WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable fly larvae

  1. Self mixing of fly larvae during feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, Olga; Johnson, Christopher; Hu, David

    How do we sustainably feed a growing world population? One solution of increasing interest is the use of black solider fly larvae, pea-sized grubs envisioned to transform hundreds of tons of food waste into a sustainable protein source. Although startups across the world are raising these larvae, a physical understanding of how they should be raised and fed remains missing. In this study, we present experiments measuring their feeding rate as a function of number of larvae. We show that larger groups of larvae have greater mixing which entrains hungry larvae around the food, increasing feeding rate. Feeding of larvae thus differs from feeding of cattle or other livestock which exhibit less self-mixing.

  2. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  3. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  4. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, C.; Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M.; Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K.; Vinnerås, B.

    2016-01-01

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  5. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...

  6. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  7. Dynamics of Social Behavior in Fruit Fly Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Zachary; Kemp, Rebecca; Mubasher, Rameeshay; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    We quantified the extent and dynamics of social interactions among fruit fly larvae over time. Both a wild-type laboratory population and a recently-caught strain of larvae spontaneously formed social foraging groups. Levels of aggregation initially increased during larval development and then declined with the wandering stage before pupation. We show that larvae aggregated more on hard than soft food, and more at sites where we had previously broken the surface of the food. Groups of larvae initiated burrowing sooner than solitary individuals, indicating that one potential benefit of larval aggregations is an improved ability to dig and burrow into the food substrate. We also show that two closely related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, differ in their tendency to aggregate, which may reflect different evolutionary histories. Our protocol for quantifying social behavior in larvae uncovered robust social aggregations in this simple model, which is highly amenable to neurogenetic analyses, and can serve for future research into the mechanisms and evolution of social behavior. PMID:24740198

  8. Early Cretaceous trypanosomatids associated with fossil sand fly larvae in Burmese amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Poinar Jr

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early Cretaceous flagellates with characters typical of trypanosomatids were found in the gut of sand fly larvae, as well as in surrounding debris, in Burmese amber. This discovery supports a hypothesis in which free-living trypanosomatids could have been acquired by sand fly larvae in their feeding environment and then carried transtadially into the adult stage. At some point in time, specific genera were introduced into vertebrates, thus establishing a dixenous life cycle.

  9. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  10. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

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    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  11. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  12. Morphological and molecular identification of nasopharyngeal bot fly larvae infesting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Natascha; Schwarzmann, Laurin; Zittra, Carina; Palmieri, Nicola; Eigner, Barbara; Otranto, Domenico; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    Nasopharyngeal myiases are caused by larvae of bot flies (Diptera: Oestridae), which have evolved a high specificity for their hosts. Bot flies (n = 916) were collected from 137 (57.6 %) out of 238 red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunted in Vorarlberg and Tyrol (Western Austria). After being stored in 75 % ethanol, larvae were identified to species level and developmental stage using morphological and morphometric keys. Larvae were also molecularly characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Morphological and molecular analysis allowed identification of larvae as Cephenemyia auribarbis and Pharyngomyia picta. Genetic variations were also examined within the specimens collected in both geographical locations.

  13. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liland, Nina S; Biancarosa, Irene; Araujo, Pedro; Biemans, Daan; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  14. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S Liland

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  15. Reduction of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in poultry manure by rearing of Musca domestica fly larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Fischer, C.; Bjerrum, L.

    2017-01-01

    A major barrier for using animal waste as substrate for production of insects for feed or food is the concern for safety of the end products. In this study we investigated how rearing of fly larvae of Musca domestica in poultry manure influenced the counts of three pathogenic test strains...... of the larvae stage. This study provides data for evaluation of feed safety of fly larvae reared on animal waste. Furthermore suggests a potential use for reduction of these pathogens in manure........ Enteritidis, and C. jejuni was faster in manure with rearing of fly larvae than in manure without larvae; an 8 log10 reduction of all three test bacteria was observed within four days in manure with larvae; compared to manure without larvae where a 1 to 2 log10 was observed. We found no sign of propagation...

  16. Furuncular myiasis of the breast caused by the larvae of the Tumbu fly (Cordylobia anthropophaga

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    Mbanaso Augustus

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous myiasis of the breast due to infestation by the larva of Cordylobia anthropophaga is rare. To the best of our knowledge, only one case has been reported in the English literature. This rarity calls for an awareness of its possibility as a cause of furuncular breast lesions, especially in areas where the C. anthropophaga (Tumbu fly is endemic or in patients returning from such areas. As it can be easily confused with other furuncular breast lesions (like tuberculosis, mycosis, actinomycosis, furunculosis, chronic breast abscess and fungating malignancies, this awareness is important to avoid misdiagnosis or delay in diagnosis. We present a case of furuncular breast myiasis due to the larvae of C. anthropophaga earlier misdiagnosed as mastitis in a patient living in tropical Africa (Nigeria where the Tumbu fly is endemic. Case presentation We report a 70 year old woman who presented with a week history of itchy multiple discharging sinuses of the right breast. The sinuses contained wriggling larvae of C. anthropophaga. Fourteen larvae were extracted from the breast and the sinuses healed quite well after the extraction. Conclusions Cutaneous myiasis of the breast is rare, hence, an awareness of its clinical features is necessary when a patient presents with furuncular skin lesions especially in endemic areas or people returning from such areas. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and lesions heal well after the extraction of the larvae. Preventive measures such as ironing after drying of dresses and a good personal hygiene are crucial in controlling C. anthropophaga infestation.

  17. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose ≥20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Ultrasound Visualization of Atypical Abscess Ultimately Containing Bot Fly Larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, Patrick; Cole, John; Scheatzle, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Because of the rise in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), presentations to the emergency department for the evaluation of cutaneous abscesses have risen dramatically over the past 2 decades. Soft tissue point of care ultrasound (POCUS) differentiates abscess from cellulitis, determines the size and shape, and characterizes the contents of the abscess. It has been shown to improve medical decision-making and therefore the emergency management of cutaneous abscesses over physical examination alone. We report a case of an unusual nonhealing abscess in an 18-year-old woman with a recent history of foreign travel where soft tissue POCUS identified motion within the abscess pocket. This changed the management of the case, leading to the diagnosis of bot fly myiasis. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Clinicians should entertain a broader differential for an apparent abscess and consider liberal use of soft tissue POCUS in these cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Performances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly larvae reared on horse manure

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    Nassim Moula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed, while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Means ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric acid (28.1% and palmitic acid (22.0%. Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P < 0.05 by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio. Keywords: Insect farming, Chicken, Local breed, Growth performance, Meat quality, Fatty acid profile

  20. Fly larvae as sustainable bioconverters of waste for feed in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Aabo, Søren

    2014-01-01

    How to provide enough food and feed for the growing population is a major challenge for the nextgeneration. Improved economy in many developing countries increases the demand for protein from meator fish. This may lead to depletion of the seas and overexploitation of agricultural land in the in s......How to provide enough food and feed for the growing population is a major challenge for the nextgeneration. Improved economy in many developing countries increases the demand for protein from meator fish. This may lead to depletion of the seas and overexploitation of agricultural land......, or nutrients may be refined fromprocessed insects, however there is a huge need for technological development in order to automateculture and harvest of the insects.In nature insects and insect larvae are important feed sources for poultry and the larva of the commonhouse fly (Musca domestica) have been shown...... to be especially rich in essential amino and fatty acids. Atthe Food institute we have investigated in feed safety of using these fly larvae as feed for egg laying hens.The larvae were reared on poultry manure which implies the risk of transmission of pathogenicmicroorganism between animals and to humans, as well...

  1. Identification of Nanopillars on the Cuticle of the Aquatic Larvae of the Drone Fly (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew J; Levine, Timothy P; Wilson, Roger H

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a nano-scale surface structure on the rat-tailed maggot, the aquatic larva of the Drone fly Eristalis tenax(L.). Larvae of this syrphid hover fly live in stagnant, anaerobic water-courses that are rich in organic matter. The larvae burrow into fetid slurry and feed on microorganisms which they filter out from the organic material. This environment is rich in bacteria, fungi and algae with the capacity to form biofilms that might develop on the larval surface and harm them. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy we have identified an array of slender (typically < 100 nm in diameter) nanopillars that cover the surface of the larvae. The high density and dimensions of these spine-like projections appear to make it difficult for bacteria to colonize the surface of the animal. This may interfere with the formation of biofilms and potentially act as a defence against bacterial infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Study on stable fly eradication by sterile-male technique. Effects of X-ray irradiation on the stable fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, K H; Ryu, J; Kwon, S H [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1975-01-01

    This experiment was performed to investigate the X-ray sensitivities at the various stages of life cycle and to determine the sterillizing dose of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans(L). A dose of 300 rad caused about 50% mortality in 2-hour-old eggs as measured by egg hatch, and 100% mortality was obtained with a dose of 1 Krad. Sub-lethal dose (LDsub(50)) for the pupal age at irradiation. A significant reduction of egg hatch by 1.5% was observed when treated males with 3 Krad at pupal stage were mated to untreated virgin females. On the other hand, 100% sterility in females was resulted by Krad irradiation and oviposition was completely inhibited with 3 Krad. Thus, both sexes of stable fly could be sterilized with a dose of 4 Krad irradiated 50 3-5 days old pupae.

  3. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  4. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V; Taylor, David B

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3-7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24-28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3-7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. A fly in the ointment: evaluation of traditional use of plants to repel and kill blowfly larvae in fermented fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo J de Boer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In rural areas in Laos, fly larvae infestations are common in fermenting fish. Blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala, Diptera: Calliphoridae are attracted to oviposit (and/or larviposit onto fermenting fish which results in infestations with fly larvae. Knowledge of traditional use of plants to repel larvae during the production of fermented fish is common and widespread in Lao PDR. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: How effective are the most salient species in repelling, and killing fly larvae in fermenting fish? MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three plant species most frequently reported to repel fly larvae during an ethnobotanical survey throughout Lao PDR were tested for repellence and larvicidal activity of fly larvae infesting fermented fish. The lethality and repellence of Tadehagi triquetrum (L. H. Ohashi (Fabaceae, Uraria crinita (L. Desv. ex DC. (Fabaceae and Bambusa multiplex (Lour. Raeusch. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Poaceae were tested in an experimental design using fermenting fish in Vientiane, Lao PDR. RESULTS: The repellent effect of fresh material of T. triquetrum and U. crinita, and the larvicidal effect of fresh B. multiplex, is significantly more effective than that of dried material of the same species, and the total effect (repellence and larvicidal effect combined for each of the three species was significantly more effective for fresh than for dry material. Fresh material of T. triquetrum, U. crinita, or B. multiplex added on top of the fermenting fish repelled 50%, 54%, 37%, and killed 22%, 28%, and 40% of fly larvae. The total effect was not significantly different per species at 72%, 82%, and 77%, respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The three most salient species are effective in repelling and killing fly larvae in the production of fermented fish, and may be essential to augment food safety during traditional fermentation in open jars.

  6. Hyperprolinemic larvae of the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata, survive cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostál, Vladimír; Zahradnícková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2011-08-09

    The larva of the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata, is probably the most complex metazoan organism that can survive submergence in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) in a fully hydrated state. We examined the associations between the physiological and biochemical parameters of differently acclimated larvae and their freeze tolerance. Entering diapause is an essential and sufficient prerequisite for attaining high levels of survival in liquid nitrogen (23% survival to adult stage), although cold acclimation further improves this capacity (62% survival). Profiling of 61 different metabolites identified proline as a prominent compound whose concentration increased from 20 to 147 mM during diapause transition and subsequent cold acclimation. This study provides direct evidence for the essential role of proline in high freeze tolerance. We increased the levels of proline in the larval tissues by feeding larvae proline-augmented diets and found that this simple treatment dramatically improved their freeze tolerance. Cell and tissue survival following exposure to liquid nitrogen was evident in proline-fed nondiapause larvae, and survival to adult stage increased from 0% to 36% in proline-fed diapause-destined larvae. A significant statistical correlation was found between the whole-body concentration of proline, either natural or artificial, and survival to the adult stage in liquid nitrogen for diapause larvae. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis suggested that high proline levels, in combination with a relatively low content of osmotically active water and freeze dehydration, increased the propensity of the remaining unfrozen water to undergo a glass-like transition (vitrification) and thus facilitated the prevention of cryoinjury.

  7. A practical, efficient and low cost diet for rearing the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukas, A.G.; Zografou, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae), has been artificially reared and used for the application of the sterile insect technique and other purposes, throughout the world. The larval diet used is rather expensive and it is mixed in the rearing facility. The most expensive ingredient used in this diet is yeast which is variable in composition and has a relatively short shelf life due mainly to its high nutritional value. This is particularly true for all countries like Greece which do not manufacture brewer's yeast. Also, it is widely known that the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae grow in a wide variety of fruits and artificial diets. These fruits and artificial diets, although very different in chemical/nutritional as well as physical/ecological parameters, are successfully tolerated and utilised by the larvae. These observations prompted the initiation of research into diets containing a variety of low cost ingredients widely used in the vertebrate feed industry and easily found in any country. To our knowledge, no one has tested complete diets produced by well-established feed manufacturers for larval rearing of this insect

  8. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  9. Posterior spiracles of fourth instar larvae of four species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.

  10. Uptake of heavy metals and arsenic in black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae grown on seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Irene; Liland, Nina S; Biemans, Daan; Araujo, Pedro; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan; Amlund, Heidi

    2018-04-01

    The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is one of the most promising insect species for use in animal feed. However, studies investigating feed and food safety aspects of using black soldier fly as feed are scarce. In this study, we fed black soldier fly larvae feeding media enriched with seaweed, which contains naturally high concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential transfer of such undesirable substances from the feeding media to the larvae. The larvae accumulated cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic. Concentrations of these elements in the larvae increased when more seaweed was added to the feeding media. The highest retention was seen for cadmium (up to 93%) and the lowest for total arsenic (up to 22%). When seaweed inclusion exceeded 20% in the media, this resulted in larval concentrations of cadmium and total arsenic above the current European Union maximum levels for these elements in complete feed. Our results confirm that insect larvae can accumulate heavy metals and arsenic when present in the feeding media. A broader understanding of the occurrence of these undesirable substances in processed larvae products is needed to assess feed and food safety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Irradiation of Eggs and Larvae of Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Fruit Fly to Produce Irradiation Host for Its Parasitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh Kuswadi; Murni lndarwatmi; Nasution, Indah Arastuti

    2004-01-01

    Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) fruit fly, a major pests of commercial fruits in Indonesia, is attacked by several species of parasitoids in the field, such as by Biosteres sp. that attacks on early instar larvae and Opius sp. on late instar larvae. In order to produce irradiated host in mass rearing of both species, several dosage of gamma were tested on both eggs and larvae. Egg masses of 0.5 ml were irradiated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy and then inoculated into artificial diet. Viability of the eggs, the larval period and the number of pupae produced were observed. About 200 third instar larvae irradiated with 0, 10, 30, 50,70 dan 90 Gy and the number and quality of the pupae developed were then observed. The results showed that the eggs irradiated with tested dosage did not reduce its viability however it reduced the survival of larvae emerged. Number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml irradiated eggs were reduced from 2740 pupae to 407, 167, 113, 53 and 44 pupae, besides the pupation delayed up to three days. Irradiation on third instars larvae did not reduce its pupation, since pupae were developed from > 85 % of irradiated larvae. However, irradiation did reduced the fly emergence from the pupae. Irradiated hosts for Biosteres sp and Opius sp can be produced by irradiating eggs however it should be evaluated since the survival rate of the larvae reduced. Irradiation of third instar larvae may produce irradiated host for Opius sp So, the use of irradiated eggs or irradiated larvae as host in the colonization of the parasitoids will insure no hosts emerged as adult. However it remain to be proved whether irradiated hosts are prefered and able to support the life of parasitoid. (author)

  12. Vector competence of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae)for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies, which are notorious pests of cattle and other livestock, were suspected of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV) among American white pelicans at the Medicine Lake Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Montana in 2006-2007. However the ability of stable flies to transmit the virus was unknown. ...

  13. Daily metabolized energy consumption of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus feeding on larvae of the crane fly Tipula paludosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Blomert, AM

    1996-01-01

    Oystercatchers feeding on grassland in spring mainly take leatherjackets, the larvae of the crane fly Tipula paludosa. The birds roost at night and feed for 40 to 60% of the daylight period. Their intake rate during feeding is 1 to 1.5 mg AFDW or 20 to 30 J s(-1), which is rather low compared to the

  14. Philornis sp. bot fly larvae in free living scarlet macaw nestlings and a new technique for their extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George; Vigo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Lizzie; Rozsa, Lajos; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2013-09-01

    Bot fly larvae (Philornis genus) are obligate subcutaneous blood-feeding parasites of Neotropical birds including psittacines. We analyze twelve years of data on scarlet macaw (Ara macao) nestlings in natural and artificial nests in the lowland forests of southeastern Peru and report prevalence and intensity of Philornis parasitism. Bot fly prevalence was 28.9% while mean intensity was 5.0 larvae per infected chick. Prevalence in natural nests (11%, N=90 nestlings) was lower than in wooden nest-boxes (39%, N=57) and PVC boxes (39%, N=109). We describe a new technique of removing Philornis larvae using a reverse syringe design snake bite extractor. We compare this new technique to two other methods for removing bots from macaw chicks and find the new method the most suitable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tracking movement and temperature selection of larvae of two forensically important blow fly species within a "maggot mass".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wighton, Samuel J; Wallman, James F

    2014-11-01

    The current study responds to the lack of understanding about the temperatures experienced by individual blow fly larvae within "maggot masses." The temperature selection of both aggregating (in a mass) and nonaggregating larvae was compared and their pattern of movement assessed. Infrared imaging determined the temperatures within a mass and in the vicinity of the constituent individual larvae, whose movements were tracked by dyeing their tissues red. Individual Chrysomya rufifacies larvae selected temperatures above 27°C, significantly higher than the temperature selected by Calliphora vicina larvae (24.5°C). However, this same difference was not seen within a mass, with both species selecting temperatures around 28°C. Larval movement in a mass was nonrandom, indicating that larvae actively select their position in a mass. Furthermore, larvae have a strong tendency to select the hottest part of a mass; therefore, maximum mass temperatures might provide a reliable proxy for the actual temperatures experienced by larvae. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. House and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) seasonal abundance, larval development substrates, and natural parasitism on small equine farms in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 1-year study was designed to determine adult fly population levels and development substrates on four small equine farms. Results showed that pest flies were present year-round, but differences existed in population levels among farms and seasons. Fly larvae were not found on two of the farms, ...

  17. Effects of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin on immature development, female oviposition, and egg-hatching in the stable fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most economically significant biting flies affecting cattle. Use of traditional insecticides have only limited success in control of stable flies largely due to the stable fly’s unique feeding behaviors and immature developm...

  18. Suppressing immature house and stable flies in outdoor calf hutches with sand, gravel, and sawdust bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtmann, E T

    1991-11-01

    Sand, gravel, sawdust, and pine shavings were used as bedding in outdoor calf hutches and compared with straw relative to the density of immature (maggot) house flies, Musca domestica, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans. In 6-wk field trials, average densities of house and stable fly maggots in concrete mix sand ranged from only .3 to 1.6 and 0 to .1 maggots/L, respectively; pea size gravel bedding also strongly suppressed densities from less than .1 to .3 and less than .1 to .1 maggots/L, respectively. These densities represent reductions of 76 to greater than 99% relative to straw bedding, but both sand and gravel compacted and became soiled with calf feces, which resulted in unacceptable bedding sanitation and foul odors. Densities of house and stable fly maggots in pine shavings did not differ from those in straw bedding. Nevertheless, in sawdust bedding, maggot density was limited to averages of 1.4 to 8.3 house and 9.8 to 11.8 stable fly maggots/L; this represented reductions of 45 to 91% relative to straw. In a follow-up trial, house and stable fly maggot densities in sawdust averaged 11.3 and 43.9 maggots/L, respectively, reductions of 77 and 46%. These findings suggest that bedding calf hutches with sawdust during warm weather can be useful as an ecologically sound approach to controlling muscoid fly populations on dairy farms.

  19. The repellency of lemongrass oil against stable flies, tested using video tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Tramut, Coline; Salem, Ali; Liénard, Emmanuel; Delétré, Emilie; Franc, Michel; Martin, Thibaud; Duvallet, Gérard; Jay-Robert, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus) is an effective repellent against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). In this study, its effectiveness was assessed on stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in laboratory conditions. First, we demonstrated that lemongrass oil is an active substance for antennal olfactory receptor cells of Stomoxys calcitrans as indicated by a significant increase in the electroantennogram responses to increasing doses of lemongrass oil. Feeding-choice tests in a flight cage with stable flies having access to two blood-soaked sanitary pads, one of which was treated with lemongrass oil, showed that stable flies (n = 24) spent significantly more time in the untreated zone (median value = 218.4 s) than in the treated zone (median value = 63.7 s). No stable flies fed on the treated pad, whereas nine fed on the untreated pad. These results suggest that lemongrass oil could be used as an effective repellent against stable flies. Additional studies to confirm its spatial repellent and feeding deterrent effects are warranted. PMID:23759542

  20. Effects of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin on immature development and reproduction in the stable fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S S; Li, A Y; Lohmeyer, K H; Pérez De León, A A

    2012-12-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most significant biting flies that affect cattle. The use of traditional insecticides for stable fly control has only a limited success owing to the insect's unique feeding behaviours and immature development sites. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of two insect growth regulator (IGR) products, pyriproxyfen and buprofezin, on the development of the immature stages of the stable fly and the effects of pyriproxyfen on oviposition and egg hatch. Both pyriproxyfen and buprofezin had significant inhibitory effects on immature development. The LC(50) s of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin were 0.002 and 18.92 p.p.m., respectively. Topical treatment of adult females with different doses of pyriproxyfen had significant negative effects on both female oviposition and egg hatching when 1- and 3-day-old females were treated, and the effects were dose dependent. A significant reduction in the mean number of eggs laid was observed only at the highest pyriproxyfen dose (8 µg/fly) and egg hatch was unaffected by pyriproxyfen treatment when 5-day-old females were treated. Results from the present study indicate that pyriproxyfen has the potential to be used as part of an integrated stable fly management programme. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Aflatoxin B1 Tolerance and Accumulation in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) and Yellow Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Guido; Fels-Klerx, H J van der; Rijk, Theo C de; Oonincx, Dennis G A B

    2017-06-02

    Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated crops in the food chain. First, instar black soldier fly larvae ( Hermetia illucens , BSF) and yellow mealworm ( Tenebrio molitor , YMW) were fed poultry feed spiked with AFB1 and formulated to contain levels of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.25, and up to 0.5 mg/kg dry feed. Poultry feed without any additions and feed with only the solvent added served as controls. The AFB1 in the feed did not affect survival and body weight in the BSF and YMW larvae ( p > 0.10), indicating a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 in both species. Furthermore, AFB1 and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were below the detection limit (0.10 µg/kg) in BSF larvae, whereas the YMW had AFB1 levels that were approximately 10% of the European Union's legal limit for feed materials and excreted AFM1. It is concluded that both BSF larvae and YMW have a high AFB1 tolerance and do not accumulate AFB1.

  2. Black flies (Diptera : Simuliidae attracted to humans and water buffalos and natural infections with filarial larvae, probably Onchocerca sp., in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaoka H.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several Simulium species were investigated as to their biting habits and natural infections with filarial larvae at Ban Pan Fan, Chiang Mai Province, in northern Thailand. Female adults flies landing on or flighting around a human and a water buffalo were collected during the daytime from 06.00 to 19.00 hours on 22 June 2001. As a result, 217 S. nodosum, 86 S. asakoae and two S. nigrogilvum were obtained from a human attractant, and 416 S. nodosum, 25 S. nakhonense, 16 S. asakoae, four 5. fenestratum and two S. nigrogilvum, from a water buffalo. The blood-feeding was confirmed only for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum on humans, and for S. nodosum and S. nakhonense on water buffalos. Dissections of these simuliids showed that S. nodosum was naturally infected with developing filarial larvae. Two types of microfilariae were distinguished but only one type of infective larvae. These larvae resembled Onchocerca suzukii, a parasite from a wild Japanese bovid, suggesting that an unknown Onchocerca species from ruminants was transmitted in Thailand. Infection rates with all stages of larvae and third-stage larvae were 2.3 % (14/608 and 1 .0 % (6/608, respectively. This is the first report of natural infections of black flies with Onchocerca larvae in Southeast Asia, and the involved black fly species is shown to be not only anthropophilic but also zoophilic in this region.

  3. Labelling of the mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), with stable manganese and neutron activation, for behaviour studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornisielo, V.L.

    1990-01-01

    In view to label adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly for behaviour studies (etiology) experiments were carried out using larvae feeded with enriched stable manganese on concentrations of 0; 0.0001; 0.0005; 0.0010; 0.0050 and 0.0100 grams of MnCl2 per gram of diet. Also a comparison was done between larvae reared on natural fruits (Coffea arabica, Eriobotaya japonica, Syzugium jambos, Eugenia uvalha, Prunus persica and Psidium guajava) and on artificial diet. The low concentration of manganese (0.0001 grams of MnCl2 per gram of larval diet) acted only as a micronutrient. Concentrations of 0.0005 and 0.0010 grams of MnCl2 per gram of diet didn't affect larvae or adults, increasing the longevity of the females. Concentrations of 0.0050 and 0.0100 grams of MnCl2 per gram of larval diet completely inhibited the development of the insects. The flies activated by a flux of 2.67.10 sup(11) n/cm sup(2)/s during 60 second and counted by a germanium detector during 120 seconds showed that males and females remained well labeled until the 13 sup(th) day of adult life, if their larvae were feed on diet containing 0.0005 and 0.0010g of MnCl2 per gram of diet. However, after 25 days only the males emerged from larvae reared on diet containing 0.0005 g of MnCl2 per gram of diet remained labeled. The females excreted the most of manganese, probably through their laying eggs. The quantity of accumulated manganese detected on the adults after neutron activation and reared on different fruits was very similar, for any kind of fruit. (author)

  4. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape and Color on Stable Fly (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable fly management has been challenging. Insecticide-treated targets made from blue and black fabric, developed in Africa, were evaluated in Louisiana and Florida to determine if they would attract and kill stable flies. Untreated targets were used to answer questions about configuration, size an...

  5. Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhana AH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis or “belatungan” is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. In general, synthetic insecticides were applied to control the disease. However, it causes negative impact on animal product, so that it is required to find an alternative treatment using herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to access activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2 and L3. Five treatments were applied with five replications, i.e. control/water (P0, 0,5%, 1%, 2% of the extract for PI, PII and PIII, respectively. Another treatment was 0,05% Asuntol for positive control (PIV. Each treatment was added with1% DMSO and twenty larvae were examined for each replication. Bioassay of L1 and L2 was addressed to investigate effect of intestinal toxicity by mixing the extract with Meat-Blood Mixture (MBM and Larval Rearing Media (LRM for L1 and L2, respectively. Bioassay of L3 was to investigate effect of contact toxicity through soaking the larvae into the extract solution for 10 seconds followed by incubating in vermiculite at 36oC. All living larvae after being treated by various concentration of the extract were reared to pupae and allowed to emerge as imago. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. All data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett test at 95% confidential limit. For L2, larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95 and lethal time (LT50 and LT95 were defined. Results demonstrated that 1% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. It also caused to fail pupation and imago emergence. The further study might be pursued to investigate in vivo assay of the extract in infested livestock.

  6. The effect of {sup 210}Pb and stable lead on the induction of mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, G A; Schwartz, W J; Hoffman, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1995-07-01

    To determine whether mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae from Port Hope Harbour, Ontario, are the result of exposure to ionizing radiation or heavy metals in the sediment, Chironomus tentans larvae were exposed in the laboratory to concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and stable lead representative of contaminant levels in the harbour. Exposure to 100, 1000, and 2000 Bq {sup 210}Pb{center_dot}g{sup -1} dry sediment had no effect on the survival, growth of the larvae or frequency of deformities. Likewise, exposure to 0.5 and 5.0 mg lead{center_dot}g{sup -1} dry sediment had no effect on the larvae, but exposure to 35.0 mg lead{center_dot}g{sup -1} dry sediment resulted in 100% mortality of the larvae. These results indicate that the observed mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae in Port Hope Harbour are not the result of radiation exposure. They also indicate that heavy metals (lead) may be having an impact on the population. (author). 28 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. The effect of 210Pb and stable lead on the induction of mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.A.; Schwartz, W.J.; Hoffman, D.

    1995-07-01

    To determine whether mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae from Port Hope Harbour, Ontario, are the result of exposure to ionizing radiation or heavy metals in the sediment, Chironomus tentans larvae were exposed in the laboratory to concentrations of 210 Pb and stable lead representative of contaminant levels in the harbour. Exposure to 100, 1000, and 2000 Bq 210 Pb·g -1 dry sediment had no effect on the survival, growth of the larvae or frequency of deformities. Likewise, exposure to 0.5 and 5.0 mg lead·g -1 dry sediment had no effect on the larvae, but exposure to 35.0 mg lead·g -1 dry sediment resulted in 100% mortality of the larvae. These results indicate that the observed mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae in Port Hope Harbour are not the result of radiation exposure. They also indicate that heavy metals (lead) may be having an impact on the population. (author). 28 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Flying Drosophilamelanogaster maintain arbitrary but stable headings relative to the angle of polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Timothy L; Weir, Peter T; Dickinson, Michael H

    2018-05-11

    Animals must use external cues to maintain a straight course over long distances. In this study, we investigated how the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster selects and maintains a flight heading relative to the axis of linearly polarized light, a visual cue produced by the atmospheric scattering of sunlight. To track flies' headings over extended periods, we used a flight simulator that coupled the angular velocity of dorsally presented polarized light to the stroke amplitude difference of the animals' wings. In the simulator, most flies actively maintained a stable heading relative to the axis of polarized light for the duration of 15 min flights. We found that individuals selected arbitrary, unpredictable headings relative to the polarization axis, which demonstrates that D . melanogaster can perform proportional navigation using a polarized light pattern. When flies flew in two consecutive bouts separated by a 5 min gap, the two flight headings were correlated, suggesting individuals retain a memory of their chosen heading. We found that adding a polarized light pattern to a light intensity gradient enhanced flies' orientation ability, suggesting D . melanogaster use a combination of cues to navigate. For both polarized light and intensity cues, flies' capacity to maintain a stable heading gradually increased over several minutes from the onset of flight. Our findings are consistent with a model in which each individual initially orients haphazardly but then settles on a heading which is maintained via a self-reinforcing process. This may be a general dispersal strategy for animals with no target destination. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Comparison of brown sugar, hot water, and salt methods for detecting western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in sweet cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown sugar or hot water methods have been developed to detect larvae of tephritid fruit flies in post-harvest fruit in order to maintain quarantine security. It would be useful to determine if variations of these methods can yield better results and if less expensive alternatives exist. This stud...

  10. Modulation of nonessential amino acid biosynthetic pathways in virulent Hessian fly larvae (Mayetiola destructor), feeding on susceptible host wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), an obligate plant-parasitic gall midge, is an important dipteran pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The insect employs an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host plant to be nutritionally beneficial for the developing larva by inducing formation of p...

  11. Evaluation of the Mating Competitiveness of the Adult Oriental Fruit Fly Reared as Larvae in Liquid vs. Those Raised on Standard Wheat-based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains (standard lab, DTWP pupal color sexing strain and wild strain) of adult oriental fruit flies, which were reared as larvae on a liquid diet, mill feed diet (Tanaka’s diet), or natural host fruit diet, were evaluated for mating competitiveness in both indoor and outdoor Boller’s mating c...

  12. Rearing larvae of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus Dorsalis Hendel on media containing banana or rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poramarcom, R.; Mitchell, S.

    1983-12-01

    Materials available in Thailand were substituted for some of those in the standard medium currently used in rearing larvae of Dacus dorsalis Hendel at the Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory, Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of this study is to decrease rearing costs through medium modification in Thailand. Larvae were reared in different media: three media containing banana and the other three containing rice bran, as the main ingredient. Wheat germ flakes and torula yeast were added to at: (1) 7.2 and 3.6% (2) 7.2 and 7.2% and (3) 10.8 and 7.2% by weight respectively. The standard medium comprised the seventh medium. The results showed that higher mean pupal recovery, higher mean pupal weight, and higher mean percentage of adult eclosion were obtained from media containing banana compared to media without banana. Media containing banana, (3) and (1), resulted in a significantly (P=0.05) higher mean pupal recovery, 57.49 and 56.88% respectively. Media containing banana, (2) and (3), resulted in the highest mean pupal weight, 12 and 11.68 mg. respectively. Media containing banana produced pupae with highest percentage of adult eclosion. No significant difference was observed in fecundity and fertility of flies reared in all media. Torula yeast and/or wheat germ flakes did not increase the number or weight of pupae. This study showed that media containing banana was the most suitable media for rearing D. dorsalis larvae. All three media containing rice bran were unsuitable for rearing this insect

  13. Effects of the Liquids Used to Kill Larvae on the Length of Forensically Important Blow Fly Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Halide Nihal Açıkgöz; Ali Açıkgöz

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomological practices rely upon accurate larval identification and measurement of larval length, for the estimation of post-mortem intervals. The methods used for killing larvae may affect the length of larvae. In the autopsy hall, corpses which are contain entomological remains have been washed with grape vinegar. Besides, while collecting and killing the larvae on corpses, crime scene teams use alcohol 70% because it is practical. The aim of this study was to determine which...

  14. Effect of variable rates of daily sampling of fly larvae on decomposition and carrion insect community assembly: implications for forensic entomology field study protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Gaétan

    2013-07-01

    Experimental protocols in forensic entomology successional field studies generally involve daily sampling of insects to document temporal changes in species composition on animal carcasses. One challenge with that method has been to adjust the sampling intensity to obtain the best representation of the community present without affecting the said community. To this date, little is known about how such investigator perturbations affect decomposition-related processes. Here, we investigated how different levels of daily sampling of fly eggs and fly larvae affected, over time, carcass decomposition rate and the carrion insect community. Results indicated that a daily sampling of forensic entomology successional field studies.

  15. Effects of the Liquids Used to Kill Larvae on the Length of Forensically Important Blow Fly Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halide Nihal Açıkgöz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forensic entomological practices rely upon accurate larval identification and measurement of larval length, for the estimation of post-mortem intervals. The methods used for killing larvae may affect the length of larvae. In the autopsy hall, corpses which are contain entomological remains have been washed with grape vinegar. Besides, while collecting and killing the larvae on corpses, crime scene teams use alcohol 70% because it is practical. The aim of this study was to determine which of hot water (90°C, cold vinegar and cold alcohol 96 % method, preserved the best the length of larvae. To achieve this aim, third instar larvae which are reared on 200 g of veal meat were killed using hot water, cold vinegar and cold alcohol. Before killing and after killing the maggots, their length was measured. To determine the difference between the groups to be compared ANOVA test, to reliability and validity analyses Kruskal-Wallis and whether there was any difference between the groups were made with Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (Tukey’s HSD Hot water was found to preserve the length of the larvae more accurately than cold vinegar and alcohol.

  16. Synergistic Trap Response of the False Stable Fly and Little House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to Acetic Acid and Ethanol, Two Principal Sugar Fermentation Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Peter J; Cha, Dong H; Zack, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    In an initial observation, large numbers of muscoid flies (Diptera) were captured as nontarget insects in traps baited with solutions of acetic acid plus ethanol. In subsequent field experiments, numbers of false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) trapped with the combination of acetic acid plus ethanol were significantly higher than those trapped with either chemical alone, or in unbaited traps. Flies were trapped with acetic acid and ethanol that had been formulated in the water of the drowning solution of the trap, or dispensed from polypropylene vials with holes in the vial lids for diffusion of evaporated chemical. Numbers of both species of fly captured were greater with acetic acid and ethanol in glass McPhail traps, compared to four other similar wet trap designs. This combination of chemicals may be useful as an inexpensive and not unpleasant lure for monitoring or removing these two pest fly species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...

  18. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape, and Color on Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Foil, Lane D

    2018-04-02

    Stable fly management is challenging because of the fly's dispersal behavior and its tendency to remain on the host only while feeding. Optically attractive traps have been used to survey and sometimes reduce adult populations. Insecticide-treated blue and black cloth targets developed for tsetse fly management in Africa were found to be attractive to stable flies in the United States, and various evaluations were conducted in Louisiana and Florida. Tests using untreated targets were designed to answer questions about configuration, size, and color relative to efficacy and stability in high winds. Studies with electric grid targets and with targets paired with Olson traps showed cloth target color attraction in the following decreasing order: black > blue-black > blue. A solid black target is easier to make than a blue-black target because no sewing is involved. Attraction was not affected when flat 1-m2 targets were formed into cylinders, despite the limited view of the blue and black colors together. There was no reduction in attraction when the 1-m2 cylindrical targets were compared with smaller (63 × 30 cm high) cylindrical targets. In addition, there was no difference in attraction between the small blue-black, blue, and black targets. Significance of findings and implications of potential uses for treated targets are discussed. Target attraction was indicated by the numbers of stable flies captured on an Olson sticky trap placed 30 cm from the target. Although this system is adequate for field research, it greatly underestimates the actual numbers of stable flies attracted to treated targets.

  19. Stable isotopic analysis of Barnacle larvae and their faecal pellets to evaluate the ingested food

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.A.; Anil, A.C.

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are useful in the evaluation of food web dynamics and have been used extensively in the feeding studies. Barnacles are dominant component of the intertidal and bio-fouling communities. Life cycle of barnacles...

  20. Trophic ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus [corrected] larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean spawning grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Laiz-Carrión

    Full Text Available The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT (6-10 mm standard length in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM and the Balearic Sea (MED. These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophic position above the underlying microzooplankton baseline. Ontogenetic dietary shifts were observed in the BFT larvae from the GOM and MED which indicates early life trophodynamics differences between these spawning habitats. Significant trophic differences between the GOM and MED larvae were observed in relation to δ15N signatures in favour of the MED larvae, which may have important implications in their growth during their early life stages.These low δ15N levels in the zooplankton from the GOM may be an indication of a shifting isotopic baseline in pelagic food webs due to diatrophic inputs by cyanobacteria. Lack of enrichment for δ15N in BFT larvae compared to zooplankton implies an alternative grazing pathway from the traditional food chain of phytoplankton-zooplankton-larval fish. Results provide insight for a comparative characterization of the trophic pathways variability of the two main spawning grounds for BFT larvae.

  1. Dihydronepetalactones deter feeding activity by mosquitoes, stable flies, and deer ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, John E; Scialdone, Mark A; Todd, Robin G; Gonzalez, Yamaira I; Foster, Joseph P; Hallahan, David L

    2009-07-01

    The essential oil of catmint, Nepeta cataria L., contains nepetalactones, that, on hydrogenation, yield the corresponding dihydronepetalactone (DHN) diastereomers. The DHN diastereomer (4R,4aR,7S,7aS)-4,7-dimethylhexahydrocyclopenta[c]pyran-1(3H)-one, DHN 1) was evaluated as mosquito repellent, as was the mixture of diastereomers {mostly (4S,4aR,7S,7aR)-4,7-dimethylhexahydrocyclopenta[c]pyran-1(3H)-one, DHN 2} present after hydrogenation of catmint oil itself. The repellency of these materials to Aedes aegypti L. and Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann mosquitoes was tested in vitro and found to be comparable to that obtained with the well-known insect repellent active ingredient N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). DHN 1 and DHN 2 also repelled the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L., in this study. DHN 1, DHN 2, and p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), another natural monoterpenoid repellent, gave comparable levels of repellency against An. albimanus and S. calcitrans. Laboratory testing of DHN 1 and DHN 2 using human subjects with An. albimanus mosquitoes was carried out. Both DHN 1 and DHN 2 at 10% (wt:vol) conferred complete protection from bites for significant periods of time (3.5 and 5 h, respectively), with DHN2 conferring protection statistically equivalent to DEET. The DHN 1 and DHN 2 diastereomers were also efficaceous against black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) nymphs.

  2. The localization of the larvae of the nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx of reindeer in an earlier unknown tonsil tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available The localization of the larvae of the reindeer nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx was investigated in 21 reindeer, 11 months old, during April, and in 5 animals during November. In reindeer, without the presence of larvae, no preformed pharyngeal pouch was found at the predilection site, dorsomedially in the pharynx, but an unpaired tronsil, tentatively named Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis. In 12 of the animals investigated during April, a puch containing larvae of C. trompe was found at the predilection site, i.e. the site of the dorsomedially located tonsil. Histologically remnants of tonsil tissue was present at the opening of the pouch. In 3 animals a pouch, containing larvae, was found in the left lateral wall and in 2 animals in the right lateral wall of the pharynz between the opening of Tuba auditiva and the tonsil. In one animal 2 pouches were found, one in the tonsil tissue and one located in the right lateral wall of pharynx. In serial sections from two animals investigated during November, 1 :st instar larvae of Cephenomyia trompe were found in the crypts of the tonsills. The fact that the tonsil tissue is a predilection site for C. trompe larvae may be due to the mechanical protection the 1st instar larvae can find in the crypts. Larvae may, however, also attach to other parts of the pharyngeal mucosa. During their development the larvae penetrate the mucosa forming a pouch. The wall of this pouch consists of a naked acute granulation tissue heavily infiltrated with eosinophilic leucocytes. In connection with the healing process, starting when the larvae have left, a pouch may remain, characterized by walls of chronic granulation tissue covered by a mucous membrane. This pouch could well be misinterpreted as a preformed pouch.Lokalisationen av svalgkormflugans (Cephenemyia trompe L larver i svalget på ren i en tidigare okänd tonsillvävnad (Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning

  3. Effect of symbiotic bacteria added to the middle of the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae on the performance of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toukebri, Achraf; Kefi, Amal

    2009-01-01

    The program of the fight against the Mediterranean fly of fruits ''SIT'' becomes increasingly efficient when one control his various factors well mainly the performances of the sterile males within the unit. In this present work, we adopted a method of breeding which could improve quality of the sterile males intended for releasing. This method consists in introducing certain beneficial bacteria (Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Klebsiella) into the milieu of breeding according to different combinations. The effect of these bacteria was analyzed by carrying out various tests of quality control to determin the parameters of quality (Productivity, weight, Emergence, flying aptitude) and the parameters of reproduction (latency time, Duration of coupling and competitiveness). According to the results obtained, we could observe changes on the level of the parameters of quality. The addition of Pseudomonas alone in the milieu of breeding significantly decreased the quality of the produced flies while the addition of this same bacteria in partnership with Citrobacter and Klebsiella showed a beneficial effect on their host. This is observed through the remarkable improvement of the competitiveness of the fly. Thus we can conclude that the presence of the bacteria alone or in synergy enormously affects the fitness flies and consequently their sexual competitiveness. (Author)

  4. External morphology of sensory structures of fourth instar larvae of neotropical species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, some morphological structures of antennae, maxillary palps and caudal setae of fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared phlebotomine sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. evandroi, L. lenti, L. sericea, L. whitmani and L. intermedia of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The antennal structures exhibited considerable variation in the morphology and position. A prominent digitiform distal segment has been observed only on the antenna of species of the subgenus Nyssomyia. The taxonomic relevance of this and other antennal structure is discussed. The papiliform structures found in the maxillae and the porous structures of the caudal setae of all species examined may have chemosensory function. Further studies with transmission electron microscopy are needed to better understand the physiological function of these external structures.

  5. Population dynamics of stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) at an organic dairy farm in Denmark based on mark-recapture with destructive sub-sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Skovgård; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2012-01-01

    A population of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), was studied on a Danish cattle farm in two successive years. Flies were captured monthly by sweep nettings and marked with fluorescent dust. Absolute population size, dilution rate, loss rate, and adult longevity were estimated by means...

  6. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Hideyuki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi

    2001-12-01

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. {delta}{sup 13}C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  7. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hideyuki; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. δ 13 C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  8. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, A J; Vasquez, A A; Hudson, P; Fujimoto, M; Ram, J L

    2016-02-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or 'species group' level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  9. Composition of Mediterranean fruit fly third instar larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and diet: Nutrient balance studies on amino acids, minerals and nutrient composition in fresh and spent mass rearing diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Harvey T. Jr.; Jang, Eric B.; Ako, Harry; Niino-Duponte, Ruth Y.; Carpenter, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Mass production of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) larvae, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, requires a rearing diet (Tanaka et al. 1969 1970) of which the nutrient requirements and digestibility have not been established. Setbacks in rearing productivity from the expected 100% yield to as low as 3% yield may occasionally be directly attributed to insecticide contamination or a variety of possible cause(s) (Kobayashi, 1993). These causes include inadequate nutrition, poor diet formulation, overcrowding of either microorganisms or Drosophila, or to the inherent processes of oxidative or microbial deterioration of nutrients. The purpose of this study was to establish the nutritional status of the Mediterranean fruit fly diet through a material balance study for changes in proximate composition (i.e., moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates), amino acids, minerals between fresh and spent diets, and in the fruit fly larvae themselves

  10. Ação de fungos entomopatogênicos em larvas e adultos da mosca do figo Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae Action of entomopathogenic fungi on the larvae and adults of the fig fly Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Michelle Svedese

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A mosca do figo, Zaprionus indianus, vem se disseminando no Brasil e causou nos últimos anos perdas de até 50% na produção de figos. Uma alternativa viável de controle desta mosca pode ser a utilização de fungos entomopatogênicos. Este trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório (27±1°C, UR 70±10% e fotoperíodo de 12h para avaliar a suscetibilidade dos estágios de larva e adulto de Z. indianus a cinco concentrações (10(8 a 10(4 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana (URM2915; ESALQ447 e M. anisopliae (URM3349; URM4403. Não houve mortalidade larval e o período de pré-pupa não sofreu alteração em relação ao grupo controle, já o estágio de pupa foi aumentado em até três dias quando se utilizou B. bassiana. A emergência de adultos diminuiu em relação ao grupo controle: 10,6% quando as larvas foram tratadas com a maior concentração de B. bassiana URM2916 e 2,0% com M. anisopliae URM4403. No bioensaio com adultos, a mortalidade máxima atingiu 98,7% com B. bassiana e 100,0% com M. anisopliae. Os menores valores da CL50 foram de 1,09x10(5 conídios mL-1 para B. bassiana URM2916 e de 1,94x10(4 conídios mL-1 para M. anisopliae URM4403. O tempo letal médio (TL50 variou de 4,5 a 6,12 dias. Os resultados demonstraram que ambos os fungos são eficientes e mostram ser promissores agentes biocontroladores da mosca do figo, com destaque para M. anisopliae URM4403.The "fig fly", Zaprionus indianus, has spread by in Brazil and in recent years and has caused losses of up to 50% in the production of figs. A viable alternative to control this fly may be the use of entomopathogenic fungi such. The present study was developed in laboratory (27±1°C, RH 70±10% and 12h photoperiod, to assess the susceptibility of larval and adult stages of Z. indianus to five concentrations (10(8 to 10(4 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana (URM2915; ESALQ447 and M. anisopliae (URM3349; URM4403. There was no larval mortality and the pre-pupal period did not change compared

  11. Early transcriptional events linked to induction of diapause revealed by RNAseq in larvae of drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poupardin, Rodolphe; Schöttner, Konrad; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Provazník, Jan; Doležel, David; Pavlinic, D.; Beneš, V.; Košťál, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, Sep 21 (2015), article number 720 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-01057S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Grant - others:Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013(CZ) MODBIOLIN no. 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fruit fly * photoperiodism * developmnet Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/16/720

  12. ‘A Stable of Whores’? The ‘Flying Squadron’ of Catherine de Medici

    OpenAIRE

    McIlvenna, Una

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines the construction of the myth of the sixteenth-century French queen mother Catherine de Medici's 'flying squadron' through the literature of the sixteenth century, in particular, the defamatory pamphlets and verse libels that portrayed the queen’s household as a site of debauchery and prostitution. Revealing the authors of this satirical literature and their motives, it then traces how their satirical representations came to be treated as genuine descriptions of life at c...

  13. Stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its animal partner and the nutritional environment throughout a fly population's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téfit, Mélisandre A; Gillet, Benjamin; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Leulier, François

    2018-04-01

    In the past years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the relationship between animals and their associated microbes. Compared to the one of wild populations, the microbiota of laboratory-reared flies is less diverse, and comprises fewer bacterial taxa; nevertheless, the main commensal bacteria found in fly microbiota always belong to the Acetobacteraceae and Lactobacillaceae families. The bacterial communities associated with the fly are environmentally acquired, and the partners engage in a perpetual re-association process. Adult flies constantly ingest and excrete microbes from and onto their feeding substrate, which are then transmitted to the next generation developing within this shared habitat. We wanted to analyze the potential changes in the bacterial community during its reciprocal transfer between the two compartments of the niche (i.e. the fly and the diet). To address this question, we used a diverse, wild-derived microbial community and analyzed its relationship with the fly population and the nutritive substrate in a given habitat. Here we show that the community was overall well maintained upon transmission to a new niche, to a new fly population and to their progeny, illustrating the stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its fly partner and the nutritional environment. These results highlight the preponderant role of the nutritional substrate in the dynamics of Drosophila/microbiota interactions, and the need to fully integrate this variable when performing such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. VOCs-Mediated Location of Olive Fly Larvae by the Braconid Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor: A Multivariate Comparison among VOC Bouquets from Three Olive Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Giunti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous activity induces plant indirect defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs, which could be used by parasitoids for host location. Psyttalia concolor is a larval pupal endoparasitoid, attacking a number of tephritid flies including B. oleae. In this research, we investigated the olfactory cues routing host location behavior of P. concolor towards B. oleae larvae infesting three different olive cultivars. VOCs from infested and healthy fruits were identified using GC-MS analyses. In two-choice behavioral assays, P. concolor females preferred infested olive cues, which also evoked ovipositional probing by female wasps. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy olives. Volatile emissions were peculiar for each cultivar analyzed. Two putative HIPVs were detected in infested fruits, regardless of the cultivar, the monoterpene (E-β-ocimene, and the sesquiterpene (E-E-α-farnesene. Our study adds basic knowledge to the behavioral ecology of P. concolor. From an applied point of view, the field application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help to enhance effectiveness of biological control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques.

  15. The Study of Compound Quality of various Siam Weed (Eupatorium odoratum) Extracts and Toxicity Detoxification mechanisms Against 3rd Instar Larvae of Fruit Fly (Dacus dorsalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutthivaiyakit, Pakawadee; Visetson, Suraphon; Sutthivaiyakit, Somyote; Patharakorn, Thipamon; Patharakorn, Surapol; Piadang, Patharakorn

    2006-09-01

    The 1H-NMR spectroscopy showed signals of DeltaH tild0.71.6 from hexane-leaf extracts from Siam weed (Eupatorium odoratum) These signals derive from protons of non-polar compounds which include fatty acid residues and terpinoids. In addition, the amplification of the signals indicated of some minor DeltaH tild6.2-7.7. This revealed protons from aromatic rings possibly involving in flavonoids from 1H-NMR spectrum. This is a believe that is a believe that these compounds could be varied from slightly polar compounds to moderately polar compounds. Furthermore, the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of hexane, chloroform and methanol fractions showed the extracts composed of majority of less polar. It is and indication of the method of separation is quite food for separation of polarity basis from these extracts. Finally, the TLC of hexane fraction distinctively produced 7-8 compounds from the extracts. Toxicity testing using topical spray method showed that methnoloc extracts gave highest toxicity against 3rd instar larvae of fruit fly (Darcus dorsalis). The root extracts produced ca. 5 fold mohile GSH-S-transferase ws elevated 2-3 fold. The addition of dimethyl maleate into the extraccts increased their toxicity. The persistent experiment of eupathal from the extracts showed that the extracts can be stabilixed under aqueous solution upto 1 month with losing the compound. Finally, the Siam weed extracts prosuced non toxic to non-target organisms such as gabbies, bee, and mouse. The results of LC50 showed 15,000-26,000 mg/L 6,000-15,000 mg/L and 3,000-10,000 mg/L from hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts, respectively.

  16. Moisture adsorption properties and shelf-life estimation of dried and pulverised edible house cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) and black soldier fly larvae Hermetia illucens (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, E; Mutungi, C; Kinyuru, J; Imathiu, S; Tanga, C; Affognon, H; Ekesi, S; Nakimbugwe, D; Fiaboe, K K M

    2018-04-01

    Edible insects are part of the diets of a significant proportion of rural populations in the tropics especially Africa and Asia, and their use as source of key nutrients for better nutrition is re-emerging. Indigenously, elemental methods are used to process the insects before they are consumed or sold in retail outlets. In recent years, better knowledge of processing, packaging and storage has become necessary because of commercialisation needs. A common processing approach involves drying after a brief heat-treatment step, and then milling into a powdered product which is sold to manufacturers or consumers as ingredient for processing final products. The hydration properties of dried powders of edible house cricket and black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) were studied with the aim of predicting shelf-life stability under typical packaging and storage temperatures experienced in the tropics. Moisture adsorption isotherms were determined gravimetrically at 25, 30 and 35 °C, over 0.11-0.97 water activity (a W ) range, and the data fitted to various models. Sorption isotherms were of type II according to Brunauer classification indicating monolayer-multilayer sorption behaviour. Cricket powder exhibited higher hydration capacity, and a W of this product was less sensitive to temperature variation as compared to BSFL powder. In the two products, water exhibited transitions from bound- to free- state at ~5 g/100 g moisture content. Based on Heiss-Eichner model, a shelf-life of 7 months at 25 °C can be achieved if the cricket and BSFL powders are dried to ca. 5 g/100 g moisture content and packaged in 80 μm thick polyethylene films. At 35 °C the shelf-life of the cricket product is shortened three- to four-fold whereas the BSFL powder is unable to store. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Larvicidal efficacy of essential oil of betel leaf ( Piper betle on the larvae of the old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhana April

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chrysomya bezziana are the commonest cause of wound myiasis in some parts of the world. This obligatory parasite is important in humans and in commercial livestock. Kumarasinghe et al have reported that essential oil of betel leaf (EOBL is larvicidal to C. megacephala but there are no publications on its effect on C. bezziana . This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of essential oil of betel leaf ( Piper betle against the larvae of C. bezziana in vitro . EOBL was prepared at the Industrial Technology Institute Colombo, Sri Lanka, according to a standard protocol. The experiment on larvae was carried out at the Research Institute for Veterinary Sciences in Bogor, Indonesia. EOBL concentrations of 2%, 3% and 4% were prepared with Tween 80. Two ml of 4%, 3% and 2% EOBL in 1% Tween 80 (v/v/aq were poured into separate Petri dishes. Ten 1st and 2nd instar larvae were placed in each Petri dish. Asuntol (Chaumaphos 1% was used as positive control and distilled water with 1% tween 80 was the negative control. Larval mortality was assessed half-hourly. The experiment was repeated five times and averages were compared. Sustained immobility of the larvae, after exposure to the relevant substances was considered as death. The efficacy of EOBL depended on, the stages of C. bezziana larvae and the concentration. With 4% EOBL, all first instar larvae were killed within two hours and the second instar larvae were killed by four hours. The positive control showed no mortality until four hours but all larvae were weak, from the first 30 minutes. In the negative control, larvae were mobile and active. EOBL 3% killed all the first instar larvae by 150 minutes and 74% of the second instar at four hours. By 210 minutes, 2% preparation had killed 100% of the first instars. EOBL is an effective larvicidal for C. bezziana first and second instar larvae in vitro . This natural product has a great potential to be developed as a novel larvicide against this

  18. Prevalence of larvae of the bot fly Cuterebra simulans (Diptera, Oestridae on Gracilinanus microtarsus (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae in southeastern Cerrado from Brazil Prevalência de parasitismo de larvas de Cuterebra simulans (Diptera, Oestridae em Gracilinanus microtarsus (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae no Cerrado do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dominici Cruz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Cuterebra simulans bot fly parasitism on marsupial Gracilinanus microtarsus was compared between sexes and seasons of the year. No significant difference was observed between females and males but prevalence was higher in warm-wet season than cool-dry season. This pattern agree with observations of others studies with oestrids flies in southern Neotropical areas, suggesting the occurrence of latitudinal change in the peak of bot flies reproductive activity related to seasons of the year along these systems. This is the first record of C. simulans larvae parasitism on G. microtarsus and its occurrence in southern areas of the Neotropical region.A prevalência de parasitismo das larvas da mosca Cuterebra simulans no marsupial Gracilinanus microtarsus foi comparada entre os sexos e estações do ano. Machos e fêmeas não apresentaram diferenças significativas, mas a prevalência de parasitismo foi mais elevada na estação quenteúmida que na estação fria-seca. Este padrão está de acordo com as observações de outros estudos com moscas da família Oestridae realizados nas áreas ao sul da região Neotropical, sugerindo a ocorrência de mudanças latitudinais nos picos de atividades reprodutivas destas moscas em relação às estações do ano ao longo destes sistemas. Este também é o primeiro registro da ocorrência de C. simulans em áreas mais ao sul da região Neotropical e do parasitismo de suas larvas em G. microtarsus.

  19. Accumulation of dioxins and PCB in house fly larvae (musca domestica) reared in poultry manure and used in feed for organic laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Fischer, Christian Holst

    2014-01-01

    higher content of the persistent organic environmental contaminants dioxins and PCB than eggs from conventional hens held indoor in cages. 1,2 The elevated levels of dioxins and PCB are most likely due to the hens picking in soils contaminated by industrial activities, burning of waste, chemical spillage...... etc. As manure from free range hens is expected to have elevated contents of dioxins and PCB, we investigated whether larvae reared in this type of manure accumulate dioxins and PCB, and if feeding organic laying hens with these larvae would increase the levels of dioxins and PCB in the hen eggs...... larvae, poultry manure, compost and compound feed as well as pooled egg samples from each group were analysed for levels of dioxins and PCB. Analytical procedure: after extraction of the sample with a mixture of pentane and acetone (88:12), the extracts were cleaned-up on a multilayer silica column...

  20. Development of myiasis vaccine: In vitro detection of immunoprotective responses of peritrophic membrane protein, first instar larva Ll supernatant and pellet antigen of fly Chrysomyia bezziana in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarsih

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis control by means of individual treatment of animals which are mainly rised extensively is time consumed and expensive. The alternative way to control this disease by vaccination is considered effective and economically accepted. However the expected vaccine is now still being developed under a collaborative project between CSIRO, Inter-University Centre on Biotechnology-ITB and Research Institute for Veterinary Science and funded by ACIAR. There are several antigens have been identified as vaccine candidates and an in vitro bioassay technique has been developed for assessing the immunoresponses of vaccine in sheep. Three antigens were used for vaccines in this study, these included protein peritrophic membrane (PM, soluble extract (SE and pellet extract (PE of 1st instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana. Twenty four experimental sheep were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals, 3 groups of animals were injected with PM, SE and PE vaccines with the dose rate of 0.5 g PM/head, 0.8 g PE/head and 4.2 ml LE/head respectively, and the other one group was injected with 4 ml PBS/head as a control group. Vaccination with the same dose was repeated 4 weeks after the 1st vaccination as a booster, and 2 weeks after the booster the sheep were challenged with live larvae, 3 days after challenge animals were killed. Sera were collected at the day of vaccination, 4 weeks after vaccination, 2 weeks after booster, and 3 days after challenge. An in vitro bioassay technique was conducted by culturing 1st instar larvae on five media containing sera collected from each experimental animal. The effects of sera on cultivated larvae were assessed by means of larval weight and larval mortality rate. The results indicated that the growth rate and survival of cultivated larvae in media containing anti-PM sera were significantly lower (P<0.01 compared to the larvae cultivated on media with sera on the day of vaccination. The larval weight depression by anti- PM sera

  1. Variations in mitochondrial DNA and gene transcription in freezing-tolerant larvae of Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Gynaephora groenlandica (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, D B; Danks, H V; Barber, S A

    2003-06-01

    Respiration, mitochondrial (mt)DNA content, and mitochondrial-specific RNA expression in fat body cells from active and cold-adapted larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, and the Arctic woolly bear caterpillar, Gynaephora groenlandica, were compared. Reduced amounts of mtDNA were observed in cold-adapted larvae of both E. solidaginis and G. groenlandica collected in fall or winter, compared with summer-collected larvae. mtDNA increased to levels similar to those of summer-collected larvae after incubation at 10 degrees C or 15 degrees C for 5 h. Mitochondrial-specific RNAs (COI and 16S) were observed in fat body cells of both active and cold-adapted E. solidaginis larvae. Our results suggest that mitochondrial proteins required for respiration may be restored rapidly from stable RNAs present in overwintering larvae.

  2. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy, E-mail: srireddys@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mitoma, Yoshiharu, E-mail: mitomay@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562 Nanatsuka-Cho, Shobara City, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Okuda, Tetsuji [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Sakita, Shogo [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562 Nanatsuka-Cho, Shobara City, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Simion, Cristian [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Department of Organic Chemistry, Bucharest 060042 (Romania)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the Cs extraction and immobilization in fly ash during water, methanol or n-MCaS extraction. - Highlights: • nMCaS suspension for cesium extraction and immobilization in fly ash was developed. • Enhanced cesium immobilization was done by nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. • By SEM analysis the amount of cesium detectable on soil particle surface decreases. • Leachable cesium concentrations reduced, lower than the standard regulatory limit. • nMCaS unique and a highly potential amendment for the remediation of Cs. - Abstract: In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable ({sup 133}Cs) and radioactive cesium species ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of {sup 133}Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of {sup 133}Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable {sup 133}Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040 Bq kg{sup −1134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583 Bq kg{sup −1} after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100 Bq L{sup −1} total {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000 Bq kg{sup −1} and 150 Bq L{sup −1} respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is

  3. The Use Of Local Product Yeast For Substitution Torula Yeast In The Formulation Of Artificial Diet Fruit Fly Larvae Bactrocera Carambolae Drew and Hancock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikumbang, I.; Nasution, A.I.; Indarwatmi, M.; Kuswandi, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The use of local product yeast I.e brewer yeast, yeast of tapai (fermented cassava), yeast of tempe (fermented soy beam), and brem(intoxicating beverage made of fermented rice) after cooked and uncooked were used to substitute torula yeast to reduce cost production for mass-rearing of fruit fly had been carried out. Artificial diet formulation consisted of torula yeast, wheat bran, nipagin, sodium benzoate, cane sugar, water and HCI ti make pH of 4. One kilogram of diet was inoculated with 1 ml of fruit fly eggs. Parameters of the experiment were, the number of pupae, weight of pupae, percentage of pupae and the percentage of viable fly. The results showed that the number of pupae were 6356 for brewers yeast with cooked and 0.942 gram/100 pupae for brem. Percentage viable emergence fly were 70%, 18.25% and 15.25% for brewers yeast with cooked and uncooked respectively. Cost production for 1.000.000 using cooked brewer yeast was reduced about Rp.179,200 or cost efficiency were 55.56%

  4. Impact of substrate contamination with mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides on the growth performance and composition of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) for use in the feed and food value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Benedict; Scheibelberger, Rafaela; Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Jäger, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Edible insects have emerged as an alternative and sustainable source of high-quality, animal-derived protein and fat for livestock production or direct human nutrition. During the production of insects, substrate quality is a key parameter to assure optimal insect biomass gain as well as the safety of feed and food derived from commercially reared insects. Therefore, the influence of a realistic substrate contamination scenario on growth performance and accumulation behaviour of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL; Hermetia illucens L.) was investigated. Newly hatched larvae were fed on a corn-based substrate spiked with heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb), mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1/B2/G2, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone) and pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl) under defined breeding conditions (10 days, 28°C, 67% relative humidity). The extent of contaminants' bioaccumulation in the larval tissue as well as the effect on growing determinants were examined. The applied heavy metal substrate contamination was shown to impair larval growing indicated by significantly lower post-trial larval mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Cd and Pb accumulation factors of 9 and 2, respectively, were determined, while the concentrations of other heavy metals in the larvae remained below the initial substrate concentration. In contrast, mycotoxins and pesticides have neither been accumulated in the larval tissue nor significantly affected the growing determinants in comparison with the control. The use of BSFL as livestock feed requires contaminant monitoring - especially for Cd and Pb - in the substrates as well as in feedstuff containing BSFL to ensure feed and food safety along the value chain.

  5. Use of the sterile male technique as an adjunct to insecticidal and physical methods for stable fly control on the island of St. Croix, U.S.V.I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, R.S.; Labrecque, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    A three-year feasibility study was conducted on the island of St. Croix, U.S.V.I., on the use of the sterile male technique as an adjunct to insecticidal and physical measures to control the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. The native stable fly population cycled in relation to moisture; it was the highest during the rainy season in the autumn (1.9x10 6 ) then gradually declined to a low point (0.7x10 5 ) during the summer in the dry season. The releases were carried out with an indigenous strain of flies reared on the island. The adult flies (24-28-h old) were exposed to 2 kR of gamma irradiation in a cobalt source. This treatment plus marking reduced the competitiveness by about 15%. The sterile flies were released in lots of 4000 at prearranged points throughout the island. Approximately 1x10 5 sterile males/day for 18 months were released at 2 km intervals over the 218 km 2 island. This reduced the native population by about 50%. On selected farms where insecticide or sterile males could not be released, the fly pupal parasite, Spalangia endius Walker, was released. Sanitation and cleanup of breeding habitats were recommended to all farmers, but were practised by very few. When all control techniques were in practice, the native stable fly population was reduced by 99.9%. A few fertile flies were found during the last six months of this experiment. These came from isolated breeding sites, flies immigrating from other islands about 40 km away or were introduced with imported livestock and/or pets. During this period no larval breeding was observed indicating that immigration was probably the main cause of the fertile flies on the island. (author)

  6. Inhibiting α-synuclein oligomerization by stable cell-penetrating β-synuclein fragments recovers phenotype of Parkinson's disease model flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit Shaltiel-Karyo

    Full Text Available The intracellular oligomerization of α-synuclein is associated with Parkinson's disease and appears to be an important target for disease-modifying treatment. Yet, to date, there is no specific inhibitor for this aggregation process. Using unbiased systematic peptide array analysis, we identified molecular interaction domains within the β-synuclein polypeptide that specifically binds α-synuclein. Adding such peptide fragments to α-synuclein significantly reduced both amyloid fibrils and soluble oligomer formation in vitro. A retro-inverso analogue of the best peptide inhibitor was designed to develop the identified molecular recognition module into a drug candidate. While this peptide shows indistinguishable activity as compared to the native peptide, it is stable in mouse serum and penetrates α-synuclein over-expressing cells. The interaction interface between the D-amino acid peptide and α-synuclein was mapped by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Finally, administering the retro-inverso peptide to a Drosophila model expressing mutant A53T α-synuclein in the nervous system, resulted in a significant recovery of the behavioral abnormalities of the treated flies and in a significant reduction in α-synuclein accumulation in the brains of the flies. The engineered retro-inverso peptide can serve as a lead for developing a novel class of therapeutic agents to treat Parkinson's disease.

  7. Nutrient intake in the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea and Protaetia orientalis submarmorea (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips: Results from stable isotope analyses of nitrogen and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Masahito; Iwata, Ryutaro; Yamane, Akiomi; Katase, Takao; Ueda, Shingo

    2003-01-01

    The nutrient intake of the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea (Ac) and Protaerita orientalis submarmorea (Pos) (Colepotera: Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips of two wood species (Cryptomeria japonica and Quercus mongolica), was assayed by the stable isotope technique. The values of δ 15 N and δ 13 C (deviations of 15 N/ 14 N and 13 C/ 12 C from the standard materials) were measured in the following samples: (1) the integument plus the head of the 3rd instar larvae of both species reared in 1999 autumn fed with a mixture of cow dung and wood chips or with leaf mold, (2) cow dung, (3) wood ships, and (4) leaf mold as the larval food before onset of rearing. The δ values of bodies of larvae fed with leaf mold differed with the beetle species. The δ 15 N values of the larval bodies of both species fed with the mixture were close to those of cow dung, whereas the δ 13 C values were in between those of cow dung and wood chips. Therefore, both species were presumed to obtain almost all their nitrogen from cow dung, and their carbon from both dung and wood chips. (author)

  8. 驯鹿的皮蝇蛆线粒体CO1基因序列分析%Sequence analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) gene of warble fly larvae from reindeer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧; 杨晓野; 李云章; 莫内; 阿拉腾保力格; 赵治国; 王瑞

    2011-01-01

    The specificity of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidaae 1 ( CO1) gene sequence of warble fly larvae of unknown species from reindeer in Inner Mongolia region of China were analyzed by molecular biological techniques. The results showed that the size of CO1 gene fragment from UEA7 to UEA10 was approximately 689 bp. The analysis of phylogenic tree showed that the unknown species from the reindeer in Inner Mongolia had high homology with Hypoderma diana France isolate. The differences analysis between the different fly species showed:the sequences between Hypodermatidae and Oestridae were obviously different, ranged from 19. 3% to 25. 5% . The divergences of different fly larvae in deer ranged from 1. 9% to 25. 5% . The divergences of Hypoderma. ranged from 6. 7% to 18. 7%. The divergences of Cephenemyia. ranged from 1. 9% to 9. 6% and the variation of the different Hypoderma diana strains was 6. 0%. It suggested that the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial CO1 genes could indicate the phylogenetic relationships among different genera, species and strains to some extent.%利用分子生物学技术对内蒙古驯鹿未定种皮蝇蛆线粒体CO1基因种属特异性序列进行了研究.DNA核苷酸测序结果证实:该种皮蝇线粒体CO1种属特异性基因UEA7到UEA10特殊目标编码区域片段长度约为689 bp;种系发生进化树和同源性分析显示其与鹿皮蝇法国株同源性非常接近,因此确定内蒙古地区感染驯鹿的皮蝇蛆为鹿皮蝇(Hypoderma diana).不同蝇种间差异性分析显示:皮蝇科(Hypodermatidae)与狂蝇科(Oestridae)之间序列差异明显,差异性为19.3%~25.5%;寄生于鹿的不同蝇蛆种间差异性为1.9%~25.5%;皮蝇属(Hypoderma)不同种间差异性为6.7%~18.7%;鹿蝇属(Cephenemyia)不同种间差异性为1.9%~9.6%;而同种不同株的鹿皮蝇差异性为6.0%;说明生物线粒体CO1基因核苷酸序列在一定程度上可反映出种属及株间在进化上的差异性.

  9. The onion fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosjes, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the origin, practical application, problems in application and prospects of control of the onion fly, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in the Netherlands by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The larva of the onion fly is a severe pest in onions in temperate regions. Development of resistance of the onion fly against insecticides caused research on the SIT to be started by the Dutch Government in 1965. This research was on mass-rearing, long-term storage of pupae, sterilization, and release and ratio assessment techniques. By 1979 sufficient information had been turned over to any interested private company. In the case of the onion fly the SIT can be applied like a control treatment instead of chemical control to individual onion fields. This is due to the limited dispersal activity of the flies and the scattered distribution of onion fields in the Netherlands, with 5-10% of the onion growing areas planted with onions

  10. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  11. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  12. Mass rearing of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala Lopez, J.L.; Dominguez G, J.; Gomez S, Y.; Moreno, P.

    1999-01-01

    A description of the present methods for mass rearing Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, is given. Important contributions and improvements are described for the rearing stages, e.g. egg production and incubation, larvae diets, lab conditions for the development of larvae and pupae, larvae and pupae handling and environmental control. (author)

  13. Assay of old-world screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, labelled with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, K.P.; Sands, D.P.A.; Spradbery, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques for 32 P labelling of larvae and adults of the screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are described. Egg masses of labelled flies were readily identified. At the doses used for field releases, oviposition activity, fertility and longevity of female flies were not adversely affected. Radioactive egg masses were recovered from sentinel animals following field release of labelled flies. (Auth.)

  14. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  15. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  16. Typology of organic residues attracting flies and their utilization in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADIN

    All rights reserved. Keywords: organic residue, fly larvae, organic manure, soil fertility, farmer perception. ... nutrients in the animal manure, which in turn is fed with crop .... dried fish, rotten meat, human waste, rabbit skin and blood were ...

  17. Field-based Evaluation of a Novel SPME-GC-MS Method for Investigation of Below-ground Interaction between Brassica Roots and Larvae of Cabbage Root Fly, Delia radicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, William; Shepherd, Tom; Alexander, Colin J; Birch, A Nicholas E; Evans, K Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Collection of volatiles from plant roots poses technical challenges due to difficulties accessing the soil environment without damaging the roots. To validate a new non-invasive method for passive sampling of root volatiles in situ, from plants grown under field conditions, using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME). SPME fibres were inserted into perforated polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) tubes positioned in the soil next to broccoli plants for collection of root volatiles pre- and post-infestation with Delia radicum larvae. After sample analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to determine differences in the profiles of volatiles between samples. GC-MS analysis revealed that this method can detect temporal changes in root volatiles emitted before and after Delia radicum damage. PCA showed that samples collected pre- and post-infestation were compositionally different due to the presence of root volatiles induced by D. radicum feeding. Sulphur containing compounds, in particular, accounted for the differences observed. Root volatiles emission patterns post-infestation are thought to follow the feeding and developmental progress of larvae. This study shows that volatiles released by broccoli roots can be collected in situ using SPME fibres within perforated PTFE tubes under field conditions. Plants damaged by Delia radicum larvae could be distinguished from plants sampled pre-infestation and soil controls on the basis of larval feeding-induced sulphur-containing volatiles. These results show that this new method is a powerful tool for non-invasive sampling of root volatiles below-ground. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The gut microbiota in larvae of the housefly Musca domestica and their horizontal transfer through feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Wang, Wanqiang; Zhu, Fen; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang

    2017-12-01

    House fly larvae provide a prolific and sustainable source of proteins used in poultry and fish feed. Wheat bran is a superior diet for house fly larvae and has been widely investigated to exploit its potential in the food and feed area. Using Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing, this study investigated the gut microbiota of house fly larvae feeding on wheat bran and the bacterial community in the wheat bran. The bacterial communities in the house fly larvae were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Enterobacteriaceae and Providencia were the predominant bacteria at the family and genus levels, respectively. Some bacteria in the phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes may be transferred from the gut of house flies to the wheat bran during feeding and may be involved in degrading and utilizing polysaccharides in the cell wall of wheat bran. The significance of the gut microbiota of house fly larvae, their transferring and roles in degradation of wheat bran is discussed. These findings regarding the gut microbiota of house fly larvae will provide opportunities for research on the impact of microbial communities on poultry and fish.

  19. A Laboratory Practical on the House Building Behaviour of Caddis Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a laboratory practical on animal behavior suitable for senior secondary school or university biology classes. Several separate exercises relating to the house building behavior of caddis fly larvae are detailed, together with the time required for preparation. (JR)

  20. New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...

  1. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae which provides a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericat. This s...

  2. Transcriptomic analyses of the secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the wheat midge larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) and the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) belong to a group of insects called gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and both are destructive pests of wheat. From Hessian fly larvae, a large number of genes have been identified to encode Secreted Salivary...

  3. Development and Validation of a SPME-GC-MS Method for In situ Passive Sampling of Root Volatiles from Glasshouse-Grown Broccoli Plants Undergoing Below-Ground Herbivory by Larvae of Cabbage Root Fly, Delia radicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, William; Shepherd, Tom; Alexander, Colin J; Birch, A Nicholas E; Evans, K Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Research on plant root chemical ecology has benefited greatly from recent developments in analytical chemistry. Numerous reports document techniques for sampling root volatiles, although only a limited number describe in situ collection. To demonstrate a new method for non-invasive in situ passive sampling using solid phase micro extraction (SPME), from the immediate vicinity of growing roots. SPME fibres inserted into polyfluorotetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sampling tubes located in situ which were either perforated, covered with stainless steel mesh or with microporous PTFE tubing, were used for non-invasive sub-surface sampling of root volatiles from glasshouse-grown broccoli. Sampling methods were compared with above surface headspace collection using Tenax TA. The roots were either mechanically damaged or infested with Delia radicum larvae. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the effect of damage on the composition of volatiles released by broccoli roots. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with SPME and automated thermal desorption (ATD) confirmed that sulphur compounds, showing characteristic temporal emission patterns, were the principal volatiles released by roots following insect larval damage. Use of SPME with in situ perforated PTFE sampling tubes was the most robust method for out-of-lab sampling. This study describes a new method for non-invasive passive sampling of volatiles in situ from intact and insect damaged roots using SPME. The method is highly suitable for remote sampling and has potential for wide application in chemical ecology/root/soil research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  5. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  6. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  7. Uncommon Human Urinary Tract Myiasis Due to Psychoda Sp. Larvae, Kashan, Iran: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Sima; Dehghani, Rouhullah; Khaledi, Hassan Naeimi; Takhtfiroozeh, Sayed Mahdi; Chimehi, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of human and animal body tissues with flies' larvae and diptera cause myiasis. A 26 yr old female patient refers to Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, central Iran because of urogenital infection, pain in the right part of stomach, smelly and reddish vaginal discharge and frequent urination. In the first checking, urine sample was taken. In the sample, active and alive larvae were seen. The live samples were taken to the Environmental Health Department Lab of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in clean glass jars. In the morphological survey, Psychoda sp larvae were identified. In Iran, this study is the first report of this species of larva that causes urinary myiasis. This fly larva is not carnivore or bloodsucker and feeds on bacterial agents. Observance of personal hygiene especially during defecation and urination is essential to prevent contamination of this type of myiasis.

  8. Significance and survival of Enterococci during the house fly development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Akhtar, Mastura; Holderman, Chris; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    House flies are among the most important nonbiting insect pests of medical and veterinary importance. Larvae develop in decaying organic substrates and their survival strictly depends on an active microbial community. House flies have been implicated in the ecology and transmission of enterococci, including multi-antibiotic-resistant and virulent strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, eight American Type Culture Collection type strains of enterococci including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcusfaecalis, and Enterococcusfaecium were evaluated for their significance in the development of house flies from eggs to adults in bacterial feeding assays. Furthermore, the bacterial colonization of the gut of teneral flies as well as the importance of several virulence traits of E. faecalis in larval mortality was assessed. Overall survival of house flies (egg to adult) was significantly higher when grown with typically nonpathogenic enterococcal species such as E. hirae (76.0% survival), E. durans (64.0%), and E. avium (64.0%) compared with that with clinically important species E. faecalis (24.0%) and E. faecium (36.0%). However, no significant differences in survival of house fly larvae were detected when grown with E. faecalis strains carrying various virulence traits, including isogenic mutants of the human clinical isolate E. faecalis V583 with in-frame deletions of gelatinase, serine protease, and capsular polysaccharide serotype C. Enterococci were commonly detected in fly puparia (range: 75-100%; concentration: 103-105 CFU/puparium);however, the prevalence of enterococci in teneral flies varied greatly: from 25.0 (E. casseliflavus) to 89.5% (E. hirae). In conclusion, depending on the species, enterococci variably support house fly larval development and colonize the gut of teneral adults. The human pathogenic species, E. faecalis and E. faecium

  9. 'Flying barnacles'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Chan, Benny K K; Koskinen, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    in temperate areas spreading widely over inland and marine habitats outside the breeding season. The species is known to perform long-distance migration to Africa and the Middle East. Combining present knowledge on the birds' migratory pattern and the home range of the barnacle species, it is concluded...... that the cypris larvae of F. pallidus must have settled in African waters, whereas the area where F. albicostatus settled on the bird leg rings is less certain. The barnacles were of adult size and must thus have been attached for a period of no less than 2 months. More than 30 individual barnacles could occur...

  10. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent a sustainable method for reducing animal and plant wastes. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. The prepupae can be self-harvested and used as feedstuff for livestock and poultry. While som...

  11. Effects of eucalyptol on house fly (Diptera: Muscidae and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of eucalyptol were evaluated against the house fly, Musca domestica L., and blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.. The bioassay of adults, using topical application, indicated that M. domestica males were more susceptible than females, with the LD50 being 118 and 177 mg/fly, respectively. A higher LD50 of C. megacephala was obtained; 197 mg/fly for males and 221 mg/fly for females. Living flies of both species yielded a shorter life span after being treated with eucalyptol. The bioassay of larvae, using the dipping method on the third instar, showed that M. domestica was more susceptible than C. megacephala, with their LC50 being 101 and 642 mg/ml, respectively. The emergence of adults, which had been treated with eucalyptol in larvae, decreased only in M. domestica. Having the volatile property, fumigation or impregnated paper test of eucalyptol or the efficacy of repellence or attractiveness merits further investigations to enhance bio-insecticidal efficacy.

  12. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  13. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan larva Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae dalam beberapa jenis kotoran ternak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Eka Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available House fly (Musca domestica is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly’s life history. The research is focused on the development of house fly larvae reared with different livestock manures, such as cow, chicken, and horse. As comparison, rice bran were used as control. Results showed that larvae reared with horse manure has the shortest development time (5 days, with lowest larval survival rate (30%, pupal weight (6.8 ± 0.141 g, and weight of female imago (4.9 ± 0.14 g. This finding indicates the lowest nutrition value of horse manure for house flies larvae. Further research is needed to find the effect of manure to variables that directly influence population growth, such as fecundity of female flies and egg survivorship. These additional information on life history will help the design of appropriate house fly population management program for animal farm.

  14. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and

  15. Mites and spiders act as biological control agent to sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Singh Dinesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out natural biological control agents of sand flies vector of kala azar in Bihar, India. Methods: Sand flies collected from the field using CDC light trap installing overnight to the collection site scrutitinized for Phlebotomus argentipes, the established vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Blood fed adult females were confined in the insectary for its development of life cycle. During developmental stages 2nd to 4th instars larvae were examined closely by using compound microscope for mite infestation. Adult spider residing along with sand flies collected in trap were kept in cage along with sand flies and their activities were watched closely and recorded by video and picture. Results: Mites were found predating 2nd to 4th instars larvae only under the laboratory conditions and lowering down the population of sand flies up to basal level within 15 d after infestation. One specific spider was found eating blood fed female sand flies kept inside the cage (n=50 attacking on lower part of thoracic region to kill the sand fly and ate desired soft part. Conclusions: Both predators, mites and spiders are acting as biological control agents to larvae and adults of sand flies respectively resulting variable density of vectors due to variable association with these predators and also cause lowering the transmission of the disease as hidden natural controlling agent of sand flies. The extensive study will be of immense help in controlling sand flies without use of environmental pollutant i.e. chemical insecticide.

  16. Indigenous weaver ants and fruit fly control in Tanzanian smallholder mango production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Msogoya, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of weaver ant colonies can reduce fruit fly oviposition in mango production and can be effective as a fruit fly control strategy. Patrolling ants may disturb landing flies and may also deposit repellent compounds on to the fruits. This control strategy is being applied to export...... temperatures to lethal levels for fruit fly eggs and larvae. Direct observations showed a small, but significant reduction in fly landings on fruits previously patrolled by ants, supporting the proposed role for persistent repellents. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy did not identify any compounds uniquely...

  17. Evaluation of New Technologies for Protection of Military Personnel from Filth and Biting Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    at 26oC and ~55% RH. Fly larvae were fed on a medium containing 3 liters wheat bran, 1.5 liters water, and 250 ml of dairy calf feed (Calf Manna...1973), have compiled extensive lists of the pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi , protozoa, and nematodes) the house fly is capable of transmitting...birds. House flies are also prone to infections by bacteria and fungi . Fortunately, all of these biological controls are already abundant in a fly’s

  18. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uncommon Human Urinary Tract Myiasis Due to Psychoda Sp. Larvae, Kashan, Iran: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima RASTI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of human and animal body tissues with flies’ larvae and diptera cause myiasis. A 26 yr old female patient refers to Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, central Iran because of urogenital infection, pain in the right part of stomach, smelly and reddish vaginal discharge and frequent urination. In the first checking, urine sample was taken. In the sample, active and alive larvae were seen. The live samples were taken to the Environmental Health Department Lab of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in clean glass jars. In the morphological survey, Psychoda sp larvae were identified. In Iran, this study is the first report of this species of larva that causes urinary myiasis. This fly larva is not carnivore or bloodsucker and feeds on bacterial agents. Observance of personal hygiene especially during defecation and urination is essential to prevent contamination of this type of myiasis.

  20. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  1. Visceral larva migrans: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Alexandre Bortoli; El Achkar, Marice Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.Visceral larva migrans is an infectious human disease that occurs following ingestion of eggs...

  2. Efficacy of brown sugar flotation and hot water methods for detecting Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown sugar flotation and hot water methods are accepted procedures for detecting larval western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in sweet cherry [Prunus avium (L.) L.] and could be included in a systems approach for showing the absence of larvae in fruit. The methods require cr...

  3. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier, for wide-spread release and biological control of olive fruit fly in California. As many as 3...

  4. Genome of the house fly, Musca domestica L., a global vector of diseases with adaptations to a septic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Jeffrey G; Warren, Wesley C; Beukeboom, Leo W; Bopp, Daniel; Clark, Andrew G; Giers, Sarah D; Hediger, Monika; Jones, Andrew K; Kasai, Shinji; Leichter, Cheryl A; Li, Ming; Meisel, Richard P; Minx, Patrick; Murphy, Terence D; Nelson, David R; Reid, William R; Rinkevich, Frank D; Robertson, Hugh M; Sackton, Timothy B; Sattelle, David B; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Tomlinson, Chad; van de Zande, Louis; Walden, Kimberly; Wilson, Richard K; Liu, Nannan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are mechanical vectors of more than 100 devastating diseases that have severe consequences for human and animal health. House fly larvae play a vital role as decomposers of animal wastes, and thus live in intimate association with many animal

  5. Development changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in Chrysomya rufifacies larvae: potential for determining larval age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G H; Ye, G Y; Hu, C; Xu, X H; Li, K

    2006-12-01

    Age determination is the basis of determining the postmortem interval using necrophagous fly larvae. To explore the potential of using cuticular hydrocarbons for determining the ages of fly larvae, changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in developing larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were investigated using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study showed that the larvae produced cuticular hydrocarbons typical of insects. Most of the hydrocarbons identified were alkanes with the carbon chain length of 21-31, plus six kinds of alkenes. The hydrocarbon composition of the larvae correlated with age. The statistical results showed that simple peak ratios of n-C29 divided by another eight selected peaks increased significantly with age; their relationships with age could be modelled using exponential or power functions with R(2) close to or > 0.80. These results suggest that cuticular hydrocarbon composition is a useful indicator for determining the age of larval C. rufifacies, especially for post-feeding larvae, which are difficult to differentiate by morphology.

  6. Cutaneous larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wieczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM is a tropical zoonosis, caused by parasites, usually Ancylostoma braziliense. Humans are an accidental host. Polish patients with CLM are usually tourists visiting tropical and subtropical countries. The first symptoms do not always appear as creeping eruptions, which complicates the diagnosis. Objective. To present the case of a man with CLM after returning from Thailand to Poland and associated diagnostic difficulties. Case report. We present a case of a 28-year-old man who returned to Poland from Thailand. The first symptoms appeared as disseminated pruritic papules. No improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines was observed. The diagnosis was established after the appearance of serpentine erythemas and improvement after albendazole therapy. Conclusions. In the case of returnees from exotic countries suffering from raised, pruritic rashes, and no improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines, parasitic etiology should be considered.

  7. Competitiveness of irradiated methyl eugenol fed oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, Sotero; Obra, Glenda B.

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of methyl eugenol feeding in the sexual competitiveness of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis was studied. Addition of methyl eugenol concentration up to 0.5 ml per liter diet revealed no significant difference base on different quality control parameters used in the study. Results of mating tests showed high number of mated pairs were collected on flies fed with methyl eugenol both on the larvae and adult stage as compared with the untreated flies. Although no significant difference was observed between the larval and adult methyl eugenol-fed flies, the number of mated pairs slightly increased in the former than the latter in all mating tests conducted. (Author)

  8. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  9. EFFECT OF REPEATED INFESTATION OF CHRYSOMYIA BEZZIANA ON WEIGHT OF ITS LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baidya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are about 20 species of obligate and 50 species of facultative myiasis producing flies found in India. Out of these, the Old World screwworm fly Chrysomyia bezziana is the most important obligate myiasis-causing fly. Three repeated infestations at an interval of one month each, larvae of C. bezziana developed in the clinically abraded wounds in cattle. Average weights of the larvae during the 1st, 2nd and 3rd infestation were 62.18+0.441, 56.53+0.389 and 56.45+0.485 mg, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed significant (P<0.05 reduction in larval weight during the 2nd and 3rd infestations compared to the larval weight of the initial infestation.

  10. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibility...... to break through a common way of depicting the world, trying to find different surfaces and using strange apparatus to insist in the interstice of visibility. The Fly Printer is a printing apparatus in a form of a closed environment that contains a flock of fruit flies. The flies eat special food...... that is prepared for them that is mixed with laser jet printer inks. The flies digest the food and gradually print different color dots onto the paper that is placed under the fly habitat. In the Fly Printer biological organisms are used for replacing a standard part of our common printer technology. The work...

  11. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    , and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E. coli and genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. RESULTS: Rice was at greater risk (p ... with E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (p ...-landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...

  12. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  13. Use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents of filth flies on equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents for filth flies is becoming more popular on equine facilities; however, there is a lack of information on the e...

  14. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  15. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  16. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  17. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  18. On the invasion of the parasitic fly Lucilia bufonivora (Diptera, Calliphoridae on the common frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyabzina Svetlana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lucilia bufonivora is an obligate, specialised parasite of amphibians. Larval development takes place in the host body. The paper gives a detailed description of parasite observation. This observation was carried out beginning with the moment of finding larvae in the head of the frog till its death and adults flying out. Initially the larvae are located deep in the nostrils, occasionally crawling out on the head. In the frontal part of the frog’s head between the eyes, under the skin, they form a noticeable tubercle. The larvae in the head disturb the frog and lead to its death. After the death of the frog, the larvae move to the nostrils for time, filling them completely. In a day they destroy all soft tissues and cartilages of the host body. The development of larvae on the corpse continues for two days, then they move into the soil for pupation. Their puparia are located under the corpse at a depth of several centimeters. The adults fly out on the 10th day after their pupation. Of the 78 larvae found on the corpse, there were 59 flies, (31 females and 28 males.

  19. UJI EFIKASI LARVASIDA BERBAHAN AKTIF DICHLORVOS TERHADAP LARVA LALAT RUMAH Musca domestica DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Suwasono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The house fly, Musca domestica have been implicated in the mechanical transmission of pathogens causing diseases. Important diseases that may be transmitted under certain conditions include infection of virus, bacterial, protozoan, fungal and helminthic. Therefore control measures should be carried out only when the presence of the house fly is intolerable to humans due to their being a health hazard or nuisance. The larvicide with active ingredient of dichlorvos 250 g/l was applied to the house fly larvae which conducted in the laboratory. There were jive concentrations of larvicides to be tested i.e. 6; 12; 24; 48 and 96 ml by product/ 3 l of water/m2. A dried powder of chicken dung was utilized as larvae medium. The medium was inoculated with the third instar larvae then it sprayed with the larvicide suspension. All larvicidal assays were carried out at 26 - 30°C temperature and 60-80% RH in the laboratory. The results revealed that all of the five tested concentrations yielded between 0 and 5.2 percent larval mortalities.   Keywords: house fly, Musca domestica, larvicide, dichlorvos

  20. The effect of starvation on the larval behavior of two forensically important species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devinder; Bala, Madhu

    2009-12-15

    The postfeeding larval stage in blow flies is generally an irreversible condition when the fully grown third instar larvae stop feeding and give no response towards food. The larvae of most species then disperse away from their feeding medium and pupariate. There are several cases reported about the use of postfeeding larvae as forensic evidence. It is a matter of common observation that the postfeeding stage can be reached earlier than the expected time if food becomes unavailable. However, no information is available on whether postfeeding stage induced by scarcity of food is also irreversible. Similarly, the minimum period of development required by the larvae of different blow flies species to enable their survival as postfeeding larvae and pupariation in the absence of food is unknown. It was observed during the present studies that the larvae of two Chrysomya species must feed for at least 35 h at 28 degrees C in order to be capable of reaching the postfeeding stage and subsequent pupariation. Duration of the starvation period required to induce postfeeding behavior decreases with increasing age of larvae. In the case of Chrysomya megacephala, 35, 45, 55 and 65 h old larvae attained irreversible postfeeding stage after 30, 20, 12 and 2 h of starvation, respectively. Similarly, larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies that were 35, 45, 55 and 60 h old attained irreversible postfeeding stage after 25, 16, 6 and 2 h of starvation, respectively.

  1. Identification of immature stages of phlebotomine sand flies using MALDI-TOF MS and mapping of mass spectra during sand fly life cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halada, Petr; Hlaváčková, K.; Dvořák, V.; Volf, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 93, FEB 2018 (2018), s. 47-56 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04329S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Phlebotomine sand flies * Larvae * Pupae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.756, year: 2016

  2. Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Harrysone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using χ2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the

  3. Food selection in larval fruit flies: dynamics and effects on larval development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Selecting food items and attaining a nutritionally balanced diet is an important challenge for all animals including humans. We aimed to establish fruit fly larvae ( Drosophila melanogaster) as a simple yet powerful model system for examining the mechanisms of specific hunger and diet selection. In two lab experiments with artificial diets, we found that larvae deprived of either sucrose or protein later selectively fed on a diet providing the missing nutrient. When allowed to freely move between two adjacent food patches, larvae surprisingly preferred to settle on one patch containing yeast and ignored the patch providing sucrose. Moreover, when allowed to move freely between three patches, which provided either yeast only, sucrose only or a balanced mixture of yeast and sucrose, the majority of larvae settled on the yeast-plus-sucrose patch and about one third chose to feed on the yeast only food. While protein (yeast) is essential for development, we also quantified larval success on diets with or without sucrose and show that larvae develop faster on diets containing sucrose. Our data suggest that fruit fly larvae can quickly assess major nutrients in food and seek a diet providing a missing nutrient. The larvae, however, probably prefer to quickly dig into a single food substrate for enhanced protection over achieving an optimal diet.

  4. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana.

  5. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  6. Hemolymph amino acid analysis of individual Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyankarage, Sujeewa C; Augustin, Hrvoje; Grosjean, Yael; Featherstone, David E; Shippy, Scott A

    2008-02-15

    One of the most widely used transgenic animal models in biology is Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly. Chemical information from this exceedingly small organism is usually accomplished by studying populations to attain sample volumes suitable for standard analysis methods. This paper describes a direct sampling technique capable of obtaining 50-300 nL of hemolymph from individual Drosophila larvae. Hemolymph sampling performed under mineral oil and in air at 30 s intervals up to 120 s after piercing larvae revealed that the effect of evaporation on amino acid concentrations is insignificant when the sample was collected within 60 s. Qualitative and quantitative amino acid analyses of obtained hemolymph were carried out in two optimized buffer conditions by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection after derivatizing with fluorescamine. Thirteen amino acids were identified from individual hemolymph samples of both wild-type (WT) control and the genderblind (gb) mutant larvae. The levels of glutamine, glutamate, and taurine in the gb hemolymph were significantly lower at 35%, 38%, and 57% of WT levels, respectively. The developed technique that samples only the hemolymph fluid is efficient and enables accurate organism-level chemical information while minimizing errors associated with possible sample contaminations, estimations, and effects of evaporation compared to the traditional hemolymph-sampling techniques.

  7. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan from wild boar (Sus scrofa, O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cervus nippon, O. lienalis from cattle, and an as yet unnamed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, were injected intrathoracically into newly-emerged black flies of several species from Oita to search the potential vector(s of these parasites and identify their infective larvae. Development of O. dewittei japonica microfilariae to the infective larvae occurred in Simulium aokii, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. japonicum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. rufibasis while development of infective larvae of O. skrjabini, O. eberhardi, and the unnamed Onchocerca sp. was observed in S. aokii, S. arakawae, and S. bidentatum. Development of O. lienalis microfilaria to infective larvae occurred in S. arakawae. Based on the morphology of infective larvae obtained, we proposed a key of identification of Onchocerca infective larvae found in Oita. We also reconsider the identification of three types of infective larvae previously recovered from Simulium species captured at cattle sheds: the large type I larvae that may be an undescribed species; the small type III identified as O. lienalis may include O. skrjabini too; the intermediary type II that may be O. gutturosa, or O. dewittei japonica, or the unnamed Onchocerca sp. of wild boar.

  8. Energetic cost of bot fly parasitism in free-ranging eastern chipmunks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Thomas, Donald W; Humphries, Murray M

    2010-02-01

    The energy and nutrient demands of parasites on their hosts are frequently invoked as an explanation for negative impacts of parasitism on host survival and reproductive success. Although cuterebrid bot flies are among the physically largest and most-studied insect parasites of mammals, the only study conducted on metabolic consequences of bot fly parasitism revealed a surprisingly small effect of bot flies on host metabolism. Here we test the prediction that bot fly parasitism increases the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of free-ranging eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), particularly in juveniles who have not previously encountered parasites and have to allocate energy to growth. We found no effect of bot fly parasitism on adults. In juveniles, however, we found that RMR strongly increased with the number of bot fly larvae hosted. For a subset of 12 juveniles during a year where parasite prevalence was particularly high, we also compared the RMR before versus during the peak of bot fly prevalence, allowing each individual to act as its own control. Each bot fly larva resulted in a approximately 7.6% increase in the RMR of its host while reducing juvenile growth rates. Finally, bot fly parasitism at the juvenile stage was positively correlated with adult stage RMR, suggesting persistent effects of bot flies on RMR. This study is the first to show an important effect of bot fly parasitism on the metabolism and growth of a wild mammal. Our work highlights the importance of studying cost of parasitism over multiple years in natural settings, as negative effects on hosts are more likely to emerge in periods of high energetic demand (e.g. growing juveniles) and/or in harsh environmental conditions (e.g. low food availability).

  9. A review of bacterial interactions with blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of medical, veterinary, and forensic importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow flies are commonly associated with decomposing material. In most cases, the larvae are found feeding on decomposing vertebrate remains. However, some species have specialized to feed on living tissue or can survive on other alternate resources like feces. Because of their affiliation with su...

  10. [Biotechnological aspects in "loco" larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inestrosa, N C; Labarca, R; Perelman, A; Campos, E O; Araneda, R; González, M; Brandan, E; Sánchez, J P; González-Plaza, R

    1990-10-01

    The biology of planktotrophic larvae of Concholepas concholepas is the main bottleneck towards developing biotechnologies to rear this muricid. Data concerning planktonic larvae development, diets and environmental signals triggering larval settlement and recruitment is scarce. We have begun the study of the molecular and cell biology of embryos, larvae and recruits having as a final goal, the development of appropriate biotechnologies to rear this gastropod. First, an inverse ratio between BuChE and AChE enzyme activities was established. This ratio may be a precise developmental marker for this species. Second, for the first time a phosphoinositide related regulatory pathway is reported in a muricid, opening a new approach to the biotechnological management of larvae. Third, the relation between sulfate in sea water and larval motility was studied. Concentrations below 125 microM sulfate decreases larval motility. The sulfate is incorporated in proteoglycans which participate in different developmental phenomena. Lastly, a genomic Concholepas concholepas DNA sequence, similar to that of a human growth hormone probe was detected. This is very interesting since growth factors are key molecules during development, growth and are involved in food conversion rates in fish and also, in a variety of marine invertebrates.

  11. Cockchafer larvae smell host root scents in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Weissteiner

    Full Text Available In many insect species olfaction is a key sensory modality. However, examination of the chemical ecology of insects has focussed up to now on insects living above ground. Evidence for behavioral responses to chemical cues in the soil other than CO(2 is scarce and the role played by olfaction in the process of finding host roots below ground is not yet understood. The question of whether soil-dwelling beetle larvae can smell their host plant roots has been under debate, but proof is as yet lacking that olfactory perception of volatile compounds released by damaged host plants, as is known for insects living above ground, occurs. Here we show that soil-dwelling larvae of Melolontha hippocastani are well equipped for olfactory perception and respond electrophysiologically and behaviorally to volatiles released by damaged host-plant roots. An olfactory apparatus consisting of pore plates at the antennae and about 70 glomeruli as primary olfactory processing units indicates a highly developed olfactory system. Damage induced host plant volatiles released by oak roots such as eucalyptol and anisol are detected by larval antennae down to 5 ppbv in soil air and elicit directed movement of the larvae in natural soil towards the odor source. Our results demonstrate that plant-root volatiles are likely to be perceived by the larval olfactory system and to guide soil-dwelling white grubs through the dark below ground to their host plants. Thus, to find below-ground host plants cockchafer larvae employ mechanisms that are similar to those employed by the adult beetles flying above ground, despite strikingly different physicochemical conditions in the soil.

  12. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) as a forensically-important fly species in Thailand: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, K L; Sukontason, K; Narongchai, P; Lertthamnongtham, S; Piangjai, S; Olson, J K

    2001-12-01

    The first documented use of the larvae of the hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies, for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) of a decomposing human corpse in Thailand is reported. A honeycomb-like wound observed on one leg of the corpse was infested with numerous third-stage C. rufifacies larvae. Based on the pupae and larvae present in accordance with the ambient temperature previously recorded, six days postmortem was estimated for a corpse at the time of its discovery and investigation. Since adult C. rufifacies specimens have been collected in many parts of both urban and mountainous areas in Thailand, more biological information about this blowfly species is needed to increase the accuracy of forensic investigations where the fly is present.

  13. Observations of the third instar larva and puparium of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, K L; Piangjai, S; Boonsriwong, W; Bunchu, N; Ngern-klun, R; Vogtsberger, R C; Sukontason, K

    2006-11-01

    Observations on the ultrastructure of the third instar larva and puparium of the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are presented utilizing both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of this study indicate that the shape of the intersegmental spines between the pro- and mesothorax markedly differ from other blow fly species (Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya nigripes, Lucilia cuprina) in being broad-based with sharp recurved tips. Other characters such as the posterior spiracles, number of papillae on the anterior spiracles, oral grooves, and posterior spiracular hairs also differ. The strong and robust mouthhooks may explain the ability of larvae to penetrate deeply into human tissues. Perforated sieve plates covered with antler-like projections were observed within the anterior spiracles of the puparium of C. bezziana. The posterior spiracular discs each bear three spiracular slits with approximately 2-microm wide openings that were viewed either open or closed by a membrane underneath. This study expands our knowledge of the fine details of the external morphology of both the third instar larva and puparium of C. bezziana, which is an obligatory myiasis-producing species in many regions. A key to differentiate the third instar of C. bezziana from other blow flies in Thailand is given.

  14. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  15. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  16. Molecular identification of blow flies recovered from human cadavers during crime scene investigations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2012-12-01

    Forensic entomology applies knowledge about insects associated with decedent in crime scene investigation. It is possible to calculate a minimum postmortem interval (PMI) by determining the age and species of the oldest blow fly larvae feeding on decedent. This study was conducted in Malaysia to identify maggot specimens collected during crime scene investigations. The usefulness of the molecular and morphological approach in species identifications was evaluated in 10 morphologically identified blow fly larvae sampled from 10 different crime scenes in Malaysia. The molecular identification method involved the sequencing of a total length of 2.2 kilo base pairs encompassing the 'barcode' fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and t-RNA leucine genes. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya nigripes. In addition, one unidentified blow fly species was found based on phylogenetic tree analysis.

  17. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  18. Parturition in Tsetse Flies: Endocrine Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zd' arek, J; Cvacka, J; Sanda, M [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, AV CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Takac, P; Keszeliova, D; Simo, L; Roller, L [Institute of Zoology, SAV, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    A problem in tsetse mass rearing facilities is the increased incidence of abortions of underdeveloped larvae or pupariation of larvae within the mother's uterus. We analysed the problem by investigating neural, hormonal and environmental factors controlling parturition. Input from the mother's brain is essential for normal parturition, since a female whose brain is disconnected by ligation fails to deposit her larva. The expulsion of a larva is stimulated by a putative parturition hormone present within the female's uterus. The hormone also elicits abortion when injected into neck ligated females at earlier stages of pregnancy. This report describes attempts to reveal the chemical nature of this hormone by purification of extracts of uteri of Glossina females and identification of behaviourally active fractions using a MALDI-MS instrument. Genomic (BLAST) analysis of the identified sequences did not reveal a significant match with any protein with bioactive properties in other species. However, similarity with various enzymes or structural proteins (and hypothetical proteins) was detected occasionally. In the Glossina genomic and cDNA databases no nucleotide sequence corresponding to the deduced AA sequences was found. Perhaps the deduced sequences are too short to obtain more significant hits both in protein and nucleotide databases. We also made investigations to elucidate environmental influences and physiological mechanisms associated with tsetse parturition. We found that the circadian rhythm of parturition of flies kept in Bratislava (G. m. morsitans, G. f. fuscipes and G. pallidipes) is less pronounced than under natural conditions. The loss of synchrony in the laboratory may have three possible causes: (i) genetic - absence of selective pressure, (ii) environmental - low intensity or absence of an entraining light or temperature stimulus, and (iii) physiological - impaired sensitivity to olfactory stimulation by a hypothetical 'oviposition' pheromone that

  19. icacy test of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seeds for Chrysomya bezziana larvae growth in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya bezziana is primer agent causing myiasis in livestock and human throughout Africa to Asia. At present, treatment of myiasis using chemical synthetic insecticide causing environment and livestock production contaminations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seed to kill C. bezziana as botanical insecticide. Three level and method preparation of larvae (L1, L2 and L3 were carried out. Meat blood mixture (MBM and larval rearing media (LRM were mixed with hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed and tested to 625 and 750 larvae (L1and L2 respectively, while for L3 625 larvae were soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract. This last preparation was carried out to observe the effect of toxic contact. Each larvae treatment was divided into 5 levels such as negative control using distillation water (PO, given 0.25% hexane extract (P I; 0.50% (P II; 0.75% (P III and positive control was given with 0.10% Asuntol®. This assay was to know digest toxic effect of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for those larvae. Number of 625 instar III larvae (L3 was soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for 10 second, placed into vermicullite and incubated on 36oC. This assay was to know contact toxic effect of them. All of larvae were allowed to become pupae. Parameters oberserve were number of larvae death, pupae weight and number of pupae become into fly. The data was analyzed using Anova (5% and Z test (5% then smallest significant difference test (BNT 5%. The results showed that 0.50% of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed was able to decrease pupae weight for L1 and L2 and to cause fail pupae become fly (P0.05.

  20. Oviposition preferences of two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and implications for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Tsai; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Necrophagous blow fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the most important agents for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic entomology. Nevertheless, the oviposition preferences of blow flies may cause a bias of PMI estimations because of a delay or acceleration of egg laying. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and C. rufifacies (Macquart) are two predominant necrophagous blow fly species in Taiwan. Their larvae undergo rather intense competition, and the latter one can prey on the former under natural conditions. To understand the oviposition preferences of these two species, a dual-choice device was used to test the choice of oviposition sites by females. Results showed when pork liver with and without larvae of C. rufifacies was provided, C. megacephala preferred to lay eggs on the liver without larvae. However, C. megacephala showed no preference when pork liver with and without conspecific larvae or larvae of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) was provided. These results indicate that females of C. megacephala try to avoid laying eggs around larvae of facultatively predaceous species of C. rufifacies. However, C. rufifacies showed significant oviposition preference for pork liver with larvae of C. megacephala or conspecific ones when compared with pork liver with no larvae. These results probably imply that conspecific larvae or larvae of C. megacephala may potentially be alternative food resources for C. rufifacies, so that its females prefer to lay eggs in their presence. When considering the size of the oviposition media, pork livers of a relatively small size were obviously unfavorable to both species. This may be because females need to find sufficient resources to meet the food demands of their larvae. In another experiment, neither blow fly species showed an oviposition preference for pork livers of different stages of decay. In addition, the oviposition preferences of both species to those media with larvae were greatly disturbed in a dark

  1. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  2. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  3. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-01-15

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  4. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  5. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, James G C; Ward, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies.

  6. Crown-of-Thorns Starfish Larvae Can Feed on Organic Matter Released from Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Nakajima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that Crown-of-Thorns starfish (COTS larvae may be able to survive in the absence of abundant phytoplankton resources suggesting that they may be able to utilize alternative food sources. Here, we tested the hypothesis that COTS larvae are able to feed on coral-derived organic matter using labeled stable isotope tracers (13C and 15N. Our results show that coral-derived organic matter (coral mucus and associated microorganisms can be assimilated by COTS larvae and may be an important alternative or additional food resource for COTS larvae through periods of low phytoplankton biomass. This additional food resource could potentially facilitate COTS outbreaks by reducing resource limitation.

  7. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on mortality of oriental fruit fly Dacus Dorsalis Hendel when innoculated in Manila super mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Resilva, S.S.; Rosario, M.S.E. del; Casubha, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of radiation treatment showed that fruitfly eggs inoculated into export grade mature green mangoes were severely damaged with radiation dose of 350 and 400 Gy and no larvae survived the treatments. At 300 Gy, an average of 0.08 larvae was recovered when the insect was treated either as young or mature larvae. On the other hand, the young and mature larvae were more resistant to radiation effects than the eggs, although the differences observed were not significant between the young and older larvae. When the adult emergence was used as the criterion for survival, no adult fly was recovered at 100 Gy and above from approximately 2400 insects tested per treatment. Large scale irradiation for confirmation of the results using about 6000 test insects inoculated in mangoes showed 100% mortality of zero adult emergence after treatment with 100Gy. (Author). 1 fig.; 2 tabs.; 10 refs

  9. In vitro effects of household products on Calliphoridae larvae development: implication for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubernon, Cindy; Devigne, Cedric; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier; Charabidze, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Several parameters can delay the first arrival of flies on a corpse and the subsequent development of the larvae. This study focuses on the development of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Meigen, 1826) on household chemical-contaminated substrates. bleach, perfume, hydrochloric acid, caustic soda, insecticide, mosquito repellent, and gasoline in quantities consistent with an amount that could possibly be spilled on a corpse were mixed with beef liver to simulate contaminated fleshes. Larvae were bred at 25 °C on these media until emergence. Four developmental parameters were followed: survival rates, development times, sex ratios, and adult sizes. Hydrochloric acid, insecticide, and gasoline killed all larvae. In low quantities, caustic soda and mosquito repellent increased the development time and decreased the adult size. However, high quantities of these chemicals killed all larvae. Lastly, bleach and perfume did not affect the survival rate and barely impacted the development time or adult size. These results demonstrate common household products spilled on a corpse can strongly affect the development of Calliphoridae larvae. The effects of such products should be considered in forensic entomology cases. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  11. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  12. Flies without centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Renata; Lau, Joyce; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Gardiol, Alejandra; Woods, C Geoffrey; Khodjakov, Alexey; Raff, Jordan W

    2006-06-30

    Centrioles and centrosomes have an important role in animal cell organization, but it is uncertain to what extent they are essential for animal development. The Drosophila protein DSas-4 is related to the human microcephaly protein CenpJ and the C. elegans centriolar protein Sas-4. We show that DSas-4 is essential for centriole replication in flies. DSas-4 mutants start to lose centrioles during embryonic development, and, by third-instar larval stages, no centrioles or centrosomes are detectable. Mitotic spindle assembly is slow in mutant cells, and approximately 30% of the asymmetric divisions of larval neuroblasts are abnormal. Nevertheless, mutant flies develop with near normal timing into morphologically normal adults. These flies, however, have no cilia or flagella and die shortly after birth because their sensory neurons lack cilia. Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development.

  13. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids.

  14. The innate immune and systemic response in honey bees to a bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Leonard J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a major paradox in our understanding of honey bee immunity: the high population density in a bee colony implies a high rate of disease transmission among individuals, yet bees are predicted to express only two-thirds as many immunity genes as solitary insects, e.g., mosquito or fruit fly. This suggests that the immune response in bees is subdued in favor of social immunity, yet some specific immune factors are up-regulated in response to infection. To explore the response to infection more broadly, we employ mass spectrometry-based proteomics in a quantitative analysis of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Newly-eclosed bee larvae, in the second stage of their life cycle, are susceptible to this infection, but become progressively more resistant with age. We used this host-pathogen system to probe not only the role of the immune system in responding to a highly evolved infection, but also what other mechanisms might be employed in response to infection. Results Using quantitative proteomics, we compared the hemolymph (insect blood of five-day old healthy and infected honey bee larvae and found a strong up-regulation of some metabolic enzymes and chaperones, while royal jelly (food and energy storage proteins were down-regulated. We also observed increased levels of the immune factors prophenoloxidase (proPO, lysozyme and the antimicrobial peptide hymenoptaecin. Furthermore, mass spectrometry evidence suggests that healthy larvae have significant levels of catalytically inactive proPO in the hemolymph that is proteolytically activated upon infection. Phenoloxidase (PO enzyme activity was undetectable in one or two-day-old larvae and increased dramatically thereafter, paralleling very closely the age-related ability of larvae to resist infection. Conclusion We propose a model for the host response to infection where energy stores and metabolic enzymes are regulated in concert with direct

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on fruit fly, Dacus zonatus (Saunders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutantawong, M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on egg, larval and pupal stages of fruit fly, Dacus zonatus (Saunders) were studied. The 24-hour-old eggs, 1-2, 1-4, 7-8-day-old larvae and 8-day-old pupae were irradiated at 10-600 Gy with a cobalt-60 source and maintained at 26+1 0 C, 60-80% RH. The results showed that the LD 50 for 24-hour-old eggs at 2 days after irradiation was 302 Gy. The dose of 600 Gy caused 100% mortality of eggs and larvae hatching from eggs irradiated at 100 Gy were unable to develop to pupae. The 1-2-day-old larvae irradiated at 150 Gy were unable to form pupae. The dose of 50 Gy prevented adult emergence from irradiated 1-2, 4-5, 7-8-day-old larvae. Probit analyses indicated that radiation dose at 58.35 Gy sterilized 99% D. zonatus (Saunders) male emerged from pupae. In addition, female emerged from pupae irradiated at 30 Gy was unable to lay eggs

  16. Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Topics discussed include: The Stellar Imager (SI) "Vision Mission"; First Formation Flying Demonstration Mission Including on Flight Nulling; Formation Flying X-ray Telescope in L2 Orbit; SPECS: The Kilometer-baseline Far-IR Interferometer in NASA's Space Science Roadmap Presentation; A Tight Formation for Along-track SAR Interferometry; Realization of the Solar Power Satellite using the Formation Flying Solar Reflector; SIMBOL-X : Formation Flying for High-Energy Astrophysics; High Precision Optical Metrology for DARWIN; Close Formation Flight of Micro-Satellites for SAR Interferometry; Station-Keeping Requirements for Astronomical Imaging with Constellations of Free-Flying Collectors; Closed-Loop Control of Formation Flying Satellites; Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission; Precision Formation Keeping at L2 Using the Autonomous Formation Flying Sensor; Robust Control of Multiple Spacecraft Formation Flying; Virtual Rigid Body (VRB) Satellite Formation Control: Stable Mode-Switching and Cross-Coupling; Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF) System Design, Mission Capabilities, and Testbed Development; Navigation Algorithms for Formation Flying Missions; Use of Formation Flying Small Satellites Incorporating OISL's in a Tandem Cluster Mission; Semimajor Axis Estimation Strategies; Relative Attitude Determination of Earth Orbiting Formations Using GPS Receivers; Analysis of Formation Flying in Eccentric Orbits Using Linearized Equations of Relative Motion; Conservative Analytical Collision Probabilities for Orbital Formation Flying; Equations of Motion and Stability of Two Spacecraft in Formation at the Earth/Moon Triangular Libration Points; Formations Near the Libration Points: Design Strategies Using Natural and Non-Natural Ares; An Overview of the Formation and Attitude Control System for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Formation Flying Interferometer; GVE-Based Dynamics and Control for Formation Flying Spacecraft; GNC System Design for a New Concept of X

  17. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  18. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  19. Biology of Paenibacillus larvae, a deadly pathogen of honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Julia; Knispel, Henriette; Hertlein, Gillian; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2016-09-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees, a notifiable disease in many countries. Hence, P. larvae can be considered as an entomopathogen of considerable relevance in veterinary medicine. P. larvae is a highly specialized pathogen with only one established host, the honey bee larva. No other natural environment supporting germination and proliferation of P. larvae is known. Over the last decade, tremendous progress in the understanding of P. larvae and its interactions with honey bee larvae at a molecular level has been made. In this review, we will present the recent highlights and developments in P. larvae research and discuss the impact of some of the findings in a broader context to demonstrate what we can learn from studying "exotic" pathogens.

  20. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other to make the aircraft roll. For example, a downward dis- placement of the left aileron causes the airplane to roll to the right. In Figure 4 the elevators have been deflected downwards, giving rise to a 'nose-down' moment about the pitch axis. Delaying Turbulence. In the last few decades, flying machines have proliferated ...

  1. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Indoor decomposition study in Malaysia with special reference to the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja M. Zuha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.

  3. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  4. Adaptation and prospects of breeding flies Black lvink (Hermetia illucens in circumpolar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology has recently become pervasive, as a prospective branch of science that study the possibilities of using living organisms, systems or products of their vital activity to solve technological problems. American type of fly - the Black lvink (Hermetia illucens is used as a research object. The species lives in countries with warm climate, but recently the issue of flies breeding in the regions with cold climatic conditions has been actively discussed. Unlike America and countries of Western Europe, in Russia this issue is underexplored. The analysis of literature sources will allow determining the optimal conditions for the growth, development and reproduction of the species in artificially created laboratory conditions. The insect has gained widespread appreciation due to its highly effective bioconversion of various solid organic wastes as well as high nutrition of larvae with the possibility of using them in feeding farm animals and aquaculture. However, this is not the full range of research areas of fly use. The larva of the fly is characterized by the ability to absorb virtually any biowastes. As a result, its body accumulates a complex of substances, the percentage of which depends on the diet. The larva contains about 40% amino acids which produce a favorable effect on the growth and development of farm animals and birds, and confirm the possibility of using dry larvae as a fodder additive. Black lvink causes great scientific and practical interest. Artificial creation of the necessary conditions for the life of the species when studying and adaptation of an insect in cold climate as well as the development of technologies for the development and reproduction of insects in laboratory and industrial conditions will provide fly breeding in circumpolar regions and allow developing a number of biotechnology directions in Arkhangelsk region.

  5. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae in southern Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab. Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recording the number of larvae emerged from these fruits. In addition, suspected overwintering refuges were sampled at weekly intervals during the three coldest months of the year (December – February and the number of collected larvae was recorded. The results of trap catches and fruit sampling studies showed a similar pattern of occurrence of medfly populations in the study areas, particularly in Damascus Ghota, during the three years of the study. In Damascus Ghota, flies were caught continuously from early June to late December with some variability between years. Two distinct periods of high fly activity were observed: the first one occurred in August and the second in November with a much higher amplitude. In general, seasonal fluctuations in the pattern of occurrence were influenced by differences in temperature and abundance of preferred host fruits. Traps on fig Ficus carica and oriental persimmon Diospyros kaki trees caught the highest numbers of flies, and fruits collected from these trees showed the highest level of infestation, reaching 100% for fig fruit late in the season. Sampling fruits (in Damascus Ghota from trees during the three coldest months of the year showed that a small population of medfly larvae was able to survive winter conditions in prickly pear Opuntia vulgaris fruit left on the trees. In the other areas of the study (Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab, only a few flies were caught.

  6. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowiong behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva)(Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Hamilton, J.G.C.; Ward, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to

  7. Comparison of two techniques used for the recovery of third-stage strongylid nematode larvae from herbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Maingi, N

    2004-07-14

    A laboratory trial to determine the efficacy of two methods in recovering known numbers of third-stage (L3) strongylid nematode larvae from herbage was carried out. Herbage samples consisting almost entirely of star grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) that had no L3 nematode parasitic larvae were collected at Onderstepoort, South Africa. Two hundred grams samples were placed in fibreglass fly gauze bags and seeded with third-stage strongylid nematode larvae at 11 different levels of herbage infectivity ranging from 50 to 8000 L3/kg. Eight replicates were prepared for each of the 11 levels of herbage infectivity. Four of these were processed using a modified automatic Speed Queen heavy-duty washing machine at a regular normal cycle, followed by isolation of larvae through centrifugation-flotation in saturated sugar solution. Larvae in the other four samples were recovered after soaking the herbage in water overnight and the larvae isolated with the Baermann technique of the washing. There was a strong correlation between the number of larvae recovered using both methods and the number of larvae in the seeded samples, indicating that the two methods give a good indication of changes in the numbers of larvae on pasture if applied in epidemiological studies. The washing machine method recovered higher numbers of larvae than the soaking and Baermann method at all levels of pasture seeding, probably because the machine washed the samples more thoroughly and a sugar centrifugation-flotation step was used. Larval suspensions obtained using the washing machine method were therefore cleaner and thus easier to examine under the microscope. In contrast, the soaking and Baermann method may be more suitable in field-work, especially in places where resources and equipment are scarce, as it is less costly in equipment and less labour intensive. Neither method recovered all the larvae from the seeded samples. The recovery rates for the washing machine method ranged from 18 to 41% while

  8. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2014. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. The paratransgenic sand fly: a platform for control of Leishmania transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Ivy; Hillesland, Heidi; Fieck, Annabeth; Das, Pradeep; Durvasula, Ravi

    2011-05-19

    Leishmania donovani is transmitted by the bite of the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes. This parasite is the agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), an endemic disease in Bihar, India, where prevention has relied mainly on DDT spraying. Pesticide resistance in sand fly populations, environmental toxicity, and limited resources confound this approach. A novel paratransgenic strategy aimed at control of vectorial transmission of L. donovani is presented using Bacillus subtilis, a commensal bacterium isolated from the sand fly gut. In this work, B. subtilis expressing Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was added to sterilized larval chow. Control pots contained larval chow spiked either with untransformed B. subtilis or phosphate-buffered saline. Fourth-instar P. argentipes larvae were transferred into the media and allowed to mature. The number of bacterial colony forming units, relative abundance and the mean microbial load were determined per developmental stage. Addition of B. subtilis to larval chow did not affect sand fly emergence rates. B. cereus and Lys fusiformis were identified at each developmental stage, revealing transstadial passage of endogenous microbes. Larvae exposed to an exogenous bolus of B. subtilis harbored significantly larger numbers of bacteria. Bacterial load decreased to a range comparable to sand flies from control pots, suggesting an upper limit to the number of bacteria harbored. Emerging flies reared in larval chow containing transformed B. subtilis carried large numbers of these bacteria in their gut lumens. Strong GFP expression was detected in these paratransgenic flies with no spread of transformed bacteria to other compartments of the insects. This is the first demonstration of paratransgenic manipulation of P. argentipes. Paratransgenic manipulation of P. argentipes appears feasible. Expression of leishmanicidal molecules via commensal bacteria commonly found at breeding sites of P. argentipes could render adult sand flies refractory

  11. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  13. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to

  14. Comparison of the olfactory preferences of four species of filth fly pupal parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for hosts in equine and bovine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) can be purchased for biological control of these flies. ...

  15. Predicting AEA dosage by Foam Index and adsorption on Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Ollendorff, Margrethe; Geiker, Mette Rica; Tunstall, Lori; Scherer, George W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The unpredictable air entrainment in fly ash concrete caused by carbon in fly ash was studied by measuring adsorption of Air Entraining Agents (AEA) on the fly ash and by Foam Index (FI) testing. The FI test measures the mass ratio of AEA/binder required to obtain stable foam when shaking a mixture of water, binder powder and AEA, while increasing AEA-dosage stepwise. A review of concrete air entrainment and new studies combining adsorption (TGA, NMR) of AEA on fly ash with various ...

  16. Control of egg hatch ability and adult emergence of three fruit fly species in papayas by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, S.S.; Pasion, W.B.; Moy, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquilett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Weidemann) were studied. Melon fly was determined to be the most susceptible of the three species. A dosage of 550 Gy rendered the eggs 100% sterile when irradiated in papayas at 4-6 hours before hatching. Oriental and mediterranean fruit flies were found to be more resistant, requiring doses of 750 and 850 Gy, respectively. A dose of only 100 Gy was needed to inhibit adult eclosion when the three species were treated at third instar larvae. Warm water treatment at 49 0 C for 20 minutes was found sufficient in preventing the hatching of any egg in the infested papaya fruits. However, since eggs may hatch before the warm-water treatment can be applied, a combination of irradiation treatment using 100 Gy is recommended for disinfestation of papaya fruits. (author). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  17. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, W.P.; Windeguth, D.L. von

    1991-01-01

    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author) [es

  18. Efficacy of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against Queensland fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.; Wills, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of Queensland fruit fly, Dacus tryoni, eggs, and larvae with a dose of 75 Gy of radiation prevents the emergence of adult flies, although many insects develop to the pupal stage. This has been demonstrated with large numbers of insects present in oranges and avocados, two entirely different fruit types. The aim of such a commodity treatment should be to prevent the establishment of an insect pest in a new environment. This low-dose treatment should, therefore find acceptance with quarantine authorities, since the nonemergence of adult files effectively breaks the life cycle of the insect. This paper provides details of the experimental approach and the results of these efficacy studies

  19. Feeding for larvae of catfish Pangasionodon sp. larvae in different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sludge worm (Tubifex sp. as natural feed on catfish (Pangasionodon sp. larvae rearing is available in limited amount especially during rainy season. It becomes a constraint factor for larvae rearing sector. This research was conducted to evaluate the appropriate initial age of catfish larvae to get artificial feed as sludge worm replacement. Evaluation was conducted on the growth and survival of catfish larvae in 14 days of culture. There were four treatments of feeding in triplicates i.e. larvae were given natural feed without artificial feed, given artificial feed started from d3, d6, and d9 with three replications. The results showed that larvae fed on artificial feed on d3 had the lowest growth compared to the other treatments, whereas the survival was not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments. As a conclusion, artificial feed could be used to replace natural feed for catfish larvae started at the age of nine days. Keywords: sludge worm, catfish larvae, artificial feed  ABSTRAK Cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. tersedia dalam jumlah terbatas terutama pada musim penghujan sebagai pakan alami dalam usaha pembenihan ikan patin (Pangasionodon sp.. Ini menjadi kendala dalam usaha pembenihan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi umur larva ikan patin yang tepat untuk mulai diberi pakan buatan menggantikan cacing sutra. Evaluasi dilakukan pada pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan patin umur 14 hari. Selama pemeliharaan, larva diberi pakan dengan empat perlakuan; pemberian pakan alami tanpa pakan buatan, pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3, d6, dan d9 dengan tiga ulangan untuk masing-masing perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3 memiliki pertumbuhan panjang yang terkecil dibandingkan perlakuan lain, sedangkan tingkat kelangsungan hidup larva tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 antarperlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pakan buatan dapat digunakan

  20. Fitness benefits of the fruit fly Rhagoletis alternata on a non-native rose host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Kim; Smit, Christian; Schilthuizen, Menno; Beukeboom, Leo W

    2016-05-01

    Many species have been introduced worldwide into areas outside their natural range. Often these non-native species are introduced without their natural enemies, which sometimes leads to uncontrolled population growth. It is rarely reported that an introduced species provides a new resource for a native species. The rose hips of the Japanese rose, Rosa rugosa, which has been introduced in large parts of Europe, are infested by the native monophagous tephritid fruit fly Rhagoletis alternata. We studied differences in fitness benefits between R. alternata larvae using R. rugosa as well as native Rosa species in the Netherlands. R. alternata pupae were larger and heavier when the larvae fed on rose hips of R. rugosa. Larvae feeding on R. rugosa were parasitized less frequently by parasitic wasps than were larvae feeding on native roses. The differences in parasitization are probably due to morphological differences between the native and non-native rose hips: the hypanthium of a R. rugosa hip is thicker and provides the larvae with the possibility to feed deeper into the hip, meaning that the parasitoids cannot reach them with their ovipositor and the larvae escape parasitization. Our study shows that native species switching to a novel non-native host can experience fitness benefits compared to the original native host.

  1. Volatile organic compounds released by blowfly larvae and pupae: new perspectives in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, C; Dekeirsschieter, J; Brostaux, Y; Wathelet, J-P; Verheggen, F J; Haubruge, E

    2012-06-10

    To evaluate postmortem intervals (PMIs), one should take into account the determined age of necrophagous flies present on the cadaver. However, PMI determination needs further improvement, and rapid and accurate approaches have therefore to be developed. While previous studies have focussed on insect cuticular hydrocarbons, here we explore the volatile profile released by larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We monitored changes in volatile compounds daily, by headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Branched and unbranched hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and acids were identified, and the volatile profile was shown to vary, in both composition and quantity, with the age of the larva/pupa under investigation. We concluded, based on the analysis of the released volatile organic compounds, that it is possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated PMI, through improved estimation of the age of blowflies present on the cadaver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. RAF-5074: Enhancing Capacity for Detection, Surveillance and Suppression of Exotic and Established Fruit Fly Species through Integration of Sterile Insect Technique with Other Suppression Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyoki, M.; Kasina, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fruit flies (Family Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive and economically challenging pest insect of fruits and vegetables. It is responsible for loss of export markets and poor farm gate prices of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies are insects (Diptera) and undergoes complete metamorphosis: eggs- larva- pupa- adult. Only larva (maggots) are extremely damaging and the Adults in addition cause economic injury through stippling. The purpose of this project is to build capacity of African countries in the management of fruit flies using area wide approach and incorporating sterile insect technique (SIT ). sterile insect technique is a method that uses sterile insects (males) to flood them in the wild, and by so doing they mate with wild fertile individuals, resulting to no progeny. KALRO looking forward to develop mass rearing facility for fruit flies and SIT facility

  3. Comparisons of demographic parameters: Six parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Roger I.; Ramadan, Mohsen

    2000-01-01

    Four economically important fruit flies have been introduced accidentally into the Hawaiian Islands. They are the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (introduced in 1895), the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (in 1907), the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (in 1945) and the Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) (in 1983). These fruit flies jeopardise development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii, cause exported fruits to undergo expensive quarantine treatment and provide a reservoir for introduction into mainland United States. The establishment of fruit flies in Hawaii resulted in subsequent releases of numerous entomophagous insects. For example, Bess et al. (1961) listed a total of 32 natural enemies released between 1947 and 1952. Today, Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), Biosteres vandenboschi (Fullaway), Psyttalia incisi (Silvestri), Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) and Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri) are the most abundant species. These species have played a major role in the reduction of fruit flies throughout the Hawaiian Islands. For example, as a result of parasitisation (60-79.1%) by F. arisanus, the average number of Oriental fruit fly larvae per guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit declined from 8.5 in 1950 to 2.6 in 1955 (Clausen et al. 1965). Demographic population analysis has diverse applications: analysing population stability and structure, estimating extinction probabilities, predicting life history evolution, predicting outbreaks in pest species and examining the dynamics of colonising or invading species. This study of the demography of Hawaiian fruit flies and their parasitoids is based on data from Vargas et al. (1984) and Vargas and Ramadan (1998). This paper describes the comparative demography of F. arisanus, B. tryoni, B. longicaudata, B. vandenboschi, P. incisi and P. fletcheri

  4. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southern Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Mohammed; Mohamad Fater

    2016-01-01

    Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab). Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recordi...

  5. Larva migrans visceral: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Machado Alexandre Bortoli; El Achkar Marice Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.

  6. Flying car design and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...

  7. DNA extraction and barcode identification of development stages of forensically important flies in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olekšáková, Tereza; Žurovcová, Martina; Klimešová, Vanda; Barták, Miroslav; Šuláková, Hana

    2018-04-01

    Several methods of DNA extraction, coupled with 'DNA barcoding' species identification, were compared using specimens from early developmental stages of forensically important flies from the Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae families. DNA was extracted at three immature stages - eggs, the first instar larvae, and empty pupal cases (puparia) - using four different extraction methods, namely, one simple 'homemade' extraction buffer protocol and three commercial kits. The extraction conditions, including the amount of proteinase K and incubation times, were optimized. The simple extraction buffer method was successful for half of the eggs and for the first instar larval samples. The DNA Lego Kit and DEP-25 DNA Extraction Kit were useful for DNA extractions from the first instar larvae samples, and the DNA Lego Kit was also successful regarding the extraction from eggs. The QIAamp DNA mini kit was the most effective; the extraction was successful with regard to all sample types - eggs, larvae, and pupari.

  8. Augmentative biological control in the Mexican national fruit fly campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, P [Campana Nacional Moscas de la Fruta, DGSV-SAGARPA (Mexico); Cancino, J; Gutierrez, J M; Santiago, G [Campana Nacional Moscas de la Fruta, DGSV-SAGARPA (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Tephritid fruit flies are some of the most economically important species of insects worldwide. In Mexico, the native Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua, A. serpentina and A. striata, are among the most important problems because of the great number of commercial fruits they attack. In an attempt to solve the Anastrepha fruit flies problems, the Mexican Government created the National Campaign against Fruit Flies in 1992. Using an area-wide approach and an integrated pest management framework, that included the use of environment-friendly strategies to suppress/eradicate fruit flies, the Mexican Campaign has integrated different technologies such as the application of specific toxic bait, the use of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), and the release of the endoparasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), which attacks preferably third instar larvae of fruit flies. Since 1995, the Moscafrut mass-rearing facility has the capacity to produce an average of 50 millions of parasitised pupae per week, with 65-70% of parasitoid emergence using irradiated A. ludens larvae as host. The mass-rearing procedures of D. longicaudata have been fully described by Cancino. Parasitised pupae are sent via commercial flights to several states of the country (i.e. Michoacan, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Tamaulipas), according to a yearly national plan. This plan derives from industry requirements and/or availability of biological material. In the target zones, parasitoids are released in specific periods and specific areas where the environmental, biological and social conditions are considered as adequate. Packing and release procedures of parasitoids follow those that Montoya et al used. The releases are focused on Anastrepha spp. host trees located in marginal areas (i.e backyard orchards), with the objective to prevent the migration of fruit fly populations into commercial orchards. The impact of parasitoids on fruit fly populations is evaluated through

  9. Salinity reduction benefits European eel larvae: Insights at the morphological and molecular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Mazurais, David; Servili, Arianna

    2018-01-01

    . Moreover, larvae were able to keep energy metabolism related gene expression (atp6, cox1) at stable levels, irrespective of the salinity reduction. As such, when reducing salinity, an energy surplus associated to reduced osmoregulation demands and stress (lower nkcc, aqp and hsp expression), likely......European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a euryhaline species, that has adapted to cope with both, hyper- and hypo-osmotic environments. This study investigates the effect of salinity, from a morphological and molecular point of view on European eel larvae reared from 0 to 12 days post hatch (dph......). Offspring reared in 36 practical salinity units (psu; control), were compared with larvae reared in six scenarios, where salinity was decreased on 0 or 3 dph and in rates of 1, 2 or 4 psu/day, towards iso-osmotic conditions. Results showed that several genes relating to osmoregulation (nkcc2α, nkcc2β, aqp1...

  10. Biological trait analysis and stability of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Iqbal, Naeem; Razaq, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae), are pests of poultry and have the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. To design a strategy for resistance management, life history traits based on laboratory observations were established for lambda-cyhalothrin-resistant, susceptible and reciprocal crosses of M. domestica strains. Bioassay results showed that the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 98.34 compared to its susceptible strain. The lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain had a relative fitness of 0.26 and lower fecundity, hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, and net reproductive rate compared with its susceptible strain. Mean population growth rates, such as intrinsic rate of population increase, and biotic potential were lower for the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain compared to its susceptible strain. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, indoxacarb, and abamectin was unstable while resistance to bifenthrin and methomyl was stable in the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain of M. domestica. Development of resistance can cost considerable fitness for the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain. The present study provided useful information for making potential management strategies to delay resistance development in M. domestica.

  11. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  12. Laboratory Colonization of the Blow Flies, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, Sonja Lise; Hogsette, Jerome A; Butler, Jerry F

    2014-10-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were colonized so that larval growth rates could be compared. Colonies were also established to provide insight into the protein needs of adult C. rufifacies and developmental rates of the ensuing larvae. The C. megacephala and C. rufifacies laboratory colonies were reared for five and six generations, respectively, at 28°C. C. megacephala developmental mean rate from egg to adult was 20.4 ± 0.38 d. First-instar larvae emerge in 1.4 ± 0.24 d, second-instar larvae develop in 2.6 ± 0.38 d and third instars occur at 6.3 ± 0.72 d. Development from egg to pupation occurred in 12 ± 1.10 d. C. rufifacies developed at a mean rate of 16.2 ± 0.78 d from egg to adult emergence. Each stage occurred in succession from first-instar larvae 1.1 ± 0.25 d, second-instar larvae developed 2.3 ± 0.25 d later, and the third-instar larvae developed 5.7 ± 0.41 d later. The larvae pupated 10.0 ± 0.57 d after oviposition. Both of these flies can be collected in the wild and easily colonized using conditioned chicken as an oviposition and larval medium. C. megacephala apparently prefers a lower development and maintenance temperature than C. rufifacies, as evidenced by the high pupal mortality. Laboratory-reared C. rufifacies benefited from bloodmeal as a protein supplement to enhance egg production. C. rufifacies larvae were not observed preying on each other and additional larval species were not provided to serve as prey. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  13. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  15. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, F.; Loosjes, M.

    1987-01-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  16. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  17. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  20. The Flying University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  1. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  2. Elementary budget of stag beetle larvae associated with selective utilization of nitrogen in decaying wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kôhei

    2018-05-03

    Wood degradation by insects plays important roles for the forest matter cycling. Since wood is deficient in nitrogen compared to the insect body, wood-feeding insects need to assimilate the nitrogen selectively and discard an excess carbon. Such a stoichiometric imbalance between food and body will cause high metabolic cost; therefore, wood-feeding insects may somehow alleviate the stoichiometric imbalance. Here, we investigated the carbon and nitrogen budgets of the larvae of stag beetle, Dorcus rectus, which feed on decaying wood. Assimilation efficiency of ingested wood was 22%, and those values based on the carbon and nitrogen were 27 and 45%, respectively, suggesting the selective digestion of nitrogen in wood. Element-based gross growth efficiency was much higher for nitrogen (45%) than for carbon (3%). As a result, the larvae released 24% of the ingested carbon as volatile, whereas almost no gaseous exchange was observed for nitrogen. Moreover, solubility-based elementary analysis revealed that the larvae mainly utilized alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble fraction of wood, which is rich in nitrogen. Actually, the midgut of the larvae was highly alkaline (pH 10.3). Stag beetle larvae are known to exhibit coprophagy, and here we also confirmed that alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble nitrogen increased again from fresh feces to old feces in the field. Stable isotope analysis suggested the utilization of aerial nitrogen by larvae; however, its actual contribution is still disputable. Those results suggest that D. rectus larvae selectively utilize alkaline-soluble nitrogenous substrates by using their highly alkaline midgut, and perhaps associate with microbes that enhance the nitrogen recycling in feces.

  3. Elementary budget of stag beetle larvae associated with selective utilization of nitrogen in decaying wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kôhei

    2018-06-01

    Wood degradation by insects plays important roles for the forest matter cycling. Since wood is deficient in nitrogen compared to the insect body, wood-feeding insects need to assimilate the nitrogen selectively and discard an excess carbon. Such a stoichiometric imbalance between food and body will cause high metabolic cost; therefore, wood-feeding insects may somehow alleviate the stoichiometric imbalance. Here, we investigated the carbon and nitrogen budgets of the larvae of stag beetle, Dorcus rectus, which feed on decaying wood. Assimilation efficiency of ingested wood was 22%, and those values based on the carbon and nitrogen were 27 and 45%, respectively, suggesting the selective digestion of nitrogen in wood. Element-based gross growth efficiency was much higher for nitrogen (45%) than for carbon (3%). As a result, the larvae released 24% of the ingested carbon as volatile, whereas almost no gaseous exchange was observed for nitrogen. Moreover, solubility-based elementary analysis revealed that the larvae mainly utilized alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble fraction of wood, which is rich in nitrogen. Actually, the midgut of the larvae was highly alkaline (pH 10.3). Stag beetle larvae are known to exhibit coprophagy, and here we also confirmed that alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble nitrogen increased again from fresh feces to old feces in the field. Stable isotope analysis suggested the utilization of aerial nitrogen by larvae; however, its actual contribution is still disputable. Those results suggest that D. rectus larvae selectively utilize alkaline-soluble nitrogenous substrates by using their highly alkaline midgut, and perhaps associate with microbes that enhance the nitrogen recycling in feces.

  4. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.; Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoolo...

  5. Activity of R(+ limonene against Anisakis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giarratana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+ limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showing a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+ limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status.

  6. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  7. Radiation tolerance in the fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster - effects of laboratory culturing and stages in life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, Iril Prima; Naik, Pramila; Kumar, Vineeth; Naik, Prathima; Patil, Rajashekar K.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation induced damages are due to direct effect of radiation energy or through free radical generation. Recent studies suggest Drosophila to be a good animal model to study radiation tolerance. The present study on female Drosophila melanogaster was conducted to observe 1. Variations in larval and adult radiation tolerance 2. Variations in laboratory culture and field populations of Drosophila. Third instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation of 6, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy in gamma chamber GC 5000 (BRT, India). Larvae of flies collected from the field were reared for two generations in the lab before irradiation. The laboratory cultured files were from stocks that were maintained for more than 1000 generations. The larvae of field populations had higher survival rate at 51% as compared to 43% in case of cultured flies and thus more resistant. The III instar larval stage (lab culture) had a LD50 of 26 Gy as compared to LD 50 of 928 Gy in case of adult flies have ∼ 160 times higher tolerance compared to humans. Prolonged rearing comparable to 'domestication' might have induced reduction in tolerance. Larval stages have a lower tolerance than adults possibly due to higher metabolic rate. Adults are post-mitotic in nature with very low rate of cell division. This may contribute to higher tolerance. This however is in contradiction to studies of midge (Chironomous) where larvae also have higher tolerance. (author)

  8. Plant growth on 'fly ash'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R; Hodgson, D R; Townsend, W N; Wood, J W

    1958-04-12

    Plants were grown in plot and pot experiments to assess the toxicity of the fly ash. It was found that plants grouped into three classes: tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. Boron was found to be a major compoent of the toxic principle of fly ash.

  9. Investigation of the bacterial communities associated with females of Lutzomyia sand fly species from South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R V Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania that are acquired by the female sand fly during blood feeding on an infected mammal. Leishmania parasites develop exclusively in the gut lumen during their residence in the insect before transmission to a suitable host during the next blood feed. Female phlebotomine sand flies are blood feeding insects but their life style of visiting plants as well as animals, and the propensity for larvae to feed on detritus including animal faeces means that the insect host and parasite are exposed to a range of microorganisms. Thus, the sand fly microbiota may interact with the developing Leishmania population in the gut. The aim of the study was to investigate and identify the bacterial diversity associated with wild adult female Lutzomyia sand flies from different geographical locations in the New World. The bacterial phylotypes recovered from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries obtained from wild caught adult female Lutzomyia sand flies were estimated from direct band sequencing after denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of bacterial 16 rRNA gene fragments. These results confirm that the Lutzomyia sand flies contain a limited array of bacterial phylotypes across several divisions. Several potential plant-related bacterial sequences were detected including Erwinia sp. and putative Ralstonia sp. from two sand fly species sampled from 3 geographically separated regions in Brazil. Identification of putative human pathogens also demonstrated the potential for sand flies to act as vectors of bacterial pathogens of medical importance in addition to their role in Leishmania transmission.

  10. Histopathological and ultrastructural effects of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the midgut of Simulium pertinax larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFG Cavados

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt produces parasporal crystals containing delta-endotoxins responsible for selective insecticidal activity on larvae. Upon ingestion, these crystals are solubilized in the midgut lumen and converted into active toxins that bind to receptors present on the microvilli causing serious damage to the epithelial columnar cells. We investigated the effect of these endotoxins on larvae of the Simulium pertinax, a common black fly in Brazil, using several concentrations during 4 h of the serovar israelensis strain IPS-82 (LFB-FIOCRUZ 584, serotype H-14 type strain of the Institute Pasteur, Paris. Light and electron microscope observations revealed, by time and endotoxin concentration, increasing damages of the larvae midgut epithelium. The most characteristic effects were midgut columnar cell vacuolization, microvilli damages, epithelium cell contents passing into the midgut lumen and finally the cell death. This article is the first report of the histopathological effects of the Bti endotoxins in the midgut of S. pertinax larvae and the data obtained may contribute to a better understanding of the mode of action of this bacterial strain used as bioinsecticide against black fly larvae.

  11. The flying radiation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum

  12. Disposal of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  13. From trickle to flood: the large-scale, cryptic invasion of California by tropical fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Plant, Richard E; Carey, James R

    2013-10-07

    Since 1954, when the first tropical tephritid fruit fly was detected in California, a total of 17 species in four genera and 11 386 individuals (adults/larvae) have been detected in the state at more than 3348 locations in 330 cities. We conclude from spatial mapping analyses of historical capture patterns and modelling that, despite the 250+ emergency eradication projects that have been directed against these pests by state and federal agencies, a minimum of five and as many as nine or more tephritid species are established and widespread, including the Mediterranean, Mexican and oriental fruit flies, and possibly the peach, guava and melon fruit flies. We outline and discuss the evidence for our conclusions, with particular attention to the incremental, chronic and insidious nature of the invasion, which involves ultra-small, barely detectable populations. We finish by considering the implications of our results for invasion biology and for science-based invasion policy.

  14. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  15. Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera) under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiravi, AH; Mostafavi, R; Akbarzadeh, K; Oshaghi, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of his study was to determine development time and thermal requirements of three myiasis flies including Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. Methods: Rate of development (ROD) and accumulated degree day (ADD) of three important forensic flies in Iran, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. by rearing individuals under a single constant temperature (28° C) was calculated using specific formula for four developmental events including egg hatching, larval stages, pupation, and eclosion. Results: Rates of development decreased step by step as the flies grew from egg to larvae and then to adult stage; however, this rate was bigger for blowflies (C. albiceps and L. sericata) in comparison with the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. Egg hatching, larval stages, and pupation took about one fourth and half of the time of the total pre-adult development time for all of the three species. In general, the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. required more heat for development than the blowflies. The thermal constants (K) were 130–195, 148–222, and 221–323 degree-days (DD) for egg hatching to adult stages of C. albiceps, L. sericata, and Sarcophaga sp., respectively. Conclusion: This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study. PMID:22808410

  16. Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Shiravi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of his study was to determine development time and thermal requirements of three myiasis flies including Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp.Methods: Rate of development (ROD and accumu­lated degree day (ADD of three important forensic flies in Iran, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. by rearing individuals under a single constant temperature (28° C was calcu­lated using specific formula for four developmental events including egg hatching, larval stages, pupation, and eclosion. Results: Rates of development decreased step by step as the flies grew from egg to larvae and then to adult stage; however, this rate was bigger for blowflies (C. albiceps and L. sericata in comparison with the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. Egg hatching, larval stages, and pupation took about one fourth and half of the time of the total pre-adult development time for all of the three species. In general, the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. required more heat for development than the blowflies. The thermal constants (K were 130–195, 148–222, and 221–323 degree-days (DD for egg hatching to adult stages of C. albiceps, L. sericata, and Sarcophaga sp., respectively.Conclusion: This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study.

  17. The eradication of the Mexico killing fly; L'eradication de la mouche tueuse du Mexique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, P

    2009-06-15

    In Mexico an industrial facility produces millions of sterile flies. These flies are then released in the wild to eliminate the 'Cochliomyia hominivorax' flu species whose larvae generate large sanitary and economical damage. The flies are made sterile through gamma irradiation at the cocoon stage. Containers filled with 40.000 cocoons are exposed to Cs{sup 137} gamma radiation doses of 55 Gy, the irradiation session lasts 2 minutes and a half. After the cocoons undergo strict quality control they are deposited in natural places. The irradiation generates cell damages in semen and ovaries while preserving the capacity of copulating and the lifetime of the flies. (A.C.)

  18. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials.

  19. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala and Cultural Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, for biological ...

  20. Chironomidae bloodworms larvae as aquatic amphibian food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Mojdeh Sharifian; Pasmans, Frank; Adriaensen, Connie; Laing, Gijs Du; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Martel, An

    2014-01-01

    Different species of chironomids larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) so-called bloodworms are widely distributed in the sediments of all types of freshwater habitats and considered as an important food source for amphibians. In our study, three species of Chironomidae (Baeotendipes noctivagus, Benthalia dissidens, and Chironomus riparius) were identified in 23 samples of larvae from Belgium, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine provided by a distributor in Belgium. We evaluated the suitability of these samples as amphibian food based on four different aspects: the likelihood of amphibian pathogens spreading, risk of heavy metal accumulation in amphibians, nutritive value, and risk of spreading of zoonotic bacteria (Salmonella, Campylobacter, and ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae). We found neither zoonotic bacteria nor the amphibian pathogens Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in these samples. Our data showed that among the five heavy metals tested (Hg, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn), the excess level of Pb in two samples and low content of Zn in four samples implicated potential risk of Pb accumulation and Zn inadequacy. Proximate nutritional analysis revealed that, chironomidae larvae are consistently high in protein but more variable in lipid content. Accordingly, variations in the lipid: protein ratio can affect the amount and pathway of energy supply to the amphibians. Our study indicated although environmentally-collected chironomids larvae may not be vectors of specific pathogens, they can be associated with nutritional imbalances and may also result in Pb bioaccumulation and Zn inadequacy in amphibians. Chironomidae larvae may thus not be recommended as single diet item for amphibians. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Self-heating by large insect larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Nikita L; Emlen, Douglas J; Woods, H Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Do insect larvae ever self-heat significantly from their own metabolic activity and, if so, under what sets of environmental temperatures and across what ranges of body size? We examine these questions using larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus), chosen for their large size (>20g), simple body plan, and underground lifestyle. Using CO 2 respirometry, we measured larval metabolic rates then converted measured rates of gas exchange into rates of heat production and developed a mathematical model to predict how much steady state body temperatures of underground insects would increase above ambient depending on body size. Collectively, our results suggest that large, extant larvae (20-30g body mass) can self-heat by at most 2°C, and under many common conditions (shallow depths, moister soils) would self-heat by less than 1°C. By extending the model to even larger (hypothetical) body sizes, we show that underground insects with masses >1kg could heat, in warm, dry soils, by 1.5-6°C or more. Additional experiments showed that larval critical thermal maxima (CT max ) were in excess of 43.5°C and that larvae could behaviorally thermoregulate on a thermal gradient bar. Together, these results suggest that large larvae living underground likely regulate their temperatures primarily using behavior; self-heating by metabolism likely contributes little to their heat budgets, at least in most common soil conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isotopic discrimination factors and nitrogen turnover rates in reared Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (Thunnus thynnus: effects of maternal transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Uriarte

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of stable isotope analysis to study animal diets requires estimates of isotopic turnover rates (half time, t50 and discrimination factors (Δ for an accurate interpretation of trophic patterns. The stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were analysed for eggs and reared larvae of Thunnus thynnus, as well as for the different diets supplied during the experiment. The results showed high values of δ15N in eggs and larvae (n=646 until 4 DAH. After this time lapse, the stable isotope values declined progressively until 12 DAH, when notochord flexion began. The δ13C showed an inverse trend, suggesting that maternal inheritance of the stable isotopes is evident until pre-flexion stages. This study proposes a model for estimating maternal isotopic signatures of bluefin broodstock. After notochord flexion, larvae were fed with aquaculture-bred gilthead seabream, which resulted in a rapid increase of bluefin larvae δ15N values together with a rapid decrease in δ13C values. The estimated nitrogen half-time to reach the steady state from the diet was 2.5±0.3 days and the discrimination factor was 0.4±0.3(‰. These results represent the first data set that has allowed isotopic nitrogen turnover rates and discrimination factors of the larval stages of bluefin tuna to be estimated.

  3. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  4. Africa and the tsetse fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  5. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  6. PERKEMBANGAN AWAL LARVA KERAPU KERTANG (Epinephelus lanceolatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Observasi pada larva kerapu kertang (E. lanceolatus dilaksanakan di Balai Besar Riset Perikanan Budidaya Laut (BBRPBL, Gondol-Bali, untuk mengumpulkan informasi dasar tentang perkembangan awal morfologi larva yang penting untuk menunjang keberhasilan pembenihannya. Larva berasal dari telur hasil pemijahan yang dirangsang dengan hormon (di Taiwan dan ditransportasikan segera setelah menetas (D-0 melalui transportasi udara ke laboratotium pembenihan BBRPBL, Gondol. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan fasilitas tangki 500 L dengan sistem air resirkulasi. Dari data yang dihimpun diketahui bahwa rata-rata panjang total larva (D-1 2,48 mm; D-8 3,17 mm; dan tumbuh dengan cepat mencapai 10,79 mm pada D-19. Kuning telur larva yang berumur sehari (D-1 rata-rata bervolume 150,3 x 10-4 mm3 dan pada hari ketiga terserap 42,61% dan habis pada hari keempat (D-4. Butir minyak larva D-1 sebesar 41,9 x 10-4 mm3 dan masih tersisa sebesar 0,34 x 10-4 mm3 sampai dengan D-6. Mulut larva diperhitungkan sudah mencapai lebar sebesar 200 μm pada D-2. dan mampu untuk memangsa rotifer sejalan dengan pigmentasi mata yang mulai terjadi pada D-2 dan sempurna pada D-3. Dari analisis pertumbuhan terjadi titik belok (flexion point pada D-8 dan setelah itu terjadi kurva pertumbuhan yang cepat y= 0,6747x-2,5508. Berdasarkan hasil observasi tersebut maka pemberian pakan awal untuk larva kerapu kertang sudah bisa diberikan pada D-2 akhir (sore, pada D-8 komposisi pakan alami sudah harus diubah dengan memberikan pakan yang lebih besar dan bernutrisi tinggi. Observation on early development of E. lanceolatus larvae have been conducted in laboratory condition at Gondol Research Institute for Mariculture (GRIM Bali; the purpose was to gain basic data mainly on the larval development stage to support both larval rearing and aquaculture technique of this species. The larvae from egg were produced by induced spawning technique and transported on D-0 to GRIM. Observation have been

  7. Effect of gamma rays on the larvae of Rhipicephalus bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecheva, G.

    1979-01-01

    Rhipicephalus bursa larvae were exposed to a single acute gamma-irradiation from cobalt 60 source in doses from 0.5 to 40 kiloroentgen (kr). Doses higher than 20 kr rilled the larvae, lower than 10 kr produced disturbances in tick development, dependent on radiation; larvae irradiated with 2 to 3 kr started sucking blood as larvae ordinarily do, but could not undergo metamorphosis; larvae irradiated with lower doses (0.5 and 1 kr) had a prolonged metamorphosis, the onset of oviposition was delayed and the percentage of hatched second generation larvae was reduced. (A.B.)

  8. Hyperprolinemic larvae of the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata, survive cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 32 (2011), s. 13041-13046 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0269; GA ČR GA203/09/2014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insect freeze tolerance * cold hardiness * glass transition Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 9.681, year: 2011

  9. Conversion of the chill susceptible fruit fly larva (Drosophila melanogaster) to a freeze tolerant organism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Šimek, Petr; Zahradníčková, Helena; Cimlová, Jana; Štětina, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 9 (2012), s. 3270-3274 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0269; GA ČR GA203/09/2014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insect cold tolerance * long-term storage * metabolomics Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012 http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2012/02/06/1119986109.full.pdf+html

  10. Recovery from supercooling, freezing, and cryopreservation stress in larvae of the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štětina, Tomáš; Hůla, Petr; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr; Šmilauer, P.; Košťál, Vladimír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 4414. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06374S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : insect * cold tolerance * cryopreservation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-22757-0

  11. Insurance against an Old World screw-worm fly invasion of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweddle, Neil; Mahon, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    Australia is fortunate that neither the New World screw-worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (NWSWF) nor the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (OWSWF), have become established within our country, although much of the northern areas are environmentally suitable (Suthurst et al. 1989). The OWSWF is a substantial threat as it is prevalent in the neighbouring countries of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Perhaps more importantly, it is also present in many of our trading partners in Southeast Asia. The export of live cattle from northern Australian ports to Southeast Asian nations has become an important and rapidly expanding trade. The fly is also present near ports in the Middle East which receive considerable numbers of live sheep exported from various Australian ports. In both situations, there is the ever-present opportunity for the screw-worm fly (SWF) to return to Australia as larvae, pupae or adults on stock carrying vessels. While this means of transport probably represents the most likely route for the pest to gain access to Australia, accidental transport on aircraft and active myiases on humans or companion animals remain possibilities. The introduction of the NWSWF into Australia is considered unlikely, but not impossible. Indeed, in 1992, an Australian tourist returning from South America carried live NWSWF larvae into Australia in a neck wound. Fortunately, the diagnosis was made early and the wound was treated, preventing any larvae evacuating. This was in southern Australia in May, where climatic conditions are unlikely to favour survival at that time of the year, but it demonstrates the potential for inadvertent introduction. Models of the impact of the OWSWF indicate that the cost of an invasion would be high. It has been estimated by Anaman et al. (1993), that the annual cost in an average climate year to beef cattle, sheep and dairy producers of an endemic establishment would be A$281 million. These costs would be

  12. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  13. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  14. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    definition of ageing?), and that the word ageing (or senescence) has a fairly precise .... Populations that evolved increased longevity and egg production late in life, as a .... life-span exceeding 120 days whereas flies from control populations ...

  15. Evading plant defence: Infestation of poisonous milkweed fruits (Asclepiadaceae) by the fruit fly Dacus siliqualactis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Wunder, Cora; Reuss, Esther; Toennes, Stefan W; Mebs, Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    To cope with toxic metabolites plants use for defence, herbivorous insects employ various adaptive strategies. For oviposition, the fruit fly Dacus siliqualactis (Tephritidae) uses milkweed plants of the genus Gomphocarpus (Asclepiadaceae) by circumventing the plant's physical (gluey latex) and chemical (toxic cadenolides) defence. With its long, telescope-like ovipositor, the fly penetrates the exo- and endocarp of the fruit and places the eggs on the unripe seeds located in the centre of the fruit. Whereas most plant parts contain high concentrations of cardenolides such as gomphoside, calotropin/calacatin and gomphogenin, only the seeds exhibit low cardenolide levels. By surmounting physical barriers (fruit membranes, latex), the fly secures a safe environment and a latex-free food source of low toxicity for the developing larvae. One amino acid substitution (Q111V) at the cardenolide binding site of the fly's Na + , K + -ATPase was detected, but the significance of that substitution: reducing cardenolide sensitivity or not, is unclear. However, poisoning of the larvae by low levels of cardenolides is assumed to be prevented by non-resorption and excretion of the polar cardenolides, which cannot passively permeate the midgut membrane. This example of an insect-plant interaction demonstrates that by morphological and behavioural adaptation, a fruit fly manages to overcome even highly effective defence mechanisms of its host plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development Of Biosteres sp Parasitation On Larvae Of Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) As Complementary Of Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikumbang, Darmawi; Nasution, Indah A.; Indarwatmi, M.; Kuswadi, Achmad N.

    2002-01-01

    Sterile insect technique was compatible with biological control after parasitoid releasing. In order to find out suitable life stage of B. carambolae to use as host in the mass rearing of Biosteres sp. parasitoid, an efectivity of the parasitoid infestation on different age of B. carambolae egg by putting fruits in cage containing 200 pairs of B. carambolae flies for the 1 hour. The fruit of infected fruit fly larvae with the different age i.e. 1,2,3, and 4 days were offered to 80 pairs of adult pamsitoid age 1,2, and 3 weeks for old for two hours i.e. 7.00-9.00; 9.00- 11.00; 11.00-13.00; 13.00-15.00; and 15.00-17.00. Numbers of parasitoid emerge from each fruit were observed. Results of the parasitation effectiveness assays show that 1-2 days old larvae were the most severely infested larvae infestation by the done at 7-15 of the day by the day parasitoid. Infestation mostly done by parasitoid of 7-14 days old

  17. Gamma radiation tolerance in different life stages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paithankar, Jagdish Gopal; Deeksha, K; Patil, Rajashekhar K

    2017-04-01

    Insects are known to have higher levels of radiation tolerance than mammals. The fruit fly Drosophila provides opportunities for genetic analysis of radiation tolerance in insects. A knowledge of stage-specific sensitivity is required to understand the mechanisms and test the existing hypothesis of insect radiation tolerance. Drosophila melanogaster were irradiated using gamma rays at different life stages. Irradiation doses were chosen to start from 100-2200 Gy with increments of 100 Gy, with a dose rate of 12.5 and 25 Gy/min. The threshold of mortality, LD 50 and LD 100 1 h post-irradiation was recorded for larvae and adults and 24 h post-irradiation for eggs and after 2-3 days for early and late pupae. Total antioxidant capacity for all the life stages was measured using the phosphomolybdenum method. Twenty-four hours post-irradiation, 100% mortality was recorded for eggs at 1000 Gy. One hour post irradiation 100% mortality was recorded at 1300 Gy for first instar larvae, 1700 Gy for second instar larvae, 1900 Gy for feeding third instar larvae and 2200 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae. Post-irradiation complete failure of emergence (100% mortality) was observed at 130 Gy for early pupae and 1500 Gy for late pupae; 100% mortality was observed at 1500 Gy for adults. The values of LD 50 were recorded as 452 Gy for eggs, 1049 Gy for first instar larvae, 1350 Gy for second instar larvae, 1265 Gy for feeding third instar larvae, 1590 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae, 50 Gy for early pupae, 969 Gy for late pupae, 1228 Gy for adult males and 1250 Gy for adult females. Early pupae were found to be prone to radiation, whereas the non-feeding third instar larvae were most resistant among all stages. The chromosome number being constant and total antioxidant capacity being nearly constant in all stages, we suggest that high rate of cell division during early pupae makes this stage sensitive to radiation.

  18. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  19. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀ , Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀ , Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀ . Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp . (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on

  20. Artificial Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Optogenetic and Thermogenetic Activation of Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Octopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    The larval brain of Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent system for the study of the neurocircuitry mechanism of memory. Recent development of neurogenetic techniques in fruit flies enables manipulations of neuronal activities in freely behaving animals. This protocol describes detailed steps for artificial induction of olfactory associative memory in Drosophila larvae. In this protocol, the natural reward signal is substituted by thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons in the brain. In parallel, the odor signal is substituted by optogenetic activation of a specific class of olfactory receptor neurons. Association of reward and odor stimuli is achieved with the concomitant application of blue light and heat that leads to activation of both sets of neurons in living transgenic larvae. Given its operational simplicity and robustness, this method could be utilized to further our knowledge on the neurocircuitry mechanism of memory in the fly brain.

  1. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  2. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names DH to EC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names TF to U

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HJ to ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AN to AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SJ to ST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  7. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CP to DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names C to CE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names EV to GN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names V to Z

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names ED to EU

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SD to SI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MB to MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LJ to MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AS to BA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MP to NA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SU to TE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PL to PO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names IE to LA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  1. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names A to AM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  2. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HB to HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OM to OX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names Q to SA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PP to PZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names GO to HA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  7. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names NB to OL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LB to LI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names BCE to BZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CD to CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OY to PI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes-Pisces) of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    the Indian Ocean, their regional, seasonal as well as diurnal variations. Engyprosopon grandisquamis dominated contributing to 23.2% of the total larvae. Numerically the incidence of bothid larvae suggested a uniform pattern of distribution during the two...

  13. Decapod larvae from the nearshore waters of Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Paulinose, V.T.

    Abundance of decapod larvae at three stations in Binge Bay, Karwar has been reported based on surface collections taken during the period October 1975 to September 1976. The larvae were very common in the Bay and the postmonsoon months sustained...

  14. Developmental study of mercury effects on the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnoos, Hamideh; Fereidoni, Masoud; Mahdavi-Shahri, Naser; Haddad, Farhang; Jalal, Razieh

    2013-03-01

    Environmental pollution caused by heavy metals such as mercury is one of the most important human problems. It might have severe teratogenic effects on embryonic development. Some pharmacological and physiological aspects of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) are similar to humans. So the stages of egg to adult fruit fly, as a developmental model, were employed in the study. Wild adult insects were maintained in glass dishes containing standard medium at 25 °C in complete darkness. Five pairs of 3-day old flies were then transferred to standard culture dishes containing different concentrations of mercury ion. They were removed after 8 hours. We considered the following: The rate of larvae becoming pupae and pupae to adults; the time required for the development; the hatching rate in the second generation without mercury in the culture; the morphometric changes during development in both length and width of the eggs through two generations; larvae, pupae and adult thorax length and width. The results showed that mercury in culture (20-100 mg/l) increase the duration of larvae (p<0.01) and pupae (p<0.01) development, the rate of larvae becoming pupae (p<0.001); pupae maturation (p<0.05), the hatching rate (p<0.01), the length (p<0.05) and width of larvae (p<0.01) and pupae (p<0.001) and the length in the adult thorax (p<0.01) decreased significantly. There was no effect upon the size of eggs. There were also no larvae hatching in concentrations of 200 mg/l of mercury. Negative effects of mercury as a heavy metal are possibly due to the interference of this metal in cellular signaling pathways, such as: Notch signaling and protein synthesis during the period of development. Since it bonds chemically with the sulfur hydride groups of proteins, it causes damage to the cell membrane and decreases the amount of RNA. This is the cause of failure of many enzyme mechanisms.

  15. Crustacean Larvae-Vision in the Plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W; Bok, Michael J; Lin, Chan

    2017-11-01

    We review the visual systems of crustacean larvae, concentrating on the compound eyes of decapod and stomatopod larvae as well as the functional and behavioral aspects of their vision. Larval compound eyes of these macrurans are all built on fundamentally the same optical plan, the transparent apposition eye, which is eminently suitable for modification into the abundantly diverse optical systems of the adults. Many of these eyes contain a layer of reflective structures overlying the retina that produces a counterilluminating eyeshine, so they are unique in being camouflaged both by their transparency and by their reflection of light spectrally similar to background light to conceal the opaque retina. Besides the pair of compound eyes, at least some crustacean larvae have a non-imaging photoreceptor system based on a naupliar eye and possibly other frontal eyes. Larval compound-eye photoreceptors send axons to a large and well-developed optic lobe consisting of a series of neuropils that are similar to those of adult crustaceans and insects, implying sophisticated analysis of visual stimuli. The visual system fosters a number of advanced and flexible behaviors that permit crustacean larvae to survive extended periods in the plankton and allows them to reach acceptable adult habitats, within which to metamorphose. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  17. (Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus) Larvae on Sofala Bank

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Vertical larval fish movement influences their survival and dispersal, hence recruitment variability. This study presents the vertical behaviour of gold- spot herring (Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus) larvae observed on the Sofala Bank. (Mozambique) throughout a 48-hour period when depth-stratified samples were.

  18. Monograph On Bothid Larvae (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    in the preparation of a descriptive document on the larvae of flat fishes from the Indian Ocean. However, study of the larval forms from the Indian Ocean has been made possible due to the availability of material from the Naga Expedition (1959-61) from the Gulf...

  19. A zebrafish transgenic model of Ewing's sarcoma reveals conserved mediators of EWS-FLI1 tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, Stefanie W; Basse, Audrey N; Chandler, Garvin L; Kirk, Anne M; Rakheja, Dinesh; Amatruda, James F

    2012-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, a malignant bone tumor of children and young adults, is a member of the small-round-blue-cell tumor family. Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), which include peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), are characterized by chromosomal translocations that generate fusions between the EWS gene and ETS-family transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. The EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein represents an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of Ewing's sarcoma. The cell of origin of ESFT and the molecular mechanisms by which EWS-FLI1 mediates tumorigenesis remain unknown, and few animal models of Ewing's sarcoma exist. Here, we report the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model of EWS-FLI1 function and tumorigenesis. Mosaic expression of the human EWS-FLI1 fusion protein in zebrafish caused the development of tumors with histology strongly resembling that of human Ewing's sarcoma. The incidence of tumors increased in a p53 mutant background, suggesting that the p53 pathway suppresses EWS-FLI1-driven tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of the zebrafish tumors defined a set of genes that might be regulated by EWS-FLI1, including the zebrafish ortholog of a crucial EWS-FLI1 target gene in humans. Stable zebrafish transgenic lines expressing EWS-FLI1 under the control of the heat-shock promoter exhibit altered embryonic development and defective convergence and extension, suggesting that EWS-FLI1 interacts with conserved developmental pathways. These results indicate that functional targets of EWS-FLI1 that mediate tumorigenesis are conserved from zebrafish to human and provide a novel context in which to study the function of this fusion oncogene.

  20. ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DARI LARVA DAN PENGUJIAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK VEKTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate pathogenic organisms as cause of mosquito larvae death was conducted at Wonokerto and Pabelan villages, Salatiga Luar Kota subdistrict, Semarang regency in Central Java from May 1991 through December 1991. Bacterial isolation from dead larvae showed that 31 B. thuringicnsis isolates were obtained from 31 larvae samples collected from 2 location e.g Wonokerto village (3 samples, Pabelan village (28 samples. Nineteen isolates (61,3% showed a pathogenicity of more than 50% to third toward instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively 24 hours after exposure. This study shows the possible use of B. thuringiensis for biologic control of mosquitoes which can act as vectors for human diseases.

  1. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Kevin R.; Andreadis, Stefanos S.; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  2. Lagrangian Observations and Modeling of Marine Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B.; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Just within the past two decades, studies on the early-life history stages of marine organisms have led to new paradigms in population dynamics. Unlike passive plant seeds that are transported by the wind or by animals, marine larvae have motor and sensory capabilities. As a result, marine larvae have a tremendous capacity to actively influence their dispersal. This is continuously revealed as we develop new techniques to observe larvae in their natural environment and begin to understand their ability to detect cues throughout ontogeny, process the information, and use it to ride ocean currents and navigate their way back home, or to a place like home. We present innovative in situ and numerical modeling approaches developed to understand the underlying mechanisms of larval transport in the ocean. We describe a novel concept of a Lagrangian platform, the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC), designed to observe and quantify complex larval behaviors and their interactions with the pelagic environment. We give a brief history of larval ecology research with the DISC, showing that swimming is directional in most species, guided by cues as diverse as the position of the sun or the underwater soundscape, and even that (unlike humans!) larvae orient better and swim faster when moving as a group. The observed Lagrangian behavior of individual larvae are directly implemented in the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS), an open source Lagrangian tracking application. Simulations help demonstrate the impact that larval behavior has compared to passive Lagrangian trajectories. These methodologies are already the base of exciting findings and are promising tools for documenting and simulating the behavior of other small pelagic organisms, forecasting their migration in a changing ocean.

  3. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  4. Feeding frequency and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.; Velthuis, H.H.W.; Duchateau, Marie José; Tweel, I. van der

    1998-01-01

    The frequency with which bumble bee larvae are fed during their development was studied using video-recordings. The behaviour of the workers while feeding worker, male and queen larvae of Bombus terrestris was recorded. At the beginning of development, female larvae of both castes were fed at a

  5. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, Y.H.; Anjum, S.; Rahul x, Smita Jyoti

    2017-07-01

    Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05). The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05).

  6. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ Bg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASIR HASAN SIDDIQUE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05. The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05.

  7. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Y.H.; Anjum, S.; Rahul x, Smita Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05). The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05).

  8. Larva migrans visceral: relato de caso Visceral larva migrans: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bortoli Machado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.Visceral larva migrans is an infectious human disease that occurs following ingestion of eggs from the environment originating from roundworms which commonly infect dogs and cats, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. The larvae penetrate the gut wall and migrate through the tissues causing disorders consequent to an inflammatory immune response¹. The authors describe a clinical case of visceral larva migrans with an unusual clinical presentation and also its clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed.

  9. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. XMM flying beautifully

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  11. A new threat to honey bees, the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus borealis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Core

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD.

  12. A New Threat to Honey Bees, the Parasitic Phorid Fly Apocephalus borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; DeNault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; DeRisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D.; Hafernik, John

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD. PMID:22235317

  13. Studies on drosophila radiosensitive strains. 6. Influence of UV-rays and methyl methansulfonate on the survival and the frequency of chromosome aberrations in somatic cells of the larvae of mutant mus(2)201sup(G1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levina, V.V.; Sharygin, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Larvae of mutagen-sensitive mutant of mus (2) 201sup(G1) drosophila of different ages are subjected to the effect of UV-rays and methyl methan-sulfonate. After this mortality of individuals at the larva and chrysalis development stages is accounted, as well as chromosome aberrations in somatic cells of larvae of the 3-rd age. It is shown that mutation studied determines high mortality of flies at both larva and chrysalis stages and increased number of both spontaneous and induced aberrations. The conclusion is made that chromosome aberrations are not the only reason for the death of mutant individuals after treatment with mutagens and that functions of the gene studied are important for both dividing and nondividing cells

  14. Characteristics of latrines in central Tanzania and their relation to fly catches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Irish

    Full Text Available The disposal of human excreta in latrines is an important step in reducing the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. However, in latrines, flies can access the latrine contents and serve as a mechanical transmitter of diarrhoeal pathogens. Furthermore, the latrine contents can be used as a breeding site for flies, which may further contribute to disease transmission. Latrines do not all produce flies, and there are some which produce only a few, while others can produce thousands. In order to understand the role of the latrine in determining this productivity, a pilot study was conducted, in which fifty latrines were observed in and around Ifakara, Tanzania. The characteristics of the latrine superstructure, use of the latrine, and chemical characteristics of pit latrine contents were compared to the numbers of flies collected in an exit trap placed over the drop hole in the latrine. Absence of a roof was found to have a significant positive association (t=3.17, p=0.003 with the total number of flies collected, and temporary superstructures, particularly as opposed to brick superstructures (z=4.26, p<0.001, and increased total solids in pit latrines (z=2.57, p=0.01 were significantly associated with increased numbers of blowflies leaving the latrine. The number of larvae per gram was significantly associated with the village from which samples were taken, with the largest difference between two villages outside Ifakara (z=2.12, p=0.03. The effect of latrine superstructure (roof, walls on fly production may indicate that improvements in latrine construction could result in decreases in fly populations in areas where they transmit diarrhoeal pathogens.

  15. Tsetse flies and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D J; Hendrickx, G; Slingenbergh, J H

    1994-12-01

    The authors use a quantitative modelling framework to describe and explore the features of the biology of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) which are important in determining the rate of transmission of the African trypanosomiases between hosts. Examples are presented of the contribution of previous research on tsetse to quantified epidemiological and epizootiological understanding, and areas of current ignorance are identified for future study. Spatial and temporal variations in risk are important (but rarely-studied) determinants of the impact of trypanosomiasis on humans, domestic animals and agricultural activities. Recent grid-based sampling surveys to Togo provide valuable data sets on tsetse, cattle and trypanosomiasis throughout the country. A combination of ground-based meterological and remotely-sensed satellite data, within linear discriminant analytical models, enables description of the observed distributions of the five species of tsetse occurring in Togo, with accuracies of between 72% (Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides) and 98% (G. fusca). Abundance classes of the two most widespread species, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides, are described with accuracies of between 47% and 83%. This is especially remarkable given the relatively small differences between the average values of the predictor variables in areas of differing fly abundance. Similar analyses could be used to predict the occurrence and abundance of flies in other areas, which have not been surveyed to date, in order to plan tsetse control campaigns or explore development options. Finally, some recent tsetse control campaigns are briefly reviewed. The shift of emphasis from fly eradication to fly control is associated with a devolution of responsibility for control activities from central government to local areas, communities or even individuals. The future role of central governments will remain crucial, however, in determining the areas in which different control options are practised, in

  16. Midgut morphological changes and autophagy during metamorphosis in sand flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Juliana; Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju Lin; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2017-06-01

    During metamorphosis, holometabolous insects undergo significant remodeling of their midgut and become able to cope with changes in dietary requirements between larval and adult stages. At this stage, insects must be able to manage and recycle available food resources in order to develop fully into adults, especially when no nutrients are acquired from the environment. Autophagy has been previously suggested to play a crucial role during metamorphosis of the mosquito. Here, we investigate the overall morphological changes of the midgut of the sand fly during metamorphosis and assess the expression profiles of the autophagy-related genes ATG1, ATG6, and ATG8, which are associated with various steps of the autophagic process. Morphological changes in the midgut start during the fourth larval instar, with epithelial degeneration followed by remodeling via the differentiation of regenerative cells in pre-pupal and pupal stages. The changes in the midgut epithelium are paired with the up-regulation of ATG1, ATG6 and ATG8 during the larva-adult transition. Vein, a putative epidermal growth factor involved in regulating epithelial midgut regeneration, is also up-regulated. Autophagy has further been confirmed in sand flies via the presence of autophagosomes residing within the cytoplasmic compartment of the pupal stages. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this process should aid the future management of this neglected tropical vector.

  17. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  18. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on liquid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol describes the analysis of larvae feeding on liquid food. The test is designed for quantitative assessment of the food ingestion rate of individual larvae under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as food deprivation is prolonged. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  19. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  20. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  1. Honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) swing abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy landing on a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Huang, He; Yan, Shaoze

    2017-03-01

    Whether for insects or for aircrafts, landing is one of the indispensable links in the verification of airworthiness safety. The mechanisms by which insects achieve a fast and stable landing remain unclear. An intriguing example is provided by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica), which use the swinging motion of their abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy and to achieve a smooth, stable, and quick landing. By using a high-speed camera, we observed that touchdown is initiated by honeybees extending their front legs or antennae and then landing softly on a wall. After touchdown, they swing the rest of their bodies until all flying energy is dissipated. We suggested a simplified model with mass-spring dampers for the body of the honeybee and revealed the mechanism of flying energy transfer and dissipation in detail. Results demonstrate that body translation and abdomen swinging help honeybees dissipate residual flying energy and orchestrate smooth landings. The initial kinetic energy of flying is transformed into the kinetic energy of the abdomen's rotary movement. Then, the kinetic energy of rotary movement is converted into thermal energy during the swinging cycle. This strategy provides more insight into the mechanism of insect flying, which further inspires better design on aerial vehicle with better landing performance.

  2. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments against tephritid fruit flies: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, G. J. [USDA-ARS, Weslaco, TX (United States)

    1999-06-15

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insect pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Fruits suspected of harboring fruit fly eggs and larvae must be treated to control virtually 100% of any tephritids present. Irradiation is unique among quarantine treatments in that it is the only treatment used which does not cause acute mortality; instead, insects are prevented from maturing or are sterilized. Tephritids have been the most studied group of quarantined pests as far as irradiation; minimum absorbed doses confirmed with large-scale testing to provide control to the probit 9 level (99.9968%) have ranged from 50 to 250 Gy. Considerable work has been done with the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), one of the most important quarantined pests worldwide, and doses suggested to provide quarantine security have varied widely. The fact that insects are still alive for some time after irradiation has been one of the major obstacles to its use. Irradiation may be the most widely applicable quarantine treatment from the standpoint of fruit quality. However, some important fruits shipped across quarantine barriers (mangoes, Mangifera indica L., and citrus) may suffer from doses as low as 150 Gy when applied on a commercial scale where much of the fruit load may receive 300 Gy. Fortunately, some of the important tephritids attacking these fruits, such as Anastrepha spp., can be controlled with lower doses. Mainland USA has begun to use irradiation as a quarantine treatment for some fruits imported from Hawaii since April 1995 and remains the only country using irradiation as a quarantine treatment, although on a very limited basis. Irradiation offers some additional risk abatement advantages over other quarantine treatments. © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. (author)

  3. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments against tephritid fruit flies: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insect pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Fruits suspected of harboring fruit fly eggs and larvae must be treated to control virtually 100% of any tephritids present. Irradiation is unique among quarantine treatments in that it is the only treatment used which does not cause acute mortality; instead, insects are prevented from maturing or are sterilized. Tephritids have been the most studied group of quarantined pests as far as irradiation; minimum absorbed doses confirmed with large-scale testing to provide control to the probit 9 level (99.9968%) have ranged from 50 to 250 Gy. Considerable work has been done with the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), one of the most important quarantined pests worldwide, and doses suggested to provide quarantine security have varied widely. The fact that insects are still alive for some time after irradiation has been one of the major obstacles to its use. Irradiation may be the most widely applicable quarantine treatment from the standpoint of fruit quality. However, some important fruits shipped across quarantine barriers (mangoes, Mangifera indica L., and citrus) may suffer from doses as low as 150 Gy when applied on a commercial scale where much of the fruit load may receive 300 Gy. Fortunately, some of the important tephritids attacking these fruits, such as Anastrepha spp., can be controlled with lower doses. Mainland USA has begun to use irradiation as a quarantine treatment for some fruits imported from Hawaii since April 1995 and remains the only country using irradiation as a quarantine treatment, although on a very limited basis. Irradiation offers some additional risk abatement advantages over other quarantine treatments. © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. (author)

  4. New Host Record for Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae, a Parasitoid of Microdontine Larvae (Diptera: Syrphidae, Associated with the Ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microdontine syrphid flies are obligate social parasites of ants. Larvae prey on ant brood whereas adults live outside the nests. Knowledge of their interaction with their host is often scarce, as it is information about their natural enemies. Here we report the first case of parasitism of a species of microdontine fly by a myrmecophilous eurytomid wasp. This is also the first host record for Camponotophilus delvarei Gates, a recently described parasitic wasp discovered in Chiapas, Mexico, within the nests of the weaver ant, Camponotus sp. aff. textor Forel. Eleven pupal cases of a microdontine fly were found within a single nest of this ant, five of them being parasitized. Five adult C. delvarei females were reared from a puparium and 29 female and 2 male pupae were obtained from another one. The eurytomid is a gregarious, primary ectoparasitoid of larvae and pupae of Microdontinae, its immature stages developing within the protective puparium of the fly. The species is synovigenic. Adult females likely locate and parasitize their hosts within the ant nest. As some species of Microdontinae are considered endangered, their parasitoids are likewise threatened and in need of accurate and urgent surveys in the future.

  5. Significance of bacteria in oviposition and larval development of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial ecology of phlebotomine sand flies is not well understood although bacteria likely play an important role in the sand fly biology and vector capacity for Leishmania parasites. In this study, we assessed the significance of the microbial community of rabbit feces in oviposition and larval development of Lutzomyia longipalpis as well as bacterial colonization of the gut of freshly emerged flies. Methods Sterile (by autoclaving) and non-sterile (control) rabbit feces were used in the two-choice assay to determine their oviposition attractiveness to sand fly females. Bacteria were identified by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with universal eubacterial primers. Sterile, control (non-sterile), and sterilized and inoculated rabbit feces were used to assess the significance of bacteria in L. longipalpis development. Newly emerged adult flies were surface-sterilized and screened for the bacterial population size and diversity by the culturing approach. The digestive tract of L4 sterile and control larvae was incubated with Phalloidin to visualize muscle tissues and DAPI to visualize nuclei. Results Two-choice behavioural assays revealed a great preference of L. longipalpis to lay eggs on rabbit feces with an active complex bacterial community (control) (85.8 % of eggs) in comparison to that of sterile (autoclaved) rabbit feces (14.2 %). Bioassays demonstrated that L. longipalpis larvae can develop in sterile rabbit feces although development time to adult stage was greatly extended (47 days) and survival of larvae was significantly lower (77.8 %) compared to that of larvae developing in the control rabbit feces (32 days and 91.7 %). Larval survival on sterilized rabbit feces inoculated with the individual bacterial isolates originating from this substrate varied greatly depending on a bacterial strain. Rhizobium radiobacter supported larval development to adult stage into the greatest extent (39 days, 88.0 %) in

  6. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the flying training capacity for 6 bases: * Sheppard AFB * Randolph AFB * Moody AFB * Columbus AFB * Laughlin AFB * Vance AFB * (2) Develop versatile flying training capacity simulation model for AETC...

  7. Caffeine taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A Apostolopoulou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal and ventral organ. However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative coreceptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s. This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviours.

  8. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  9. The seaweed fly (Coelopidae) can facilitate environmental survival and transmission of E. coli O157 at sandy beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinscoe, Isobel; Oliver, David M; Gilburn, Andre S; Quilliam, Richard S

    2018-06-19

    The sustainable management of recreational beaches is essential for minimising risk of human exposure to microbial pathogens whilst simultaneously maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Decaying seaweed on public beaches is gaining recognition as a substrate for microbial contamination, and is a potentially significant reservoir for human pathogens in close proximity to beach users. Closely associated with beds of decaying seaweed are dense populations of the seaweed fly (Coelopidae), which could influence the spatio-temporal fate of seaweed-associated human pathogens within beach environments. Replicated mesocosms containing seaweed inoculated with a bioluminescent strain of the zoonotic pathogen E. coli O157:H7, were used to determine the effects of two seaweed flies, Coelopa frigida and C. pilipes, on E. coli O157:H7 survival dynamics. Multiple generations of seaweed flies and their larvae significantly enhanced persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in simulated wrack habitats, demonstrating that both female and male C. frigida flies are capable of transferring E. coli O157:H7 between individual wrack beds and into the sand. Adult fly faeces can contain significant concentrations of E. coli O157:H7, which suggests they are capable of acting as biological vectors and bridge hosts between wrack habitats and other seaweed fly populations, and facilitate the persistence and dispersal of E. coli O157:H7 in sandy beach environments. This study provides the first evidence that seaweed fly populations inhabiting natural wrack beds contaminated with the human pathogen E. coli O157:H7 have the capacity to amplify the hazard source, and therefore potential transmission risk, to beach users exposed to seaweed and sand in the intertidal zone. The risk to public health from seaweed flies and decaying wrack beds is usually limited by human avoidance behaviour; however, seaweed fly migration and nuisance inland plagues in urban areas could increase human exposure routes beyond the

  10. Fly ash effect on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gufran Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of fly ash on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots. For hatching experiment different fly ash-extract concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% were prepared. Hatching was significantly reduced in all concentrations, maximum being at 50% concentration. The mortality (% of juveniles was observed in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7th days with different levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % of fly ash-extract. All the levels were found harmful to juveniles. As the level was increased, the killing percentage of juveniles was also increased. Highest mortality was observed in 7th day with 50% level.For the penetration experiment, fly ash was mixed with soil to prepare different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. Seeds of pumpkin were grown in coffee cups filled with different mixtures. At two leaf stage, seedlings were inoculated with 2000 larvae. The penetrated larvae in roots were observed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Root penetration was found inversely proportional to concentration. Significant results in the suppression of nematode penetration were noted up to 40% concentration. However, none of the juveniles was penetrated at 50% concentration.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.66-73

  11. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  12. To Fly in the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  13. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  14. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  15. A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobuchar, Emily; Deslippe, Richard

    2002-05-01

    We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants.

  16. A revision of Ichneumonopsis Hardy, 1973 (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae: Gastrozonini, Oriental bamboo-shoot fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnon Freidberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ichneumonopsis Hardy,1973, a genus of oriental fruit flies, is revised and two new species, I. hancocki sp. nov. (from Peninsular Malaysia and I. taiwanensis sp. nov. (from Taiwan, are described. A key to the three species of Ichneumonopsis is presented. In northern Thailand larvae of I. burmensis Hardy, 1973 develop in bamboo shoots of Pseudoxytenanthera albociliata (Munro Nguyen and Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxburgh Nees (Poaceae, not Melocalamus compactiflorus as previously reported. The recently discovered association of I. burmensis with bamboo substantiates our previous assumption assigning Ichneumonopsis to the primarily bamboo-inhabiting tribe Gastrozonini. Hence, we synonymize Ichneumonopsidini under Gastrozonini (syn. nov..

  17. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  18. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  19. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  20. Feeding behavior of giant gourami, Osphronemus gouramy (Lacepede larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumronk Amornsakun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were carried out in 15-liter glass aquaria with 10 liters of water containing 1000 larvae aged 1.5 days post-hatching (before mouth opening in three replicates. It was found that the feeding scheme of larval giant gourami aged 5-17 days (TL 8.36-13.40 mm consumed Moina. The larvae aged 14-17 days (TL 12.40-13.40 mm consumed both Moina and artificial pellet. Larvae aged more than 18-days (TL 13.60 mm consumed only artificial pellet. Daily food uptake by the larvae and juvenile were determined in a 15-liter aquaria (water volume 10 liters containing 500 larvae. The larvae were fed with Moina at density of 10 ind/ml. Aquaria without larvae were also set for a control of natural fluctuation in food density. The amount of food intake was calculated based on changes of food density in the aquarium with and without fish larvae. It was found the average uptake of Moina in digestive tract per day of larvae aged 5, 8, 11, 14 and 17 days old were 38, 52, 182, 205 and 266 individual/larva, respectively at density of 1.27, 1.73, 6.07, 6.83, and 8.87 individual/ml, respectively.

  1. Rearing the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster Under Axenic and Gnotobiotic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, Melinda L; Veloz, Madeline; Judd, Alec M; Wong, Adam C-N; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E; Chaston, John M

    2016-07-30

    The influence of microbes on myriad animal traits and behaviors has been increasingly recognized in recent years. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model for understanding microbial interactions with animal hosts, facilitated by approaches to rear large sample sizes of Drosophila under microorganism-free (axenic) conditions, or with defined microbial communities (gnotobiotic). This work outlines a method for collection of Drosophila embryos, hypochlorite dechorionation and sterilization, and transfer to sterile diet. Sterilized embryos are transferred to sterile diet in 50 ml centrifuge tubes, and developing larvae and adults remain free of any exogenous microbes until the vials are opened. Alternatively, flies with a defined microbiota can be reared by inoculating sterile diet and embryos with microbial species of interest. We describe the introduction of 4 bacterial species to establish a representative gnotobiotic microbiota in Drosophila. Finally, we describe approaches for confirming bacterial community composition, including testing if axenic Drosophila remain bacteria-free into adulthood.

  2. Incidence of Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taweel, Ayad A.; Al-Izzi, Mohammed A.J.; Jassim, Fadhil A.

    2000-01-01

    The Old World screw-worm fly (OWSWF), Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve, is a member of the insect family Calliphoridae and is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals in the tropics and sub-tropics (Norris and Murray 1964). Flies lay their eggs on the edge of wounds or body orifices; the resulting larvae invade the host tissues and produce lesions and infertility if the genitals become infested (Humphrey et al. 1980). Recorded hosts include cattle (Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Caprus hircus), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus) and man (Homo sapiens) (Patton 1920, 1922, Stoddar and Peck 1962, Norris and Murray 1964). This investigation describes the incidence of myiasis caused by C. bezziana in Iraq from September 1996 to March 1998

  3. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  4. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  5. Effects of plant lectin from cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth on development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2008-11-01

    The lectin from tubers of cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth was purified by affinity chromatography using asialofetuin-linked amino activated porous silica beads. The concentration dependent effect of lectin was studied on second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.). The treatment not only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage pupation and emergence of the adults from treated larvae but it also prolonged the remaining larval development period. A very low LC50 value, 39 mgl(-1) of lectin was obtained on the basis of adult emergence using probit analysis. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (GSTs: Glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of the LC50 of lectin at increasing exposure intervals (0, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The Arisaema curvatum lectin significantly decreased the activity of all the enzymes except for esterases, where the activity increased as compared to control at all exposure intervals. The decrease in pupation and emergence as well as significant suppression in the activities of two hydrolases, one oxidoreductase and one GST enzyme in treated larvae of B. cucurbitae indicated that this lectin has anti-metabolic effect on the melon fruit fly larvae.

  6. Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Robert Scott; Lopez, Dawn; Evans, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and a general immunity is achieved by larvae as they age, the basis of which has not been identified. To quickly identify a pool of candidate genes responsive to P. larvae infection, we sequenced transcripts from larvae inoculated with P. larvae at 12 hours post-emergence and incubated for 72 hours, and compared expression levels to a control cohort. We identified 75 genes with significantly higher expression and six genes with significantly lower expression. In addition to several antimicrobial peptides, two genes encoding peritrophic-matrix domains were also up-regulated. Extracellular matrix proteins, proteases/protease inhibitors, and members of the Osiris gene family were prevalent among differentially regulated genes. However, analysis of Drosophila homologs of differentially expressed genes revealed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with developmental asynchrony as a likely confounder of our results. We therefore used qPCR to measure the consistency of gene expression changes for a subset of differentially expressed genes. A replicate experiment sampled at both 48 and 72 hours post infection allowed further discrimination of genes likely to be involved in host response. The consistently responsive genes in our test set included a hymenopteran-specific protein tyrosine kinase, a hymenopteran specific serine endopeptidase, a cytochrome P450 (CYP9Q1), and a homolog of trynity, a zona pellucida domain protein. Of the known honey bee antimicrobial peptides, apidaecin was responsive at both time-points studied whereas hymenoptaecin was more consistent in its level of change between biological replicates and had the greatest increase in expression by RNA-seq analysis.

  7. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  8. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  9. Formation and utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargyai, J

    1974-01-01

    General problems of slag and fly ash formation and utilization are discussed. The ever-increasing energy demand, and the comeback of coal as an energy carrier in power plants call for efficient solutions to the problem of slag and fly ash. Slag and fly ash are used for concrete in which they partly replace cement. Other possible uses are the amelioration of acid soils, fireclay manufacture, road construction, and tiles. It is possible to recover metals, such as vanadium, iron, aluminum, and radioactive materials from certain types of fly ash and slag. The utilization of fly ash is essential also with respect to the abatement of entrainment from dumps.

  10. Engineering properties of fly ash concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmi Mahmud

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some of the engineering properties of Malaysian fly ash concrete. Workability, compressive, flexural, tensile splitting, drying shrinkage, elastic modulus and non destructive tests were performed on fly ash and control OPC concrete specimens. Data show that concrete containing 25% fly ash replacement of cement exhibit superior or similar engineering properties to that normal concrete without fly ash. These encouraging results demonstrated the technical merits of incorporating fly ash in concrete and should pave the way for wide scale use of this versatile material in the Malaysian construction industry. (author)

  11. SEBARAN LARVA IKAN DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN KONDISI OSEANOGRAFI LAUT SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laut Sulawesi diketahui sebagai daerah penangkapan ikan yang potensial sekaligus diduga sebagai lokasi pemijahan. Berbagai jenis larva ikan pelagis maupun demersal ditemukan di perairan ini. Kelimpahan dan sebaran larva ikan di suatu perairan sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi oseanografi seperti temperatur, salinitas dan sejumlah parameter lainnya termasuk ketersediaan pakan. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh parameter oseanografi terhadap kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan di Laut Sulawesi, telah dilakukan penelitian menggunakan kapal riset KR Baruna Jaya VII pada Oktober 2012. Parameter oseanografi yaitu temperatur dan salinitas diukur menggunakan iCTD dan sampling larva menggunakan bonggo net pada 18 stasiun pengukuran. Analisa hubungan kondisi oseanografi dengan sebaran larva dilakukan secara deskriptif dan pemetaan sebarannya dilakukan secara spasial. Hasil menunjukan keterkaitan sejumlah parameter oseanografi dengan kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan. Sebaran larva famili Scombroidae dominan berada pada perairan bersalinitas tinggi karena merupakan jenis ikan oseanik. Larva ikan demersal banyak ditemukan di perairan sekitar Kep.Sangihe Talaud. Kelimpahan larva tertinggi ditemukan di perairan bagian utara dan barat lokasi penelitian dimana kelimpahan plankton tinggi ditemukan.   Celebes Sea is known as a potential fishing and spawning grounds for several pelagic fish species. Abundance and distribution of fish larvae are allegedly linked to oceanographic conditions such as temperature, salinity and others oceanographic parameters including food availablity. To see the effect of oceanographic on the abundance and spatial distribution of fish larvae in the Celebes Sea, has conducted a research in October 2012using the research vessel KR Baruna Jaya VII. The measurement of oceanographic parameters including temperature and salinity and larval sampling were done respectively by using iCTD and Bonggo net at 18 measuring stations. The

  12. Phylogenetic, Metabolic, and Taxonomic Diversities Shape Mediterranean Fruit Fly Microbiotas during Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Yael; Pasternak, Zohar; Ben Yosef, Michael; Behar, Adi; Lauzon, Carol; Yuval, Boaz

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) (Ceratitis capitata) lays eggs in fruits, where larvae subsequently develop, causing large-scale agricultural damage. Within its digestive tract, the fly supports an extended bacterial community that is composed of multiple strains of a variety of enterobacterial species. Most of these bacteria appear to be functionally redundant, with most strains sustaining diazotrophy and/or pectinolysis. At least some of these bacteria were shown to be vertically inherited, but colonization, structural, and metabolic aspects of the community's dynamics have not been investigated. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization, metabolic profiling, plate cultures, and pyrosequencing to show that an initial, egg-borne, diverse community expands throughout the fly's life cycle. While keeping “core” diazotrophic and pectinolytic functions, it also harbors diverse and fluctuating populations that express varied metabolic capabilities. We suggest that the metabolic and compositional plasticity of the fly's microbiota provides potential adaptive advantages to the medfly host and that its acquisition and dynamics are affected by mixed processes that include stochastic effects, host behavior, and molecular barriers. PMID:23104413

  13. Evolution of insecticide resistance in non-target black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mónica Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold and deltamethrin (162-fold and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.

  14. Evolution of insecticide resistance in non-target black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Cristina Mónica; Gauna, Lidia Ester; D'Angelo, Ana Pechen de; Anguiano, Olga Liliana

    2012-06-01

    Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold) and deltamethrin (162-fold) and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold) were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.

  15. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol is designed for quantitative assessment of the willingness of individual larvae to procure solid food under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as the period of food deprivation is increased. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  16. A low concentration of ethanol impairs learning but not motor and sensory behavior in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks G Robinson

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful model system for the genetic analysis of ethanol-associated behaviors. However, past studies have focused on the response of the adult fly to large, and often sedating, doses of ethanol. The pharmacological effects of low and moderate quantities of ethanol have remained understudied. In this study, we tested the acute effects of low doses of ethanol (∼7 mM internal concentration on Drosophila larvae. While ethanol did not affect locomotion or the response to an odorant, we observed that ethanol impaired associative olfactory learning when the heat shock unconditioned stimulus (US intensity was low but not when the heat shock US intensity was high. We determined that the reduction in learning at low US intensity was not a result of ethanol anesthesia since ethanol-treated larvae responded to the heat shock in the same manner as untreated animals. Instead, low doses of ethanol likely impair the neuronal plasticity that underlies olfactory associative learning. This impairment in learning was reversible indicating that exposure to low doses of ethanol does not leave any long lasting behavioral or physiological effects.

  17. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  18. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  19. Quantification of Leishmania infantum DNA in females, eggs and larvae of Rhipicephalus sanguineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otranto Domenico

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Leishmania infantum is a widespread parasite that affects dogs and humans worldwide. It is transmitted primarily by phlebotomine sand flies, but recently there has been much discussion on the role of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, as a potential vector for this protozoan. Recent laboratory and field investigations have contributed to this hypothesis, but a proof of the vector capacity of R. sanguineus has yet to be provided. Following a recent study suggesting that L. infantum passes transovarially from the female tick to her progeny the current study provides new evidence of the transovarial transmission of L. infantum in R. sanguineus. Methods Engorged females of R. sanguineus were collected from the environment in a dog shelter of southern Italy, where canine leishmaniosis is endemic. In the laboratory, 97 females that successfully laid eggs, their eggs and the originated larvae were subjected to DNA extraction and then tested by a TaqMan-based real time PCR targeting a fragment of the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA of L. infantum. Results and conclusions L. infantum kDNA was detected in engorged females, their eggs and originating larvae, with a parasite load ranging from 1.8 × 10-4 to 10.0 × 100. Certainly, the current study provides further evidence on the passage of L. infantum from R. sanguineus females to their offspring. The observation of promastigote forms in larvae is necessary to definitively confirm this hypothesis, which would raise interesting questions about the possible role of ticks in the maintenance of L. infantum infection among dogs in certain areas.

  20. Arginine and proline applied as food additives stimulate high freeze tolerance in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koštál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr

    2016-08-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an insect of tropical origin. Its larval stage is evolutionarily adapted for rapid growth and development under warm conditions and shows high sensitivity to cold. In this study, we further developed an optimal acclimation and freezing protocol that significantly improves larval freeze tolerance (an ability to survive at -5°C when most of the freezable fraction of water is converted to ice). Using the optimal protocol, freeze survival to adult stage increased from 0.7% to 12.6% in the larvae fed standard diet (agar, sugar, yeast, cornmeal). Next, we fed the larvae diets augmented with 31 different amino compounds, administered in different concentrations, and observed their effects on larval metabolomic composition, viability, rate of development and freeze tolerance. While some diet additives were toxic, others showed positive effects on freeze tolerance. Statistical correlation revealed tight association between high freeze tolerance and high levels of amino compounds involved in arginine and proline metabolism. Proline- and arginine-augmented diets showed the highest potential, improving freeze survival to 42.1% and 50.6%, respectively. Two plausible mechanisms by which high concentrations of proline and arginine might stimulate high freeze tolerance are discussed: (i) proline, probably in combination with trehalose, could reduce partial unfolding of proteins and prevent membrane fusions in the larvae exposed to thermal stress (prior to freezing) or during freeze dehydration; (ii) both arginine and proline are exceptional among amino compounds in their ability to form supramolecular aggregates which probably bind partially unfolded proteins and inhibit their aggregation under increasing freeze dehydration. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Occurrence and biology of goat warble fly infestation by Przhevalskiana silenus (Diptera, Oestridae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, A; Razavi, S M; Bahrami, S

    2009-12-03

    Goat warble fly infestation (GWFI) by the larvae of Przhevalskiana silenus is endemic in goats of semi-hilly and mountainous regions of Iran. This myiasis has severe economic impact on tanning industries, and it is responsible for impaired milk and meat production, growth retardation and carcass depreciation. To estimate the prevalence of GWFI in the southern areas of Iran, from October 2006 to December 2008, the carcasses of 8000 goats at a Shiraz slaughterhouse and 1000 each at Marvdasht and Darab cities were examined weekly for the presence of P. silenus larvae. In addition, appropriate sections from the skin and subcutaneous tissues were processed for histopathological investigation. The prevalence rate of infestation in different cities varied from 7.0% to 18.9% and the minimum and maximum infestation rate was 3 and 78, with an average rate of infestation of 26.2 warbles per animal. Significant differences were observed in the prevalence among different age groups with no significant difference between male and female animals. First instar larvae (L(1)) were found on infected animals from early August to end of September, second larval stage (L(2)) from early October to end of November and third-stage larvae (L(3)) from early December to mid-March. No larvae were found on skin or subcutaneous tissues from end of March to late July. Live L(1) initiated mild lymphocyte, macrophage and eosinophil infiltration while dead L(1) initiated granulomatous or pyogranulomatous reactions. Live L(2) induced severe inflammatory reaction and massive tissue necrosis, which continued for L(3) and until the end of infestation phase. The subcutaneous tissues, dermis and epidermis became necrotic and fragmented, and L(3) penetrated the necrotic area to start its aerobic life cycle.

  2. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  3. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  4. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  5. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. This is an

  6. Description of Larval Instars To Fill a Gap in Forensic Entomology: The Larvae of Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, S M; Vairo, K P; Moura, M O

    2018-05-04

    A fundamental assumption of forensic entomology for estimating the postmortem interval is that insect species are accurately identified, which depends on diagnostic morphological characters. Larvae of the blow fly Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, 1969) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were sampled from four corpses in the state of Paraná, Brazil, but despite the forensic importance of this species, morphological data for the identification of its larval instars are lacking, limiting its usefulness in such cases. Thus, the main goal of this study was to describe the larval instars of P. pseudolyrcea. The material was obtained from a colony established by larvae collected from a corpse of a murder case. Overall, the distribution of spines is a key character for identifying this species in the first, second and third instars. Other characteristics, such as the presence of an accessory oral sclerite, the small cirri, the number of lobes of the anterior spiracle and the morphology of posterior spiracles, separates P. pseudolyrcea from other necrophagous blow flies. The detailed morphological description provided here facilitates the identification of larval instars of P. pseudolyrcea and their differentiation from those of other calliphorid species.

  7. Administration of Brevibacillus laterosporus spores as a poultry feed additive to inhibit house fly development in feces: a new eco-sustainable concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiu, L; Satta, A; Floris, I

    2014-03-01

    The success of a microbial pesticide application against house flies developing in manure should accomplish the uniform mixing of active ingredients with this breeding medium, thus enhancing residual effects. The oral administration of the entomopathogenic bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus to caged poultry species allows the homogeneous incorporation of its active ingredients with fly breeding media. Feces from treated broilers or hens show toxicity against exposed fly adults and larvae. Insecticidal effects are concentration-dependent with a lethal median concentration (LC50) value of 1.34 × 10(8) and 0.61 × 10(8) spores/g of feces for adults and larvae, respectively. Manure toxicity against flies was maintained as long as chickens were fed a diet containing adequate concentrations of B. laterosporus spores. Toxicity significantly decreased after spore administration to birds was interrupted. When poultry diet contained 10(10) spores/g, mortality of flies reared on feces exceeded 80%. The use of B. lateroporus spores as a feed additive in poultry production systems fostering a more integrated approach to farming is discussed.

  8. Flying Qualities (Qualites de Vol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    CIIANAIT DUMINIIG MA𔃼I1 FXCURSIOH /~o --- ~A 0- /10 CMFIGURE 4 AL-PHA-JETr ELEVATOR CONTROL CINEMATIC ; LP HEINi" KINEMATIC HORIZONTAL STABILIZER...ih-flight simulation is the ultimale assessment techntque providing high realism , flexibility, and credibility. rhe utilization (,f an in-fli:,ht si...1london, UK ()PERATIONAL H-ELICOPTER IIN - FLIGHT SIMULATOR (HIGH REALISM ) I(HIGH FLEAiBILITY Fligt t A tehrtqueTechnology implementation Flight t

  9. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    al estudio de los Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psichodidae). Phlebotomus del grupo anthophorus en Guatemala. Rev. Colegio Mdd. Guatemala 22:187-193...studied in detail. A review of the North American Phiebotominae is in progress. Unclassie SECRIT CLASSFICTIO O TH PGE~ en om nteed 4[ AD_____ STUDIES OF...Diptera, Psychodidae) in Belize, Central America. Bull . Ent. Res. 65:595-599. Young, D.G. 1979. A review of the bloodsucking psychodid flies of Colombia

  10. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kloezen

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future.

  11. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  12. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Ali Khan, Khalid; Javed Ansari, Mohammad; Almasaudi, Saad B; Al-Kahtani, Saad

    2018-02-01

    The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1), Proteus mirabilis (T2), Bacillus licheniformis (T3), Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4), Bacillus subtilis (T5), Enterobacter kobei (T6), and Morganella morganii (T7) on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet) and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores). Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%), whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%). Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%). Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  13. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Ghamdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1, Proteus mirabilis (T2, Bacillus licheniformis (T3, Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4, Bacillus subtilis (T5, Enterobacter kobei (T6, and Morganella morganii (T7 on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores. Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%, whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%. Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%. Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  14. Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

  15. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  16. Morphology and Ecological Notes on the Larvae and Pupae of Simulium (Simulium from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-Kyu Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of larvae and pupae of twelve species of Simulium (Simulium from Korea are investigated and redescribed. Detailed descriptions of immature stages of each species are provided with photographs. For the Korean members of subgenus Simulium, combinations of the following characteristics can be used to separate them from other Korean subgenera: larval abdomen without a pair of conical-shaped ventral tubercles; postgenal cleft variously shaped, viz., miter shaped, spearhead, bullet shaped or triangular; rectal papillae 3 simple lobe or compound lobes; pupal gill of 6-16 filaments; cocoon shoe, boot or slipper shaped; and head trichomes 3 pairs (1 facial+2 frontal. Habitat information and other ecological aspects of each species are provided. Updated keys to larvae and pupae of the Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are also provided to facilitate species identification. Taxonomic treatment based on external morphologies of larvae and pupae of Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are focused and included in this study. To understand their interspecific relationships, phylogenetic analyses using multiple data from molecule, morphology, and ecology are warranted in future research. Also continued exploration for new character systems is needed to establish more stable boundaries for subgenus and species delimitations.

  17. Aiptasia sp. larvae as a model to reveal mechanisms of symbiont selection in cnidarians

    KAUST Repository

    Wolfowicz, Iliona

    2016-09-01

    Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear. Here we show for the first time that symbiont selection patterns for larvae of two Acropora coral species and the model anemone Aiptasia are similar under controlled conditions. We find that Aiptasia larvae distinguish between compatible and incompatible symbionts during uptake into the gastric cavity and phagocytosis. Using RNA-Seq, we identify a set of candidate genes potentially involved in symbiosis establishment. Together, our data complement existing molecular resources to mechanistically dissect symbiont phagocytosis in cnidarians under controlled conditions, thereby strengthening the role of Aiptasia larvae as a powerful model for cnidarian endosymbiosis establishment.

  18. Aiptasia sp. larvae as a model to reveal mechanisms of symbiont selection in cnidarians

    KAUST Repository

    Wolfowicz, Iliona; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Voss, Philipp A.; Hambleton, Elizabeth A.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Hatta, Masayuki; Guse, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear. Here we show for the first time that symbiont selection patterns for larvae of two Acropora coral species and the model anemone Aiptasia are similar under controlled conditions. We find that Aiptasia larvae distinguish between compatible and incompatible symbionts during uptake into the gastric cavity and phagocytosis. Using RNA-Seq, we identify a set of candidate genes potentially involved in symbiosis establishment. Together, our data complement existing molecular resources to mechanistically dissect symbiont phagocytosis in cnidarians under controlled conditions, thereby strengthening the role of Aiptasia larvae as a powerful model for cnidarian endosymbiosis establishment.

  19. PERKEMBANGAN ENZIM PENCERNAAN LARVA IKAN PATIN, Pangasius hypophthalmus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzal Effendi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of digestive enzymes; protease, lipase and amylase were observed in patin catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus, larvae.  The 1 day old larvae (day after hatching, with 3,37-3,97 mm length and 0,62-0,79 mg weight, were reared in aquarium 60x50x40 cm with stocking  density of 20 fish/l.  Larvae were fed  Artemia dan tubificid worms 2-8 dan 7-15 days after hatching (dAH,  respectively (schedule I;  2-6 and  5-15 dAH (schedule II; and 2-4 and 5-15 dAH (schedule III.  Chlorella was ready to eat by larvae at the entirely rearing.  For enzyme assay, larvae were sampled from each aquarium at stages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 dAH.    Protease and lipase activity were detected in digestive tract of  1 dAH larvae.   Digestive enzymes development have a similar pattern in larvae for all feeding schedules.  Protease activity  decreased with the increasing of age until 3 dAH, then increased  until the larvae reached 7 dAH, and sharply decreased until 10 dAH and then slowly decreased thereafter. Lipase activity tended to increase slowly with age up to 3 dAH, and increased sharply until 5 dAH, and then decreased sharply until 7 dAH  before decreased again up to the end of rearing.  Amylase activity in larvae increased slowly with the increasing of age up to 5 dAH, then increased sharply until 7 dAH, and decreased thereafter.  In dimly lighted larvae, amylase activity decreased before increased up to 12 d AH, then decreased thereafter.  The amount of food organisms in larval gut, body weight and length, and survival rate of larvae were also measured and discussed.Key Words:  Digestive enzymes, development, larvae, patin catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perkembangan enzim protease, lipase dan amilase saluran pencernaan larva ikan patin akibat perubahan skedul pemberian pakan.  Larva ikan patin (panjang 3,77–3,97 mm dan bobot 0,62-0,79 mg berumur 1 hari dipelihara di akuarium 60x

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus larvae MEX14, Isolated from Honey Bee Larvae from the Xochimilco Quarter in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peréz de la Rosa, D; Pérez de la Rosa, J J; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Miranda-Miranda, E; Lozano, L; Bravo-Díaz, M A; Rocha-Martínez, M K; Sachman-Ruiz, B

    2015-08-27

    Paenibacillus larvae strain MEX14 is a facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium that infects Apis mellifera larvae. Strain MEX14 was isolated from domestic bee larvae collected in a backyard in Mexico City. The estimated genome size was determined to be 4.18 Mb, and it harbors 4,806 protein coding genes (CDSs). Copyright © 2015 Peréz de la Rosa et al.

  1. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  2. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  3. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  4. Fish larvae from the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Aceves-Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic composition of fish larvae was analysed from 464 plankton samples obtained during 10 oceanographic surveys in the Gulf of California between 1984 and 1988. We identified 283 taxa: 173 species, 57 genera, and 53 families. Tropical and subtropical species predominated except during the winter, when temperate-subarctic species were dominant. The most abundant species were the mesopelagic Benthosema panamense, Triphoturus mexicanus and Vinciguerria lucetia, but the coastal pelagic species Engraulis mordax, Opisthonema spp., Sardinops caeruleus and Scomber japonicus were also prominent. The taxonomic composition of the ichthyoplankton shows the seasonality of the Gulf as well as environmental changes that occurred between the 1984-1987 warm period and the 1956-1957 cool period previously reported. The presence of E. mordax larvae as one of the most abundant species in the Gulf provides evidence of the reproduction of this species two years before the development of the northern anchovy fishery and the decline of the sardine fishery in the Gulf of California.

  5. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  6. Nesting biology, morphological remarks, and description of the mature larva of Mellinus arvensis obscurus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesi, R.; Polidori, C.; Andrietti, F.; Gayubo, S.F.; Tormos, J.; Asis, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Recently re-named as a sub-species of Mellinus arvensis, Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888 was investigated ecologically and morphologically in Nepal, in order to underline the most important differences with the well known M. arvensis arvensis. Mellinus arvensis obscurus females nested in clumped aggregations on inclined plains at high altitudes, both on sunny bare soil and on a shaded grassy one. Beginning of monsoon season probably interfered with wasp activity, and females performed few provisioning flights during the day. Prey consisted of a broad range of Diptera, except for one case of a spider. Many females were observed not provisioning a nest but floating on the nesting site, and many intraspecific interactions suggested a high degree of usurpation attempts. At least one species of flies and two of ants probably acted as natural enemies of the wasp. Morphological observations on females showed that the Nepal population shares more similarities (shape of tergite I, body punctation) with the European populations than with the closer Japanese population; melanization is strong, according to west-east and altitudinal cline. The mature larva of M. arvensis obscurus Handlirsch is described, illustrated, and compared with the other mature larva of the genus. The differences between both larvae mainly lie in the presence/absence, and number or differentiation of integumental structures. We conclude that morphological traits are more important than ecological and behavioral ones in distinguishing M. arvensis obscurus from M. arvensis arvensis. (author) [es

  7. Lauric Acid Hybridizing Fly Ash Composite for Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash includes different mineral phases. This paper reported on the preparation of a novel lauric acid (LA/fly ash (FA composite by vacuum impregnation as a form-stable phase change material (PCM for thermal energy, and especially investigated the effect of the hydrochloric acid-treated fly ash (FAh on the thermal energy storage performance of the composites. The morphology, crystalline structure, and porous textures of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results indicated that hydrochloric acid treatment was beneficial to the increase of loading capacity and crystallinity of LA in the LA/FAh composite, which caused an enhanced thermal storage capacity with latent heats for melting and freezing of LA/FAh (80.94 and 77.39 J/g, higher than those of LA/FA (34.09 and 32.97 J/g, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanism of enhanced thermal storage properties was investigated in detail.

  8. Efektivitas Bacillus thuringiensis dalam Pengendalian Larva Nyamuk Anopheles sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citra Inneke Wibowo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nyamuk Anopheles sp adalah vektor penyakit malaria. Pengendalian vektor penyakit malaria dapat dilakukan secara biologis yaitu dengan menggunakan Bacillus thuringiensis. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dalam pengendalian larva nyamuk Anopheles sp.Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial (RAL Faktorial yang terdiri atas dua faktor yaitu konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dan stadia larva Anopheles dengan pengulangan tiga kali.Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalahkonsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis (A yang terdiri atas 5 taraf:A0: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 0 CFU.mL-1, A1: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 102 CFU.mL-1, A2: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 104 CFU.mL-1, A3: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 106CFU.mL-1, A4: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 108CFU.mL-1. Perlakuan tahapan instar larva Anopheles sp. (B adalah sebagai berikut:B1: stadia larva instar I, B2: stadia larva instar II, B3: stadia larva instar III, B4: stadia larva instar IVsehingga terdapat 60 satuan percobaan. Hasil penelitian  menunjukkan konsentrasi B. thuringiensis isolat CK dan IPB CC yang paling berpengaruh dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp adalah 108 CFU.mL-1 . Instar larva yang paling peka terhadap B. thuringiensis isolat IPB CC adalah instar I dan II sedangkan instar yang peka terhadap isolat CK adalah instar II, Perlakuan konsentrasi isolat B. thuringiensis dan tingkat instar larva yang paling baik dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp. adalah 108 CFU.mL-1, dan instar I dan II.

  9. Contribuição ao conhecimento das larvas dos Sarcophagidae com especial referência ao esqueleto cefálico (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. de Souza Lopes

    1943-01-01

    Full Text Available The author publishes a comparative study of eleven species of Sarcophagid flies and gives a redescription of the larval stages of Musca domestica L. as a model. The work was made upon material obtained from Sarcophagidae reared in the Laboratory. Some of them were parasitic flies from Insects and other invertebrates. Protodexia was reared using the domestic cockroach (Periplaneta americana instead of the Orthroptera or Mantodea its true hosts. The larvae obtained by dissection of female abdomen was reared in flesh or agarhorse serum. The last proceeding is very good since the skins of all larval stages can be conserved for study and it is possible to observe the ecdyses. Some of the larvae prefer dead snails (Bulimulus and Fruticicola and is able to destroy larvae of other species found in the same molluscs. The first stage maggot can be obtained by dissections of dried female specimens and furnishes very good characters to determine the species and establish the philogenetical relationship of the genera in the family. Th pseudocephalon presents very curious ornaments or grooves in some species (Oxysarcodexia. Sometimes there is a pigmented capsule covering a great part of the pseudocephalon (Titanogrypa. The cephaloskeletal sclerietes have a peculiar shape and constitution for every species, mainly in the first stage maggot.

  10. Parasitoid diversity (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae on frugivorous larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Central Amazon Region, Manaus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SGM. Costa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify parasitoid species of frugivorous larvae and to describe the tritrophic interactions involving wild fruits, frugivorous insects and their natural enemies at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (RFAD (Manaus, AM, Brazil. Collections were performed in four 1 km² quadrants in the corners of the RFAD. The wild fruits were collected inside the forest in access trails leading to each collection area and in trails that surrounded the quadrants, up to five metres from the trail on each side. The fruits were placed in plastic containers covered with thin fabric, with a vermiculite layer on the base to allow the emergence of flies or parasitoids. Seven Braconidae species were collected, distributed among Opiinae: Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913, and Opius sp., and Alysiinae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, 1958, Phaenocarpa pericarpa Wharton and Carrejo, 1999, Idiasta delicata Papp, 1969, and Asobara sp. Parasitism rates by braconids and figitids are presented. Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent, parasitizing the highest number of fly species, and showing the highest parasitism percentage in larvae feeding on Micropholis williamii fruits. The collected figitids belong to Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998 and A. pelleranoi (Brethes, 1924. All 15 tritrophic associations are new records for the Brazilian Amazon region. The RFAD is an important natural reservoir of frugivorous larvae parasitoids.

  11. Reduction of spontaneous somatic mutation frequency by a low-dose X irradiation of Drosophila larvae and possible involvement of DNA single-strand damage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koana, Takao; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2012-03-01

    The third instar larvae of Drosophila were irradiated with X rays, and the somatic mutation frequency in their wings was measured after their eclosion. In the flies with normal DNA repair and apoptosis functions, 0.2 Gy irradiation at 0.05 Gy/min reduced the frequency of the so-called small spot (mutant cell clone with reduced reproductive activity) compared with that in the sham-irradiated flies. When apoptosis was suppressed using the baculovirus p35 gene, the small spot frequency increased four times in the sham-irradiated control group, but the reduction by the 0.2-Gy irradiation was still evident. In a non-homologous end joining-deficient mutant, the small spot frequency was also reduced by 0.2 Gy radiation. In a mutant deficient in single-strand break repair, no reduction in the small spot frequency by 0.2 Gy radiation was observed, and the small spot frequency increased with the radiation dose. Large spot (mutant cell clone with normal reproductive activity) frequency was not affected by suppression of apoptosis and increased monotonically with radiation dose in wild-type larvae and in mutants for single- or double-strand break repair. It is hypothesized that some of the small spots resulted from single-strand damage and, in wild-type larvae, 0.2 Gy radiation activated the normal single-strand break repair gene, which reduced the background somatic mutation frequency.

  12. Molecular identification of infective larvae of three species of Onchocerca found in wild-caught females of Simulium bidentatum in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wild female black flies attracted to a man or an idling automobile were collected at Oita, Japan where five cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis had occurred. Among the five Simulium species captured, 2% of Simulium bidentatum, the predominant species, were infected with filarial larvae. There were at least two types of infective larvae, types A and B, based on morphometric observation. Moreover, molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene revealed that types A and B were represented by a single unknown species of Onchocerca and two species, i.e., Onchocerca dewittei japonica from wild boar, the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan, and an undescribed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA gene also showed that type A is likely to be an unknown species of Onchocerca. Natural infection of black flies with infective larvae of O. dewittei japonica and O. sp. was demonstrated for the first time. The present study strongly suggests that S. bidentatum plays a role as a vector in the transmission of zoonotic onchocerciasis due to O. dewittei japonica in Japan.

  13. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; De Clercq, Patrick; De Smet, Stefaan

    2017-06-01

    Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed. Protein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg -1 dry matter (DM) among treatments. Differences in amino acid profile of prepupae were small. On the other hand, the ether extract (EE) and ash contents differed substantially. Prepupae reared on digestate were low in EE and high in ash (218 and 197 g kg -1 DM, respectively) compared to those reared on vegetable waste (371 and 96 g kg -1 DM, respectively), chicken feed (336 and 100 g kg -1 DM, respectively) and restaurant waste (386 and 27 g kg -1 DM, respectively). Prepupal fatty acid profiles were characterised by high levels of C12:0 in all treatments. Since protein content and quality were high and comparable for prepupae reared on different substrates, black soldier fly could be an interesting protein source for animal feeds. However, differences in EE and ash content as a function of substrate should be considered. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A zebrafish transgenic model of Ewing’s sarcoma reveals conserved mediators of EWS-FLI1 tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie W. Leacock

    2012-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma, a malignant bone tumor of children and young adults, is a member of the small-round-blue-cell tumor family. Ewing’s sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs, which include peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs, are characterized by chromosomal translocations that generate fusions between the EWS gene and ETS-family transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. The EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein represents an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma. The cell of origin of ESFT and the molecular mechanisms by which EWS-FLI1 mediates tumorigenesis remain unknown, and few animal models of Ewing’s sarcoma exist. Here, we report the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model of EWS-FLI1 function and tumorigenesis. Mosaic expression of the human EWS-FLI1 fusion protein in zebrafish caused the development of tumors with histology strongly resembling that of human Ewing’s sarcoma. The incidence of tumors increased in a p53 mutant background, suggesting that the p53 pathway suppresses EWS-FLI1-driven tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of the zebrafish tumors defined a set of genes that might be regulated by EWS-FLI1, including the zebrafish ortholog of a crucial EWS-FLI1 target gene in humans. Stable zebrafish transgenic lines expressing EWS-FLI1 under the control of the heat-shock promoter exhibit altered embryonic development and defective convergence and extension, suggesting that EWS-FLI1 interacts with conserved developmental pathways. These results indicate that functional targets of EWS-FLI1 that mediate tumorigenesis are conserved from zebrafish to human and provide a novel context in which to study the function of this fusion oncogene.

  15. SEM studies on immature stages of the drone flies (diptera, syrphidae): Eristalis similis (Fallen, 1817) and Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Hurtado, Pilar; García-Gras, Elena; Rojo, Santos

    2013-08-01

    Adult drone flies (Syrphidae: Eristalis spp.) resemble male honeybees in appearance. Their immature stages are commonly known as rat-tailed maggots due to the presence of a very long anal segment and a telescopic breathing tube. The larvae are associated with decaying organic material in liquid or semi-liquid media, as in the case of other saprophagous eristalines. Biological and morphological data were obtained from both laboratory cultures and sampling in the field. Drone flies are important pollinators for wild flowers and crops. In fact, mass rearing protocols of Eristalis species are being developed to be used as efficient alternative pollinators. However, deeper knowledge of larval morphology and biology is required to improve artificial rearing. The production quality control of artificial rearing must manage the consistency and reliability of the production output avoiding, for example contamination with similar species. This article presents the first description of the larva and puparium of E. similis, including a comparative morphological study of preimaginal stages of the anthropophilic and ubiquitous European hoverfly species E. tenax. Scanning electron microscopy has been used for the first time to describe larvae and puparia of both species. Moreover, the preimaginal morphology of E. similis has been compared with all known descriptions of the genus Eristalis. The main diagnostic characters of the preimaginal stages of E. similis are the morphology of the anterior spiracles (shape of clear area and arrangement of facets) and pupal spiracles (length, shape, and arrangement of tubercles). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. BIOCHEMISTRY CHARACTERIZATION OF EXCRETION / SECRETION PRODUCT OF Cochliomyia hominivorax LARVAE (DIPTERA : CALLIPHORIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gonçalves Teixeira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The species Cochliomyia hominivorax, also known as screwworm fly, is an obligate parasite of warm- blooded animals and its geographic range extends thoughout South America, except Chile. This fly causes significant economic losses and has great importance in Brazil. Few studies have focused on the excretion and secretion products of this species, and this research aimed to study the enzymes present in the secretion and excretion (E/S products of the three larval instars of C. hominivorax. The E/S profile of proteins was obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and proteolytic activity was analyzed using gelatin, azocasein and Na-benzoyl-arginine-nitroanilide as substrates.  In E/S products of the three instars, proteins were detected with an apparent molecular weight ranging between 116 and 20 kDa. In the azocasein assay, at different pH ranges, the major proteolytic activity occurred at pH 7.5 for all larval instars. Assays were performed using the same substrates   in which the samples were treated with the inhibitors Benzamidine, Pepstatin A, 4-(2-Aminoethyl benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF, N-α-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK, N-α- tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK, Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, and Leupeptin-trans-Epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino butane (E-64. Proteinases present in the E/S product of first larvae instar are mostly serine trypsin and chymotrypsin proteases, whereas for second and third instars serine proteases and aspartyl proteases were predominantly observed. Biochemical characterization of E/S products of all larval stages of C. hominivorax helps to improve the understanding of the physiology and the interaction of this parasite with host tissues. Keywords: Enzyme; fly; myiasis; parasites.

  17. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  18. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  19. Rapid bioassay to screen potential biopesticides in Tenebrio molitor larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simplified assay was devised to evaluate the response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to potential insect control products. The assay incorporates punched disks of flattened whole-grain bread placed in 96-well plates, with treatments applied topically, and neonate larvae added to each well. To evalua...

  20. The larva of Paracapnia disala (Jewett) (Plecoptera: Capniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The larva of Paracapnia disala (Jewett) was associated from two first order headwater streams in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, U.S.A. Larvae of this first western Paracapnia species to be associated, were studied and compared morphologically with those of the eastern Paracapnia angulata...

  1. Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu basin, Tanzania. G Nkwengulila, ESP Kigadye. Abstract. A survey was carried out on digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails in five habitats in Dar es Salaam, Ruvu and Morogoro. 9424 snails belonging to 12 species from five families were examined for ...

  2. The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi-Temboni pond, Dar es Salaam. ESP Kigadye, G Nkwengulila. Abstract. The abundance of digenean larvae in snails at a pond in Mbezi-Temboni, Dar es Salaam, was investigated from July 1996 to June 1997. A total of 2,112 snails belonging to three species, ...

  3. Preliminary screening of plant essential oils against larvae of Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary screenings of 22 plant essential oils were tested for mortality of the mosquito larvae Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Percent (%) mortality of the mosquito larvae were obtained for each essential oil. At different exposure periods, viz. 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h among the 22 plant oils tested, eight ...

  4. Cutaneous larva migrans: a bad souvenir from the vacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Belda, Walter; Vasconcellos, Cidia; Silva, Cristiana Silveira

    2012-06-15

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a common endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. This condition is caused by skin-penetrating larvae of nematodes, mainly of the hookworm Ancylostoma braziliense and other nematodes of the family Ancylostomidae. We report three cases of CLM acquired during vacations in different regions of Brazil.

  5. Cultivation of sponge larvae: settlement, survival, and growth of juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.; Otjens, H.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to culture sponge juveniles from larvae. Starting from larvae we expected to enhance the survival and growth, and to decrease the variation in these parameters during the sponge cultures. First, settlement success, morphological changes during metamorphosis, and survival of

  6. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    We have studied larvae of the freshwater ctenostome Hislopia malayensis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and LM of serial sections. Some additional observations on larvae of M. membranacea using SEM and CLSM are also reported. The overall configu...

  7. Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Brachyuran Larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ocypodidae, Grapsidae and Xanthidae. Abundance of brachyuran larvae was significantly positively correlated with total zooplankton abundance (r2 = 0.8) and salinity (r2 = 0.71). Keywords: Brachyuran larvae, abundance, composition, Mida creek, Kenya West Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science Vol. 3 (2) 2004: pp.

  8. Production of live prey for marine fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Kraul, S

    1989-01-01

    Tropical marine fish larvae vary in their requirements for live planktonic food. Selection of live prey species for culture depends on larval size and larval tolerance of water quality. This report describes some of the cultured prey species, and their uses and limits as effective food for fish larvae. Methods are presented for the culture of phytoplankton, rotifers, copepods, and other live feeds.

  9. Morphological comparison between Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton (Diptera: Calliphoridae) puparia, forensically important blow flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Bunchu, Nophawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kom

    2006-12-20

    In Thailand, the hairy maggots of the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, are of forensic importance. Both flies are closely related species, not only in the morphological appearance of their larvae and puparia, but also on the aggressive feeding habit of the former. In our continuing studies of forensically important flies, identification of immature ones needs particular attention. In this study, we reported the morphological comparison between the puparia of these two blow fly species using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Observation revealed that the cuticular sculpture of tubercles along the dorsal and lateral segments had markedly different features: with C. rufifacies having many sharp spines assembling only at the tip, while of C. villeneuvi bore stout spines throughout the tubercle. A larger number of globules at the bubble membrane on the dorsolateral border of the fifth segment was found in C. villeneuvi (average 225) than in C. rufifacies (average 35), and more papillae was observed on the anterior spiracle in C. villeneuvi (13-15) than in C. rufifacies (9-12). However, the morphology of distinct net-like patches of the integument and structure of the posterior spiracle of both species were almost identical. Morphological comparison in this study permitted identification of the puparia of both fly species, particularly in areas where they co-exist.

  10. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  11. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  12. Mass rearing the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, R.J.; Hamdan bin Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    Many countries within the tropics are afflicted with one of two species of screw-worm, either the New World screw-worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel (NWSWF), or the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve (OWSWF). In nature, larvae of both species are obligate parasites and feed on the living flesh of mammals and to a lesser extent, birds. Female flies lay eggs at the site of a pre-existing wound or near body orifices of the host. First instar larvae feed superficially on the wound; however, larger larvae use their hooked mouthparts to burrow deep into the flesh of the host. Damaged blood vessels provide a steady stream of blood and plasma that typically oozes from the infested wound. The wound also acquires a characteristic odour. Presumably, some of the volatile components emanating from the wound, also provide strong signals to gravid female flies, as once infested, wounds become far more attractive as a site to lay eggs than uninfested wounds. As the number of larvae increases, the myiasis enlarges and the well-being of the host is threatened. In areas where gravid female SWF are numerous, the wound has little chance to heal, thus death of the host is likely unless the wound is treated and re-infestation prevented. While New and Old World species are distantly related, they are remarkably similar ecologically and in their biological characteristics. Wherever either species occurs, it is considered a serious pest of livestock. Australia is fortunate that neither species of the screw-worm is present despite evidence that extensive areas appear environmentally suitable. The OWSWF is considered the most serious threat to Australia as it is present in the neighbouring countries of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. It is envisaged that the sterile insect release method (SIRM) will be employed to eradicate the OWSWF if it becomes established in Australia. To facilitate such a programme, and to reduce delays in constructing a suitable mass rearing

  13. Survival of mayfly larvae under mine acid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, S. Jr.; Hummon, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Mayfly larvae were abundant and diverse in riffle zones of three control streams in southeastern Ohio. But none were found in such zones of three streams having current or past histories of mine acid pollution, despite vegetative recovery of reclaimed land bordering two of the streams. Laboratory studies showed stepwise increases in non-predatory mortality of mayfly larvae with increased mine acidity. Dragonfly larvae predation on mayfly larvae was constant at pH 8.1 to 4.1, but decreased at pH 3.1 despite tolerance of dragonfly larvae to low pH conditions. Extensive acid mine pollution thus may threaten aquatic biota through removal of food sources or reduced feeding rates as well as through direct mortality.

  14. Freshly squeezed: anaphylaxis caused by drone larvae juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoevesandt, J; Trautmann, A

    2017-11-30

    Drone larvae are mostly considered a by-product of beekeeping, but have recently been advo-cated as a high-protein source of food. There are as yet no data concerning their allergenic po-tential. We report on a 29-year old bee keeper who experienced an anaphylactic reaction following the consumption of a freshly prepared beverage from raw drone larvae. Larvae-specific sensitization was confirmed by prick-to-prick and basophil activation testing. Bee stings and classical bee products including honey and royal jelly were tolerated. This is the hitherto first report on IgE-mediated allergy to drone larvae. We suggest that a certain awareness towards the allergenicity of bee larvae is required.

  15. Detection method for irradiated oriental fruit fly (Dacus Dorsalis) for quarantine purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulo-Nazarea, M.T.; Nato, A.Q.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation is one of the techniques used to effectively rid fresh produce of insect pests and efficacy of radiation dose on food is measured by a probit 9 (99.9968% mortality) quarantine security. Present of suitable biochemical markers for irreversible radiation injury in insect pests could be used as convincing proofs of the efficacy of radiation dose. A biochemical marker (designated Gs-protein) for radiation injury in Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, was detected in the SDS-PAGE profile of two-day old pupae and adult insect stage. Gs-protein is not observed in larvae and eggs. An apparent molecular weight of 109 kDa was calculated. A tyrosinase enzyme activity was observed in the soluble fraction of pupal total homogenate and SDS-PAGE-isolated Gs-protein; however, no tyrosinase activity was measured in irradiated sample. The optical absorbance of the soluble fraction from unirradiated pupal total homogenate measured at 360 nm was found to increase with time. From the results of the studies, the apparent loss of Gs-protein in irradiated larvae is likely the result of loss of melanization capability in irradiated larvae which is linked to the absence of tyrosinase enzyme. The data presented seems to establish the role of Gs-protein as a biomarker for gamma-irradiation induced deactivation of pupal development and as a convenient indicator of the effectiveness of gamma radiation as a quarantine treatment. (author). 3 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  17. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    Reporte de dos casos de [a ology of a sand fly, P/mlebolomu’,s diabolicuw Hall. in forma anergica difusa. Der matol. Rev. Mex. southwestern -Texas...Contribuiin al estudio de los Phmle- CDC, Veterinary Public Health Notes. USDHEW. bwmwnn de Costa Rica (Diptera, Psychodidae). Tesis. CDC. October. pp. 6- 7...janeiron R. j. 195 pp. the Unrited States (D1)pre ra: Psscfirdidae). j. Ortiz, 1. 1965a. Contribuci~in a! estudio tie los flebor- Partrsirtrl. 30:274-275

  18. Hydration of fly ash cement and microstructure of fly ash cement pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiyuan, H.

    1981-01-01

    The strength development and hydration of fly ash cement and the influence of addition of gypsum on those were studied at normal and elevated temperatures. It was found that an addition of a proper amount of gypsum to fly ash cement could accelerate the pozzolanic reaction between CH and fly ash, and as a result, increase the strength of fly ash cement pastes after 28 days.

  19. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  20. Teknik budi daya larva Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus (Diptera: Stratiomyidae sebagai sumber protein pakan ternak melalui biokonversi limbah loading ramp dari pabrik CPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Zarkani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Hermetia illucens fly (Linnaeus is an important source of alternative protein and can be used as pellets for feeds. Currently the production of H. illucens larvae is still limited because its rearing depends on palm kernel meal. The objective of the research is to explore alternative media for rearing, i.e. using loading ramp waste from crude palm oil factory. The study was conducted using physical-chemical analysis of the media. Evaluation of potential rearing media of loading ramp was done by studying the suitability of loading ramp fermented by EM4®, rumen microbes, and organic liquid fertilizer and without fermentation. Treatment media was develop with an enrichment ratio of 1 : 0.25, 1 : 05, and 1 : 1 (v/v for bran and husk, and 1.25, 2.5, and 5% (w/w for coconut sugar. Each experiment was arranged in complete randomized design using 20 larva of the 2nd instar. Larvas were incubated in plastic with tube with diameter of 10 cm and 20 cm in height containing of media 300 g. Response differences in growth and mortality were analyzed by ANOVA and least significant differences test at 0.05 levels. Preference and analysis suitability of the media were conducted using material enrichment. Results show that the loading ramp waste contain 9.80% protein and 10.32% fat. Although the media are could support growth and development of the larvae at different degree, media from waste fermentation POC loading ramp with bran enrichment 1 : 0.5 (v/v is the best media for rearing larva.

  1. Antibacterial properties of grapefruit seed extract against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprini, P; Langella, V; Pasini, B; Falda, M T; Calvarese, S

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-one samples of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) either from marketed products or provided by an apiculturist were analysed to verify their inhibition activity, in particular against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, responsible for American foulbrood. The bactericide capacity of GSE has been measured in Bacillus subtilis BGA, Bacillus cereus 11778, Bacillus cereus K250 and Micrococcus luteus 9341a; these bacteria are normally used in the laboratory to study inhibitors. The results showed that not all GSE have the same inhibitory activity and two of those analysed do not inhibit the five bacteria used. Considering that 19 samples inhibited American foulbrood bacillus, the authors conclude that the use of a natural product (such as GSE) to control this important disease of bees, can be used as a substitute for chemotherapeutic products, after appropriate expedients.

  2. Determination of changes in tastes of İpsala and Kırkağaç melons against Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydemir BARIŞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891 (Diptera: Tephritidae] is the most important pest of the melons (Cucumis melo L. (Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbitales. The larvae cause to damage by feeding in seed cavity. Also, the tissues damaged by larvae turn brown and occurring scent spread in melon. This study aims to determine change in the taste of melon tissues damaged by larvae for the first time in Turkey. For this purpose, Kırkağaç and İpsala variety melons widely utilized in the province Ankara were selected in this study. Fruit taste (points, water-soluble dry matter, titratable acidity (TA and pH measurements were included in analysis of melon. Statistical differences were determined in Kırkağaç melon with melon fly with respect to control in terms of all of the features discussed in the fruit analysis. A statistically significant difference was observed compared to the control in the other measurements excluding the only titratable acidity in İpsala melon with melon fly.

  3. The Impact of Diet Protein and Carbohydrate on Select Life-History Traits of The Black Soldier Fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, Jonathan A; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2017-05-31

    This study examined the impact of diet protein and carbohydrate percentages as well as moisture on the immature development, survivorship, and resulting adult longevity and egg production of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Moisture impacted development and corresponding life-history traits more than protein:carbohydrate content; larvae were unable to develop on diets at 40% moisture. Larvae fed diets at 70% moisture developed faster, grew larger, and required less food than those reared on diets at 55% moisture. Larvae reared on the balanced diet (21% protein:21% carbohydrate) at 70% moisture developed the fastest on the least amount of food and had the greatest survivorship to the prepupal stage. Adult emergence and longevity were similar across treatments, indicating immature life-history traits were impacted the most. The control (Gainesville house fly) diet was superior to the artificial diets for all parameters tested. These differences could indicate that other constituents (e.g., associated microbes) serve a role in black soldier fly development. These data are valuable for industrialization of this insect as a "green" technology for recycling organic waste, which can be highly variable, to produce protein for use as feed in the livestock, poultry, and aquaculture industries, as well as for bioenergy production.

  4. Forensically Important Blow Flies Chrysomya pinguis, C. villeneuvi, and Lucilia porphyrina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Case of Human Remains in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monum, Tawatchai; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Sukontason, Kom; Samerjai, Chutharat; Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Suwannayod, Suttida; Klong-klaew, Tunwadee; Wannasan, Anchalee

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study to report Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) and Lucilia porphyrina (Walker) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as forensically important blow fly species from human cadavers in Thailand, in addition to Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) already known in Thailand. In 2016, a fully decomposed body of an unknown adult male was discovered in a high mountainous forest during winter in Chiang Mai province. The remains were infested heavily with thousands of blow fly larvae feeding simultaneously on them. Morphological identification of adults reared from the larvae, and molecular analysis based on sequencing of 1,247 bp partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) of the larvae and puparia, confirmed the above mentioned 3 species. The approving forensic fly evidence by molecular approach was described for the first time in Thailand. Moreover, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the CO1 was performed to compare the relatedness of the species, thereby affirming the accuracy of identification. As species of entomofauna varies among cases in different geographic and climatic circumstances, C. pinguis and L. porphyrina were added to the list of Thai forensic entomology caseworks, including colonizers of human remains in open, high mountainous areas during winter. Further research should focus on these 3 species, for which no developmental data are currently available. PMID:28285509

  5. How to kill the honey bee larva: genomic potential and virulence mechanisms of Paenibacillus larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Djukic

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram positive bacterial pathogen, causes American Foulbrood (AFB, which is the most serious infectious disease of honey bees. In order to investigate the genomic potential of P. larvae, two strains belonging to two different genotypes were sequenced and used for comparative genome analysis. The complete genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25430 (genotype ERIC II consisted of 4,056,006 bp and harbored 3,928 predicted protein-encoding genes. The draft genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25719 (genotype ERIC I comprised 4,579,589 bp and contained 4,868 protein-encoding genes. Both strains harbored a 9.7 kb plasmid and encoded a large number of virulence-associated proteins such as toxins and collagenases. In addition, genes encoding large multimodular enzymes producing nonribosomally peptides or polyketides were identified. In the genome of strain DSM 25719 seven toxin associated loci were identified and analyzed. Five of them encoded putatively functional toxins. The genome of strain DSM 25430 harbored several toxin loci that showed similarity to corresponding loci in the genome of strain DSM 25719, but were non-functional due to point mutations or disruption by transposases. Although both strains cause AFB, significant differences between the genomes were observed including genome size, number and composition of transposases, insertion elements, predicted phage regions, and strain-specific island-like regions. Transposases, integrases and recombinases are important drivers for genome plasticity. A total of 390 and 273 mobile elements were found in strain DSM 25430 and strain DSM 25719, respectively. Comparative genomics of both strains revealed acquisition of virulence factors by horizontal gene transfer and provided insights into evolution and pathogenicity.

  6. How to kill the honey bee larva: genomic potential and virulence mechanisms of Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Marvin; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Fünfhaus, Anne; Voss, Jörn; Gollnow, Kathleen; Poppinga, Lena; Liesegang, Heiko; Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Genersch, Elke; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram positive bacterial pathogen, causes American Foulbrood (AFB), which is the most serious infectious disease of honey bees. In order to investigate the genomic potential of P. larvae, two strains belonging to two different genotypes were sequenced and used for comparative genome analysis. The complete genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25430 (genotype ERIC II) consisted of 4,056,006 bp and harbored 3,928 predicted protein-encoding genes. The draft genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25719 (genotype ERIC I) comprised 4,579,589 bp and contained 4,868 protein-encoding genes. Both strains harbored a 9.7 kb plasmid and encoded a large number of virulence-associated proteins such as toxins and collagenases. In addition, genes encoding large multimodular enzymes producing nonribosomally peptides or polyketides were identified. In the genome of strain DSM 25719 seven toxin associated loci were identified and analyzed. Five of them encoded putatively functional toxins. The genome of strain DSM 25430 harbored several toxin loci that showed similarity to corresponding loci in the genome of strain DSM 25719, but were non-functional due to point mutations or disruption by transposases. Although both strains cause AFB, significant differences between the genomes were observed including genome size, number and composition of transposases, insertion elements, predicted phage regions, and strain-specific island-like regions. Transposases, integrases and recombinases are important drivers for genome plasticity. A total of 390 and 273 mobile elements were found in strain DSM 25430 and strain DSM 25719, respectively. Comparative genomics of both strains revealed acquisition of virulence factors by horizontal gene transfer and provided insights into evolution and pathogenicity.

  7. FOXO1 is a direct target of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein in Ewing's sarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Hu, Hsien-Ming; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Chansky, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Inducible and reversible siRNA knockdown of an oncogenic fusion protein such as EWS-Fli1 is feasible and more advantageous than other siRNA methods. → The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1 is a new EWS-Fli1 target. → While trans-activators are known for the FOXO1 gene, there has been no report on negative regulators of FOXO1 transcription. → This study provides first evidence that the EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein can function as a transcriptional repressor of the FOXO1 gene. -- Abstract: Ewing's family tumors are characterized by a specific t(11;22) chromosomal translocation that results in the formation of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein. To investigate the effects of EWS-Fli1 on gene expression, we carried out DNA microarray analysis after specific knockdown of EWS-Fli1 through transfection of synthetic siRNAs. EWS-Fli1 knockdown increased expression of genes such as DKK1 and p57 that are known to be repressed by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein. Among other potential EWS-Fli1 targets identified by our microarray analysis, we have focused on the FOXO1 gene since it encodes a potential tumor suppressor and has not been previously reported in Ewing's cells. To better understand how EWS-Fli1 affects FOXO1 expression, we have established a doxycycline-inducible siRNA system to achieve stable and reversible knockdown of EWS-Fli1 in Ewing's sarcoma cells. Here we show that FOXO1 expression in Ewing's cells has an inverse relationship with EWS-Fli1 protein level, and FOXO1 promoter activity is increased after doxycycline-induced EWS-Fli1 knockdown. In addition, we have found that direct binding of EWS-Fli1 to FOXO1 promoter is attenuated after doxycycline-induced siRNA knockdown of the fusion protein. Together, these results suggest that suppression of FOXO1 function by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein may contribute to cellular transformation in Ewing's family tumors.

  8. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  9. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  10. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  11. Terapia Larval e a aplicação de larvas para cicatrização: revisão e estado da arte no Brasil e no mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciéle S Masiero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval therapy (LT or maggot debridement therapy (MDT con-sists in applying sterile and live larvae of necrophagous flies reared in lab-oratories on injuries, chronic or infected wounds. This treatment aims to help the wound healing process from the removal of devitalized tissue and secretion by larvae. Furthermore, the larvae apparently inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the wound bed, due to bactericidal sub-stances secreted by them. This study aims to expose an overview of the im-portance of LT (or MDT as an alternative therapeutic modality to promote healing of acute and/or chronic injuries, to stimulate health professionals and educators in the dissemination and propagation of knowledge and de-mystification of this technique for application large-scale public health.

  12. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on developmental stages of house fly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Patil, Jagadeesh

    2017-09-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica is a major domestic, medical and veterinary pest. The management of these flies reliance on insecticide, causes environmental constraints, insecticide resistance and residues in the meat, skin. Therefore one of the eco-friendly alternate methods is by using biological agents such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). In the present study evaluated the survival of EPN species Steinernema feltiae , Heterorhabditis indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in poultry manure and also their efficacy against different developmental stages of house fly. After exposing to poultry manure, S. feltiae showed more survival as followed by H. indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in all exposition period. When the exposition period extended to 96 h, all nematode species survivability was drastically reduced. After exposing these nematodes to poultry manure at 24 h their virulence capacity against wax moth, Galleria mellonella showed all the nematode species were able cause 100% mortality. However their progeny production was significantly reduced. Fly eggs and pupae were refractory to these nematode infection. Petri dish without artificial diet assay showed that, second and 3rd-instar larvae were highly susceptible to EPNs as compared to larvae provided with artificial diet. H. indica showed high virulence capacity compared to other nematodes tested. Poultry manure assay revealed that, H. indica and S. carpocapsae caused minimal mortality where as S. feltiae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi did not cause any mortality. This may be because of poor survival and limited movement of nematodes in poultry manure which may be due to ammonia, other toxic substances in poultry manure. The decrease in larval mortality in manure suggests that biocontrol of housefly by using EPNs is unlikely.

  13. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  14. Effects of indian coral tree, Erythrina indica lectin on eggs and larval development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2009-07-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of D-galactose binding lectin from Erythrina indica Lam. on the eggs and second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The lectin from E. indica seeds was extracted and purified by affinity chromatography using asilofetuin linked porous amino activated silica beads. The effects of various concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 microg ml(-1)) of lectin were studied on freshly laid eggs (0-8 hr) of B. cucurbitae which showed non-significant reduction in percent hatching of eggs. However, the treatment of second instar larvae (64-72 hr) with various test concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 microg ml(-1)) of lectin significantly reduced the percent pupation and percent emergence of B. cucurbitae depicting a negative correlation with the lectin concentration. The LC50 (81 microg ml(-1)) treatment significantly decreased the pupal weight. Moreover, the treatment of larvae had also induced a significant increase in the remaining development duration. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of LC50 concentration of lectin for three exposure intervals (24, 48 and 72 hr). It significantly suppressed the activity of all the enzymes after all the three exposure intervals except for esterases which increased significantly.

  15. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  16. [Toxicity and influencing factors of liquid chlorine on chironomid larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-Bin; Cui, Fu-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song; Guo, Zhao-Hai; Xu, Feng; Liu, Li-Jun

    2005-09-01

    The excessive propagation of Chironomid larvae (red worm) in the sedimentation tanks is a difficult problem for the normal function of waterworks. The toxic effect of liquid chlorine on the different instar larvae of Chironomid was studied using distilled water as test sample. Furthermore, the effect of pH value, organic matter content, ammonia nitrogen, and algae content on toxicity of liquid chlorine was observed. The results show that the tolerance of Chironomid larvae to liquid chlorine is strengthened with the increase in instar. The 24h semi-lethal concentration (LC50) of liquid chlorine to the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid is 3.39 mg/L. Low pH value and high algae content are helpful to improve the toxic effect of liquid chlorine to Chironomid larvae. In neutral water body, the increase in organic matter content results in the decrease in the death rate of Chironomid larvae. The toxicity of liquid chlorine differs greatly in different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen. The death rate of the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid in raw water is higher by contrast with that in sedimentation tanks water for 24h disposal with various amount of liquid chlorine.

  17. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  18. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  19. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  20. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  1. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like us, without enough sleep, flies feel the effects of sleep deprivation. Cirelli has shown that they are a good model for researching human sleep. She has found fruit fly genes that seem to have a powerful effect on sleep. In time, her research could lead ...

  2. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  3. Germ-line transformation of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using a piggyBac vector in the presence of endogenous piggyBac elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the stable genetic transformation of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using a piggyBac vector marked with either the fluorescent protein DsRed or EGFP.A transformation frequency of 5–10% was obtained.Inheritance of the transgenes has remained stable over eight generations despite...

  4. Larvas migrans ganglionar: Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Luis Álvarez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestación con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre más frecuentemente en niños menores de 10 años. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 8 años de edad en el cual se diagnosticó larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiológicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clínico y evolución. Se hace énfasis en las medidas higiénicas sanitarias de control y manipulación de excretas de animales domésticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.Visceral larvae migrans caused by the infestation with larvae of toxocara canis or cati are more frequent among children under 10. The case of an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed ganglionar larva migrans is presented. Comments are made on some etioepidemiological aspects of the disease, as well as on his clinical picture and evolution. Emphasis is made on the hygienic and sanitary measures of control and manipulation of stools from pegs as dogs and cats. Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestación con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre más frecuentemente en niños menores de 10 años. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 8 años de edad en el cual se diagnosticó larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiológicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clínico y evolución. se hace énfasis en las medidas higiénicas sanitarias de control y manipulación de excretas de animales domésticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.

  5. Tools for automating the imaging of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulak, Rock

    2016-03-01

    The VAST BioImager system is a set of tools developed for zebrafish researchers who require the collection of images from a large number of 2-7 dpf zebrafish larvae. The VAST BioImager automates larval handling, positioning and orientation tasks. Color images at about 10 μm resolution are collected from the on-board camera of the system. If images of greater resolution and detail are required, this system is mounted on an upright microscope, such as a confocal or fluorescence microscope, to utilize their capabilities. The system loads a larvae, positions it in view of the camera, determines orientation using pattern recognition analysis, and then more precisely positions to user-defined orientation for optimal imaging of any desired tissue or organ system. Multiple images of the same larva can be collected. The specific part of each larva and the desired orientation and position is identified by the researcher and an experiment defining the settings and a series of steps can be saved and repeated for imaging of subsequent larvae. The system captures images, then ejects and loads another larva from either a bulk reservoir, a well of a 96 well plate using the LP Sampler, or individually targeted larvae from a Petri dish or other container using the VAST Pipettor. Alternative manual protocols for handling larvae for image collection are tedious and time consuming. The VAST BioImager automates these steps to allow for greater throughput of assays and screens requiring high-content image collection of zebrafish larvae such as might be used in drug discovery and toxicology studies. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Coal fly ash-slag-based geopolymers: microstructure and metal leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier; Davidovits, Joseph; Antenucci, Diano; Nugteren, Henk; Fernández-Pereira, Constantino

    2009-07-15

    This study deals with the use of fly ash as a starting material for geopolymeric matrices. The leachable concentrations of geopolymers were compared with those of the starting fly ash to evaluate the retention of potentially harmful elements within the geopolymer matrix. Geopolymer matrices give rise to a leaching scenario characterised by a highly alkaline environment, which inhibits the leaching of heavy metals but may enhance the mobilization of certain oxyanionic species. Thus, fly ash-based geopolymers were found to immobilize a number of trace pollutants such as Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U, Y, Zr and rare earth elements. However, the leachable levels of elements occurring in their oxyanionic form such as As, B, Mo, Se, V and W were increased after geopolymerization. This suggests that an optimal dosage, synthesis and curing conditions are essential in order to obtain a long-term stable final product that ensures an efficient physical encapsulation.

  7. Coal fly ash-slag-based geopolymers: Microstructure and metal leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Maria, E-mail: mariaizq@ija.csic.es [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' -CSIC, Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Querol, Xavier [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' -CSIC, Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Davidovits, Joseph [Cordi-Geopolymere, Espace Creatis, Z.A. Bois de la Chocque 02100 Saint-Quentin (France); Antenucci, Diano [Institut Scientifique de Service Public (ISSeP) 200, rue du Chera, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Nugteren, Henk [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Particle Technology Group, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Fernandez-Pereira, Constantino [University of Seville, School of Industrial Engineering, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    This study deals with the use of fly ash as a starting material for geopolymeric matrices. The leachable concentrations of geopolymers were compared with those of the starting fly ash to evaluate the retention of potentially harmful elements within the geopolymer matrix. Geopolymer matrices give rise to a leaching scenario characterised by a highly alkaline environment, which inhibits the leaching of heavy metals but may enhance the mobilization of certain oxyanionic species. Thus, fly ash-based geopolymers were found to immobilise a number of trace pollutants such as Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U, Y, Zr and rare earth elements. However, the leachable levels of elements occurring in their oxyanionic form such as As, B, Mo, Se, V and W were increased after geopolymerization. This suggests that an optimal dosage, synthesis and curing conditions are essential in order to obtain a long-term stable final product that ensures an efficient physical encapsulation.

  8. Labelling of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis palpalis by activable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, H.J.; Iwannek, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Tsetse flies of the species Glossina palpalis palpalis Rob. Desv. were subjected to various treatments with an aim of achieving labelling with the activable stable elements dysprosium, europium or lanthanum. The substances were injected as chlorides or nitrates, they were added to the food of the flies or applied externally to pupae or adults by dipping, or by spraying with the solutions. Feeding with the labelling substance was in principle the easiest method to handle a large number of flies. Only lanthanum salts have been tested so far and it was found that they were excreted relatively fast. They gave detectable labelling for 4 days after application only. The spraying of adults with lanthanum-containing aerosols was a technique which could be used on a mass-production scale. A fairly homogeneous degree of labelling was achieved, which was so high that during mating a clearly measurable amount of lanthanum was transferred from the labelled male to the female. (Auth.)

  9. Coal fly ash-slag-based geopolymers: Microstructure and metal leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier; Davidovits, Joseph; Antenucci, Diano; Nugteren, Henk; Fernandez-Pereira, Constantino

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the use of fly ash as a starting material for geopolymeric matrices. The leachable concentrations of geopolymers were compared with those of the starting fly ash to evaluate the retention of potentially harmful elements within the geopolymer matrix. Geopolymer matrices give rise to a leaching scenario characterised by a highly alkaline environment, which inhibits the leaching of heavy metals but may enhance the mobilization of certain oxyanionic species. Thus, fly ash-based geopolymers were found to immobilise a number of trace pollutants such as Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U, Y, Zr and rare earth elements. However, the leachable levels of elements occurring in their oxyanionic form such as As, B, Mo, Se, V and W were increased after geopolymerization. This suggests that an optimal dosage, synthesis and curing conditions are essential in order to obtain a long-term stable final product that ensures an efficient physical encapsulation.

  10. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  11. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  12. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  13. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    with the ability of individuals within a population to reproduce. Reproduction is thus generally considered to be the most critical life function affected by environmental contamination. From a regulatory perspective, the issue of potential contaminant-related effects on fish reproduction from the Kingston fly ash spill has particular significance because the growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life is a specific classified use of the affected river systems. To address the potential effects of fly ash from the Kingston spill on the reproductive health of exposed fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA that include: (1) a combined field study of metal bioaccumulation in ovaries and other fish tissues (Adams and others 2012) and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill (the current report); (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (Greeley and others 2012); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence (unpublished); and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers (unpublished). The current report focuses on the reproductive condition of adult female fish in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers influenced by the fly ash spill at the beginning of the spring 2009 breeding season - the first breeding season immediately following the fly ash release - and during the subsequent spring 2010 breeding season. Data generated from this and related reproductive/early life stage studies provide direct input to ecological risk assessment efforts and complement and support other phases of the overall

  14. Vaccination of lambs with irradiated larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Singh, K.S.; Subramanian, G.

    1987-01-01

    Vaccination with a single dose of 2,000 infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum, irradiated at 40 kR, caused 80 per cent reduction in worm establishment and such lambs withstood a challenge infection which was otherwise fatal to non-vaccinated lambs. The female worms, which developed from irradiated larvae, were irregular in shape, had cuticular thickening at the genital opening and in many male worms the copulatory bursa was rudimentary. The sex ratio was adversely affected in worms developing from irradiated larvae. The population had preponderant sterile females and a very few male worms. (author)

  15. Differential expression of candidate salivary effector proteins in field collections of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A J; Shukle, R H; Chen, M-S; Srivastava, S; Subramanyam, S; Schemerhorn, B J; Weintraub, P G; Abdel Moniem, H E M; Flanders, K L; Buntin, G D; Williams, C E

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that some proteins secreted by gall-forming parasites of plants act as effectors responsible for systemic changes in the host plant, such as galling and nutrient tissue formation. A large number of secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that are the putative effectors responsible for the physiological changes elicited in susceptible seedling wheat by Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), larvae have been documented. However, how the genes encoding these candidate effectors might respond under field conditions is unknown. The goal of this study was to use microarray analysis to investigate variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst field collections from different geographical regions (southeastern USA, central USA, and the Middle East). Results revealed significant variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst the field collections studied. The field collections separated into three distinct groups that corresponded to the wheat classes grown in the different geographical regions as well as to recently described Hessian fly populations. These data support previous reports correlating Hessian fly population structure with micropopulation differences owing to agro-ecosystem parameters such as cultivation of regionally adapted wheat varieties, deployment of resistance genes and variation in climatic conditions. PMID:25528896

  16. Chemotaxonomic Profile and Intraspecific Variation in the Blow Fly of Forensic Interest Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Michele C; Antonialli-Junior, William F; Mendonça, Angélica; Michelutti, Kamylla B; Eulalio, Aylson D M M; Cardoso, Claudia A L; de Lima, Thiago; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2017-01-01

    Necrophagous insects such as blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are considered crucial in forensic entomology. Identification at species level and determination of larval stage are the basis for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). Insect evidence can also be used in the determination of crime scenes, since body displacement is common. The aim of this study was to determine the chemotaxonomic profile and intraspecific variability of the forensically important blow fly Chrysomya megacephala (F. 1794). Adults were collected in the municipalities of Dourados-MS (Brazil) and Rio Claro-SP (Brazil), and then transferred to the laboratory for oviposition and development of the immature stages. Chemical analysis of cuticular compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Cuticular chemical profiles varied significantly between the two populations, as well as between developmental stages, supporting the use of these compounds as a complementary tool to help identify the species and its stages, along with geographical variability. This could greatly accelerate forensic investigations, eliminating the need to allow the fly larvae to develop until adult stage in order to confirm the species identity and sample origin. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks.

  18. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, B [Plant Protection Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Fruit, Vine and Wine Institute, Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa); Rosenberg, S; Arnolds, L; Johnson, J [SIT Africa (Pty) Ltd., Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa)

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos

  19. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  20. Rotational accelerations stabilize leading edge vortices on revolving fly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David; Dickinson, Michael H

    2009-08-01

    The aerodynamic performance of hovering insects is largely explained by the presence of a stably attached leading edge vortex (LEV) on top of their wings. Although LEVs have been visualized on real, physically modeled, and simulated insects, the physical mechanisms responsible for their stability are poorly understood. To gain fundamental insight into LEV stability on flapping fly wings we expressed the Navier-Stokes equations in a rotating frame of reference attached to the wing's surface. Using these equations we show that LEV dynamics on flapping wings are governed by three terms: angular, centripetal and Coriolis acceleration. Our analysis for hovering conditions shows that angular acceleration is proportional to the inverse of dimensionless stroke amplitude, whereas Coriolis and centripetal acceleration are proportional to the inverse of the Rossby number. Using a dynamically scaled robot model of a flapping fruit fly wing to systematically vary these dimensionless numbers, we determined which of the three accelerations mediate LEV stability. Our force measurements and flow visualizations indicate that the LEV is stabilized by the ;quasi-steady' centripetal and Coriolis accelerations that are present at low Rossby number and result from the propeller-like sweep of the wing. In contrast, the unsteady angular acceleration that results from the back and forth motion of a flapping wing does not appear to play a role in the stable attachment of the LEV. Angular acceleration is, however, critical for LEV integrity as we found it can mediate LEV spiral bursting, a high Reynolds number effect. Our analysis and experiments further suggest that the mechanism responsible for LEV stability is not dependent on Reynolds number, at least over the range most relevant for insect flight (100wind turbines at much higher Reynolds numbers suggest that even large flying animals could potentially exploit LEV-based force augmentation during slow hovering flight, take-offs or landing

  1. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  2. Gamma irradiation followed by cold storage as a quarantine treatment for Florida grapefruit infested with Caribbean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Windeguth, D.L.; Gould, W.P.

    1990-01-01

    'Marsh' white grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Macf.). infested with eggs and larvae of Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) were subjected to ionizing radiation at several low doses followed by cold (1.1°C) storage for 0 to 8 days. Data analyses indicated that an irradiation dose of 50 Gray followed by 5 days of cold storage will give in excess of probit 9 level of quarantine security. A test involving more than 100,000 insects infesting grapefruit confirmed the efficacy of this treatment

  3. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

  4. Life history data on the fly parasitoids Aleochara nigra Kraatz and A. asiatica Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and their potential application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shou-Wang; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2013-10-10

    Knowledge of the developmental time of the immature stages of necrophagous flies has been the main tool for estimating minimum post-mortem intervals (min PMIs) in forensic entomology. Many parasitic insects can alter the development of immature stages of flies and thus affect min PMI estimates. The larvae of most species of Aleochara rove beetles are ectoparasitoids of the pupae of cyclorrhapha flies. Among them, some species that parasitise necrophagous flies may have forensic importance. Two Taiwanese Aleochara species, A. nigra and A. asiatica, which visit carrion sites were studied herein. All five necrophagous (Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and sarcophagid sp.) and one non-necrophagous fly species (Bactrocera dorsalis) we examined have the potential to be parasitised by these two Aleochara species, but differences among the acceptability and suitability of these hosts to rove beetle species suggested that rove beetles may prefer specific hosts. Each stage of the beetle life history was recorded to estimate developmental durations at six different temperatures. The larval stage together with the pupal stage of both beetle species was longer than the pupal stages of their hosts, implying the possibility of elongating the min PMI estimation. In addition, the host weight and larval duration of these two Aleochara beetles were positively correlated; thus, potential applications can be expected when using parasitised fly pupae in min PMI estimations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both...... the vertical and horizontal distributions of each species. However, the three-dimensional pattern of distribution differed significantly among species of larvae and species of copepods. The study underlines the complexity of bio-physical interrelationships in the frontal zone, and indicates that the zone...

  6. Development of a quantitative morphological assessment of toxicant-treated zebrafish larvae using brightfield imaging and high-content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Samantha; Wambaugh, John; Judson, Richard; Mosher, Shad; Radio, Nick; Houck, Keith; Padilla, Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    One of the rate-limiting procedures in a developmental zebrafish screen is the morphological assessment of each larva. Most researchers opt for a time-consuming, structured visual assessment by trained human observer(s). The present studies were designed to develop a more objective, accurate and rapid method for screening zebrafish for dysmorphology. Instead of the very detailed human assessment, we have developed the computational malformation index, which combines the use of high-content imaging with a very brief human visual assessment. Each larva was quickly assessed by a human observer (basic visual assessment), killed, fixed and assessed for dysmorphology with the Zebratox V4 BioApplication using the Cellomics® ArrayScan® V(TI) high-content image analysis platform. The basic visual assessment adds in-life parameters, and the high-content analysis assesses each individual larva for various features (total area, width, spine length, head-tail length, length-width ratio, perimeter-area ratio). In developing the computational malformation index, a training set of hundreds of embryos treated with hundreds of chemicals were visually assessed using the basic or detailed method. In the second phase, we assessed both the stability of these high-content measurements and its performance using a test set of zebrafish treated with a dose range of two reference chemicals (trans-retinoic acid or cadmium). We found the measures were stable for at least 1 week and comparison of these automated measures to detailed visual inspection of the larvae showed excellent congruence. Our computational malformation index provides an objective manner for rapid phenotypic brightfield assessment of individual larva in a developmental zebrafish assay. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  8. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  9. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  10. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  11. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  12. Comparative applications of azadirachtin- and Brevibacillus laterosporus-based formulations for house fly management experiments in dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiu, L; Satta, A; Floris, I

    2011-03-01

    The potential of two bioinsecticidal formulations containing Brevibacillus laterosporus spores and azadirachtin, respectively, was assayed in laboratory and in comparative field treatments for the management of immature house flies on dairy farms. As already known for B. laterosporus, preliminary laboratory experiments with azadirachtin evidenced a concentration-dependent effect. Azadirachtin median lethal concentration (LC50) value determined for second instar larvae was 24.5 microg/g diet. Applications in dairy farms were performed at dosages and concentrations predetermined in laboratory experiments, to employ the two formulations at an equal insecticidal potential. Repeated applications on the cow pen caused a significant fly development depression in areas treated with azadirachtin (63%) and B. laterosporus (46%), compared with the control. Formulations were applied at a dosage of 3 liters/m2, and concentrations of 2 x 10(8) B. laterosporus spores/ml and 25 microg azadirachtin/ml, respectively.

  13. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... dorsalis), peach fruit fly (Anastrepha zonata), and sapote fruit fly (Anastrepha serpentina) in the... obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol...

  14. Effects of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids on the larvae of polyphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James S; Feeny, Paul

    1983-06-01

    Six benzylisoquinoline alkaloids were fed to the larvae of three polyphagous Lepidoptera species: Hyphantria cunea, Spodoptera eridania, and Lymantria dispar. Exposure of last instar larvae to alkaloid-containing diets over a 24-h period resulted in reduced feeding rates and reduced growth efficiencies. Lymantria dispar larvae reared from eggs on alkaloid diets took longer to reach the fifth instar, attained lower larval weights, and showed reduced survivorship. The benzylisoquinolines tested were not equally effective as toxins or feeding inhibitors. Some produced dramatic effects while others produced no effects. The relative responses of the three caterpillar species to the six alkaloids were similar. Those benzylisoquinolines with a methylene-dioxyphenyl (1,3-benzodioxole) group were consistently the most toxic or repellent while laudanosine, a relatively simple benzylisoquinoline, was generally innocuous. Available host records indicate that benzylisoquinoline-containing plants are avoided by the larvae of these moth species.

  15. Starvation threshold of Balanus amphitrite larvae in relation to temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Desai, D.V.

    Energy content in the non-feeding (lecithotrophic) cyprid larvae of B. amphitrite plays an important role in determining its metamorphic characteristics. In this context it is important to understand the energy transformed to this stage from...

  16. Fish larvae from the Canary region in autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rodríguez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the taxonomic composition of the fish larvae community in the Canary region in autumn 1991 is presented. In total, 8699 larvae belonging to 58 fish families were studied. 176 taxonomic groups were identified, 149 at species level and the rest were identified at a higher level. The most numerous family and the one that presented the greatest number of species was Myctophidae. The most frequently caught species was Cyclothone braueri. The taxonomic composition (at family level of the fish larvae community, dominated by four mesopelagic families, was typical of oceanic regions of warm waters. The most remarkable feature of the fish larvae community was its high specific diversity.

  17. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Recent experiments with larvae have employed appetitive ... Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore 560 065, India ..... psychology: event timing turns punishment to reward; Nature.

  18. Preliminary notes on the decapod larvae of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menon, M.K.; Menon, P.G.; Paulinose, V.T.

    The note presents some general facts regarding the distribution of some of the larger groups of decapod larvae in the Arabian Sea Their relative numbers and the families and subfamilies, so far as can be recognized, represented within each group...

  19. Commercially important penaeid shrimp larvae in the estuaries of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Larval stages of the penaeid shrimps, Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers), M. affinis (Milne - Edwards) and Penaeus merguiensis De Man were mostly distributed at the lower reaches of Mandovi and Zuari estuaries. While larvae of M. dobsoni and M. affinis...

  20. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Robert V.; Meyer, Fred; Siddiqu, Isi A.; Leon Spaugy, E.

    2000-01-01

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m 2 ) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  1. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  2. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  3. Age of Haemonchus contortus third stage infective larvae is a factor influencing the in vitro assessment of anthelmintic properties of tannin containing plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Ramírez, G S; Mathieu, C; Vilarem, G; Hoste, H; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; González-Pech, P G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2017-08-30

    The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) of infective larvae (L 3 ) is an in vitro method used to evaluate the anthelmintic (AH) activity of tannin-containing plant extracts against different species of gastrointestinal nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus. Some conditions remain to be defined in order to standardize the LEIA, i.e. the optimal age of larvae produced from donor animals to use in the assays. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying the effect of age and age-related vitality of H. contortus infective larvae produced under tropical conditions, on the in vitro AH activity measured with the LEIA. The same acetone:water (70:30) extract from Acacia pennatula leaves was used to perform respective LEIA tests with H. contortus L 3 of different ages (1-7 weeks). Each week, the L 3 were tested against different concentrations of extract (1200, 600, 400, 200, 100, 40μg/mL of extract) plus a PBS control. Bioassays were performed with a benzimidazole (Bz) resistant H. contortus (Paraíso) strain. In order to identify changes in L 3 vitality on different weeks (1-7), two assays testing larval motility were included only with PBS: the larval migration assay (LMA) and the larval motility observation assay (LMOA). Mean effective concentrations causing 50% and 90% exsheathment inhibition (EC 50 , EC 90 ) were obtained for every week using respective Probit analyses. On the first week, the larvae had lowest EC 50 and EC 90 (39.4 and 65.6μg/mL) compared to older larvae (P0.05), while older larvae tended to show higher EC 50 and EC 90 (Page of larvae (r≥-0.83; P age. More stable efficacy results were found between two to five weeks of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of digestive enzymes in larvae of Mayancichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus

    OpenAIRE

    López Ramírez, G.; Cuenca Soria, C.A.; Álvarez González, C.A.; Tovar Ramírez, D.; Ortiz Galindo, José Luis; Perales García, N.; Márquez Couturier, G.; Arias Rodríguez, L.; Indy, J.R.; Contreras Sánchez, W.M.; Gisbert, E.; Moyano, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of digestive enzymes during the early ontogeny of the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) was studied using biochemical and electrophoretic techniques. From yolk absorption (6 days after hatching: dah), larvae were fed Artemia nauplii until 15 dah, afterward they were fed with commercial microparticulated trout food (45% protein and 16% lipids) from 16 to 60 dah. Several samples were collected including yolk-sac larvae (considered as day 1 after hatching) and specimens up ...

  5. Sun-Compass Orientation in Mediterranean Fish Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Faillettaz , Robin; Blandin , Agathe; Paris , Claire B.; Koubbi , Philippe; Irisson , Jean-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Mortality is very high during the pelagic larval phase of fishes but the factors that determine recruitment success remain unclear and hard to predict. Because of their bipartite life history , larvae of coastal species have to head back to the shore at the end of their pelagic episode , to settle. These settlement-stage larvae are known to display strong sensory and motile abilities, but most work has been focused on tropical, insular environments and on the influence...

  6. Prevalence of American Foulbrood and Paenibacillus Larvae Genotypes in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    RUSENOVA, Nikolina; PARVANOV, Parvan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the prevalence of American foulbrood and Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in Bulgaria. For this purpose, data concerning American foulbrood outbreaks were used. Also, available data on the number of destroyed bee families covering a twenty-five-year period (1989 - 2013) was collected from the register of Bulgarian Food Safety Agency. In addition, Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in 15 apiaries were established by rep - PCR with BOXA1R and MBOREP1 primers. Results showe...

  7. Larvicidal activity of Cybistax antisyphilitica against Aedes aegypti larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A M S; de Paula, J E; Roblot, F; Fournet, A; Espíndola, L S

    2005-12-01

    The larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae of a stem wood hexane extract of Cybistax antisyphilitica was evaluated. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract, monitored by larvicidal assay, led to the isolation of a natural quinone identified as 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1.4-naphthoquinone (lapachol). This compound was quite potent against A. aegypti larvae (LC50 26.3 microg/ml).

  8. Parasites of fish larvae: do they follow metabolic energetic laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Gabriela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Eumetazoan parasites in fish larvae normally exhibit large body sizes relative to their hosts. This observation raises a question about the potential effects that parasites might have on small fish. We indirectly evaluated this question using energetic metabolic laws based on body volume and the parasite densities. We compared the biovolume as well as the numeric and volumetric densities of parasites over the host body volume of larval and juvenile-adult fish and the average of these parasitological descriptors for castrator parasites and the parasites found in the fish studied here. We collected 5266 fish larvae using nearshore zooplankton sampling and 1556 juveniles and adult fish from intertidal rocky pools in central Chile. We considered only the parasitized hosts: 482 fish larvae and 629 juvenile-adult fish. We obtained 31 fish species; 14 species were in both plankton and intertidal zones. Fish larvae exhibited a significantly smaller biovolume but larger numeric and volumetric densities of parasites than juvenile-adult fish. Therefore, fish larvae showed a large proportion of parasite biovolume per unit of body host (cm(3)). However, the general scaling of parasitological descriptors and host body volume were similar between larvae and juvenile-adult fish. The ratio between the biovolume of parasites and the host body volume in fish larvae was similar to the proportion observed in castrator parasites. Furthermore, the ratios were different from those of juvenile-adult fish, which suggests that the presence of parasites implies a high energetic cost for fish larvae that would diminish the fitness of these small hosts.

  9. The hatching larva of the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Ralf; Wennberg, Sofia A; Budd, Graham E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite their increasing evolutionary importance, basic knowledge about the priapulid worms remains limited. In particular, priapulid development has only been partially documented. Following previous description of hatching and the earliest larval stages of Priapulus caudatus, we here describe the hatching larva of Halicryptus spinulosus. Comparison of the P. caudatus and the H. spinulosus hatching larvae allows us to attempt to reconstruct the ground pattern of priapulid developmen...

  10. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro-reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin, and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. PMID:28381619

  11. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Weike

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.

  12. Sun-Compass Orientation in Mediterranean Fish Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillettaz, Robin; Blandin, Agathe; Paris, Claire B; Koubbi, Philippe; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Mortality is very high during the pelagic larval phase of fishes but the factors that determine recruitment success remain unclear and hard to predict. Because of their bipartite life history, larvae of coastal species have to head back to the shore at the end of their pelagic episode, to settle. These settlement-stage larvae are known to display strong sensory and motile abilities, but most work has been focused on tropical, insular environments and on the influence of coast-related cues on orientation. In this study we quantified the in situ orientation behavior of settlement-stage larvae in a temperate region, with a continuous coast and a dominant along-shore current, and inspected both coast-dependent and independent cues. We tested six species: one Pomacentridae, Chromis chromis, and five Sparidae, Boops boops, Diplodus annularis, Oblada melanura, Spicara smaris and Spondyliosoma cantharus. Over 85% of larvae were highly capable of keeping a bearing, which is comparable to the orientation abilities of tropical species. Sun-related cues influenced the precision of bearing-keeping at individual level. Three species, out of the four tested in sufficient numbers, oriented significantly relative to the sun position. These are the first in situ observations demonstrating the use of a sun compass for orientation by wild-caught settlement-stage larvae. This mechanism has potential for large-scale orientation of fish larvae globally.

  13. Sun-Compass Orientation in Mediterranean Fish Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Faillettaz

    Full Text Available Mortality is very high during the pelagic larval phase of fishes but the factors that determine recruitment success remain unclear and hard to predict. Because of their bipartite life history, larvae of coastal species have to head back to the shore at the end of their pelagic episode, to settle. These settlement-stage larvae are known to display strong sensory and motile abilities, but most work has been focused on tropical, insular environments and on the influence of coast-related cues on orientation. In this study we quantified the in situ orientation behavior of settlement-stage larvae in a temperate region, with a continuous coast and a dominant along-shore current, and inspected both coast-dependent and independent cues. We tested six species: one Pomacentridae, Chromis chromis, and five Sparidae, Boops boops, Diplodus annularis, Oblada melanura, Spicara smaris and Spondyliosoma cantharus. Over 85% of larvae were highly capable of keeping a bearing, which is comparable to the orientation abilities of tropical species. Sun-related cues influenced the precision of bearing-keeping at individual level. Three species, out of the four tested in sufficient numbers, oriented significantly relative to the sun position. These are the first in situ observations demonstrating the use of a sun compass for orientation by wild-caught settlement-stage larvae. This mechanism has potential for large-scale orientation of fish larvae globally.

  14. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-04-12

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro -reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin , and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Long-wavelength photosensitivity in coral planula larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin M; Cohen, Jonathan H

    2012-04-01

    Light influences the swimming behavior and settlement of the planktonic planula larvae of coral, but little is known regarding the photosensory biology of coral at this or any life-history stage. Here we used changes in the electrical activity of coral planula tissue upon light flashes to investigate the photosensitivity of the larvae. Recordings were made from five species: two whose larvae are brooded and contain algal symbionts (Porites astreoides and Agaricia agaricites), and three whose larvae are spawned and lack algal symbionts (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata,and Montastrea faveolata). Photosensitivity originated from the coral larva rather than from, or in addition to, its algal symbionts as species with and without symbionts displayed similar tissue-level electrical responses to light. All species exhibited as much (or more) sensitivity to red stimuli as to blue/green stimuli, which is consistent with a role for long-wavelength visible light in the preference for substrata observed during settlement and in facilitating vertical positioning of larvae in the water column.

  16. Using Real-time PCR for Identification of Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was identification of Paenibacillus larvae that causes American foulbrood disease (AFB in colony of bees (Apis mellifera. Bacterial isolates originated from honey samples, because presence of P. larvae in honey is treated as early diagnostic of AFB. Intense proteolytic activity and no catalase activity are typical for Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria P. larvae. We diluted honey (1:2, heated at 80 °C for 10 min and inoculated on semiselective medium MYPGP agar with nalidixic acid. Plates were cultivated at 37 °C for 48 – 72 h under the aerobic conditions. Selected colonies were transferred on MYT agar and cultivated 24 h. We analysed 30 honey samples and found 27 bacterial isolates. All isolates were Gram positive and mainly rod-shaped. No catalase activity was documented for 6 from 27 isolates. Identification was finished by real-time PCR to detect the 16S rRNA gene of Paenibacillus larvae with real-time cycler Rotor-Gene 6000. As DNA template we used genomic DNA isolated with commercial kit and DNA lysate obtaining by boiled cells. We used 2 strains of P. larvae from CCM (Czech Collection of Microorganisms as positive control. The reliable method of detection P. larvae has important rule for beekeeping.

  17. Observations of the sound producing organs in achelate lobster larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Achelata, lobsters lacking claws and having a phyllosoma larva, are divided into two families, the Palinuridae or spiny lobsters and the Scyllaridae or slipper lobsters. Within the Palinuridae adults of two groups were identified by Parker (1884, the Stridentesthat are capable of producing sounds, and the Silentesthat are not known to produce sounds. The Stridentes employ a file-like structure on the dorsal surface of the cephalon and a plectrum consisting of a series of ridges on the proximal segment of the second antenna to produce their sounds. All species of Achelata hatch as an unpigmented thin phyllosoma larva. The phyllosoma larva of the Stridentes have a presumptive file-like structure on the dorsal cephalon. A similar file-like structure is found on the cephalon of one species of Silentes, Palinurellus wienckki, and some but not all of the phyllosoma larvae of the Scyllaridae. No presumptive plectrum is found on the second antenna of any of the phyllosoma larvae. Presence of a presumptive file-like structure on phyllosoma larvae of Silentes and Scyllaridae suggests that the ability to produce sounds may have been lost secondarily in the Silentes and Scyllaridae.

  18. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  19. ANALISIS COMPOSICIONAL, MICROBIOLÓGICO Y DIGESTIBILIDAD DE LA PROTEÍNA DE LA HARINA DE LARVAS DE Hermetia illuscens L (DIPTERA:STRATIOMYIIDAE EN ANGELÓPOLIS-ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA COMPOSITIONAL, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY ANALYSIS OF THE LARVA MEAL OF Hermetia illuscens L. (Diptera:Stratiomyiidae AT ANGELÓPOLIS - ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Arango Gutiérrez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el valor nutritivo de la harina de las larvas de Hermetia illuscens L. a partir del análisis composicional, prueba de digestibilidad y calidad microbiológica de esta, comparada con una materia prima convencional como la harina de pescado y con otro díptero como es la Musca domestica L. ya que comparten hábitat y ha sido estudiado como materia prima. La harina de las larvas de la mosca negra soldado, por su análisis proximal puede ser considerada un ingrediente proteico. Además presenta una alta digestibilidad. Las características bromatol��gicas asociadas a su calidad microbiológica la convierte en una materia prima promisoria en la alimentación animal.The nutritional value of the larva meal of Hermetia illuscens L. was investigated by means of compositional analysis, digestability tests and its microbiological quality, as compared to other conventional feeds such as fish meal and other Diptera such as Musca domestica L., given that they share the same habitat and have been studied as a food source. The meal of the soldier fly larva could be considered a proteinic ingredient based on its nutritional composition. Also, it had high digestibility. The bromatological characteristics associated with its microbiological quality makes it a promising feed for animal nutrition.

  20. Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite in larvae and post-larvae of the land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Orlando B S; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

    2012-08-01

    Sodium metabisulphite (SMB) is used in marine shrimp aquaculture to prevent the occurrence of black spot. The release SMB into the estuarine environment from shrimp farm pond effluents has been reported. This study evaluated the susceptibility of larvae and post-larvae of land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi to this salt. A decrease in dissolved oxygen and pH occurred with increasing concentration of SMB and exposure time. LC(50) values after 48 h of exposure were 34 ± 1.1 mg/L, 31.1 ± 1.9 mg/L, and 30.6 ± 0.5 mg/L for I zoea larvae, megalopa larvae and stage I juveniles, respectively.