserved hypothetical protein XC1692 from X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant protein crystallized in a variety of forms and diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.45 Å. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris strain 17 is a Gram-negative yellow-pigmented pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. Its genome contains approximately 4500 genes, one third of which have no known structure and/or function yet are highly conserved among several different bacterial genuses. One of these gene products is XC1692 protein, containing 141 amino acids. It was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in a variety of forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffract to at least 1.45 Å resolution. They are hexagonal and belong to space group P6 3 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9, c = 71.0 Å. They contain one molecule per asymmetric unit

  18. Mental health literacy among young people in a small US town: recognition of disorders and hypothetical helping responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Dudley P; Kennedy, May G

    2010-11-01

    Mental health literacy may be a factor in early detection and prompt treatment for mental, emotional and behavioural disorders among young people. Building on previous research in Australia, this study assessed aspects of mental health literacy among adolescents in classrooms in a small town in the eastern USA. The students were provided brief, hypothetical, gender-matched scenarios about adolescents experiencing negative emotions and exhibiting related behaviours; some scenarios depicted diagnosable disorders. The respondents were asked to characterize each scenario as describing a mental health problem or other teen problem and indicate how they would respond to a peer who had such a problem. Overall levels of recognition of mental disorders were low (27.5% identified anxiety and 42.4% identified depression as 'a mental health problem or illness'). However, the respondents who recognized a disorder were three to four times more likely than those who did not to say they would take some helping action, such as telling an adult about the problem (depression: odds ratio 3.27; CI 1.43-7.46, anxiety: OR 4.43; CI 2.23-8.79). Few students (27.7%) remembered in-class discussions of mental health, a mandated health topic for schools in their area. There appears to be substantial room for improvement in mental health literacy among young people, and the development of interventions to enhance mental health literacy among students may be justified. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Heat propagation in and around the deep repository. Thermal calculations applied to three hypothetical sites: Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageskog, L.; Jansson, Patrik

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the modelling of the thermal process in and around the deep repository for spent fuel. The model was developed in the general finite element program ANSYS and applied to the three hypothetical sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg included in the SR 97 analyse system. The canister emplacement in the repository was analysed based on certain criteria regarding the temperature on the canister surface. This was done with consideration to natural deviations in various thermal parameters as well as to the risk of a gap opening up between the canister surface and the bentonite buffer. The consequence of the latter was analysed separately as part of the study. The heat load in the model was applied stepwise, following an assumed time schedule for the actual deposition work. The calculations were extended to 1,000 years after the commencement of the deposition work. The outcome of the calculation is presented as coloured prints of isotherms in and around the repository at certain time intervals

  20. When Do Friends Prevent Friends from Hooking Up Intoxicated? An Examination of Sex Differences and Hypothetical Intoxication in Peer Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Matthew W; Menegatos, Lisa; Roberto, Anthony J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the risks involved when mixing alcohol with casual sexual activity, the majority of college students engage in hookups, and the majority of those hookups involve alcohol. This study focused on the protective role college students' peers can play and the situational factors that might influence their willingness to intervene when a close friend is about to hook up intoxicated. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study investigated differences in students' (N = 1270) attitudes, norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to persuade a close friend not to engage in a hypothetical drunken hookup using a 2 (friend sex) × 2 (participant sex) × 2 (sober/intoxicated) factorial design. Results indicated significant differences in the TPB variables. Participants intended to intervene with female friends, but not male friends, and women were more likely to intervene than men. Participants in the sober condition had stronger intentions to intervene than those in the intoxicated condition, but this effect was driven by increases in men's intentions when sober. Implications for theory and prevention programming are discussed.

  1. Crystal Structure of VC0702 at 2.0 angstrom: A Conserved Hypothetical Protein from Vibrio Cholerae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Shuisong; Forouhar, Farhad; Bussiere, Dirksen E.; Robinson, Howard; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2006-06-01

    VC0702, a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function from Vibrio cholerae, resides in a putative three-gene operon containing the MbaA gene, which is involved in regulating formation of the extracellular matrix of biofilms in Vibrio cholerae. The VC0702 crystal structure has been determined at 2.0? and refined to Rwork=22.8% and Rfree=26.3%. VC0702 crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal lattice in the C2221 space group with dimensions of a=66.61 ?, b=88.118 ?, and c=118.35 ? with a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. VC0702 belongs to the Pfam DUF84 and COG1986 family of proteins. Sequence conservation within the DUF84 and COG1986 families was used to identify a conserved patch of surface residues that define a cleft and potential substrate-binding site in VC0702. The three-dimensional structure of VC0702 is similar to that of Mj0226 from Methanococcus janeshii, which has been identified as a novel NTPase. The NTP-binding site in Mj0226 is similarly located in comparison to the conserved patch of surface residues in VC0702. Furthermore, the NTP binds to MJ0226 in a cleft and deep cavity, features that are present in the VC0702 structure as well, suggesting that VC0702 may have a biochemical function involving NTP binding that is associated with a cellular function of regulating biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae.

  2. Cloning, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a hypothetical protein, MJ0754, from Methanococcus jannaschii DSM 2661.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Nam, Ki Hyun; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2009-10-01

    The protein encoded by the MJ0754 gene from the archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii DSM 2661 is an unknown hypothetical protein. Two recombinant proteins, MJ0754 (residues 1-185) and MJ0754t (a truncated form of MJ0754, residues 11-185), were cloned from MJ0754, overexpressed as His-tag fusion proteins and purified. The crystals were found to grow under two different conditions and to have two different shapes. The crystal of MJ0754 belonged to space group P6(1), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 127.015, c = 48.929 A, a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.85 A(3) Da(-1) and two molecules per asymmetric unit. The crystal of MJ0754t belonged to space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 51.915, b = 79.122, c = 93.869 A, a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.41 A(3) Da(-1) and one molecule per asymmetric unit. The SeMet-labelled P6(1) crystal diffracted to a resolution of 3.1 A, while the native C222(1) crystal diffracted to 1.3 A resolution.

  3. Application of a risk-assessment methodology to a hypothetical high-level waste repository in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Helton, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Sandia/NRC Risk Assessment Methodology consists of a procedure for assessing the post-closure, long-term risk from the disposal of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations. This procedure contains: (1) methods for selecting and screening potentially disruptive events, features and processes (i.e., scenarios); (2) models for use in simulating the physical processes and estimating the potential health effects associated with the deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste (e.g., repository evolution, ground-water flow and nuclide transport, biosphere transport and human exposure, and dose commitment and dose response); and (3) probabilistic and statistical procedures for use in risk estimates and in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Results of the demonstration of this methodology in the analysis of a hypothetical high-level waste repository in bedded salt are presented for the following three scenarios: (1) a hydraulic communication (boreholes or shafts) connects the middle and lower sandstone aquifers allowing water to flow through the depository; (2) a hydraulic communication allows water to flow from the middle sandstone aquifer through the depository and back to middle sandstone aquifer, referred to as a U-tube scenario; and (3) withdrawl wells completed into the middle sandstone aquifer down-gradient from the depository are coupled with the U-tube of Scenario 2

  4. Possibilities of hydrogen removal. Phase 2: Limitation of hydrogen effects in hypothetical severe accidents in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, G.; Koehling, A.; Nikodem, H.

    1984-01-01

    In the event of hypothetical severe accidents in light-water reactors, considerable amounts of hydrogen may be produced and released into the containment. Combustion of the hydrogen may jeopardize the integrity of the containment. The study reported here aimed to identify methods to mitigate the hydrogen problem. These methods should either prevent hydrogen combustion, or limit its effects. The following methods have been investigated: pre-inerting; chemical oxygen absorption; removal of oxygen by combustion; post-inerting with N 2 , CO 2 , or halon; aqueous foam; water fog; deliberate ignition; containment purging; and containment venting. The present state of the art in both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities, has been identified. The assessment of the methods was based on accident scenarios assuming significant release of hydrogen and the spectrum of requirements derived from these scenarios was used to determine the advantages and drawbacks of the various methods, assuming their application in a pressurized water reactor of German design. (orig./RW) [de

  5. Calculation of isodose curves from initial neutron radiation of a hypothetical nuclear explosion using Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Marcos P.C.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Andrade, Edson R., E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: daltongirao@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Corrdenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Egenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear explosions are usually described in terms of its total yield and associated shock wave, thermal radiation and nuclear radiation effects. The nuclear radiation produced in such events has several components, consisting mainly of alpha and beta particles, neutrinos, X-rays, neutrons and gamma rays. For practical purposes, the radiation from a nuclear explosion is divided into {sup i}nitial nuclear radiation{sup ,} referring to what is issued within one minute after the detonation, and 'residual nuclear radiation' covering everything else. The initial nuclear radiation can also be split between 'instantaneous or 'prompt' radiation, which involves neutrons and gamma rays from fission and from interactions between neutrons and nuclei of surrounding materials, and 'delayed' radiation, comprising emissions from the decay of fission products and from interactions of neutrons with nuclei of the air. This work aims at presenting isodose curves calculations at ground level by Monte Carlo simulation, allowing risk assessment and consequences modeling in radiation protection context. The isodose curves are related to neutrons produced by the prompt nuclear radiation from a hypothetical nuclear explosion with a total yield of 20 KT. Neutron fluency and emission spectrum were based on data available in the literature. Doses were calculated in the form of ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons H*(10){sub n}{sup -}. (author)

  6. Point Source contamination approach for hydrological risk assessment of a major hypothetical accident from second research reactor at Inshas site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.A.; Tawfik, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The point source contamination mechanism and the deterministic conservative approach have been implemented to demonstrate the hazards of hydrological pollution due to a major hypothetical accident in the second research reactor at Inshas. The radioactive inventory is assumed to be dissolved in 75% of the cooling water (25% are lost) and comes directly into contact with ground water and moved down gradient. Five radioisotopes(I-129, Sr-90, Ru-106, Cs-134 and Cs-137) of the entire inventory are found to be highly durable and represent vulnerability in the environment. Their downstream spread indices; C max : maximum concentration at the focus of the moving ellipse, delta: pollution duration at different distances, A:polluted area at different distances and X min : safety distance from the reactor, were calculated based on analytical solutions of the convection-dispersion partial differential equation for absorbable and decaying species. The largest downstream contamination range was found for Sr-90 and Ru-106 but still no potential. The geochemical and hydrological parameters of the water bearing formations play a great role in buffering and limiting the radiation effects. These reduce the retention time of the radioisotopes several order of magnitudes in the polluted distances. Sensitivity analysis of the computed pollution ranges shows low sensitivity to possible potential for variations activity of nuclide inventory, dispersivity and saturated thickness and high sensitivity for possible variations in groundwater velocity and retention factors

  7. What would you say? Genetic counseling graduate students' and counselors' hypothetical responses to patient requested self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger-Grosse, Krista; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; MacFarlane, Ian M

    2013-08-01

    Genetic counselor self-disclosure is a complex behavior that lacks extensive characterization. In particular, data are limited about genetic counselors' responses when patients ask them to self-disclose. Accordingly, this study investigated genetic counseling students' (n = 114) and practicing genetic counselors' (n = 123) responses to two hypothetical scenarios in which a female prenatal patient requests self-disclosure. Scenarios were identical except for a final patient question: "Have you ever had an amniocentesis?" or "What would you do if you were me?" Imagining themselves as the counselor, participants wrote a response for each scenario and then explained their response. Differences in disclosure frequency for students vs. counselors and disclosure question were assessed, and themes in participant responses and explanations were extracted via content and thematic analysis methods. Chi-square analyses indicated no significant differences in frequency of student versus counselor disclosure. Self-disclosure was significantly higher for, "Have you ever had an amniocentesis?" (78.5 %) than for, "What would you do if you were me?" (53.2 %) (p self-disclosures included personal, professional, and mixed disclosures. Prevalent explanations for disclosure and non-disclosure responses included: remain patient focused and support/empower the patient. Additional findings, practice and training implications, and research recommendations are presented.

  8. Predicting hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in a future phase III HIV vaccine trial among high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocos, Georgina; Kagee, Ashraf; Swartz, Leslie

    2008-11-01

    The present study sought to determine whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted stated hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in future Phase III HIV vaccine trials among South African adolescents. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) significantly predicted WTP. Of all the predictors, Subjective norms significantly predicted WTP (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.06-1.34). A stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that Subjective Norms (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.07-1.34) and Attitude towards participation in an HIV vaccine trial (OR = 1.32, 95% C.I. = 1.00-1.74) were significant predictors of WTP. The addition of Knowledge of HIV vaccines and HIV vaccine trials, Perceived self-risk of HIV infection, Health-promoting behaviours and Attitudes towards HIV/AIDS yielded non-significant results. These findings provide support for the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and suggest that psychosocial factors may play an important role in WTP in Phase III HIV vaccine trials among adolescents.

  9. Experimental analysis of the behaviour of iodine in the event of hypothetical accidents. Final report. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, F.; Rippel, R.; Proebstle, G.; Fernholz, O.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments have been performed simulating hypothetical core-melt accidents in order to determine droplet-bound transport of radio-nuclides. Different measurement methods have been applied to evaluate steam moisture and droplet size distribution, the carry-over factor of a tracer substance, and, to some extent, droplet velocity, under atmospheric sump water boiling conditions. Part flow analysis yields carry-over factor values on the order of magnitude 10 -5 . Thus it is smaller than would be expected from visual measurements of steam moisture in the main flow, a result which is due to droplet velocity characteristics which limit the carry-over through openings. Results distinctly show that steam moisture (10 -3 up to 7x10 -5 , depending on the distance from the sump) and the droplet size (4-57 μm) can only be used as a source term. In order to evaluate the quantity released from a leakage, a supplementary investigation of droplet carry-over mechanisms will be required. (orig.) [de

  10. Real and hypothetical endowment effects when exchanging lottery tickets: Is regret a better explanation than loss aversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Christoph; Kühberger, Anton; Gilhofer, Rainer

    2013-08-01

    The endowment effect is the finding that possession of an item adds to its value. We introduce a new procedure for testing this effect: participants are divided into two groups. Possession group participants inspect a numbered lottery ticket and know it is theirs, while inspection group participants only inspect a lottery ticket without being endowed with it. Subsequently participants choose between playing the lottery with this (possessed or inspected) ticket, or exchanging it for another one. Our procedure tests for the effect of endowment while controlling for the influence of transaction costs as well as for inspection effects and the influence of bargaining roles (buyer vs. seller), which often afflict experimentation with the endowment effect. In a real setting, tickets in possession were valued significantly higher than inspected tickets. Contrary to some findings in the literature participants also correctly predicted these valuation differences in a hypothetical situation, both for themselves as well as for others. Furthermore, our results suggest that regret rather than loss aversion may be the source of the endowment effect in an experimental setting using lottery tickets. Applying our procedure to a setting employing riskless objects in form of mugs revealed rather ambiguous results, thus emphasizing that the role of regret might be less prominent in non-lottery settings.

  11. Stable Treemaps via Local Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Max; Speckmann, Bettina; Verbeek, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Treemaps are a popular tool to visualize hierarchical data: items are represented by nested rectangles and the area of each rectangle corresponds to the data being visualized for this item. The visual quality of a treemap is commonly measured via the aspect ratio of the rectangles. If the data changes, then a second important quality criterion is the stability of the treemap: how much does the treemap change as the data changes. We present a novel stable treemapping algorithm that has very high visual quality. Whereas existing treemapping algorithms generally recompute the treemap every time the input changes, our algorithm changes the layout of the treemap using only local modifications. This approach not only gives us direct control over stability, but it also allows us to use a larger set of possible layouts, thus provably resulting in treemaps of higher visual quality compared to existing algorithms. We further prove that we can reach all possible treemap layouts using only our local modifications. Furthermore, we introduce a new measure for stability that better captures the relative positions of rectangles. We finally show via experiments on real-world data that our algorithm outperforms existing treemapping algorithms also in practice on either visual quality and/or stability. Our algorithm scores high on stability regardless of whether we use an existing stability measure or our new measure.

  12. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  13. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  14. Hypothetical Rectal Microbicide Acceptability and Factors Influencing It among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Tianjin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Zhang

    Full Text Available To measure potential acceptability of rectal microbicides and to explore factors likely to affect their acceptability among men who have sex with men (MSM.Cross-sectional and retrospective surveys were conducted in this study. A questionnaire and a scale were used to measure the acceptability score for physical and functional characteristics of hypothetical rectal microbicides. We also evaluated the involvement of other factors such as sexual behaviors, social context, etc.MSMs we interviewed showed a high acceptability to rectal microbicides, indicated by the mean acceptability score of 2.92 (SD, 0.54, scale of 1-4. The results also suggested that microbicides were preferred in a cream form that can moisten and lubricate the rectum, prevent HIV infection and go unnoticed by their partners. Multivariate analysis showed that the microbicides acceptability varied significantly by education level (β = 0.135; P = 0.028, having casual partners (β = 0.174; P = 0.007, frequency of lubricant use (β = 0.134; P = 0.031, history of HIV test (β = 0.129; P = 0.036, willingness to use lubricant (β = 0.126; P = 0.045, locus of control by partners regarding STI infection (β = 0.168; P = 0.009.A positive response to rectal microbicides among MSMs was found in our study, suggesting that rectal microbicides might have a potential market in MSMs and they might play an important role in HIV/STIs prevention as a supplement. Further studies may be considered to combine the acceptability study with clinical research together to understand the true feelings of MSMs when they use the products.

  15. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of Integrated Renewable Energy System for Power Generation: A Hypothetical Study of Rural Health Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility analysis and study of integrated renewable energy (IRE using solar photovoltaic (PV and wind turbine (WT system in a hypothetical study of rural health clinic in Borno State, Nigeria. Electrical power consumption and metrology data (such as solar radiation and wind speed were used for designing and analyzing the integrated renewable energy system. The health clinic facility energy consumption is 19 kWh/day with a 3.4 kW peak demand load. The metrological data was collected from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA website and used to analyze the performance of electrical generation system using HOMER program. The simulation and optimization results show that the optimal integrated renewable energy system configuration consists of 5 kW PV array, BWC Excel-R 7.5 kW DC wind turbine, 24 unit Surrette 6CS25P battery cycle charging, and a 19 kW AC/DC converter and that the PV power can generate electricity at 9,138 kWh/year while the wind turbine system can generate electricity at 7,490 kWh/year, giving the total electrical generation of the system as 16,628 kWh/year. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for uninterruptable power performance in the health clinic. The economics analysis result found that the integrated renewable system has total NPC of 137,139 US Dollar. The results of this research show that, with a low energy health facility, it is possible to meet the entire annual energy demand of a health clinic solely through a stand-alone integrated renewable PV/wind energy supply.

  16. Preparatory Work for a Scenario-Based Electricity Expansion Plan for North Korea after Hypothetical Reunification using WASP-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Joo; Chang, Choong Koo

    2014-01-01

    It is noteworthy that North Korean government itself has demanded other parties' cooperation in the field of power sector as the top priority to deal with North Korean own economic issues. In this light, the researcher consider that how to build power capacity in North Korean area after reunification needs to be studied with priority. A scenario-based approach is being adopted, and three scenarios are proposed: Scenario increasing capacity at 2.4% annual rate, Imitating South Korean electricity expansion history, and reaching 80% of South Korean Annual Peak Load in 35 years. In order to carry out the research, WASP-IV (Wien Automation System Planning-IV) code developed by IAEA is, with reasonable assumptions, being executed. Annual Peak Load prediction for each scenario, load duration curve, and existing power generating facilities in North Korea are presented herein. This research is being conducted as a preparatory work for the further study. IAEA's WASP-IV is adopted for a scenario-based electricity expansion plan for North Korea after hypothetical reunification between Koreas. Input data including Annual Peak Load, load duration curve, and existing facilities are built and presented. Additional future research includes inputting candidate plants data, cost data such as construction period, operation and maintenance costs, and fuel costs, as well as decommissioning of aged power plants in North Korea to complete WASP-IV execution. Assuming reunification, electricity expansion plan would need to integrate North and South Koreas demands and facilities. However, this research narrows down its scope to North Korean demand and facilities only. Such integrated simulation could be the topic for the later research. This work was supported by the 2014 Research Fund of the KINGS

  17. Modelling fate and effects of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon fractions following hypothetical oil spills in a marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Amand, A.; Mazzocco, P.; Stephenson, M.

    2009-01-01

    Numerical oil spill models have generally focused on the transport and fate of oil following a spill through processes such as advection, evaporation, spreading dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, biodegradation and sedimentation. These models provide information regarding the trajectory, location and size of the oil slick, as well as the location where the slick will touch shorelines. The models normally treat the spilled hydrocarbon as a single product or group of representative compounds which is not very useful in evaluating toxicological risks to aquatic biota. For that reason, Stantec developed a model that simultaneously evaluates the likely fate and co-toxicity of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon compounds and fractions in water following an oil spill in a marine environment. Compounds currently considered in the model include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, BTEX compounds, (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) and the Canada-Wide Standard hydrocarbon fractions. The fate of these hydrocarbons in the marine environment was simulated using a mass-balance compartment approach in which specific states of the oil and relevant environmental media were considered. At each time step following the hydrocarbon release, the model updated physical properties such as the density and viscosity of the spilled mixtures. When predicting the fate of the mixture, environmental conditions such as wind speed and wave height were taken into account to determine whether droplets of the spilled product remained entrained in the water column or if they resurfaced and possibly emulsified. Two hypothetical spill scenarios were investigated based on assumed spill volumes, assumed product compositions representing a distilled product and crude oil, and assumed environmental and meteorological conditions. The key outputs of the model were the dissolved concentrations of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon compounds and fractions in the water

  18. A study on the overall economic risks of a hypothetical severe accident in nuclear power plant using the delphi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Han Ki; Kim, Joo Yeon; Lee, Jai Ki

    2008-01-01

    Potential economic impact of a hypothetical severe accident at a nuclear power plant(Uljin units 3/4) was estimated by applying the delphi method, which is based on the expert judgements and opinions, in the process of quantifying uncertain factor. For the purpose of this study, it is assumed that the radioactive plume directs the inland direction. Since the economic risk can be divided into direct costs and indirect effects and more uncertainties are involved in the latter, the direct costs were estimated first and the indirect effects were then estimated by applying a weighting factor to the direct cost. The delphi method however subjects to risk of distortion or discrimination of variables because of the human behavior pattern. A mathematical approach based on the Bayesian inferences was employed for data processing to improve the delphi results. For this task, a model for data processing was developed. One-dimensional Monte Carlo analysis was applied to get a distribution of values of the weighting factor. The mean and median values of the weighting factor for the indirect effects appeared to be 2.59 and 2.08, respectively. These values are higher than the value suggested by OECD/NEA, 1.25. Some factors such as small territory and public attitude sensitive to radiation could affect the judgement of panel. Then the parameters of the model for estimating the direct costs were classified as U- and V-types, and two-dimensional Monte Carlo analysis was applied to quantify the overall economic risk. The resulting median of the overall economic risk was about 3.9% of the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) of Korea in 2006. When the cost of electricity loss, the highest direct cost, was not taken into account, the overall economic risk was reduced to 2.2% of GDP. This assessment can be used as a reference for justifying the radiological emergency planning and preparedness

  19. Comparison of the results of several heat transfer computer codes when applied to a hypothetical nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Wagner, R.S.; Just, R.A.

    1979-12-01

    A direct comparison of transient thermal calculations was made with the heat transfer codes HEATING5, THAC-SIP-3D, ADINAT, SINDA, TRUMP, and TRANCO for a hypothetical nuclear waste repository. With the exception of TRUMP and SINDA (actually closer to the earlier CINDA3G version), the other codes agreed to within +-5% for the temperature rises as a function of time. The TRUMP results agreed within +-5% up to about 50 years, where the maximum temperature occurs, and then began an oscillary behavior with up to 25% deviations at longer times. This could have resulted from time steps that were too large or from some unknown system problems. The available version of the SINDA code was not compatible with the IBM compiler without using an alternative method for handling a variable thermal conductivity. The results were about 40% low, but a reasonable agreement was obtained by assuming a uniform thermal conductivity; however, a programming error was later discovered in the alternative method. Some work is required on the IBM version to make it compatible with the system and still use the recommended method of handling variable thermal conductivity. TRANCO can only be run as a 2-D model, and TRUMP and CINDA apparently required longer running times and did not agree in the 2-D case; therefore, only HEATING5, THAC-SIP-3D, and ADINAT were used for the 3-D model calculations. The codes agreed within +-5%; at distances of about 1 ft from the waste canister edge, temperature rises were also close to that predicted by the 3-D model

  20. Evaluation of finite element codes for demonstrating the performance of radioactive material packages in hypothetical accident drop scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, C.F.; Hueggenberg, R.

    2004-01-01

    Drop testing and analysis are the two methods for demonstrating the performance of packages in hypothetical drop accident scenarios. The exact purpose of the tests and the analyses, and the relative prominence of the two in the license application, may depend on the Competent Authority and will vary between countries. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a powerful analysis tool. A reliable finite element (FE) code when used correctly and appropriately, will allow a package's behaviour to be simulated reliably. With improvements in computing power, and in sophistication and reliability of FE codes, it is likely that FEM calculations will increasingly be used as evidence of drop test performance when seeking Competent Authority approval. What is lacking at the moment, however, is a standardised method of assessing a FE code in order to determine whether it is sufficiently reliable or pessimistic. To this end, the project Evaluation of Codes for Analysing the Drop Test Performance of Radioactive Material Transport Containers, funded by the European Commission Directorate-General XVII (now Directorate-General for Energy and Transport) and jointly performed by Arup and Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH, was carried out in 1998. The work consisted of three components: Survey of existing finite element software, with a view to finding codes that may be capable of analysing drop test performance of radioactive material packages, and to produce an inventory of them. Develop a set of benchmark problems to evaluate software used for analysing the drop test performance of packages. Evaluate the finite element codes by testing them against the benchmarks This paper presents a summary of this work

  1. Estimates of immediate effects on world markets of a hypothetical disruption to Russia’s supply of six mineral commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safirova, Elena; Barry, James J.; Hastorun, Sinan; Matos, Grecia R.; Perez, Alberto Alexander; Bedinger, George M.; Bray, E. Lee; Jasinski, Stephen M.; Kuck, Peter H.; Loferski, Patricia J.

    2017-05-18

    The potential immediate effects of a hypothetical shock to Russia’s supply of selected mineral commodities on the world market and on individual countries were determined and monetized (in 2014 U.S. dollars). The mineral commodities considered were aluminum (refined primary), nickel (refined primary), palladium (refined) and platinum (refined), potash, and titanium (mill products), and the regions and countries of primary interest were the United States, the European Union (EU–28), and China. The shock is assumed to have infinite duration, but only the immediate effects, those limited by a 1-year period, are considered.A methodology for computing and monetizing the potential impacts was developed. Then the data pertaining to all six mineral commodities were collected and the most likely effects were computed. Because of the uncertainties associated with some of the data, sensitivity analyses were conducted to confirm the validity of the results.Results indicate that the impact on the United States arising from a shock to Russia’s supply, in terms of the value of net exports, would range from a gain of \\$336 million for titanium mill products to a loss of \\$237 million for potash; thus, the overall effect of a supply shock is likely to be quite modest. The study also demonstrates that, taken alone, Russia’s share in the world production of a particular commodity is not necessarily indicative of the size of potential impacts resulting from a supply shock; other factors, such as prices, domestic production, and the structure of international commodity flows were found to be important as well.

  2. In silico identification and validation of a novel hypothetical protein in Cryptosporidium hominis and virtual screening of inhibitors as therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Arpit Kumar; Kumar, Subrat; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta

    2017-05-01

    Computational approaches to predict structure/function and other biological characteristics of proteins are becoming more common in comparison to the traditional methods in drug discovery. Cryptosporidiosis is a major zoonotic diarrheal disease particularly in children, which is caused primarily by Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Currently, there are no vaccines for cryptosporidiosis and recommended drugs are ineffective. With the availability of complete genome sequence of C. hominis, new targets have been recognized for the development of effective and better drugs and/or vaccines. We identified a unique hypothetical protein (TU502HP) in the C. hominis genome from the CryptoDB database. A three-dimensional model of the protein was generated using the Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement server through an iterative threading method. Functional annotation and phylogenetic study of TU502HP protein revealed similarity with human transportin 3. The model is further subjected to a virtual screening study form the ZINC database compound library using the Dock Blaster server. A docking study through AutoDock software reported N-(3-chlorobenzyl)ethane-1,2-diamine as the best inhibitor in terms of docking score and binding energy. The reliability of the binding mode of the inhibitor is confirmed by a complex molecular dynamics simulation study using GROMACS software for 10 ns in the water environment. Furthermore, antigenic determinants of the protein were determined with the help of DNASTAR software. Our findings report a great potential in order to provide insights in the development of new drug(s) or vaccine(s) for treatment and prophylaxis of cryptosporidiosis among humans and animals.

  3. Modeling of response, socioeconomic, and natural resource damage costs for hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of oil type, spill size, response strategy and location factors on oil spill response costs, with particular reference to the cost benefits of the use of dispersants. Modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill in San Francisco Bay to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). Response costs, natural resource damages and socioeconomic impact were determined based on spill trajectory and fate. Mechanical recovery-based operations carry higher response costs than dispersant-based operations. Response costs for diesel and gasoline spills make up 20 per cent of the total costs, compared to 43 per cent for crude and heavy fuel oil spills. Damages to natural resources are higher for spills of toxic lighter fuels such as gasoline and diesel because gasoline has a greater impact on the water column with less shoreline oiling, resulting in more damages to natural resources. Heavier oils have a greater impact on shorelines and higher response and socioeconomic costs. Although socioeconomic costs varied by location, they tend to be greater than response costs and natural resource damage costs. Proportions of the different costs were described with reference to various spill factors. Socioeconomic costs are 61, 76, 45 and 53 per cent respectively for gasoline, diesel, crude oil, and heavy fuel oil spills. 27 refs., 23 tabs., 5 figs

  4. The surprisingly high acceptability of low-efficacy vaccines for otitis media: a survey of parents using hypothetical scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischnack, L L; Jacobson, R M; Poland, G A; Jacobsen, S J; Harrison, J M; Murtaugh, P A

    1995-03-01

    To determine parental thresholds for accepting vaccines for otitis media prevention given tradeoffs of efficacy, adverse effects, and administration mode. We interviewed 601 randomly selected parents with children 0 through 6 years of age presenting to our community pediatric clinic. For each of five hypothetical vaccines, which varied administration mode from nasal spray to two injections and adverse effects from mild to severe, parents indicated the lowest number of otitis media episodes that the vaccine had to prevent in the next 6 months for them to accept the vaccine. About half the parents would accept any one of the vaccines if it would prevent three or more infections in the next 6 months. When the vaccine would prevent one episode of otitis media over the next 6 months, 33% of parents would accept the medial vaccine (one injection in the thigh, with some children getting a red, sore injection site and a few having a fever of < or = 102 degrees F for one day). Seventeen percent accepted a vaccine requiring two injections (influenza vaccine-like) or having increased adverse effects (pneumococcal vaccine-like) despite the vaccine only preventing one episode of otitis media over the next 6 months. No substantial differences in these proportions were found when compared among groups by reason-for-visit, recent occurrence of otitis media, or a history of recurrent otitis media in a sibling. Many parents will accept low efficacy vaccines for otitis media prevention. Parental acceptance does not vary with the child's otitis media experience but does vary with severity of adverse effects and administration mode of the vaccine.

  5. Large scale experiments simulating hydrogen distribution in a spent fuel pool building during a hypothetical fuel uncovery accident scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignot, Guillaume; Paranjape, Sidharth; Paladino, Domenico; Jaeckel, Bernd; Rydl, Adolf [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-08-15

    Following the Fukushima accident and its extended station blackout, attention was brought to the importance of the spent fuel pools' (SFPs) behavior in case of a prolonged loss of the cooling system. Since then, many analytical works have been performed to estimate the timing of hypothetical fuel uncovery for various SFP types. Experimentally, however, little was done to investigate issues related to the formation of a flammable gas mixture, distribution, and stratification in the SFP building itself and to some extent assess the capability for the code to correctly predict it. This paper presents the main outcomes of the Experiments on Spent Fuel Pool (ESFP) project carried out under the auspices of Swissnuclear (Framework 2012–2013) in the PANDA facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. It consists of an experimental investigation focused on hydrogen concentration build-up into a SFP building during a predefined scaled scenario for different venting positions. Tests follow a two-phase scenario. Initially steam is released to mimic the boiling of the pool followed by a helium/steam mixture release to simulate the deterioration of the oxidizing spent fuel. Results shows that while the SFP building would mainly be inerted by the presence of a high concentration of steam, the volume located below the level of the pool in adjacent rooms would maintain a high air content. The interface of the two-gas mixture presents the highest risk of flammability. Additionally, it was observed that the gas mixture could become stagnant leading locally to high hydrogen concentration while steam condenses. Overall, the experiments provide relevant information for the potentially hazardous gas distribution formed in the SFP building and hints on accident management and on eventual retrofitting measures to be implemented in the SFP building.

  6. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  7. physico-chemical and stable isotopes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details the mineralogical, chemical and stable isotope abundances of calcrete in the Letlhakeng fossil valley. The stable isotope abundances (O and C) of calcretes yielded some values which were tested against the nature of the calcretes – pedogenic or groundwater type. The Kgalagadi (Kalahari) is a vast ...

  8. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  9. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar

  10. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  11. Stable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of the halophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the halophytic Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Yan-Lin Sun, Soon-Kwan Hong. Abstract. In this study, an efficient procedure for stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) was established. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105, harboring a ...

  12. The evolution of the hypothetical system from Classical Latin to Romance languages. Out of phase convergences of French and Italian languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis BEGIONI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our article concerns the evolution of the hypothetical system from Classical Latin to French language (Old French and Modern French and Italian language. The point is the study ofdiachronic systemics that shows how the hypothetical system has been deeply altered and reorganized by linguistics changes as the apparition of the analytical future (ex. AMARE +HABEO and the apparition of the conditional in Vulgar Latin. The Old French and the Modern Italian keep the subjunctive mood in the subordinate clause while the Modern French introducesthe imperfect tense of the indicative mood because of the systemical disappearance of the «passé simple» and of the imperfect tense of subjunctive mood.

  13. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  14. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  15. Simulating the spread of classical swine fever virus between a hypothetical wild-boar population and domestic pig herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Goldbach, Stine G.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2008-01-01

    of CSFV between the hypothetical wild-boar population and the domestic population. Furthermore, the economic impact is assessed taking the perspective of the Danish national budget and the Danish pig industry. We used InterSpreadPlus to model the differential classical swine fever (CSF) risk due to wild...... boar. Nine scenarios were run to elucidate the effect of: (a) presence of wild boar (yes/no), (b) locations for the index case (domestic pig herd/wild-boar group),...

  16. Assessment of the long-term risk of a meteorite impact on a hypothetical Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault deep in plutonic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuschke, D.M.; Whitaker, S.H.; Goodwin, B.W.; Rasmussen, L.R.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes an assessment of the long-term radiological risk to an individual of the critical group that would result from a meteorite impact on a hypothetical reference disposal vault for used fuel, located 500 m below the Earth's surface. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if this radiological risk could exceed or approach the AECB risk criterion. (author). 47 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Worst case meteorological scenario for Norway in case of hypothetical accident related to recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnicki, J.; Klein, H. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Aas (Norway); Amundsen, I.; Hosseini, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Aas (Norway); Haakenstad, H. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive Norwegian project led by Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority assessing risks related to a potential salvaging and decommissioning of the Russian nuclear submarine, K-27. In September 1981, the K-27 submarine was scuttled at shallow waters in the outer part of Stepovogo Bay, situated at the north-eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya. One of the scenarios that are included in the assessment is the lifting of the submarine to the surface and the subsequent transport to the Murmansk area for decommissioning. Thus, the risk of a criticality accident as a consequence of lifting and transport event cannot be ignored. A hypothetical accident might pose a serious threat to Norwegian territories and has to be considered from different perspectives. Here, we focus on the worst case meteorological scenario for Norway, but the same approach can be applied for other Scandinavian countries and Russia. As a first step, a large database with meteorological data has been prepared for the period of thirty years (1980-2010). These meteorological data are available in the 1000 km x 1000 km domain which includes both the entire Norwegian territory and the region of Novaya Zemlya. The spatial resolution of the meteorological data is 11 km and temporal 3 hours. The vertical structure includes 40 layers. The most important meteorological elements are the 3-D velocity field, the surface precipitation field and the 3-D temperature field. The second step is the development of the source terms for potential accidents which can be used by the dispersion model SNAP (Severe Nuclear Accident Program). Three locations for potential accidents with subsequent releases of radioactivity to the environment are assumed: 1) at the present location of K-27, 2) transport on the route to Murmansk and 3) in the Murmansk region. In the third step, the SNAP model will be run with meteorological data starting every 6. hour of each day during the 30 years period. As a result

  18. Environmental Performance of Hypothetical Canadian Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Processes Using Life-Cycle Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkana Piewkhaow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of life-cycle assessment was applied in order to evaluate the environmental performance of a hypothetical Saskatchewan lignite-fueled Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC electricity generation, with and without pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2 capture from a full life-cycle perspective. The emphasis here is placed on environmental performance associated with air contaminants of the comparison between IGCC systems (with and without CO2 capture and a competing lignite pulverized coal-fired electricity generating station in order to reveal which technology offers the most positive environmental effects. Moreover, ambient air pollutant modeling was also conducted by using American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD air dispersion modeling to determine the ground-level concentration of pollutants emitted from four different electricity generating stations. This study assumes that all stations are located close to Estevan. The results showed a significant reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and acidification potential by applying both post-combustion and pre-combustion CO2 capture processes. The GHG emissions were found to have reduced by 27%–86%, and IGCC systems were found to compare favorably to pulverized coal systems. However, in other environmental impact categories, there are multiple environmental trade-offs depending on the capture technology used. In the case of post-combustion capture, it was observed that the environmental impact category of eutrophication potential, summer smog, and ozone depletion increased due to the application of the CO2 capture process and the surface mining coal operation. IGCC systems, on the other hand, showed the same tendency as the conventional coal-fired electricity generation systems, but to a lesser degree. This is because the IGCC system is a cleaner technology that produces lower pollutant emission levels than the electricity

  19. Within-population diversity of koala Chlamydophila pecorum at ompA VD1-VD3 and the ORF663 hypothetical gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D P; Beninati, T; Meek, M; Irish, J; Griffith, J E

    2012-05-04

    Infection of koalas by Chlamydophila pecorum is very common and causes significant morbidity, infertility and mortality. Fundamental to management of the disease is an understanding of the importance of multi-serotype infection or pathogen virulence in pathogenesis; these may need consideration in plans involving koala movement, vaccination, or disease risk assessment. Here we describe diversity of ompA VD1-3, and ORF663 hypothetical gene tandem repeat regions, in a single population of koalas with diverse disease outcomes. We PCR amplified and sequenced 72 partial ompA segments and amplified 25 tandem repeat segments (ORF663 hypothetical gene) from C. pecorum obtained from 62 koalas. Although several ompA genotypes were identified nationally, only one ompA genotype existed within the population studied, indicating that severe chlamydial disease occurs commonly in free-ranging koalas in the absence of infection by multiple MOMP serotypes of C. pecorum. In contrast, variation in tandem repeats within the ORF663 hypothetical gene was very high, approaching the entire range reported for pathogenic and non-pathogenic C. pecorum of European ruminants; providing an impetus for further investigation of this as a potential virulence trait. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of dark-band-like metal artifacts caused by dental implant bodies using hypothetical monoenergetic imaging after dual-energy computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ray; Hayashi, Takafumi; Ike, Makiko; Noto, Yoshiyuki; Goto, Tazuko K

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of hypothetical monoenergetic images after dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for assessment of the bone encircling dental implant bodies. Seventy-two axial images of implantation sites clipped out from image data scanned using DECT in dual-energy mode were used. Subjective assessment on reduction of dark-band-like artifacts (R-DBAs) and diagnosability of adjacent bone condition (D-ABC) in 3 sets of DECT images-a fused image set (DE120) and 2 sets of hypothetical monoenergetic images (ME100, ME190)-was performed and the results were statistically analyzed. With regards to R-DBAs and D-ABC, significant differences among DE120, ME100, and ME190 were observed. The ME100 and ME190 images revealed more artifact reduction and diagnosability than those of DE120. DECT imaging followed by hypothetical monoenergetic image construction can cause R-DBAs and increase D-ABC and may be potentially used for the evaluation of postoperative changes in the bone encircling implant bodies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stable Organic Neutral Diradical via Reversible Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenpin; Quanz, Henrik; Burghaus, Olaf; Hofmann, Jonas; Logemann, Christian; Beeck, Sebastian; Schreiner, Peter R; Wegner, Hermann A

    2017-12-27

    We report the formation of a stable neutral diboron diradical simply by coordination of an aromatic dinitrogen compound to an ortho-phenyldiborane. This process is reversible upon addition of pyridine. The diradical species is stable above 200 °C. Computations are consistent with an open-shell triplet diradical with a very small open-shell singlet-triplet energy gap that is indicative of the electronic disjointness of the two radical sites. This opens a new way of generating stable radicals with fascinating electronic properties useful for a large variety of applications.

  2. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  3. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  4. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  5. Allan Hills Stable Water Isotopes, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable water isotope values at 10 m resolution along an approximately 5 km transect through the main icefield of the Allan Hills Blue Ice...

  6. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacokinetic profile or mode of action of a drug substance. Secondly, stable isotopes may be used for the assessment of drug products or drug delivery systems by determination of parameters such as the bioavailability or the release profile. Thirdly, patients may be assessed in relation to patient-specific drug treatment; this concept is often called personalized medicine. In this article, the application of stable isotope technology in the aforementioned three areas is reviewed, with emphasis on developments over the past 25 years. The applications are illustrated with examples from clinical studies in humans. PMID:21801197

  7. Tannaka duality and stable infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanari, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of fine tannakian infinity-categories and prove Tannaka duality results for symmetric monoidal stable infinity-categories over a field of characteristic zero. We also discuss several examples.

  8. On Stable Marriages and Greedy Matchings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, Fredrik; Naim, Md; Lerring, Hakon; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-12-11

    Research on stable marriage problems has a long and mathematically rigorous history, while that of exploiting greedy matchings in combinatorial scientific computing is a younger and less developed research field. In this paper we consider the relationships between these two areas. In particular we show that several problems related to computing greedy matchings can be formulated as stable marriage problems and as a consequence several recently proposed algorithms for computing greedy matchings are in fact special cases of well known algorithms for the stable marriage problem. However, in terms of implementations and practical scalable solutions on modern hardware, the greedy matching community has made considerable progress. We show that due to the strong relationship between these two fields many of these results are also applicable for solving stable marriage problems.

  9. The Reactivity of Stable Metallacyclobutenes and Vinylcarbenes

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Ryan Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1. Historical Development of Stable Metallacyclobutenes Fred Tebbe and co-workers synthesized the first stable metallacyclobutene complexes in the late 1970’s by treatment of an intermediate titanium methylene species – later popularized as the “Tebbe reagent” – with acetylenes. Robert Grubbs at Caltech further studied this system, using it to detail a degenerate metathesis reaction and to isolate a metallacyclobutane complex – which was implicated in the emerging field of alkene meta...

  10. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  11. A study on integrity of LMFBR secondary cooling system to hypothetical tube failure propagation in the steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihisa Shindo; Kazuo Haga

    2005-01-01

    -LT code also developed in ANL. In this preliminary work event trees have been prepared to make clear the scenario from the initial small-scale leak to the severest large-scale leak due to the tube failure propagation in SG. The probability of failures of leak detectors, nickel membrane-type hydrogen detectors in sodium and pressure gauges that observe the cover gas pressure of SG (EV: evaporator and SH: superheater), is considered in the event trees. On the other hand, rupture disks in SH and EV were assumed to have the normal function in leak detection and reaction products release. In some cases, water/steam blow valves to mitigate leak propagation were assumed hypothetically to fail after the plant trip, and the water and steam remained in SG are not released. A relation between the maximum leak rate resulting from the tube failure propagation and the probability of its occurrence was obtained tentatively from these considerations. Then, the effect of pressure generated by the sodium-water reaction was evaluated to the structural integrity of the secondary cooling system components. (authors)

  12. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  13. Case study of the effects of hypothetical nuclear power plant accident to the northern food chain of lichen-reindeer-man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, A.P.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are plans to open a new nuclear power plant in Northern Finland at Pyhaejoki. The currently planned reactor type is AES 2006 built by Rosenergoatom. The power output of the AES 2006 is 1200 MWe. In a hypothetical reactor accident at Pyhaejoki large amounts of radioactivity would be released to the environment in Northern Europe. With suitable wind conditions the contaminants would contaminate large areas in the Euro-Arctic region in Northern Scandinavia and in Kola Peninsula. Northern parts of Scandinavia belongs to the sub-arctic region where reindeer herding is an important livelihood for the local and for the indigenous Sami people. As a results of the CEEPRA-project ('Collaboration Network on Environmental Radiation Protection and Research') funded by the EU's Kolarctic ENPI CBC program estimated a possible fallout to Finnish Lapland from a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident occurring at the planned site. Lichen-reindeer-man food chain is an important food chain to the people living in Lapland from traditional and from economical point of views. The food chain is known to enrich radioactive contaminants efficiently. In case of nuclear fallout this food chain would be one of the primary sources of {sup 137}Cs into the inhabitants in Northern regions. The food chain has been well-studied where studies began in the 1960's and was intensified after the Chernobyl accident. This study concentrates on the effects caused by the hypothetical accident, occurring at the planned Pyhaejoki power plant, to the lichen-reindeer-man food chain. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs to the reindeer meat and possible doses to the man will be estimated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  14. Investigating the consequences of urban volcanism using a scenario approach I: Development and application of a hypothetical eruption in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca H.; Blake, Daniel M.; Davies, Alistair J.; Hayes, Josh L.; Stewart, Carol; Wilson, Grant; Wilson, Thomas M.; Castelino, Renella; Kennedy, Ben M.; Muspratt, Scott; Woods, Richard

    2017-04-01

    What happens when a city has a volcanic eruption within its boundaries? To explore the consequences of this rare but potentially catastrophic combination, we develop a detailed multi-hazard scenario of an Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) eruption; the AVF underlies New Zealand's largest city, Auckland. We start with an existing AVF unrest scenario sequence and develop it through a month-long hypothetical eruption based on geologic investigations of the AVF and historic similar eruptions from around the world. We devise a credible eruption sequence and include all volcanic hazards that could occur in an AVF eruption. In consultation with Civil Defence and Emergency Management staff, we create a series of evacuation maps for before, during, and after the hypothetical eruption sequence. Our result is a versatile scenario with many possible applications, developed further in companion papers that explore eruption consequences on transportation and water networks. However, here we illustrate one application: evaluating the consequences of an eruption on electricity service provision. In a collaborative approach between scientists and electricity service providers, we evaluate the impact of the hypothetical eruption to electricity generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure. We then evaluate how the impacted network functions, accounting for network adaptations (e.g., diverting power away from evacuated areas), site access, and restoration factors. We present a series of regional maps showing areas with full service, rolling outages, and no power as a result of the eruption. This illustrative example demonstrates how a detailed scenario can be used to further understand the ramifications of urban volcanism on local and regional populations, and highlights the importance of looking beyond damage to explore the consequences of volcanism.

  15. H-1, C-13, and N-15 NMR assignments of the hypothetical Nudix protein DR0079 from the extremely radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Ni, Shuisong; Holbrook, Stephen R.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2003-02-05

    Letter to the Editor. Biological context Deinococcus radiodurans is a bacterium that is extremely resistant to the lethal and mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, and other physical and chemical DNA-damaging agents (Battista, 1997). It has been suggested that this resistance is due to unusually efficient DNA repair mechanisms (Minton, 1994). Analysis of the complete genome sequence of D. radiodurans reveals a full suite of genes with potential DNA repair activities (White et al, 1999), essentially all of which have functional homologues in other procaryotes. These hypothetical DNA repair genes display a high amount of redundancy and include 21 genes that have sequence homology with the Nudix family of polyphosphate pyrophosphohydrolases (Bessman et al., 1996). Nudix proteins are identified by the consensus sequence GX5EX7REUXEEXGU (where U= I, L, or V and X= any amino acid) that forms part of the catalytic site for diphosphate hydrolysis (Bessman et al., 1996). Consequently, a nucleoside diphosphate linkage is a feature common in Nudix substrates that include NADH, nucleotide sugars, dinucleotide polyphosphates, and (deoxy)ribonucleoside triphosphates (NTPs). The general biochemical function of the Nudix family of proteins is believed to be sanitizing the cell (Bessman et al., 1996). For example, MutT preferably hydrolyzes the promutagenic NTP 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine triphosphate to nucleotide monophosphate and inorganic phosphate. Despite the identification of over 450 putative Nudix proteins in genomes on the basis of the Nudix consensus sequence (Gabelli et al., 2001), few Nudix protein structures have been determined (Holbrook et al., 2002). To better understand the relevance, function, and mechanism of the Nudix family of proteins, and to better understand the roles played by the hypothetical D. radiodurans Nudix proteins in radiation-resistance, we have crystallized the hypothetical D.

  16. Calculation of the individual and population doses on Danish territory resulting from hypothetical core-melt accidents at the Barsebaeck reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lundtang Petersen, E.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Heikel Vinther, F.

    1977-10-01

    Individual and population doses on Danish territory are calculated from hypothetical, severe core-melt accidents at the Swedish nuclear plant at Barsebaeck. The release fractions for these accidents are taken from WASH-1400. Based on parametric studies, doses are calculated for very unfavourable, but not incredible weather conditions. The probability of such conditions in combination with wind direction towards Danish territory is estimated. Doses to bone marrow, lungs, GI-tract and thyroid are calculated using dose models developed at Risoe. These doses are found to be consistent with doses calculated with the models used in WASH-1400. (author)

  17. Load analysis of hypothetical ruptures and optimum design of H-type anti-whip restraint devices for high energy pipes based on bilinearity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingtian; Cao Feng; Ding Youyuan; Wang Jianjun; Fang Jiang

    2011-01-01

    In order to deal with the dynamic effects induced by the hypothetical ruptures of the high energy pipes in nuclear power plants, the physical isolation and anti-whip restraint devices should be adopted based on the mechanical analysis during the NPP design. This paper not only introduces the calculation methods of jet forces, jet energy and characteristic lengths of circumferential rupture of high energy pipes based on the optimum mechanic mode, but also presents one new bilinearity method which could be used for the design and verification of the H type anti-whip restraint devices. (authors)

  18. Solution of Einstein's Geometrical Gravitational Field Equations Exterior to Astrophysically Real or Hypothetical Time Varying Distributions of Mass within Regions of Spherical Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a profound and complete analytical solution to Einstein's gravitational field equations exterior to astrophysically real or hypothetical time varying distributions of mass or pressure within regions of spherical geometry. The single arbitrary function $f$ in our proposed exterior metric tensor and constructed field equations makes our method unique, mathematically less combersome and astrophysically satisfactory. The obtained solution of Einstein's gravitational field equations tends out to be a generalization of Newton's gravitational scalar potential exterior to the spherical mass or pressure distribution under consideration.

  19. Guidelines for calculating radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under hypothetical accident conditions in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This Standard provides guidelines and a methodology for calculating effective doses and thyroid doses to people (either individually or collectively) in the path of airborne radioactive material released from a nuclear facility following a hypothetical accident. The specific radionuclides considered in the Standard are those associated with substances having the greatest potential for becoming airborne in reactor accidents (eg, tritium (HTO), noble gases and their daughters (Kr-Rb, Xe-Cs), and radioiodines (I)); and certain radioactive particulates (eg, Cs, Ru, Sr, Te) that may become airborne under exceptional circumstances

  20. The numerical simulation of the WWER-440/V-213 reactor pressure vessel internals response to maximum hypothetical large break loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansky, P.; Krajcovic, M.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor internals are designed to ensure cooling of the fuel, to ensure the movement of emergency control assemblies under all operating conditions including accidents and facilitate removal of the fuel and of the internals following an accident This paper presents results of the numerical simulation of the WWER-440/V213 reactor vessel internals dynamic response to maximum hypothetical Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the reactor vessel internals response due to rapid depressurization and to prove no such deformations occur in the reactor vessel internals which would prevent timely and proper activation of the emergency control assemblies. (Authors)

  1. Evaluation of environmental change and its effects on the radiological performance of a hypothetical shallow engineered disposal facility at Elstow, Bedfordshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The results of a project designed to evaluate aspects of a hypothetical facility for disposal of radioactive wastes at Elstow, Bedfordshire, are described. The project included modelling of environmental change using the TIME2 code, groundwater flow modelling, biosphere modelling and risk analysis using the SYVAC A/C code. The aims of the work were to demonstrate use of TIME2, investigate the evolution of the facility's environment and to evaluate the influence of environmental change on estimates of radiological risk. Risk analysis of several time-independent environmental system states, using data obtained from the other tasks, indicated that environmental changes significantly influence estimates of radiological risk. (author)

  2. Stable chaos in fluctuation driven neural circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo-Garcia, David; Torcini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nonlinear instabilities in fluctuation driven (balanced) neural circuits are studied. • Balanced networks display chaos and stable phases at different post-synaptic widths. • Linear instabilities coexists with nonlinear ones in the chaotic regime. • Erratic motion appears also in linearly stable phase due to stable chaos. - Abstract: We study the dynamical stability of pulse coupled networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons against infinitesimal and finite perturbations. In particular, we compare mean versus fluctuations driven networks, the former (latter) is realized by considering purely excitatory (inhibitory) sparse neural circuits. In the excitatory case the instabilities of the system can be completely captured by an usual linear stability (Lyapunov) analysis, whereas the inhibitory networks can display the coexistence of linear and nonlinear instabilities. The nonlinear effects are associated to finite amplitude instabilities, which have been characterized in terms of suitable indicators. For inhibitory coupling one observes a transition from chaotic to non chaotic dynamics by decreasing the pulse-width. For sufficiently fast synapses the system, despite showing an erratic evolution, is linearly stable, thus representing a prototypical example of stable chaos

  3. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  4. Competence of birth attendants at providing emergency obstetric care under India’s JSY conditional cash transfer program for institutional delivery: an assessment using case vignettes in Madhya Pradesh province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to emergency obstetric care by competent staff can reduce maternal mortality. India has launched the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) conditional cash transfer program to promote institutional births. During implementation of the JSY, India witnessed a steep increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries-from 40% in 2004 to 73% in 2012. However, maternal mortality reduction follows a secular trend. Competent management of complications, when women deliver in facilities under the JSY, is essential for reduction in maternal mortality and therefore to a successful program outcome. We investigate, using clinical vignettes, whether birth attendants at institutions under the program are competent at providing appropriate care for obstetric complications. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) province. Written case vignettes for two obstetric complications, hemorrhage and eclampsia, were administered to 233 birth attendant nurses at 73 JSY facilities. Their competence at (a) initial assessment, (b) diagnosis, and (c) making decisions on appropriate first-line care for these complications was scored. Results The mean emergency obstetric care (EmOC) competence score was 5.4 (median = 5) on a total score of 20, and 75% of participants scored below 35% of the maximum score. The overall score, although poor, was marginally higher in respondents with Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) training, those with general nursing and midwifery qualifications, those at higher facility levels, and those conducting >30 deliveries a month. In all, 14% of respondents were competent at assessment, 58% were competent at making a correct clinical diagnosis, and 20% were competent at providing first-line care. Conclusions Birth attendants in the JSY facilities have low competence at EmOC provision. Hence, births in the JSY program cannot be considered to have access to competent EmOC. Urgent efforts are

  5. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...... is controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied....... In the design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature...

  6. On some topological properties of stable measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Krabbe

    1996-01-01

    Summary The paper shows that the set of stable probability measures and the set of Rational Beliefs relative to a given stationary measure are closed in the strong topology, but not closed in the topology of weak convergence. However, subsets of the set of stable probability measures which...... are characterized by uniformity of convergence of the empirical distribution are closed in the topology of weak convergence. It is demonstrated that such subsets exist. In particular, there is an increasing sequence of sets of SIDS measures who's union is the set of all SIDS measures generated by a particular...... system and such that each subset consists of stable measures. The uniformity requirement has a natural interpretation in terms of plausibility of Rational Beliefs...

  7. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  8. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  9. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  10. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  11. Modelling stable water isotopes: Status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of stable water isotopes H2 18O and HDO within various parts of the Earth’s hydrological cycle has clearly improved our understanding of the interplay between climatic variations and related isotope fractionation processes. In this article key principles and major research results of stable water isotope modelling studies are described. Emphasis is put on research work using explicit isotope diagnostics within general circulation models as this highly complex model setup bears many resemblances with studies using simpler isotope modelling approaches.

  12. SOCIAL RESPONSES IN HYPOTHETICAL SITUATIONS OF INTERPERSONAL TENSION, OF A GROUP OF CHILDREN INSTITUTIONALIZED FOR PHYSICAL ABUSE, AND A GROUP OF NON-ABUSED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR REY

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation had two objectives: a to compare the number of punitive and not punitive socialresponses reported toward three hypothetical situations of interpersonal tension, by a group of 39institutionalized for physical abuse children and girls, with that informed by a group of 34 not abusedchildren and girls inscribed to an educational institution, and b to compare the number of punitive andnot punitive responses that the physically abused children and girls referred in this situations. All thechildren had between eight and twelve age-years, among second and quarter educational degree and lowsocioeconomic levels. The three hypothetical situations of interpersonal tension were presented verballywith the support of six sheets (three for each sex and their responses were gathered in a quantitative waythrough the content analysis. The application of the test U of Mann Whitney didn’t throw significantdifferences among the two groups. Nevertheless, it was found a significant difference at intra-grouplevel, in accordance with the test of Wicolxon.

  13. You don't need to talk to throw a ball! Children's inclusion of language-outgroup members in behavioral and hypothetical scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Boswell, Corey; Niehaus, Kate

    2018-03-29

    To investigate children's inclusion of language-outgroup members, English-speaking children (8-9 years and 10-11 years of age, N = 57) made inclusion decisions while playing a simulated ball-tossing game, Cyberball, and while evaluating hypothetical scenarios involving language-outgroup members who wanted to play with their group. In the Cyberball game, the group norm was to exclude non-English-speaking peers, and participant tosses to a language-outgroup member (i.e., Spanish, Chinese, or Arabic speaking) were coded as a measure of behavioral inclusion. In the hypothetical scenarios, participants made prescriptive and descriptive judgments about their expectations regarding the inclusion of a language-outgroup member. They also evaluated their own and their group's inclusion likelihood. Results revealed that participants' evaluations of how acceptable exclusion was predicted their behavioral inclusion in the Cyberball game. Further, participants were more likely to think that the language-outgroup member should be included and less likely to think that the outgroup member would be included. They also differentiated between their own and their group's likelihood of including a language-outgroup member and reasoned about this decision by focusing on group functioning and language. In addition, there were age-related differences, with participants demonstrating greater inclusivity with age. The findings suggest the complexity of children's social cognition and the importance of providing them with a rich array of opportunities to play with language-outgroup members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Children's Perceptions of Hypothetical Peers With Undesirable Characteristics: Role of the Peers' Desire to Change, Source of Effort to Change, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Wadian, Taylor W; Jones, Tucker L; Langley, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    The present study, involving sixth- to eighth-grade students, is an extension of a prior investigation (Barnett, Livengood, Sonnentag, Barlett, & Witham, 2010) that examined children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with various undesirable characteristics. Results indicate that children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with an undesirable characteristic are influenced by the peers' desire to change, the source of effort to change, and the peers' success or failure in changing the characteristic. The children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who were successful in overcoming an undesirable characteristic than peers who were unsuccessful. Regardless of the peers' outcome, the children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who tried to change than peers who relied on the effort of adult authorities to motivate change. The children perceived successful peers as experiencing more positive affect than their unsuccessful counterparts, especially if the success was presented as a fulfillment of the peers' desire to change their undesirable characteristic. Finally, the children's ratings reflected the belief that, among peers who failed to change their undesirable characteristic, lacking the desire to change increases the relative likelihood that the characteristic will be permanent.

  15. Stable isotope analysis of dynamic lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Joost; Bailey, Andrew P; Koster, Grielof; Gould, Alex P; Postle, Anthony D

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic pathway flux is a fundamental element of biological activity, which can be quantified using a variety of mass spectrometric techniques to monitor incorporation of stable isotope-labelled substrates into metabolic products. This article contrasts developments in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the measurement of lipid metabolism with more established gas chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodologies. ESI-MS combined with diagnostic tandem MS/MS scans permits the sensitive and specific analysis of stable isotope-labelled substrates into intact lipid molecular species without the requirement for lipid hydrolysis and derivatisation. Such dynamic lipidomic methodologies using non-toxic stable isotopes can be readily applied to quantify lipid metabolic fluxes in clinical and metabolic studies in vivo. However, a significant current limitation is the absence of appropriate software to generate kinetic models of substrate incorporation into multiple products in the time domain. Finally, we discuss the future potential of stable isotope-mass spectrometry imaging to quantify the location as well as the extent of lipid synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope geochemistry of the Ewekoro formation from Ibese Corehole, eastern Dahomey basin, southwestern Nigeria. ME Nton, MO ... Preserved pore types such as; intercrystaline, moldic and vuggy pores were observed as predominant conduits for fluids. The major ...

  17. petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Subsurface samples of the predominantly carbonate Ewekoro Formation, obtained from Ibese core hole within the Dahomey basin were used in this study. Investigations entail petrographic, elemental composition as well as stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) geochemistry in order to deduce the different microfacies and ...

  18. Substitution of stable isotopes in Chlorella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.; Uphaus, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Replacement of biologically important isotopes in the alga Chlorella by corresponding heavier stable isotopes produces increasingly greater deviations from the normal cell size and changes the quality and distribution of certain cellular components. The usefulness of isotopically altered organisms increases interest in the study of such permuted organisms.

  19. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  20. Stable propagation of 'selfish'genetic elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    viruses such as the Epstein-Barr virus (Harris et al 1985;. Kanda et al 2001) and bovine papilloma virus (Lehman and Botchan 1998; Ilves et al 1999), which exist pre- dominantly as extrachromosomal episomes, have been shown to utilize chromosome tethering as a means for stable segregation. The tethering mechanism ...

  1. Unconditionally stable perfectly matched layer boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.

    2007-01-01

    A brief review is given of a systematic, product-formula based approach to construct unconditionally stable algorithms for solving the time-dependent Maxwell equations. The fundamental difficulties that arise when we want to incorporate uniaxial perfectly matched layer boundary conditions into this

  2. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  3. Connected domination stable graphs upon edge addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set S of vertices in a graph G is a connected dominating set of G if S dominates G and the subgraph induced by S is connected. We study the graphs for which adding any edge does not change the connected domination number. Keywords: Connected domination, connected domination stable, edge addition ...

  4. Stable magnetic remanence in antiferromagnetic goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangway, D W; McMahon, B E; Honea, R M

    1967-11-10

    Goethite, known to be antiferromagnetic, acquires thermoremanent magnetization at its Neel temperature of 120 degrees C. This remanence, extremely stable, is due to the presence of unbalanced spins in the antiferromagnetic structure; the spins may result from grain size, imperfections, or impurities.

  5. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  6. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  7. Would You Use It With a Seal of Approval? Important Attributes of 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP as a Hypothetical Pharmaceutical Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E. Bleasdale

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP is an effective but highly dangerous fat burner, not licensed for human consumption. Death cases reported for 2,4-DNP overdose, particularly among young adults, have raised concerns about the ineffective regulatory control, lack of education and risks associated with impurity, and the unknown concentration of 2,4-DNP purchased on the Internet.MethodsUsing a sequential mixed method design and based on a hypothetical scenario as if 2,4-DNP was a licensed pharmaceutical drug, first we conducted a qualitative study to explore what product attributes people consider when buying a weight-loss aid. Focus group interviews with six females and three males (mean age = 21.6 ± 1.8 years were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis. Sixteen attributes were identified for the Best–Worst Scale (BWS in the quantitative survey with 106 participants (64% female, mean age = 27.1 ± 11.9 years, focusing on 2,4-DNP. Demographics, weight satisfaction, and risk for eating disorder data were collected.ResultsIn contrast to experienced users such as bodybuilders, our study participants approached 2,4-DNP cautiously. Attributes of 2,4-DNP as a hypothetical weight-loss drug comprised a range of desirable and avoidable features. Of the 16 selected attributes, BWS suggested that long-term side effects were the most and branding was the least important attribute. Effectiveness and short-term side effects were also essential. Those in the >25 year group showed least concerns for legality. Neutral BWS scores for cost, treatment, degree of lifestyle changes required, and specificity required for the hypothetical weight-loss drug to be effective were likely caused by disagreement about their importance among the participants, not indifference.ConclusionWith advances in research, 2,4-DNP as a pharmaceutical drug in the future for treating neurodegenerative diseases and potentially for

  8. Dental microwear and stable isotopes inform the paleoecology of extinct hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grine, Frederick E; Sponheimer, Matt; Ungar, Peter S; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Teaford, Mark F

    2012-06-01

    Determining the diet of an extinct species is paramount in any attempt to reconstruct its paleoecology. Because the distribution and mechanical properties of food items may impact postcranial, cranial, mandibular, and dental morphologies related to their procurement, ingestion, and mastication, these anatomical attributes have been studied intensively. However, while mechanical environments influence skeletal and dental features, it is not clear to what extent they dictate particular morphologies. Although biomechanical explanations have been widely applied to extinct hominins in attempts to retrodict dietary proclivities, morphology may say as much about what they were capable of eating, and perhaps more about phylogenetic history, than about the nature of the diet. Anatomical attributes may establish boundary limits, but direct evidence left by the foods that were actually (rather than hypothetically) consumed is required to reconstruct diet. Dental microwear and the stable light isotope chemistry of tooth enamel provide such evidence, and are especially powerful when used in tandem. We review the foundations for microwear and biogeochemistry in diet reconstruction, and discuss this evidence for six early hominin species (Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus anamensis, Au. afarensis, Au. africanus, Paranthropus robustus, and P. boisei). The dietary signals derived from microwear and isotope chemistry are sometimes at odds with inferences from biomechanical approaches, a potentially disquieting conundrum that is particularly evident for several species. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajian Majid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

  10. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  11. Stable microfluidic flow focusing using hydrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyawali, Vaskar; Saremi, Mohammadali; Kolios, Michael C; Tsai, Scott S H

    2017-05-01

    We present a simple technique to generate stable hydrodynamically focused flows by driving the flow with hydrostatic pressure from liquid columns connected to the inlets of a microfluidic device. Importantly, we compare the focused flows generated by hydrostatic pressure and classical syringe pump driven flows and find that the stability of the hydrostatic pressure driven technique is significantly better than the stability achieved via syringe pumps, providing fluctuation-free focused flows that are suitable for sensitive microfluidic flow cytometry applications. We show that the degree of flow focusing with the hydrostatic method can be accurately controlled by the simple tuning of the liquid column heights. We anticipate that this approach to stable flow focusing will find many applications in microfluidic cytometry technologies.

  12. Utilization of stable isotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The ten lectures given at this round table are presented together with a discussion. Five lectures, relating to studies in which deuterium oxide was employed as a tracer of body water, dealt with pulmonary water measurements in man and animals, the total water pool in adipose subjects, and liquid compartments in children undergoing hemodyalisis. The heavy water is analysed by infrared spectrometry and a new double spectrodoser is described. Two studies using 13 C as tracer, described the diagnosis of liver troubles and diabetes respectively. A general review of the perspectives of the application of stable isotopes in clinical medicine is followed by a comparison of the use of stable and radioactive isotopes in France [fr

  13. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to i...

  14. The nature of stable insomnia phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Longitudinal. Urban, community-based. Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). None. At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the 'neither criterion' phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With the exception of daytime sleepiness, few clinical differences are apparent across stable phenotypes.

  15. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  16. Stable iodine prophylaxis. Recommendations of the 2nd UK Working Group on Stable Iodine Prophylaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Working Group reviewed the revised Who guidance and the information published since 1991 on the risks of thyroid cancer in children from radioiodine and the risks of side effects from stable iodine. In particular, it reviewed data compiled on the incidence of thyroid cancers in children following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. It considered whether the NRPB Earls were still appropriate, in the light of the new data. It also reviewed a range of other recommendations given by the 1st Working Group, concerning the chemical form of stable iodine tablets and practical issues concerning implementation of stable iodine prophylaxis. Finally, it reviewed the Patient Information Leaflet that is required, by law, to be included in each box of tablets and provided suggestions for information to be included in a separate information leaflet to be handed out to the public when stable iodine tablets are distributed.

  17. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  18. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics...... of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined ‘most important’ autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution...... of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61–70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump...

  19. The Effects of Sexual Victimization History, Acute Alcohol Intoxication, and Level of Consensual Sex on Responses to Sexual Assault in a Hypothetical Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhill, Michele R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Hessler, Danielle M; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Zawacki, Tina

    Assertive resistance to sexual assault can decrease the likelihood of completed rape and its subsequent aftermath; however, this relationship may be influenced by situational characteristics. This study examined how 2 manipulated variables, level of consensual sex during an encounter and acute alcohol intoxication, along with sexual victimization history, affected women's responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario. Female participants were assigned to a drink condition (alcohol/control) and to a consent history condition (low/high). Path analysis found that women who were previously victimized, consumed alcohol, and who were in the high consent condition endorsed greater immobility intentions during the assault; only level of consent predicted likelihood of assertive resistance. Resistance strategies were related to subsequent responding. Results suggest that interventions should seek to decrease negative consequences by empowering women to assertively resist unwanted sexual advances.

  20. Model for the migration of the fission products along the coolant channels of a high temperature gas cooled reactor following a hypothetical accident of complete loss of cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    Under the assumption that a nonmechanistic accident induces a condition such that it is not possible to cool the core of a high temperature gas cooled reactor, the temperature of the core will gradually rise due to decay heat. There are several barriers to the release of fission products to the environment: the fuel particle coatings, the graphite moderator, the prestressed concrete reactor vessel and the containment. A code, EVAP, has been written to calculate one stage in the release and migration of the fission products along the coolant channels. The calculations, using the code, are reported for 10 fission products, based on typical conditions which might occur in the course of the hypothetical accident. The sensitivity of the results to several important parameters is examined

  1. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach

  2. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  3. A univariate analysis of variance design for multiple-choice feeding-preference experiments: A hypothetical example with fruit-eating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrinaga, Asier R.

    2010-01-01

    I consider statistical problems in the analysis of multiple-choice food-preference experiments, and propose a univariate analysis of variance design for experiments of this type. I present an example experimental design, for a hypothetical comparison of fruit colour preferences between two frugivorous bird species. In each fictitious trial, four trays each containing a known weight of artificial fruits (red, blue, black, or green) are introduced into the cage, while four equivalent trays are left outside the cage, to control for tray weight loss due to other factors (notably desiccation). The proposed univariate approach allows data from such designs to be analysed with adequate power and no major violations of statistical assumptions. Nevertheless, there is no single "best" approach for experiments of this type: the best analysis in each case will depend on the particular aims and nature of the experiments.

  4. HYPOTHETIC FIVE-DIMESION SPACE OF BASIC FACTORS EXTRACTED FROM THE FACTOR ANLYSIS OF CERTAIN NUMBERS OF MORPHOLOGIC, MOBILE AND MANIFEST MOBILE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Šekeljić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was made on sample of 183 schoolboys and school girls attending the fourth grade of the elementary school. It was conducted in order to examine the possibilities of the adoption of an alternative curriculum which contains the elemements of basket ball game. After an experimental treatament, the effects of the teaching were estmated in these segments of antropological space: antropometrical, mobile and manifest mobile space concerning the basic elements of basketball technique. It was applicated the method of canonic corelated analysis which means that there were determined statistically important coefficient of correlation based on certain number of prmal and basic vectors of morphological, mobile and manifest mobile variables. According to the results of the research we can expect that five-dimension hypothetic model should present some kind of base for an eventual progress: methods of Teaching Physical Education, cibernetic navigation of the training technology such as the selection of the pupils who are able to play basketball.

  5. Guidelines for calculating radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under hypothetical accident conditions in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This standard provides guidelines and a methodology for calculating effective doses and thyroid doses to people (either individually or collectively) in the path of airborne radioactive material released from a nuclear facility following a hypothetical accident. The radionuclides considered are those associated with substances having the greatest potential for becoming airborne in reactor accidents: tritium (HTO), noble gases and their daughters, radioiodines, and certain radioactive particulates (Cs, Ru, Sr, Te). The standard focuses on the calculation of radiation doses for external exposures from radioactive material in the cloud; internal exposures for inhalation of radioactive material in the cloud and skin penetration of tritium; and external exposures from radionuclides deposited on the ground. It uses as modified Gaussian plume model to evaluate the time-integrated concentration downwind. (52 refs., 12 tabs., 21 figs.)

  6. Comparative analysis of a hypothetical coolant loss accident in an LMFB reactor with the use of various calculation models for a common reference problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a comparative analysis of the initial and dismantling stages of a hypothetical loss of flow accident in an LMFB reactor are presented. The analyses were made for a common reference problem with four different calculation models (CARMEN/KADIS, SURDYN, CAPRI/KADIS and FRAX). The reference core is described specifically, as are the differences in its geometrical disposition in the models, the static and transient conditions before and after the start of boiling and during dismantling. The differences in the models used for simulating the boiling and the dismantling are compared. The structure of the core, as well as the calculation conditions and hypotheses, were intentionally designed so that the accident would culminate, in all cases, in an energetic hydrodynamic dismantling stage

  7. Two stable steady states in the Hodgkin-Huxley axons

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, K.; Matsumoto, G.

    1983-01-01

    Two stable steady states were found in the numerical solution of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations for the intact squid axon bathed in potassium-rich sea water with an externally applied inward current. Under the conditions the two stable steady-states exist, the Hodgkin-Huxley equations have a complex bifurcation structure including, in addition to the two stable steady-states, a stable limit cycle, two unstable equilibrium points, and one asymptotically stable equilibrium point. It was also conc...

  8. Aged-care nurses in rural Tasmanian clinical settings more likely to think hypothetical medication error would be reported and disclosed compared to hospital and community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Debra; Kilpatrick, Sue; Iedema, Rick

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine the likelihood that rural nurses perceive a hypothetical medication error would be reported in their workplace. This employs cross-sectional survey using hypothetical error scenario with varying levels of harm. Clinical settings in rural Tasmania. Participants were 116 eligible surveys received from registered and enrolled nurses. Frequency of responses indicating the likelihood that severe, moderate and near miss (no harm) scenario would 'always' be reported or disclosed. Eighty per cent of nurses viewed a severe error would 'always' be reported, 64.8% a moderate error and 45.7% a near-miss error. In regards to disclosure, 54.7% felt this was 'always' likely to occur for a severe error, 44.8% for a moderate error and 26.4% for a near miss. Across all levels of severity, aged-care nurses were more likely than nurses in other settings to view error to 'always' be reported (ranging from 72-96%, P = 0.010 to 0.042,) and disclosed (68-88%, P = 0.000). Those in a management role were more likely to view error to 'always' be disclosed compared to those in a clinical role (50-77.3%, P = 0.008-0.024). Further research in rural clinical settings is needed to improve the understanding of error management and disclosure. © 2015 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of National Rural Health Alliance.

  9. Impacts on the marine environment in the case of a hypothetical accident involving the recovery of the dumped Russian submarine K-27, based on dispersion of 137Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A; Amundsen, I; Brown, J; Dowdall, M; Karcher, M; Kauker, F; Schnur, R

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing concern regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Arctic Seas and in particular dumped objects with Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Amongst dumped objects in the Arctic, the dumped Russian submarine K-27 has received great attention as it contains two reactors with highly enriched fuel and lies at a depth of about 30 m under water. To address these concerns a health and environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. Marine dispersion of potentially released radionuclides as a consequence of different hypothetical accident scenarios was modelled using the model NAOSIM. The outputs from the dispersion modelling have been used as inputs to food-chain transfer and environmental dosimetry models. The annual effective doses for subsistence fishing communities of the Barents-Kara seas region do not exceed 0.6 mSv for hypothetical accidents located at Stepovogo fjord or the Barents Sea. For high rate consumers of fish in Norway, following a potential accident at the Gremikha Bay, annual effects doses would be at around 0.15 mSv. Accumulated doses (over 90 days) for various organisms and for all release scenarios considered were never in excess of 150 μGy. The levels of 137 Cs derived for marine organism in areas close to Norway were not values that would likely cause concern from a regulatory perspective although for subsistence fishing communities close to the considered accident locations, it is not inconceivable that some restrictions on fishing etc. would need to be introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmospheric transport of radioactive debris to Norway in case of a hypothetical accident related to the recovery of the Russian submarine K-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnicki, Jerzy; Amundsen, Ingar; Brown, Justin; Hosseini, Ali; Hov, Øystein; Haakenstad, Hilde; Klein, Heiko; Lind, Ole Christian; Salbu, Brit; Szacinski Wendel, Cato C; Ytre-Eide, Martin Album

    2016-01-01

    The Russian nuclear submarine K-27 suffered a loss of coolant accident in 1968 and with nuclear fuel in both reactors it was scuttled in 1981 in the outer part of Stepovogo Bay located on the eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya. The inventory of spent nuclear fuel on board the submarine is of concern because it represents a potential source of radioactive contamination of the Kara Sea and a criticality accident with potential for long-range atmospheric transport of radioactive particles cannot be ruled out. To address these concerns and to provide a better basis for evaluating possible radiological impacts of potential releases in case a salvage operation is initiated, we assessed the atmospheric transport of radionuclides and deposition in Norway from a hypothetical criticality accident on board the K-27. To achieve this, a long term (33 years) meteorological database has been prepared and used for selection of the worst case meteorological scenarios for each of three selected locations of the potential accident. Next, the dispersion model SNAP was run with the source term for the worst-case accident scenario and selected meteorological scenarios. The results showed predictions to be very sensitive to the estimation of the source term for the worst-case accident and especially to the sizes and densities of released radioactive particles. The results indicated that a large area of Norway could be affected, but that the deposition in Northern Norway would be considerably higher than in other areas of the country. The simulations showed that deposition from the worst-case scenario of a hypothetical K-27 accident would be at least two orders of magnitude lower than the deposition observed in Norway following the Chernobyl accident. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine in hypothetic epidemic situation in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Giannina; Torres, Juan Pablo; Santolaya, M Elena; Valenzuela, M Teresa; Vega, Jeannette; Chomali, May

    2015-01-01

    NmenB vaccine (4CMenB) is now available, but studies on the cost-effectiveness of vaccine introduction in a country outbreak situation are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 4CMenB in the context of a hypothetical epidemic outbreak in Chile. We analyzed the direct and indirect costs of acute disease, sequelae and death for each case of meningococcal disease (MD) based on information obtained during the latest NmenB outbreak in Santiago, Chile, occurring between 1993-1999, with an incidence of 5.9/100,000 inhabitants and a mortality of 7.3%. We analyzed the cost of a mass vaccination campaign, considering one dose of 4CMenB for population between 12 months and 25 y of age and 3 doses for infants. Cost-effectiveness analysis was based on 80% and 92% 4CMenB immunogenicity for individual's bellow and over 12 months respectively. Sensitivity analysis was applied to different vaccine costs. The total cost of the epidemic was USD $59,967,351, considering individual cost of each acute case (USD$2,685), sequelae (USD$2,374) and death (USD $408,086). In Chile, the 4CMenB mass vaccination strategy would avoid 215 cases, 61 sequelae, and 16 deaths per year. The strategy would be cost-effective at a vaccine dose cost ≤ of USD$18. Implementation of a mass vaccination campaign to control a hypothetical NmenB outbreak in Chile would be cost-effective at a vaccine cost per dose ≤ of USD$18. This is the first report of a cost-effectiveness analysis for use of 4CMenB as a single intervention strategy to control an epidemic outbreak of NmenB.

  12. Effect of the deletion of qmoABC and the promoter distal gene encoding a hypothetical protein on sulfate-reduction in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zane, Grant M.; Yen, Huei-chi Bill; Wall, Judy D.

    2010-03-18

    The pathway of electrons required for the reduction of sulfate in sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is not yet fully characterized. In order to determine the role of a transmembrane protein complex suggested to be involved in this process, a deletion of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was created by marker exchange mutagenesis that eliminated four genes putatively encoding the QmoABC complex and a hypothetical protein (DVU0851). The Qmo complex (quinone-interacting membrane-bound oxidoreductase) is proposed to be responsible for transporting electrons to the dissimilatory adenosine-5?phosphosulfate (APS) reductase in SRB. In support of the predicted role of this complex, the deletion mutant was unable to grow using sulfate as its sole electron acceptor with a range of electron donors. To explore a possible role for the hypothetical protein in sulfate reduction, a second mutant was constructed that had lost only the gene that codes for DVU0851. The second constructed mutant grew with sulfate as the sole electron acceptor; however, there was a lag that was not present with the wild-type or complemented strain. Neither deletion strain was significantly impaired for growth with sulfite or thiosulfate as terminal electron acceptor. Complementation of the D(qmoABC-DVU0851) mutant with all four genes or only the qmoABC genes restored its ability to grow by sulfate respiration. These results confirmed the prediction that the Qmo complex is in the electron pathway for sulfate-reduction and revealed that no other transmembrane complex could compensate when Qmo was lacking.

  13. Reliability, resilience and vulnerability criteria for the evaluation of time-dependent health risks: A hypothetical case study of wellhead protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.; Bolster, D.

    2012-12-01

    A hypothetical case study of groundwater contaminant protection was carried out using time-dependent health risk calculations. The case study focuses on a hypothetical zoning project for parcels of land around a well field in northern Indiana, where the control of cancer risk relative to a mandated cancer risk threshold is of concern in the management strategy. Within our analysis, we include both uncertainty in the subsurface transport and variability in population behavior in the calculation of time-dependent health risks. From these results we introduce risk maps, a visual representation of the probability of an unacceptable health risk as a function of population behavior and the time at which exposure to the contaminant begins. We also evaluate the time-dependent risks with three criteria from water resource literature: reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (RRV). With respect to health risk from a groundwater well, the three criteria determine: the probability that a well produces safe water (reliability), the probability that a contaminated well returns to an uncontaminated state within a specified time interval (resilience), and the overall severity in terms of health impact of the contamination at a well head (vulnerability). The results demonstrate that the distributions of RRV values for each parcel of land are linked to the time-dependent concentration profile of the contaminant at the well, and the toxicological characteristics of the contaminant. The proposed time-dependent risk calculation expands on current techniques to include a continuous exposure start time, capable of reproducing the maximum risk while providing information on the severity and duration of health risks. Overall this study suggests that, especially in light of the inherent complexity of health-groundwater systems, RRV are viable criteria for relatively simple and effective evaluation of time-dependent health risk. It is argued that the RRV approach, as applied to

  14. Microbiological characterization of stable resuspended dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Kováts

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Air quality in the stables is characterized by elevated level of dust and aeroallergens which are supposed to directly cause or exacerbate several respiratory disorders. The most often recognized problem is recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, previously known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. There is some indication that aeroallergens (among them endotoxins may also cause inflammation in human airways and may exceed safe levels in stables. Monitoring studies have covered mainly the determination of the concentration of respirable particles and of culturable fungi and their toxins. However, these particles do not only directly affect the respiratory system, but might act as a carrier conveying toxic contaminants and biological agents such as bacteria. In a typical, 20-horse Hungarian stable, microbial community of respirable fraction of resuspended dust has been characterized to reveal if these particles convey hazardous pathogenic bacteria, posing risk to either horses or staff. Material and Methods: Resuspended dust was sampled using a mobile instrument. The instrument contains a PARTISOL-FRM model 2000 sampler that was operated at a flow rate of 16.7 l/min and a cyclone separator which collected the particulate matter with an aerodynamic size between 1 μm and 10 μm (PM1–10 fraction. Microbial taxa were identified by culture-independent next generation sequencing (NGS of variable 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA gene regions. Results: In total, 1491 different taxa were identified, of them 384 were identified to species level, 961 to genus level. The sample was dominated by common ubiquitous soil and organic material-dwelling taxa. Conclusions: Pathogens occurred at low abundance, and were represented by mostly facultative human pathogens, with the prevalence of Staphylococcus species.

  15. Stable channel of reclaimed tidal lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifudin, Achmad; Imanuddin, Momon S.; Moerwanto, Arie S.; Suryadi, F. X.

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to develop models of the Operation and Maintenance in the reclaimed tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. The research location is reclaimed tidal delta area Telang I Primary 8 representing land typology A/B and a survey conducted in 13 South Secondary Schemes following existing tertiary Telang I. MIKE - 11 computer models used used to analyze the movement of sediment in the channel in both the Primary channel 8, SPD, SDU and tertiary channels in block 13 South. Calibration model with multiple channels in the field of physical parameters has been performed to obtain results close to the results of measurement modeling sediment movement in the channel. The integration models of MIKE - 11 models with various scenarios are used to model the operation and maintenance of the channel in the tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. According to the scheme P8 - 13S, OM models obtained 75 percent, in which the secondary channel (SPD/SDU) and built flap gate in tertiary channel, get a well prototype model of the stable channel (equilibriums), where the average erosion on P8 at a distance of 3,200 m in the amount of 4,472,049 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SPD of 963,836 m3 and mean of sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,508,213 m3. Similarly, on average erosion P8 by 4,135,649 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SDU of 681,304 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,454,345 m3.

  16. Aggressive Fibromatosis: Evidence for a Stable Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF is an uncommon locally infiltrating benign disease of soft tissue for which treatment comprises complete surgical resection. Radiotherapy can be given postoperatively if the margin is incompletely resected. If the tumour is inoperable radiotherapy provides an alternative treatment. Hormone therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have also been used for unresectable or recurrent disease. All treatment modalities carry an associated morbidity. We believe that the natural history of aggressive fibromatosis may include a period of stable disease without progression, during which time, treatment is not always necessary.

  17. Stable isogeometric analysis of trimmed geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marussig, Benjamin; Zechner, Jürgen; Beer, Gernot; Fries, Thomas-Peter

    2017-04-01

    We explore extended B-splines as a stable basis for isogeometric analysis with trimmed parameter spaces. The stabilization is accomplished by an appropriate substitution of B-splines that may lead to ill-conditioned system matrices. The construction for non-uniform knot vectors is presented. The properties of extended B-splines are examined in the context of interpolation, potential, and linear elasticity problems and excellent results are attained. The analysis is performed by an isogeometric boundary element formulation using collocation. It is argued that extended B-splines provide a flexible and simple stabilization scheme which ideally suits the isogeometric paradigm.

  18. Remarks on stable and quasi-stable k-strings at large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armoni, A.; Shifman, M.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss k-strings in the large-N Yang-Mills theory and its supersymmetric extension. Whereas the tension of the bona fide (stable) QCD string is expected to depend only on the N-ality of the representation, tensions that depend on specific representation R are often reported in the lattice literature. In particular, adjoint strings are discussed and found in certain simulations. We clarify this issue by systematically exploiting the notion of the quasi-stable strings which becomes well-defined at large N. The quasi-stable strings with representation-dependent tensions decay, but the decay rate (per unit length per unit time) is suppressed as Λ 2 F(N) where F(N) falls off as a function of N. It can be determined on the case-by-case basis. The quasi-stable strings eventually decay into stable strings whose tension indeed depends only on the N-ality. We also briefly review large-N arguments showing why the Casimir formula for the string tension cannot be correct, and present additional arguments in favor of the sine formula. Finally, we comment on the relevance of our estimates to Euclidean lattice measurements

  19. Multivariate Max-Stable Spatial Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-06

    Analysis of spatial extremes is currently based on univariate processes. Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and explicitly quantified, they are therefore widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extreme events of real processes, such as environmental phenomena, it may be useful to study several spatial variables simultaneously. To this end, we extend some theoretical results and applications of max-stable processes to the multivariate setting to analyze extreme events of several variables observed across space. In particular, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. Then, we define a Poisson process construction in the multivariate setting and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extremevalue, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the BrownResnick models. Inferential aspects of those models based on composite likelihoods are developed. We present results of various Monte Carlo simulations and of an application to a dataset of summer daily temperature maxima and minima in Oklahoma, U.S.A., highlighting the utility of working with multivariate models in contrast to the univariate case. Based on joint work with Simone Padoan and Huiyan Sang.

  20. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yasuto

    1988-01-01

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13 C and 14 C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO 2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13 C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)