WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable fly activity

  1. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against immature horn fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyk, T J; Kalischuk-Tymensen, L D; Rochon, K; Selinger, L B

    2010-06-01

    We screened 85 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), making up 57 different subspecies, and two isolates of Bacillus sphaericus (Meyer and Neide) for activity against immature horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). The majority of B. thuringiensis and the B. sphaericus isolates had little or no activity against horn fly and stable fly. Approximately 87% of the isolates caused fly larvae and 64% caused stable fly, 95% of the isolates caused fly and stable fly immatures. These isolates were B. t. tolworthi 4L3, B. t. darmstadiensis 4M1, B. t. thompsoni 401, B. t. thuringiensis HD2, and B. t. kurstaki HD945. The LD50 values ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 x 10(6) spores per g manure for horn fly and from 6.3 to 35 x 10(6) spores per g media for stable fly. These were consistently more toxic compared with the B. t. israelensis isolates examined. All had DNA that hybridized with cry1Aa, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac toxin probes, three hybridized with a cry1B probe, and two hybridized with a cry2A probe. These may have potential for use in integrated management of pest flies.

  2. Occurrence of insect kinins in the flesh fly, stable fly and horn fly-mass spectrometric identification from single nerves and diuretic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Ronald J; Coast, Geoffrey M; Tichy, Shane E; Russell, David H; Miller, J Allen; Predel, Reinhard

    2002-11-01

    MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of single lateral abdominal nerves (LANs) demonstrate the presence of the insect kinin Musdo-K in the housefly Musca domestica, and identify heretofore unknown insect kinins in two other Dipteran species as Musdo-K in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans and horn fly Haematobia irritans. The insect kinin native to the flesh fly Neobellieria bullata is identified as Drome-K. Musdo-K and Drome-K are identical save for the conservative substitution of Ser for Thr in position 2. The sequences of the insect kinins are, therefore, remarkably conserved throughout Dipterans. The in vitro Malpighian tubule fluid secretion activity of Musdo-K in the stable fly is similar to that in the housefly, whereas that of Drome-K is 30-fold more potent in the flesh fly than in the fruit fly. Given the structural identities of the kinins and CRF-like diuretic hormones of these Dipteran species, the housefly can serve as a model insect for the study of diuretic peptides and their functions in the stable fly and horn fly, both livestock pests.

  3. Dihydronepetalactones deter feeding activity by mosquitoes, stable flies, and deer ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, John E; Scialdone, Mark A; Todd, Robin G; Gonzalez, Yamaira I; Foster, Joseph P; Hallahan, David L

    2009-07-01

    The essential oil of catmint, Nepeta cataria L., contains nepetalactones, that, on hydrogenation, yield the corresponding dihydronepetalactone (DHN) diastereomers. The DHN diastereomer (4R,4aR,7S,7aS)-4,7-dimethylhexahydrocyclopenta[c]pyran-1(3H)-one, DHN 1) was evaluated as mosquito repellent, as was the mixture of diastereomers {mostly (4S,4aR,7S,7aR)-4,7-dimethylhexahydrocyclopenta[c]pyran-1(3H)-one, DHN 2} present after hydrogenation of catmint oil itself. The repellency of these materials to Aedes aegypti L. and Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann mosquitoes was tested in vitro and found to be comparable to that obtained with the well-known insect repellent active ingredient N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). DHN 1 and DHN 2 also repelled the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L., in this study. DHN 1, DHN 2, and p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), another natural monoterpenoid repellent, gave comparable levels of repellency against An. albimanus and S. calcitrans. Laboratory testing of DHN 1 and DHN 2 using human subjects with An. albimanus mosquitoes was carried out. Both DHN 1 and DHN 2 at 10% (wt:vol) conferred complete protection from bites for significant periods of time (3.5 and 5 h, respectively), with DHN2 conferring protection statistically equivalent to DEET. The DHN 1 and DHN 2 diastereomers were also efficaceous against black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) nymphs.

  4. Biological activity of insect juvenile hormone analogues against the stable fly and toxicity studies in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J E; Smalley, H E

    1977-01-01

    The insect JHAs are effective inhibitors of adult stable fly development. Laboratory and field evaluation studies demonstrated that area application of the analogues to larval breeding sites was efficacious for stable fly control in cattle feed lots and in marine grasses. Analytical methods by quantification with gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was developed to measure residual properties as well as aging and leaching in fly breeding media. The analogues did not interfere with the oviposition and development of the endoparasites, M. raptor and S. endius. Toxicity studies against swine, hamsters, and sheep showed that when compounds of high purity were used that no toxic effects were observed in any of the species.

  5. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  6. Stable Fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), Dispersal and Governing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Osbrink, Weste L A

    2015-01-01

    Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (fly movement occurs between host animals and resting sites to feed and mate, mainly at on-farm locations where herbivorous livestock regularly congregate. Small numbers emigrate from livestock congregation sites in search of other hosts and oviposition substrate, mostly within stable flies are active year-round in warm latitudes, cold winters in temperate areas result in substantial population and activity declines, limiting movement of any sort to warmer seasons. Long-distance dispersal (>13 km) is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one "lineage", the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  7. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, C W; Taylor, D B; Zurek, L

    2012-03-01

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas were evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May through 20 October 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May through 18 November 2010 (25 wk). In total, 11,349 muscoid flies were collected emerging from the biosolid cake. Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) and house flies (Musca domestica (L.)), represented 80 and 18% of the muscoid flies, respectively. An estimated 550 stable flies and 220 house flies per square-meter of surface area developed in the biosolid cake annually producing 450,000 stable flies and 175,000 house flies. Stable fly emergence was seasonally bimodal with a primary peak in mid-July and a secondary peak in late August. House fly emergence peaked with the first stable fly emergence peak and then declined gradually for the remainder of the year. House flies tended to emerge from the biosolid cake sooner after its deposition than did stable flies. In addition, house fly emergence was concentrated around midsummer whereas stable fly emergence began earlier in the spring and continued later into the fall. Biosolid age and temperature were the most important parameters affecting emergence for house flies and stable flies, whereas precipitation was not important for either species. This study highlights the importance of biosolid cake as a larval developmental habitat for stable flies and house flies.

  8. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and filth fly pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at Florida equine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E; Hogsette, Jerome A; Geden, Christopher J; Tenbroeck, Saundra H

    2011-06-01

    Beginning in November 2007 and continuing until December 2009, weekly stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), surveillance was conducted at four equine facilities near Ocala, FL, by using alsynite sticky traps for adults and by searching immature developmental sites for pupae. Adult stable fly trap captures were highly variable throughout the year, ranging from 0 to 1,400 flies per trap per farm. The greatest adult stable fly activity was observed during the spring months of March and April, with weekly three-trap means of 121 and 136 flies per farm, respectively. The importance of cultural control measures was most apparent on the only farm with no reported insecticide use and the lowest stable fly trap captures, where an intense daily sanitation and composting program was conducted. A survey of on-site filth fly pupae revealed that 99.9% of all parasitoids recovered were Spalangia spp., consisting of Spalangia cameroni Perkins (56.5%), Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis (34.0%), Spalangia endius Walker (5.8%), and Spalangia nigra Latreille (3.7%). The implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei J; Zhang, Qing-He; Taylor, David B; Friesen, Kristina A

    2016-09-01

    Stable flies are considered to be one of the major blood-feeding pests in the US livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is expensive. Here, we report on the development of a less expensive and more efficacious trap based upon a white panel with the option to add visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. White panel traps caught twice as many stable flies than Alsynite traps. Baiting the traps with synthetic manure volatiles increased catches 2-3-fold. Electroretinographic recordings of stable flies showed strong peaks of visual sensitivities occurring at 330-360 nm, 460-525 nm and 605-635 nm. A laboratory study indicated that young stable flies are more responsive to white, whereas gravid females prefer blue; in the field, white traps caught more stable flies than patterned or blue-black traps. Stable fly control can be enhanced by developing more efficient trapping systems with added visual and olfactory stimuli. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Enhanced trapping of stable flies via olfactory and visual cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult stable flies are highly attracted to the so-called Alsynite cylinder trap; however this trap is expensive. Here we report the development of a cheaper and better white panel trap with options of adding visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. The white panel trap attracte...

  11. Labelling of the mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), with stable manganese and neutron activation, for behaviour studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornisielo, V.L.

    1990-01-01

    In view to label adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly for behaviour studies (etiology) experiments were carried out using larvae feeded with enriched stable manganese on concentrations of 0; 0.0001; 0.0005; 0.0010; 0.0050 and 0.0100 grams of MnCl2 per gram of diet. Also a comparison was done between larvae reared on natural fruits (Coffea arabica, Eriobotaya japonica, Syzugium jambos, Eugenia uvalha, Prunus persica and Psidium guajava) and on artificial diet. The low concentration of manganese (0.0001 grams of MnCl2 per gram of larval diet) acted only as a micronutrient. Concentrations of 0.0005 and 0.0010 grams of MnCl2 per gram of diet didn't affect larvae or adults, increasing the longevity of the females. Concentrations of 0.0050 and 0.0100 grams of MnCl2 per gram of larval diet completely inhibited the development of the insects. The flies activated by a flux of 2.67.10 sup(11) n/cm sup(2)/s during 60 second and counted by a germanium detector during 120 seconds showed that males and females remained well labeled until the 13 sup(th) day of adult life, if their larvae were feed on diet containing 0.0005 and 0.0010g of MnCl2 per gram of diet. However, after 25 days only the males emerged from larvae reared on diet containing 0.0005 g of MnCl2 per gram of diet remained labeled. The females excreted the most of manganese, probably through their laying eggs. The quantity of accumulated manganese detected on the adults after neutron activation and reared on different fruits was very similar, for any kind of fruit. (author)

  12. Evidence for Sticky-Trap Avoidance by Stable Fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), in Response to Trapped Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

    2017-09-01

    Populations of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other filth flies are often sampled using sticky traps. We wanted to know whether flies already caught on sticky traps might inhibit to some extent subsequent flies from being caught. To test this, we recorded the number of stable flies landing on white plastic corrugated panels (Coroplast®), which were prepared according to 4 treatments: 12 live stable flies glued to the surface, 12 live house flies (Musca domestica) glued to the surface, 12 black dots, and no treatment. From 160 observations, we found that fewer stable flies landed on panels with either attached stable flies (129) or house flies (133) compared with the number landing on panels with black dots (259) and/or with no treatment (210). This apparent inhibitory effect of trapped flies may explain published trap-catch patterns from field studies.

  13. Relationship between rainfall and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) abundance on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Bradley A; Peterson, Nyles G

    2005-07-01

    Populations of adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), were visually estimated by counting flies on the front legs of cattle on southern and central California confined dairy feedlots between late April and mid-June (encompassing the peak stable fly activity period). Fly counts on 45-90 animals (three to six dairies) per weekly sample date were conducted in 1985, 1986, 1993, 2002, and 2003. Average biting intensity (flies per front leg) for the peak fly season was not significantly related to early winter (December-January), late winter (February-March), or total period (December-March) rainfall, but it was strongly related (r2 = 0.726) to March rainfall. March rains probably moistened outside decaying manure habitats and similar substrates that are particularly suitable at that time for stable fly oviposition and larval development. Degree-day accumulations link the timing of significant (> or = 1.3 cm) late winter or early spring rains to peak adult stable fly activity two generations later in May and early June.

  14. Contact and fumigant toxicity of a botanical-based feeding deterrent of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei J; Li, Andrew Y; Pritchard, Sara; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Baxendale, Frederick P; Brewer, Gary

    2011-09-28

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), has been considered one of the most serious biting flies of confined and pastured livestock. The economic losses caused by the stable fly to the cattle industry in the United States exceed $2 billion annually. Current practices for managing stable flies using insecticides provide only marginal control. Insecticide resistance has also been recently reported in stable flies. The present study reports the use of plant-based insecticides, for example, essential oils, as alternatives for managing this fly pest. The toxicity of several plant essential oils and selected ingredient compounds was evaluated by contact and fumigant toxicity bioassays. Catnip oil (20 mg dosage) showed the highest toxicity against stable flies, the shortest knock-down time (∼7 min), and the quickest lethal time (∼19 min). Toxicity levels similar to catnip oil were found among three insect repellent compounds (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide, (1S,2'S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide). No differences in knock-down and lethal times were found among the catnip oil and its two active ingredient compounds. Similar stable fly mortality was observed using a 20 mg dose of catnip oil in a modified K&D system and a fumigant jar. When catnip oil was topically applied to stable flies, the least lethal dose was 12.5 μg/fly, and a 50 μg/fly dose resulted in 100% mortality. The blood-feeding behavior of stable flies was also negatively affected by the topical application of catnip oil, and the effect was dose-dependent. This study demonstrated that catnip oil has both contact and fumigant toxicity against the stable fly and thus has the potential as an alternative for stable fly control.

  15. The stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) (Diptera: Muscidae) recorded from the Faroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Bloch, Dorete

    2005-01-01

    The stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) was recorded from the Faroe Islands in 2002 for the first time in five byres at Velbastaður in the vicinity of Tórshavn. The stable fly breeds in dead and decomposing plant material e.g. dung mixed with straw. If the temperature is higher than 18 ºC the species...... can reproduce all the year in the byres. Both sexes are blood feeding and attack vertebrates with preference for cattle and other ungulates. By high fly population the biting activity can result in reduction of milk and bodyweight in the livestock. S. calcitrans was probably introduced into the Faroes...... in imported cattle feed. Since the first reports on flies biting man were received in 2002, the species was probably recently introduced. In the Velbastaður area the species is widespread and probably mainly dispersed by exchange of cattle or forage. To reduce the fly problem it is important to maintain...

  16. Pollen recovered from the exoskeleton of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in Gainesville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies are pestiferous blood feeding flies that attack animals and humans. Besides consuming blood, these flies will also visit flowers to take nectar meals. When feeding on nectar, flies become coated with pollen which can be used to identify flowers used by the flies. Recently, flies cove...

  17. Retention of Escherichia coli by house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) during pupal metamorphosis and eclosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, K; Lysyk, T J; Selinger, L B

    2005-05-01

    Populations of Escherichia coli obtained by feeding larval house flies, Musca domestica L. and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), persisted through the pupal stage. The abundance of E. coli in house fly pupae increased initially then declined before adult emergence. Abundance of E. coli in stable fly pupae increased through pupal development and remained high. Infected stable fly pupal cases typically contained more E. coli than house fly pupal cases. A greater proportion of emerging adult house flies were infected with E. coli compared with stable flies; however, the abundance of E. coli on infected flies was similar between species. Adult flies contained 0.04-0.19% of the E. coli in the pupal cases. The proportion of infected house fly adults and the amount of E. coli on the infected flies were related to the levels of E. coli in the pupal cases; however, these relationships did not occur with the stable fly. Results suggest that retention of E. coli from larval to adult house flies could play a role in the transmission and spread of E. coli, whereas stable fly adults probably play a minor role in E. coli spread. However, pupae of both species have potential to act as reservoirs for E. coli.

  18. Potential for Stable Flies and House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Trials of traps and attractants for Stomoxys spp. ( Diptera : Muscidae). J Med Entomol 32:283–289. Rosen L, Gubler D. 1974. The use of mosquitoes to detect... Diptera : Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus Author(s): Michael J. Turell, David J. Dohm, Christopher J. Geden, Jerome A. Hogsette, and...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential for Stable Flies and House Flies ( Diptera : Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus 5a

  19. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M; Yeater, K M; May, M A

    2014-07-01

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body weight/d and 0.6 mg/kg body weight/d) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% active ingredient Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), developing in cow manure. Both rates of feed-through novaluron, delivered consecutively for 10 d, reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated control. The presence of deformed puparia indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Both of the feed-through rates evaluated resulted in 100% reduction of adult stable fly emergence after the second day of feed-through treatment. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species make this feed-through formulation a candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program, particularly in confined cattle production situations where a feed-through product could be easily administered.

  20. Study on stable fly eradication by sterile-male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Ryu, J.; Kwon, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    This experiment was performed to investigate the X-ray sensitivities at the various stages of life cycle and to determine the sterillizing dose of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans(L). A dose of 300 rad caused about 50% mortality in 2-hour-old eggs as measured by egg hatch, and 100% mortality was obtained with a dose of 1 Krad. Sub-lethal dose (LDsub(50)) for the pupal age at irradiation. A significant reduction of egg hatch by 1.5% was observed when treated males with 3 Krad at pupal stage were mated to untreated virgin females. On the other hand, 100% sterility in females was resulted by Krad irradiation and oviposition was completely inhibited with 3 Krad. Thus, both sexes of stable fly could be sterilized with a dose of 4 Krad irradiated 50 3-5 days old pupae. (author)

  1. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  2. Persistence of Escherichia coli in immature house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in relation to larval growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, K; Lysyk, T J; Selinger, L B

    2004-11-01

    The persistence of Escherichia coli in artificially fed larvae was examined for up to 48 h after ingestion by house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). The rate of change in the E. coli load was similar for both species for up to 5 h after ingestion. Up to 48 h after ingestion, abundance of E. coli declined in immature house flies but remained constant in immature stable flies. When different E. coli concentrations were fed to larvae, the abundance of E. coli increased in stable fly larvae regardless of the initial concentration. The E. coli load in house fly larvae increased when larvae were fed a low concentration of bacteria, but it declined when larvae were fed a high concentration of bacteria. Survival of house fly and stable fly larvae averaged 62 and 25%, respectively, when reared on pure E. coli cultures. These observations suggest that house fly larvae digest E. coli and use it as a food source but stable fly larvae do not.

  3. Efficacy and longevity of newly developed catnip oil microcapsules against stable fly oviposition and larval growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J J; Wienhold, B J; Wehrle, J; Davis, D; Chen, H; Taylor, D; Friesen, K; Zurek, L

    2014-06-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of cattle and costs U.S. cattle producers billions of dollars in losses annually. In this study, the efficacy of catnip oil encapsulated in gelatin in oviposition deterrence and larval growth inhibition in stable flies was examined under laboratory conditions. More than 98% inhibition of stable fly larval growth and female oviposition was observed in larval and oviposition media treated with encapsulated catnip oil (0.5 g). Further, dose-response tests showed that as little as 0.1 g of encapsulated catnip oil provided > 85% oviposition deterrence. The release of nepetalactones from the capsules was more rapid when the capsules were placed on a moist substrate rather than a dry substrate. Encapsulated catnip oil also exhibited antibacterial activity, supporting the hypothesis that its inhibition of larval growth may be based on its killing of the bacteria on which larvae feed. The use of encapsulated catnip oil can provide an alternative control strategy for stable fly management. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Characterization of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larval developmental habitat at round hay bale feeding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Justin; Broce, Alberto; Zurek, Ludek

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we examined the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), larval developmental habitat within the round hay bale feeding sites on cattle pastures, and we identified three zones with distinct characteristics around two types of hay feeders (ring and cone). The parameters monitored in each zone included stable fly emergence, substrate temperature, moisture, pH, thickness of hay-manure layer, and concentration of fecal coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca) as indicators of fecal material. All measurements were conducted during the period of high stable fly prevalence (HSF) in May-June and low stable fly prevalence (LSF) in July-August to better understand the environmental factors influencing stable fly seasonality. Substrate temperature and fecal coliform concentration were the only two significantly different factors between HSF and LSF. Temperatures ranged from 21 to 25 degrees C during HSF versus 25-30 degrees C in LSF but all were within the range for successful stable fly development. Fecal coliform concentrations ranged from 4.2 x 10(3) to 4.1 x 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g of the substrate during HSF and from undetectable (stable fly development (egg to adult). Temperature was significantly higher and stable fly developmental time significantly shorter in all substrates containing hay when compared with that of manure alone, but no significant differences were detected in stable fly emergence among the substrates. These results strongly indicate that the fecal microbial community plays an important role in stable fly larval development in hay feeding sites and that it is the main factor behind stable fly developmental seasonality on pastures. Our results also demonstrate that animal manure mixed with hay provides conditions for faster stable fly development than manure alone; however, hay does not significantly affect overall stable fly emergence.

  5. Stable hovering of a jellyfish-like flying machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristroph, Leif; Childress, Stephen

    2014-03-06

    Ornithopters, or flapping-wing aircraft, offer an alternative to helicopters in achieving manoeuvrability at small scales, although stabilizing such aerial vehicles remains a key challenge. Here, we present a hovering machine that achieves self-righting flight using flapping wings alone, without relying on additional aerodynamic surfaces and without feedback control. We design, construct and test-fly a prototype that opens and closes four wings, resembling the motions of swimming jellyfish more so than any insect or bird. Measurements of lift show the benefits of wing flexing and the importance of selecting a wing size appropriate to the motor. Furthermore, we use high-speed video and motion tracking to show that the body orientation is stable during ascending, forward and hovering flight modes. Our experimental measurements are used to inform an aerodynamic model of stability that reveals the importance of centre-of-mass location and the coupling of body translation and rotation. These results show the promise of flapping-flight strategies beyond those that directly mimic the wing motions of flying animals.

  6. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  7. Insight into stable fly larvae: Salivary gland-specific polypeptides and evidence for genes that may have a role in the stable fly innate immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stable fly is a pest of veterinary and economic importance, with damages in the United States estimated at $1 billion USD/year. Current control approaches have mostly been directed towards the adult stage of the fly, but control of the larval stage by identifying and treating larval habitats has...

  8. Identification of stable fly attractant compounds in vinasse, a byproduct of sugarcane-ethanol distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvez Serra, N S; Goulart, H F; Triana, M F; Dos Santos Tavares, S; Almeida, C I M; DA Costa, J G; Santana, A E G; Zhu, J J

    2017-12-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is a worldwide pest of livestock. Recent outbreaks of stable flies in sugarcane fields in Brazil have become a serious problem for livestock producers. Larvae and pupae found inside sugarcane stems after harvesting may indicate that stable flies use these stems as potential oviposition or larval development sites. Field observations suggest that outbreaks of stable flies are associated with the vinasse and filter cake derived from biomass distillation in sugarcane ethanol production that are used as fertilizers in sugarcane fields. Adult stable flies are attracted to vinasse, which appears to present an ideal larval development site. The primary goal of the present study is to demonstrate the role of vinasse in influencing the sensory physiological and behavioural responses of stable flies, and to identify its associated volatile attractant compounds. Both laboratory and field studies showed that vinasse is extremely attractive to adult stable flies. Chemical analyses of volatiles collected revealed a wide range of carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenols and aldehydes as potential attractant compounds. These newly identified attractants could be used to develop a tool for the attractant-baited mass trapping of stable flies in order to reduce infestations. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Precipitation and temperature effects on stable fly (diptera: muscidae) population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dynamics of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations relative to temperature and precipitation were evaluated in a 13 y study in eastern Nebraska. During the course of the study, over 1.7 million stable flies were collected on an array of 25 sticky traps. A log-normal model using degree...

  10. Behavioural responses of stable flies to cattle manure slurry associated odourants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans [Diptera: Muscidae] L.) are blood-feeding synanthropic pests, which cause significant economic losses in livestock. Stable fly antennae contain olfactory sensilla responsive to host and host environment-associated odours. Field observation indicated that the abundan...

  11. Augmenting laboratory rearing of stable fly (diptera: muscidae) larvae with ammoniacal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well a...

  12. Nepetalactones from essential oil of Nepeta cataria represent a stable fly feeding and oviposition repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J J; Berkebile, D R; Dunlap, C A; Zhang, A; Boxler, D; Tangtrakulwanich, K; Behle, R W; Baxendale, F; Brewer, G

    2012-06-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most serious pests to livestock. It feeds mainly on cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. Standard stable fly control involving insecticides and sanitation is usually costly and often has limited effectiveness. As we continue to evaluate and develop safer fly control strategies, the present study reports on the effectiveness of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) oil and its constituent compounds, nepetalactones, as stable fly repellents. The essential oil of catnip reduced the feeding of stable flies by >96% in an in vitro bioassay system, compared with other sesquiterpene-rich plant oils (e.g. amyris and sandalwood). Catnip oil demonstrated strong repellency against stable flies relative to other chemicals for repelling biting insects, including isolongifolenone, 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide and (1S,2'S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide. The repellency against stable flies of the most commonly used mosquito repellent, DEET, was relatively low. In field trials, two formulations of catnip oil provided >95% protection and were effective for up to 6 h when tested on cattle. Catnip oil also acted as a strong oviposition repellent and reduced gravid stable fly oviposition by 98%. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Behavioural responses of dairy cattle to the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in an open field environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, B A; Lii, K-S; Mao, Y; Meyer, J A; Peterson, N G; Szijj, C E

    2006-03-01

    Individual cows (25 in each of four herds) were monitored 8-10 times weekly for 12 weeks (stable fly season) on a southern California dairy, with 100 observations per cow. The numbers of biting stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) on the front legs and the frequencies of four fly-repelling behaviours per 2-min observation period [head throws, front leg stamps, skin twitches (panniculus reflex) and tail flicks] were recorded. Fly numbers varied, peaking at 3.0-3.5 flies per leg in week 9 (late May). Weekly herd mean frequencies of fly-repelling behaviours were highly dependent on fly numbers, with a linear regression r(2) > 0.8. Head throws and stamps were less frequent than skin twitches and tail flicks. Individual cows differed in numbers of stable flies and behaviours. Behaviours were correlated with flies for individual cows, but at a lower level than were herd means (r = 0.3-0.7). Cows that stamped more within a herd tended to have lower fly counts; other fly-repelling behaviours were less effective. Cows maintained ranks within a herd with regard to fly numbers (r = 0.47), head throws (0.48), leg stamps (0.64), skin twitches (0.69) and tail flicks (0.64). Older cows tended to harbour higher fly numbers and to stamp less relative to younger adult cows. Ratios of leg stamps and head throws to fly numbers dropped significantly through time, suggesting habituation to pain associated with fly biting. Tail flicks were not effective for repelling Stomoxys, but were easiest to quantify and may help in monitoring pest intensity. At this low-moderate fly pressure, no consistent impacts on milk yield were detected, but methods incorporating cow behaviour are recommended for future studies of economic impact.

  14. Distribution and abundance of natural parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) populations of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) at the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Alvaro; Hogsette, Jerome A; Coronado, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    From September 2001 through September 2002, house fly and stable fly pupae were collected weekly from three fly habitats at the University of Florida Research dairy in northcentral Florida and evaluated for parasitism. Varying parasitism percentages were observed throughout the study but they were not affected by temperature, precipitation or fly abundance. Of the 6,222 house fly pupae and 1,660 stable fly pupae that produced either a host fly or a parasitoid, 26.9% and 26.7% were parasitized...

  15. External Morphology of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Kristina; Chen, Han; Zhu, Jerry; Taylor, David B

    2015-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the external morphology of first-, second-, and third-instar stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)). In the cephalic region, the antennae, labial lobe, and maxillary palpi are morphologically similar among instars. Antennae comprise a prominent anterior dome that is the primary site of olfaction, while the maxillary palpi are innervated with mechano- and chemosensilla and scolopodia. The ventral organ and facial mask, also located in the pseudocephalon, are not well-developed in first instars, but become progressively more so in the subsequent instars. When the pseudocephalon is partially retracted, anterior spines cusp around the oral ridges of the facial mask. This indicates the anterior spinose band may be used in conjunction with the facial mask in predigestion. Functional anterior spiracles are absent on first instars, but become evident as a pair of palmate spiracular processes with five to seven lobes in second and third instars. A pair of Keilin's organs, functioning as hygroreceptors, is located on each thoracic segment. Abdominal segments are marked with ventral creeping welts, the anal pad, anus, papillae, and posterior spiracles. Ventral creeping welts are thought to aid in locomotion, while the anal pad acts as an osmoregulatory structure. Posterior spiracles are modified from round spiracular discs with two straight slits in the first instar to triangular discs with two and three sinuous slits in the second and third instars, respectively. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Vector competence of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael S; Swope, Bethany N; Hogsette, Jerome A; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Savage, Harry M; Nasci, Roger S

    2011-05-01

    In 2006-2007, stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), were suspected of being enzootic vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) during a die-off of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin) (Pelecanidae) in Montana, USA. WNV-positive stable flies were observed feeding en masse on incapacitated, WNV-positive pelicans, arousing suspicions that the flies could have been involved in WNV transmission among pelicans, and perhaps to livestock and humans. We assessed biological transmission by infecting stable flies intrathoracically with WNV and testing them at 2-d intervals over 20 d. Infectious WNV was detected in fly bodies in decreasing amounts over time for only the first 6 d postinfection, an indication that WNV did not replicate within fly tissues and that stable flies cannot biologically transmit WNV. We assessed mechanical transmission using a novel technique. Specifically, we fed WNV-infected blood to individual flies by using a cotton swab (i.e., artificial donor), and at intervals of 1 min-24 h, we allowed flies to refeed on a different swab saturated with WNV-negative blood (i.e., artificial recipient). Flies mechanically transmitted viable WNV from donor to recipient swabs for up to 6 h postinfection, with the majority of the transmission events occurring within the first hour. Flies mechanically transmitted WNV RNA to recipient swabs for up to 24 h, mostly within the first 6 h. Given its predilection to feed multiple times when disturbed, these findings support the possibility that the stable fly could mechanically transmit WNV.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron as a development site treatment for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M

    2012-05-01

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% [AI]), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.); house flies, Musca domestica L.; and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), in cow manure. Various rates and insecticide placement locations (top, middle, and bottom of manure) were evaluated in this study and all combinations of these variables reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated controls. The presence of deformed pupae indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Top, middle, or bottom application rates of 0.125, 0.195, 0.25, and 0.375 g novaluron onto manure samples, reduced adult horn fly emergence by > 90%. Middle and bottom application rates of 0.195, 0.25, and 0.375 g novaluron reduced adult house fly emergence >93%. All rates and placement combinations resulted in >98% reduction of adult stable fly emergence. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species along with the ease of use of a granular formulation, make this product an ideal candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program.

  18. Discovery of microRNAs of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) by High-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckow, Alexander P; Temeyer, Kevin B; Olafson, Pia U; Pérez de Léon, Adalberto A

    2013-07-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), is a serious ectoparasite affecting animal production and health of both animals and humans. Stable fly control relies largely on chemical insecticides; however, the development of insecticide resistance as well as environmental considerations requires continued discovery research to develop novel control technologies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNAs that have been shown to be important regulators of gene expression across a wide variety of organisms, and may provide an innovative approach with regard to development of safer more targeted control technologies. The current study reports discovery ad initial comparative analysis of 88 presumptive miRNA sequences from the stable fly, obtained using high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs. The majority of stable fly miRNAs were 22-23 nt in length. Many miRNAs were arthropod specific, and several mature miRNA sequences showed greater sequence identity to miRNAs from other blood-feeding dipterans such as mosquitoes rather than to Drosophilids. This initial step in characterizing the stable fly microRNAome provides a basis for further analyses of life stage-specific and tissue-specific expression to elucidate their functional roles in stable fly biology.

  19. Twenty-three new microsatellite loci in the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascunce, Marina S; Scotty Yang, C C; Geden, Chris; Shoemaker, Dewayne

    2009-01-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), is a significant pest of cattle. Twenty-three microsatellite markers were isolated from a repeat-enriched genomic library of S. calcitrans. We characterized variation at these markers and found that 17 loci were polymorphic in two fly populations from Florida. Two to nine alleles were observed among the variable microsatellite loci and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.03704 to 0.85115. These markers will be useful for characterizing population genetic differentiation and for tracking the migration patterns of stable flies in the USA and worldwide. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Detection of West Nile virus in stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) parasitizing juvenile American white pelicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory; Panella, Nicholas; Hale, Kristina; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), an economically important pest of livestock and humans, were observed parasitizing prefledged American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), in a pelican breeding colony in northeastern Montana where die-offs attributed to West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) have occurred since 2002. Engorged and unengorged flies were collected off nine moribund chicks. Of 29 blood-engorged flies testing positive for vertebrate DNA, all 29 contained pelican DNA. Virus isolation was performed on 60 pools (1,176 flies) of unengorged flies using Vero cell plaque assay. Eighteen pools were positive for WNV for an estimated infection rate of 18.0 per 1,000 flies. Fifty-four percent (36/67) of abdomens from blood-engorged flies tested positive for WNV. Pelican viremia levels from the blood-engorged fly abdomens revealed that at least one of the ill pelicans circulated a viremia capable of infecting Culex mosquito vectors. Stable flies may be involved in WNV transmission within the pelican breeding colony by serving as either a mechanical vector or as a source for oral infection if ingested by predators.

  1. Effects of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin on immature development and reproduction in the stable fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S S; Li, A Y; Lohmeyer, K H; Pérez De León, A A

    2012-12-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most significant biting flies that affect cattle. The use of traditional insecticides for stable fly control has only a limited success owing to the insect's unique feeding behaviours and immature development sites. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of two insect growth regulator (IGR) products, pyriproxyfen and buprofezin, on the development of the immature stages of the stable fly and the effects of pyriproxyfen on oviposition and egg hatch. Both pyriproxyfen and buprofezin had significant inhibitory effects on immature development. The LC(50) s of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin were 0.002 and 18.92 p.p.m., respectively. Topical treatment of adult females with different doses of pyriproxyfen had significant negative effects on both female oviposition and egg hatching when 1- and 3-day-old females were treated, and the effects were dose dependent. A significant reduction in the mean number of eggs laid was observed only at the highest pyriproxyfen dose (8 µg/fly) and egg hatch was unaffected by pyriproxyfen treatment when 5-day-old females were treated. Results from the present study indicate that pyriproxyfen has the potential to be used as part of an integrated stable fly management programme. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Synergistic Trap Response of the False Stable Fly and Little House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to Acetic Acid and Ethanol, Two Principal Sugar Fermentation Volatiles

    OpenAIRE

    Landolt, Peter J.; Cha, Dong H.; Zack, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    In an initial observation, large numbers of muscoid flies (Diptera) were captured as nontarget insects in traps baited with solutions of acetic acid plus ethanol. In subsequent field experiments, numbers of false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) trapped with the combination of acetic acid plus ethanol were significantly higher than those trapped with either chemical alone, or in unbaited traps. Flies were trapped with acetic acid and ethanol t...

  3. Stable fly phenology in a mixed agricultural--wildlife ecosystem in northeast Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Kristina M; Johnson, Gregory D

    2013-02-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), is a cosmopolitan species of blood-feeding Muscidae and an important pest of cattle. Although the cattle industry is the largest commodity in Montana, no research has been conducted on the abundance, distribution, or impact of stable flies in the state. Observations of stable flies attacking West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) -infected pelicans on a refuge in close proximity to pastured and confined cattle provided an opportunity to describe stable fly phenology in a mixed agricultural-wildlife ecosystem. Coroplast cards used to monitor and compare adult populations in three habitats (peninsula, pasture, confinement lot) located within 1.5-4.5 km of each other revealed that temporal dynamics differed by site. Adult abundance was generally lowest at the confinement lot, the only location where larval development was identified. Stable flies were collected on all traps placed in pasture, with traps adjacent to pastured cattle consistently collecting the most. Adults also were collected on the peninsula supporting the pelicans' nesting site, but whether the potential hosts or physical landscape served as an attractant is unclear. At all three sites, data indicated that overwintering was not successful and that a transition occurred from early season immigrating adults that used suitable local larval development substrates to subsequent autochthonous populations.

  4. Effects of reserpine on reproduction and serotonin immunoreactivity in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) ✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S.; Li, Andrew Y.; Witt, Colleen M.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic amines are known to play critical roles in key insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. This study documents the effects of reserpine on mating and egg-laying behaviors of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), which is one of the most significant biting fly pests affecting cattle. Two sperm staining techniques were adapted successfully to reveal the morphology of stable fly sperm, for the first time, and determine successful mating in females through the assessment of sperm transfer. This approach was also applied to assess sperm transfer by males treated with different doses of reserpine. Mating or sperm transfer did not occur in flies during the first 3 days after emergence. Thereafter, the percentage of females that mated increased with age. Reserpine treatment of males reduced sperm transfer in a dose-dependent manner. Older males were more sensitive to reserpine treatment than younger flies. Reserpine treatment of 5 days old females reduced the number of eggs laid, but had no effect on egg-hatching rates. Results of immunoreactivity (IR) experiments indicated that serotonin in the neuronal processes innervating male testes was completely depleted by reserpine within 5 h after treatment. This effect was transient as the serotonin immunoreactive signal was recovered in 33.3% of the males at 1 day post-treatment and in 94.4% of the flies at 3 days post-treatment. The results of this study concur with previous findings in other insect species and extend our knowledge of the critical roles biogenic amines play in mating and oviposition behaviors of the stable fly. The work could provide a foundation to further characterize the specific roles of individual biogenic amines and their receptors in stable fly reproduction. PMID:23321479

  5. Effects of reserpine on reproduction and serotonin immunoreactivity in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Li, Andrew Y; Witt, Colleen M; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic amines are known to play critical roles in key insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. This study documents the effects of reserpine on mating and egg-laying behaviors of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), which is one of the most significant biting fly pests affecting cattle. Two sperm staining techniques were adapted successfully to reveal the morphology of stable fly sperm, for the first time, and determine successful mating in females through the assessment of sperm transfer. This approach was also applied to assess sperm transfer by males treated with different doses of reserpine. Mating or sperm transfer did not occur in flies during the first 3 days after emergence. Thereafter, the percentage of females that mated increased with age. Reserpine treatment of males reduced sperm transfer in a dose-dependent manner. Older males were more sensitive to reserpine treatment than younger flies. Reserpine treatment of 5 days old females reduced the number of eggs laid, but had no effect on egg-hatching rates. Results of immunoreactivity (IR) experiments indicated that serotonin in the neuronal processes innervating male testes was completely depleted by reserpine within 5h after treatment. This effect was transient as the serotonin immunoreactive signal was recovered in 33.3% of the males at 1 day post-treatment and in 94.4% of the flies at 3 days post-treatment. The results of this study concur with previous findings in other insect species and extend our knowledge of the critical roles biogenic amines play in mating and oviposition behaviors of the stable fly. The work could provide a foundation to further characterize the specific roles of individual biogenic amines and their receptors in stable fly reproduction. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...

  7. Stable fly population dynamics in eastern Nebraska in relation to climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David B; Berkebile, Dennis R; Scholl, Philip J

    2007-09-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most economically important arthropod pests of livestock in North America. In this study, we monitored the seasonal dynamics of a stable fly population in eastern Nebraska for 5 yr. Models based upon temperature and precipitation were developed to determine the affects of these variables on population levels as well as to project population trends. Stable flies appear in eastern Nebraska in late March to early April, and they build to a peak population during the last week of June and first week of July. In most years, the population decreases in midsummer, and then it increases to a second peak in mid-September. Temperature 0 to 2 wk before collection and precipitation 3 to 6 wk before collection were the most important weather variables accounting for 63 and 11% of the variation, respectively. Temperature 7 wk before collection was also significant, accounting for 3% of the variation. Reduced precipitation levels explained the observed midsummer drop in the stable fly populations. Changes in stable fly population levels were positively correlated with precipitation 1 to 2 wk prior and temperature the week of the change. Population change was negatively correlated with precipitation 6-8 wk prior and temperature 6-15 wk prior. The addition of the previous weeks trap collections to the climate based model eliminated the significance of temperature 2 and 7 wk before collection. Temperature 0-1 wk before collection accounted for 60% of the variation, precipitation 3 to 6 wk prior 12% of the variation, and the previous weeks' trap collections accounted for 11% of the variation. Low temperatures during October through January were correlated with higher stable fly populations the following June and July.

  8. Sugarcane stems as larval habitat for the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans in sugarcane plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H.D. Cançado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, cause losses for livestock producers located near sugarcane mills in Brazil, especially in southern Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane mills are often pointed by local farmers as the primary source of these outbreaks; some mills also joined the farmers in combating the flies. Brazilian beef cattle production has great economic importance in similar level to bio-fuel production as ethanol. In this context, the wide-ranging knowledge on the biology and ecology of the stable fly, including larval habitats and their reproduction sites is extremely important for further development of control programs. This paper aims to report the occurrence and development of S. calcitrans larvae inside sugarcane stems in three municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane stems give protection against bad weather conditions and insecticide application. In this way, for sustainable sugarcane growth specific research concerning this situation should be conducted.

  9. Efficacy and longevity of the newly developed catnip oil microcapsules against stable fly oviposition larval growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of cattle and costs U.S. cattle producers billions of dollars in losses annually. In this study, the efficacy of catnip oil encapsulated in gelatin in oviposition deterrence and larval growth inhibition in st...

  10. Genetic variability of the stable fly assessed on a global scale using amplified fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeland, Kathleen M; Skoda, Steven R; Foster, John E

    2016-10-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a blood-feeding, economically important pest of animals and humans worldwide. Improved management strategies are essential and their development would benefit from studies on genetic diversity of stable flies. Especially if done on a global scale, such research could generate information necessary for the development and application of more efficient control methods. Herein we report on a genetic study of stable flies using amplified fragment length polymorphism, with samples of 10-40 individuals acquired from a total of 25 locations in the Nearctic, Neotropic, Palearctic, Afrotropic and Australasian biogeographical regions. We hypothesized that genetic differentiation would exist across geographical barriers. Although FST (0.33) was moderately high, the GST (0.05; representing genetic diversity between individuals) was very low; Nm values (representing gene flow) were high (9.36). The mismatch distribution and tests of neutrality suggested population expansion, with no genetic differentiation between locations. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) results showed the majority of genetic diversity was within groups. The mantel test showed no correlation between geographic and genetic distance; this strongly supports the AMOVA results. These results suggest that stable flies did not show genetic differentiation but are panmictic, with no evidence of isolation by distance or across geographical barriers. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Environmental parameters associated with stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) development at hay feeding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substrates composed of hay residues, dung, and urine accumulate around winter hay feeding sites in cattle pastures, providing developmental habitats for stable flies. The objective of this study was to relate physiochemical and microbial properties of these substrates to the presence or absence of s...

  12. Environmental parameters associated with stable fly development at hay feeding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substrates composed of hay residues, dung, and urine accumulate around winter hay feeding sites in cattle pastures providing developmental habitat for stable flies. The objective of this study was to relate physiochemical and microbial properties of this substrate to the presence or absence of devel...

  13. Effects of Reserpine on Reproduction and Serotonin Immunoreactivity in the Stable Fly Stomoxys Calcitrans (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic amines are known to play critical roles in key insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. This study documents the effects of reserpine on mating and egg-laying behaviors of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), which is one of the most economically significa...

  14. Spatial-temporal dynamics of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) trap catches in Eastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David B; Friesen, Kristina; Zhu, Junwei Jerry

    2013-06-01

    Spatial and temporal relationships among catches of adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), on sticky traps in eastern Nebraska were evaluated. Twenty-five alsynite sticky traps were placed in a 5 by 5 grid with ≍1.6-km intervals in a mixed agricultural environment from 2003 to 2011. Denser grids of 45-90 traps were implemented for varying lengths of time during the course of the study. More than two million stable flies were collected over 9 yr. Seasonal abundances based upon total collections from the primary grid of 25 traps were bimodal most years with population peaks in June and September or October. Individual trap catches varied greatly, both spatially and temporally. Trap catches were spatially aggregated with autocorrelation extending to ≍2 km. Synchrony among trap catches declined linearly with respect to distance between traps and differences in seasonal distribution increased asymptotically relative to distance between traps. Proximity to confined livestock facilities increased catch and proportion of catch collected later in the season. Fifteen to 20 traps were adequate for estimating stable fly populations with the standard error of the mean equal to 30% of the mean for most of the stable fly season. Early and late in the season, when mean trap catches were low, between 100 and 135 traps would be needed to maintain that level of confidence. Seasonal collection distributions from permutations of subsets of the data with fewer than 24 traps differed significantly from those of the complete grid of 25 traps, indicating that 20 or more traps may be needed to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of a stable fly population.

  15. Environmental Parameters Associated With Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Development at Hay Feeding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Kristina; Berkebile, Dennis; Wienhold, Brian; Durso, Lisa; Zhu, Jerry; Taylor, David B

    2016-03-25

    Substrates composed of hay residues, dung, and urine accumulate around winter hay feeding sites in cattle pastures, providing developmental habitats for stable flies. The objective of this study was to relate physiochemical and microbial properties of these substrates to the presence or absence of stable fly larvae. Properties included pH, temperature, moisture, ammonium concentration, electrical conductivity, and numbers of coliform, fecal coliform,Escherichia coli, andEnterococcusbacteria. Each physiochemical sample was classified as a function of belonging to one of the three 2-m concentric zones radiating from the feeder as well as presence or absence of larvae. In total, 538 samples were collected from 13 sites during 2005-2011. Stable fly larvae were most likely to be found in moist, slightly alkaline substrates with high levels of ammonium and low temperature. The probability of larvae being present in a sample was the highest when the moisture content was 347% relative to dry weight and the average pH was 8.4. Larvae were recovered within all zones, with a nonsignificant, but slightly higher, percentage of samples containing larvae taken 2-4 m from the center. All methods used to enumerate bacteria, except total coliform, indicated decreasing concentrations in hay bale residue throughout the summer. In addition to the environmental parameters, cumulative degree day 10°C had a significant effect on the probability of observing stable fly larvae in a sample, indicating that unidentified seasonal effects also influenced immature stable fly populations. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  16. Male stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) response to CO2 changes with age: evidence from wind tunnel experiments and field collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

    2008-12-01

    Male stable flies require at least one or more blood meals to reach sexual maturity and are often caught in CO2-baited traps. We tested the hypothesis that young male stable flies (one to three days, one blood feeding session) would be more responsive to CO2 bait than older male stable flies by monitoring the upwind movement of different-aged male stable flies exposed to CO2 using a wind tunnel. The proportion of males moving upwind toward CO2 decreased with age (days), from 49% for males 3 days old. To further test this, we conducted daily sampling of stable fly populations at a beef farm using a CO2-baited cloth trap. We found that days on which a high proportion of males were caught, females were predominantly from early developmental stages, indicating that proportionately more males were caught from field populations made up of younger cohorts. These results were consistent with the wind tunnel experiment patterns.

  17. Potential impacts of climate change on stable flies, investigated along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, J; David, J-F; Duvallet, G; Tillard, E

    2008-03-01

    Adult populations of stable flies were sampled along an altitudinal transect in Reunion Island to determine whether higher temperatures were associated with: (a) higher numbers of flies; (b) a longer season of infestation, and/or (c) different responses to warming in the cosmopolitan Stomoxys calcitrans (L) and the tropical Stomoxys niger niger Macquart (Diptera: Muscidae). Flies of both species were trapped at seven farms situated at four altitudes (100-1600 m a.s.l.) over a 90-week period. For both species, there were no relationships between the maximum or mean fly abundance and altitude. Only minimum abundance in winter was significantly higher at lower altitudes. Maximum and mean abundances differed significantly between nearby farms under similar climatic conditions. Seasonal fluctuations in fly abundance changed along the gradient. At lower altitudes, population growth started earlier after the winter but abundance declined earlier in summer, which resulted in a shift of the season of infestation. Seasonal fluctuations of both species were strongly related to climate variables at high altitude, mainly temperature. However, climate variables explained a decreasing proportion of the variations in abundance at lower altitudes. Stomoxys calcitrans was the most abundant species overall, but the proportion of S. n. niger increased significantly at lower altitudes and this species became predominant at 100 m a.s.l. It is concluded that stable fly infestations are unlikely to worsen in response to global warming. Maximum abundance is limited by local factors, possibly larval resources, which suggests that adequate husbandry practices could override the impact of climate change. Because S. n. niger tends to be the predominant pest at elevated temperatures, it is recommended that this species should not be introduced in areas where climate is changing.

  18. The Knight Stick Trap and Knight Stick Sticky Wraps: New Tools for Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Kline, Daniel L

    2017-06-01

    Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), management can be difficult, especially in situations where pesticide usage is restricted or disallowed. Traps have been used for monitoring stable flies, but have rarely been used for management. The Knight Stick (KS) trap recently became available, and preliminary studies indicated that it might be an improvement to traps currently in use. The Olson Sticky Fly trap was chosen as the control trap for the purpose of comparisons. Both traps attract stable flies by alteration of light waves and capture flies on a sticky wrap covering the trap base. The KS trap captured 3× more stable flies than the Olson trap, whereas the Olson trap base covered with the KS Sticky wrap captured 3-5× more stable flies than the Olson trap base with the standard Olson Sticky wrap. This indicated inherent attraction from the KS Sticky wrap. This was supported when KS Tank wraps, a larger version of the KS Sticky wraps, applied to 51 kg of liquid propane (LP) tanks on Mosquito Magnet Independence traps producing CO2, captured significantly more stable flies and significantly more stable flies per square centimeter of sticky wrap than Olson Sticky Sleeve wraps applied to the LP tanks. In a final study, when two configurations of KS Tank wraps were applied to white plastic barrels and compared with three standard KS traps, mean numbers of stable flies captured were numerically similar. The significance of findings and potential uses for the traps are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Precipitation and Temperature Effects on Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Population Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David B; Friesen, Kristina; Zhu, Jerry

    2017-06-01

    The dynamics of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations relative to temperature and precipitation were evaluated in a 13-yr study in eastern Nebraska. During the course of the study, >1.7 million stable flies were collected on an array of 25 sticky traps. A log-normal model using degree-days with a 15 °C threshold and weekly lags 0-4 for temperature and 2-7 for precipitation provided the best fit with the observed data. The relationships of temperature and precipitation to stable fly trap catches were both curvilinear, with maxima at 6.6 degree-day-15 (≈22 °C) and 7.4 mm precipitation per day, respectively. The temperature and precipitation model accounted for 72% of the variance in seasonal trap catches. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. House and Stable Fly Seasonal Abundance, Larval Development Substrates, and Natural Parasitism on Small Equine Farms in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, E T; Leppla, N C; Hogsette, J A

    2016-08-01

    House flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The successful use of pupal parasitoids for management of these pests requires knowledge of seasonal fluctuations and biology of the flies as well as natural parasitism levels. However, these dynamics have not been investigated on small equine farms. A 1-year field study began in July 2010, in north central Florida, to determine adult fly population levels and breeding areas on four small equine farms. Weekly surveillance showed that pest flies were present year-round, though there were differences in adult population levels among farms and seasons. Fly development was not confirmed on two of the four small farms, suggesting that subtle differences in husbandry may adversely affect the development of immature flies. In six substrates previously identified as the most common among the farms, stable fly puparia were found overwhelmingly in hay mixed with equine manure and house fly puparia were found in fresh pine shavings mixed with equine manure. Natural parasitism was minimal as expected, but greatest numbers of natural parasitoids collected were of the genus Spalangia. Differences in adult and immature fly numbers recovered emphasizes the need for farm owners to confirm on-site fly development prior to purchase and release of biological control agents. Additionally, due to the low natural parasitism levels and domination of parasitism by Spalangia cameroni, augmentative releases using this species may be the most effective.

  1. Hydrothermal processing of MSWI fly ash--towards new stable minerals and fixation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuseno, A P; Schmahl, W W; Müllejans, Th

    2009-08-15

    A hydrothermal processing strategy of MSWI fly ash is presented for obtaining stable minerals with low toxic potential. Different hydrothermal conditions were tested to obtain high yields of new stable minerals. Experimental parameters including temperature, nature and molarity of alkali reagents, and reaction time were evaluated. The chemical stability of hydrothermal products was examined by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and subsequent XRD for the leached residue. The significant amounts of Al-substituted 11A tobermorite and katoite in addition to minor amounts of zeolites were formed under experimental conditions at 0.5M NaOH, 180 degrees C for 48 h, however KOH treatment in a similar regime resulted in smaller amounts of Al-substituted 11A tobermorite and katoite. Similarly, a product of mixed Al-substituted 11A tobermorite and katoite could be formed from the washed fly ash treated in 0.5M NaOH at 180 degrees C for 48 h. Under the acidic condition, the treated fly ash exhibited an excellent stability of the mineral assemblage and less release of heavy metals relative to the untreated parent materials.

  2. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    fly ash were measured through N2 adsorption at 77 K using a TRISTAR-3000 surface area and porosity analyzer (Micromeritics). Surface morphology of fly ash was characterized by a SM-. 6700F field emission scanning electron microscope. Table 2. Chemical composition of fly ash. Oxide of metal. Percentage composition.

  3. Assessing permethrin resistance in the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in Florida by using laboratory selections and field evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E; Tenbroeck, Saundra H

    2010-12-01

    Insecticide resistance in the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae),has been demonstrated previously, but mostly with insecticides that are no longer used, such as the organochlorines. Resistance to commonly used pyrethroids has been evaluated twice, but only in the midwestern United States. Stable fly susceptibility to a commonly used pyrethroid, permethrin, was determined in Florida to assess the possibility of resistance development. Diagnostic concentration evaluations of three stable fly field strains demonstrated a maximum of 57 and 21% survival to permethrin residues of 3x and 10x the LC99 of a susceptible strain, respectively. Stable flies from an equine facility with no reported insecticide use demonstrated approximately 20% survival with a 3x diagnostic concentration. Despite a distance of 91-km between field collection sites, survival profiles of field-collected stable fly strains were similar. Although an established stable fly colony collected from a local dairy previously expressed low level resistance to permethrin residues, five generations of laboratory permethrin selection increased resistance 15-fold.

  4. Molecular characterization and immunolocalization of the olfactory co-recepter Orco from two blood-feeding muscid flies, the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans, L.) and the horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Pia Untalan

    2012-01-01

    Biting flies are economically important, blood-feeding pests of medical and veterinary significance. Chemosensory-based biting fly behaviors, such as host/nutrient source localization and ovipositional site selection, are intriguing targets for the development of supplemental control strategies. In an effort to expand our understanding of biting fly chemosensory pathways, transcripts encoding the highly conserved insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) were isolated from two representative biting fly species, the stable fly (Scal\\Orco) and the horn fly (Hirr\\Orco). Orco forms a complex with an odor-specific odorant receptor to form an odor-gated ion channel. The biting fly transcripts were predicted to encode proteins with 87% – 94% amino acid similarity to published insect Orco sequences and were detected in various immature stages as well as in adult structures associated with olfaction, i.e. antennae and maxillary palps, and gustation, i.e. proboscis. Further, the relevant proteins were immunolocalized to specific antennal sensilla using anti-serum raised against a peptide sequence conserved between the two fly species. Results from this study provide a basis for functional evaluation of repellent/attractant effects on as yet uncharacterized stable fly and horn fly conventional odorant receptors. PMID:23278866

  5. Molecular characterization and immunolocalization of the olfactory co-receptor Orco from two blood-feeding muscid flies, the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans, L.) and the horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, P U

    2013-04-01

    Biting flies are economically important blood-feeding pests of medical and veterinary significance. Chemosensory-based biting fly behaviours, such as host/nutrient source localization and ovipositional site selection, are intriguing targets for the development of supplemental control strategies. In an effort to expand our understanding of biting fly chemosensory pathways, transcripts encoding the highly conserved insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) were isolated from two representative biting fly species, the stable fly (Scal\\Orco) and the horn fly (Hirr\\Orco). Orco forms a complex with an odour-specific odorant receptor to form an odour-gated ion channel. The biting fly transcripts were predicted to encode proteins with 87-94% amino acid similarity to published insect Orco sequences and were detected in various immature stages as well as in adult structures associated with olfaction, i.e. the antennae and maxillary palps, and gustation, i.e. the proboscis. Further, the relevant proteins were immunolocalized to specific antennal sensilla using anti-serum raised against a peptide sequence conserved between the two fly species. Results from the present study provide a basis for functional evaluation of repellent/attractant effects on as yet uncharacterized stable fly and horn fly conventional odorant receptors. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Augmenting Laboratory Rearing of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae With Ammoniacal Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Kristina; Berkebile, Dennis R; Zhu, Jerry J; Taylor, David B

    2017-01-01

    Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties of the used media. The addition of ammonium hydroxide, ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate reduced larval survival. These compounds decreased pH and increased ammonium content of the used media. Ammonium bicarbonate had no effect on pH and marginally increased ammonium while increasing survival twofold. The optimal level of ammonium bicarbonate was 50 g (0.63 mol) per pan. Larval survival decreased when pH was outside the range of 8.5 to 9.0. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Contact and spatial repellency from catnip essential oil, Nepeta cataria, against stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other filth flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presenting brief summaries of our significant findings on: 1). Development of an in vitro bioassay for screening/discovering biting fly repellents, 2). Strong repellency found from catnip oil and its ingredient compounds, nepetalactones against four filth fly species; 3). Feeding deterrency, oviposi...

  8. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V; Taylor, David B

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3-7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24-28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3-7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Genetic relationship between Escherichia coli strains isolated from dairy mastitis and from the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans

    OpenAIRE

    Castro,Bruno G.; Souza,Miliane M.S.; Regua-Mangia,Adriana H.; Bittencourt,Avelino J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) has been described as a potential spreader of infectious agents to cattle herds. Among the agents transmitted by this fly, Escherichia coli has attracted attention due to its potential to cause gastrointestinal disorders as well as environmental mastitis in dairy cows. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate and to assess the genetic diversity and the clonal relatedness among E. coli isolates from the milk of dairy mastitis...

  10. Synergistic Trap Response of the False Stable Fly and Little House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to Acetic Acid and Ethanol, Two Principal Sugar Fermentation Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Peter J; Cha, Dong H; Zack, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    In an initial observation, large numbers of muscoid flies (Diptera) were captured as nontarget insects in traps baited with solutions of acetic acid plus ethanol. In subsequent field experiments, numbers of false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) trapped with the combination of acetic acid plus ethanol were significantly higher than those trapped with either chemical alone, or in unbaited traps. Flies were trapped with acetic acid and ethanol that had been formulated in the water of the drowning solution of the trap, or dispensed from polypropylene vials with holes in the vial lids for diffusion of evaporated chemical. Numbers of both species of fly captured were greater with acetic acid and ethanol in glass McPhail traps, compared to four other similar wet trap designs. This combination of chemicals may be useful as an inexpensive and not unpleasant lure for monitoring or removing these two pest fly species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans: Diptera, Muscidae) trap response to changes in effective trap height caused by growing vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

    2008-06-01

    Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) are blood-feeding pests of cattle, whose populations are often monitored using sticky traps. Trap responses at different heights were compared with: 1) a choice and no-choice test, with sticky cards set at 30 and 121 cm heights (above ground), and 2) tall (120 cm) traps placed in short (3 cm) and tall (40 cm) grass to assess how vegetation height affects trap catches. In the first experiment, the percentage of upper to lower trap catches were similar at choice (16%) and no-choice traps (15%). In the vegetation study, stable fly catch height data were fitted to gamma distributions to determine the most productive trap heights; 20 cm above short grass and 24 cm above tall grass (from lower edge of trap). The results indicate that traps used to monitor stable fly populations should be maintained at a constant distance above surrounding vegetation rather than ground surface, otherwise trap data can be misleading.

  12. Evaluation of different insecticides and fabric types for development of treated targets for stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Nalli, Alyce; Foil, Lane D

    2008-06-01

    Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), once only a pest of pastured cattle, has become a serious pest of range cattle in the United States. Because of the difficulties associated with stable fly management under range conditions, a pesticide-impregnated cloth target is being developed as a management tool. We conducted studies to determine the influence of weather, time, fabric type, insecticide type, and insecticide concentration on the mortality of stable flies from a susceptible laboratory colony exposed for 30 s to treated cloth targets. We found that 100% of the flies exposed to trigger (Trigger-Royal Box, 65% polyester and 35% cotton) fabric targets that were treated with 0.1% h-cyhalothrin or 0.1% zeta-cypermethrin and weathered outdoors in Gainesville, FL., for up to 3 mo, were dead within 20 min after a 30-s exposure. The results of this study support the concept that treated targets can be developed for integration into stable fly control programs.

  13. Effects of temperature on mortality of larval stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) caused by five isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyk, T J; Selinger, L B

    2012-04-01

    We examined the effects of temperature on mortality of larval stable fly [Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)] caused by Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi 4L3, B. t. darmastedensis 4M1, B. t. thompsoni 401, B. t. thuringiensis HD2, and B. t. kurstaki HD945. At moderate doses, mortality caused by all isolates ranged from 87 to 99% at 15 degrees C and declined to 29-63% as temperature increased to 30 degrees C. A similar pattern was seen when a higher dose was used, except that the reduction in mortality at warmer temperatures was not as great as was seen with the moderate doses. Insecticidal activity of each isolate against first-instar larvae was reduced by only 5-15% after 5 d in the medium. Mortality of second- and third-instar larvae ranged from 2 to 21%, suggesting the isolates were less effective against larger larvae.

  14. Genetic relationship between Escherichia coli strains isolated from dairy mastitis and from the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno G. Castro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758 has been described as a potential spreader of infectious agents to cattle herds. Among the agents transmitted by this fly, Escherichia coli has attracted attention due to its potential to cause gastrointestinal disorders as well as environmental mastitis in dairy cows. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate and to assess the genetic diversity and the clonal relatedness among E. coli isolates from the milk of dairy mastitis and from stable flies anatomical sites by the Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR technique. The molecular typing revealed a high degree of genetic polymorphism suggesting that these microorganisms have a non-clonal origin. Identical electrophoretic profiles were observed between E. coli isolates from different flies, different mammary quarters of the same cow and from cows on a single farm. These results reveal the circulation of the same bacterial lineages and suggest the role of the stable fly in bacterial dispersion. Considering the high pathogenic potential of this bacterial species, our findings alert to a more effective health surveillance.

  15. Behavioural and electroantennogram responses of the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) to plant essential oils and their mixtures with attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Trung Tran; Jung, JeWon; Kim, Soon-Il; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Insect olfactory organs possess many olfactory receptor neurons, which detect many different sets of odorants in nature. In order to feed on blood meals, stable flies locate host animals and humans using chemical cues such as 1-octen-3-ol and butyric acid. In the present study, behavioural and electroantennogram (EAG) response patterns to repellent volatiles from essential oils (EOs) of Zanthoxylum piperitum and Z. armatum in combination with the attractants were investigated. Components of the EOs such as cuminaldehyde, citronellal, neral, linalool, linalool oxide, terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and piperitone induced remarkable repellent behaviours in the stable fly. EAG responses in the fly antenna to these chemicals showed a dose-dependent manner. The patterns of behavioural and EAG responses were significantly altered depending on the ratios of 1-octen-3-ol or butyric acid to the EOs or compounds in the air mixtures. The present study demonstrated that the Zanthoxylum EOs decreased the levels of response of flight behaviours of the stable fly towards host volatile compounds. The combinations of odorant mixtures of the attractants with the EOs and their components affect the representation of behavioural and EAG responses of the flies. The summation and integration patterns of olfactory responses measured by the EAG indicated that the peripheral olfactory networks in antennae could process the odorant complexity of different odorant mixtures between attractants and repellents. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Amplified fragment length polymorphism used to investigate genetic variability of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) across North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeland, K M; Skoda, S R; Foster, J E

    2013-09-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and humans. The pestiferous nature and painful bite cause stress to cattle and other animals. The stress and resulting avoidance behaviors manifest as reductions in weight gain or milk production in cattle; estimated annual economic loss in the United States exceeds US$2 billion. Understanding the population genetics of stable flies could provide information on their population dynamics, origins of outbreaks, and geographical patterns of insecticide resistance, resulting in a tactical advantage for developing management strategies. Previous studies, mostly on a local scale, reported a high level of gene flow between locations. Here, we report results wherein amplified fragment length polymorphism was used to determine genetic diversity of stable fly samples consisting of 11-40 individuals from 12 locations representing the United States, Canada, and Panama. The Analysis of Molecular Variance showed that the majority of genetic diversity was within groups; very little was among groups. The F(ST) and G(ST) values were low ( 1.0). The tests of neutrality suggested population expansion, and no genetic differentiation was found between locations. These results show that stable flies have a high level of gene flow on a continental scale, with limited isolation owing to distance or geographical barriers.

  17. Substrate properties of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) developmental sites associated with round bale hay feeding sites in eastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienhold, B J; Taylor, D B

    2012-04-01

    Residues at sites where stationary feeders were used to provide hay as supplemental forage for cattle during the winter are developmental substrates for immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), in the central United States. Spatial patterns in physical (substrate depth, temperature, water content), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity [EC(lab)], total nitrogen [N] and carbon [C], ammoniacal nitrogen [NH(4)-N], extractable phosphorus [P]), and biological (microbial respiration rate) substrate properties for two feeding sites were estimated and the correlations between these properties and adult emergence were characterized. Hay feeding sites had a circular footprint with residues extending ≈7 m from the feeder. With the exception of extractable P and total N, all substrate properties exhibited spatial patterns centered on the feeder location. Adult stable fly emergence densities were significantly correlated with substrate microbial respiration rate, NH(4)-N concentration, EC(lab), total C concentration, pH, and moisture content. Logistic regression indicated that EC best predicted the probability of stable flies emerging from a substrate and that the other properties did not provide additional information. A better understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological conditions needed for stable fly larval development may help in identifying previously unrecognized developmental habitats and management of this pest. Targeted implementation of management practices such as sanitation and chemical treatments can be applied to smaller areas reducing labor and improving cost effectiveness.

  18. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape, and Color on Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Foil, Lane D

    2018-04-02

    Stable fly management is challenging because of the fly's dispersal behavior and its tendency to remain on the host only while feeding. Optically attractive traps have been used to survey and sometimes reduce adult populations. Insecticide-treated blue and black cloth targets developed for tsetse fly management in Africa were found to be attractive to stable flies in the United States, and various evaluations were conducted in Louisiana and Florida. Tests using untreated targets were designed to answer questions about configuration, size, and color relative to efficacy and stability in high winds. Studies with electric grid targets and with targets paired with Olson traps showed cloth target color attraction in the following decreasing order: black > blue-black > blue. A solid black target is easier to make than a blue-black target because no sewing is involved. Attraction was not affected when flat 1-m2 targets were formed into cylinders, despite the limited view of the blue and black colors together. There was no reduction in attraction when the 1-m2 cylindrical targets were compared with smaller (63 × 30 cm high) cylindrical targets. In addition, there was no difference in attraction between the small blue-black, blue, and black targets. Significance of findings and implications of potential uses for treated targets are discussed. Target attraction was indicated by the numbers of stable flies captured on an Olson sticky trap placed 30 cm from the target. Although this system is adequate for field research, it greatly underestimates the actual numbers of stable flies attracted to treated targets.

  19. The ability of selected pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate stable fly hosts in a soiled equine bedding substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E; Geden, Christopher J; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2011-02-01

    The ability of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, Spalangia endius Walker, and Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner to locate and attack stable fly hosts was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Postfeeding third-instar stable fly larvae were released and allowed to pupate in two arena types: large 4.8 liter chambers containing a field-collected, soiled equine bedding substrate; or 120-ml plastic cups containing wood chips. At the time of fly pupariation, parasitoids were released and permitted 72 h to locate and attack hosts. On average, parasitism rates of freely accessible stable fly pupae in cups were not significantly different between parasitoid species. However, parasitism rates in chambers containing either Spalangia spp. were ≈50-fold more than M. raptorellus. Additional intraspecies analysis revealed that parasitism rates both by S. cameroni and S. endius were not significantly different when pupae were freely accessible or within bedding, whereas M. raptorellus attacked significantly more pupae in cups than in the larger chambers where hosts were distributed within bedding. These results suggest that Spalangia spp. are more suited to successfully locate and attack hosts in habitats created by equine husbandry in Florida. Therefore, commercially available parasitoid mixtures containing Muscidifurax spp. may be ineffective if used as a control measure at Florida equine facilities. © 2011 Entomological Society of America

  20. Improved capture of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) by placement of knight stick sticky fly traps protected by electric fence inside animal exhibit yards at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Ose, Gregory A

    2017-12-01

    Stable flies are noxious blood-feeding pests of exotic animals at zoological parks, inflicting painful bites, and causing discomfort to animals. Stable fly management is difficult because of the flies' tendency to remain on the host animals only when feeding. Non-toxic traps can be efficient but traps placed around exhibit perimeters captured fewer-than-expected numbers of flies. By surrounding traps with square electric fence enclosures, traps could be placed in the exhibits with the host animals and compared with an equal number of traps placed along perimeter fences. During a 21-week study, traps inside exhibits captured 5× more stable flies than traps placed along exhibit perimeters. Traps inside exhibits tended to show more fluctuations in fly populations than traps along perimeters. The increased numbers of flies captured using this technique should provide relief from this pestiferous fly and greatly improve animal health and welfare. We believe this to be the first study where traps were used to capture stable flies in exhibit yards at a zoological park. © 2017 The Authors. Zoo Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Immunohistological localization of serotonin in the CNS and feeding system of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Li, Andrew Y; Witt, Colleen M; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2011-08-01

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plays critical roles as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that control or modulate many behaviors in insects, such as feeding. Neurons immunoreactive (IR) to 5-HT were detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of the larval and adult stages of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, using an immunohistological technique. The location and pattern of the 5-HT IR neurons are described and compared for these two different developmental stages. Anatomical features of the fly feeding system were analyzed in third instar larvae and adult flies using a combination of histological and immunohistological techniques. In third instar larvae, the cibarial dilator muscles were observed within the cibarial pump skeleton and innervated by 5-HT IR neurons in nerves arising from the brain. There were four pairs of nerves arising from the frontal surface of the larval brain that innervate the cibarial pump muscles, pharynx, and muscles controlling the mouth hooks. A strong serotoninergic innervation of the anterior stomatogastric system was observed, which suggests 5-HT may play a role in the coordination of different phases of food ingestion by larvae. Similarly, many 5-HT IR neurons were found in both the brain and the thoracico-abdominal ganglia in the adult, some of which innervate the cibarial pump dilator muscles and the stomatogastric muscles. This is tnhe first report describing neuromuscular structures of the stable fly feeding system. The results reported here suggest 5-HT may play a critical role in feeding behaviors of stable fly larvae and adults. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Gregory A; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2014-01-01

    Although this study was originally designed to compare the efficacy of two different stable fly traps within 10 sites at a 12-ha zoological park, seasonal and spatial population distribution data were simultaneously collected. The two traps included an Alsynite fiberglass cylindrical trap (AFT) and a blue-black cloth target modified into a cylindrical trap (BCT). Both traps were covered with sticky sleeves to retain the attracted flies. Paired trap types were placed at sites that were 20-100 m apart. Distance between trap pairs within sites ranged from 1 to 2 m, and was limited by exhibit design and geography. Both trap types reflect/refract ultraviolet (UV) light which attracts adult S. calcitrans. During this 15-week study, AFTs captured significantly more stable flies than the BCTs at 8 of the 10 sites. Of the 12,557 stable flies found on the traps, 80% and 20% were captured by AFTs and BCTs, respectively. The most attractive trap site at the zoo was at the goat exhibit where most stable flies were consistently captured throughout the study. This exhibit was 100 m from the other exhibits, next to a small lake, and adjacent to a field containing pastured exotic ungulates, rhea and ostrich. Stable fly populations peaked in early June then slowly decreased as the last trapping date approached. We believe this to be the first seasonality data collected at a zoological park. Results demonstrate the use of urban zoos by stable flies and the need to develop environmentally friendly stable fly management systems for zoos. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An immunoglobulin binding protein (antigen 5) of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) salivary gland stimulates bovine immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, M; Wang, X; Wilkerson, M J; Kanost, M R; Broce, A B

    2008-01-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is an economically important pest of livestock. Previous studies demonstrated lymphocyte suppression by crude salivary gland extract (SGE) of the stable fly. A dominant 27-kDa protein identified in the SGE was reported to stimulate immunodominant antibody responses in exposed cattle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this protein, now identified as ahomolog of insect proteins named antigen 5 (Ag5), was responsible for the lymphocyte suppression and whether naive calves can mount an immune response to it. Calves raised in the winter were immunized with recombinant Ag5 (rAg5) expressed in Drosophila S2 cells or with "natural" Ag5 protein isolated by preparative gel electrophoresis of SGE. Control calves were immunized with adjuvant alone. Rising antibody concentrations to rAg5 were detected in two of three calves immunized with rAg5 and one of three calves immunized with natural Ag5. Recall lymphocyte responses to rAg5 were detected at 21 and 28 d postimmunization in calves immunized with rAg5 but not in calves immunized with the natural Ag5 or those exposed to adjuvant alone. Mitogen-stimulated bovine lymphocyte responses were not suppressed by rAg5. Further investigation using immunoblotting revealed that rAg5 binds to the Fc and F (ab')2 portions of bovine IgG, but not to an Fab fragment. These findings suggest that Ag5 of the stable fly salivary gland is not immunosuppressive but that it has immunoglobulin binding properties and can invoke specific antibody and memory lymphocyte responses in immunized calves.

  4. 'Flying markets': activating public spaces in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.; Sezer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Marketplaces can be used by city planners as urban development strategies because they have the potential to turn open spaces in the city into public space, thereby improving both the social and the spatial qualities of those spaces. In Amsterdam, however, marketplaces currently fail to activate

  5. Is Multifactorial Sex Determination in the House Fly, Musca domestica (L.), Stable Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Richard P; Davey, Taira; Son, Jae Hak; Gerry, Alec C; Shono, Toshio; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination pathways evolve rapidly, usually because of turnover of master regulatory genes at the top of the developmental pathway. Polygenic sex determination is expected to be a transient state between ancestral and derived conditions. However, polygenic sex determination has been observed in numerous animal species, including the house fly, Musca domestica House fly males carry a male-determining factor (M) that can be located on any chromosome, and an individual male may have multiple M factors. Females lack M and/or have a dominant allele of the Md-tra gene (Md-tra D ) that acts as a female-determining locus even in the presence of multiple copies of M. We found the frequency and linkage of M in house flies collected in Chino, CA (USA) was relatively unchanged between 1982 and 2014. The frequency of females with Md-tra D in the 2014 collection was 33.6% (n = 140). Analysis of these results, plus previously published data, revealed a strong correlation between the frequencies of Md-tra D and multiple M males, and we find that these populations are expected to have balanced sex ratios. We also find that fitness values that allow for the invasion and maintenance of multiple sex determining loci suggest that sexually antagonistic selection could be responsible for maintaining polygenic sex determination in house fly populations. The stability over time and equilibrium frequencies within populations suggest the house fly polygenic sex determination system is not in transition, and provide guidance for future investigations on the factors responsible for the polymorphism. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Alkali-activated fly ash-based geopolymers with zeolite or bentonite as additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyu Hu; Xiaomin Zhu; Fumei Long [Nanchang University, Nanchang (China). College of Civil Engineering

    2009-11-15

    Geopolymers were synthesized by using fly ash as the main starting material, zeolite or bentonite as supplementary materials, and NaOH and CaO together as activator. An orthogonal array testing protocol was used to analyze the influence of the mix proportion on the properties of the geopolymers. The results indicate that the concentration of NaOH solution and the CaO content play an important role on the strength of the materials. Especially, with zeolite as additive, the fly ash-based geopolymer shows the highest strength and the best sulfate resistance. Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray, and SEM-EDX demonstrate that supplementary zeolite may involve the process of geopolymerization to form a stable zeolitic structure and improve the properties of the geopolymer. Bentonite simply acts as a filler to make the geopolymer more compact, but shows no improvement on the compositions and the microstructures of the geopolymer.

  7. Assessing pest control using changes in instantaneous rate of population increase: treated targets and stable fly populations case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

    2010-06-01

    The instantaneous rate of population increase was used to assess the ability of attractive targets coated with permethrin to control stable fly populations on 3 dairy farms in south central Ontario, Canada. Two attractive targets were deployed over 10 wk in 2001 at each of 6 dairy farms. Three farms were outfitted with 2 untreated targets and 3 were outfitted with 2 targets treated with permethrin [Ectiban-impregnated Coroplast (Ectiban: Schering-Plough Canada Inc., Pointe-Claire, Québec, Canada; Coroplast: Great Pacific Enterprises Inc., Granby, Québec, Canada)]. Population growth rate was measured in terms of degree-days above a 10 degrees C developmental threshold (r(DD10)). The r(DD10) at the 3 treated dairy farms were significantly lower than r(DD10) at the 3 neighboring untreated dairy farms (mean r(DD10): treated=0.0088, untreated=0.013), but not in the previous year when targets were not installed (mean r(DD10): treated=0.012, untreated=0.015). This supports a long-term approach to management that lowers population growth rates in those regions where stable fly numbers increase exponentially from spring until winter, by shortening the period of economic impact of this pest. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High relative abundance of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans is associated with lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Israeli dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana-Sutin, E; Klement, E; Lensky, I; Gottlieb, Y

    2017-06-01

    The vector of lumpy skin disease (LSD), a viral disease affecting Bovidae, is currently unknown. To evaluate the possible vector of LSD virus (LSDV) under field conditions, a yearlong trapping of dipterans was conducted in dairy farms that had been affected by LSD, 1-2 years previously. This was done in order to calculate monthly relative abundances of each dipteran in each farm throughout the year. The relative abundances of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) in the months parallel to the outbreaks (December and April) were significantly higher than those of other dipterans. A stable fly population model based on weather parameters for the affected area was used to validate these findings. Its results were significantly correlated with S. calcitrans abundance. This model, based on weather parameters during the epidemic years showed that S. calcitrans populations peaked in the months of LSD onset in the studied farms. These observations and model predictions revealed a lower abundance of stable flies during October and November, when LSD affected adjacent grazing beef herds. These findings therefore suggest that S. calcitrans is a potential vector of LSD in dairy farms and that another vector is probably involved in LSDV transmission in grazing herds. These findings should be followed up with vector competence studies. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its animal partner and the nutritional environment throughout a fly population's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téfit, Mélisandre A; Gillet, Benjamin; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Leulier, François

    2017-09-12

    In the past years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the relationship between animals and their associated microbes. Compared to the one of wild populations, the microbiota of laboratory-reared flies is less diverse, and comprises fewer bacterial taxa; nevertheless, the main commensal bacteria found in fly microbiota always belong to the Acetobacteraceae and Lactobacillaceae families. The bacterial communities associated with the fly are environmentally acquired, and the partners engage in a perpetual re-association process. Adult flies constantly ingest and excrete microbes from and onto their feeding substrate, which are then transmitted to the next generation developing within this shared habitat. We wanted to analyze the potential changes in the bacterial community during its reciprocal transfer between the two compartments of the niche (i.e. the fly and the diet). To address this question, we used a diverse, wild-derived microbial community and analyzed its relationship with the fly population and the nutritive substrate in a given habitat. Here we show that the community was overall well maintained upon transmission to a new niche, to a new fly population and to their progeny, illustrating the stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its fly partner and the nutritional environment. These results highlight the preponderant role of the nutritional substrate in the dynamics of Drosophila/microbiota interactions, and the need to fully integrate this variable when performing such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster under semi-natural condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha N Kannan

    Full Text Available Here we report the results of a study aimed at examining stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms under semi-natural conditions (henceforth SN, in four large outbred fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster populations, selected for emergence in a narrow window of time under laboratory (henceforth LAB light/dark (LD cycles. When assessed under LAB, selected flies display enhanced stability in terms of higher amplitude, synchrony and accuracy in emergence and activity rhythms compared to controls. The present study was conducted to assess whether such differences in stability between selected and control populations, persist under SN where several gradually changing time-cues are present in their strongest form. The study revealed that under SN, emergence waveform of selected flies was modified, with even more enhanced peak and narrower gate-width compared to those observed in the LAB and compared to control populations in SN. Furthermore, flies from selected populations continued to exhibit enhanced synchrony and accuracy in their emergence and activity rhythms under SN compared to controls. Further analysis of zeitgeber effects revealed that enhanced stability in the rhythmicity of selected flies under SN was primarily due to increased sensitivity to light because emergence and activity rhythms of selected flies were as stable as controls under temperature cycles. These results thus suggest that stability of circadian rhythms in fruit flies D. melanogaster, which evolved as a consequence of selection for emergence in a narrow window of time under weak zeitgeber condition of LAB, persists robustly in the face of day-to-day variations in cycling environmental factors of nature.

  11. An insight into the transcriptome and proteome of the salivary gland of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuyong; Ribeiro, José M C; Broce, Alberto B; Wilkerson, Melinda J; Kanost, Michael R

    2009-09-01

    Adult stable flies are blood feeders, a nuisance, and mechanical vectors of veterinary diseases. To enable efficient feeding, blood sucking insects have evolved a sophisticated array of salivary compounds to disarm their host's hemostasis and inflammatory reaction. While the sialomes of several blood sucking Nematocera flies have been described, no thorough description has been made so far of any Brachycera, except for a detailed proteome analysis of a tabanid (Xu et al., 2008). In this work we provide an insight into the sialome of the muscid Stomoxys calcitrans, revealing a complex mixture of serine proteases, endonucleases, Kazal-containing peptides, anti-thrombins, antigen 5 related proteins, antimicrobial peptides, and the usual finding of mysterious secreted peptides that have no known partners, and may reflect the very fast evolution of salivary proteins due to the vertebrate host immune pressure. Supplemental Tables S1 and S2 can be downloaded from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/S_calcitrans/T1/Sc-tb1-web.xls and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/S_calcitrans/T2/Sc-tb2-web.xls.

  12. Inhibiting α-synuclein oligomerization by stable cell-penetrating β-synuclein fragments recovers phenotype of Parkinson's disease model flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit Shaltiel-Karyo

    Full Text Available The intracellular oligomerization of α-synuclein is associated with Parkinson's disease and appears to be an important target for disease-modifying treatment. Yet, to date, there is no specific inhibitor for this aggregation process. Using unbiased systematic peptide array analysis, we identified molecular interaction domains within the β-synuclein polypeptide that specifically binds α-synuclein. Adding such peptide fragments to α-synuclein significantly reduced both amyloid fibrils and soluble oligomer formation in vitro. A retro-inverso analogue of the best peptide inhibitor was designed to develop the identified molecular recognition module into a drug candidate. While this peptide shows indistinguishable activity as compared to the native peptide, it is stable in mouse serum and penetrates α-synuclein over-expressing cells. The interaction interface between the D-amino acid peptide and α-synuclein was mapped by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Finally, administering the retro-inverso peptide to a Drosophila model expressing mutant A53T α-synuclein in the nervous system, resulted in a significant recovery of the behavioral abnormalities of the treated flies and in a significant reduction in α-synuclein accumulation in the brains of the flies. The engineered retro-inverso peptide can serve as a lead for developing a novel class of therapeutic agents to treat Parkinson's disease.

  13. Improvement of coal fly ash pozzolanic activity by different physical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations performed in order to determine the possibility of improving the pozzolanic activity of coal fly ash from two Serbian Thermal Power Plants. The initial samples of fly ash were treated by different physical processes (mechanical activation, grinding and classification. On the obtained samples, the pozzolanic activity was determined using standard methods (with lime and Portland cement. It was found that the above procedures can significantly improve the pozzolanic activity of fly ash, and the best results were achieved when the fly ash was treated by mechanical activation process in the laboratory ring mill.

  14. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Thais A; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals world wide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using 2 week old horse manure (control) and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old) to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1-3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size) was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1-5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevundimonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly - microbial interactions.

  15. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais eAlbuquerque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals worldwide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using two week old horse manure (control and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1 to 3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1-5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevudiomonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly - microbial interactions.

  16. Global population structure of the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) inferred by mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsouli-Aymes, N; Michaux, J; De Stordeur, E; Couloux, A; Veuille, M; Duvallet, G

    2011-03-01

    Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae: Stomoxyini), a synanthropic fly with a worldwide distribution, is recognized to have an important medical and veterinary impact. We conducted a phylogeographic analysis based on several populations from five major zoogeographic regions of the world in order to analyse population genetic structure of S. calcitrans and to trace its global dispersion. Results from mitochondrial (COI, Cyt-b and ND1-16S) and nuclear (ITS2) DNA show a substantial differentiation of Oriental populations (first lineage) from the Afrotropical, Palearctic, Nearctic, Neotropical and Oceanian populations (second lineage). The divergence time analyses suggest the separation between the two lineages approximately in mid-Pleistocene. Oriental populations are isolated and would not have participated in the colonization of other regions, unlike the Afrotropical one which seems to be the source of S. calcitrans dispersion towards other regions. Demographic analyses indicate that Oriental, Afrotropical and Palearctic regions have undergone a population expansion during late Pleistocene-early Holocene. The expansion time of this cosmopolitan species could have been influenced by continental human expansions and by animal domestication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acetylation Increases EWS-FLI1 DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, Silke; Erkizan, Hayriye V.; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S.; Knights, Chad; Cheema, Amrita; Üren, Aykut; Avantaggiati, Maria L.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Ewing Sarcoma (ES) is associated with a balanced chromosomal translocation that in most cases leads to the expression of the oncogenic fusion protein and transcription factor EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 has been shown to be crucial for ES cell survival and tumor growth. However, its regulation is still enigmatic. To date, no functionally significant post-translational modifications of EWS-FLI1 have been shown. Since ES are sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI), and these inhibitors are advancing in clinical trials, we sought to identify if EWS-FLI1 is directly acetylated. We convincingly show acetylation of the C-terminal FLI1 (FLI1-CTD) domain, which is the DNA binding domain of EWS-FLI1. In vitro acetylation studies showed that acetylated FLI1-CTD has higher DNA binding activity than the non-acetylated protein. Over-expression of PCAF or treatment with HDI increased the transcriptional activity of EWS-FLI1, when co-expressed in Cos7 cells. However, our data that evaluates the acetylation of full-length EWS-FLI1 in ES cells remains unclear, despite creating acetylation specific antibodies to four potential acetylation sites. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 may either gain access to chromatin as a result of histone acetylation or undergo regulation by direct acetylation. These data should be considered when patients are treated with HDAC inhibitors. Further investigation of this phenomenon will reveal if this potential acetylation has an impact on tumor response.

  18. House and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) seasonal abundance, larval development substrates, and natural parasitism on small equine farms in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 1-year study was designed to determine adult fly population levels and development substrates on four small equine farms. Results showed that pest flies were present year-round, but differences existed in population levels among farms and seasons. Fly larvae were not found on two of the farms, ...

  19. Steel passive state stability in activated fly ash mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the behaviour of structural steel embedded in Portland cement (OPC mortars and NaOH- and NaOH-waterglass-activated fly ash, in the presence and absence of 2 % Cl- (CaCl2. Variations were determined in the corrosion potential (Ecorr, linear polarization resistance (Rp and corrosion current density (icorr under different environmental conditions (90 days at 95 % relative humidity (RH, 30 days at ≈ 30 % RH, 760 days at ≈ 95 % RH. In the absence of Cl-, fly ash mortars were able to passivate steel reinforcement, although the stability of the passive state in changing environmental conditions was found to depend heavily on the activating solution used. Steel corrosion in the presence of 2 % Cl- was observed to be similar to the corrosion reported for the material in OPC mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento del acero estructural embebido en morteros de cemento Pórtland (OPC y de cenizas volantes activadas con NaOH y una mezcla de NaOH y waterglass, en ausencia y en presencia de un 2% de Cl- (CaCl2. Se determino la evolución del potencial de corrosión (Ecorr, la resistencia de polarización lineal (Rp y la intensidad de corrosión (icorr, variando las condiciones ambientales (90 días al 95% de humedad relativa (HR-30 días a ≈ 30% HR- 760 días a ≈ 95% HR. En ausencia de Cl- los morteros de cenizas volantes activadas pueden pasivar los refuerzos de acero, si bien la estabilidad del estado pasivo ante cambios en las condiciones ambientales parece mostrar una fuerte dependencia de la solución activadora empleada. En presencia de un 2% de Cl- los aceros se corroen mostrando en comportamiento similar al observado en morteros en base OPC.

  20. Relationships between stable fly infestation with some physical facility characteristics and sanitation practices in several dairy farms in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vázquez, C; Ramos-Parra, M; Vitela-Mendoza, I; García-Vázquez, Z; Quintero-Martínez, M T

    2007-11-10

    The possible relationships between stable fly infestation with dairy farm facilities and sanitation practices were studied using path analysis. Twelve dairies located in four counties of Aguascalientes dairy region were selected. The dairies were monitored from May to November 2003. In each occasion, fly infestation, individual physical facility characteristics, and sanitation practices were recorded. In all, 11 independent variables were involved in the study and related variables were grouped together and analyzed in two blocks by path analysis for each one of five population events (begin of fly season, first peak, fluctuation, second peak and decrease). There were significant regression coefficients only in the second peak for two variables, the distance to the silos and the distance to the dung heap (r(2)=0.96 for the full model). Among the 11 variables examined in the study, none had a statistical significant indirect contribution to fly infestation; direct contribution was observed for distance to the silos and for distance to the dung heap variables. However, only the distance to the silos variable was significantly related to stable fly Infestation.

  1. Synthesis and sintering of high-temperature composites based on mechanically activated fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić, Anja; Pavlović, Ljubica; Obradović, Nina; Pavlović, Vladimir B.; Stojanović, J.; Miličić, Lj.; Radojević, Z.; Ristić, Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Amount of fly ash which is and yet to be generated in the coming years highlights the necessity of developing new methods of the recycling where this waste can be reused in significant quantity. A new possibility for fly ash utilization is in high-temperature application (thermal insulators or/and refractory material products). As such, fly ash has to adequately answer the mechanical and thermal stability criteria. One of the ways of achieving it is by applying mechanical activation pro...

  2. Population Dynamics of Stable Flies Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) at an Organic Dairy Farm in Denmark based on a Mark-recapture with Destructive Sub-Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, H.; Nachman, G.

    2012-01-01

    of a modified version of Bailey's triple catch method. In both years, the abundance of flies peaked in July. Using a statistical model, we were able to explain 86.6% of the variation in the per capita growth rate r as a function of current temperature, precipitation, and population size. Omitting precipitation......A population of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), was studied on a Danish cattle farm in two successive years. Flies were captured monthly by sweep nettings and marked with fluorescent dust. Absolute population size, dilution rate, loss rate, and adult longevity were estimated by means......-1. The per capita dilution rate increased with temperature and decreased with population size, whereas no effect of these factors on the per capita loss rate could be shown. Mean adult survival time was estimated to 6.3 d with 95% CL ranging from 4.3 to 11.1 d. The study points at the possibility...

  3. Preparation of Fly ash Based Adsorbents for Removal Active Red X-3B from Dying Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash with a large number of active sites can occur with the adsorbent chemical and physical adsorption, and therefore have a strong adsorption capacity. The original fly ash and raw fly ash compared to the physical and chemical properties to a significant change. On the fly ash in industrial water treatment application were outlined. The purpose is to focus on the modification methods of fly ash and comparison of raw fly ash and fly ash in the effect of dyeing wastewater. Single factor test method; select the appropriate modifier to study the dosage, pH, stirring time on the modification of adsorption properties of fly ash before and after. The results showed that the modified fly ash was better than the adsorption. Greatly improves on active red X-3B dye wastewater removal capacity, pH = 5, 6, dosage is 5g / L, the mixing time is 30min, COD removal rate reached 73.07%. This modified material can be used as adsorbent for pre-treating dying wastewater.

  4. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  5. Synergistic trap response of the false stable fly and little house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to acetic acid and ethanol, two principal sugar fermentation volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), an invasive pest of numerous fruit crops, is detected and monitored by growers and pest managers with the use of traps. Some fermented food type baits used for SWD traps attract large numbers of non-target insects, such as wasps, moths and other types of flies, making...

  6. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Simion, Cristian

    2014-08-30

    In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable ((133)Cs) and radioactive cesium species ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of (133)Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of (133)Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable (133)Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040Bqkg(-1)(134)Cs and (137)Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583Bqkg(-1) after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100BqL(-1) total (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000Bqkg(-1) and 150BqL(-1) respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is a highly potential amendment for the remediation of radioactive cesium-contaminated fly ash. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular characterization and immunolocalization of the olfactory co-recepter Orco from two blood-feeding muscid flies, the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans, L.) and the horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Olafson, Pia Untalan

    2013-01-01

    Biting flies are economically important, blood-feeding pests of medical and veterinary significance. Chemosensory-based biting fly behaviors, such as host/nutrient source localization and ovipositional site selection, are intriguing targets for the development of supplemental control strategies. In an effort to expand our understanding of biting fly chemosensory pathways, transcripts encoding the highly conserved insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) were isolated from two representative biting f...

  8. Fauna and Monthly Activity of Sand Flies at Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmanianisis Focus in Qomrooddistrict of Qom Province in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzinnia B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL is a parasitological disease transmitted by female sand flies. There are several endemic foci of disease in different parts of Iran. The disease is mostly reported from central part of Qom Province including the villages Ghanavat and Qomrood. It is clear that knowledge on sand flies ecologyhas the main role in planning the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL. This study was carried out to determinecutaneous leishmaniasis vectors in Gomrood district of Qom provincein 2009. Methods: The present study was a descriptive, cross-sectional one conducted on sand flies (the leishmaiosis vectors. It was carried out in Qomrood area of central district of Qom province during 2009. Sand flies were collected biweekly from indoors (bed rooms, stables, etc. and outdoors-rodent burrows of three villages in Gomrood district, using 180 sticky traps (castor oil coated white paper 20 x 32 cm from the beginning (May to the end (November of the active season. For species identification, sand flies were mounted in Puri’s medium and identified after 24 hours using the keys of Theodor and Mesghali (1964.Results: A total of 10252 adult sand flies (4578 from indoors and 5674 from outdoors were collected and identified during May and November 2009. The following seven species were found in indoors: Phlebotomuspapatasi (86.1%, p. salehi (0/021%, P. sergenti (1/74%, p. caucasicus (1/26%, p. alexandri(0/24%, Sergentomyiasintoni (10/35% and S. theodori(0/26%. The collected species of oudoors were Phlebotomuspapatasi (54/67%, P. sergenti (0/35%, p. alexandri(0/035%, S. sintoni (44/02% S. dentata (0/21% S. clydei (0/19%, S. theodori (0/46% and S. pawlowski (0/05%. The most common sand flies in indoors and outdoors resting places were P. papatasi and S. sintoni. P. salehi was the lowest collected species in Gomrood district. The active peaks of sand flies were observed in late May and late August.The sex ratio

  9. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from a significant livestock pest, the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans), identifies transcripts with a putative role in chemosensation and sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Dowd, Scot E

    2010-07-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most significant pests of livestock in the United States. The identification of targets for the development of novel control for this pest species, focusing on those molecules that play a role in successful feeding and reproduction, is critical to mitigating its impact on confined and rangeland livestock. A database was developed representing genes expressed at the immature and adult life stages of the stable fly, comprising data obtained from pyrosequencing both immature and adult stages and from small-scale sequencing of an antennal/maxillary palp-expressed sequence tag library. The full-length sequence and expression of 21 transcripts that may have a role in chemosensation is presented, including 13 odorant-binding proteins, 6 chemosensory proteins, and 2 odorant receptors. Transcripts with potential roles in sex determination and reproductive behaviors are identified, including evidence for the sex-specific expression of stable fly doublesex- and transformer-like transcripts. The current database will be a valuable tool for target identification and for comparative studies with other Diptera.

  10. Identification of a mutation associated with permethrin resistance in the para-type sodium channel of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Pia U; Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2011-02-01

    The insect sodium channel is of particular interest for evaluating resistance to pyrethroids because it is the target molecule for this major class of neurotoxic insecticides. The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), sodium channel coding sequence representing domains IS6 through IVS6 was isolated, and the sequence encoding domain II was compared among individuals of a laboratory strain selected for resistance to permethrin and the unselected, parental generation. A point mutation resulting in a leucine-to-histidine amino acid change was identified (Leul014His), and its location corresponded with that observed for knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in other insects. As a result, the allele was designated kdr-his. A molecular assay was developed to assess the frequency of this mutation in genomic DNA of individual stable flies from the laboratory selections, which provided further evidence that the kdr-his allele accounts for the observed level ofpermethrin resistance in the selected strain. The assay was then used to evaluate the frequency of the mutation from five field-collected populations originating from three horse farms near Ocala, FL; one horse farm near Gainesville, FL; and one dairy farm near Hague, FL. Frequency of the kdr-his allele ranged from 0.46 to 0.78, supporting further investigation of allele prevalence throughout the stable fly season and in response to field insecticide application.

  11. Activated Carbon-Fly Ash-Nanometal Oxide Composite Materials: Preparation, Characterization, and Tributyltin Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olushola S. Ayanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties, nature, and morphology of composite materials involving activated carbon, fly ash, nFe3O4, nSiO2, and nZnO were investigated and compared. Nature and morphology characterizations were carried out by means of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Other physicochemical characterizations undertaken were CNH analysis, ash content, pH, point of zero charge, and surface area and porosity determination by BET. Experimental results obtained revealed that activated carbon, nSiO2, activated carbon-fly ash, activated carbon-fly ash-nFe3O4, activated carbon-fly ash-nSiO2, and activated carbon-fly ash-nZnO composite materials exhibited net negative charge on their surfaces while fly ash, nFe3O4, and nZnO possessed net positive charge on their surfaces. Relatively higher removal efficiency (>99% of TBT was obtained for all the composite materials compared to their respective precursors except for activated carbon. These composite materials therefore offer great potential for the remediation of TBT in wastewaters.

  12. Hydraulic activity of belite cement from class C coal fly ash. Effect of curing and admixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Goñi, S., Guerrero, A.

    2006-01-01

    [EN] The effect of curing method and a water-reducing additive on the hydraulic activity of high lime content (ASTM type C) fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) is reported. A class C fly ash was subjected to hydrothermal treatment and subsequent calcination to synthesize FABC. Hydraulic activity was evaluated in the cement paste over 180 days from the physically bound water content as determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the degree of hydration, in turn found with...

  13. Highly Stable and Active Catalyst for Sabatier Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly active Ru/TiO2 catalysts for Sabatier reaction have been developed. The catalysts have shown to be stable under repeated shutting down/startup conditions. When the Ru/TiO2 catalyst is coated on the engineered substrate Fe-CrAlY felt, activity enhancement is more than doubled when compared with an identically prepared engineered catalyst made from commercial Degussa catalyst. Also, bimetallic Ru-Rh/TiO2 catalysts show high activity at high throughput.

  14. Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Phlebotominae Sand Flies in Yazd and Its Outskirts, Center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhoseini, Motahareh; Salehzadeh, Aref; Ramazan Jamaat, Sara; Zahirnia, Amir Hosein; Rahmanzadeh, Najmeh

    2017-01-01

    Phlebotominae sand flies are the main vectors of leishmaniasis and some other diseases. Using sticky traps, sand flies were collected fortnightly from outdoors and indoors areas of selected sites. A total of 2032 specimens (498 in the city and 1534 in the outskirts of Yazd) belonging to 11 species were collected. The activity of sand flies started in early-April and ended in mid-November. There were two peaks of activity in the end of April and mid-September. Phlebotomus sergenti and P. papatasi were the most abundant species in the city and outskirts of Yazd city, respectively. Other species were P. salehi , P. ansarii , P. kazerouni , P. caucasicus , P. andrejevi , P. alexandri , P. mongolensis , Sergentomyia sintoni, and S. palestinensis . In comparison to some other parts of Iran, the extended period between two peaks suggests that the larvae to adult development of sand fly were delayed by the higher temperature of the summer months in Yazd province.

  15. Evaluation of recombinant Leishmania polyprotein plus glucopyranosyl lipid A stable emulsion vaccines against sand fly-transmitted Leishmania major in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nathan C; Bertholet, Sylvie; Lawyer, Phillip G; Charmoy, Melanie; Romano, Audrey; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flavia L; Stamper, Lisa W; Sacks, David L

    2012-11-15

    Numerous experimental Leishmania vaccines have been developed to prevent the visceral and cutaneous forms of Leishmaniasis, which occur after exposure to the bite of an infected sand fly, yet only one is under evaluation in humans. KSAC and L110f, recombinant Leishmania polyproteins delivered in a stable emulsion (SE) with the TLR4 agonists monophosphoryl lipid A or glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) have shown protection in animal models. KSAC+GLA-SE protected against cutaneous disease following sand fly transmission of Leishmania major in susceptible BALB/c mice. Similar polyprotein adjuvant combinations are the vaccine candidates most likely to see clinical evaluation. We assessed immunity generated by KSAC or L110f vaccination with GLA-SE following challenge with L. major by needle or infected sand fly bite in resistant C57BL/6 mice. Polyprotein-vaccinated mice had a 60-fold increase in CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T cell numbers versus control animals at 2 wk post-needle inoculation of L. major, and this correlated with a 100-fold reduction in parasite load. Immunity did not, however, reach levels observed in mice with a healed primary infection. Following challenge by infected sand fly bite, polyprotein-vaccinated animals had comparable parasite loads, greater numbers of neutrophils at the challenge site, and reduced CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)/IL-17(+) ratios versus nonvaccinated controls. In contrast, healed animals had significantly reduced parasite loads and higher CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)/IL-17(+) ratios. These observations demonstrate that vaccine-induced protection against needle challenge does not necessarily translate to protection following challenge by infected sand fly bite.

  16. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Simion, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the Cs extraction and immobilization in fly ash during water, methanol or n-MCaS extraction. - Highlights: • nMCaS suspension for cesium extraction and immobilization in fly ash was developed. • Enhanced cesium immobilization was done by nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. • By SEM analysis the amount of cesium detectable on soil particle surface decreases. • Leachable cesium concentrations reduced, lower than the standard regulatory limit. • nMCaS unique and a highly potential amendment for the remediation of Cs. - Abstract: In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable ( 133 Cs) and radioactive cesium species ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of 133 Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of 133 Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable 133 Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040 Bq kg −1134 Cs and 137 Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583 Bq kg −1 after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100 Bq L −1 total 134 Cs and 137 Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000 Bq kg −1 and 150 Bq L −1 respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is a highly potential amendment for the remediation of radioactive cesium

  17. Use of the sterile male technique as an adjunct to insecticidal and physical methods for stable fly control on the island of St. Croix, U.S.V.I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, R.S.; Labrecque, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    A three-year feasibility study was conducted on the island of St. Croix, U.S.V.I., on the use of the sterile male technique as an adjunct to insecticidal and physical measures to control the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. The native stable fly population cycled in relation to moisture; it was the highest during the rainy season in the autumn (1.9x10 6 ) then gradually declined to a low point (0.7x10 5 ) during the summer in the dry season. The releases were carried out with an indigenous strain of flies reared on the island. The adult flies (24-28-h old) were exposed to 2 kR of gamma irradiation in a cobalt source. This treatment plus marking reduced the competitiveness by about 15%. The sterile flies were released in lots of 4000 at prearranged points throughout the island. Approximately 1x10 5 sterile males/day for 18 months were released at 2 km intervals over the 218 km 2 island. This reduced the native population by about 50%. On selected farms where insecticide or sterile males could not be released, the fly pupal parasite, Spalangia endius Walker, was released. Sanitation and cleanup of breeding habitats were recommended to all farmers, but were practised by very few. When all control techniques were in practice, the native stable fly population was reduced by 99.9%. A few fertile flies were found during the last six months of this experiment. These came from isolated breeding sites, flies immigrating from other islands about 40 km away or were introduced with imported livestock and/or pets. During this period no larval breeding was observed indicating that immigration was probably the main cause of the fertile flies on the island. (author)

  18. Synthesis of TiO₂/Fly Ash Cenospheres by Sol-Gel Method and Their Photacatalytic Activities Under Visible Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Huan; Liu, Wen-Hui; Xue, Yong-Qiang; Yin, Shu

    2018-05-01

    Fly ash is a solid waste discharged from thermal power plant. Specific surface area of floating fly ash cenospheres (FACs) would increase after it was modified. The photocatalytic composite of TiO2/FACs was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method using the carrier of modified FACs and tetrabutyl titanate as starting materials. The different influence factors on the photocatalytic performance of TiO2/FACs composites were characterized through SEM, EDS, XRD, UV-vis DRS and BET surface measurements. The UV-vis DRS spectra revealed that the absorption edge of TiO2 is 387 nm while that of TiO2/FACs photocatalysts red-shifts to 500 nm. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2/FACs was evaluated by the photocatalytic depigmentation of methyl orange solution (MO, 20 mg L-1, pH = 6.3) under visible light irradiation. It was found that the specific surface area, surface roughness and activity of FACs were increased by NaOH solution activation. The degradation rate of MO reaches 52% in 180 min under the visible light illumination. But too much FACs could decrease its photocatalytic activity and degradation rate. And the recovery test indicated that TiO2/FACs photocatalyst was rather stable, easy to recover from the treated wastewater.

  19. Field measurements of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) demography, fecundity, and survival based on daily trap catches at a beef farm in southern Ontario over a 5-yr period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

    2012-11-01

    We sampled stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations using a CO2 baited cloth trap (Nzi trap) each day throughout the summer and autumn at a beef farm near Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, from 1997 to 2001. Females (2,512) were dissected for ovarian age-grading, to produce a demographic profile of farm populations. The number of follicles were counted to produce fecundity estimates. The developmental periods of adult female stages, measured as accumulated degree-days above 10 degrees C, were determined for a lab colony of stable flies. These measurements were used to calculate survival in terms of degree-days of the farm populations each year. Of the 2,512 females caught, 42.4% were nulliparous on average each year. The median follicle size at insemination was 305 microm in the field populations, and 495 microm in the colony. Farm caught females had an average of 49.15 follicles per ovary overall, with the body size (leg length) and fecundity increasing slightly with age. On average, 44.5% (SE 3.2%) of nulliparous females survived to become parous, and of these, 45.7% (SE 2.1%) survived the uniparous state to become multiparous. Years of higher rainfall had increased fecundity; rainfall did not appear to affect survival.

  20. Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen HARDIN

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning Karen HARDIN Cameron University Lawton, OK, USA PROBLEM One of the hot topics in education in the past 10 years has been the shift of the role of the educator. Whereas, he has traditionally been the owner and deliverer of the knowledge (Sage on the stage, now his role is shifting to a guide and facilitator (guide by the side. The purpose is to give the students ownership in their own learning process. As technology becomes more sophisticated, automation is replacing students’ problem solving skills, critical thinking and sometimes patience. On one of my evaluations in a 1999 online course, a student criticized that, “she’s not doing the teaching, I’m doing the learning.” Of course in my desire to encourage active learning, I took the response as a compliment, but the student meant it as a criticism. I began pondering the reluctance of students to take control of the learning process. I’ve noticed this lack of problem solving, critical thinking and patience with young adults in the workplace. For example, I often visit Sam’s, a warehouse store owned by Wal-Mart. When I check out, I pay with a check. The computerized register will print the check for me, so I allow the cashier to do that. I often ask him or her to add $15 to the total to give me cash back. It’s amazing how long it takes these young adults to add $15 to the total because of their reliance on computers. In another situation, when I was in an outlet shoe store in Texas, I purchased a pair of sandals. After I checked out, I noticed a sign that promoted, “buy one, get a second for one cent.” Of course, I wanted to take advantage of this opportunity, so I told the cashier that I wanted to find another pair of shoes. She replied, “It’s too late, your transaction is complete. I wouldn’t know what to do.” I said, “It’s simple, I owe you one cent.” She said, “I don’t know how to make the computer fix it

  1. Ecteinascidin 743 Interferes with the Activity of EWS-FLI1 in Ewing Sarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Grohar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available ET-743 (trabectedin; Yondelis is approved in Europe for the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas. Emerging phase 1 and 2 clinical data have shown high response rates in myxoid liposarcoma in part owing to the inhibition of the FUS-CHOP transcription factor. In this report, we show that modulation of specific oncogenic transcription factors by ET-743 may extend to other tumor types. We demonstrate that, among a panel of pediatric sarcomas, Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs cell lines bearing the EWS-FLI1 transcription factor are the most sensitive to treatment with ET-743 compared with osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and synovial sarcoma. We show that ET-743 reverses a gene signature of induced downstream targets of EWS-FLI1 in two different ESFT cell lines (P = .001. In addition, ET-743 directly suppresses the promoter activity of a known EWS-FLI1 downstream target NR0B1 luciferase reporter construct without changing the activity of a constitutively active control in ESFT cells. Furthermore, the effect is specific to EWS-FLI1, as forced expression of EWS-FLI1 in a cell type that normally lacks this fusion protein, HT1080 cells, induces the same NR0B1 promoter, but this activation is completely blocked by ET-743 treatment. Finally, we used gene set enrichment analysis to confirm that other mechanisms of ET-743 are active in ESFT cells. These results suggest a particular role for ET-743 in the treatment of translocation-positive tumors. In addition, the modulation of EWS-FLI1 makes it a novel targeting agent for ESFT and suggests that further development of this compound for the treatment of ESFT is warranted.

  2. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  3. [Antimicrobial activity of stable silver nanoparticles of a certain size].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukha, Iu P; Eremenko, A M; Smirnova, N P; Mikhienkova, A I; Korchak, G I; Gorchev, V F; Chunikhin, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    Conditions for obtaining stable silver nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm were developed using a binary stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone/sodium dodecylsulphate in optimal ratio. Optical spectra, morphology and dependence of size of the nanoparticles on the amount of reducing agent were studied. Colloidal solutions of nanosilver showed a high bactericidal activity against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans. The mechanism of action of nanosized silver on microbial cell was examined by laser scanning confocal microscope using fluorescent label. First step of antimicrobial effect on microorganisms was membrane damage and penetration of silver nanoparticles into the cell. Prolonged stability of nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity over the past two years were showed.

  4. Design of active controls for the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, J.

    1976-01-01

    The design of a set of control laws for the NASA F-8 digital fly by wire research airplane is described. These control laws implement several active controls functions: maneuver load control, ride smoothing and departure boundary limiting. The criteria and methods which were used in the design of the control laws are also included. Results of linear analyses and nonlinear simulation are summarized.

  5. Diet quality mediates activity patterns in adult Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, Benjamin G; Petterson, Ingrid E; Taylor, Phillip W

    2013-07-01

    Studies linking resource acquisition and trait expression have traditionally treated nutritional resources as a single currency, but recent research has shown that trait expression can depend as much on diet quality (nutrient composition) as on diet quantity (calories). Here, we investigate the role of nutrient composition and diet concentration on activity levels of adult Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt: Tephritidae). Male and female flies were fed diets that varied in the proportion of protein and carbohydrate as well as total amounts of protein and carbohydrate. Daily activity levels were then quantified using locomotor activity monitors during both light and dark phases. During the light phase, both sexes increased the proportion of time spent active and their rate of activity as diets became more carbohydrate-rich and concentrated. In contrast, during the dark phase, nutrient composition and concentration had no effect on the proportion of time spent active for either sex, although when active during the dark phase, activity rates were higher for flies fed more carbohydrate-rich and concentrated diets. Overall, nutritional composition of the diet affected activity levels to a greater extent than the total energetic content of the diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanically activated fly ash as a high performance binder for civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, D.; Kullová, L.; Čekalová, M.; Novotný, P.; Pola, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed for investigation of fly ash binder with suitable properties for civil engineering needs. The fly ash from Czech brown coal power plant Prunerov II was used and mechanically activated to achieve suitable particle size for alkaline activation of hardening process. This process is driven by dissolution of aluminosilicate content of fly ash and by subsequent development of inorganic polymeric network called geopolymer. Hardening kinetics at 25 and 30 °C were measured by strain controlled small amplitude oscillatory rheometry with strain of 0.01 % and microstructure of hardened binder was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Strength development of hardened binder was investigated according to compressional and flexural strength for a period of 180 days. Our investigation finds out, that mechanically activated fly ash can be comparable to metakaolin geopolymers, according to setting time and mechanical parameters even at room temperature curing. Moreover, on the bases of long time strength development, achieved compressional strength of 134.5 after 180 days is comparable to performance of high grade Portland cement concretes.

  7. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT CONTAINING PHOSPHOROUS SLAG AND FLY ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo You

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorous slag is an industrial waste which potentially pollutes environments. The aim of the present work is to use phosphorous slag as a raw material to produce alkali-activated cement. The influence of mix proportion of phosphorous slag and fly ash, alkali content and modulus of water glass on the properties of alkali-activated phosphorous slag and fly ash cement (AA-PS-FA-C was studied. The results show that AA-PS-FA-C with normal setting performance and desirable mechanical properties can be prepared using water glass as the activator. Changing the fly ash content in the range of 0-40 wt% has only a small influence on the setting time of AA-PS-FA-C. The strengths significantly decrease when the fly ash content exceeds 30 wt%. The carbonation resistance of AA-PS-FA-C is similar to that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC, while the frost resistance is much better. The hardened paste of AA-PS-FA-C is much more compact than OPC paste.

  8. Active Fault Tolerant Control of Livestock Stable Ventilation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    degraded performance even in the faulty case. In this thesis, we have designed such controllers for climate control systems for livestock buildings in three steps: Deriving a model for the climate control system of a pig-stable. Designing a active fault diagnosis (AFD) algorithm for different kinds...... of the hybrid model are estimated by a recursive estimation algorithm, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), using experimental data which was provided by an equipped laboratory. Two methods for active fault diagnosis are proposed. The AFD methods excite the system by injecting a so-called excitation input. In both...... methods, the input is designed off-line based on a sensitivity analysis in order to improve the precision of estimation of parameters associated with faults. Two different algorithm, the EKF and a new adaptive filter, are used to estimate the parameters of the system. The fault is detected and isolated...

  9. The Effect of Alkaline Activator Ratio on the Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lăzărescu, A. V.; Szilagyi, H.; Baeră, C.; Ioani, A.

    2017-06-01

    Alkaline activation of fly ash is a particular procedure in which ash resulting from a power plant combined with a specific alkaline activator creates a solid material when dried at a certain temperature. In order to obtain desirable compressive strengths, the mix design of fly ash based geopolymer pastes should be explored comprehensively. To determine the preliminary compressive strength for fly ash based geopolymer paste using Romanian material source, various ratios of Na2SiO3 solution/ NaOH solution were produced, keeping the fly ash/alkaline activator ratio constant. All the mixes were then cured at 70 °C for 24 hours and tested at 2 and 7 days, respectively. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary compressive strength results for producing fly ash based geopolymer paste using Romanian material sources, the effect of alkaline activators ratio on the compressive strength and studying the directions for future research.

  10. Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Phlebotominae Sand Flies in Yazd and Its Outskirts, Center of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahareh Mirhoseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Phlebotominae sand flies are the main vectors of leishmaniasis and some other diseases. Materials and Methods. Using sticky traps, sand flies were collected fortnightly from outdoors and indoors areas of selected sites. Results. A total of 2032 specimens (498 in the city and 1534 in the outskirts of Yazd belonging to 11 species were collected. The activity of sand flies started in early-April and ended in mid-November. There were two peaks of activity in the end of April and mid-September. Phlebotomus sergenti and P. papatasi were the most abundant species in the city and outskirts of Yazd city, respectively. Other species were P. salehi, P. ansarii, P. kazerouni, P. caucasicus, P. andrejevi, P. alexandri, P. mongolensis, Sergentomyia sintoni, and S. palestinensis. Conclusion. In comparison to some other parts of Iran, the extended period between two peaks suggests that the larvae to adult development of sand fly were delayed by the higher temperature of the summer months in Yazd province.

  11. Potential modification of hydration of alkali activated mixtures from granulated blast furnace slag and fly ash

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomková, V.; Ovčačík, F.; Vlček, J.; Ovčačíková, H.; Topinková, M.; Vavro, M.; Martinec, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2012), s. 168-176 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0588 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : alkali-activated materials * blast furnace slag * mechanical activation * fly ash Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_02_168.pdf

  12. Microstructure and Engineering Properties of Alkali Activated Fly Ash -as an environment friendly alternative to Portland cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Alkali activated fly ash (AAFA), also named “geopolymer”, has emerged as a novel engineering material in the construction industry. This material is normally formed by the reaction between fly ash and aqueous hydroxide or alkali silicate solution. With proper mix design, AAFA can present comparable

  13. Durability of alkali-activated fly ash and slag concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbi Ghanmi, K.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Zuo, Y.; Ye, G.

    2016-01-01

    Alkali-activated materials (AAM) have received increasing interest during the past few decades due to their environmental and technological advantages. However the durability of these binders is still considered as an unproven issue that needs to be addressed before their commercial adoption and

  14. Alkali-activated concrete with Serbian fly ash and its radiological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccetelli, Cristina; Trevisi, Rosabianca; Ignjatović, Ivan; Dragaš, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    The present paper reports the results of a study on different types of fly ash from Serbian coal burning power plants and their potential use as a binder in alkali-activated concrete (AAC) depending on their radiological and mechanical properties. Five AAC mixtures with different types of coal burning fly ash and one type of blast furnace slag were designed. Measurements of the activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th were done both on concrete constituents (fly ash, blast furnace slag and aggregate) and on the five solid AAC samples. Experimental results were compared by using the activity concentration assessment tool for building materials - the activity concentration index I, as introduced by the EU Basic Safety Standards (CE, 2014). All five designed alkali-activated concretes comply with EU BSS screening requirements for indoor building materials. Finally, index I values were compared with the results of the application of a more accurate index - I(ρd), which accounts for thickness and density of building materials (Nuccetelli et al., 2015a). Considering the actual density and thickness of each concrete sample index - I(ρd) values are lower than index I values. As an appendix, a synthesis of main results concerning mechanical and chemical properties is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recycling of Sustainable Co-Firing Fly Ashes as an Alkali Activator for GGBS in Blended Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann-Hwang Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the feasibility of co-firing fly ashes from different boilers, circulating fluidized beds (CFB or stokers as a sustainable material in alkali activators for ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. The mixture ratio of GGBS and co-firing fly ashes is 1:1 by weight. The results indicate that only CF fly ash of CFB boilers can effectively stimulate the potential characteristics of GGBS and provide strength as an alkali activator. CF fly ash consists of CaO3 (48.5%, SiO2 (21.1%, Al2O3 (13.8%, SO3 (10.06%, Fe2O3 (2.25% and others (4.29%. SA fly ash consists of Al2O3 (19.7%, SiO2 (36.3%, Fe2O3 (28.4% and others (15.6%. SB fly ash consists of Al2O3 (15%, SiO2 (25.4%, Zn (20.6%, SO3 (10.9%, Fe2O3 (8.78% and others (19.32%. The mixtures of SA fly ash and SB fly ash with GGBS, respectively, were damaged in the compressive strength test during seven days of curing. However, the built up strength of the CF fly ash and GGBS mixture can only be maintained for 7–14 days, and the compressive strength achieves 70% of that of a controlled group (cement in hardening cement paste. The strength of blended CF fly ash and GGBS started to decrease after 28 days, and the phenomenon of ettrigite was investigated due to the high levels of sulfur content. The CaO content in sustainable co-firing fly ashes must be higher than a certain percentage in reacting GGBS to ensure the strength of blended cements.

  16. Recycling of Sustainable Co-Firing Fly Ashes as an Alkali Activator for GGBS in Blended Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yann-Hwang; Huang, Ran; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Lin, Wei-Ting

    2015-02-16

    This study investigates the feasibility of co-firing fly ashes from different boilers, circulating fluidized beds (CFB) or stokers as a sustainable material in alkali activators for ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). The mixture ratio of GGBS and co-firing fly ashes is 1:1 by weight. The results indicate that only CF fly ash of CFB boilers can effectively stimulate the potential characteristics of GGBS and provide strength as an alkali activator. CF fly ash consists of CaO₃ (48.5%), SiO₂ (21.1%), Al₂O₃ (13.8%), SO₃ (10.06%), Fe₂O₃ (2.25%) and others (4.29%). SA fly ash consists of Al₂O₃ (19.7%), SiO₂ (36.3%), Fe2O3 (28.4%) and others (15.6%). SB fly ash consists of Al₂O₃ (15%), SiO₂ (25.4%), Zn (20.6%), SO₃ (10.9%), Fe₂O₃ (8.78%) and others (19.32%). The mixtures of SA fly ash and SB fly ash with GGBS, respectively, were damaged in the compressive strength test during seven days of curing. However, the built up strength of the CF fly ash and GGBS mixture can only be maintained for 7-14 days, and the compressive strength achieves 70% of that of a controlled group (cement in hardening cement paste). The strength of blended CF fly ash and GGBS started to decrease after 28 days, and the phenomenon of ettrigite was investigated due to the high levels of sulfur content. The CaO content in sustainable co-firing fly ashes must be higher than a certain percentage in reacting GGBS to ensure the strength of blended cements.

  17. Recycling of Sustainable Co-Firing Fly Ashes as an Alkali Activator for GGBS in Blended Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yann-Hwang; Huang, Ran; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Lin, Wei-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of co-firing fly ashes from different boilers, circulating fluidized beds (CFB) or stokers as a sustainable material in alkali activators for ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). The mixture ratio of GGBS and co-firing fly ashes is 1:1 by weight. The results indicate that only CF fly ash of CFB boilers can effectively stimulate the potential characteristics of GGBS and provide strength as an alkali activator. CF fly ash consists of CaO3 (48.5%), SiO2 (21.1%), Al2O3 (13.8%), SO3 (10.06%), Fe2O3 (2.25%) and others (4.29%). SA fly ash consists of Al2O3 (19.7%), SiO2 (36.3%), Fe2O3 (28.4%) and others (15.6%). SB fly ash consists of Al2O3 (15%), SiO2 (25.4%), Zn (20.6%), SO3 (10.9%), Fe2O3 (8.78%) and others (19.32%). The mixtures of SA fly ash and SB fly ash with GGBS, respectively, were damaged in the compressive strength test during seven days of curing. However, the built up strength of the CF fly ash and GGBS mixture can only be maintained for 7–14 days, and the compressive strength achieves 70% of that of a controlled group (cement in hardening cement paste). The strength of blended CF fly ash and GGBS started to decrease after 28 days, and the phenomenon of ettrigite was investigated due to the high levels of sulfur content. The CaO content in sustainable co-firing fly ashes must be higher than a certain percentage in reacting GGBS to ensure the strength of blended cements. PMID:28787970

  18. Activated host neutrophils in the larval midgut lumen of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Antônio C R; Evangelista, L G

    2002-04-01

    Light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils from mammalian hosts as well as invading bacteria in the midgut lumen of larvae of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis. Other resident or recruited cells associated with dermal myiasis were fed on by larvae and digested more rapidly than neutrophils. The latter were observed moving towards bacteria and particles of food, extending the filopodia and engulfing material to be digested within phagosomes. The larval midgut lumen, thus, appears to be a suitable environment to produce neutrophil activation at least for short periods, as seen in mammalian hosts. Although interactions between phagocytes and bacteria in the midgut lumen may be important in bot fly larval development, further studies are required to confirm this.

  19. Tailoring fly ash activated with bentonite as adsorbent for complex wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visa, Maria, E-mail: maria.visa@unitbv.ro [Transilvania University of Brasov, Department Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spent adsorbent annealed at 500 Degree-Sign C can be a suggestion for padding in stone blocks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cations can be adsorbent by the silanol group (Si-OH) of the layers from bentonite Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper has a higher affinity for the active sites on adsorbent FAw + B than cadmium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This substrate can be recommended for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and MB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAw + B is recommended for wastewater treatment resulted in the dyes finishing industry. - Abstract: Used as adsorbent, alkali fly ash represents a low cost solution for advanced wastewater treatment. The alkali treatment raises sustainability issues therefore, in this research we aim to replace alkali fly ash with washed fly ash (FAw). For improving the adsorption capacity of washed fly ash, bentonite powder (B) was added, as a natural adsorbent with a composition almost identical to the fly ash. The new adsorbent was characterized by AFM, XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDS and the surface energy was evaluated by contact angle measurements. For understanding the complex adsorption process on this mixed substrate, preliminary tests were developed on synthetic wastewaters containing a single pollutant system (heavy metal), binary (two-heavy metals) and ternary (dye and two heavy metals) systems. Experiments were done on synthetic wastewaters containing methylene blue, cadmium and copper, using FAw, B and their powder mixtures. The pseudo-second order kinetics could well model all the processes, indicating a good adsorbent material which can be used for the pollutants removal from wastewater. After adsorption the substrates loaded with pollutants, annealed at 500 Degree-Sign C can be reused for padding in stone blocks.

  20. Experimental study on workability of alkali activated fly ash and slag-based geopolymer concretes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbi, K.A.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Zuo, Y.; Grunewald, S.; Keulen, A.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on workability and strength of geopolymer concrete made of fly ash (FA), blast furnace slag (BFS) and a multicompound activator of Na2SiO3 and NaOH solutions. The FA/BFS ratios were 100:0, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70 and 0:100. The workability of geopolymer

  1. Effect of Alkaline Activator to Fly Ash Ratio for Geopolymer Stabilized Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Muhammad Sofian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer technology have been developed and explored especially in the construction material field. However, lack of research related to geopolymer stabilized soil. In this research, the utilization of geopolymer has been investigated to stabilize the soil including the factors that affecting the geopolymerization process. Unconfined compressive test (UCT used as indicator to the strength development and hence evaluating the performance of geopolymer stabilized soil. This paper focusing on the effect of fly ash/alkaline activator ratio, Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio and curing time on geopolymer stabilized soil. A various mix design at different fly ash/alkaline activator ratio, Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio were prepared and cured for 7 and 28 days. Molarity and the percentage of geopolymer to soil were fixed at 10 molar and 8 percent respectively. Then, the UCT tests were carried out on 38mm diameter x 76mm height specimens. The highest strength obtained at the fly ash/alkaline activator ratio 2.5 and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio 2.0 at 28 days curing time.

  2. Investigation of the factors affecting adult fly production in biosolid cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadour, Ian R; Voss, Sasha C

    2009-06-01

    The seasonal pattern of adult fly production in both fresh and aged biosolid cake was established by the exposure of biosolid cake to natural conditions in the central coastal region of Perth, Western Australia, over the course of a year. Relationships between fly emergence and six factors (weeks exposed, pH, NH(4), rainfall, temperature, and moisture) suspected of facilitating the attraction of adult flies to biosolid cake were measured. The aim was to study the production of adult flies with regard to weeks exposed in different seasons to establish a "best practice" storage procedure for aged biosolid cake. Four fly species were collected during the study; Musca domestica L. (house fly), Stomoxys calcitrans L. (stable fly), Fannia canicularis L. (lesser house fly), and Muscina stabulans (Fallén) (false stable fly). Of the 5,303 flies identified, >97% of these were either M. domestica or S. calcitrans. Adult flies emerged from biosolid cake all year round with a sharp decline in winter. The number of emerged flies peaked in summer (3,163 flies) and declined during autumn (1,545 flies) and spring (532 flies). Significant positive relationships were observed between the number of adult flies emerging from biosolid cake and ambient temperature, NH(4) content, and weeks exposed. Higher ambient temperatures and a higher NH(4) content of the biosolid cake were associated with increased number of adult flies emerging from the biosolid cake. Similarly, the majority of flies emerged from biosolid cake in the first 10 wk of exposure to fly activity.

  3. The role of the fly ash pozzolanic activity in simulated sulfate radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, A.; Hernandez, M.S.; Goni, S.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of the very concentrated sulfated salts that accompanied the low (LLW) and medium level wastes (MLW), on the cementitious characteristics of materials employed in the Spanish disposal are discussed. The study was carried out according to the Koch-Steinegger test, at the temperature of 40 C during a period of 365 days. Samples of a specific backfilling fly ash-pozzolanic-cement mortar, were immersed in a simulated radioactive liquid waste very rich in sulfate (2.05 M) and sodium (4.1 M) ions. In addition to the mechanical behavior, the changes of the microstructure characteristics of the mortar were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and extracted pore solution analyses. The results showed the important role played by the fly ash possolanic reactivity which is activated markedly by the ingress of sulfate and sodium ions towards the porous microstructure. Accordingly, the porosity is strongly refined and the mechanical properties enhanced

  4. Short communication: Relationship between serum cortisol concentration and defensive behavioral responses of dairy cows exposed to natural infestation by stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitela-Mendoza, I; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Solano-Vergara, J; Orihuela-Trujillo, A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of natural infestation by Stomoxys calcitrans on the behavioral and adrenocortical responses of dairy cattle. Twenty Holstein cows randomly selected were individually sprayed with insecticide once every 7d, whereas no insecticide was applied to the other 20 animals. The average number of flies per cow was estimated daily, and the frequency of fly-avoidance behaviors was measured daily; plasma cortisol concentration was measured each morning. No flies were ever counted on the treated cows at any time during the experiment, whereas an average of 17.13±1.14 (±standard error) flies/d were recorded on untreated cows. Tail movement was the most frequent behavior displayed, with stamps or kicks showing the highest increment rate (41.2×) when fly population increased from zero to greater than 51 flies/cow. Cortisol concentration increased to a maximum of 56.81±39.53ng/mL with 26 to 30 flies/cow per day. Coefficients of determination between the number of flies, cortisol concentration, tail movements, and stamps or kicks were 0.73, 0.78, and 0.81, respectively. The multiple correlation coefficient was 0.90, with 81% of the variation in cortisol concentration explainable by variation in the number of flies per cow and the frequency of fly-avoidance behaviors. It was concluded that plasma cortisol concentration is linearly related to a combination of the number of flies and the frequency of fly-dislodging behaviors, producing a maximum response before reaching maximum fly loads. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adsorptive removal of organics from aqueous phase by acid-activated coal fly ash: preparation, adsorption, and Fenton regenerative valorization of "spent" adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Hao, Linlin; Chen, Jiaqing; Zhao, Qiang; Xu, Han

    2018-02-20

    Raw coal fly ash was activated to an adsorbent by sulfuric acid impregnation. The activation condition, the adsorption capacity, and the regenerative valorization of the adsorbent were studied. The results show that the optimal preparation conditions of the adsorbent are [H 2 SO 4 ] = 1 mol L -1 , activation time = 30 min, the ratio of coal fly ash to acid = 1:20 (g:mL), calcination temperature = 100 °C. The adsorption of p-nitrophenol on the adsorbent accords with the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and the adsorption rate constant is 0.089 g mg -1  min -1 . The adsorption on this adsorbent can be considered enough after 35 min, when the corresponding adsorption capacity is 1.07 mg g -1 (85.6% of p-nitrophenol removal). Compared with raw coal fly ash, the adsorbent has a stable adsorption performance at low pH range (pH = 1-6) and the adsorption of p-nitrophenol is an exothermic process. Ninety minutes is required for the regenerative valorization of saturated adsorbent by Fenton process. The regenerative valorization for this saturated adsorbent can reach 89% under the optimal proposed conditions (30 °C, pH = 3, [H 2 O 2 ] = 5.0 mmol L -1 , [Fe 2+ ] = 5.5 mmol L -1 ). Within 15 experimental runs, the adsorbent has a better and better stability with the increase of experimental runs. Finally, the mechanism of activating coal fly ash is proposed, being verified by the results of the SEM and BET test.

  6. The oncogenic EWS-FLI1 protein binds in vivo GGAA microsatellite sequences with potential transcriptional activation function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noëlle Guillon

    Full Text Available The fusion between EWS and ETS family members is a key oncogenic event in Ewing tumors and important EWS-FLI1 target genes have been identified. However, until now, the search for EWS-FLI1 targets has been limited to promoter regions and no genome-wide comprehensive analysis of in vivo EWS-FLI1 binding sites has been undertaken. Using a ChIP-Seq approach to investigate EWS-FLI1-bound DNA sequences in two Ewing cell lines, we show that this chimeric transcription factor preferentially binds two types of sequences including consensus ETS motifs and microsatellite sequences. Most bound sites are found outside promoter regions. Microsatellites containing more than 9 GGAA repeats are very significantly enriched in EWS-FLI1 immunoprecipitates. Moreover, in reporter gene experiments, the transcription activation is highly dependent upon the number of repeats that are included in the construct. Importantly, in vivo EWS-FLI1-bound microsatellites are significantly associated with EWS-FLI1-driven gene activation. Put together, these results point out the likely contribution of microsatellite elements to long-distance transcription regulation and to oncogenesis.

  7. Automated locomotor activity monitoring as a quality control assay for mass-reared tephritid flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Fanson, Benjamin G; Collins, Samuel R; Taylor, Phillip W

    2014-02-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) requires vast numbers of consistently high quality insects to be produced over long periods. Quality control (QC) procedures are critical to effective SIT, both providing quality assurance and warning of operational deficiencies. We here present a potential new QC assay for mass rearing of Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt) for SIT; locomotor activity monitoring. We investigated whether automated locomotor activity monitors (LAMs) that simply detect how often a fly passes an infrared sensor in a glass tube might provide similar insights but with much greater economy. Activity levels were generally lower for females than for males, and declined over five days in the monitor for both sexes. Female activity levels were not affected by irradiation, but males irradiated at 60 or 70 Gy had reduced activity levels compared with unirradiated controls. We also found some evidence that mild heat shock of pupae results in adults with reduced activity. LAM offers a convenient, effective and economical assay to probe such changes. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Species composition and activity patterns of sand flies (Psycodidae: Phlebotomine) in four tehsils of Dir Districts, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Naheed; Khan, Khurshaid; Wahid, Sobia; Khan, Nazma Habib; Shah, Safeer Ullah

    2016-04-01

    The present study reports sand flies species composition, fauna diversity and seasonal variations from four tehsils of Dir Districts, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Collection was made using sticky traps, flit method and aspiration where highest number of sand flies was captured through sticky traps. Digitalized sand flies distribution maps were produced using geographic information system ArcGIS. A total of 7292 specimens were captured between January to December 2014, comprised of 11 Sergentomyia and 9 Phlebotomus. Phlebotomus salengensis was the most abundant species followed by Phlebotomus sergenti. Overall, male to female ratio observed was 3:1 and species diversity varied among the studied tehsils. Highest abundance was recorded in July and August, whereas the flies disappeared in the colder months (November-April) of the year. Information about insect vector behaviour in natural setting is required to understand the status of disease caused by them. This study is a thorough account of biodiversity of sand flies in the region and provides a useful insight in to identifying potential breeding preferences of sand flies and recognition of active and potential vector species in the Dir districts. Further large scale studies are needed to determine the behaviour, infection rate, and the natural reservoir hosts of sand fly vectors in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvara, Frantisek; Kopecky, Lubomir; Smilauer, Vit; Bittnar, Zdenek

    2009-01-01

    The waste low-calcium Czech brown coal fly ash represents a considerable environmental burden due to the quantities produced and the potentially high content of leachable heavy metals. The heterogeneous microstucture of the geopolymer M n [-(Si-O) z -Al-O] n .wH 2 O, that forms during the alkaline activation, was examined by means of microcalorimetry, XRD, TGA, DSC, MIP, FTIR, NMR MAS ( 29 Si, 27 Al, 23 Na), ESEM, EDS, and EBSD. The leaching of heavy metals and the evolution of compressive strength were also monitored. The analysis of raw fly ash identified a number of different morphologies, unequal distribution of elements, Fe-rich rim, high internal porosity, and minor crystalline phases of mullite and quartz. Microcalorimetry revealed exothermic reactions with dependence on the activator alkalinity. The activation energy of the geopolymerization process was determined as 86.2 kJ/mol. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed no additional crystalline phases associated with geopolymer formation. Over several weeks, the 29 Si NMR spectrum testified a high degree of polymerization and Al penetration into the SiO 4 tetrahedra. The 23 Na NMR MAS spectrum hypothesized that sodium is bound in the form of Na(H 2 O) n rather than Na + , thus causing efflorescence in a moisture-gradient environment. As and Cr 6+ are weakly bonded in the geopolymer matrix, while excellent immobilization of Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Cr 3+ are reported.

  10. Alkali activated fly ash binders. A comparative study between sodium and potassium activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado, M.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the effect of the nature of some alkaline activators in the microstructural development of thermal-alkali activated f/y ash systems. The alkaline compounds employed in this investigation were: NaOH, KOH, Na2C03, K2C03, sodium silicate and potassium silicate. Results confirm that the main reaction product of the activation process (throughout the studied systems is the amorphous alkaline aluminosilicate gel with a three-dimensional structure already observed in earlier research. It has been proved that the type of anion and cation involved in the activation reaction of the ashes not only affects the microstructural development of the systems but the Si/Al ratio of that prezeolitic gel too. For example, in the presence of soluble silicate ions the content of Si in the final structure is notably increased (Si/Al =2.7-3.0, however carbonate ions play a different role since the formation of Sodium or Potassium carbonate/bicarbonate acidifies the system and consequently the reaction rate is considerably slowed. Finally it is evident that; when all experimental conditions are equal, sodium has a greater capacity than potassium to accelerate the setting and hardening reactions of fly ash and also to stimulate the growth of certain zeolitic crystals (reaction by-products. In general it can be affirmed that OH- ion acts as a reaction catalyst; and the alkaline metal (M+ acts as a structure-forming element.Este trabajo muestra el efecto de la naturaleza del activador alcalino en el desarrollo microestructural de sistemas de ceniza volante, activados térmica y alcalinamente. Los componentes alcalinos empleados en esta investigación fueron: NaOH, KOH, Na2C03, K2C03, silicato sódico y silicato potásico. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el principal producto de reacción del proceso de activación (a través de los sistemas estudiados es un gel de aluminosilicato alcalino amorfo con estructura tridimensional ya observada en trabajos

  11. Cell-to-cell heterogeneity of EWSR1-FLI1 activity determines proliferation/migration choices in Ewing sarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, G-A; Laud-Duval, K; van der Ent, W; Brisac, A; Irondelle, M; Aubert, S; Dirksen, U; Bouvier, C; de Pinieux, G; Snaar-Jagalska, E; Chavrier, P; Delattre, O

    2017-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is characterized by the expression of the chimeric EWSR1-FLI1 transcription factor. Proteomic analyses indicate that the decrease of EWSR1-FLI1 expression leads to major changes in effectors of the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton and the adhesion processes with a shift from cell-to-cell to cell-matrix adhesion. These changes are associated with a dramatic increase of in vivo cell migration and invasion potential. Importantly, EWSR1-FLI1 expression, evaluated by single-cell RT-ddPCR/immunofluorescence analyses, and activity, assessed by expression of EWSR1-FLI1 downstream targets, are heterogeneous in cell lines and in tumours and can fluctuate along time in a fully reversible process between EWSR1-FLI1high states, characterized by highly active cell proliferation, and EWSR1-FLI1low states where cells have a strong propensity to migrate, invade and metastasize. This new model of phenotypic plasticity proposes that the dynamic fluctuation of the expression level of a dominant oncogene is an intrinsic characteristic of its oncogenic potential. PMID:28135250

  12. Anti-complement activity in the saliva of phlebotomine sand flies and other haematophagous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, R R; Pereira, M H; Gontijo, N F

    2003-07-01

    The saliva of haematophagous insects has a series of pharmacological activities which may favour blood feeding. In the present study, an inhibitory effect on the complement system was observed in salivary extracts obtained from the phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. migonei. Saliva from Lu. longipalpis was capable of inhibiting both the classical and alternative pathways, while that from Lu. migonei acted only on the former. Other haematophagous insect species were screened for inhibition of the classical pathway. The triatomine bugs Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma brasiliensis and Rhodnius prolixus were also able to inhibit the classical pathway whereas the mosquito Aedes aegyti and flea Ctenocephalides felis were not. The activity of Lu. longipalpis saliva on the classical pathway was partially characterized. The inhibitor is a protein of Mr 10000-30000 Da, which is very resistant to denaturation by heat. The inhibition of the complement system by phlebotomine sand flies may have a role in the transmission of Leishmania to the vertebrate hosts. The inhibitor molecule is thus a promising component of a vaccine to target salivary immunomodulators.

  13. Comparative study on early strength of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) activated fly ash based geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Zarina; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Talib, Siti Zulaikha Abd; Razak, Rafiza Abd

    2017-09-01

    The urge to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission has encourage researchers to introduce environmental friendly binder or known as geopolymer. This new binder was produced by mixing source materials rich in silica and alumina with alkaline liquids. For this study, class F fly ash was used as source material with two different types of alkaline activator; sodium hydroxide (NaOH) only and a combination of water glass with NaOH. The different concentration of the NaOH solutions (8M, 10M, 12M and 14M) is used in the production of geopolymer. The parameters such as curing regime, solid/liquid ratio, and water glass/NaOH ratio are controlled in the study. The samples with combination of NaOH and water glass as alkaline activator were prepared by mixing these two solution and stirred for 2 minutes. Then this solution were mixed together with fly ash for 3 minutes and casted in the mould. The performance of the fly ash based geopolymer are evaluated by the compressive strength, water absorption and density at the early age of 1th, 3th and 7th days. Based on the study, at a concentration of 14M on 7th days had achieved the maximum compressive strength of 7.1 MPa for samples activated with NaOH only. Meanwhile, for geopolymer samples activated with a combination of the water glass and NaOH, the maximum strength of 33.33 MPa was recorded on 7th days of testing with NaOH concentration of 12 M. The water absorption for all geopolymer samples were ranging from 2.04 % to 2.78%, which are below the limit (3%). While the density of the geopolymer paste were in the range of 1552 kg/m3 to 1680 kg/m3, which are below the limit (2400 kg/m3). From the standpoint of strength of hardened geopolymer samples, the most effective alkaline activator in geopolymer is the combination of NaOH and water glass.

  14. Study on physical-mechanical properties of alkali activated materials based on fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Halas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkali activated materials are relatively new materials, thanks to their good mechanical, physical, thermal properties and at the same time environmental friendliness, they could be widely adopted in different fields. The experiments, described in this article, are focused on the investigation of some basic mechanical-physical properties of alkali activated materials based on fly ash. For the following experiments were prepared two types of samples: in form of cubes and beams. On the cubes was tested compressive strength and on the beams – bending tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the material. It was also investigated the influence of water glass modulus, temperature of heat treatment on the final strength of the samples.

  15. Enhanced static ground power unit based on flying capacitor based h-bridge hybrid active-neutral-point-clamped converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abarzadeh, Mostafa; Madadi Kojabadi, Hossein; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages of the p......Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages...

  16. Seasonal changes in activity patterns of Japanese flying squirrel Pteromys momonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kei K; Ando, Motokazu

    2017-10-01

    Seasonal changes of activity patterns are an important survival strategy for several species. Seasonal changes in the activity patterns of Japanese flying squirrels (Pteromys momonga) were studied at Daibosatsu Mountain on Honshu Island, Japan from 2 June to 20 November 2007 and 11 April to 14 November 2008, to discuss their survival strategy based on the change. Activity patterns were assessed using long-term sensor camera traps at 214 sites for 14 months of a 2-year period. The cameras were placed for a total of 7317 camera trap nights over which total of 90 photographs of this species were collected from 22 of the 214 sites. Although distinct nocturnal activity was detected throughout the study period, activity patterns differed between temperate (June-September) and cold (April, May, October, and November) seasons. So, activity peaks were found to be bimodal during the temperate seasons and trimodal during the cold seasons. It is possible that the squirrels reduce their activity times per bout during the cold seasons to reduce energy loss arising from prolonged exposure to cold temperatures, as a survival strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Daily Physical Activity in Stable Heart Failure Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, Manon L.; van der Wal, M.H.L.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Brugemann, Johan; Jaarsma, Tiny; Wijtvliet, Petra E. P. J.; van der Schans, Cees P.; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is the only nonpharmacological therapy that is proven to be effective in heart failure (HF) patients in reducing morbidity. To date, little is known about the levels of daily physical activity in HF patients and about related factors. Objective: The objectives of this

  18. Impact of activator type on the immobilisation of lead in fly ash-based geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sujeong; van Riessen, Arie; Chon, Chul-Min; Kang, Nam-Hee; Jou, Hyeong-Tae; Kim, Youn-Joong

    2016-03-15

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in geopolymers has attracted attention as a potential means of treating toxic wastes. Lead is known to be effectively immobilised in a geopolymer matrix, but detailed explanation for the mechanisms involved and the specific chemical form of lead are not fully understood. To reveal the effect of the activator types on the immobilisation of lead in geopolymers, 0.5 and 1.0wt% lead in the form of lead nitrate was mixed with fly ash and alkaline activators. Different alkaline activators (either combined sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate or sodium aluminate) were used to achieve the target Si:Al ratios 2.0 and 5.0 in geopolymers. Zeolite was formed in aluminate-activated geopolymers having a Si:Al ratio of 2.0, but the zeolite crystallization was suppressed as lead content increased. No specific crystalline phase of lead was detected by X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction or FT-IR spectrometry. In fact, double Cs corrected TEM analysis revealed that lead was evenly distributed with no evidence of formation of a specific lead compound. A sequential extraction procedure for fractionation of lead showed that lead did not exist as an exchangeable ion in geopolymers, regardless of activator type used. Aluminate activation is shown to be superior in the immobilisation of lead because about 99% of extracted lead existed in the oxidizing and residual fractions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stable aqueous dispersions of optically and electronically active phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joohoon; Wells, Spencer A; Wood, Joshua D; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Liu, Xiaolong; Ryder, Christopher R; Zhu, Jian; Guest, Jeffrey R; Husko, Chad A; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-10-18

    Understanding and exploiting the remarkable optical and electronic properties of phosphorene require mass production methods that avoid chemical degradation. Although solution-based strategies have been developed for scalable exfoliation of black phosphorus, these techniques have thus far used anhydrous organic solvents in an effort to minimize exposure to known oxidants, but at the cost of limited exfoliation yield and flake size distribution. Here, we present an alternative phosphorene production method based on surfactant-assisted exfoliation and postprocessing of black phosphorus in deoxygenated water. From comprehensive microscopic and spectroscopic analysis, this approach is shown to yield phosphorene dispersions that are stable, highly concentrated, and comparable to micromechanically exfoliated phosphorene in structure and chemistry. Due to the high exfoliation efficiency of this process, the resulting phosphorene flakes are thinner than anhydrous organic solvent dispersions, thus allowing the observation of layer-dependent photoluminescence down to the monolayer limit. Furthermore, to demonstrate preservation of electronic properties following solution processing, the aqueous-exfoliated phosphorene flakes are used in field-effect transistors with high drive currents and current modulation ratios. Overall, this method enables the isolation and mass production of few-layer phosphorene, which will accelerate ongoing efforts to realize a diverse range of phosphorene-based applications.

  20. Activity of Proteus mirabilis FliL is viscosity dependent and requires extragenic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Patellis, Julius; Belas, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a urinary tract pathogen and well known for its ability to move over agar surfaces by flagellum-dependent swarming motility. When P. mirabilis encounters a highly viscous environment, e.g., an agar surface, it differentiates from short rods with few flagella to elongated, highly flagellated cells that lack septa and contain multiple nucleoids. The bacteria detect a surface by monitoring the rotation of their flagellar motors. This process involves an enigmatic flagellar protein called FliL, the first gene in an operon (fliLMNOPQR) that encodes proteins of the flagellar rotor switch complex and flagellar export apparatus. We used a fliL knockout mutant to gain further insight into the function of FliL. Loss of FliL results in cells that cannot swarm (Swr(-)) but do swim (Swm(+)) and produces cells that look like wild-type swarmer cells, termed "pseudoswarmer cells," that are elongated, contain multiple nucleoids, and lack septa. Unlike swarmer cells, pseudoswarmer cells are not hyperflagellated due to reduced expression of flaA (the gene encoding flagellin), despite an increased transcription of both flhD and fliA, two positive regulators of flagellar gene expression. We found that defects in fliL prevent viscosity-dependent sensing of a surface and viscosity-dependent induction of flaA transcription. Studies with fliL cells unexpectedly revealed that the fliL promoter, fliL coding region, and a portion of fliM DNA are needed to complement the Swr(-) phenotype. The data support a dual role for FliL as a critical link in sensing a surface and in the maintenance of flagellar rod integrity.

  1. Stable cellular senescence is associated with persistent DDR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Marzia; Rossiello, Francesca; Mondello, Chiara; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is activated upon DNA damage generation to promote DNA repair and inhibit cell cycle progression in the presence of a lesion. Cellular senescence is a permanent cell cycle arrest characterized by persistent DDR activation. However, some reports suggest that DDR activation is a feature only of early cellular senescence that is then lost with time. This challenges the hypothesis that cellular senescence is caused by persistent DDR activation. To address this issue, we studied DDR activation dynamics in senescent cells. Here we show that normal human fibroblasts retain DDR markers months after replicative senescence establishment. Consistently, human fibroblasts from healthy aged donors display markers of DDR activation even three years in culture after entry into replicative cellular senescence. However, by extending our analyses to different human cell strains, we also observed an apparent DDR loss with time following entry into cellular senescence. This though correlates with the inability of these cell strains to survive in culture upon replicative or irradiation-induced cellular senescence. We propose a model to reconcile these results. Cell strains not suffering the prolonged in vitro culture stress retain robust DDR activation that persists for years, indicating that under physiological conditions persistent DDR is causally involved in senescence establishment and maintenance. However, cell strains unable to maintain cell viability in vitro, due to their inability to cope with prolonged cell culture-associated stress, show an only-apparent reduction in DDR foci which is in fact due to selective loss of the most damaged cells.

  2. Hydraulic activity of belite cement from class C coal fly ash. Effect of curing and admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero, A.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing method and a water-reducing additive on the hydraulic activity of high lime content (ASTM type C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W is reported. A class C fly ash was subjected to hydrothermal treatment and subsequent calcination to synthesize FABC. Hydraulic activity was evaluated in the cement paste over 180 days from the physically bound water content as determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the degree of hydration, in turn found with X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Mechanical strength, porosity and pore size distribution were also studied in equivalent mortar samples.En este trabajo se discute la influencia del tipo de curado y de un aditivo reductor de la demanda de agua en la actividad hidráulica de un cemento belítico de cenizas volantes de alto contenido en cal denominado (CBCV-2-A. Este cemento ha sido sintetizado por una ruta húmeda hidrotermal con posterior calcinación, empleando ceniza volante de alto contenido en cal (ASTM tipo C como materia prima. La actividad hidráulica se ha estudiado en la pasta de cemento, durante un periodo de 180 días, por medio del contenido de agua combinada, determinada por análisis termogravimétrico, y el grado de hidratación por difracción de rayos X (DRX. La resistencia mecánica y la porosidad total y distribución de tamaño de poro se han estudiado en probetas equivalentes de mortero

  3. Fauna and Monthly Activity of Sand flies in The Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Bushehr District (2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Forouzani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is one of the endemic diseases in Bushehr Province, which its prevalence has increased in some districts, as well as Bushehr district recently. This is essential to access minute information about epidemiology of diseases (Parasite, Vector, Reservior, in order to achieve effective control of disease. One of the basic information in respect of controlling measures, is the knowledge and information of fauna and monthly activities of vectors which is essential, because ignoring of different biological aspects of vectors, could cause failure to control strategies. Methods: This is a descriptive- cross sectional study, carried out in four villages of Bushehr district (2007-2008 which were affected by cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Sand flies were collected by standard sticky traps, and identified by electric microscope, using reliable identification keys. Results: Sixteen species. (six Phelebotomus and ten Sergentomyia were identified from a total of 15952 sand flies caught for this study, out of which eight species are reported for the first time in Bushehr district, namely: Phelobotomus mongolensis, P.caucasicus, P.ansari, Sergentomyia tiberiadis, S.clydei, S.antenata, S.iranica, S.palestiensis. Monthly activity of sand flies starts in mid March and ends by the end of December. The peack of sand flies monthly activities is in June, while the peack activity of P.papatasi is in the end of July. Conclusion: Considering nine months activity period of sand flies in Bushehr district, and their peack of activities, specially for P.paptasi, it is suggested that the controlling measures to be administrated in July.

  4. Active structural control with stable fuzzy PID techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed discussion of intelligent techniques to measure the displacement of buildings when they are subjected to vibration. It shows how these techniques are used to control active devices that can reduce vibration 60–80% more effectively than widely used passive anti-seismic systems. After introducing various structural control devices and building-modeling and active structural control methods, the authors propose offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques to solve some common problems of building-displacement measurement using accelerometers. The most popular control algorithms in industrial settings, PD/PID controllers, are then analyzed and then combined with fuzzy compensation. The stability of this combination is proven with standard weight-training algorithms. These conditions provide explicit methods for selecting PD/PID controllers. Finally, fuzzy-logic and sliding-mode control are applied to the control of wind-induced vibration. The methods described are support...

  5. Impact of activator type on the immobilisation of lead in fly ash-based geopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sujeong [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Riessen, Arie van, E-mail: A.VanRiessen@curtin.edu.au [Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Chon, Chul-Min [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Nam-Hee [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Jou, Hyeong-Tae [Maritime Security Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Joong [Division of Electron Microscopic Research, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The type of alkaline activator critically influences the lead immobilisation capability. • Aluminate-activated geopolymers are more suitable for binding lead in the gel. • When a greater amount of Al contributes to the localized negative charge the tight lead is more tightly bound. • Lead disperses randomly forming no specific chemical compound with silicon. - Abstract: Immobilisation of heavy metals in geopolymers has attracted attention as a potential means of treating toxic wastes. Lead is known to be effectively immobilised in a geopolymer matrix, but detailed explanation for the mechanisms involved and the specific chemical form of lead are not fully understood. To reveal the effect of the activator types on the immobilisation of lead in geopolymers, 0.5 and 1.0 wt% lead in the form of lead nitrate was mixed with fly ash and alkaline activators. Different alkaline activators (either combined sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate or sodium aluminate) were used to achieve the target Si:Al ratios 2.0 and 5.0 in geopolymers. Zeolite was formed in aluminate-activated geopolymers having a Si:Al ratio of 2.0, but the zeolite crystallization was suppressed as lead content increased. No specific crystalline phase of lead was detected by X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction or FT-IR spectrometry. In fact, double Cs corrected TEM analysis revealed that lead was evenly distributed with no evidence of formation of a specific lead compound. A sequential extraction procedure for fractionation of lead showed that lead did not exist as an exchangeable ion in geopolymers, regardless of activator type used. Aluminate activation is shown to be superior in the immobilisation of lead because about 99% of extracted lead existed in the oxidizing and residual fractions.

  6. Suitable activated stable nuclide tracer technique and its applications in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weicheng

    1989-01-01

    Stable isotopes as tracers in biology and medicine have been more extensively used. Mass spectrometry has been a classic technique in the analysis of stable isotopes because it is very sensitive and precise. Activation analysis has recently been introduced as an analytical tool. Its fast speed and simplicity is a great advantage for handling large batches of samples in isotopic tracer experiments. The combination of enriched stable isotope tracer studies and activation analysis techniques has become an ideal and reliable technique, especially in the fields of biology and medicine. This paper presents a survey of the fundamental principle, the character and the applications in biology and medicine for the suitable activated stable isotope tracer techniques

  7. Rejection of stable cultured allografts by active or passive (adoptive) immunization.

    OpenAIRE

    Vesole, D H; Dart, G A; Talmage, D W

    1982-01-01

    Injection of live lymphoid cells of donor strain or immune cells of recipient strain resulted in rejection of previously stable cultured mouse thyroid allografts. The results are interpreted to indicate that a cultured graft is relatively ineffective in activating recipient lymphocytes but is capable of maintaining them in an activated state and serving as a target for them once they are activated.

  8. Layer-by-Layer Assembly and Photocatalytic Activity of Titania Nanosheets on Coal Fly Ash Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the problem with titania distribution and recovery, series of Ti0.91O2/CFA photocatalysts (Ti0.91O2/CFA-n, n=2,4,6, and 8 were fabricated by assembling Ti0.91O2 nanosheets on coal fly ash (CFA microspheres via the layer-by-layer assembly (LBLA process and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, N2-sorption, and ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-vis techniques. The SEM images and UV-vis spectra illustrated that Ti0.91O2 nanosheets were immobilized successfully on the CFA by the LBLA approach and changed the characteristics of CFA noticeably. The photocatalytic activity of Ti0.91O2/CFA was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB under UV irradiation. The results demonstrated that Ti0.91O2/CFA-6 showed the best photocatalytic activity among the series of Ti0.91O2/CFA irradiated for 60 min, with a decoloration rate above 43%. After photocatalysis, the Ti0.91O2/CFA could be easily separated and recycled from aqueous solution and Ti0.91O2 nanosheets were still anchored on the CFA.

  9. Effects of Coal Fly Ash Particulate Matter on the Antimicrobial Activity of Airway Surface Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Buonfiglio, Luis G.; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Vanegas Calderón, Oriana G.; Borcherding, Jennifer A.; Gerke, Alicia K.; Zabner, Joseph; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sustained exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is a global cause of mortality. Coal fly ash (CFA) is a byproduct of coal combustion and is a source of anthropogenic PM with worldwide health relevance. The airway epithelia are lined with fluid called airway surface liquid (ASL), which contains antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs). Cationic AMPs bind negatively charged bacteria to exert their antimicrobial activity. PM arriving in the airways could potentially interact with AMPs in the ASL to affect their antimicrobial activity. Objectives: We hypothesized that PM can interact with ASL AMPs to impair their antimicrobial activity. Methods: We exposed pig and human airway explants, pig and human ASL, and the human cationic AMPs β-defensin-3, LL-37, and lysozyme to CFA or control. Thereafter, we assessed the antimicrobial activity of exposed airway samples using both bioluminescence and standard colony-forming unit assays. We investigated PM-AMP electrostatic interaction by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and measuring the zeta potential. We also studied the adsorption of AMPs on PM. Results: We found increased bacterial survival in CFA-exposed airway explants, ASL, and AMPs. In addition, we report that PM with a negative surface charge can adsorb cationic AMPs and form negative particle–protein complexes. Conclusion: We propose that when CFA arrives at the airway, it rapidly adsorbs AMPs and creates negative complexes, thereby decreasing the functional amount of AMPs capable of killing pathogens. These results provide a novel translational insight into an early mechanism for how ambient PM increases the susceptibility of the airways to bacterial infection. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP876 PMID:28696208

  10. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  11. Spectral sensitivity of light induced respiratory activity of photoreceptor mitochondria in the intact fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Fly Calliphora erythrocephala (white eyed) photoreceptors were investigated in intact, living animals by microspectrofluorometry in vivo. The fluorescence of mitochondrial flavoproteins was used to monitor transient changes in oxidative metabolism, which were induced by a test light following a

  12. The Biological Activity of Kumchura Rhizome to Melon Fly: I. Crude Kumchura Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhi Martono

    1996-12-01

    effects observed were larval development inhibition and delay. In the repellency tests, proportionally less melon flies were found on diet containing kumchura, but no effect on oviposition was observed.

  13. Active control of flying capacitor currents in multilevel voltage-source inverters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokeš, Petr; Semerád, Radko

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2013), s. 393-410 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : voltage source inverter (VSI) * multilevel inverter * flying capacitor Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  14. Measurement of radon activity, exhalation rate and radiation dose in fly ash and coal samples from NTPC, Badarpur, Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mamta; Verma, K.D.; Mahur, A.K.; Prasad, R.; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study radon activities and exhalation rates from fly ash and coal samples from NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) situated at Badarpur, Delhi, India, have been measured. 'Sealed Can Technique' using LR-115 type II track detectors was employed. In fly ash samples, radon activity has been found to vary from 400.0 ± 34.7 to 483.9 ± 38.1Bqm -3 with an average value of 447.1 ± 36.6 Bqm -3 and in coal samples, radon activity has been found to vary from 504.0 ± 39.0 to 932.1 ± 52.9 Bqm -3 with an average value of 687.2 ± 45.2 Bqm -3 . Radon exhalation rate from coal is found to be higher than radon exhalation rate from its ash products, whereas the opposite is expected. Indoor inhalation exposure (radon) effective dose has also been estimated. (author)

  15. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  16. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  17. Factors affecting early compressive strength of alkali activated fly ash (OPC-free concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of experimental research into the chief characteristics of a new type of concrete made solely with alkali activated fly ash (AAFA: i.e., free of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. The results of testing to determine specific properties of the fresh concrete and the development of its mechanical strength showed that most of the factors that affect the manufacture and final properties of Portland cement concrete (water/cement ratio, curing conditions, etc. also impact the preparation and final quality of this new material. A number of parameters specific to AAFA concrete (nature and concentration of alkali present in the system were also explored to determine their role in the setting and hardening process.Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una investigación experimental llevada a cabo para evaluar las principales características de un nuevo tipo de hormigón fabricado solamente con ceniza volante activada alcalinamente (AAFA; es decir, sin cemento Portland comercial (OPC. Los resultados de los ensayos realizados para determinar las propiedades específicas del hormigón fresco y el desarrollo de resistencias mecánicas mostraron que la mayoría de los factores que afectan al proceso de fabricación y a las propiedades finales de los hormigones de cemento Portland (relación agua/cemento, condiciones de curado, etc. también afectan a la preparación y calidad final de estos nuevos materiales. También fueron estudiados otros parámetros específicos de los hormigones de AAFA (la naturaleza y concentración del álcali presente en el sistema para determinar su papel en el proceso de fraguado y endurecimiento.

  18. The calcineurin activity profiles of cyclosporin and tacrolimus are different in stable renal transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, PB; Karamperis, N; Hojskov, C

    2006-01-01

    Cyclosporin and tacrolimus remain the cornerstone immunosuppressive drugs in organ transplantation. Dosing and monitoring these drugs is based on pharmacokinetic protocols, but measuring a pharmacodynamic parameter, calcineurin phosphatase (CaN) activity, could be a valuable supplement...... in determining optimal doses. Forty stable renal transplant patients were investigated three times in a 6-month period. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after oral intake of tacrolimus (FK) or cyclosporin at days 1 and 180. At day 90, one blood sample at trough level (FK) or C2 level (cyclosporin A...... significantly different effects on calcineurin activity in renal transplant patients with stable, well-functioning grafts and that tacrolimus-treated patients can maintain good, stable graft function with minimal CaN inhibition....

  19. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M; Kim, Kwang S

    2015-09-25

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m(2) g(-1) and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm(3) g(-1) and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g(-1) at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  20. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K. Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2015-09-01

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m2 g-1 and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm3 g-1 and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ˜4.2 mmol g-1 at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  1. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 1- Measured by using dehydrogenase Enzyme Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.S.; Shoman, A.A.; Elbermawy, S.M.; Abul Yazid, I.

    2000-01-01

    The present study searches for the improvement vitality of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Through the induction of a specific variance (mutation) in the genetic material. Several types of treatments that were thought to cause this mutation were used, as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, several types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. Generally, the activities of the energy enzymes alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH) enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) enzyme, when used as a direct measure for the fly vitality, increased due to treatments of the egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially by the usage of rice hulls in the larval rearing medium alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  2. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  3. Dispersive-cavity actively mode-locked fiber laser for stable radio frequency delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yitang; Wang, Ruixin; Yin, Feifei; Xu, Kun; Li, Jianqiang; Lin, Jintong

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel technique for highly stable transfer of a radio frequency (RF) comb over long optical fiber link, which is highly dispersive and is a part of an actively mode-locked fiber laser. Phase fluctuation along the fiber link, which is mainly induced by physical vibration and temperature fluctuations, is automatically compensated by the self-adapted wavelength shifting. Without phase-locking loop or any tunable parts, stable radio frequency is transferred over a 2-km fiber link, with a time jitter suppression ratio larger than 110. (letter)

  4. Horn Fly, (L., Overwintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L., is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter as active adults in normal or reduced numbers. As latitudes increase, winters are generally colder, and correspondingly, larger percentages of horn fly populations become dormant as pharate adults (a post-pupal, pre-emergent stage or die. Reports on the effect of elevation on horn fly dormancy at high elevations were contradictory. When it occurs, dormancy takes place beneath cattle dung pats and in the underlying soil. The horn fly's mode of dormancy is commonly called diapause, but the collective research on horn fly diapause (behavioral and biochemical is not conclusive. Understanding the horn fly's overwintering behaviors can lead to development of pre-dormancy insecticide spray strategies in colder latitudes while other strategies must be determined for warmer regions.

  5. Alkali-activated fly ash. Relationship between mechanical strength gains and initial ash chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated fly ash is the primary component of a new generation of high-strength, durable binders with excellent mechanical properties and durability (on occasion bettering traditional Portland cement performance. Moreover, development of these cements may contribute to mitigating CO2 emissions, since the base material is an industrial by-product. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the composition of the initial materials (SiO2/Al2O3 and Na2O/Al2O3 ratios on the mechanical properties, nature and composition of the reaction products. The results obtained indicate that there is no linear relationship between these ratios and mechanical strength, but rather a series of optimal values above and below which strength declines. In the specific case of the ratios studied in the present paper, these values were: SiO2/Al2O3= 4.0 and Na2O/Al2O3= 1.0 (molar ratios.Las cenizas volantes activadas alcalinamente constituyen la base de una nueva generación de cementos con muy interesantes propiedades mecánicas, adherentes y durables (a veces incluso mejores que las de los cementos Portland tradicionales. Adicionalmente el desarrollo de estos cementos podría contribuir a mitigar las emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera, ya que el material base de los mismos puede estar formado por subproductos industriales. En la presente investigación se realizó un estudio para determinar la influencia de la composición de los materiales iniciales (ratios SiO2/Al2O3 y Na2O/Al2O3 en las propiedades mecánicas y en la naturaleza y composición de los productos de reacción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que no existe una relación lineal de dichas ratios con las resistencias mecánicas, sino que existen unos valores óptimos, por encima y debajo de los cuales las resistencias mecánicas disminuyen. En el caso concreto de las ratios estudiadas en el presente trabajo estos valores serian: SiO2/Al2O3= 4,0 y Na2O/Al2O3= 1,0 (relaciones molares

  6. Magnetoencephalographic Activity Related to Conscious Perception Is Stable within Individuals across Years but Not between Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Barnes, Gareth Robert; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate that conscious perception is related to changes in neural activity within a time window that varies between 130 and 320 msec after stimulus presentation, yet it is not known whether such neural correlates of conscious perception are stable across time. Here, we examined the gener......Studies indicate that conscious perception is related to changes in neural activity within a time window that varies between 130 and 320 msec after stimulus presentation, yet it is not known whether such neural correlates of conscious perception are stable across time. Here, we examined...... the generalization across time within individuals and across different individuals. We trained classification algorithms to decode conscious perception from neural activity recorded during binocular rivalry using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The classifiers were then used to predict the perception of the same...

  7. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  8. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn......’t turn out as a variable affecting travellers’ choices....

  9. Effect of addition of arc furnace dust in the microstructural properties of fly ash alkali-activated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Alexandre Silva de; Pavao, Bruno Barreto; Masuero, Angela Boreges; Dal Molin, Denise Carpena Coitinho; Vilela, Antonio Cezar Faria

    2010-01-01

    The search for alternative materials for construction, with less environmental impact, has been the subject of several studies. The alkali-activated cements have shown potential for the reuse of waste, and can be used in the technology of solidification/stabilization. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the main effect of adding arc furnace dust (AFD) in the microstructural properties of matrices based on fly ash alkali-activated. Three levels of AFD were studied: 0, 5, 15 and 25%. The curing was set at 70°C/24 h, and after, kept at room temperature until the age of analysis - 1, 28 and 180 days, with XRD and FTIR analysis. In the XRD spectres it was found that compounds of albite and natron decrease the intensity of their peaks in that there is an increase in the levels of AFD. Concerning to the FTIR, we observed that the band characteristic of the fly ash (FA) 1084 cm -1 was shifted to bands near 1000 cm -1 , which shows that the residue does not interfere in the polymerization and aluminosilicate gel formation. Therefore, under the microstructural aspect, there were no major changes that would impair the use of this residue in alkali-activated matrices. (author)

  10. Development of a Zero-Cement Binder Using Slag, Fly Ash, and Rice Husk Ash with Chemical Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand and consumption of cement have necessitated the use of slag, fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, and so forth as a supplement of cement in concrete construction. The aim of the study is to develop a zero-cement binder (Z-Cem using slag, fly ash, and RHA combined with chemical activator. NaOH, Ca(OH2, and KOH were used in varying weights and molar concentrations. Z-Cem was tested for its consistency, setting time, flow, compressive strength, XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The consistency and setting time of the Z-Cem paste increase with increasing RHA content. The Z-Cem mortar requires more superplasticizer to maintain a constant flow of 110±5% compared with OPC. The compressive strength of the Z-Cem mortar is significantly influenced by the amounts, types, and molar concentration of the activators. The Z-Cem mortar achieves a compressive strength of 42–44 MPa at 28 days with 5% NaOH or at 2.5 molar concentrations. The FTIR results reveal that molecules in the Z-Cem mortar have a silica-hydrate (Si-H bond with sodium or other inorganic metals (i.e., sodium/calcium-silica-hydrate-alumina gel. Therefore, Z-Cem could be developed using the aforementioned materials with the chemical activator.

  11. Analysis of trace elements in power plant and industrial incinerator fly ashes by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Amran Abdul Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2008-01-01

    An elemental analysis of fly ash samples from Selangor and Perak coal-fired power plants and an industrial incinerator from Negeri Sembilan were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). All samples were irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency laboratory PUSPATI Reactor for 6 hours and later counted at the Nuclear Science Program, UKM using an HPGe detector with a relative efficiency of 10% and resolution of 1.8 KeV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coal fly ash 1633a reference material (SRM) was used as a standard for quantitative analysis. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Cr, Co, Fe, Hf, Sc, Th and U) were determined in all three types of fly ashes. The concentration range of environmentally concern elements, As and Cr in the Selangor coal-fired power plant samples are 11.17 - 23.24 and 160.28 - 867.97 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of radioactive elements U and Th are 4.79 - 10.29 and 14.6 - 61.29 μg.g -1 respectively, and the concentration range of Co, Hf, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce, Ca are 11.88-83.61, 3.24 - 10.48, 30338 - 53885, 16.62 - 28.48, 178.97 - 8491, 127.41 - 217.2 and 10447 -20647 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of As, Cr, U, Th in the Perak samples were found to be 22.16 - 48.38, 44.37 - 74.78, 4.18 - 6.85, 8.71 - 11.43 μg.g -1 respectively, whereas the concentration range of Co, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce and Ca are 23.21 -29.66, 54621 - 71099, 30.9 - 31.77, 100.34 - 116.61 and 11533 -16423 μg.g -1 respectively. Differences exist in the elemental concentrations of both power plant fly ash samples due to the different feed coal and combustion temperature used. The concentration of Cr, Th and Ce in the Selangor fly ash samples was generally higher compared to the samples obtained from the Perak power plant. This study also shows that only As and Ca were detected in the Negeri Sembilan samples with the concentration ranging from 36.66 - 98.67 and 31709.10 - 45606 μg.g -1

  12. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina T Tsoumani

    Full Text Available Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5'LTR, the 5'non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF, which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5-10 copies more than female (CI range: 18-38 and 12-33 copies respectively per genome. The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes. Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in

  13. Age-related and sex-specific differences in proteasome activity in individual Drosophila flies from wild type, longevity-selected and stress resistant strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Ostergaard; Sarup, Pernille Merete; Loeschcke, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We have measured the caspase-like proteasome activity in individual male and female Drosophila flies by using a non-denaturing lysing technique that consistently extracts total protein. The mean proteasome activity in control C1 females was more than two times higher as compared with that in C1 m...... males. However, in longevity-selected LS1 flies the proteasome activity was significantly lower compared to C1 flies, but the sex differences were maintained to some extent. Five other stress resistant lines also had significantly reduced proteasome activity in both sexes. During ageing...... and that increased lifespan and stress resistance lead to a reduction in proteasome activity and recession of the age-related decline observed in control females....

  14. Shoulder muscle activation during stable and suspended push-ups at different heights in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Sebastien; Calatayud, Joaquin; Colado, Juan C; Tella, Victor; Moya-Nájera, Diego; Martin, Fernando; Rogers, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    To analyze shoulder muscle activation when performing push-ups under different stability conditions and heights. Comparative study by repeated measures. Valencia University laboratory. 29 healthy males participated. Subjects performed 3 push-ups each with their hands at 2 different heights (10 vs. 65 cm) under stable conditions and using a suspension device. Push-up speed was controlled and the testing order was randomized. The average amplitudes of the electromyographic root mean square of the long head of the triceps brachii (TRICEP), upper trapezius (TRAPS), anterior deltoid (DELT) and clavicular pectoralis (PEC) were recorded. The electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Suspended push-ups at 10 cm resulted in greater activation in the TRICEP (17.14 ± 1.31 %MVIC vs. 37.03 ± 1.80 %MVIC) and TRAPS (5.83 ± 0.58 %MVIC vs. 14.69 ± 1.91 %MVIC) than those performed on the floor. For DELT and PEC similar or higher activation was found performing the push-ups on the floor, respectively. Height determines different muscle activation patterns. Stable push-ups elicit similar PEC and higher DELT muscle activation, being greater at 10 cm; whereas suspended push-ups elicit greater TRAPS and TRICEP muscle activation, being greater at 65 cm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Abdominal muscle EMG-activity during bridge exercises on stable and unstable surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Afeltowicz, Anna; Gębicka, Anna; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kędra, Agnieszka; Barrios, Carlos; Hadała, Michał

    2014-08-01

    To assess abdominal muscles (AM) activity during prone, side, and supine bridge on stable and unstable surfaces (BOSU, Swiss Ball). Prospective comparison study. Research laboratory. Thirty-three healthy volunteers from a university population. Surface electromyography of the rectus abdominis (RA), the external oblique (EO) and the internal oblique with the transversus abdominis (IO-TA). The AM exhibited the highest activity during prone bridge on a Swiss Ball (RA, EO, IO-TA 44.7 ± 19.2, 54.7 ± 22.9, 36.8 ± 18.6 in % of MVC, respectively). The lowest activity was observed during supine bridge on a stable surface and a BOSU (under 5.0). The lowest ratio analyzed on the basis of the relation of EO and IO-TA activity to RA was obtained during prone bridge on the Swiss Ball (1.4 ± 0.7 for EO, 0.9 ± 0.5 for IO-TA). The highest ratio was obtained during prone bridge on stable surface and supine bridges. The highest level of activity in the abdominal muscles is achieved during prone bridge on a Swiss Ball. However, this exercise provided the lowest activity of the EO and IO-TA in relation to RA. It is essential to conduct further studies verifying the usefulness of using Swiss Ball during core stability training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pt5Gd as a Highly Active and Stable Catalyst for Oxygen Electroreduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau

    2012-01-01

    The activity and stability of Pt5Gd for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been studied, using a combination of electrochemical measurements, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS), and density functional theory calculations. Sputter-cleaned, polycrystalline Pt5Gd shows a ...... can be explained by means of compressive strain effects. Furthermore, these novel bimetallic electrocatalysts are highly stable, which, in combination with their enhanced activity, makes them very promising for the development of new cathode catalysts for fuel cells....

  17. A preliminary investigation of silt motion with activable stable isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jianguo; Chai Zhifang; Mao Xueying; Ma Shulan

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of silt motion in Shantou Harbor region has been made by using neutron activation analysis of natural activable stable isotopes in silt. More than 20 elements in suspending and bed silt at different sites were determined. Data analysis and computer-based fitting calculation indicated that all of the suspending silt samples analyzed were of the same origin, i.e. Xinjinxi River outlet and about 37% of the bed silt at the Wailanjiangsha channel is composed of the deposit of suspending silt

  18. Sublethal effects of clothianidin and Nosema spp. on the longevity and foraging activity of free flying honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odemer, Richard; Nilles, Lisa; Linder, Nadine; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2018-03-19

    Neonicotinoids alone or in combination with pathogens are considered to be involved in the worldwide weakening of honey bees. We here present a new approach for testing sublethal and/or synergistic effects in free flying colonies. In our experiment individually marked honey bees were kept in free flying mini-hives and chronically exposed to sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin. Additional groups of bees were challenged with Nosema infections or with combinations of the pesticide and pathogens. Longevity and flight activity of the differentially treated bees were monitored for a period of 18 days. In contrast to previous laboratory studies, no effect of the neonicotinoid treatment on mortality or flight activity could be observed. Although the lifespan of Nosema infected bees were significantly reduced compared to non-infected bees a combination of pesticide and pathogen did not reveal any synergistic effect. Our results indicate that individual bees are less impaired by neonicotinoids if kept within the social environment of the colony. The effect of such a "social buffering" should be considered in future risk assessments.

  19. Superplasticizer Addition to Carbon Fly Ash Geopolymers Activated at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabba, Lorenza; Manzi, Stefania; Bignozzi, Maria Chiara

    2016-07-18

    Present concerns about global warming due to the greenhouse emissions in the atmosphere have pushed the cement industry to research alternatives to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Geopolymer binder may constitute a possible breakthrough in the development of sustainable materials: understanding the effectiveness and the influences of superplasticizers on geopolymer systems is one of the essential requirements for its large-scale implementation. This study aims to investigate the possibility of using commercially available chemical admixtures designed for OPC concrete, to improve fresh properties of fly ash-based geopolymers and mortars. A special emphasis is laid upon evaluating their influence on mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the hardened material realized under room-temperature curing conditions. Results indicate that the addition of a polycarboxylic ether-based superplasticizer, in the amount of 1.0 wt. % by mass of fly ash, promotes an improvement in workability without compromising the final strength of the hardened material. Moreover, the addition of the polycarboxylic ether- and acrylic-based superplasticizers induces a refinement in the pore structure of hardened mortar leading to a longer water saturation time.

  20. Superplasticizer Addition to Carbon Fly Ash Geopolymers Activated at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Carabba

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Present concerns about global warming due to the greenhouse emissions in the atmosphere have pushed the cement industry to research alternatives to ordinary Portland cement (OPC. Geopolymer binder may constitute a possible breakthrough in the development of sustainable materials: understanding the effectiveness and the influences of superplasticizers on geopolymer systems is one of the essential requirements for its large-scale implementation. This study aims to investigate the possibility of using commercially available chemical admixtures designed for OPC concrete, to improve fresh properties of fly ash-based geopolymers and mortars. A special emphasis is laid upon evaluating their influence on mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the hardened material realized under room-temperature curing conditions. Results indicate that the addition of a polycarboxylic ether-based superplasticizer, in the amount of 1.0 wt. % by mass of fly ash, promotes an improvement in workability without compromising the final strength of the hardened material. Moreover, the addition of the polycarboxylic ether- and acrylic-based superplasticizers induces a refinement in the pore structure of hardened mortar leading to a longer water saturation time.

  1. Supplementation of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Improves Lifespan and Locomotor Activity in Paraquat-Sensitive DJ-1βΔ93Flies, a Parkinson's Disease Model in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Christian, Pearl K; Panchal, Komal; Guruprasad, B R; Tiwari, Anand K

    2017-09-03

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) consumed by humans and other animals because of its nutritional values and pharmacological properties. Apart from high protein contents, it also contains high levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, such as carotenoids, β-carotene, phycocyanin, and phycocyanobilin, indicating its possible pharmaco-therapeutic utility. In the present study using DJ-1β Δ93 flies, a Parkinson's disease model in Drosophila, we have demonstrated the therapeutic effect of spirulina and its active component C-phycocyanin (C-PC) in the improvement of lifespan and locomotor behavior. Our findings indicate that dietary supplementation of spirulina significantly improves the lifespan and locomotor activity of paraquat-fed DJ-1β Δ93 flies. Furthermore, supplementation of spirulina and C-PC individually and independently reduced the cellular stress marked by deregulating the expression of heat shock protein 70 and Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling in DJ-1β Δ93 flies. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in spirulina-fed DJ-1β Δ93 flies tends to indicate the involvement of antioxidant properties associated with spirulina in the modulation of stress-induced signaling and improvement in lifespan and locomotor activity in Drosophila DJ-1β Δ93 flies. Our results suggest that antioxidant boosting properties of spirulina can be used as a nutritional supplement for improving the lifespan and locomotor behavior in Parkinson's disease.

  2. Semiochemical-based management of biting fly management in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitran) and horn flies (Haematobia irritans) are two major blood-feeding pests of bovids and equids in confined and pasture settings. It has reported that just stable flies alone can cause over $2 billion annually in losses to the U.S. cattle industry. These flies can be se...

  3. Characterization of a blood activated chitinolytic system in the midgut of the sand fly vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho-Ortigão, J M; Kamhawi, S; Joshi, M B; Reynoso, D; Lawyer, P G; Dwyer, D M; Sacks, D L; Valenzuela, J G

    2005-12-01

    We characterized a cDNA from Phlebotomus papatasi, PpChit1, which encodes a midgut specific chitinase and show the presence of a functional, blood-induced chitinolytic system in sand flies. PpChit1 is detected only in the midgut and is regulated by blood feeding. A recombinant protein (rPpChit1) produced in HEK 293-F cells exhibited a similar activity profile to that found in the native protein against several specific substrates, including an oligomeric glycol chitin and synthetic 4-methyl-umbelliferone labelled substrates. Western blotting showed that the native protein is recognized by mouse polyclonal antibodies against rPpChit1. Additionally, the rPpChit1 and the native chitinase displayed similar retention times in a HPLC size fractionation column. When added to rPpChit1 or to midgut lysates, PpChit1 sera reduced chitinolytic activity by 65-70%.

  4. Activation product transport in a FLiBe-vanadium alloy-HT9 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.; Sze, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is made of the gamma radiation hazards likely to be found around a fusion reactor heat transfer and tritium breeding loop which employs a vanadium alloy for the blanket and first wall structure and the ferritic-steel HT9 for the remainder of the loop. The coolant/tritium breeding fluid is the molten metallic salt FliBe. Since the radiation levels near the primary loop components are found to be less than 100 mR/hr 3-5 days after shutdown after three years of continuous full power operation, limited hands-on maintenance could be allowed. The very short half-lives of the predominant corrosion products make this result possible and make such a system very attractive

  5. Chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active and stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Moreira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system. Although its etiology is unknown, the accumulation and activation of mononuclear cells in the central nervous system are crucial to its pathogenesis. Chemokines have been proposed to play a major role in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes in inflammatory sites. They are divided into subfamilies on the basis of the location of conserved cysteine residues. We determined the levels of some CC and CXC chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 23 relapsing-remitting MS patients under interferon-ß-1a therapy and 16 control subjects using ELISA. MS patients were categorized as having active or stable disease. CXCL10 was significantly increased in the CSF of active MS patients (mean ± SEM, 369.5 ± 69.3 pg/mL when compared with controls (178.5 ± 29.1 pg/mL, P < 0.05. CSF levels of CCL2 were significantly lower in active MS (144.7 ± 14.4 pg/mL than in controls (237.1 ± 16.4 pg/mL, P < 0.01. There was no difference in the concentration of CCL2 and CXCL10 between patients with stable MS and controls. CCL5 was not detectable in the CSF of most patients or controls. The qualitative and quantitative differences of chemokines in CSF during relapses of MS suggest that they may be useful as a marker of disease activity and of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  6. Lava lakes on Io: Observations of Io's volcanic activity from Galileo NIMS during the 2001 fly-bys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Kamp, L.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Kargel, J.; Radebaugh, J.; Turtle, E.P.; Perry, J.; Williams, D.A.; Carlson, R.W.; Doute, S.

    2004-01-01

    Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) obtained its final observations of Io during the spacecraft's fly-bys in August (I31) and October 2001 (I32). We present a summary of the observations and results from these last two fly-bys, focusing on the distribution of thermal emission from Io's many volcanic regions that give insights into the eruption styles of individual hot spots. We include a compilation of hot spot data obtained from Galileo, Voyager, and ground-based observations. At least 152 active volcanic centers are now known on Io, 104 of which were discovered or confirmed by Galileo observations, including 23 from the I31 and I32 Io fly-by observations presented here. We modify the classification scheme of Keszthelyi et al. (2001, J. Geophys. Res. 106 (E12) 33 025-33 052) of Io eruption styles to include three primary types: promethean (lava flow fields emplaced as compound pahoehoe flows with small plumes 200 km high plumes and rapidly-emplaced flow fields), and a new style we call "lokian" that includes all eruptions confined within paterae with or without associated plume eruptions). Thermal maps of active paterae from NIMS data reveal hot edges that are characteristic of lava lakes. Comparisons with terrestrial analogs show that Io's lava lakes have thermal properties consistent with relatively inactive lava lakes. The majority of activity on Io, based on locations and longevity of hot spots, appears to be of this third type. This finding has implications for how Io is being resurfaced as our results imply that eruptions of lava are predominantly confined within paterae, thus making it unlikely that resurfacing is done primarily by extensive lava flows. Our conclusion is consistent with the findings of Geissler et al. (2004, Icarus, this issue) that plume eruptions and deposits, rather than the eruption of copious amounts of effusive lavas, are responsible for Io's high resurfacing rates. The origin and longevity of islands within ionian

  7. Physical Activity and Mortality in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ralph A H; Held, Claes; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Armstrong, Paul W; Cannon, Christopher P; Granger, Christopher B; Hagström, Emil; Hochman, Judith S; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lonn, Eva; Nicolau, José C; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Vedin, Ola; Wallentin, Lars; White, Harvey D

    2017-10-03

    Recommendations for physical activity in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) are based on modest evidence. The authors analyzed the association between self-reported exercise and mortality in patients with stable CHD. A total of 15,486 patients from 39 countries with stable CHD who participated in the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) study completed questions at baseline on hours spent each week taking mild, moderate, and vigorous exercise. Associations between the volume of habitual exercise in metabolic equivalents of task hours/week and adverse outcomes during a median follow-up of 3.7 years were evaluated. A graded decrease in mortality occurred with increased habitual exercise that was steeper at lower compared with higher exercise levels. Doubling exercise volume was associated with lower all-cause mortality (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79 to 0.85; adjusting for covariates, HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87 to 0.93). These associations were similar for cardiovascular mortality (unadjusted HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.87; adjusted HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.96), but myocardial infarction and stroke were not associated with exercise volume after adjusting for covariates. The association between decrease in mortality and greater physical activity was stronger in the subgroup of patients at higher risk estimated by the ABC-CHD (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical-Coronary Heart Disease) risk score (p for interaction = 0.0007). In patients with stable CHD, more physical activity was associated with lower mortality. The largest benefits occurred between sedentary patient groups and between those with the highest mortality risk. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY STUDY OF A CANDIDATE VACCINE AGAINST ROTAVIRUS INFECTION BASED ON RECOMBINANT PROTEIN FliCVP6VP8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dukhovlinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus infection is among leading causes of severe diarrhea which often leads to severe dehydration, especially, in children under 5 years old. In Russia, the incidence of rotavirus infection is constantly increased, due to higher rates of actual rotavirus infection cases and improved diagnostics of the disease. Immunity to rotavirus is unstable, thus causing repeated infections intra vitam. Anti-infectious resistance in reconvalescents is explained by induction of specific IgM, IgG, and, notably, IgA antibodies. Due to absence of market drugs with direct action against rotavirus, a rational vaccination is considered the most effective way to control the disease. Currently available vaccines for prevention of rotavirus infection are based on live attenuated rotavirus strains, human and/or animal origin, which replicate in human gut. Their implementation may result into different complications. Meanwhile, usage of vaccines based on recombinant proteins is aimed to avoid risks associated with introduction of a complete virus into humans. In this paper, we studied protective activity of candidate vaccines against rotavirus.In this work we studied protective activity of a candidate vaccine against rotavirus infection based on recombinant FliCVP6VP8 protein which includes VP6 and VP8, as well as components of Salmonella typhimurium flagellin (FliC as an adjuvant. Different components are joined by flexible bridges. Efficiency of the candidate vaccine was studied in animal model using Balb/c mice. We have shown high level of protection which occurs when the candidate vaccine is administered twice intramuscularly. Complete protection of animals against mouse rotavirus EDC after intramuscular immunization with a candidate vaccine was associated with arising rotavirus-specific IgA and IgG antibodies in serum and intestine of immunized animals. The efficacy of candidate vaccine based on recombinant protein FliCVP6VP8 against rotavirus infection was

  9. Comprehensive assessment of conditions of human activity in stable risk regions of Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajbolov, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    It is noted that dozens of hectares of Kazakhstan's land are removed from national use due to high level of ecologically permissible effect. In some regions there is treat of complete loss of lands due to technogene pollution. There are areales of toxic and radioactive industrial wastes and environmental radiation contamination zones forming in result of: activity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and nuclear explosions of period 1949-1961; activity of military-industrial, atomic-industrial and military-space enterprises; mining and processing of mineral resources with high content of radioactive elements; wind transfer of radionuclides and radioactive particles of both the natural and the technogene origin; radiation background of natural (In average by Republic 11-18 μR/h) landscapes. Most dangerous are consequences of tests on nuclear and space sites. Kazakhstan is single place on the Earth where nuclear strategic programs were carried out in full volume, beginning from mining and processing of uranium containing raw by producing and testing of nuclear warheads, missiles destroying and disposal of uranium and other radioactive and toxic wastes of military-industrial complex. So, there were 500 atmosphere and underground explosions in former Semipalatinsk, Kostanaj, Akmola, Aktyube, South-Kazakhstan, West-Kazakhstan, Mangistau and Atyrau oblasts. In West Kazakhstan on known nuclear sites (Azgir, Tojsogan, Central) and on Kapustin Yar fly-test complex more than 30 nuclear explosions were carried out in both the atmosphere and the underground. More than hundred military units were tested and exposed and 20 thousand of missiles were destroyed. Powerful sources of pollution are Bojkonyr spaceport and Saryshgan and Elba test sites. Authors noted, that it is necessary develop criteria of definition of payments for resources use, indexes to base taxes, pay for damages. Some problems of regional management could be solved with help this assessment mechanism

  10. Homogeneity tests and certification analyses of the IRANT coal fly ash reference material ECO by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Soukal, L.

    1989-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique was used for homogeneity tests and certification analyses of the coal fly ash reference material ECO prepared at the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques (IRANT), Kosice, Czechoslovakia. The relative standard deviations due to inhomogeneity were found to be < 3% for 19 elements with sample weights about 50 mg. The results of determination of the elements Al,As,Ba,Ca,Ce,Co,Cr,Cs,Dy,Eu,Fe,Ga,Hf,In,K,La,Mn,Mo,Na,Nd,Ni,Rb, Sb,Sc,Sm,Sr,Ta,Th,Ti,U,V,W and Zn were compared with the IRANT certified or information values. Interference was made on the reliability of the IRANT specified values for the element contents. (author) 7 refs.; 6 tabs

  11. A Local Stable Bootstrap for Power Variations of Pure-Jump Semimartingales and Activity Index Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich; Varneskov, Rasmus T.

    We provide a new resampling procedure - the local stable bootstrap - that is able to mimic the dependence properties of realized power variations for pure-jump semimartingales observed at different frequencies. This allows us to propose a bootstrap estimator and inference procedure for the activity...... index of the underlying process, β, as well as a bootstrap test for whether it obeys a jump-diffusion or a pure-jump process, that is, of the null hypothesis H₀: β=2 against the alternative H₁: βbootstrap power variations, activity index...... estimator, and diffusion test for H0. Moreover, the finite sample size and power properties of the proposed diffusion test are compared to those of benchmark tests using Monte Carlo simulations. Unlike existing procedures, our bootstrap test is correctly sized in general settings. Finally, we illustrate use...

  12. Antifungal activity of water-stable copper-containing metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouson, Supaporn; Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Phattharasupakun, Nutthaphon; Siwayaprahm, Patcharaporn; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2017-10-01

    Although metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or porous coordination polymers have been widely studied, their antimicrobial activities have not yet been fully investigated. In this work, antifungal activity of copper-based benzene-tricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC MOF), which is water stable and industrially interesting, is investigated against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium oxysporum. The Cu-BTC MOF can effectively inhibit the growth rate of C. albicans and remarkably inhibit the spore growth of A. niger, A. oryzae and F. oxysporum. This finding shows the potential of using Cu-BTC MOF as a strong biocidal material against representative yeasts and moulds that are commonly found in the food and agricultural industries.

  13. Development of DC active filter for high magnetic field stable power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Liu Xiaoning

    2008-01-01

    The DC active filter (DAF), with very low current ripple, of the stable power supply system of high magnetic field device is developed by using the PWM and parallel active power filter technique. Due to the PWM control technique, the required DAF current can be obtained and the current ripple can be compensated by means of monitoring the load voltage, and the current ripple becomes very low by adjusting the load voltage. The simulation and analysis show that this system can respond to the reference quickly and is effective in suppressing the harmonics, especially the low-order harmonics. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is proved on the equipment built in the laboratory. (authors)

  14. Polyaniline hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods with long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, Susanta; Khan, Hasmat; Biswas, Indranil; Jana, Sunirmal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Polyaniline (PANI) hybridized ZnO nanorods was synthesized by solution method. • Surface defects were found in the nanorods. • The hybrid material exhibited an enhancement in visible light absorption. • A long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity of the material was found. • Advancement in the properties would be PANI hybridization and surface defects. - Abstract: We report surfactant/template free precursor solution based synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods by a two-step process. Initially, ZnO nanorods have been prepared at 95 °C, followed by hybridization (coating) of PANI onto the ZnO via in situ polymerization of aniline monomer, forming ZnO-PANI nanohybrid (ZP). The structural properties of ZP have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The presence of surface defects especially the oxygen vacancies in ZnO has been characterized by photoluminescence emission, high resolution TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectral measurements. The chemical interaction of PANI with ZnO has been examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and XPS analyses. A significant enhancement in visible absorption of ZP sample is found as evidenced from UV–vis diffused reflectance spectral study. BET nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm shows an improved textural property (pore size, pore volume) of ZP. Moreover, a long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity (PEC) of ZP is found compare to pristine ZnO. The synergic effect of PANI hybridization and the presence of surface defects in ZnO NRs can enhance the PEC by prolonging the recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers. The effect can also provide large number of active sites to make electrolyte diffusion and mass transportation easier in the nanohybrid. This simple synthesis strategy can be adopted for PANI hybridization with different metal oxide semiconductors

  15. Polyaniline hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods with long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Susanta; Khan, Hasmat [Sol-Gel Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI), 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Biswas, Indranil [Materials Characterization and Instrumentation Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI), 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Jana, Sunirmal, E-mail: sjana@cgcri.res.in [Sol-Gel Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI), 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Polyaniline (PANI) hybridized ZnO nanorods was synthesized by solution method. • Surface defects were found in the nanorods. • The hybrid material exhibited an enhancement in visible light absorption. • A long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity of the material was found. • Advancement in the properties would be PANI hybridization and surface defects. - Abstract: We report surfactant/template free precursor solution based synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods by a two-step process. Initially, ZnO nanorods have been prepared at 95 °C, followed by hybridization (coating) of PANI onto the ZnO via in situ polymerization of aniline monomer, forming ZnO-PANI nanohybrid (ZP). The structural properties of ZP have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The presence of surface defects especially the oxygen vacancies in ZnO has been characterized by photoluminescence emission, high resolution TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectral measurements. The chemical interaction of PANI with ZnO has been examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and XPS analyses. A significant enhancement in visible absorption of ZP sample is found as evidenced from UV–vis diffused reflectance spectral study. BET nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm shows an improved textural property (pore size, pore volume) of ZP. Moreover, a long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity (PEC) of ZP is found compare to pristine ZnO. The synergic effect of PANI hybridization and the presence of surface defects in ZnO NRs can enhance the PEC by prolonging the recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers. The effect can also provide large number of active sites to make electrolyte diffusion and mass transportation easier in the nanohybrid. This simple synthesis strategy can be adopted for PANI hybridization with different metal oxide semiconductors

  16. Activity in descending dopaminergic neurons represents but is not required for leg movements in the fruit fly Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschida, Katherine; Bhandawat, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Modulatory descending neurons (DNs) that link the brain to body motor circuits, including dopaminergic DNs (DA-DNs), are thought to contribute to the flexible control of behavior. Dopamine elicits locomotor-like outputs and influences neuronal excitability in isolated body motor circuits over tens of seconds to minutes, but it remains unknown how and over what time scale DA-DN activity relates to movement in behaving animals. To address this question, we identified DA-DNs in the Drosophila brain and developed an electrophysiological preparation to record and manipulate the activity of these cells during behavior. We find that DA-DN spike rates are rapidly modulated during a subset of leg movements and scale with the total speed of ongoing leg movements, whether occurring spontaneously or in response to stimuli. However, activating DA-DNs does not elicit leg movements in intact flies, nor do acute bidirectional manipulations of DA-DN activity affect the probability or speed of leg movements over a time scale of seconds to minutes. Our findings indicate that in the context of intact descending control, changes in DA-DN activity are not sufficient to influence ongoing leg movements and open the door to studies investigating how these cells interact with other descending and local neuromodulatory inputs to influence body motor output. PMID:25742959

  17. Surface oceanographic fronts influencing deep-sea biological activity: Using fish stable isotopes as ecological tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, Maite; Navarro, Joan; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; de Sola, Luis Gil; Forero, Manuela G.

    2017-06-01

    Ecotones can be described as transition zones between neighbouring ecological systems that can be shaped by environmental gradients over a range of space and time scales. In the marine environment, the detection of ecotones is complex given the highly dynamic nature of marine systems and the paucity of empirical data over ocean-basin scales. One approach to overcome these limitations is to use stable isotopes from animal tissues since they can track spatial oceanographic variability across marine systems and, in turn, can be used as ecological tracers. Here, we analysed stable isotopes of deep-sea fishes to assess the presence of ecological discontinuities across the western Mediterranean. We were specifically interested in exploring the connection between deep-sea biological activity and particular oceanographic features (i.e., surface fronts) occurring in the pelagic domain. We collected samples for three different abundant deep-sea species in May 2004 from an experimental oceanographic trawling cruise (MEDITS): the Mictophydae jewel lanternfish Lampanyctus crocodilus and two species of the Gadidae family, the silvery pout Gadiculus argenteus and the blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou. The experimental survey occurred along the Iberian continental shelf and the upper and middle slopes, from the Strait of Gibraltar in the SW to the Cape Creus in the NE. The three deep-sea species were highly abundant throughout the study area and they showed geographic variation in their isotopic values, with decreasing values from north to south disrupted by an important change point around the Vera Gulf. Isotopic latitudinal gradients were explained by pelagic oceanographic conditions along the study area and confirm the existence of an ecotone at the Vera Gulf. This area could be considered as an oceanographic boundary where waters of Atlantic origin meet Mediterranean surface waters forming important frontal structures such as the Almeria-Oran front. In fact, our results

  18. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Giantsis, Ioannis A; Demir, Samiye; Bon, Marie Claude

    2016-06-01

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) along the outskirts of the city in areas of increased canine leishmania transmission. Six sand fly species (Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus tobbi, Phlebotomus simici, Plebotomus papatasi, Sergentomya minuta and Sergentomya dentata) were identified using both classical and molecular techniques. DNA barcodes were characterized for the first time for two (P. simici and S. dentata) of the six recorded species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the COI gene sequences confirmed the grouping of P. tobbi, P. perniciosus and P. perfiliewi (subgenus Larrousius) and the monophyly of P. simici (subgenus Adlerius). By far the most prevalent species was P. perfiliewi, followed by P. simici and P. tobbi. The largest populations of sand flies were collected from animal facilities, followed by residential areas and open agricultural fields. Peak activity of sand flies overall occurred mid-August to mid-September and then declined sharply in October. Blood meal analysis showed that P. perfiliewi and P. simici feed preferentially on humans (88% & 95%, respectively) but also feed on chickens and goats. When designing a control strategy to alleviate sand fly nuisance in the region of Thessaloniki the following conclusions can be reached from this study: a) August and September are high risk months due to increased sand fly activity levels, b) animal facilities within or adjacent to urban settlements are high risk areas and may act as a maintenance and amplification foci for the vector as well as the parasite, and c) the abundance, ubiquity and feeding behavior of P. perfiliewi and P. simici establishes them as potentially important vectors of Leishmania in the region. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A Comparative study Of Catalityc Activity Of Heterogeneous Base Of Banana Stem Ash And Fly Ash On Production Of Biodiesel Byultrasonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlinda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of heterogeneous catalysts in the production of biodiesel provides many advantages due to heterogeneous catalysts can be easily separated from the product so that it can be reused. This research using heterogeneous catalysts derived from natural materials namely banana stem ash and coal fly ash containing alkali and alkaline earth elements. The preparation of catalyst from banana stem ash and coal fly ash used activator KOH 1.9 N and impregnation with KNO3 15 and then heated to a temperature of 550 0C for 3 hours. Results of preparation banana stem ash contains potassium of 36.52 and surface area of 41.901 m2g. This work presents the effect of ultrasonic assisted of waste cooking oil with methanol as solvent using banana stem ash and coal fly ash as catalyst. The diameter of catalyst particles of banana stem ash and coal fly ash varied at 50 100 150 200 and 250 mesh. The transesterification reaction was performed in the presence of ultrasonic operating frequency constant at 40 kHz methanol molar ratio to oil of 9 1 and reaction time of 30 minutes. The methyl ester biodiesel content of product was 93.26 of banana stems ash and 57 of coal fly ash respectively. The physical property was compared with the National Indonesia Standard SNI 2006 with a density viscosity cloud point flash point and cetane number.

  20. Effect of Sliding Rate on the Activity of Acoustic Emission During Stable Sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Y.; Kato, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Hirasawa, T.

    The mechanical and statistical characteristics of acoustic emission (AE) events during stable sliding are investigated through a laboratory experiment using a granite specimen with a pre-cut fault. Numerous AE events are found to be generated on the pre-cut fault, indicating that microscopically unstable fracture occurs during macroscopically stable sliding. The composite focal mechanism solution of AE events is determined from the first motion directions of P-waves. The determined mechanism is consistent with the double-couple one expected for the slip on the pre-cut fault. The source radii of large AE events are estimated to be about 10 mm from the widths of the first P-wave pulses. These indicate that the AE events are generated by shear fracture whose faulting area is a part of the pre-cut fault plane. The occurrence of AE events as a stochastic process approximately obeys the Poisson process, if the effect of mutually dependent events consti tuting clusters is corrected. The observed amplitude-frequency relation of AE events approximately follows a power law for a limited amplitude range. As the macroscopic sliding rate increases, the number of AE events per unit sliding distance decreases. This rate dependence of the AE activity is qualitatively consistent with the observation that the real area of contact between sliding surfaces decreases with an increase in the sliding rate as reported in the literature.

  1. Achievements 2006-Activities 2007: Feasibility study on the application of the sterile insect technique for the establishment of a zone free of tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sall, Baba

    2007-01-01

    The Project ''Feasibility study on the application of the sterile insect technique for the creation of a zone free of tsetse flies'' aims to eradicate the tsetse fly and the trypanosomiasis it transmits from the Niayes area and part of the small coast. These areas were re-infested after several decades of lull following the eradication campaigns of the 1970s and 1980s. The project began in 2006 for a period of 4 years.This document presents the achievements of 2006 and the activities planned in 2007 within the framework of the project.

  2. Effect of natural carbonation on the pore structure and elastic modulus of the alkali-activated fly ash and slag pastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedeljkovic, M.; Šavija, B.; Zuo, Y.; Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of natural carbonation on the pore structure, and elastic modulus (E-m) of alkali-activated fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) pastes after one year of exposure in the natural laboratory conditions. The chemical changes

  3. Effect of natural carbonation on the pore structure and elastic modulus of the alkali-activated fly ash and slag pastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedeljkovic, M.; Šavija, B.; Zuo, Y.; Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of natural carbonation on the pore structure, and elastic modulus (Em) of alkali-activated fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) pastes after one year of exposure in the natural laboratory conditions. The

  4. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) al...

  5. Intra-tree activity of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae): effects of posteclosion light, crowding, adult diet, and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, R.I.; Prokopy, R.; Hsu, C.L.; Kanehisa, D.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were held under varying conditions of fight, density, food, and irradiation prior to release of males on potted guava, Psidium guajava L., plants in outdoor cages. Male activity after release was measured in terms of number of leaves visited and duration of flights within the plant canopy

  6. Molybdenum phosphosulfide: an active, acid-stable, earth-abundant catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgaard, Jakob; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2014-12-22

    Introducing sulfur into the surface of molybdenum phosphide (MoP) produces a molybdenum phosphosulfide (MoP|S) catalyst with superb activity and stability for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic environments. The MoP|S catalyst reported herein exhibits one of the highest HER activities of any non-noble-metal electrocatalyst investigated in strong acid, while remaining perfectly stable in accelerated durability testing. Whereas mixed-metal alloy catalysts are well-known, MoP|S represents a more uncommon mixed-anion catalyst where synergistic effects between sulfur and phosphorus produce a high-surface-area electrode that is more active than those based on either the pure sulfide or the pure phosphide. The extraordinarily high activity and stability of this catalyst open up avenues to replace platinum in technologies relevant to renewable energies, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers and solar photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Study of grape contamination at the time of harvest using stable chemical substances analyzed by activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miribel, J.; Delmas, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the sixties the SERE, in conjunction with the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), conducted experiments on the contamination of wine produced from vines contaminated at the roots. The contamination must be carried out via the leaves and at different stages of growth so as to come as close as possible to the conditions of fall-out. An initial study of grape contamination at the time of the harvest was carried out using stable chemical substances which were analysed by activation. This technique makes it possible to use a large number of substances at the same time and is harmless for the environment. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory, and the method will be used next year for studies at other stages in the ripening of grapes [fr

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the flight activity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    The duration and distance of flight and the flight velocity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, were investigated by using a flight mill system. Mean flight duration of the normal female flies was significantly longer than that of the sterile ones which were irradiated with a dose of 7, 20, 30 KR γ-ray. No significant differences were recognized between normal and sterile male flies irradiated with 7 KR. No adverse effect of irradiation on the flight velocity was detected. Flight distance was the longest for the unirradiated flies and it decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses, but the difference among normal and sterile flies irradiated with either 7 or 20 KR was not statistically significant. Generally, the flight ability decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses. (author)

  9. The Characterization of Fixation of Ba, Pb, and Cu in Alkali-Activated Fly Ash/Blast Furnace Slag Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koplík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The fixation of heavy metals (Ba, Cu, Pb in an alkali-activated matrix was investigated. The matrix consisted of fly ash and blast furnace slag (BFS. The mixture of NaOH and Na-silicate was used as alkaline activator. Three analytical techniques were used to describe the fixation of heavy metals—X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. All heavy metals formed insoluble salts after alkaline activation. Ba was fixed as BaSO4, and only this product was crystalline. EDS mapping showed that Ba was cumulated in some regions and formed clusters. Pb was present in the form of Pb(OH2 and was dispersed throughout the matrix on the edges of BFS grains. Cu was fixed as Cu(OH2 and also was cumulated in some regions and formed clusters. Cu was present in two different chemical states; apart from Cu(OH2, a Cu–O bond was also identified.

  10. Muscle activation during push-ups performed under stable and unstable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Sebastien; Calatayud, Joaquin; Colado, Juan Carlos; Moya-Nájera, Diego; Triplett, N Travis; Martin, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze muscle activation when performing push-ups under different stability conditions. Physically fit young male university students ( N  = 30) performed five push-ups under stable conditions (on the floor) and using four unstable devices (wobble board, stability disc, fitness dome, and the TRX Suspension Trainer). The push-up speed was controlled using a metronome, and the testing order was randomized. The average amplitudes of the electromyographic (EMG) root mean square of the anterior deltoid (DELT), serratus anterior (SERRA), lumbar multifidus (LUMB), and rectus femoris (FEM) were recorded. The electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). No significant differences were found for the DELT [ F (4,112) = 1.978; p  = 0.130] among the conditions. However, statistically significant differences were found among the different conditions for the SERRA [ F (4,60) = 17.649; p  ups performed on the floor showed lower SERRA activation than those performed with all unstable devices. Not all unstable devices enhance muscle activation compared to traditional push-ups.

  11. Identity of active methanotrophs in landfill cover soil as revealed by DNA-stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Bodrossy, Levente; Chen, Yin; Singer, Andrew C; Thompson, Ian P; Prosser, James I; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-10-01

    A considerable amount of methane produced during decomposition of landfill waste can be oxidized in landfill cover soil by methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The identity of active methanotrophs in Roscommon landfill cover soil, a slightly acidic peat soil, was assessed by DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Landfill cover soil slurries were incubated with (13)C-labelled methane and under either nutrient-rich nitrate mineral salt medium or water. The identity of active methanotrophs was revealed by analysis of (13)C-labelled DNA fractions. The diversity of functional genes (pmoA and mmoX) and 16S rRNA genes was analyzed using clone libraries, microarrays and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the cover soil was mainly dominated by Type II methanotrophs closely related to the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa and to Methylocystis species. These results were supported by analysis of mmoX genes in (13)C-DNA. Analysis of pmoA gene diversity indicated that a significant proportion of active bacteria were also closely related to the Type I methanotrophs, Methylobacter and Methylomonas species. Environmental conditions in the slightly acidic peat soil from Roscommon landfill cover allow establishment of both Type I and Type II methanotrophs.

  12. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  13. Microstructural and strength improvements through the use of Na2CO3 in a cementless Ca(OH)2-activated Class F fly ash system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Dongho; Jun, Yubin; Jeong, Yeonung; Oh, Jae Eun

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the beneficial effects of Na 2 CO 3 as an additive for microstructural and strength improvements in a Ca(OH) 2 -activated fly ash system. NaOH-activated fly ash samples were also tested to compare the effect of Na 2 CO 3 . Compressive strength testing, XRD, SEM/BSE/EDS, 29 Si/ 27 Al MAS-NMR, MIP and TGA were performed. The testing results indicate that the use of Na 2 CO 3 for Ca(OH) 2 -activation led to a noticeable improvement in strength and microstructure, primarily due to (1) more dissolution of raw fly ash at an early age, (2) more formation of C–S–H [or C–S–H(I)], (3) porosity reduction, and (4) pore-size refinement. We also found that (1) an early high alkalinity from the NaOH formation was not a major cause of strength, (2) geopolymer was not formed despite the early NaOH formation, and (3) no visible pore-filling action of CaCO 3 was observed. However, Na 2 CO 3 did not produce any improvement in strength for NaOH-activated fly ash. -- Highlights: •The use of Na 2 CO 3 significantly improved strength and microstructure. •The use of Na 2 CO 3 induced more dissolution of raw fly ash at early ages. •The use of Na 2 CO 3 promoted more C–S–H [or C–S–H(I)] formation. •The use of Na 2 CO 3 reduced total porosity and refined pore-size distribution. •The use of Na 2 CO 3 produced neither geopolymer formations nor pore-filling actions from CaCO 3

  14. Very stable high molecular mass multiprotein complex with DNase and amylase activities in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, Svetlana E; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Verkhovod, Timofey D; Buneva, Valentina N; Sedykh, Sergey E; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-01-01

    For breastfed infants, human milk is more than a source of nutrients; it furnishes a wide array of proteins, peptides, antibodies, and other components promoting neonatal growth and protecting infants from viral and bacterial infection. It has been proposed that most biological processes are performed by protein complexes. Therefore, identification and characterization of human milk components including protein complexes is important for understanding the function of milk. Using gel filtration, we have purified a stable high molecular mass (~1000 kDa) multiprotein complex (SPC) from 15 preparations of human milk. Light scattering and gel filtration showed that the SPC was stable in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl and MgCl2 but dissociated efficiently under the conditions that destroy immunocomplexes (2 M MgCl2 , 0.5 M NaCl, and 10 mM DTT). Such a stable complex is unlikely to be a casual associate of different proteins. The relative content of the individual SPCs varied from 6% to 25% of the total milk protein. According to electrophoretic and mass spectrometry analysis, all 15 SPCs contained lactoferrin (LF) and α-lactalbumin as major proteins, whereas human milk albumin and β-casein were present in moderate or minor amounts; a different content of IgGs and sIgAs was observed. All SPCs efficiently hydrolyzed Plasmid supercoiled DNA and maltoheptaose. Some freshly prepared SPC preparations contained not only intact LF but also small amounts of its fragments, which appeared in all SPCs during their prolonged storage; the fragments, similar to intact LF, possessed DNase and amylase activities. LF is found in human epithelial secretions, barrier body fluids, and in the secondary granules of leukocytes. LF is a protein of the acute phase response and nonspecific defense against different types of microbial and viral infections. Therefore, LF complexes with other proteins may be important for its functions not only in human milk. Copyright © 2014

  15. Stabilization of lead in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash-Pyrophyllite-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Aminuddin, Siti Fatimah; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the stabilization and speciation of lead (Pb) in a composite solid produced from an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA)-pyophyllite-based system. The solid product was synthesized after mixtures of raw materials (dehydrated pyrophyllite, MSWIFA, 14 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide, and sodium silicate solution) were cured at 105 °C for 24 h. The product could reduce the leaching of Pb and the Pb concentration in the leachate was 7.0 × 10 -3 using the Japanese leaching test and 9.7 × 10 -4  mg/L using toxicity characteristics leaching procedure method, which satisfied the respective test criteria and successfully stabilized Pb in this system. The solid product had a compressive strength of 2 MPa and consisted mainly of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy with X-ray analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure suggested that Pb was present along with Al, Si, and O, and that the atomic environment around the Pb was similar to that of PbSiO 3 . These results suggest that the alkali-activated MSWIFA-pyrophyllite-based system could be used to stabilize Pb in MSWIFA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  17. Light Stable Isotopes in Aquifers Affected by Mining Activities in a Brazilian Mining Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, R. M.; de Carvalho, J. B.

    2013-05-01

    Iron ore is presently a main item in the Brazilian commercial agenda. Large reserves have converted this utility into an important source of export earnings and, secondarily, of raw materials for the domestic industry. Parallel to a boom in mining activities in the last years environmental impacts and a stress on natural resources have soared. A region exhibiting pronouncedly intensive mining activities lies in the central part of the State of Minas Gerais, the third economy of the federation. Mines are sited right beside the capital and neighbor towns amounting to nearly five million inhabitants and a pronounced dependence on groundwater resources. Besides, this region is a water divide enclosing the sources of main contributors to the most strategic fluvial basins in the country. Iron ore is by large the main mineral but other metals (including gold and uranium), as well as non-metals such as limestone, quartz and granite, also occur. Given the significance of this commodity in the country's trade balance and the demand of water resources with acceptable quality for human consumption, the scale of ensuing water use conflicts caused by its exploration is wide ranging and has to be coped with well grounded environmental assessment approaches. Tracer hydrology techniques might be a valuable tool in this context. The characteristics of the area being impacted have been surveyed, including climate and pluviometry, stratigraphic litology, geological structure, use of soil, mineral resources and their exploration, surface and ground water hydrology and their sundry uses. Data to be processed have been procured at local public agencies but as regard local hydrological features, particularly isotopic compositions, ad hoc surveys and methodologies were required. One instance concerns pluviometric isotopy due to the alpine character of the surveyed region altitude and temperature effects might take place. Hence different sites were monitored; cumulative pluviometer samples

  18. Activity and migratory flights of individual free-flying songbirds throughout the annual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Alerstam, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , indicating that the bird was mostly sleeping between these long migratory flights. Annual activity and flight data for free-living songbirds will open up many new research possibilities. Main topics that can be addressed are e.g. migratory flight performance (total flight investment, numbers...... the sampling events. Activity levels were stored on an hourly basis throughout the annual cycle, allowing periods of resting/sleep, continuous flight and intermediate activity (foraging, breeding) to be distinguished. Measurements from a light sensor were stored from preprogrammed key stationary periods during...... > 66 (max. 73) nocturnal migratory flights (29 flights in autumn and > 37, max. 44, in spring) adding up to a total of > 434 (max. 495) flight hours. Migratory flights lasted on average 6.6 h with maximum 15.9 h. These flights were aggregated into eight travel episodes (periods of 4-11 nights when...

  19. Antiviral Protection via RdRP-Mediated Stable Activation of Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Meghan M; Morrison, James H; Zoecklein, Laurie J; Rinkoski, Tommy A; Watzlawik, Jens O; Papke, Louisa M; Warrington, Arthur E; Bieber, Allan J; Matchett, William E; Turkowski, Kari L; Poeschla, Eric M; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-12-01

    For many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, definitive solutions via sterilizing adaptive immunity may require years or decades to develop, if they are even possible. The innate immune system offers alternative mechanisms that do not require antigen-specific recognition or a priori knowledge of the causative agent. However, it is unclear whether effective stable innate immune system activation can be achieved without triggering harmful autoimmunity or other chronic inflammatory sequelae. Here, we show that transgenic expression of a picornavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), in the absence of other viral proteins, can profoundly reconfigure mammalian innate antiviral immunity by exposing the normally membrane-sequestered RdRP activity to sustained innate immune detection. RdRP-transgenic mice have life-long, quantitatively dramatic upregulation of 80 interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and show profound resistance to normally lethal viral challenge. Multiple crosses with defined knockout mice (Rag1, Mda5, Mavs, Ifnar1, Ifngr1, and Tlr3) established that the mechanism operates via MDA5 and MAVS and is fully independent of the adaptive immune system. Human cell models recapitulated the key features with striking fidelity, with the RdRP inducing an analogous ISG network and a strict block to HIV-1 infection. This RdRP-mediated antiviral mechanism does not depend on secondary structure within the RdRP mRNA but operates at the protein level and requires RdRP catalysis. Importantly, despite lifelong massive ISG elevations, RdRP mice are entirely healthy, with normal longevity. Our data reveal that a powerfully augmented MDA5-mediated activation state can be a well-tolerated mammalian innate immune system configuration. These results provide a foundation for augmenting innate immunity to achieve broad-spectrum antiviral protection.

  20. Flying or sleeping: flight activity of bats in natural cave with confirmed WNS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Jan; Berková, Hana; Madaraszová, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2016), s. 46-51 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : White-nose Syndrome * bat activity * hibernation behaviour * Myotis myotis * hibernacula Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  1. Fly ash: An alternative to powdered activated carbon for the removal of eosin dye from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Njoku

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of powdered activated carbon (PAC and raw coal fly ash (RFA in the removal of eosin dye from aqueous solution in batch processes. Operational parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 120 min for the two adsorbents. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to fit the adsorption data. Langmuir model gave the best fit in both cases. The adsorption capacities of PAC and RFA were found to be 62.28 mg/g and 43.48 mg/g, respectively. The highest percentage of eosin dye removal for both PAC (98% and RFA (90% was observed at pH 2. Pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models were used to fit the adsorption data. Pseudo second-order kinetic model gave the best description of the adsorption of eosin dye onto the two adsorbents. Thermodynamic parameters, ΔH0, ΔS0 and ΔG0 confirmed the physical nature, spontaneity and the endothermic nature of the adsorption process. A regeneration technique and a process calculation for evaluating the adsorbent dose required were carried out. This study has shown that RFA is a good alternative adsorbent in the removal of eosin dye from aqueous solution.

  2. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Li, Dongwei; Kexiang, Liu; Zhang, Yuewei

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the coupled system can further enhance the remediation process. In the optimization tests, the maximum removals of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd were achieved under different experimental conditions. The voltage gradient and processing time were shown to have significant effects on the removal of Cu and Cd, whereas the addition of the oxalic acid had a more significant influence on the removal of Pb. Generally, the processing time is the most significant factor in changing the removal rates of HMs in the enhanced coupled system. In terms of the leaching toxicity, the specimen remediated by ENEKR + PRB showed the lowest leaching value for each HM in the S2 and S3 regions.

  3. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  4. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  5. No difference in 1RM strength and muscle activation during the barbell chest press on a stable and unstable surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Craig A; Pearce, Alan J; Nicholes, Caleb J; Gatt, Brad M; Fairweather, Ian H

    2008-01-01

    Exercise or Swiss balls are increasingly being used with conventional resistance exercises. There is little evidence supporting the efficacy of this approach compared to traditional resistance training on a stable surface. Previous studies have shown that force output may be reduced with no change in muscle electromyography (EMG) activity while others have shown increased muscle EMG activity when performing resistance exercises on an unstable surface. This study compared 1RM strength, and upper body and trunk muscle EMG activity during the barbell chest press exercise on a stable (flat bench) and unstable surface (exercise ball). After familiarization, 13 subjects underwent testing for 1RM strength for the barbell chest press on both a stable bench and an exercise ball, each separated by at least 7 days. Surface EMG was recorded for 5 upper body muscles and one trunk muscle from which average root mean square of the muscle activity was calculated for the whole 1RM lift and the concentric and eccentric phases. Elbow angle during each lift was recorded to examine any range-of-motion differences between the two surfaces. The results show that there was no difference in 1RM strength or muscle EMG activity for the stable and unstable surfaces. In addition, there was no difference in elbow range-of-motion between the two surfaces. Taken together, these results indicate that there is no reduction in 1RM strength or any differences in muscle EMG activity for the barbell chest press exercise on an unstable exercise ball when compared to a stable flat surface. Moreover, these results do not support the notion that resistance exercises performed on an exercise ball are more efficacious than traditional stable exercises.

  6. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geden, C. J.; Steenberg, T.; Lietze, V.-U.

    2011-01-01

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2%. None of the stable...... flies (Sarcophaga bullata), black dump flies (Hydrotaea aenescens), or face flies (Musca autumnalis) that were injected with MdSGHV from Danish house flies. However, in two species (stable fly and black dump fly), virus injection resulted in suppression of ovarian development similar to that observed...... flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), rat-tail maggot flies (Eristalis tenax) or yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) collected from MdSGHV-positive farms displayed characteristic salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). In laboratory transmission tests, SGH symptoms were not observed in stable flies, flesh...

  7. Prosequence switching: an effective strategy to produce biologically active E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin STh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiglmeier, Philipp R; Berkner, Hanna; Seebahn, Angela; Vogel, Nico; Schreiber, Rainer; Wöhrl, Birgitta M; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Rösch, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections account for the majority of cases of acute secretory diarrhea. The causative agents are enterotoxins secreted by ETEC, among them is the heat-stable enterotoxin, STh. STh is a 19-amino acid peptide containing three disulfide bonds that stimulates fluid secretion in the bowel by binding to the receptor domain of intestinal guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C). Since GC-C agonists have pharmacologic potential for diagnosis and treatment of disorders such as constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C), chronic constipation, and colorectal carcinoma, it is crucial to develop methods for the large-scale production of STh and related peptides. Here, we present a strategy for recombinant expression of STh that relies on the use of the prosequence of human uroguanylin to support proper folding and disulfide bond formation. The chimeric protein CysCys-STh consisting of the propeptide of uroguanylin as N-terminus and the STh peptide as C-terminus was expressed in E. coli, and an efficient purification protocol was developed. Trypsin digestion of this protein released the enterotoxin which could be obtained in high purity. NMR and mass spectrometry confirmed the identity and homogeneity of the toxin, and its biological activity was confirmed by a cell-based in vivo assay. The expression scheme introduced here represents a cost-efficient and scalable way of STh production.

  8. (Invited) Towards the Development of Active, Stable and Abundant Catalysts for Oxygen Evolution in Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Paoli, Elisa Antares; Frydendal, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    to the TW level. State-of the art PEM electrolysers employ IrOx, which is both expensive and scarce, to catalyse oxygen evolution.(1) Around a decade’s worth of Ir production would be required to scale up PEM electrolysis to the TW scale: this is clearly untenable.(2) It turns out that RuOx has a higher...... and also most prone to dissolution, could be stabilised by TiOx. We test this notion by performing oxygen evolution on Mn-TiOx thin films. We probe the composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and dissolution with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. We confirm that Ti......Ox does indeed engender MnOx with modest stability. Further development of this strategy opens up the possibility of developing active, stable and abundant non-precious metal oxides for oxygen evolution in acid. References 1. M. K. Debe, S. M. Hendricks, G. D. Vernstrom, M. Meyers, M. Brostrom, M...

  9. Gold-doped graphene: A highly stable and active electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbov, Sergey; Alcántara Ortigoza, Marisol

    2015-04-21

    In addressing the growing need of renewable and sustainable energy resources, hydrogen-fuel-cells stand as one of the most promising routes to transform the current energy paradigm into one that integrally fulfills environmental sustainability. Nevertheless, accomplishing this technology at a large scale demands to surpass the efficiency and enhance the cost-effectiveness of platinum-based cathodes, which catalyze the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this work, our first-principles calculations show that Au atoms incorporated into graphene di-vacancies form a highly stable and cost-effective electrocatalyst that is, at the same time, as or more (dependently of the dopant concentration) active toward ORR than the best-known Pt-based electrocatalysts. We reveal that partial passivation of defected-graphene by gold atoms reduces the reactivity of C dangling bonds and increases that of Au, thus optimizing them for catalyzing the ORR and yielding a system of high thermodynamic and electrochemical stabilities. We also demonstrate that the linear relation among the binding energies of the reaction intermediates assumed in computational high-throughput material screening does not hold, at least for this non-purely transition-metal material. We expect Au-doped graphene to finally overcome the cathode-related challenge hindering the realization of hydrogen-fuel cells as the leading means of powering transportation and portable devices.

  10. Gold-doped graphene: A highly stable and active electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolbov, Sergey; Alcántara Ortigoza, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    In addressing the growing need of renewable and sustainable energy resources, hydrogen-fuel-cells stand as one of the most promising routes to transform the current energy paradigm into one that integrally fulfills environmental sustainability. Nevertheless, accomplishing this technology at a large scale demands to surpass the efficiency and enhance the cost-effectiveness of platinum-based cathodes, which catalyze the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this work, our first-principles calculations show that Au atoms incorporated into graphene di-vacancies form a highly stable and cost-effective electrocatalyst that is, at the same time, as or more (dependently of the dopant concentration) active toward ORR than the best-known Pt-based electrocatalysts. We reveal that partial passivation of defected-graphene by gold atoms reduces the reactivity of C dangling bonds and increases that of Au, thus optimizing them for catalyzing the ORR and yielding a system of high thermodynamic and electrochemical stabilities. We also demonstrate that the linear relation among the binding energies of the reaction intermediates assumed in computational high-throughput material screening does not hold, at least for this non-purely transition-metal material. We expect Au-doped graphene to finally overcome the cathode-related challenge hindering the realization of hydrogen-fuel cells as the leading means of powering transportation and portable devices

  11. Highly active and stable oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na⁺ pump complex for structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Michio; Li, Xiaodan

    2015-11-01

    The oxaloacetate decarboxylase primary Na(+) pump (Oad) produces energy for the surviving of some pathogenic bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Oad composes of three subunits: Oad-α, a biotinylated soluble subunit and catalyzes the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate; Oad-β, a transmembrane subunit and functions as a Na(+) pump; and Oad-γ, a single transmembrane α-helical anchor subunit and assembles Oad-α/β/γ complex. The molecular mechanism of Oad complex coupling the exothermic decarboxylation to generate the Na(+) electrochemical gradient remains unsolved. Our biophysical and biochemical studies suggested that the stoichiometry of Oad complex from Vibrio cholerae composed of α, β, γ in 4:2:2 stoichiometry not that of 4:4:4. The high-resolution structure determination of the Oad complex would reveal the energetic transformation mechanism from the catalytical soluble α subunit to membrane β subunit. Sufficient amount stable, conformational homogenous and active Oad complex with the right stoichiometry is the prerequisite for structural analysis. Here we report an easy and reproducible protocol to obtain high quantity and quality Oad complex protein for structural analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of active methylotroph populations in an acidic forest soil by stable-isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radajewski, Stefan; Webster, Gordon; Reay, David S; Morris, Samantha A; Ineson, Philip; Nedwell, David B; Prosser, James I; Murrell, J Colin

    2002-08-01

    Stable-isotope probing (SIP) is a culture-independent technique that enables the isolation of DNA from micro-organisms that are actively involved in a specific metabolic process. In this study, SIP was used to characterize the active methylotroph populations in forest soil (pH 3.5) microcosms that were exposed to (13)CH(3)OH or (13)CH(4). Distinct (13)C-labelled DNA ((13)C-DNA) fractions were resolved from total community DNA by CsCl density-gradient centrifugation. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences amplified from the (13)C-DNA revealed that bacteria related to the genera Methylocella, Methylocapsa, Methylocystis and Rhodoblastus had assimilated the (13)C-labelled substrates, which suggested that moderately acidophilic methylotroph populations were active in the microcosms. Enrichments targeted towards the active proteobacterial CH(3)OH utilizers were successful, although none of these bacteria were isolated into pure culture. A parallel analysis of genes encoding the key enzymes methanol dehydrogenase and particulate methane monooxygenase reflected the 16S rDNA analysis, but unexpectedly revealed sequences related to the ammonia monooxygenase of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) from the beta-subclass of the PROTEOBACTERIA: Analysis of AOB-selective 16S rDNA amplification products identified Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira sequences in the (13)C-DNA fractions, suggesting certain AOB assimilated a significant proportion of (13)CO(2), possibly through a close physical and/or nutritional association with the active methylotrophs. Other sequences retrieved from the (13)C-DNA were related to the 16S rDNA sequences of members of the Acidobacterium division, the beta-Proteobacteria and the order Cytophagales, which implicated these bacteria in the assimilation of reduced one-carbon compounds or in the assimilation of the by-products of methylotrophic carbon metabolism. Results from the (13)CH(3)OH and (13)CH(4) SIP experiments thus provide a rational basis for further

  13. A novel subtilase with NaCl-activated and oxidant-stable activity from Virgibacillus sp. SK37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrommao, Ekkarat; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yamabhai, Montarop

    2011-06-09

    Microbial proteases are one of the most commercially valuable enzymes, of which the largest market share has been taken by subtilases or alkaline proteases of the Bacillus species. Despite a large amount of information on microbial proteases, a search for novel proteases with unique properties is still of interest for both basic and applied aspects of this highly complex class of enzymes. Oxidant stable proteases (OSPs) have been shown to have a wide application in the detergent and bleaching industries and recently have become one of the most attractive enzymes in various biotechnological applications. A gene encoding a novel member of the subtilase superfamily was isolated from Virgibacillus sp. SK37, a protease-producing bacterium isolated from Thai fish sauce fermentation. The gene was cloned by an activity-based screening of a genomic DNA expression library on Luria-Bertani (LB) agar plates containing 1 mM IPTG and 3% skim milk. Of the 100,000 clones screened, all six isolated positive clones comprised one overlapping open reading frame of 45% identity to the aprX gene from Bacillus species. This gene, designated aprX-sk37 was cloned into pET21d(+) and over-expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). The enzyme product, designated AprX-SK37, was purified by an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The AprX-SK37 enzyme showed optimal catalytic conditions at pH 9.5 and 55°C, based on the azocasein assay containing 5 mM CaCl2. Maximum catalytic activity was found at 1 M NaCl with residual activity of 30% at 3 M NaCl. Thermal stability of the enzyme was also enhanced by 1 M NaCl. The enzyme was absolutely calcium-dependent, with optimal concentration of CaCl2 at 15 mM. Inhibitory effects by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid indicated that this enzyme is a metal-dependent serine protease. The enzyme activity was sensitive towards reducing agents, urea, and SDS, but relatively stable up to 5

  14. A novel subtilase with NaCl-activated and oxidant-stable activity from Virgibacillus sp. SK37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamabhai Montarop

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial proteases are one of the most commercially valuable enzymes, of which the largest market share has been taken by subtilases or alkaline proteases of the Bacillus species. Despite a large amount of information on microbial proteases, a search for novel proteases with unique properties is still of interest for both basic and applied aspects of this highly complex class of enzymes. Oxidant stable proteases (OSPs have been shown to have a wide application in the detergent and bleaching industries and recently have become one of the most attractive enzymes in various biotechnological applications. Results A gene encoding a novel member of the subtilase superfamily was isolated from Virgibacillus sp. SK37, a protease-producing bacterium isolated from Thai fish sauce fermentation. The gene was cloned by an activity-based screening of a genomic DNA expression library on Luria-Bertani (LB agar plates containing 1 mM IPTG and 3% skim milk. Of the 100,000 clones screened, all six isolated positive clones comprised one overlapping open reading frame of 45% identity to the aprX gene from Bacillus species. This gene, designated aprX-sk37 was cloned into pET21d(+ and over-expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3. The enzyme product, designated AprX-SK37, was purified by an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The AprX-SK37 enzyme showed optimal catalytic conditions at pH 9.5 and 55°C, based on the azocasein assay containing 5 mM CaCl2. Maximum catalytic activity was found at 1 M NaCl with residual activity of 30% at 3 M NaCl. Thermal stability of the enzyme was also enhanced by 1 M NaCl. The enzyme was absolutely calcium-dependent, with optimal concentration of CaCl2 at 15 mM. Inhibitory effects by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid indicated that this enzyme is a metal-dependent serine protease. The enzyme activity was sensitive towards reducing agents

  15. Neo-Archaean Palaeo-Environmental Changes Determined by Microbial Activities Using Stable Isotopic Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassineau, N.; Yang, J.; Zerkle, A.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    reducing environment corresponds to a lower sedimentation rate. Stable isotopic study of microbial activities in 3 cores determines spatial and temporal variation within the basin at different depths. Even in the Neo-Archaean, well established sulphur and carbon biological cycles allowed interactive bacterial communities to adapt to the changing environment.

  16. Chemistry of fly ash and cyclone ash leachate from waste materials and effects of ash leachates on bacterial growth, nitrogen-transformation activity, and metal accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Mio; Kawahata, Hodaka; Gupta, Lallan P; Itouga, Misao; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Ohta, Hidekazu; Komai, Takeshi; Ono, Yoshiro

    2009-06-15

    The effects of waste ash leachates on soil microorganism were evaluated along with a chemical characterization of ash leachates. Thirty fly ash samples and cyclone ash samples obtained from the incineration of municipal solid waste, plastic waste, and construction waste were used. Twenty-one and 22 samples inhibited N transformation activity of soil microorganism and growth of Bacillus subtilis, respectively. On the other hand, 11 and 18 samples stimulated bacterial activity and growth, respectively, at low concentrations. Generally, cyclone ash contained a smaller amount of toxic metals than fly ash. Our results suggest that cyclone ash can be further studied for reuse, perhaps as a soil amendment. Pb was found to be highly accumulated in B. subtilis cells, and should be carefully monitored when waste ash is reused in the environment.

  17. Fly Sings

    OpenAIRE

    Osmond, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Fly Sings (winner of the Bitish Library's 2015 Michael Marks Poetry Illustration award) forms the first installment of a prequel to the deadman and hare stories. It concerns how hare first came to be ‘summoned to the world below’, to look for deadman.\\ud \\ud Strandline Books chapbooks are produced as signed and numbered editions of 48, printed in black inkjet on 90gsm off-white recycled paper. They sell at £8 + £2 p&p. If interested, please email Mat Osmond at

  18. The concentration of some metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu) and delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) living near lead and zinc smelter ``Trepça'' in Kosova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elezaj, I. R.; Letaj, K. Rr.; Selimi, Q. I.; Zhushi-Etemi, F.

    2003-05-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALA-D: EC.4.2.1.24) hemoglobin and protein amount have been determined in three different populations of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) caught at two urban sites (Mitrovica town, which is situated close to smelter of “Trepça” don close and Prishtina the capital of Kosova) and in Luki village as uncontaminated area. The results show that in the fruit fly of Mitrovica the concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn was significantly higher (Pfruit fly from Mitrovica was 3.1 times higher in comparison with that on fruit fly of Prishtina and 4.9 times higher in comparison with uncontaminated group of fruit fly. The ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited in the homogenate of fruit fly from Mitrovica in comparison with Prishtina and Luki localities (Pfruit fly in comparison with Luki group (Pfruit fly in comparison with that in control and Prishtina group. The hemoglobin value was relatively unchanged.

  19. Cool-weather activity of the forensically important hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on carrion in Upstate South Carolina, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, Jonathan A; Nelder, Mark P

    2010-02-25

    The hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has expanded its range in the United States since its introduction into Texas (ca. 1980) and has been collected in 15 states. We investigated the bionomics of immature and adult C. rufifacies collected from carcasses of a raccoon Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman in Upstate South Carolina during November 2007, and used these insects to estimate the minimum period of insect activity. Puparia of C. rufifacies were collected from deer carrion; 28% were parasitized by Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The mean daily ambient temperature during this study was 11.4+/-1.02 degrees C, representing the lowest recorded mean temperature for adult activity of C. rufifacies; adults of C. rufifacies were observed flying among the carcasses at 9.0 degrees C. Although C. rufifacies is considered a warm-weather blow fly, researchers should be aware of its activity at suboptimal conditions, behavior that might aid its expansion into more northern areas. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A calcium-dependent plasticity rule for HCN channels maintains activity homeostasis and stable synaptic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnuraiah, Suraj; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and computational frameworks for synaptic plasticity and learning have a long and cherished history, with few parallels within the well-established literature for plasticity of voltage-gated ion channels. In this study, we derive rules for plasticity in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, and assess the synergy between synaptic and HCN channel plasticity in establishing stability during synaptic learning. To do this, we employ a conductance-based model for the hippocampal pyramidal neuron, and incorporate synaptic plasticity through the well-established Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM)-like rule for synaptic plasticity, wherein the direction and strength of the plasticity is dependent on the concentration of calcium influx. Under this framework, we derive a rule for HCN channel plasticity to establish homeostasis in synaptically-driven firing rate, and incorporate such plasticity into our model. In demonstrating that this rule for HCN channel plasticity helps maintain firing rate homeostasis after bidirectional synaptic plasticity, we observe a linear relationship between synaptic plasticity and HCN channel plasticity for maintaining firing rate homeostasis. Motivated by this linear relationship, we derive a calcium-dependent rule for HCN-channel plasticity, and demonstrate that firing rate homeostasis is maintained in the face of synaptic plasticity when moderate and high levels of cytosolic calcium influx induced depression and potentiation of the HCN-channel conductance, respectively. Additionally, we show that such synergy between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity enhances the stability of synaptic learning through metaplasticity in the BCM-like synaptic plasticity profile. Finally, we demonstrate that the synergistic interaction between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity preserves robustness of information transfer across the neuron under a rate-coding schema. Our results establish specific physiological roles

  1. A calcium-dependent plasticity rule for HCN channels maintains activity homeostasis and stable synaptic learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Honnuraiah

    Full Text Available Theoretical and computational frameworks for synaptic plasticity and learning have a long and cherished history, with few parallels within the well-established literature for plasticity of voltage-gated ion channels. In this study, we derive rules for plasticity in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels, and assess the synergy between synaptic and HCN channel plasticity in establishing stability during synaptic learning. To do this, we employ a conductance-based model for the hippocampal pyramidal neuron, and incorporate synaptic plasticity through the well-established Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM-like rule for synaptic plasticity, wherein the direction and strength of the plasticity is dependent on the concentration of calcium influx. Under this framework, we derive a rule for HCN channel plasticity to establish homeostasis in synaptically-driven firing rate, and incorporate such plasticity into our model. In demonstrating that this rule for HCN channel plasticity helps maintain firing rate homeostasis after bidirectional synaptic plasticity, we observe a linear relationship between synaptic plasticity and HCN channel plasticity for maintaining firing rate homeostasis. Motivated by this linear relationship, we derive a calcium-dependent rule for HCN-channel plasticity, and demonstrate that firing rate homeostasis is maintained in the face of synaptic plasticity when moderate and high levels of cytosolic calcium influx induced depression and potentiation of the HCN-channel conductance, respectively. Additionally, we show that such synergy between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity enhances the stability of synaptic learning through metaplasticity in the BCM-like synaptic plasticity profile. Finally, we demonstrate that the synergistic interaction between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity preserves robustness of information transfer across the neuron under a rate-coding schema. Our results establish specific

  2. A Calcium-Dependent Plasticity Rule for HCN Channels Maintains Activity Homeostasis and Stable Synaptic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnuraiah, Suraj; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and computational frameworks for synaptic plasticity and learning have a long and cherished history, with few parallels within the well-established literature for plasticity of voltage-gated ion channels. In this study, we derive rules for plasticity in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, and assess the synergy between synaptic and HCN channel plasticity in establishing stability during synaptic learning. To do this, we employ a conductance-based model for the hippocampal pyramidal neuron, and incorporate synaptic plasticity through the well-established Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM)-like rule for synaptic plasticity, wherein the direction and strength of the plasticity is dependent on the concentration of calcium influx. Under this framework, we derive a rule for HCN channel plasticity to establish homeostasis in synaptically-driven firing rate, and incorporate such plasticity into our model. In demonstrating that this rule for HCN channel plasticity helps maintain firing rate homeostasis after bidirectional synaptic plasticity, we observe a linear relationship between synaptic plasticity and HCN channel plasticity for maintaining firing rate homeostasis. Motivated by this linear relationship, we derive a calcium-dependent rule for HCN-channel plasticity, and demonstrate that firing rate homeostasis is maintained in the face of synaptic plasticity when moderate and high levels of cytosolic calcium influx induced depression and potentiation of the HCN-channel conductance, respectively. Additionally, we show that such synergy between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity enhances the stability of synaptic learning through metaplasticity in the BCM-like synaptic plasticity profile. Finally, we demonstrate that the synergistic interaction between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity preserves robustness of information transfer across the neuron under a rate-coding schema. Our results establish specific physiological roles

  3. Randomized trial of stopping TNF-inhibitors in rheumatoid arthrisis: patients with stable low disease activity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Moghadam, M.G.; van de Laar, Mart A F J; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Jansen, T.; van Riel, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose: The effectiveness of TNF-inhibitors (TNFi) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has already been demonstrated in many studies. However, little is known on stopping TNFi in patients with stable low disease activity and the subsequent likelihood of exacerbation of rheumatoid

  4. Toward an Active and Stable Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution in Acidic Media: Ti-Stabilized MnO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Rasmus; Paoli, Elisa Antares; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Catalysts are required for the oxygen evolution reaction, which are abundant, active, and stable in acid. MnO2 is a promising candidate material for this purpose. However, it dissolves at high overpotentials. Using first-principles calculations, a strategy to mitigate this problem by decorating...

  5. Fractional absorption of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa) and calcium carbonate measured by a dual stable-isotope method

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In ...

  6. Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhana AH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis or “belatungan” is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. In general, synthetic insecticides were applied to control the disease. However, it causes negative impact on animal product, so that it is required to find an alternative treatment using herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to access activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2 and L3. Five treatments were applied with five replications, i.e. control/water (P0, 0,5%, 1%, 2% of the extract for PI, PII and PIII, respectively. Another treatment was 0,05% Asuntol for positive control (PIV. Each treatment was added with1% DMSO and twenty larvae were examined for each replication. Bioassay of L1 and L2 was addressed to investigate effect of intestinal toxicity by mixing the extract with Meat-Blood Mixture (MBM and Larval Rearing Media (LRM for L1 and L2, respectively. Bioassay of L3 was to investigate effect of contact toxicity through soaking the larvae into the extract solution for 10 seconds followed by incubating in vermiculite at 36oC. All living larvae after being treated by various concentration of the extract were reared to pupae and allowed to emerge as imago. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. All data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett test at 95% confidential limit. For L2, larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95 and lethal time (LT50 and LT95 were defined. Results demonstrated that 1% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. It also caused to fail pupation and imago emergence. The further study might be pursued to investigate in vivo assay of the extract in infested livestock.

  7. Immobilization of simulated low and intermediate level waste in alkali-activated slag-fly ash-metakaolin hydroceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin, E-mail: wjin761026@163.com [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Wang, Jun-xia; Zhang, Qin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Li, Yu-xiang [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Evaluation of the suitability of ASFMH for solidifying simulated S-LILW. • The introduction of S-LILW avails forming zeolitic phases of ASFMH waste forms. • The ASFMH waste forms have low leachability and high compressive strength. - Abstract: In the current study, the alkali-activated slag-fly ash-metakaolin hydroceramic (ASFMH) waste forms for immobilizing simulated low and intermediate level waste (S-LILW) were prepared by hydrothermal process. The crystalline phase compositions, morphology, compressive strength and aqueous stability of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms were investigated. The results showed that the main crystalline phases of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms were analcime and zeolite NaP1. The changes of Si/Al molar ratio (from 1.7 to 2.2) and Ca/Al molar ratio (from 0.15 to 0.35) had little effect on the phase compositions of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms. However, the hydrothermal temperature, time as well as the content of S-LILW (from 12.5 to 37.5 wt%) had a major impact on the phase compositions. The compressive strength of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms was not less than 20 MPa when the content of S-LILW reached 37.5 wt%. In addition, the aqueous stability testing was carried out using the standard MCC-1 static leach test method; the normalized elemental leach rates of Sr and Cs were fairly constant in a low value below 5 × 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} and 3 × 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} after 28 days, respectively. It is indicated that ASFMH waste form could be a potential host for safely immobilizing LILW.

  8. The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae Eun Oh; Paulo J.M. Monteiro; Ssang Sun Jun; Sejin Choi; Simon M. Clark [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-02-15

    The increase in strength and evolution of crystalline phases in inorganic polymer cement, made by the alkali activation of slag, Class C and Class F fly ashes, was followed using compressive strength test and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In order to increase the crystallinity of the product the reactions were carried out at 80{sup o}C. We found that hydrotalcite formed in both the alkali-activated slag cements and the fly ash-based geopolymers. Hydroxycancrinite, one member of the ABC-6 family of zeolites, was found only in the fly ash geopolymers. Assuming that the predominantly amorphous geopolymer formed under ambient conditions relates to the crystalline phases found when the mixture is cured at high temperature, we propose that the structure of this zeolitic precursor formed in Na-based high alkaline environment can be regarded as a disordered form of the basic building unit of the ABC-6 group of zeolites which includes poly-types such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite and chabazite-Na.

  9. Determination of uranium concentrations and its activity ratios in coal and fly ash from Philippine coal-fired thermal power plants using ICP-MS and TIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Yonehara, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Tokonami, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Research Centre for Radiation Protection; Parami, V.K. [Philippine Nuclear Reserach Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Quirit, L.L. [Philippines Univ., Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    The specific activity of {sup 238}U as a technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in feed coal, bottom and fly ash samples from four major coal-fired thermal power plants in the Philippines have been measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy system equipped with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The uranium concentration has been determined from same samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There was a good correlation between the measured uranium using both methods and has been estimated to be 0.98. Uranium from coal, bottom and fly ash samples were chemically separated and activity ratio ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio was measured using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS). The highest concentration of uranium was found in fly ash and lowest was for feed coal. Uranium isotopic composition plays an important role in studying its biogeochemical behavior and is a good tracer on the sources of uranium in the environment. (orig.)

  10. The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun

    2010-02-01

    The increase in strength and evolution of crystalline phases in inorganic polymer cement, made by the alkali activation of slag, Class C and Class F fly ashes, was followed using compressive strength test and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In order to increase the crystallinity of the product the reactions were carried out at 80 °C. We found that hydrotalcite formed in both the alkali-activated slag cements and the fly ash-based geopolymers. Hydroxycancrinite, one member of the ABC-6 family of zeolites, was found only in the fly ash geopolymers. Assuming that the predominantly amorphous geopolymer formed under ambient conditions relates to the crystalline phases found when the mixture is cured at high temperature, we propose that the structure of this zeolitic precursor formed in Na-based high alkaline environment can be regarded as a disordered form of the basic building unit of the ABC-6 group of zeolites which includes poly-types such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite and chabazite-Na. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Eun; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Jun, Ssang Sun; Choi, Sejin; Clark, Simon M.

    2010-01-01

    The increase in strength and evolution of crystalline phases in inorganic polymer cement, made by the alkali activation of slag, Class C and Class F fly ashes, was followed using compressive strength test and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In order to increase the crystallinity of the product the reactions were carried out at 80 deg. C. We found that hydrotalcite formed in both the alkali-activated slag cements and the fly ash-based geopolymers. Hydroxycancrinite, one member of the ABC-6 family of zeolites, was found only in the fly ash geopolymers. Assuming that the predominantly amorphous geopolymer formed under ambient conditions relates to the crystalline phases found when the mixture is cured at high temperature, we propose that the structure of this zeolitic precursor formed in Na-based high alkaline environment can be regarded as a disordered form of the basic building unit of the ABC-6 group of zeolites which includes poly-types such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite and chabazite-Na.

  12. Determination of sulfur in fly ash and fuel oil standard reference materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Filby, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    Sulfur was determined in NBS Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633) and Residual Fuel Oils (SRM's 1619, 1620a, 1634a) by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (NAA) using the 34 S(n,γ) 35 S reaction. The 35 S was separated from solutions of the standards by either cation-anion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8/Dowex 1-X8 or by adsorption on Al 2 O 3 . Liquid scintillation counting of aqueous solutions was used for 35 S measurement. The 35 Cl(n,p) 35 S interference was corrected for by measurement of chlorine by instrumental NAA. The method may be applied to very small samples of fly ash or air particulates ( -3 g). 1 figure, 5 tables

  13. Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA, granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised for strength, mineralogy and microstructure. The findings showed that the agro-industrial by-product can be used to yield alkali-activated materials with 7-day mechanical strengths on the order of 42 MPa. The study confirmed that both amorphous silica and part of the crystalline silica present in RHA participate in the alkaline activation process, providing the alkalinity is suitably adjusted.Este estudio evalúa la viabilidad de utilizar un subproducto agroindustrial, la ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (RHA proveniente de un equipo combustor de una empresa Arrocera en Colombia, como reemplazo total de la sílice aportada por el silicato de sodio comercial en sistemas cementicios activados alcalinamente. Se prepararon pastas de ceniza volante (FA, de escoria de alto horno (GBFS y un sistema binario 50FA:50GBFS, que fueron activadas por una mezcla de silicato de sodio e hidróxido de sodio, y por dos tipos de RHA. Las mezclas se caracterizaron mecánica, mineralógica y microestructuralmente. Los resultados demuestran que es posible obtener materiales activados alcalinamente con resistencias mecánicas del orden de 42 MPa, a 7 días de curado, utilizando el subproducto agroindustrial. Este estudio corrobora que tanto la sílice amorfa como parte de la sílice cristalina presente en RHA tienen la posibilidad de participar en el proceso de activación alcalina, siempre y cuando las condiciones de alcalinidad estén adecuadamente ajustadas.

  14. Strength Properties of Processed Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Anandan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on the mechanical treatment of fly ash for improving the delayed reactivity of fly ash with the hydration product of cement. Grinding of fly ash was carried out in a ball mill for different time durations and processing time was optimized for maximum fineness. Concrete mixes were prepared using various proportions of processed and unprocessed fly ash replacement in cement (25% and 50%. The influence of steel fiber addition on the mechanical properties of the concrete was studied for different curing periods. The test results on pozzolanic activity and lime reactivity indicate that the processed fly ash exhibited a higher strength gain than the unprocessed fly ash, with a maximum increase in compressive strength of up to 12%. Improved pozzolanic properties were noticed due to the increase in fineness of the fly ash particles.

  15. Teleseismic P and S Delay Times within Tectonically Active and Stable North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, X.; van der Lee, S.

    2009-12-01

    We have measured teleseismic P and S relative delay times within 1) Stable North America (SNA) using waveforms from IRIS PASSCAL seismic arrays MOMA (Fischer et al., 1995), ABBA (Roecker and Beavan, 1995), Abitibi (Hearn and Mareschal, 1996), and FLED (Wysession and Fischer, 2001), and 2) Tectonically-active North America (TNA) using Earthscope's Transportable Array (TA). To study the contribution of mantle structure to these delays we subtracted delays predicted for topography and crustal structure, using CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000). Preliminary analyses of delay times from earthquakes with Mw>=6.5 show surprising differences between the heterogeneity of the mantle beneath SNA and TNA. While the range of delay times is expectedly small for an intra-shield array such as Abitibi, the range of delay times from Proterozoic basement in the midwest to Paleozoic margin in New England is much larger and slightly exceeds that for the TA in TNA. This suggests that that the mantle of SNA is slightly more heterogeneous than TNA, despite there being relatively little surface expression of this heterogeneity. Patterns of P and S relative delay times measured in TNA correlate better with surface tectonics, suggesting that the mantle in TNA has a greater effect on the surface geology than in SNA. The central and southern Basin and Range are characterized by positive delays. As shown in previous studies, the Snake River Plain is also well delineated by positive delays. These delays exhibit a significant peak at station H17A in Yellowstone National Park. Teleseismic P and S waves arriving at stations in the Rocky Mountains are much faster, including in northern Idaho and western Washington, but not in western Oregon. For both SNA and TNA, the measured S and P delay times have a significant linear correlation, with S delays at approximately 3 times the P delays, which confirms the dominant effect of mantle temperature on mantle velocity structure. However, the slope of this

  16. Can mean platelet component be used as an index of platelet activity in stable coronary artery disease?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, John

    2012-01-31

    Acute coronary syndrome is associated with intracoronary thrombosis secondary to platelet activation. Previous groups have investigated platelet activation in both stable and unstable vascular disease. Most measures of platelet activation are not routinely available or easily adaptable to large scale clinical use. Recently, measurement of the mean platelet component (MPC) has become part of the routine data provided by an automated full blood count analyser, the Advia 120. MPC measures platelet density which changes on platelet activation. Our objectives were to determine if platelet activation, as measured by MPC, is increased in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine if MPC could be useful in differentiating people with stable CAD from controls on an everyday clinical basis. Three hundred and forty-five consecutive patients attending for elective coronary angiography had full blood count analysis and MPC measurement performed using an ADVIA-120 analyser. Three hundred and twenty-four were analysed in our final dataset. Two hundred and fifty-three (78%) had CAD. Patients with CAD were significantly (p<0.001) older than those without (63.8 versus 56.0 years). Results failed to demonstrate a difference (p=0.467) in MPC between patients with CAD and those with normal coronary arteries (25.8 versus 26.0). Likewise, there was no correlation between MPC and the severity of CAD (Kendall\\'s tau b=-0.086, p=0.04). MPC is not a useful index of platelet activity in stable CAD when used in everyday clinical practice.

  17. Can mean platelet component be used as an index of platelet activity in stable coronary artery disease?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, John

    2009-04-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is associated with intracoronary thrombosis secondary to platelet activation. Previous groups have investigated platelet activation in both stable and unstable vascular disease. Most measures of platelet activation are not routinely available or easily adaptable to large scale clinical use. Recently, measurement of the mean platelet component (MPC) has become part of the routine data provided by an automated full blood count analyser, the Advia 120. MPC measures platelet density which changes on platelet activation. Our objectives were to determine if platelet activation, as measured by MPC, is increased in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine if MPC could be useful in differentiating people with stable CAD from controls on an everyday clinical basis. Three hundred and forty-five consecutive patients attending for elective coronary angiography had full blood count analysis and MPC measurement performed using an ADVIA-120 analyser. Three hundred and twenty-four were analysed in our final dataset. Two hundred and fifty-three (78%) had CAD. Patients with CAD were significantly (p<0.001) older than those without (63.8 versus 56.0 years). Results failed to demonstrate a difference (p=0.467) in MPC between patients with CAD and those with normal coronary arteries (25.8 versus 26.0). Likewise, there was no correlation between MPC and the severity of CAD (Kendall\\'s tau b=-0.086, p=0.04). MPC is not a useful index of platelet activity in stable CAD when used in everyday clinical practice.

  18. FOXO1 is a direct target of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein in Ewing's sarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Hu, Hsien-Ming; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Chansky, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Inducible and reversible siRNA knockdown of an oncogenic fusion protein such as EWS-Fli1 is feasible and more advantageous than other siRNA methods. → The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1 is a new EWS-Fli1 target. → While trans-activators are known for the FOXO1 gene, there has been no report on negative regulators of FOXO1 transcription. → This study provides first evidence that the EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein can function as a transcriptional repressor of the FOXO1 gene. -- Abstract: Ewing's family tumors are characterized by a specific t(11;22) chromosomal translocation that results in the formation of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein. To investigate the effects of EWS-Fli1 on gene expression, we carried out DNA microarray analysis after specific knockdown of EWS-Fli1 through transfection of synthetic siRNAs. EWS-Fli1 knockdown increased expression of genes such as DKK1 and p57 that are known to be repressed by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein. Among other potential EWS-Fli1 targets identified by our microarray analysis, we have focused on the FOXO1 gene since it encodes a potential tumor suppressor and has not been previously reported in Ewing's cells. To better understand how EWS-Fli1 affects FOXO1 expression, we have established a doxycycline-inducible siRNA system to achieve stable and reversible knockdown of EWS-Fli1 in Ewing's sarcoma cells. Here we show that FOXO1 expression in Ewing's cells has an inverse relationship with EWS-Fli1 protein level, and FOXO1 promoter activity is increased after doxycycline-induced EWS-Fli1 knockdown. In addition, we have found that direct binding of EWS-Fli1 to FOXO1 promoter is attenuated after doxycycline-induced siRNA knockdown of the fusion protein. Together, these results suggest that suppression of FOXO1 function by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein may contribute to cellular transformation in Ewing's family tumors.

  19. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  20. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  1. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportion...

  2. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushita, Kouhei

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, 35 Cl and 37 Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, 36 Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  3. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushita, Kouhei [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 37}Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, {sup 36}Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  4. Active Air Force Wings as of 1 October 1995; USAF Active Flying, Space, and Missile Squadrons as of 1 October 1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endicott, Judy G; Bailey, Carl E; Cully, George W; Harris, W. S; Hartman, Sara K; Heskett, K. D; Light, J. R; Perdue, Johnna A

    1998-01-01

    .... Among other initiatives, he directed the Air Force Historical Research Agency to compile a two-volume series publicizing the lineage and heraldry of the wings and flying squadrons that would remain...

  5. Effect of Crashed Stone on Properties of Fly Ash Based-Geopolymer Concrete with Local Alkaline Activator in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Omar; G. D. Abd Elhameed; A. M. Heniegal H. A. Mohamadien

    2015-01-01

    Green concrete are generally composed of recycling materials as hundred or partial percent substitutes for aggregate, cement, and admixture in concrete. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, efforts are needed to develop environmentally friendly construction materials. Using of fly ash based geopolymer as an alternative binder can help reduce CO2 emission of concrete. The binder of geopolymer concrete is different from the ordinary Portland cement concrete. Geopolymer Concr...

  6. The effects of the sequential addition of synthesis parameters on the performance of alkali activated fly ash mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mawulé Dassekpo

    Full Text Available Geopolymer is an energy efficient and sustainable material that is currently used in construction industry as an alternative for Portland cement. As a new material, specific mix design method is essential and efforts have been made to develop a mix design procedure with the main focus on achieving better compressive strength and economy. In this paper, a sequential addition of synthesis parameters such as fly ash-sand, alkaline liquids, plasticizer and additional water at well-defined time intervals was investigated. A total of 4 mix procedures were used to study the compressive performance on fly ash-based geopolymer mortar and the results of each method were analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the sequential addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, sodium silicate (Na2SiO3, plasticizer (PL, followed by adding water (WA increases considerably the compressive strengths of the geopolymer-based mortar. These results clearly demonstrate the high significant influence of sequential addition of synthesis parameters on geopolymer materials compressive properties, and also provide a new mixing method for the preparation of geopolymer paste, mortar and concrete. Keywords: Mixing method, Sequential addition, Synthesis parameters, Fly ash-based geopolymer mortar, Compressive properties

  7. Impact of active and stable psoriasis on health-related quality of life: the PSO-LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudén, E; Herrera, E; Puig, L; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Toribio, J; Perulero, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of psoriasis on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using different questionnaires. Prospective observational study of patients with plaque psoriasis of at least 6 months' duration stratified by active and stable disease. The patients were evaluated at baseline, 7 days, and 12 weeks. At the 3 visits, the investigators recorded sociodemographic and clinical data and the patients completed the following HRQOL questionnaires: the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI), and psoriasis quality of life questionnaire (PSO-LIFE). In total, 304 patients (182 with active psoriasis and 122 with stable psoriasis) were evaluated. The mean (SD) age was 45.3 (14.5) years, and 56.3% of the group were men. At baseline, the mean (SD) psoriasis and area severity index (PASI) score was 17.0 (7.4) in patients with active disease and 5.6 (5.3) in those with stable disease; a reduction was seen in PASI scores during the evaluation period (P<.01). The mean (SD) score on the PSO-LIFE questionnaire increased significantly from 57.4 (20.4) to 72.2 (19.6) in patients with active psoriasis and from 76.4 (20.6) to 82.3 (18.3) in those with stable disease (P<0.01 in both groups). The difference in standardized mean scores between the 2 groups was 0.79 for the DLQI, 0.62 for the PDI, and 0.85 for the PSO-LIFE questionnaire. The impact of psoriasis on HRQOL as assessed by the PSO-LIFE questionnaire was greater in patients with lesions in visible areas than in those with less visible lesions (P<.01). Changes in PSO-LIFE and PASI scores were moderately and significantly correlated (r=-0.4). The impact of psoriasis on HRQOL is higher in patients with active disease. The PSO-LIFE questionnaire showed a greater tendency to discriminate between active and stable psoriasis than either the DLQI or the PDI. PSO-LIFE scores correlated significantly with lesion site and disease severity as measured by PASI. Copyright

  8. Expression and purification of biologically active recombinant human paraoxonase 1 from a Drosophila S2 stable cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyeongseok; Yu, Jiyeon; Kim, Sumi; Lee, Nari; Lee, Jinhee; Lee, Sungrae; Kim, Nam Doo; Yu, Chiho; Rho, Jaerang

    2017-03-01

    Many pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents are highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPs), which inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity. Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has demonstrated significant potential for use as a catalytic bioscavenger capable of hydrolyzing a broad range of OPs. However, there are several limitations to the use of human PON1 as a catalytic bioscavenger, including the relatively difficult purification of PON1 from human plasma and its dependence on the presence of hydrophobic binding partners to maintain stability. Therefore, research efforts to efficiently produce recombinant human PON1 are necessary. In this study, we developed a Drosophila S2 stable cell line expressing recombinant human PON1. The recombinant human PON1 was fused with the human immunoglobulin Fc domain (PON1-hFc) to improve protein stability and purification efficiency. We purified the recombinant human PON1-hFc from the S2 stable cell line and characterized its enzymatic properties for OP hydrolysis. We purified the recombinant human PON1-hFc from the S2 stable cell line and characterized its enzymatic properties for OP hydrolysis compared with those of the recombinant human PON1 derived from E. coli. We observed that the recombinant human PON1-hFc is functionally more stable for OP hydrolyzing activities compared to the recombinant human PON1. The catalytic efficiency of the recombinant PON1-hFc towards diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP, 0.26 × 10 6  M -1  min -1 ) and paraoxon hydrolysis (0.015 × 10 6  M -1  min -1 ) was 1.63- and 1.24-fold higher, respectively, than the recombinant human PON1. Thus, we report that the recombinant PON1-hFc exerts hydrolytic activity against paraoxon and DFP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  10. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J Troup

    Full Text Available The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (< 3 kD fraction exhibited the highest AO capacity using DPPH as an oxidant. The AO activity was not mediated by the stable radicals or by metal complexes within the brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  11. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  12. Detergent-Stable Salt-Activated Proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 Isolated from Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montriwong, Aungkawipa; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl-activated and detergent-stable proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 isolated from fish sauce fermentation were purified and characterized. The enzymes with molecular masses of 20 and 36 kDa showed caseinolytic activity on a zymogram. Optimum azocaseinolytic activity was at 60 °C and pH 9. The proteolytic activity increased in the presence of 10 mM CaCl2 and 0.5 M NaCl and showed high stability at 0-2 M NaCl. The enzymes were stable at pH 4-10 and 10-50 °C. The enzymes preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and were completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), showing subtilisin-like characteristics. Activity and stability remained high in the presence of H2O2 and various surfactants. The enzymes exhibited high stability (>95%) in various organic solvents (DMSO, butanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile) at concentration of 50%. The V. halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 proteinases showed potential as a biocatalyst in aqueous-organic solvent systems and as an additive in laundry detergent.

  13. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  14. Insecticidal activity of basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool to adult fruit flies of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Basil oil and its three major active constituents (trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool) obtained from basil (Oscimum basilicum L.) were tested on three tephritid fruit fly species [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] for insecticidal activity. All test chemicals acted fast and showed a steep dose-response relationship. The lethal times for 90% mortality/knockdown (LT90) of the three fly species to 10% of the test chemicals were between 8 and 38 min. The toxic action of basil oil in C. capitata occurred significantly faster than in B. cucurbitae but slightly faster than in B. dorsalis. Estragole acted faster in B. dorsalis than in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae. Linalool action was faster in B. dorsalis and C. capitata than in B. cucurbitae. trans-Anethole action was similar to all three species. Methyl eugenol acted faster in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae than in B. dorsalis. When linalool was mixed with cuelure (attractant to B. cucurbitae male), its potency to the three fly species decreased as the concentration of cuelure increased. This was due to linalool hydrolysis catalyzed by acetic acid from cuelure degradation, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. When methyl eugenol (B. dorsalis male attractant) was mixed with basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, or linalool, it did not affect the toxicity of basil oil and linalool to B. dorsalis, but it did significantly decrease the toxicity of trans-anethole and estragole. Structural similarity between methyl eugenol and trans-anethole and estragole suggests that methyl eugenol might act at a site similar to that of trans-anethole and estragole and serve as an antagonist if an action site exists. Methyl eugenol also may play a physiological role on the toxicity reduction.

  15. Development of a novel walk-through fly trap for the control of horn flies and other pests on pastured dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S S; Washburn, S P; Watson, D W

    2014-07-01

    A prototype walk-through fly vacuum system, designed to remove horn flies Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) from cattle, was developed and tested for efficacy. The study was conducted during 4 fly seasons over 17 consecutive weeks each year within the months of May through September at 1 dairy research herd in the coastal plain of North Carolina. Additional data on horn flies, as well as face flies (Musca autumnalis) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), were collected during 1 yr from 7 commercial pasture-based and organic dairy farms in the piedmont region of North Carolina. The number of flies observed on animals in the pasture was compared with the number of flies collected in the trap. Studies were initiated after horn fly densities had met or exceeded a threshold of 200 flies per animal. The vacuum trap removed between 1.3 and 2.5 million flies annually from the research station cattle. Most fly removal occurred during the first few weeks of operation and maintained densities below threshold thereafter. Cattle using the fly trap at the research farm had only about 28% the number of horn flies as untreated cattle, and reductions ranged from 67.5 to 74.5% across the 4-yr study. In addition to large numbers of horn flies, traps placed on commercial dairies during 1 yr collected stable flies, face flies, and house flies, all species with differing behavior and larger in size than horn flies. The estimated cost of running the trap is $72 per season at commercial rates of $0.12 per hour and an expected 4h of daily operation during the time of milking. Use of a vacuum system as described herein has potential as a cost-effective method in reducing populations of parasitic flies in pasture-based dairy production systems without the use of insecticides. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of house fly salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on a heterologous host, Stomoxys calcitrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on selected fitness parameters of stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans [L.]) was examined in the laboratory. Virus-injected stable flies of both genders suffered substantially higher mortality than control flies. By day 9, female...

  18. Effect of Tartaric Acid on Hydration of a Sodium-Metasilicate-Activated Blend of Calcium Aluminate Cement and Fly Ash F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pyatina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An alkali-activated blend of aluminum cement and class F fly ash is an attractive solution for geothermal wells where cement is exposed to significant thermal shocks and aggressive environments. Set-control additives enable the safe cement placement in a well but may compromise its mechanical properties. This work evaluates the effect of a tartaric-acid set retarder on phase composition, microstructure, and strength development of a sodium-metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate/fly ash class F blend after curing at 85 °C, 200 °C or 300 °C. The hardened materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray computed tomography, and combined scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and tested for mechanical strength. With increasing temperature, a higher number of phase transitions in non-retarded specimens was found as a result of fast cement hydration. The differences in the phase compositions were also attributed to tartaric acid interactions with metal ions released by the blend in retarded samples. The retarded samples showed higher total porosity but reduced percentage of large pores (above 500 µm and greater compressive strength after 300 °C curing. Mechanical properties of the set cements were not compromised by the retarder.

  19. Diurnal and Nocturnal Flight Activity of Blow Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Rainforest Fragment in Brazil: Implications for the Colonization of Homicide Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Thiago F; Vasconcelos, Simao D

    2016-11-01

    Nocturnal flight of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a controversial issue in forensic entomology. We performed two field experiments to investigate the diurnal and nocturnal activity of six blow fly species in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Initially, nocturnal (17:30-05:30) versus diurnal (05:30-17:30) flight activity was investigated. Only 3.9% of adults were collected at night, mostly the native species Mesembrinella bicolor, and nocturnal oviposition did not occur. In the second experiment, collection of adults took place at the following intervals: 05:30-08:30, 08:30-11:30, 11:30-14:30, and 14:30-17:30. The proportions of adults did not differ significantly among the four diurnal intervals, except for Hemilucilia segmentaria, which was captured more frequently in the early morning. Calliphoridae has predominantly diurnal behavior, not laying eggs in darkness. The association of the native species M. bicolor, Hemilucilia semidiaphana, and H. segmentaria to forested areas reinforces the forensic relevance of data on their flight pattern. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. The effects of the sequential addition of synthesis parameters on the performance of alkali activated fly ash mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassekpo, Jean-Baptiste Mawulé; Zha, Xiaoxiong; Zhan, Jiapeng; Ning, Jiaqian

    Geopolymer is an energy efficient and sustainable material that is currently used in construction industry as an alternative for Portland cement. As a new material, specific mix design method is essential and efforts have been made to develop a mix design procedure with the main focus on achieving better compressive strength and economy. In this paper, a sequential addition of synthesis parameters such as fly ash-sand, alkaline liquids, plasticizer and additional water at well-defined time intervals was investigated. A total of 4 mix procedures were used to study the compressive performance on fly ash-based geopolymer mortar and the results of each method were analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the sequential addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), plasticizer (PL), followed by adding water (WA) increases considerably the compressive strengths of the geopolymer-based mortar. These results clearly demonstrate the high significant influence of sequential addition of synthesis parameters on geopolymer materials compressive properties, and also provide a new mixing method for the preparation of geopolymer paste, mortar and concrete.

  1. Saturated and monofluoro analogs of the oriental fruit fly attractant methyl eugenol show reduced genotoxic activities in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, R J; Kandikonda, S; Khrimian, A P; DeMilo, A B; Liquido, N J; Schiestl, R H

    1996-08-12

    Methyl eugenol, is a commercially used fruit fly attractant and a suspected carcinogen. Several phenylpropenes, including methyl eugenol and the known carcinogen safrole, score negative in the Salmonella assay but score positive in the yeast DEL assay that selects for intrachromosomal recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an attempt to dissociate the beneficial properties of methyl eugenol from its genotoxic properties, saturated or fluorinated analogs were evaluated for their ability to induce intrachromosomal (DEL) recombination in yeast. Field tests have previously shown that all of the analogs used have appreciable properties as fruit fly attractants. The analogs 1,2-dimethoxy-4-ethylbenzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoro-2-propenyl)benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)benzene and 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(3-fluoro-2-propenyl)benzene all showed reduced toxicity and reduced recombinagenicity in yeast compared to methyl eugenol. These results confirm the validity of fluorination and/or removal of the 2-propenyl moiety in reducing the toxicity and recombinagenicity of methyl eugenol derivatives.

  2. Raf-1 forms a stable complex with Mek1 and activates Mek1 by serine phosphorylation.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, W; Alessandrini, A; Crews, C M; Erikson, R L

    1993-01-01

    Recombinant Mek1 and Raf-1 proteins produced in Sf9 cells undergo a tight association both in vivo and in vitro, which apparently does not depend on additional factors or the kinase activity of Mek1 or Raf-1. The complex can be disrupted by two polyclonal antibodies raised against Raf-1 peptides. Coinfection with Raf-1 activates Mek1 > 150-fold, and coinfection with Raf-1 and Mek1 activates Erk1 approximately 90-fold. The activation of Mek1 by Raf-1 involves only serine phosphorylation, which...

  3. Evaluation of a commercial vacuum fly trap for controlling flies on organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, M J; Heins, B J; Moon, R D

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial vacuum fly trap (CowVac, Spalding Laboratories, Reno, NV) in on-farm organic dairy production systems to control horn flies, stable flies, and face flies. As cows walk through the trap, flies are brushed off the face, flank, and back with hanging flaps and blown off the belly, udder, and legs from one side, and then vacuumed from the air into a chamber from vacuum inlets opposite the blower and above the cow. The study included 8 organic dairy farms during the summer of 2015 in Minnesota, and herds ranged from 30 to 350 cows in size. The farms were divided into pairs by location; during the first period of the summer (June to July), the trap was set up on 1 farm, whereas during the second period of the summer (August to September) the trap was sent to its paired farm. Farms were visited once per week to collect and count flies from the trap as well as count and record flies on cows. Bulk tank milk, fat, and protein production and somatic cell count were collected on farms during the entire study period. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Independent variables for analyses were the fixed effects of farm, trap presence, housing scenario, and summer period. Horn fly numbers on cows were lower by 44% on farm in the presence of a trap (11.4 vs. 20.5 flies/cow-side) compared with the absence of a trap. Stable fly (5.4 vs. 7.1 flies/leg) and face fly (1.0 vs. 1.0 flies/cow) numbers were similar on farm whether the trap was present or absent on farms, respectively. Milk production was similar for farms with the trap (15.5 kg/d) compared to without (15.3 kg/d) the trap. Bulk tank milk, milk components, and somatic cell count were statistically similar in the presence and absence of the trap, so potential benefits of the trap for those measures were not evident at low fly populations observed during the study. The presence of a trap on farm

  4. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ant, Thomas; Koukidou, Martha; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Gong, Hong-Fei; Economopoulos, Aris; Vontas, John; Alphey, Luke

    2012-06-19

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT) presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®), providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1) are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2) display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3) induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D-Bol male releases provides evidence for the female

  5. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ant Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®, providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1 are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2 display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3 induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D

  6. Attributing Climate Conditions for Stable Malaria Transmission to Human Activity in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, L.; Mitchell, D.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature and precipitation limit areas of stable malaria transmission, but the effects of climate change on the disease remain controversial. Previously, studies have not separated the influence of anthropogenic climate change and natural variability, despite being an essential step in the attribution of climate change impacts. Ensembles of 2900 simulations of regional climate in sub-Saharan Africa for the year 2013, one representing realistic conditions and the other how climate might have been in the absence of human influence, were used to force a P.falciparium climate suitability model developed by the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa project. Strongest signals were detected in areas of unstable transmission, indicating their heightened sensitivity to climatic factors. Evidently, impacts of human-induced climate change were unevenly distributed: the probability of conditions being suitable for stable malaria transmission were substantially reduced (increased) in the Sahel (Greater Horn of Africa (GHOA), particularly in the Ethiopian and Kenyan highlands). The length of the transmission season was correspondingly shortened in the Sahel and extended in the GHOA, by 1 to 2 months, including in Kericho (Kenya), where the role of climate change in driving recent malaria occurrence is hotly contested. Human-induced warming was primarily responsible for positive anomalies in the GHOA, while reduced rainfall caused negative anomalies in the Sahel. The latter was associated with anthropogenic impacts on the West African Monsoon, but uncertainty in the RCM's ability to reproduce precipitation trends in the region weakens confidence in the result. That said, outputs correspond well with broad-scale changes in observed endemicity, implying a potentially important contribution of anthropogenic climate change to the malaria burden during the past century. Results support the health-framing of climate risk and help indicate hotspots of climate vulnerability, providing

  7. Routine 24-Hour Computed Tomography Brain Scan is not useful in stable patients Post Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhwe, Mary; Utley-Smith, Queen; Blessing, Robert; Goldstein, Larry B

    2016-03-01

    Obtaining a routine computed tomography (CT) brain scan 24 hours after treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) is included in the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association acute stroke guidelines. The usefulness of the test in stable patients is not known. We hypothesized that the results of routine, 24-hour post-treatment neuroimaging (CT or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] brain scans) would not alter the management of clinically stable patients. Patients treated with IV-tPA between January 2011 and December 2013 were identified from a single hospital's stroke registry. All patients were closely monitored for changes in stroke severity. Demographics, changes in neurological status, neuroimaging results, and changes in therapy were abstracted from the patients' medical records. Patients having a neuroimaging study because of neurological deterioration were excluded. Of 136 patients treated with IV-tPA, 131 met criteria for inclusion. Of these, 86.7% had moderate to severe neurological deficits (i.e., initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score > 5 points; median 8 points). All patients had routine imaging ~24 hours after treatment (CT brain 62.6%, MRI brain 12.4%, both CT and MRI brain 25%). Asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformation occurred in 6.7% and potentially changed management in a single patient (target systolic blood pressure was lowered from 185 to 180 mmHg). Over a 3-year period, routine neuroimaging ~24-hours after IV-tPA in clinically stable patients was associated with a change in therapy in only 1 (.95%) patient. If confirmed in other cohorts, these results suggest that routine neuroimaging after IV-tPA may be safely avoided in clinically stable patients, eliminating unnecessary radiation exposure in those having CT brain and reducing costs. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of active, and stable water-gas-shift reaction catalysts for fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzam, K.G.H.; Babich, Igor V.; Seshan, Kulathu Iyer; Lefferts, Leon

    2006-01-01

    Water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction CO + H2O = CO2 + H2, is a key step in the generation of H2 for fuel cells. Noble metal-based catalysts are promising single stage WGS catalysts because they less sensitive than LTS catalysts (Cu based) and more active than the HTS (Ni) catalysts. High activity in CO

  9. Activable enriched stable isotope iron-58 for monitoring absorption rate of juvenile athletes for iron: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qinfang; Chai, Zhifang; Feng, Weiyu; Chen, Jidi; Zhang, Peiqun; Pan, Jianxiang

    2002-09-01

    Activable enriched stable isotopes can play a unique role in studies of nutritional status, metabolism, absorption rates, and bioavailability of minerals. As a practical example, eight juvenile athletes were selected to test the absorption rates of iron during training and non-training periods by enriched stable isotope of Fe-58 (enriched degree: 51.1%) via activation analysis Fe-58 (n, gamma) Fe-59 of the collected feces samples. The results indicated that the average iron absorption rates of the juvenile athletes with and without training are 9.1 +/- 2.8 and 11.9 +/- 4.7%, respectively, which implies that the long-term endurance training with high intensity makes the iron absorption rate of athletes lower. In the meantime, the comparison of the activable enriched isotope technique with atomic absorption spectrometry was performed, which showed that the former was better than the latter in reliability and sensitivity. It is because this nuclear method can distinguish the exogenous and endogenous iron in the samples, but not for non-nuclear methods.

  10. 15 N- and 2 H proteomic stable isotope probing links nitrogen flow to archaeal heterotrophic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justice, Nicholas B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Zhou [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wang, Yingfeng [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Spaulding, Susan E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mosier, Annika C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hettich, Robert L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Chongle [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Banfield, Jillian F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-20

    Understanding how individual species contribute to nutrient transformations in a microbial community is critical to prediction of overall ecosystem function. We conducted microcosm experiments in which floating acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial biofilms were submerged recapitulating the final stage in a natural biofilm life cycle. Biofilms were amended with either 15NH4 + or deuterium oxide (2H2O) and proteomic stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to track the extent to which different members of the community used these molecules in protein synthesis across anaerobic iron-reducing, aerobic iron-reducing and aerobic iron-oxidizing environments. Sulfobacillus spp. synthesized 15N-enriched protein almost exclusively under iron-reducing conditions whereas the Leptospirillum spp. synthesized 15N-enriched protein in all conditions. There were relatively few 15Nenriched archaeal proteins, and all showed low atom% enrichment, consistent with Archaea synthesizing protein using the predominantly 14N biomass derived from recycled biomolecules. In parallel experiments using 2H2O, extensive archaeal protein synthesis was detected in all conditions. In contrast, the bacterial species showed little protein synthesis using 2H2O. The nearly exclusive ability of Archaea to synthesize proteins using 2H2O may be due to archaeal heterotrophy, whereby Archaea off set deleterious effects of 2H by accessing 1H generated byrespiration of organic compounds.

  11. Lévy stable noise-induced transitions: stochastic resonance, resonant activation and dynamic hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    A standard approach to analysis of noise-induced effects in stochastic dynamics assumes a Gaussian character of the noise term describing interaction of the analyzed system with its complex surroundings. An additional assumption about the existence of timescale separation between the dynamics of the measured observable and the typical timescale of the noise allows external fluctuations to be modeled as temporally uncorrelated and therefore white. However, in many natural phenomena the assumptions concerning the above mentioned properties of 'Gaussianity' and 'whiteness' of the noise can be violated. In this context, in contrast to the spatiotemporal coupling characterizing general forms of non-Markovian or semi-Markovian Lévy walks, so called Lévy flights correspond to the class of Markov processes which can still be interpreted as white, but distributed according to a more general, infinitely divisible, stable and non-Gaussian law. Lévy noise-driven non-equilibrium systems are known to manifest interesting physical properties and have been addressed in various scenarios of physical transport exhibiting a superdiffusive behavior. Here we present a brief overview of our recent investigations aimed at understanding features of stochastic dynamics under the influence of Lévy white noise perturbations. We find that the archetypal phenomena of noise-induced ordering are robust and can be detected also in systems driven by memoryless, non-Gaussian, heavy-tailed fluctuations with infinite variance

  12. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M; Cohen, Itai

    2015-04-06

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportional-integral controller. For more aggressive perturbations, we show evidence for nonlinear and hierarchical control mechanisms. Flies respond to roll perturbations within 5 ms, making this correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Develop high activity, low cost non-PGM fuel cell electrocatalyst and stable supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Elvington, M. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Garcia-Diaz, B. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Gaillard, J. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-09-28

    A unique approach has been developed to probe the non-PGM catalyst active site for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) for PEMFC. Iron based functionalities have been engineered into Metallic Organic Framework (MOF) catalysts to evaluate their impact on activity for the ORR. A series of FePhen@MOF catalysts have been synthesized with varying [Fe] to investigate the effect on electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties. The magnitude of the FeII/III redox couple and the electrochemical surface area are analyzed to determine if there is a correlation between [Fe] and the ORR onset potential and/or the relative number of active sites.

  14. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 2- Measured by using ME and At Pase Enzyme Activities and Total Protein Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.S.; Shoman, A.A.; Elbermawy, S.M.; Abul Yazid, I.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation aims at producing sterile adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Having the best possible vitality through the use of irradiation and /or a mutagenic substances to be used in a sterile insect technique program. Several types of mutagenic that were thought to cause mutations were used as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, serve ral types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. In a common pathway, malic enzyme (ME) activity, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity and the total protein contents are studied as direct parameters for measuring vitality of the insect. It was found that there is an increment at levels of these parameters due to the treatment of egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially the usage of the rice hulls as a bulking component in the larval rearing media alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  15. SYNTHESIS OF 4-(3,4-DIMETOXY-PHENYL-3-BUTENE-2-ON AND ACTIVITY IT’S TEST AS A FRUIT FLIES ATRACTANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Pranowo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-3-buten-2-on has been synthesized from veratraldehyde and acetone via aldol condensation. The reaction was performed at room temperature under basic condition for 24 hours to give brown solid of product (m.p 64-6 5oC in 73.7% yield. Veratraldehyde itself was produced from alkylation of vanillin by the use of dimethylsulfate. The structure of the products was analyzed by FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS. Activity test of 4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-3-buten-2-on as an attractant was carried out in Sleman, Bantul and Kulon Progo with methyl eugenol as a reference. The result showed that 4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-3-buten-2-on was inactive compound as a fruit flies attractant and some of fruit flies, i.e. Bactrocera papayae, B. carambolae, B. umbrosa and B. abdolonginqua was found on the test area.   Keywords: 4-(3,4-dimetoxy-phenyl-3-butene-2-on, Bactrocera spp., attractant

  16. SYNTHESIS OF 4-(4-METHOXY-PHENYL-3-BUTENE-2-ON AND THE ACTIVITY TEST AS A FRUIT FLIES ATRACTANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Pranowo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 4-(4-methoxyphenyl-3-buten-2-on has been synthesized from p-anisaldehyde and acetone via aldol condensation. The reaction was performed at room temperature under basic condition for 12 hours to give brown solid of product (m.p 64-65 oC in 66.19 % yield. p-anisaldehyde itself was produced from oxidation of anetol major component of anise oil by the use of potassium permanganate as a oxidator. The structure of the products was analyzed by FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS. Activity test of 4-(4-methoxyphenyl-3-buten-2-on as an attractant was carried out in Sleman with methyl eugenol as a reference. The result showed that 4-(4-methoxyphenyl-3-buten-2-on was inactive compound as a fruit flies attractant and some of fruit flies, i.e. Bactrocera papayae, B. carambolae, B. umbrosa and B. abdolonginqua was found on the test area.   Keywords: 4-(4-metoxy-phenyl-3-butene-2-on, Bactrocera spp., attractant

  17. Use of stable emulsion to improve stability, activity, and enantioselectivity of lipase immobilized in a membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorno, L; Li, N; Drioli, E

    2003-12-20

    The enantiocatalytic performance of immobilized lipase in an emulsion membrane reactor using stable emulsion prepared by membrane emulsification technology was studied. The production of optical pure (S)-naproxen from racemic naproxen methyl ester was used as a model reaction system. The O/W emulsion, containing the substrate in the organic phase, was fed to the enzyme membrane reactor from shell-to-lumen. The enzyme was immobilized in the sponge layer (shell side) of capillary polyamide membrane with 50 kDa cut-off. The aqueous phase was able to permeate through the membrane while the microemulsion was retained by the thin selective layer. Therefore, the substrate was kept in the enzyme-loaded membrane while the water-soluble product was continuously removed from the reaction site. The results show that lipase maintained stable activity during the entire operation time (more than 250 h), showing an enantiomeric excess (96 +/- 2%) comparable to the free enzyme (98 +/- 1%) and much higher compared to similar lipase-loaded membrane reactors used in two-separate phase systems (90%). The results demonstrate that immobilized enzymes can achieve high stability as well as high catalytic activity and enantioselectivity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents of filth flies on equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents for filth flies is becoming more popular on equine facilities; however, there is a lack of information on the e...

  19. To Fly in the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  20. Slowing of oscillatory brain activity is a stable characteristic of Parkinson's disease without dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, D.; Bosboom, JL; Deijen, J.B.; Wolters, E.C.M.J.; Berendse, H.W.; Stam, L.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive changes in resting-state oscillatory brain activity have recently been demonstrated using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in moderately advanced, non-demented Parkinson's disease patients relative to age-matched controls. The aim of the present study was to determine the onset and evolution

  1. Expression of stable and active human DNA topoisomerase I in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mooi Kwai; Lim, Shern Kwok; Miswan, Noorizan; Chew, Ai Lan; Noordin, Rahmah; Khoo, Boon Yin

    2018-01-01

    This study described the isolation of the coding region of human topoisomerase I (TopoI) from MDA-MB-231 and the expression of multiple copy recombinant genes in four Pichia pastoris strains. First, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplification of the enzyme coding region was performed. The PCR fragment was cloned into pPICZ-α-A vector and sequenced. It was then transformed into X33, GS115, SMD1168H and KM71H strains of Pichia. PCR-screening for positive clones was performed, and estimation of multiple copy integrants in each Pichia strain was carried out using agar plates containing increasing concentrations of Zeocin ® . The selected clones of multiple copy recombinant genes were then induced for TopoI expression in shaker flasks. GS115 and SMD1168 were found to be better Pichia strains to accommodate the recombinant gene for the expression of TopoI extracellularly. However, the DNA relaxation activity revealed that only the target enzyme in the culture supernatants of GS115-pPICZ-α-A-TopoI exhibited consistent enzyme activity over the cultivation time-points. Active enzyme activity was inhibited by Camptothecin. The enzyme produced can be used for in-house gel-based DNA relaxation assay development in performing high throughput screening for target-specific growth inhibitors that display similar effect as the TopoI inhibitors. These inhibitors may contribute to the improvement of the treatment of cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes of Hair to Teach about Sustainable Agriculture through Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Jennifer M.; Sheldon, Nathan D.

    2013-01-01

    The call for reform of science education is nearly three decades old (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983), but the implementation of such education improvements in the form of active learning techniques in large enrollment classes remains difficult. Here we present a class project designed to increase student involvement and…

  3. Monitoring of radioactive nuclides in incinerator fly ash and adsorption of Cs in simulated and actual eluate of the fly ash onto clay and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahana, Yuki; Koike, Yuya; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive nuclides in the incinerator fly ash of municipal solid waste was determined and monitored. For leaching radioactive Cs from incinerating fly ash in reclaimed land, a modified No. 13 elution test and adsorption with stable Cs onto andosol were performed. The activity concentration of radioactive nuclides in incinerator fly ash was constant within the range of the activity concentration before the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity concentration ratio was almost equal to 1, corresponding to 137 Cs existing in environment before the accident. 40% of 137 Cs in incinerator fly ash eluted with the modified No. 13 elution test, and adsorption ratio of Cs + onto the andosol showed 90% as being the primary concentration was equal to or more than 5000 μg L −1 . In addition, the desorption results used for 5 types of solvent showed that desorption ratio of adsorbed Cs + from the soil was 3.6% at the maximum. Hence, it is anticipated that using a soil that is similar in composition to the andosol suppresses the leaching out of radioactive Cs from reclaimed land. (author)

  4. FOXO1 is a direct target of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein in Ewing's sarcoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liu, E-mail: lyang@u.washington.edu [Department of Orthopedics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Medical Research Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108 (United States); Hu, Hsien-Ming; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Chansky, Howard A. [Department of Orthopedics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Medical Research Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108 (United States)

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Inducible and reversible siRNA knockdown of an oncogenic fusion protein such as EWS-Fli1 is feasible and more advantageous than other siRNA methods. {yields} The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1 is a new EWS-Fli1 target. {yields} While trans-activators are known for the FOXO1 gene, there has been no report on negative regulators of FOXO1 transcription. {yields} This study provides first evidence that the EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein can function as a transcriptional repressor of the FOXO1 gene. -- Abstract: Ewing's family tumors are characterized by a specific t(11;22) chromosomal translocation that results in the formation of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein. To investigate the effects of EWS-Fli1 on gene expression, we carried out DNA microarray analysis after specific knockdown of EWS-Fli1 through transfection of synthetic siRNAs. EWS-Fli1 knockdown increased expression of genes such as DKK1 and p57 that are known to be repressed by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein. Among other potential EWS-Fli1 targets identified by our microarray analysis, we have focused on the FOXO1 gene since it encodes a potential tumor suppressor and has not been previously reported in Ewing's cells. To better understand how EWS-Fli1 affects FOXO1 expression, we have established a doxycycline-inducible siRNA system to achieve stable and reversible knockdown of EWS-Fli1 in Ewing's sarcoma cells. Here we show that FOXO1 expression in Ewing's cells has an inverse relationship with EWS-Fli1 protein level, and FOXO1 promoter activity is increased after doxycycline-induced EWS-Fli1 knockdown. In addition, we have found that direct binding of EWS-Fli1 to FOXO1 promoter is attenuated after doxycycline-induced siRNA knockdown of the fusion protein. Together, these results suggest that suppression of FOXO1 function by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein may contribute to cellular transformation in Ewing's family tumors.

  5. Active and Stable Methane Oxidation Nano-Catalyst with Highly-Ionized Palladium Species Prepared by Solution Combustion Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Khader

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and testing of active and stable nano-catalysts for methane oxidation. The nano-catalyst was palladium/ceria supported on alumina prepared via a one-step solution-combustion synthesis (SCS method. As confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM, SCS preparative methodology resulted in segregating both Pd and Ce on the surface of the Al2O3 support. Furthermore, HTEM showed that bigger Pd particles (5 nm and more were surrounded by CeO2, resembling a core shell structure, while smaller Pd particles (1 nm and less were not associated with CeO2. The intimate Pd-CeO2 attachment resulted in insertion of Pd ions into the ceria lattice, and associated with the reduction of Ce4+ into Ce3+ ions; consequently, the formation of oxygen vacancies. XPS showed also that Pd had three oxidation states corresponding to Pd0, Pd2+ due to PdO, and highly ionized Pd ions (Pd(2+x+ which might originate from the insertion of Pd ions into the ceria lattice. The formation of intrinsic Ce3+ ions, highly ionized (Pd2+ species inserted into the lattice of CeO2 Pd ions (Pd(2+x+ and oxygen vacancies is suggested to play a major role in the unique catalytic activity. The results indicated that the Pd-SCS nano-catalysts were exceptionally more active and stable than conventional catalysts. Under similar reaction conditions, the methane combustion rate over the SCS catalyst was ~18 times greater than that of conventional catalysts. Full methane conversions over the SCS catalysts occurred at around 400 °C but were not shown at all with conventional catalysts. In addition, contrary to the conventional catalysts, the SCS catalysts exhibited superior activity with no sign of deactivation in the temperature range between ~400 and 800 °C.

  6. Correction: Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parapat, Riny Y; Wijaya, Muliany; Schwarze, Michael; Selve, Sören; Willinger, Marc; Schomäcker, Reinhard

    2016-04-07

    Correction for 'Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions' by Riny Y. Parapat et al., Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 796-805.

  7. Highly Active and Stable Fe-N-C Catalyst for Oxygen Depolarized Cathode Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingkun; Jia, Qingying; Ghoshal, Shraboni; Liang, Wentao; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2017-09-19

    Anion immunity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has tremendous implications in electrocatalysis with applications for fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and oxygen depolarized cathodes (ODCs) in the anodic evolution of chlorine. The necessity of exploring ORR catalysts with immunity to anion adsorption is particularly significant considering that platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts are costly and highly vulnerable to impurities such as halides. Herein, we report a metal organic framework (MOF)-derived Fe-N-C catalyst that exhibits a dramatically improved half-wave potential of 240 mV compared to the state-of-the-art Rh x S y /C catalyst in a rotating disk electrode in the presence of Cl - . The Fe-N 4 active sites in Fe-N-C are intrinsically immune to Cl - poisoning, in contrast to Pt/C, which is severely susceptible to Cl - poisoning. As a result, the activity of Fe-N-C decreases only marginally in the presence of Cl - , far exceeding that of Pt/C. The viability of this catalyst as ODCs is further demonstrated in real-life hydrochloric acid electrolyzers using highly concentrated HCl solution saturated with Cl 2 gas as the electrolyte. The introduction of Fe-N-C materials as ODC catalysts here overcomes the limitations of (i) the low intrinsic ORR activity of Rh x S y /C as the state-of-the-art ODC catalyst; (ii) the vulnerability to Cl - poisoning of Pt/C as the state-of-the-art ORR catalyst; and (iii) the high cost of precious metals in these two materials, resulting in a cost-effective ODC catalyst with the overall performance exceeding that of all previously reported materials.

  8. Effects of tiotropium on sympathetic activation during exercise in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kenji; Maekura, Ryoji; Hiraga, Toru; Kitada, Seigo; Miki, Keisuke; Miki, Mari; Tateishi, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Tiotropium partially relieves exertional dyspnea and reduces the risk of congestive heart failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, its effect on the sympathetic activation response to exercise is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether tiotropium use results in a sustained reduction in sympathetic activation during exercise. We conducted a 12-week, open-label (treatments: tiotropium 18 μg or oxitropium 0.2 mg × 3 mg), crossover study in 17 COPD patients. Treatment order was randomized across subjects. The subjects underwent a pulmonary function test and two modes of cardiopulmonary exercise (constant work rate and incremental exercise) testing using a cycle ergometer, with measurement of arterial catecholamines after each treatment period. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were significantly larger in the tiotropium treatment group. In constant exercise testing, exercise endurance time was longer, with improvement in dyspnea during exercise and reduction in dynamic hyperinflation in the tiotropium treatment group. Similarly, in incremental exercise testing, exercise time, carbon dioxide production, and minute ventilation at peak exercise were significantly higher in the tiotropium treatment group. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations and dyspnea intensity were also lower during submaximal isotime exercise and throughout the incremental workload exercise in the tiotropium treatment group. Tiotropium suppressed the increase of sympathetic activation during exercise at the end of the 6-week treatment, as compared with the effect of oxipropium. This effect might be attributed to improvement in lung function and exercise capacity and reduction in exertional dyspnea, which were associated with decreases in respiratory frequency and heart rate and reduced progression of arterial acidosis.

  9. [Stable isotopes of Mg2+ as activators of the suppressed ATP-generating function of mitochondria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, D A; Arkhantel'skiĭ, S E; Berdieva, A G; Markarian, A A; Khasigov, P Z; Gatagonova, T M; Ktsova, S A; Orlova, M A

    2005-01-01

    The ATP-generating activity of rat myocardial mitochondria and intramitochondrial creatine kinase was examined as a function of the isotopy of the incubation medium magnesium pool. The study was performed using in vitro systems prepared from the hearts of animals injected with 1-methylnicotine amide, which suppresses the NAD (NADP)-dependent reactions in vivo. It was shown that the presence of the 25Mg paramagnetic cations essential by compensates for the intramitochondrial ATP deficiency caused by the 1-methyl-nicotine amide-induced blockade of oxidative phosphorylation. This effect is hardey achievable in systems where the magnesium pool consists of isotopes with a zero nuclear spin (24Mg, 26Mg). The restoration of mitochondrial ATP synthesis involves the participation of creatine kinase since the activity of the latter does not depend on 1-methyl-nicotine amide. In this case, the high efficiency of this restaration seems to be a spin-selective phenomenon which requires predominantly 25Mg2+ cations. A possible meaning of the data for further studies on the mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis regulation is discussed.

  10. Stable single-unit-cell nanosheets of zeolite MFI as active and long-lived catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minkee; Na, Kyungsu; Kim, Jeongnam; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Osamu; Ryoo, Ryong

    2009-09-10

    Zeolites-microporous crystalline aluminosilicates-are widely used in petrochemistry and fine-chemical synthesis because strong acid sites within their uniform micropores enable size- and shape-selective catalysis. But the very presence of the micropores, with aperture diameters below 1 nm, often goes hand-in-hand with diffusion limitations that adversely affect catalytic activity. The problem can be overcome by reducing the thickness of the zeolite crystals, which reduces diffusion path lengths and thus improves molecular diffusion. This has been realized by synthesizing zeolite nanocrystals, by exfoliating layered zeolites, and by introducing mesopores in the microporous material through templating strategies or demetallation processes. But except for the exfoliation, none of these strategies has produced 'ultrathin' zeolites with thicknesses below 5 nm. Here we show that appropriately designed bifunctional surfactants can direct the formation of zeolite structures on the mesoporous and microporous length scales simultaneously and thus yield MFI (ZSM-5, one of the most important catalysts in the petrochemical industry) zeolite nanosheets that are only 2 nm thick, which corresponds to the b-axis dimension of a single MFI unit cell. The large number of acid sites on the external surface of these zeolites renders them highly active for the catalytic conversion of large organic molecules, and the reduced crystal thickness facilitates diffusion and thereby dramatically suppresses catalyst deactivation through coke deposition during methanol-to-gasoline conversion. We expect that our synthesis approach could be applied to other zeolites to improve their performance in a range of important catalytic applications.

  11. Marinobacter sp. from marine sediments produce highly stable surface-active agents for combatting marine oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Totaro, Grazia; Fava, Fabio

    2017-11-02

    The application of chemical dispersants as a response to marine oil spills is raising concerns related to their potential toxicity also towards microbes involved in oil biodegradation. Hence, oil spills occurring under marine environments necessitate the application of biodispersants that are highly active, stable and effective under marine environment context. Biosurfactants from marine bacteria could be good candidates for the development of biodispersant formulations effective in marine environment. This study aimed at establishing a collection of marine bacteria able to produce surface-active compounds and evaluating the activity and stability of the produced compounds under conditions mimicking those found under marine environment context. A total of 43 different isolates were obtained from harbor sediments. Twenty-six of them produced mainly bioemulsifiers when glucose was used as carbon source and 16 were biosurfactant/bioemulsifiers producers after growth in the presence of soybean oil. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene classified most isolates into the genus Marinobacter. The produced emulsions were shown to be stable up to 30 months monitoring period, in the presence of 300 g/l NaCl, at 4 °C and after high temperature treatment (120 °C for 20 min). The partially purified compounds obtained after growth on soybean oil-based media exhibited low toxicity towards V. fischeri and high capability to disperse crude oil on synthetic marine water. To the best of our knowledge, stability characterization of bioemulsifiers/biosurfactants from the non-pathogenic marine bacterium Marinobacter has not been previously reported. The produced compounds were shown to have potential for different applications including the environmental sector. Indeed, their high stability in the presence of high salt concentration and low temperature, conditions characterizing the marine environment, the capability to disperse crude oil and the low ecotoxicity makes them interesting for

  12. Volume 1, 1st Edition, Multiscale Tailoring of Highly Active and Stable Nanocomposite Catalysts, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veser, Goetz

    2009-08-31

    Nanomaterials have gained much attention as catalysts since the discovery of exceptional CO oxidation activity of nanoscale gold by Haruta. However, many studies avoid testing nanomaterials at the high-temperatures relevant to reactions of interest for the production of clean energy (T > 700°C). The generally poor thermal stability of catalytically active noble metals has thus far prevented significant progress in this area. We have recently overcome the poor thermal stability of nanoparticles by synthesizing a platinum barium-hexaaluminate (Pt-BHA) nanocomposite which combines the high activity of noble metal nanoparticles with the thermal stability of hexaaluminates. This Pt-BHA nanocomposite demonstrates excellent activity, selectivity, and long-term stability in CPOM. Pt-BHA is anchored onto a variety of support structures in order to improve the accessibility, safety, and reactivity of the nanocatalyst. Silica felts prove to be particularly amenable to this supporting procedure, with the resulting supported nanocatalyst proving to be as active and stable for CPOM as its unsupported counterpart. Various pre-treatment conditions are evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing residual surfactant from the active nanoscale platinum particles. The size of these particles is measured across a wide temperature range, and the resulting “plateau” of stability from 600-900°C can be linked to a particle caging effect due to the structure of the supporting ceramic framework. The nanocomposites are used to catalyze the combustion of a dilute methane stream, and the results indicate enhanced activity for both Pt-BHA as well as ceria-doped BHA, as well as an absence of internal mass transfer limitations at the conditions tested. In water-gas shift reaction, nanocomposite Pt-BHA shows stability during prolonged WGS reaction and no signs of deactivation during start-up/shut-down of the reactor. The chemical and thermal stability, low molecular weight, and

  13. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  14. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J; Navarini, Luciano; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Drew, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  15. Stable heterologous expression of biologically active terpenoids in green plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Khairul Ikram, Nur Kusaira; Zhan, Xin; Pan, Xiwu

    2015-01-01

    Plants biosynthesize a great diversity of biologically active small molecules of interest for fragrances, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. Among specialized metabolites, terpenoids represent the greatest molecular diversity. Many terpenoids are very complex, and total chemical synthesis often requires...... many steps and difficult chemical reactions, resulting in a low final yield or incorrect stereochemistry. Several drug candidates with terpene skeletons are difficult to obtain by chemical synthesis due to their large number of chiral centers. Thus, biological production remains the preferred method...... for industrial production for many of these compounds. However, because these chemicals are often found in low abundance in the native plant, or are produced in plants which are difficult to cultivate, there is great interest in engineering increased production or expression of the biosynthetic pathways...

  16. Constitutive activation of Nrf2 induces a stable reductive state in the mouse myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinath Shanmugam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox homeostasis regulates key cellular signaling pathways in both physiology and pathology. The cell's antioxidant response provides a defense against oxidative stress and establishes a redox tone permissive for cell signaling. The molecular regulation of the well-known Keap1/Nrf2 system acts as sensor responding to changes in redox homeostasis and is poorly studied in the heart. Importantly, it is not yet known whether Nrf2 alone can serve as a master regulator of cellular redox homeostasis without compensation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant response element (ARE genes through alternate mechanisms. Here, we addressed this question using cardiac-specific transgenic expression at two different levels of constitutively active nuclear erythroid related factor 2 (caNrf2 functioning independently of Keap1. The caNrf2 mice showed augmentation of glutathione (GSH, the key regulator of the cellular thiol redox state. The Trans-AM assay for Nrf2-binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE showed a dose-dependent increase associated with upregulation of several major antioxidant genes and proteins. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in dihydroethidium staining and malondialdehyde (MDA in the caNrf2-TG mice myocardium. Interestingly, caNrf2 gene-dosage dependent redox changes were noted resulting in generation of a multi-stage model of pro-reductive and reductive conditions in the myocardium of TG-low and TG-high mice, respectively. These data clearly show that Nrf2 levels alone are capable of serving as the master regulator of the ARE. These models provide an important platform to investigate the impact of the Nrf2 system independent of the need to regulate the activity of Keap1 and the consequent exposure to pro-oxidants or electrophiles, which have numerous off-target effects.

  17. PARASITOID VENOM INDUCES METABOLIC CASCADES IN FLY HOSTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrinalini; Siebert, Aisha L; Wright, Jeremy; Martinson, Ellen; Wheeler, David; Werren, John H

    2015-04-01

    Parasitoid wasps inject insect hosts with a cocktail of venoms to manipulate the physiology, development, and immunity of the hosts and to promote development of the parasitoid offspring. The jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis is a model parasitoid with at least 79 venom proteins. We conducted a high-throughput analysis of Nasonia venom effects on temporal changes of 249 metabolites in pupae of the flesh fly host ( Sarcophaga bullata ), over a five-day time course. Our results show that venom does not simply arrest the metabolism of the fly host. Rather, it targets specific metabolic processes while keeping hosts alive for at least five days post venom injection by the wasp. We found that venom: (a) Activates the sorbitol biosynthetic pathway while maintaining stable glucose levels, (b) Causes a shift in intermediary metabolism by switching to anaerobic metabolism and blocking the tricarboxylic acid cycle, (c) Arrests chitin biosynthesis that likely reflects developmental arrest of adult fly structures, (d) Elevates the majority of free amino acids, and (e) May be increasing phospholipid degradation. Despite sharing some metabolic effects with cold treatment, diapause, and hypoxia, the venom response is distinct from these conditions. Because Nasonia venom dramatically increases sorbitol levels without changing glucose levels, it could be a useful model for studying the regulation of the sorbitol pathway, which is relevant to diabetes research. Our findings generally support the view that parasitoid venoms are a rich source of bioactive molecules with potential biomedical applications.

  18. A two disulfide bridge Kazal domain from Phytophthora exhibits stable inhibitory activity against serine proteases of the subtilisin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoun Sophien

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kazal-like serine protease inhibitors are defined by a conserved sequence motif. A typical Kazal domain contains six cysteine residues leading to three disulfide bonds with a 1–5/2–4/3–6 pattern. Most Kazal domains described so far belong to this class. However, a novel class of Kazal domains with two disulfide bridges resulting from the absence of the third and sixth cysteines have been found in biologically important molecules, such as human LEKTI, a 15-domain inhibitor associated with the severe congenital disease Netherton syndrome. These domains are referred to as atypical Kazal domains. Previously, EPI1, a Kazal-like protease inhibitor from the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans, was shown to be a tight-binding inhibitor of subtilisin A. EPI1 also inhibits and interacts with the pathogenesis-related P69B subtilase of the host plant tomato, suggesting a role in virulence. EPI1 is composed of two Kazal domains, the four-cysteine atypical domain EPI1a and the typical domain EPI1b. Results In this study, we predicted the inhibition constants of EPI1a and EPI1b to subtilisin A using the additivity-based sequence to reactivity algorithm (Laskowski algorithm. The atypical domain EPI1a, but not the typical domain EPI1b, was predicted to have strong inhibitory activity against subtilisin A. Inhibition assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that recombinant domain EPI1a exhibited stable inhibitory activity against subilisin A and was solely responsible for inhibition and interaction with tomato P69B subtilase. Conclusion The finding that the two disulfide bridge atypical Kazal domain EPI1a is a stable inhibitor indicates that the missing two cysteines and their corresponding disulfide bond are not essential for inhibitor reactivity and stability. This report also suggests that the Laskowski algorithm originally developed and validated with typical Kazal domains might operate accurately for atypical

  19. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; Lopez-Alonso, Marta; Freire, Juan; Perez, Cristobal

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. - Two years after Prestige oil spill, seabirds were exposed to remnant oil related to their feeding habits with consequences on delayed lethality.

  20. Cationic Silica-Supported N-Heterocyclic Carbene Tungsten Oxo Alkylidene Sites: Highly Active and Stable Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucino, Margherita; Mougel, Victor; Schowner, Roman; Fedorov, Alexey; Buchmeiser, Michael R; Copéret, Christophe

    2016-03-18

    Designing supported alkene metathesis catalysts with high activity and stability is still a challenge, despite significant advances in the last years. Described herein is the combination of strong σ-donating N-heterocyclic carbene ligands with weak σ-donating surface silanolates and cationic tungsten sites leading to highly active and stable alkene metathesis catalysts. These well-defined silica-supported catalysts, [(≡SiO)W(=O)(=CHCMe2 Ph)(IMes)(OTf)] and [(≡SiO)W(=O)(=CHCMe2 Ph)(IMes)(+) ][B(Ar(F) )4 (-) ] [IMes=1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene, B(Ar(F) )4 =B(3,5-(CF3 )2 C6 H3 )4 ] catalyze alkene metathesis, and the cationic species display unprecedented activity for a broad range of substrates, especially for terminal olefins with turnover numbers above 1.2 million for propene. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velando, Alberto, E-mail: avelando@uvigo.e [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Munilla, Ignacio [Departamento de Botanica, Facultade de Farmacia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lopez-Alonso, Marta [Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain); Freire, Juan [Grupo de Recursos Marinos y Pesquerias Universidade da Coruna, A Coruna (Spain); Perez, Cristobal [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. - Two years after Prestige oil spill, seabirds were exposed to remnant oil related to their feeding habits with consequences on delayed lethality.

  2. Two Water Stable Copper Metal-Organic Frameworks with Performance in the Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiuping

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel water stable metal-organic frameworks, [Cu(L·(4,4′-bipy·(ClO4]n (1, [Cu(L·(phen·(ClO4·(H2O]2 (2, have been constructed by HL=[5-Mercapto-1-methyl] tetrazole acetic acid and Cu (II salt in the presence of assistant N-containing ligands. MOF 1 and MOF 2 with open CuII sites, resulting the framework 1 and 2 show electrocatalytic activity for water oxidation in alkaline solution. The electrochemical properties of complex for oxygen evolution reaction (OER were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV and the Tafel slopes. Complex 1 has a higher LSV activity with a lower over potential of 1.54 V and a much higher increase in current density. Meanwhile, the Tafel slope of complex 1 (122.0 mV dec-1 is much lower than complex 2 (243.5 mV dec-1. This phenomenon makes complex 1 a promising porous material for electrocatalytic activity.

  3. Horn Fly, (L.), Overwintering

    OpenAIRE

    Allan T. Showler; Weste L.A. Osbrink; Kimberly H. Lohmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter a...

  4. Highly stable plasminogen activator inhibitor type one (VLHL PAI-1) protects fibrin clots from tissue plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankun, Jerzy; Aleem, Ansari M; Selman, Steven H; Skrzypczak-Jankun, Ewa; Lysiak-Szydlowska, Wieslawa; Grafos, Nicholas; Fryer, Hugh J L; Greenfield, Robert S

    2007-11-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major specific inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) which mediates fibrin clot lysis through activation of plasminogen. Wild-type-PAI-1 (wPAI-1) is rapidly converted to the latent form (half-life of approximately 2 h) and loses its ability to inhibit tPA. We developed a very long half-life PAI-1 (VLHL PAI-1), a recombinant protein with a half-life >700 h compared with wPAI-1. In this study, VLHL PAI-1 was assessed for its ability to inhibit clot lysis in vitro. Clot formation was initiated in normal plasma supplemented with tPA by the addition of either tissue factor or human recombinant FVIIa. Clot lysis time, monitored turbidimetrically in a microtiter plate reader, was determined at various concentrations of wPAI-1 and VLHL PAI-1. Both wPAI-1 and VLHL PAI-1 caused a significant increase in clot lysis time, although the latter was somewhat less effective at lower concentrations. The VLHL PAI-1, but not wPAI-1, maintained its anti-fibrinolytic activity after preincubation overnight at 37 degrees. These studies demonstrate that VLHL PAI-1 is an effective inhibitor of fibrin clot degradation. Due to the high stability of VLHL PAI-1 compared with wPAI-1, this novel inhibitor of tPA-mediated fibrinolysis may have therapeutic applications for treating surgical and trauma patients when used directly or in conjunction with the procoagulant recombinant FVIIa.

  5. Stearic–capric acid eutectic/activated-attapulgiate composite as form-stable phase change material for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Shaokun; Dong, Lijie; Chen, Shun; Xie, Haian; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • S–C/a-ATP form-stable PCM was prepared by vacuum fusion method. • Maximum mass fraction of S–C in composite without leakage is as high as 50 wt%. • The phase change temperature and latent heat is measured to be 21.8 °C and 72.6 J/g. • Thermal and chemical reliable with respect to a large number of thermal cycling. • The S–C/a-ATP has great potential in building energy conservation. - Abstract: The aim of this research was to prepare a novel form-stable PCMs (FSPCM) for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) in low temperature, by incorporating eutectic mixture of stearic-capric acid (S–C) into activated-attapulgite (a-ATP) which acted as supporting material in the composite. The a-ATP is open-ended tubular capillary with large specific surface area, which is beneficial for the adsorption of PCMs. The maximum mass fraction of stearic-capric binary fatty acid loaded in a-ATP is determined as high as 50 wt% without melted S–C seepage from the composite. The phase change temperatures and latent heats of FSPCM are measured to be 21.8 °C and 72.6 J/g for melting process, and 20.3 °C and 71.9 J/g for freezing process, respectively, indicating it has suitable phase change temperature and high latent heat storage capacity. Moreover, the S–C/a-ATP FSPCM shows good thermal and chemical reliability after 1000 times thermal cycling test, which is identified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR). Therefore, the S–C/a-ATP FSPCM is an effective LHTES building material to reduce energy consumption

  6. NK cell responses to cytomegalovirus infection lead to stable imprints in the human KIR repertoire and involve activating KIRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béziat, Vivien; Liu, Lisa L; Malmberg, Jenny-Ann; Ivarsson, Martin A; Sohlberg, Ebba; Björklund, Andreas T; Retière, Christelle; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva; Traherne, James; Ljungman, Per; Schaffer, Marie; Price, David A; Trowsdale, John; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Malmberg, Karl-Johan

    2013-04-04

    Human natural killer (NK) cells are functionally regulated by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their interactions with HLA class I molecules. As KIR expression in a given NK cell is genetically hard-wired, we hypothesized that KIR repertoire perturbations reflect expansions of unique NK-cell subsets and may be used to trace adaptation of the NK-cell compartment to virus infections. By determining the human "KIR-ome" at a single-cell level in more than 200 donors, we were able to analyze the magnitude of NK cell adaptation to virus infections in healthy individuals. Strikingly, infection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV), but not with other common herpesviruses, induced expansion and differentiation of KIR-expressing NK cells, visible as stable imprints in the repertoire. Education by inhibitory KIRs promoted the clonal-like expansion of NK cells, causing a bias for self-specific inhibitory KIRs. Furthermore, our data revealed a unique contribution of activating KIRs (KIR2DS4, KIR2DS2, or KIR3DS1), in addition to NKG2C, in the expansion of human NK cells. These results provide new insight into the diversity of KIR repertoire and its adaptation to virus infection, suggesting a role for both activating and inhibitory KIRs in immunity to CMV infection.

  7. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, Christopher J; Moon, Roger D

    2009-06-01

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios, and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with five dipteran hosts: house fly (Musca domestica L.), stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), horn fly (Hematobia irritans L.), black dump fly [Hydrotaea aenescens (Weidemann)] (Diptera: Muscidae), and a flesh fly (Sarcophaga bullata Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). M. raptorellus killed and successfully parasitized all five host species and produced an average 2.6 parasitoid progeny from each host. Host attack rates were highest on stable fly and lowest on horn fly; there were no differences among hosts in the total number of progeny produced. T. zealandicus killed larvae of all fly host species in similar numbers, but parasitism was most successful on H. aenescens and S. bullata and least successful on horn fly and house fly hosts. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (10.2 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 2.5 progeny were produced from parasitized horn fly hosts. Most of the killed puparia that produced neither adult flies nor parasitoids ("duds") contained dead parasitoids; in house fly, stable fly, and horn fly hosts, >30% of these dudded pupae contained adult wasps that failed to eclose. T. nigra successfully parasitized pupae of all host species except house fly and was most successful on stable fly. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (30.6 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 5.7 progeny were produced from horn fly hosts.

  8. The effects of sex-ratio and density on locomotor activity in the house fly, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra...... with and without the presence of females. Overall, this study demonstrates that locomotor activity in M. domestica is affected by sex-ratio and density. Furthermore, the predictability of locomotor activity is affected by both sex-ratio, density, and circadian rhythm. These results add to our understanding...

  9. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    points to a divide between the engineered and the organic and shows a human aspiration for control of information and of biological species. Frustratingly, the work does not allow control over the flies and the printing surface; the flies decide whether it is suitable to print on the paper...

  10. Plasma Protein Turnover Rates in Rats Using Stable Isotope Labeling, Global Proteomics, and Activity-Based Protein Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Tyrrell, Kimberly J.; Hansen, Joshua R.; Thomas, Dennis G.; Murphree, Taylor A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Luders, Teresa; Madden, James M.; Li, Yunying; Wright, Aaron T.; Piehowski, Paul D.

    2017-12-06

    Protein turnover is important for general health on cellular and organism scales providing a strategy to replace old, damaged, or dysfunctional proteins. Protein turnover also informs of biomarker kinetics, as a better understanding of synthesis and degradation of proteins increases the clinical utility of biomarkers. Here, turnover rates of plasma proteins in rats were measured in vivo using a pulse-chase stable isotope labeling experiment. During the pulse, rats (n=5) were fed 13C6-labeled lysine (“heavy”) feed for 23 days to label proteins. During the chase, feed was changed to an unlabeled equivalent feed (“light”), and blood was repeatedly sampled from rats over 10 time points for 28 days. Plasma samples were digested with trypsin, and analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). MaxQuant was used to identify peptides and proteins, and quantify heavy:light lysine ratios. A system of ordinary differential equations was used to calculate protein turnover rates. Using this approach, 273 proteins were identified, and turnover rates were quantified for 157 plasma proteins with half-lives ranging 0.3-103 days. For the ~70 most abundant proteins, variability in turnover rates among rats was low (median coefficient of variation: 0.09). Activity-based protein profiling was applied to pooled plasma samples to enrich serine hydrolases using a fluorophosphonate (FP2) activity-based probe. This enrichment resulted in turnover rates for an additional 17 proteins. This study is the first to measure global plasma protein turnover rates in rats in vivo, measure variability of protein turnover rates in any animal model, and utilize activity-based protein profiling for enhancing measurements of targeted, low-abundant proteins, such as those commonly used as biomarkers. Measured protein turnover rates will be important for understanding of the role of protein turnover in cellular and organism health as well as increasing the utility of protein

  11. Stable respiratory activity requires both P/Q-type and N-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Henner; Zanella, Sebastien; Elsen, Gina E; Smith, Lincoln; Doi, Atsushi; Garcia, Alfredo J; Wei, Aguan D; Xun, Randy; Kirsch, Sarah; Gomez, Christopher M; Hevner, Robert F; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2013-02-20

    P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(v)2.1) play critical presynaptic and postsynaptic roles throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. Here we report that mice with a genetic ablation of the Ca(v)2.1 pore-forming α(1A) subunit (α(1A)⁻/⁻) encoded by CACNA1a (Jun et al., 1999) suffer during postnatal development from increasing breathing disturbances that lead ultimately to death. Breathing abnormalities include decreased minute ventilation and a specific loss of sighs, which was associated with lung atelectasis. Similar respiratory alterations were preserved in the isolated in vitro brainstem slice preparation containing the pre-Bötzinger complex. The loss of Ca(v)2.1 was associated with an alteration in the functional dependency on N-type calcium channels (Ca(v)2.2). Blocking N-type calcium channels with conotoxin GVIA had only minor effects on respiratory activity in slices from control (CT) littermates, but abolished respiratory activity in all slices from α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice. The amplitude of evoked EPSPs was smaller in inspiratory neurons from α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice compared with CTs. Conotoxin GVIA abolished all EPSPs in inspiratory neurons from α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice, while the EPSP amplitude was reduced by only 30% in CT mice. Moreover, neuromodulation was significantly altered as muscarine abolished respiratory network activity in α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice but not in CT mice. We conclude that excitatory synaptic transmission dependent on N-type and P/Q-type calcium channels is required for stable breathing and sighing. In the absence of P/Q-type calcium channels, breathing, sighing, and neuromodulation are severely compromised, leading to early mortality.

  12. Mineralogy of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Young; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moo Seung [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on mineralogical and chemical characteristics of coal fly ash collected from Boreong, Honam, Samcheonpo, Gunsan, Seocheon power plants. Mineralogical and chemical characters of fly ashes are clarified by experimental studies, using x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, differential thermal analyzer, grain size analyzer and chemical analysis. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; The coal fly ashes from the all power plants are mainly consisted with mullite and quartz, and minor quantity of hematite. In particular, fly ash from the Honam power plant is converted into the anorthite under the 1200 degree. According to the result grain size analysis, most of the fly ashes are under the 200 mesh except 66% of fly ashes from the Boreong and Honam, 54% from Seocheon, 83% from Gunsan and 31% from Samcheonpo power plants. The unburned carbon contents are decreased in the small grain size of fly ashes. Under the 200 mesh grain size of Honam fly ashes shows particularly less than 1% content of unburned carbon. Chemical components of fly ashes are found to be 49-80% of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents in the bituminous and anthracite coal ash are 49-69% and 75-80%, respectively. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO concentrations in the bituminous coal ash are higher than anthracite coal ash. The trace elements such as Pb and Zn are higher anthracite coal ash than bituminous coal ash, which is mainly due to the grain size characteristic. The fly ash from Honam power plant with high CaO content can be used potassium silicate fertilizer and raw materials for cements after separation of 200 mesh. Anorthite are formed after 1200 degree heating of bituminous coal ash, which can be utilized as aggregate and bricks. (author). 21 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  14. Photon activation therapy of RG2 glioma carrying Fischer rats using stable thallium and monochromatic synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceberg, Crister; Jönsson, Bo-Anders; Prezado, Yolanda; Pommer, Tobias; Nittby, Henrietta; Englund, Elisabet; Grafström, Gustav; Edvardsson, Anneli; Stenvall, Anna; Strömblad, Susanne; Wingårdh, Karin; Persson, Bertil; Elleaume, Hélène; Baldetorp, Bo; Salford, Leif G; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2012-12-21

    75 RG2 glioma-carrying Fischer rats were treated by photon activation therapy (PAT) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation and stable thallium. Three groups were treated with thallium in combination with radiation at different energy; immediately below and above the thallium K-edge, and at 50 keV. Three control groups were given irradiation only, thallium only, or no treatment at all. For animals receiving thallium in combination with radiation to 15 Gy at 50 keV, the median survival time was 30 days, which was 67% longer than for the untreated controls (p = 0.0020) and 36% longer than for the group treated with radiation alone (not significant). Treatment with thallium and radiation at the higher energy levels were not effective at the given absorbed dose and thallium concentration. In the groups treated at 50 keV and above the K-edge, several animals exhibited extensive and sometimes contra-lateral edema, neuronal death and frank tissue necrosis. No such marked changes were seen in the other groups. The results were discussed with reference to Monte Carlo calculated electron energy spectra and dose enhancement factors.

  15. Photon activation therapy of RG2 glioma carrying Fischer rats using stable thallium and monochromatic synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceberg, Crister; Jönsson, Bo-Anders; Prezado, Yolanda; Pommer, Tobias; Nittby, Henrietta; Englund, Elisabet; Grafström, Gustav; Edvardsson, Anneli; Stenvall, Anna; Strömblad, Susanne; Wingårdh, Karin; Persson, Bertil; Elleaume, Hélène; Baldetorp, Bo; Salford, Leif G.; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2012-12-01

    75 RG2 glioma-carrying Fischer rats were treated by photon activation therapy (PAT) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation and stable thallium. Three groups were treated with thallium in combination with radiation at different energy; immediately below and above the thallium K-edge, and at 50 keV. Three control groups were given irradiation only, thallium only, or no treatment at all. For animals receiving thallium in combination with radiation to 15 Gy at 50 keV, the median survival time was 30 days, which was 67% longer than for the untreated controls (p = 0.0020) and 36% longer than for the group treated with radiation alone (not significant). Treatment with thallium and radiation at the higher energy levels were not effective at the given absorbed dose and thallium concentration. In the groups treated at 50 keV and above the K-edge, several animals exhibited extensive and sometimes contra-lateral edema, neuronal death and frank tissue necrosis. No such marked changes were seen in the other groups. The results were discussed with reference to Monte Carlo calculated electron energy spectra and dose enhancement factors.

  16. Preliminary Study of Fly Ash Ceramic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herry-Poernomo; Djoko-Sardjono, Ign.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary study of ceramic production process from two components ofwhich are fly ash and feldspar has been done. Aluminosilicate substancecontained in the fly ash is a basic material a former ceramic body, if itfired at the temperature of 1000 o C forms mullite (3Al 2 O 3 .2SiO 2 ). Mulliteis a refractory material which is very stable at the temperature changing.This experiment studies the ceramic production process of two componentsnamely fly ash with particle size of o C.Steps of processes are making paste of fly ash and feldspar, making of greenpellets, and firing of pellets, physical analysis of ceramic including volumedecrease, lost ignition, porosity, density, water sorption, compressivestrength. The experiment result at firing temperature of 1000 o C were shownthat best composition at the weight ratio of fly ash to feldspar are 60/40and 50/50. It physical characteristic respectively are decrease of volume0.54 and 0.69 %, lost ignition = 11.98 and 11.78 %, porosity = 0.159 and0.155, density = 2.05 and 2.06 g/cm 3 , water sorption = 18.96 and 18.36 %,compressive strength = 24.82 and 24.79 kN/mm 2 . (author)

  17. Fractional Absorption of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa and Calcium Carbonate Measured by a Dual Stable-Isotope Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa, obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI, with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3, the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0, 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24. The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4, was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test. The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml, as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for osteoporosis.

  18. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  19. Melting of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by waste-derived thermite reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.-S.; Lin, K.-L.; Lee, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a novel approach for melting municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, based on self-propagating reactions, by using energy-efficient simulated waste-derived thermite. The self-propagating characteristics, the properties of the recycled alloy and slag and the partitioning of heavy metals during the process are also studied. Experimental results demonstrate that the mix ratio of fly ash to the starting mixture of less than 30% supports the development of the self-propagating reaction with a melting temperature of 1350-2200 deg. C. Furthermore, metallic iron (or alloy) and the slag were retrieved after activation of the thermite reactions among the starting mixtures. It was noted that more than 91 wt.% of iron was retrieved as alloy and the rest of non-reductive oxides as slag. During the thermite reactions, the partition of heavy metals to the SFA and flue gas varied with the characteristics of the target metals: Cd was mainly partitioned to flue gas (75-82%), and partition slightly increased with the increasing fly ash ratio; Pb and Zn, were mainly partitioned to the SFA, and the partition increased with increasing fly ash ratio; Cu was partitioned to the SFA (18-31%) and was not found in the flue gas; and moreover stable Cr and Ni were not identified in both the SFA and flue gas. On the other hand, the determined TCLP leaching concentrations were all well within the current regulatory thresholds, despite the various FA ratios. This suggests that the vitrified fly ash samples were environmental safe in heavy metal leaching. The results of this study suggested that melting of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by waste-derived thermite reactions was a feasible approach not only energy-beneficial but also environmental-safe

  20. Evaluation of fly ash pellets for phosphorus removal in a laboratory scale denitrifying bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyang; Cooke, Richard A; Huang, Xiangfeng; Christianson, Laura; Bhattarai, Rabin

    2018-02-01

    Nitrate and orthophosphate from agricultural activities contribute significantly to nutrient loading in surface water bodies around the world. This study evaluated the efficacy of woodchips and fly ash pellets in tandem to remove nitrate and orthophosphate from simulated agricultural runoff in flow-through tests. The fly ash pellets had previously been developed specifically for orthophosphate removal for this type of application, and the sorption bench testing showed a good promise for flow-through testing. The lab-scale horizontal-flow bioreactor used in this study consisted of an upstream column filled with woodchips followed by a downstream column filled with fly ash pellets (3 and 1 m lengths, respectively; both 0.15 m diameter). Using influent concentrations of 12 mg/L nitrate and 5 mg/L orthophosphate, the woodchip bioreactor section was able to remove 49-85% of the nitrate concentration at three hydraulic retention times ranging from 0.67 to 4.0 h. The nitrate removal rate for woodchips ranged from 40 to 49 g N/m 3 /d. Higher hydraulic retention times (i.e., smaller flow rates) corresponded with greater nitrate load reduction. The fly ash pellets showed relatively stable removal efficiency of 68-75% across all retention times. Total orthophosphate adsorption by the pellets was 0.059-0.114 mg P/g which was far less than the saturated capacity (1.69 mg/g; based on previous work). The fly ash pellets also removed some nitrate and the woodchips also removed some orthophosphate, but these reductions were not significant. Overall, woodchip denitrification followed by fly ash pellet P-sorption can be an effective treatment technology for nitrate and phosphate removal in subsurface drainage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Campomanesia adamantium Peel Extract in Antidiarrheal Activity: The Ability of Inhibition of Heat-Stable Enterotoxin by Polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Caroline Honaiser; de Oliveira, Ivan Pires; Zaminelli, Tiago; Baldivia, Débora da Silva; da Silva, Luan Ramos; Napolitano, Mauro; Silvério, Camila Bitencourt Mendes; Lincopan, Nilton; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet

    2016-01-01

    Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in Brazilian Cerrado. Different parts of this plant are used in popular medicine for treatment of several diseases like fever, diarrhea, hypercholesterolemia and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibition of heat-stable enterotoxin type A (STa) by gallic acid present in the peel of C. adamantium fruit and assays to assess the antidiarrheal activity, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of peel extract using the T84 cell line model. The possible inhibition exerted by the gallic acid of the peel extract on the STa peptide was inferred by molecular dynamics simulations. The antidiarrheal effects were investigated measuring cGMP accumulation in cells after stimulation by STa toxin and antibacterial activity was assessed. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. MTT and LDH assays were used to evaluate any possible cytotoxic action while the CyQUANT test was used to investigate the effect on cell proliferation. A representation showing how the possible interactions between STa and the gallic acid of the extract might reduce the action of the enterotoxin is presented. C. adamantium peel extract significantly decreased the levels of cGMP in T84 cells. However, no effect on the species of microorganisms was observed. The extract also inhibited COX-1 (IC50 255.70 ± 0.04 ng/mL) and COX-2 (IC50 569.50 ± 0.11 ng/mL) enzymes. Cytotoxicity assay have shown significant changes in cells treated with the extract, which inhibited the cell proliferation until 72 hours of treatment. Direct interactions of phenolic compounds present in the extract with the STa toxin may limit its activity. Curative effect in the diarrhea treatment and its anti-inflammatory action is based on the pharmacological properties, mechanism of action of the C. adamantium peel extract, and no toxic effects of the peel extract presented on this work. PMID:27764241

  2. DNA-, RNA-, and Protein-Based Stable-Isotope Probing for High-Throughput Biomarker Analysis of Active Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Eleanor; Taubert, Martin; Coyotzi, Sara; Chen, Yin; Eyice, Özge; Schäfer, Hendrik; Murrell, J Colin; Neufeld, Josh D; Dumont, Marc G

    2017-01-01

    Stable-isotope probing (SIP) enables researchers to target active populations within complex microbial communities, which is achieved by providing growth substrates enriched in heavy isotopes, usually in the form of 13 C, 18 O, or 15 N. After growth on the substrate and subsequent extraction of microbial biomarkers, typically nucleic acids or proteins, the SIP technique is used for the recovery and analysis of isotope-labeled biomarkers from active microbial populations. In the years following the initial development of DNA- and RNA-based SIP, it was common practice to characterize labeled populations by targeted gene analysis. Such approaches usually involved fingerprint-based analyses or sequencing of clone libraries containing 16S rRNA genes or functional marker gene amplicons. Although molecular fingerprinting remains a valuable approach for rapid confirmation of isotope labeling, recent advances in sequencing technology mean that it is possible to obtain affordable and comprehensive amplicon profiles, metagenomes, or metatranscriptomes from SIP experiments. Not only can the abundance of microbial groups be inferred from metagenomes, but researchers can bin, assemble, and explore individual genomes to build hypotheses about the metabolic capabilities of labeled microorganisms. Analysis of labeled mRNA is a more recent advance that can provide independent metatranscriptome-based analysis of active microorganisms. The power of metatranscriptomics is that mRNA abundance often correlates closely with the corresponding activity of encoded enzymes, thus providing insight into microbial metabolism at the time of sampling. Together, these advances have improved the sensitivity of SIP methods and allow the use of labeled substrates at ecologically relevant concentrations. Particularly as methods improve and costs continue to drop, we expect that the integration of SIP with multiple omics-based methods will become prevalent components of microbial ecology studies

  3. Attractant for vinegar fly, Drosophila busckii, and cluster fly, Pollenia rudis (Diptera: Drosophilidae et Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Vincas; Radziute, Sandra; Lutovinovas, Erikas

    2009-01-01

    A field test carried out in an industrial greenhouse in Lithuania revealed the attractiveness of synthetic methyl salicylate (MeSa) to two dipteran species: the vinegar fly, Drosophila busckii (Drosophilidae), and the cluster fly, Pollenia rudis (Calliphoridae). The attractant for the former fly species was especially effective, as sticky traps containing 0.25 ml of MeSa captured (814 +/- 55) D. busckii flies/trap on average compared to (12 +/- 4) flies/trap in control traps. The mean capture of P. rudis [(42 +/- 4) flies/trap] was significantly higher in MeSa-baited traps compared to the control traps [(13 +/- 4) flies/trap]. The presence of MeSa in emissions of many fruits suitable for D. busckii feeding allows to attribute this attractant to kairomones. In case of P. rudis, MeSa should be attributed to synomones (compounds beneficial for both receiver and sender), because adult flies feeding on flowers act as pollinators. This is the first report on the field-active attractant for D. busckii and the second for P. rudis.

  4. Lundep, a sand fly salivary endonuclease increases Leishmania parasite survival in neutrophils and inhibits XIIa contact activation in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza C Chagas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the host's first line of defense against infections, and their extracellular traps (NET were recently shown to kill Leishmania parasites. Here we report a NET-destroying molecule (Lundep from the salivary glands of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome of Lu. longipalpis showed the potential presence of an endonuclease. Indeed, not only was the cloned cDNA (Lundep shown to encode a highly active ss- and dsDNAse, but also the same activity was demonstrated to be secreted by salivary glands of female Lu. longipalpis. Lundep hydrolyzes both ss- and dsDNA with little sequence specificity with a calculated DNase activity of 300000 Kunitz units per mg of protein. Disruption of PMA (phorbol 12 myristate 13 acetate- or parasite-induced NETs by treatment with recombinant Lundep or salivary gland homogenates increases parasite survival in neutrophils. Furthermore, co-injection of recombinant Lundep with metacyclic promastigotes significantly exacerbates Leishmania infection in mice when compared with PBS alone or inactive (mutagenized Lundep. We hypothesize that Lundep helps the parasite to establish an infection by allowing it to escape from the leishmanicidal activity of NETs early after inoculation. Lundep may also assist blood meal intake by lowering the local viscosity caused by the release of host DNA and as an anticoagulant by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation.

  5. Identification of Phase Composition of Binders from Alkali-Activated Mixtures of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Fly Ash

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, J.; Drongová, L.; Topinková, M.; Matějka, V.; Kukutschová, J.; Vavro, Martin; Tomková, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2014), s. 79-88 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : binders * alkali activation * hydration products Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2014/pdf/2014_01_079.pdf

  6. The Effect of Variation of Molarity of Alkali Activator and Fine Aggregate Content on the Compressive Strength of the Fly Ash: Palm Oil Fuel Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhair Ibnul Bashar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of molarity of alkali activator, manufactured sand (M-sand, and quarry dust (QD on the compressive strength of palm oil fuel ash (POFA and fly ash (FA based geopolymer mortar was investigated and reported. The variable investigated includes the quantities of replacement levels of M-sand, QD, and conventional mining sand (N-sand in two concentrated alkaline solutions; the contents of alkaline solution, water, POFA/FA ratio, and curing condition remained constant. The results show that an average of 76% of the 28-day compressive strength was found at the age of 3 days. The rate of strength development from 3 to 7 days was found between 12 and 16% and it was found much less beyond this period. The addition of 100% M-sand and QD shows insignificant strength reduction compared to mixtures with 100% N-sand. The particle angularity and texture of fine aggregates played a significant role in the strength development due to the filling and packing ability. The rough texture and surface of QD enables stronger bond between the paste and the fine aggregate. The concentration of alkaline solution increased the reaction rate and thus enhanced the development of early age strength. The use of M-sand and QD in the development of geopolymer concrete is recommended as the strength variation between these waste materials and conventional sand is not high.

  7. Insecticidal Activity of the Leaf Essential Oil of Peperomia borbonensis Miq. (Piperaceae) and Its Major Components against the Melon Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorla, Emmanuelle; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne; Deuscher, Zoé; Allibert, Agathe; Grondin, Isabelle; Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC/MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC 50 ) and 90% (LC 90 ) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC 50 value was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm 2 and the LC 90 value was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm 2 for the EO. The median lethal time (LT 50 ) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT 50  = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT 50  = 127 ± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... period was rather short, as even high doses of Campylobacter remained viable for less than 24 hours in flies, when they were incubated at temperatures from 20 ºC and higher. Lower temperatures are less- or irrelevant, as flies become slow or immobile below 15-20 ºC....

  9. The Kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique: A Powerful Off-lattice On-the-fly Kinetic Monte Carlo Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mellouhi, fedwa; Mousseau, Normand; Lewis, Laurent J.

    2008-01-01

    Many materials science phenomena, such as growth and self-organisation, are dominated by activated diffusion processes and occur on timescales that are well beyond the reach of standard-molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) schemes make it possible to overcome this limitation and achieve experimental timescales. However, most KMC approaches proceed by discretizing the problem in space in order to identify, from the outset, a fixed set of barriers that are used throughout t...

  10. Comparative study on the nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sand flies in a highland and lowland foci of visceral leishmaniasis in north-western Ethiopia with special reference to Phlebotomus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklilu, Esayas; Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Kindu, Mizan; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2017-08-23

    Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is most probably vectored by Phlebotomus orientalis in north-western Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the nocturnal activity patterns of Ph. orientalis in VL endemic foci of Libo-Kemkem (highland) and Metema (lowland) districts of north-western Ethiopia. Sampling of sand flies was conducted bimonthly from January-May 2012 in the highland and from March-June 2013 in the lowland. Sand flies were sampled using two CDC light traps placed in compounds occupied by both cattle and humans. Sampling of sand flies started at 18:00 h and ended at 06:00 h. Every hour, a cage was replaced by another cage. In total, 9479 nocturnally active sand flies were collected from both study areas. Six Phlebotomus species (Ph. orientalis, Ph. duboscqi, Ph. papatasi, Ph. bergeroti, Ph. rodhaini and Ph. martini) and several Sergentomyia spp. were identified. In both areas, of the six Phlebotomus spp., Ph. orientalis was the preponderate. In the highland, the hourly activity pattern of Ph. orientalis females was higher before midnight with a peak in density between 22:00-23:00 h, whereas in the lowland after midnight between 03:00-04:00 h. The present study showed that Ph. orientalis females exhibited different nocturnal activity patterns with a peak in the early part of the night in the highland and in the latter part of the night in the lowland areas. As the risk of acquiring L. donovani infections vary in the two areas, appropriate control strategies should be developed according to the activity of Ph. orientalis in the respective areas.

  11. Leaf Stable Isotope and Nutrient Status of Temperate Mangroves As Ecological Indicators to Assess Anthropogenic Activity and Recovery from Eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritcan, Iana; Duxbury, Mark; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Alfaro, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    We measured nitrogen stable isotope values (δ15N), and total phosphorus (%P) and total nitrogen (%N) contents in leaves of the temperate mangrove (Avicennia marina sp. australasica) from three coastal ecosystems exposed to various levels of human impact (Manukau, high; Mangawhai, low; and Waitemata, intermediate) in northern New Zealand. We measured δ15N values around 10‰ in environments where the major terrestrial water inputs are sewage. The highest average total nitrogen contents and δ15N values were found in the Auckland city region (Manukau Harbour) at 2.2%N and 9.9‰, respectively. The lowest values were found in Mangawhai Harbour, situated about 80 km north of Auckland city, at 2.0%N and 5.2‰, respectively. In the Waitemata Harbour, also located in Auckland city but with less exposure to human derived sewage inputs, both parameters were intermediate, at 2.1%N and 6.4‰. Total phosphorus contents did not vary significantly. Additionally, analysis of historical mangrove leaf herbarium samples obtained from the Auckland War Memorial Museum indicated that a reduction in both leaf total nitrogen and δ15N content has occurred over the past 100 years in Auckland’s harbors. Collectively, these results suggest that anthropogenically derived nitrogen has had a significant impact on mangrove nutrient status in Auckland harbors over the last 100 years. The observed decrease in nitrogenous nutrients probably occurred due to sewage system improvements. We suggest that mangrove plant physiological response to nutrient excess could be used as an indicator of long-term eutrophication trends. Monitoring leaf nutrient status in mangroves can be used to assess environmental stress (sewage, eutrophication) on coastal ecosystems heavily impacted by human activities. Moreover, nitrogen and phosphorus leaf contents can be used to assess levels of available nutrients in the surrounding environments. PMID:28066477

  12. Combination of at-sea activity, geolocation and feather stable isotopes documents where and when seabirds moult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves eCherel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Key facets of the foraging ecology of seabirds during the inter-breeding period still remain poorly understood because of the difficulty of studying them at sea, including during the energy-demanding moulting stage. Here, the extent to which three sympatric petrels (Antarctic and thin-billed prions, and blue petrel from the subantarctic Kerguelen Islands modify their foraging ecology during moult was investigated using a combination of complementary tools, namely miniaturized saltwater immersion geolocators (GLS and the isotopic method. Firstly, moulting behaviour was first characterized in the blue petrel, a reference species that is known to renew its plumage in autumn. GLS and feather stable isotopes (13C as a proxy of the birds’ foraging habitat indicated that the post-breeding moult of blue petrel occurred in Antarctic waters. Importantly, activity recorders showed that moult was marked by a strong peak in time spent daily sitting on water, which thereafter declined to lower values during the remaining winter months. Secondly, the peak in time spent sitting on water was used as a proxy to characterize the contrasted moult strategies of the two prion species. As blue petrels demonstrated, thin-billed prions moulted during the post-breeding period in cold Antarctic waters where they fed primarily on low trophic level prey, most likely Antarctic krill (15N as a proxy of the birds’ diet. By contrast, Antarctic prions presented an unexpected pre-breeding moult of longer duration that took place further north, in warm subtropical waters. Interestingly, the two Antarctic moulting species, the blue petrel and thin-billed prion, renewed their plumage at the same time and within the same oceanic zone that is likely to be a previously undescribed hot spot of seabird diversity during the Austral autumn. The study contributes to a growing body of evidence that closely-related species exhibit various foraging strategies allowing ecological

  13. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  14. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  15. Impact of house fly salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on a heterologous host, Stomoxys calcitrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, C; Garcia-Maruniak, A; Lietze, V U; Maruniak, J; Boucias, D G

    2011-11-01

    The effect of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on selected fitness parameters of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), was examined in the laboratory. Virus-injected stable flies of both genders suffered substantially higher mortality than control flies. By day 9, female mortality was 59.3 +/- 10.1% in the virus group compared with 23.7 +/- 3.7% in the controls; mortality in virus-injected males was 78.1 +/- 3.1% compared with 33.3 +/- 9.3% for controls. Fecundity of control flies on days 6-9 was 49-54 eggs deposited per live female per day (total, 8,996 eggs deposited), whereas virus-injected flies produced four to five eggs per female on days 6-7 and less then one egg per female per day thereafter (total, 251 eggs). Fecal spot deposition by virus-injected flies was comparable to controls initially but decreased to approximately 50% of control levels by day 4 after injection; infected flies produced only 26% as many fecal spots as healthy flies on days 6 and 7. None of the virus-injected stable flies developed symptoms of salivary gland hypertrophy. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated virus replication in injected stable flies, with increasing titers of virus genome copies from one to four days after injection. MdSGHV in stable flies displayed tissue tropism similar to that observed in house fly hosts, with higher viral copy numbers in fat body and salivary glands compared with ovaries. Virus titers were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher in house fly than in stable fly hosts, and this difference was probably due to the absence of salivary gland hypertrophy in the latter species.

  16. Annual and spatial activity of dung flies and carrion in a Mediterranean holm-oak pasture ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, A; Rojo, S; Marcos-García, M A

    2000-03-01

    The annual activity and spatial distribution of Muscidae and Calliphoridae were investigated in a holm-oak ('dehesa') ecosystem in western Spain over two years in pasture and woodland habitats, using wind-orientated traps baited with a mixture of fresh cattle faeces, liver and sodium sulphide solution. Lucilia sericata (Meigen) was always the dominant species and, with Chrysomya albiceps (Weidemann), Hydrotaea ignava (Harris), Muscina levida (Harris) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris), was more abundant during the second than the first year. By contrast, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Calliphora vomitoria (L.), Hydrotaea armipes (Fallén), Hydrotaea penicillata (Rondani) and Hydrotaea dentipes (Fabricius) were more numerous during the first than the second year of the study. In summer, the Diptera sampled were significantly more abundant in a wooded than a pasture area. However, in autumn, while H. penicillata remained significantly more abundant in woodland, L. sericata became more abundant in the pasture, whereas C. vicina was captured in open and wooded areas in similar proportions. During winter and spring the populations sampled were relatively small. The changing patterns of abundance are discussed in relation to differences in climate within and between years.

  17. A radoilogical evaluation of fly ash in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    The radiological consequences of using fly ash as a component of cement are discussed. Measurements of the activity concentrations of emanation coefficients and exhalation rates. The radon exhalation rate was found to be significantly lower in concrete containing fly ash than in ordinary concrete. Dose calculations suggest that the fly ash will contribute to a reduction in effec- tive dose equivalent due to the reduced radon exhalation rate. (Auth)

  18. Gehlenite and anorthite formation from fluid fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perná, Ivana; Šupová, Monika; Hanzlíček, Tomáš

    2018-04-01

    Fluid fly ash could be considered a waste, but, when well treated, it may also become a useful secondary source material. Its rather high content of calcium-containing phases along with thermally treated alumino-silicate residues resulting from coal combustion can lead to the formation of a stable system with newly formatted phases. The high temperature destroys the clay lattice and activates a new configuration of aluminum ions, changing their coordination to oxygen. The effect is accompanied by changes in charge in the surroundings, which are compensated for by calcium ions. The higher the temperature of the fluid ash treatment, the more pronounced the appearance of gehlenite and anorthite in the final mass. Both are natural materials and, together with mullite and anhydrite, they could ensure safety and protection even if exposed to open fire of up to 1150 °C.

  19. Comparison of hamstring and quadriceps femoris electromyographic activity between men and women during a single-limb squat on both a stable and labile surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Hollman, John H; Hitchcock, James R; Hoyme, Gregory J; Johnsen, Jeremiah J

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if women are quadriceps dominant and men are hamstring dominant during the performance of a partial single-leg squat (SLS) on both a stable and labile ground surface against body weight resistance. Thirty healthy participants (15 men and 15 women) performed an SLS on both a stable surface and a 6.4-cm-thick vinyl pad. Surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles during the extension phase of the SLS. Statistical analysis revealed that women produced 14% more EMG activity (p = 0.04) in their quadriceps than the men during the SLS on a stable surface, whereas the men generated 18% more EMG activity (p = 0.04) in their hamstrings than the women during the SLS on a labile surface. Additionally, we found a statistically significant sex effect (p = 0.048) for the hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) EMG ratio, which was 2.25 and 0.62, respectively, for men and women on the stable surface and 2.52 and 0.71, respectively, on the labile surface. We concluded that women are quadriceps dominant and men are hamstring dominant during the performance of SLS against body weight resistance on either a stable or labile surface condition. During an SLS, men showed an H/Q ratio approximately 3.5 times larger than their female counterparts, suggesting that men activate their hamstrings more effectively than women during an SLS. According to our data, the SLS may not be an ideal exercise for activating the hamstring muscles in women without additional neuromuscular training techniques, because women are quadriceps dominant during the SLS.

  20. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  1. Microstructural and compositional change of NaOH-activated high calcium fly ash by incorporating Na-aluminate and co-existence of geopolymeric gel and C–S–H(I)

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun

    2012-05-01

    This study explores the reaction products of alkali-activated Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate samples by means of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (HSXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and compressive strength tests to investigate how the readily available aluminum affects the reaction. Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate raw materials were prepared by incorporating Na-aluminate into the original fly ashes, then alkali-activated by 10 M NaOH solution. Incorporating Na-aluminate reduced the compressive strength of samples, with the reduction magnitude relatively constant regardless of length of curing period. The HSXRD provides evidence of the co-existence of C-S-H with geopolymeric gels and strongly suggests that the C-S-H formed in the current system is C-S-H(I). The back-scattered electron images suggest that the C-S-H(I) phase exists as small grains in a finely intermixed form with geopolymeric gels. Despite providing extra source of aluminum, adding Na-aluminate to the mixes did not decrease the Si/Al ratio of the geopolymeric gel. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Batsching

    Full Text Available Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  3. Microstructural and strength improvements through the use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in a cementless Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated Class F fly ash system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Dongho; Jun, Yubin; Jeong, Yeonung; Oh, Jae Eun, E-mail: ohjaeeun@unist.ac.kr

    2015-01-15

    This study explores the beneficial effects of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as an additive for microstructural and strength improvements in a Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated fly ash system. NaOH-activated fly ash samples were also tested to compare the effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Compressive strength testing, XRD, SEM/BSE/EDS, {sup 29}Si/{sup 27}Al MAS-NMR, MIP and TGA were performed. The testing results indicate that the use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for Ca(OH){sub 2}-activation led to a noticeable improvement in strength and microstructure, primarily due to (1) more dissolution of raw fly ash at an early age, (2) more formation of C–S–H [or C–S–H(I)], (3) porosity reduction, and (4) pore-size refinement. We also found that (1) an early high alkalinity from the NaOH formation was not a major cause of strength, (2) geopolymer was not formed despite the early NaOH formation, and (3) no visible pore-filling action of CaCO{sub 3} was observed. However, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not produce any improvement in strength for NaOH-activated fly ash. -- Highlights: •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly improved strength and microstructure. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} induced more dissolution of raw fly ash at early ages. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted more C–S–H [or C–S–H(I)] formation. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} reduced total porosity and refined pore-size distribution. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} produced neither geopolymer formations nor pore-filling actions from CaCO{sub 3}.

  4. High-Speed and Low-Energy Flip-Flop Operation of Asymmetric Active-Multimode Interferometer Bi-Stable Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haisong; Chaen, Yutaka; Hagio, Takuma

    2011-01-01

    High-speed (121/25 ps rise/fall time) and low-switching energy (7.1 and 3.4 fJ) alloptical flip-flop operation of single-wavelength high-mesa asymmetric active-MMI bi-stable laser diodes is demonstrated for the first time using 25 ps long switching pulses.......High-speed (121/25 ps rise/fall time) and low-switching energy (7.1 and 3.4 fJ) alloptical flip-flop operation of single-wavelength high-mesa asymmetric active-MMI bi-stable laser diodes is demonstrated for the first time using 25 ps long switching pulses....

  5. Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis Thomas M. Mascari1... Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of...zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis . Methods and Findings: We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

  6. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of fecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. METHODS: Over a period of two months paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the nu......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of fecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. METHODS: Over a period of two months paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh...

  7. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  8. Structural studies of conformational changes of proteins upon phosphorylation: Structures of activated CheY, CheY-N16-FliM complex, and AAA + ATPase domain of NtrC1 in both inactive and active states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seok-Yong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-04-10

    Protein phosphorylation is a general mechanism for signal transduction as well as regulation of cellular function. Unlike phosphorylation in eukaryotic systems that uses Ser/Thr for the sites of modification, two-component signal transduction systems, which are prevalent in bacteria, archea, and lower eukaryotes, use an aspartate as the site of phosphorylation. Two-component systems comprise a histidine kinase and a receiver domain. The conformational change of the receiver domain upon phosphorylation leads to signal transfer to the downstream target, a process that had not been understood well at the molecular level. The transient nature of the phospho-Asp bond had made structural studies difficult. The discovery of an excellent analogue for acylphosphate, BeF3-, enabled structural study of activated receiver domains. The structure of activated Chemotaxis protein Y (CheY) was determined both by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. These structures revealed the molecular basis of the conformational change that is coupled to phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of the conserved Asp residue in the active site allows hydrogen bonding of the T87 Oγ to phospho-aspartate, which in turn leads to the rotation of Y106 into the ''in'' position (termed Y-T coupling). The structure of activated CheY complexed with the 16 N-terminal residues of FliM (N16-FliM), its target, was also determined by X-ray crystallography and confirmed the proposed mechanism of activation (Y-T coupling). First, N16-FliM binds to the region on CheY that undergoes a significant conformational change. Second, the ''in'' position of Y106 presents a better binding surface for FliM because the sidechain of Y106 in the inactive form of CheY (''out'' position) sterically interferes with binding of N16-FliM. In addition to confirmation of Y-T coupling, the structure of the activated CheY-N16-FliM complex suggested that the

  9. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  10. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  11. Extremely stable soluble high molecular mass multi-protein complex with DNase activity in human placental tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya E Burkova

    Full Text Available Human placenta is an organ which protects, feeds, and regulates the grooving of the embryo. Therefore, identification and characterization of placental components including proteins and their multi-protein complexes is an important step to understanding the placenta function. We have obtained and analyzed for the first time an extremely stable multi-protein complex (SPC, ∼ 1000 kDa from the soluble fraction of three human placentas. By gel filtration on Sepharose-4B, the SPC was well separated from other proteins of the placenta extract. Light scattering measurements and gel filtration showed that the SPC is stable in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2, acetonitrile, guanidinium chloride, and Triton in high concentrations, but dissociates efficiently in the presence of 8 M urea, 50 mM EDTA, and 0.5 M NaCl. Such a stable complex is unlikely to be a casual associate of different proteins. According to SDS-PAGE and MALDI mass spectrometry data, this complex contains many major glycosylated proteins with low and moderate molecular masses (MMs 4-14 kDa and several moderately abundant (79.3, 68.5, 52.8, and 27.2 kDa as well as minor proteins with higher MMs. The SPC treatment with dithiothreitol led to a disappearance of some protein bands and revealed proteins with lower MMs. The SPCs from three placentas efficiently hydrolyzed plasmid supercoiled DNA with comparable rates and possess at least two DNA-binding sites with different affinities for a 12-mer oligonucleotide. Progress in study of placental protein complexes can promote understanding of their biological functions.

  12. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cluding section. What Makes Flight Possible. It is obvious to most of us today that a body in flight must obey. Newton's laws of motion. Leonardo da Vinci in the early 1500's had already realised that "a bird flies according to mathematical .... Here x is the distance from the leading edge along the wing surface. In a majority of ...

  14. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  15. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  16. Comparison of the olfactory preferences of four species of filth fly pupal parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for hosts in equine and bovine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) can be purchased for biological control of these flies. ...

  17. Leaf and root pectin methylesterase activity and 13C/12C stable isotopic ratio measurements of methanol emissions give insight into methanol production in Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Patricia Yoshino; Giebel, Brian M; Sternberg, Leonel da Silveira Lobo O'Reilly; Li, Lei; Timko, Michael P; Swart, Peter K; Riemer, Daniel D; Mak, John E; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2011-09-01

    Plant production of methanol (MeOH) is a poorly understood aspect of metabolism, and understanding MeOH production in plants is crucial for modeling MeOH emissions. Here, we have examined the source of MeOH emissions from mature and immature leaves and whether pectin methylesterase (PME) activity is a good predictor of MeOH emission. We also investigated the significance of below-ground MeOH production for mature leaf emissions. We present measurements of MeOH emission, PME activity, and MeOH concentration in mature and immature tissues of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). We also present stable carbon isotopic signatures of MeOH emission and the pectin methoxyl pool. Our results suggest that below-ground MeOH production was not the dominant contributor to daytime MeOH emissions from mature and immature leaves. Stable carbon isotopic signatures of mature and immature leaf MeOH were similar, suggesting that they were derived from the same pathway. Foliar PME activity was related to MeOH flux, but unexplained variance suggested PME activity could not predict emissions. The data show that MeOH production and emission are complex and cannot be predicted using PME activity alone. We hypothesize that substrate limitation of MeOH synthesis and MeOH catabolism may be important regulators of MeOH emission. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  19. Letting Your Students "Fly" in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Students investigate the concept of motion by making simple paper airplanes and flying them in the classroom. Students are introduced to conversion factors to calculate various speeds. Additional activities include rounding decimal numbers, estimating, finding averages, making bar graphs, and solving problems. Offers ideas for extension such as…

  20. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  1. Global warming and house fly control: direct effects and biodiversity concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies are major pests of human and animal health throughout the world and are among the most difficult to control. Effective fly management relies on a balance of sanitation, insecticide use, and biological control. Climate change could upset that balance in favor of the fly unless pro-activ...

  2. Predicting AEA dosage by Foam Index and adsorption on Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Ollendorff, Margrethe; Geiker, Mette Rica; Tunstall, Lori; Scherer, George W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The unpredictable air entrainment in fly ash concrete caused by carbon in fly ash was studied by measuring adsorption of Air Entraining Agents (AEA) on the fly ash and by Foam Index (FI) testing. The FI test measures the mass ratio of AEA/binder required to obtain stable foam when shaking a mixture of water, binder powder and AEA, while increasing AEA-dosage stepwise. A review of concrete air entrainment and new studies combining adsorption (TGA, NMR) of AEA on fly ash with various ...

  3. The future resources for eco-building materials: II. Fly ash and coal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Li; Delong Xu [Xi' an University of Architecture & Technology, Xi' an (China). China State key Laboratory of Western Architecture & Technology

    2009-08-15

    To use fly ash and coal waste effectively, the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed, such as utilizing fly ash as the component of fly ash cement and low heat cement after the processes of separation, removal of carbon remains and fine comminution, calcining coal waste into kaolin and meta-kaolin with suspension technology, and preparing clinkerless alkali-activated geopolymer materials with fly ash and meta-kaolin.

  4. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preparation and thermal properties of form-stable palmitic acid/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials for latent heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guiyin; Li, Hui; Cao, Lei; Shan, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Form-stable palmitic acid (PA)/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials were prepared by adsorbing liquid palmitic acid into active aluminum oxide. In the composites, the palmitic acid was used as latent heat storage materials, and the active aluminum oxide was used as supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to determine the chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of the composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). The FT-IR analyses results indicated that there is no chemical interaction between the palmitic acid and active aluminum oxide. The SEM results showed that the palmitic acid was well adsorbed into porous network of the active aluminum oxide. The DSC results indicated that the composites melt at 60.25 °C with a latent heat of 84.48 kJ kg −1 and solidify at 56.86 °C with a latent heat of 78.79 kJ kg −1 when the mass ratio of the PA to active aluminum oxide is 0.9:1. Compared with that of the PA, the melting and solidifying time of the composites CPCM5 was reduced by 20.6% and 21.4% because of the increased heat transfer rate through EG addition. The TGA results showed that the active aluminum oxide can improve the thermal stability of the composites. -- Highlights: ► Form-stable PA/active aluminum oxide composites as PCMs were prepared. ► Chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of composites were determined. ► Thermal properties and thermal stability of the composites were investigated. ► Expanded graphite can improve thermal conductivity of the composites.

  6. Fauna and relative frequency of synanthropic flies in the biggest Persian Gulf Island, Qeshm, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khoobdel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the diversity and relative abundance of medically important species of synanthropic flies and their seasonal activity on Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf, Iran. Methods: Flies collection was performed during March 2011 to February 2012 in all different areas of the island by using the common fly trap and plastic water bottle fly trap, reverse-cone model, containing tainted lamb or beef meat as bait. The captured flies were identified by using valid flies systematic keys, checklists and species description. The relative abundances and seasonal activity of flies were estimated by means of flies captured per trap in every month. Results: In this study a total number of 11 species of medically important flies in three families including Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae, were collected. The relative mean abundance of flies was estimated to be 6.3 ± 1.1 per trap. The most abundance was seen in rural areas in the south of Qeshm Island with 10.1 ± 1.5 per trap. In this island, medically impotent flies had two peaks of activity in early spring and early autumn, during April and October. Flies activity decreased in July and August due to the high increase of temperature and humidity of the weather. In February, the relative decrease in air temperature reduced the activity of the flies. Conclusions: Diversity and abundance of flies in spring and early autumn were higher than other seasons, especially in rural areas of Southern Qeshm Island. Insect control measures should be conducted during the peak of flies activity.

  7. Self-efficacy: a useful construct to promote physical activity in people with stable chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, HuiYun; Everett, Bronwyn; Newton, Phillip J; Salamonson, Yenna; Davidson, Patricia M

    2012-02-01

    To explore the conceptual underpinnings of self-efficacy to address the barriers to participating in physical activity and propose a model of intervention. The benefits of physical activity in reducing cardiovascular risk have led to evidence-based recommendations for patients with heart disease, including those with chronic heart failure. However, adherence to best practice recommendations is often suboptimal, particularly in those individuals who experience high symptom burden and feel less confident to undertake physical activity. Self-efficacy is the degree of confidence an individual has in his/her ability to perform behaviour under several specific circumstances. Four factors influence an individual's level of self-efficacy: (1) past performance, (2) vicarious experience, (3) verbal persuasion and (4) physiological arousal. Discursive. Using the method of a discursive paper, this article seeks to explore the conceptual underpinnings of self-efficacy to address the barriers to participating in physical activity and proposes a model of intervention, the Home-Heart-Walk, to promote physical activity and monitor functional status. Implementing effective interventions to promote physical activities require appreciation of factors impacting on behaviour change. Addressing concepts relating to self-efficacy in physical activity interventions may promote participation and adherence in the longer term. The increasing burden of chronic disease and the emphasis on self-management strategies underscore the importance of promoting adherence to recommendations, such as physical activity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The road to the first, fully active and more stable human insulin variant with an additional disulfide bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N.; Kjeldsen, Thomas B.; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Insulin, a small peptide hormone, is crucial in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. The stability and activity of the protein is directed by an intricate system involving disulfide bonds to stabilize the active monomeric species and by their non-covalent oligomerization. All known insulin vari...

  9. Muscle activation differences between stable push-ups and push-ups with a unilateral v-shaped suspension system at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Calatayud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation performing push-ups under different stability conditions and body positions. Trained university male students (n= 29 performed 3 push-ups each under stable conditions and using suspension device (AirFit Trainer ProTM with their hands at 2 different heights (i.e., 10 and 65 cm. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and the testing order was randomized. The average amplitudes of the electromyographic root mean square of the Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, Lumbar Erector Spinae and Gluteus Maximus were recorded and normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc test was used to analyze data. Suspended push-ups provided greater activity than the stable condition, except for the Anterior Deltoid and Clavicular Pectoralis. Therefore, suspended push-ups are especially advantageous if the goal of the exercise is targeting the TRICEP, TRAPS and/or core training. Overall, performing push-ups at 65 cm from the floor decreases exercise intensity and muscle activity in comparison with the 10 cm position.

  10. Environmental changes induced by human activities in the Northern Curonian Lagoon (Eastern Baltic: diatoms and stable isotope data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrė Vaikutienė

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A sediment core collected from the northwestern part of the Curonian Lagoon, which was deposited approximately during 1800-2002, was analysed for several proxy records. Changes in diatom assemblages and carbon, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N and δ18O revealed two periods, which are characterized by differences in the sedimentation rate, sediment type and trophic state of the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon. Low δ15N values in organics and prevailing fresh-brackish benthic diatoms indicate low enrichment in the shallow, freshwater lagoon during the period 1800-1955. The eutrophic conditions in this shallow lagoon are reflected by a high abundance of planktonic diatoms common in nutrient-rich basins and increased d15N values in organics of the sediments since 1955. Starting approximately in the 1960s, decreased freshwater run-off and increased brackish-water inflow into the lagoon were observed. These changes were likely caused by the construction of the hydropower station (and a reservoir near the Nemunas River and the artificial deepening of the Klaipėda Strait during 1960-1962 and later, also by the rising sea level in the SE Baltic. The changed river run-off and the artificially deepened strait significantly influenced the fresh-brackish water circulation and environmental conditions in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon in the last decades.

  11. Hydrologic Activity of Deciduous Agroforestry Tree : Observed through Monitoring of Stable Isotopes in Stem Water, Solar Radiation Attenuation, and Sapflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Parlange, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    The net benefit of agroforestry trees for small scale farmers in dryland agricultural systems is debatable because while they provide significant direct and indirect services, they also consume considerable amounts of scare water resources. In this study we monitor the stable isotopes of water to improve a water budget of a Sclerocarya birrea tree in a millet field in South Eastern Burkina Faso. Data obtained from air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, solar radiation, and soil moisture sensors attached to a wireless sensor network uniquely configured around the agroforestry tree provided the initial calculation of the local water balance. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems and sub canopy soil, and from nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water that was sampled weekly. A linear mixing model is used to predict when the tree switched between water sources. The results from the linear mixing model coupled with a tree water balance demonstrate the extreme seasonality of the annual cycle of water use by this deciduous species.

  12. Identification of metabolically active methanogens in anaerobic digester by DNA Stable-Isotope Probing using 13C-acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gowdaman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is gaining enormous attention due to the ability to covert organic wastes into biogas, an alternative sustainable energy. Methanogenic community plays a significant role in biogas production and also for proficient functioning of the anaerobic digester. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the methanogen diversity of a food waste anaerobic digester. After endogenous respiration, the digester samples were supplemented with isotopes of acetate to enrich methanogen population, and were analyzed using DNA-SIP (Stable-Isotope Probing. Following separation and fractionation of heavy (13C and light (12C DNA, PCR amplification was carried out using archaeal 16S rRNA gene followed by DGGE analysis. Sequencing of the prominent DGGE bands revealed the dominance of Methanocorpusculum labreanum species belonging to hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales, which can produce methane in the presence of H2/CO2 and requires acetate for its growth. This is the first instance where Methanocorpusculum labreanum is being reported as a dominant species in an anaerobic digester operative on food waste.

  13. Issues and solutions for testing free-flying robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Carlo; Busolo, S.; Cocuzza, S.; Aboudan, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bettanini, C.; Marchesi, M.; Angrilli, F.

    2007-06-01

    Space robotics currently has an important role in space operations and scientists and engineers are designing new robotic systems for space servicing missions and extra-vehicular activities. In particular, free-flying robots with extended arms have compelling applications and several prototypes have recently been developed. Testing on Earth free-flying robots is a main issue as the unconstrained environment of free space must be simulated. From the experience acquired by testing a free-flying robot prototype both in a tethered facility and during a parabolic flight campaign, and after several years of experiments using air-bearing planar systems, the authors describe and discuss methods to test free-flying robots. A recent study aimed at designing a free-flying platform suitable for an under-water environment is also presented and discussed.

  14. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a cold-active, alkaline, detergent stable α-amylase from a novel bacterium Bacillus subtilis N8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabacı, Nihan; Arıkan, Burhan

    2018-03-21

    A cold-active alkaline amylase producer Bacillus subtilis N8 was isolated from soil samples. Amylase synthesis optimally occurred at 15°C and pH 10.0 on agar plates containing starch. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 205 kDa by performing SDS-PAGE. While the enzyme exhibited the highest activity at 25°C and pH 8.0, it was highly stable in alkaline media (pH 8.0-12.0) and retained 96% of its original activity at low temperatures (10-40°C) for 24 h. While the amylase activity increased in the presence of β-mercaptoethanol (103%); Ba 2+ , Ca 2+ , Na + , Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ , H 2 O 2 and TritonX-100 slightly inhibited the activity. The enzyme showed resistance to some denaturants: such as SDS, EDTA, and urea (52, 65 and 42%, respectively). N8 α -amylase displayed the maximum remaining activity of 56% with 3% NaCl. The major final products of starch were glucose, maltose, and maltose-derived oligosaccharides. This novel cold-active α -amylase has the potential to be used in the industries of detergent and food, bioremediation process and production of prebiotics.

  16. Sand fly-borne viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Nedvědová Cvanová, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important vectors of protozoan, bacterial and viral patogens causing diseases in humans and domestic animals. This thesis summarizes the current knowledge on sand fly-born viruses, their distribution in the World, infection symptoms and life cycle in the nature. These viruses are transmitted by sand flies of genera Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia and Sergentomyia and they can be found on every continent except for Antarctica. They belong into four families, Bunyav...

  17. Utilization of Coal Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    T1 Thallium Br Bromine U Uranium C Carbon V Vanadium Ca Calcium W Tungsten Cd Cadmium Zn Zinc Ce Cerium Cl Chlorine Co Cobalt Cr Chromium Cu Copper...2933 (1987). £ 46 I A 3 Christensen, J., L. Kryger, and N. Pind, "The Determination of Traces of Cadmium, Lead, and Thallium in Fly Ash by...Elements and Radioactivity in Fly Ashes, Adsorption of Elements by Cabbage Grown in Fly Ash-Soil Mixtures," Environmental Science and Technology, v.11

  18. Crystal Structure of the Flagellar Rotor Protein FliN from Thermotoga maritima†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Perry N.; Mathews, Michael A. A.; Joss, Lisa A.; Hill, Christopher P.; Blair, David F.

    2005-01-01

    FliN is a component of the bacterial flagellum that is present at levels of more than 100 copies and forms the bulk of the C ring, a drum-shaped structure at the inner end of the basal body. FliN interacts with FliG and FliM to form the rotor-mounted switch complex that controls clockwise-counterclockwise switching of the motor. In addition to its functions in motor rotation and switching, FliN is thought to have a role in the export of proteins that form the exterior structures of the flagellum (the rod, hook, and filament). Here, we describe the crystal structure of most of the FliN protein of Thermotoga maritima. FliN is a tightly intertwined dimer composed mostly of β sheet. Several well-conserved hydrophobic residues form a nonpolar patch on the surface of the molecule. A mutation in the hydrophobic patch affected both flagellar assembly and switching, showing that this surface feature is important for FliN function. The association state of FliN in solution was studied by analytical ultracentrifugation, which provided clues to the higher-level organization of the protein. T. maritima FliN is primarily a dimer in solution, and T. maritima FliN and FliM together form a stable FliM1-FliN4 complex. Escherichia coli FliN forms a stable tetramer in solution. The arrangement of FliN subunits in the tetramer was modeled by reference to the crystal structure of tetrameric HrcQBC, a related protein that functions in virulence factor secretion in Pseudomonas syringae. The modeled tetramer is elongated, with approximate dimensions of 110 by 40 by 35Å, and it has a large hydrophobic cleft formed from the hydrophobic patches on the dimers. On the basis of the present data and available electron microscopic images, we propose a model for the organization of FliN subunits in the C ring. PMID:15805535

  19. All-optical flip-flop operation based on asymmetric active-multimode interferometer bi-stable laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, H.; Chaen, Y.; Hagio, T.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate fast and low energy all optical flip-flop devices based on asymmetric active-multimode interferometer using high-mesa waveguide structure. The implemented devices showed high speed alloptical flip-flop operation with 25ps long pulses. The rising and falling times of the output sign...

  20. A theoretical analysis of pitch stability during gliding in flying snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Farid; Ross, Shane D; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Socha, John J

    2014-06-01

    Flying snakes use their entire body as a continuously morphing 'wing' to produce lift and shallow their glide trajectory. Their dominant behavior during gliding is aerial undulation, in which lateral waves are sent posteriorly down the body. This highly dynamic behavior, which is unique among animal gliders, should have substantial effects on the flight dynamics and stability of the snakes, resulting from the continuous redistribution of mass and aerodynamic forces. In this study, we develop two-dimensional theoretical models to assess the stability characteristics of snakes in the pitch direction. Previously measured force coefficients are used to simulate aerodynamic forces acting on the models, and undulation is simulated by varying mass. Model 1 is a simple three-airfoil representation of the snake's body that possesses a passively stable equilibrium solution, whose basin of stability contains initial conditions observed in experimental gliding trajectories. Model 2 is more sophisticated, with more degrees of freedom allowing for postural changes to better represent the snake's real kinematics; in addition, a restoring moment is added to simulate potential active control. The application of static and dynamic stability criteria show that Model 2 is passively unstable, but can be stabilized with a restoring moment. Overall, these models suggest that undulation does not contribute to stability in pitch, and that flying snakes require a closed-loop control system formed around a passively stable dynamical framework.

  1. A theoretical analysis of pitch stability during gliding in flying snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, Farid; Ross, Shane D; Socha, John J; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2014-01-01

    Flying snakes use their entire body as a continuously morphing ‘wing’ to produce lift and shallow their glide trajectory. Their dominant behavior during gliding is aerial undulation, in which lateral waves are sent posteriorly down the body. This highly dynamic behavior, which is unique among animal gliders, should have substantial effects on the flight dynamics and stability of the snakes, resulting from the continuous redistribution of mass and aerodynamic forces. In this study, we develop two-dimensional theoretical models to assess the stability characteristics of snakes in the pitch direction. Previously measured force coefficients are used to simulate aerodynamic forces acting on the models, and undulation is simulated by varying mass. Model 1 is a simple three-airfoil representation of the snake’s body that possesses a passively stable equilibrium solution, whose basin of stability contains initial conditions observed in experimental gliding trajectories. Model 2 is more sophisticated, with more degrees of freedom allowing for postural changes to better represent the snake’s real kinematics; in addition, a restoring moment is added to simulate potential active control. The application of static and dynamic stability criteria show that Model 2 is passively unstable, but can be stabilized with a restoring moment. Overall, these models suggest that undulation does not contribute to stability in pitch, and that flying snakes require a closed-loop control system formed around a passively stable dynamical framework. (papers)

  2. Analysis of pushing exercises: muscle activity and spine load while contrasting techniques on stable surfaces with a labile suspension strap training system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Cannon, Jordan; Andersen, Jordan T

    2014-01-01

    Labile surfaces in the form of suspension straps are increasingly being used as a tool in resistance training programs. Pushing is a common functional activity of daily living and inherently part of a well-rounded training program. This study examined pushing exercises performed on stable surfaces and unstable suspension straps, specifically muscle activation levels and spine loads were quantified together with the influence of employing technique coaching. There were several main questions that this study sought to answer: Which exercises challenged particular muscles? What was the magnitude of the resulting spine load? How did stable and unstable surfaces differ? Did coaching influence the results? Fourteen men were recruited as part of a convenience sample (mean age, 21.1 ± 2.0 years; height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m; mean weight, 74.6 ± 7.8 kg). Data were processed and input to a sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model that used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force-in this way, the model was sensitive to the individuals choice of motor control for each task; muscle forces and linked segment joint loads were used to calculate spine loads. Exercises were performed using stable surfaces for hand/feet contact and repeated where possible with labile suspension straps. Speed of movement was standardized across participants with the use of a metronome for each exercise. There were gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics to every task. In general, the instability associated with the labile exercises required greater torso muscle activity than when performed on stable surfaces. Throughout the duration of an exercise, there was a range of compression; the TRX push-up ranged from 1,653 to 2,128.14 N, whereas the standard push-up had a range from 1,233.75 to 1,530.06 N. There was no significant effect of exercise on spine compression (F(4,60) = 0.86, p = 0.495). Interestingly, a standard push-up showed significantly

  3. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  4. Formation of Kokumi-Enhancing γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides in Parmesan Cheese by Means of γ-Glutamyltransferase Activity and Stable Isotope Double-Labeling Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Hedda; Behr, Jürgen; Ehrmann, Matthias A; Vogel, Rudi F; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-03-02

    Recently, γ-glutamyl dipeptides (γ-GPs) were found to be responsible for the attractive kokumi flavor of Parmesan cheese (PC). Quantitation of γ-GPs and their parent amino acids in 13-, 24-, and 30-month ripened PC samples by LC-MS/MS and stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), in-cheese (13)C-labeling studies, followed by analysis of the γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity revealed γ-GPs to be generated most efficiently after 24 months of ripening by a GGT-catalyzed transfer of the γ-glutamyl moiety of L-glutamine onto various acceptor amino acids released upon casein proteolysis. Following the identification of milk as a potential GGT source in PC, the functionality of the milk's GGT to generate the target γ-GPs was validated by stable isotope double-labeling (SIDL) experiments. Therefore, raw and heat-treated milk samples were incubated with L-glutamine-[U-(13)C] and acceptor amino acids (X) and the hetero- (γ-Glu-[(13)C5]-X) and homotranspeptidation products (γ-Glu-Gln-[(13)C10]) were quantitated by LC-MS/MS-SIDA using γ-Glu-Ala-[(13)C3] as the internal standard. High GGT activity to generate the γ-GPs and preference for L-phenylalanine and L-methionine as acceptor amino acids were found in raw milk and milk samples heat-treated for 10 min up to a maximum of 65 °C. In comparison, GGT activity and SIDL studies performed with inoculated Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus harbinensis and Lactobacillus casei identified in PC by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, did not show any significant GGT activity and unequivocally demonstrated unpasteurized cow's milk, rather than microorganisms, as a key factor in γ-glutamyl dipeptide generation in Parmesan cheese.

  5. Stable and solubilized active Au atom clusters for selective epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene with molecular oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linping; Wang, Zhen; Beletskiy, Evgeny V.; Liu, Jingyue; Dos Santos, Haroldo J.; Li, Tiehu; Rangel, Maria Do C.; Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.

    2017-03-01

    The ability of Au catalysts to effect the challenging task of utilizing molecular oxygen for the selective epoxidation of cyclooctene is fascinating. Although supported nanometre-size Au particles are poorly active, here we show that solubilized atomic Au clusters, present in ng ml-1 concentrations and stabilized by ligands derived from the oxidized hydrocarbon products, are active. They can be formed from various Au sources. They generate initiators and propagators to trigger the onset of the auto-oxidation reaction with an apparent turnover frequency of 440 s-1, and continue to generate additional initiators throughout the auto-oxidation cycle without direct participation in the cycle. Spectroscopic characterization suggests that 7-8 atom clusters are effective catalytically. Extension of work based on these understandings leads to the demonstration that these Au clusters are also effective in selective oxidation of cyclohexene, and that solubilized Pt clusters are also capable of generating initiators for cyclooctene epoxidation.

  6. Accurate analysis of stable isotopes 68Zn, 70Zn, and 58Fe in human feces with neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janghorbani, M.; Ting, B.T.G.; Young, V.R.

    1980-01-01

    Accurate isotopic analysis of human fecal samples is discussed in relation to mineral bioavailability studies of human subjects. It is shown that for bioavailability investigations of Zn and Fe, the method of neutron activation analysis is suitable for routine application to clinical experiments; and the human fecal samples resulting from diet suitably enriched in isotopes 70 Zn and 58 Fe can be routinely analyzed with relative precisions of about 1% for the isotopes 68 Zn, 70 Zn and 58 Fe. (Auth.)

  7. Self-Stable WP/C Support with Excellent Cocatalytic Functionality for Pt: Enhanced Catalytic Activity and Durability for Methanol Electro-Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yaqiang; Sun, Ye; Pan, Siyu; Dai, Ying; Hao, Liang; Zou, Jinlong

    2016-12-14

    To endow catalyst support with excellent stability and cocatalytic activity toward methanol, oxidation reaction (MOR) is an effective way to strengthen the electrocatalytic activity of Pt-based catalysts. Tungsten phosphide/3D-corrugated porous carbon (WP/C) composite as Pt-support and cocatalyst for MOR is prepared via a synchronous synthesis method. Porous 3D-tufted structure and high surface area of WP/C with abundant oxygen-containing groups (such as C-O-C, C-O-H, or C-OH) can significantly improve the exposure of active sites, which enlarge the contact area with electrolyte and facilitate the mass transfer and absorption of methanol for promoting the MOR activity in acidic electrolyte. Pt-WP/C exhibits a considerably higher mass activity (1559.3 mA mg Pt -1 ) for MOR than that of Pt/C (488.2 mA mg Pt -1 ), owing to the special activity of W δ+ and P δ- sites for the decomposition reaction of water. With the introduction of W species, more available P species (passivated or not) are activated for further enhancing the cocatalytic activity of WP for MOR. Furthermore, the CO tolerance and durability of Pt-WP/C are also remarkable, which should benefit from the fast surface transport of adsorbed CO on different crystalline faces of WP and the extremely stable WP-C structure originating from the existence of P-P chains between the adjacent WP particles, respectively. The design of the porous structure and cocatalytic effect of this catalyst support (WP/C) provides a promising method to drastically enhance MOR activity.

  8. The Flying University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  9. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  10. Highly Stable and Active Pt/Nb-TiO2 Carbon-Free Electrocatalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are not sufficiently durable for commercial deployment. One of the major challenges lies in the development of an inexpensive, efficient, and highly durable and active electrocatalyst. Here a new type of carbon-free Pt/Nb-TiO2 electrocatalyst has been reported. Mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres were synthesized by the sol-gel method using polystyrene (PS sphere templates. Pt nanoparticles (NPs were then deposited onto mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres via a simple wet-chemical route in aqueous solution, without the need for surfactants or potentiostats. The growth densities of Pt NPs on Nb-TiO2 supports could be easily modulated by simply adjusting the experimental parameters. Electrochemical studies of Pt/Nb-TiO2 show much enhanced activity and stability than commercial E-TEK Pt/C catalyst. PtNP/Nb-TiO2 is a promising new cathode catalyst for PEMFC applications.

  11. Fusion of a xylan-binding module to gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase increases activity and promotes stable immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu V Vuong

    Full Text Available The xylan-binding module Clostridium thermocellum CBM22A was successfully fused to a gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase, GOOX-VN, from Sarocladium strictum via a short TP linker, allowing the fused protein to effectively bind different xylans. The presence of the CtCBM22A at the N-terminal of GOOX-VN increased catalytic activity on mono- and oligo-saccharides by 2-3 fold while not affecting binding affinity to these substrates. Notably, both GOOX-VN and its CBM fusion also showed oxidation of xylo-oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization greater than six. Whereas fusion to CtCBM22A did not alter the thermostability of GOOX-VN or reduce substrate inhibition, CtCBM22A_GOOX-VN could be immobilized to insoluble oat spelt xylan while retaining wild-type activity. QCM-D analysis showed that the fused enzyme remained bound during oxidation. These features could be harnessed to generate hemicellulose-based biosensors that detect and quantify the presence of different oligosaccharides.

  12. Combined of Lyapunov-stable and active disturbance rejection control for the path following of a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a composite path following controller that allows the small fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle to follow a predefined path. Assuming that the vehicle is equipped with an autopilot for altitude and airspeed maintained well, the controller design adopts the hierarchical control structure. With the inner-loop controller design based on the notion of active disturbance rejection control which will respond to the desired roll angle command, the core part of the outer-loop controller is designed based on Lyapunov stability theorem to generate the desired course rate for the straight-line paths. The bank to turn maneuver is used to transform the desired course rate to the desired roll angle command. Both the hardware-in-the-loop simulation in the X-Plane simulator and actual experimental flight tests have been successfully achieved, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Highly stable and active Ni-doped ordered mesoporous carbon catalyst on the steam reforming of ethanol application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Y.Z. Chiou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel one-step direct synthesis of nickel embedded in an ordered mesoporous carbon catalyst (NiOMC is done in a basic medium of nonaqueous solution by a solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The NiOMC sample is characterized by a variety of analytical and spectroscopy techniques, e.g., N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and temperature-programed reduction (TPR. In this study, the NiOMC catalyst is found to exhibit superior catalytic activity for the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE, showing high hydrogen selectivity and durability. Ethanol can be completely converted at 350 °C over the NiOMC catalyst. Also, the durability of the NiOMC catalyst on the SRE reaction exceeds 100 h at 450 °C, with SH2 approaching 65% and SCO of less than 1%.

  14. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  15. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683 predominated over females (n = 11,923. Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691 and April 2013 (n = 3,324. Lutzomyia choti (72.9% was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%, Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%, representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  16. Learning from the Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea; Schwartz, Renee

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly ("Drosophila melanogaster") is an ideal subject for studying inheritance patterns, Mendel's laws, meiosis, Punnett squares, and other aspects of genetics. Much of what we know about genetics dates to evolutionary biologist Thomas Hunt Morgan's work with mutated fruit flies in the early 1900s. Many genetic laboratories…

  17. Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parapat, Riny Y.; Wijaya, Muliany; Schwarze, Michael; Selve, Sören; Willinger, Marc; Schomäcker, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    We recently introduced a new method to synthesize an active and stable Pt catalyst, namely thermo-destabilization of microemulsions (see R. Y. Parapat, V. Parwoto, M. Schwarze, B. Zhang, D. S. Su and R. Schomäcker, J. Mater. Chem., 2012, 22 (23), 11605-11614). We are able to produce Pt nanocrystals with a small size (2.5 nm) of an isotropic structure i.e. truncated octahedral and deposit them well on support materials. Although we have obtained good results, the performance of the catalyst still needed to be improved and optimized. We followed the strategy to retain the small size but change the shape to an anisotropic structure of Pt nanocrystals which produces more active sites by means of a weaker reducing agent. We found that our catalysts are more active than those we reported before and even show the potential to be applied in a challenging reaction such as hydrogenation of levulinic acid.We recently introduced a new method to synthesize an active and stable Pt catalyst, namely thermo-destabilization of microemulsions (see R. Y. Parapat, V. Parwoto, M. Schwarze, B. Zhang, D. S. Su and R. Schomäcker, J. Mater. Chem., 2012, 22 (23), 11605-11614). We are able to produce Pt nanocrystals with a small size (2.5 nm) of an isotropic structure i.e. truncated octahedral and deposit them well on support materials. Although we have obtained good results, the performance of the catalyst still needed to be improved and optimized. We followed the strategy to retain the small size but change the shape to an anisotropic structure of Pt nanocrystals which produces more active sites by means of a weaker reducing agent. We found that our catalysts are more active than those we reported before and even show the potential to be applied in a challenging reaction such as hydrogenation of levulinic acid. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32122j

  18. Composites of graphene-Mo2C rods: highly active and stable electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, Kasinath; Saha, Soumen; Kolev, Hristo; Kumar, Bharat; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    Mo based compounds are being explored as an alternative for Pt in hydrogen evolution reactions. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based Mo 2 C composites have been synthesized in two step reaction i.e. complexation followed by carbonization in presence of rGO. The composites were characterized using PXRD, electron microscopy, XPS and Raman spectroscopy. The excellent electrocatalytic performance in water splitting using these composites was reflected from the high catalytic current density of ∼125 mA-cm −2 (@ 400 mV vs. RHE and stability of the rGO based composite in long run hydrogen evolution reactions ( > 15 hrs chrono studies and >1200 LSV cycles) in acidic medium. The role of graphene in the composite is critical for its electrocatalytic efficiency and very high catalytic activity is possible with low onset potential (59 mV) following Volmer-Heyrovsky reaction mechanism. Kinetics of the hydrogen evolution on the composite surface has been studied using charge transfer resistance, Bode phase angles and Tafel slopes.

  19. Structural and photoluminescence behavior of thermally stable Eu3+activated CaWO4 nanophosphors via Li+ incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, P. V.; Lakshmana Rao, T.; Singh, Arvind; Benarji, B.; Dash, S.

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the structural and photo physical analogue of Eu3+ activated CaWO4 nanophosphors via Lithium (Li+ = 2, 5 7 and 10 at.%) ion incorporation. As-prepared (APS) samples were annealed at 900 °C to eliminate unwanted organic moieties present in the sample and to improve crystallinity. The samples are characterized employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS spectroscopy, photoluminescence studies and lifetime decay studies. FTIR features an absorption band at ∼832 cm-1, which correspond to its antisymmetric vibrations into Osbnd Wsbnd O band in the WO42- tetrahedron. CaWO4 having the scheelite type structure with C4h point group and I41/a space group. The surface morphology of the samples are studied with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Lithium Co-doped CaWO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles show red luminescence because of strong host contribution and different energy transfer rates from host to Eu3+ ions under 266 nm excitations. Lithium ion enhances the crystallinity and radiative transition rate thus results in higher emissive property. Calculated CIE co-ordinates of these Li+ doped 900 °C annealed samples under 266 nm excitation is x = 0.65 & y = 0.34, which are closer to the standard of NTSC (x = 0.67 & y = 0.33). This material may be potential candidates for white light emitting diodes.

  20. Single-Crystalline Ultrathin Nickel Nanosheets Array from In Situ Topotactic Reduction for Active and Stable Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yun; Feng, Guang; Li, Pengsong; Bi, Yongmin; Li, Yaping; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-01-11

    Simultaneously synthesizing and structuring atomically thick or ultrathin 2D non-precious metal nanocrystal may offer a new class of materials to replace the state-of-art noble-metal electrocatalysts; however, the synthetic strategy is the bottleneck which should be urgently solved. Here we report the synthesis of an ultrathin nickel nanosheet array (Ni-NSA) through in situ topotactic reduction from Ni(OH)2 array precursors. The Ni nanosheets showed a single-crystalline lamellar structure with only ten atomic layers in thickness and an exposed (111) facet. Combined with a superaerophobic (low bubble adhesive) arrayed structure the Ni-NSAs exhibited a dramatic enhancement on both activity and stability towards the hydrazine-oxidation reaction (HzOR) relative to platinum. Furthermore, the partial oxidization of Ni-NSAs in ambient atmosphere resulted in effective water-splitting electrocatalysts for the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER). © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

  1. The use of protein structure/activity relationships in the rational design of stable particulate delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.B. Costa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant heat shock protein (18 kDa-hsp from Mycobacterium leprae was studied as a T-epitope model for vaccine development. We present a structural analysis of the stability of recombinant 18 kDa-hsp during different processing steps. Circular dichroism and ELISA were used to monitor protein structure after thermal stress, lyophilization and chemical modification. We observed that the 18 kDa-hsp is extremely resistant to a wide range of temperatures (60% of activity is retained at 80ºC for 20 min. N-Acylation increased its ordered structure by 4% and decreased its ß-T1 structure by 2%. ELISA demonstrated that the native conformation of the 18 kDa-hsp was preserved after hydrophobic modification by acylation. The recombinant 18 kDa-hsp resists to a wide range of temperatures and chemical modifications without loss of its main characteristic, which is to be a source of T epitopes. This resistance is probably directly related to its lack of organization at the level of tertiary and secondary structures.

  2. Low paraoxonase 1 arylesterase activity and high von Willebrand factor levels are associated with severe coronary atherosclerosis in patients with non-diabetic stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jieying; Chen, Qizhi; Zhuang, Xing; Feng, Zhilei; Xu, Lili; Chen, Fuxiang

    2014-11-25

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and von Willebrand factor (VWF) release are associated with lesion initiation in atherosclerosis. Diabetes can complicate coronary artery disease (CAD) due to the production of advanced glycation end products. This study evaluated PON1 activity and VWF levels in non-post-acute coronary syndrome, stable CAD (SCAD) patients without diabetes. Non-diabetic SCAD patients and patients experiencing acute stress periods were selected (n=130). Forty-seven cases with normal coronary angiography and 50 healthy individuals served as controls. The non-diabetic SCAD group was then stratified into single-vessel lesions, multiple-vessel lesions, and mild or severe luminal stenosis according to the number and the degree of luminal stenoses. Serum PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, and plasma VWF levels were measured, as well as serum total cholesterol, total triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A1. PON1 arylesterase activity was detected with an ordinary chemistry system using a novel phenylacetate derivative. Both PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase were lower in the non-diabetic SCAD group, but VWF levels were higher (versus controls, all Pparaoxonase activity (OR=0.991), PON1 arylesterase activity (OR=0.981), and VWF (OR 2.854) influenced SCAD in multiple logistic regression. Decreased PON1 arylesterase activity and increased VWF levels were associated with severe atherosclerosis in non-diabetic SCAD patients. We also observed a slight negative correlation between VWF and PON1 paraoxonase/arylesterase. PON1 and VWF are detectable markers that may predict the severity of stenoses, ideally facilitating a non-diabetic SCAD diagnosis before the sudden onset of life-threatening symptoms.

  3. Farmers taking responsibility for herd health development—stable schools in research and advisory activities as a tool for dairy health and welfare planning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, Silvia; Bell, Nick J.; Brinkmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    , farmers take responsibility for health and welfare planning by identifying issues, setting goals, and acting to improve the health situation based on farm-specific data, e.g. milk production. This paper reviews the results from intervention studies that used a modified ‘farmer field school’ approach...... for animal health and welfare planning, providing an overview of ongoing activities and their implementation into advisory situations in selected European countries. Studies on stable schools as an intervention tool showed improvements regarding the specific project aim on the majority of the participating...... farms. Farmers and facilitators were convinced of the approach and benefits for dairy herds. Farmers’ attitude and attention towards their herds and their ownership of the process appear to be crucial success factors for herd health and welfare situations. In some European countries, this method has...

  4. Identifying Low pH Active and Lactate-Utilizing Taxa within Oral Microbiome Communities from Healthy Children Using Stable Isotope Probing Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Jeffrey S.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Majors, Paul D.; Mcateer, Kathleen; Allen, Lisa Z.; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2012-03-05

    Many human microbial infectious diseases including dental caries are polymicrobial in nature and how these complex multi-species communities evolve from a healthy to a diseased state is not well understood. Although many health- or disease-associated oral microbes have been characterized in vitro, their physiology in vivo in the presence of the complex oral microbiome is difficult to determine with current approaches. In addition, about half of these oral species remain uncultivated to date and little is known except their 16S rRNA sequence. Lacking culture-based physiological analyses, the functional roles of uncultivated microorganisms will remain enigmatic despite their apparent disease correlation. To start addressing these knowledge gaps, we applied a novel combination of in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) with RNA and DNA based Stable Isotope Probing (SIP) to oral plaque communities from healthy children for temporal monitoring of carbohydrate utilization, organic acid production and identification of metabolically active and inactive bacterial species.

  5. [Influence of the Potassium Channels Activator Nicorandil to the Quality of Life in Patients With Ishemic Heart Disease and Stable Angina Pectoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizova, Zh M; Zakharova, V L; Kozlova, N V; Kuchkina, T S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study to assess the influence of medicamentous therapy to the quality of life of ischemic heart disease patients with stable angina pectoris by activator potassium channels nicorandil in comparison with traditional therapy by isosorbide dinitrate. The study included 84 ischemic heart disease patients. Authors consider quality of life as an estimated category of state of the subject in an illness situation. The dynamic of physical and psychological components of quality of life are compared in ischemic heart disease patients under the treatment by nicorandil and isosorbide dinitrate. Indicators of quality of life, defined on the basis of a questionnaires of SAQ and GHQ supplementing an illness picture, are an multiple-factor criterion of an assessment of a condition of this category of patients. The benefits of nicorandil in influence on quality of life indicators were revealed in the study.

  6. Impacts of fly-ash on soil and plant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dharmendra K; Rai, Upendra N; Tripathi, Rudra D; Inouhe, Masahiro

    2002-12-01

    Coal combustion produces carbon dioxides, SO x, NO x and a variety of byproducts, including fly-ash, flue gas and scrubber sludge. Fly-ash consists of minute glass-like particles and its deposition on leaves inhibits the normal transpiration and photosynthesis of plants. Fly-ash also affects the physicochemical characteristics of soil because it is generally very basic, rich in various essential and non-essential elements, but poor in both nitrogen and available phosphorus. The massive fly-ash materials have been a potential resource for the agricultural activities as well as the other industrial purposes. Practical value of fly-ash in agriculture as an 'effective and safe' fertiliser or soil amendment can be established after repeated field experiments. Here remains to be disclosed the biological processes and interactions due to 'lack and excess' of the fly-ash exposures along with abiotic and biotic factors. These may involve the symbiotic fixation of nitrogen and the biological extraction of metals following immobilisation of toxic heavy metal ions, as well as other neutralisation and equilibration processes during weathering. Nitrogen-fixing plants with an apparent heavy metal-tolerance can be helpful as the early colonisers of fly-ash dumps and nearby areas.

  7. In situ photoactivated plasmonic Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}@silver as a stable catalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongfang; Wang, Jiaxun, E-mail: zdfbb66@aliyun.com [College of Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan (China)

    2017-05-15

    Silver orthophosphate (Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) had been reported as an excellent candidate to split water or decompose pollutants with high efficiency in visible light region, yet is not stable due to the reduction of silver ion. In this work, an easy-fabricated method (in situ photoinduced reduction) was provided to enhance the stability of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} for its possible application as a visible-light sensitive photocatalyst. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and Photoelectrochemical measurements. The Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/Ag photocatalysts showed strong photocatalytic activity for decomposition of RhB dye or phenol-X-3B mixture under visible light irradiation (λ> 420 nm) and can be used repeatedly. The possible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic properties of the Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} /Ag hybrid was also discussed. It was found that •OH and holes take priority over •O{sub 2}{sup -} radicals in serving as the main oxidant in the Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/Ag photocatalytic system. Especially, the experimental results indicate that the surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles and a large negative charge of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions as well as high separation efficiency of {sup e-} --h{sup +} pairs, facilitated the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of the Ag{sub 3} PO{sub 4} /Ag composite. The results indicated that Ag{sub 3} PO{sub 4} /Ag is an efficient and stable visible-light-driven photocatalyst. (author)

  8. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeladhim, Maha; V. Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano; Townsend, Shannon; Pasos-Pinto, Silvia; Sanchez, Laura; Rasouli, Manoochehr; B. Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson; Aslan, Hamide; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Becker, Ingeborg; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the wo...

  9. Production of fly ash-based geopolymers using activator solutions with different Na{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} compositions; Producao de geopolimeros a base de cinza volante usando solucoes ativadoras com diferentes composicoes de Na{sub 2}O e Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, A.G. de S.; Strecker, K.; Araujo Junior, A.G. de; Silva, C.A. da [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    Geopolymers are a new class of binder with high mechanical strength, chemical inertia and can be made of by-products. In this work fly ash from a Brazilian power station was used to produce the geopolymer cement. To produce the geopolymers, different activator solutions were used in order to study the influence of the chemical composition of these solutions on the production of the fly ash-based geopolymers. The results showed that the Brazilian fly ash has the potential to be used in the geopolymerization process. The specimens presented high compression strength, 28 MPa after 24 h and 48 MPa after 28 days of cure. The X-ray diffraction of the original fly ash and the geopolymers samples exhibited some mineral phases presents in the fly ash and new zeolitic phases formed after the geopolymerization process. The infrared spectroscopic of all samples showed some modifications of absorption bands besides new bands corresponding to the geopolymerization process. The physical properties, such as the water absorption, porosity and permeability, changed when the activator solution changed and the curing time was modified. (author)

  10. Interaction of acid mine drainage with Ordinary Portland Cement blended solid residues generated from active treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitari, Wilson M; Petrik, Leslie F; Key, David L; Okujeni, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) has been investigated as a possible treatment agent for Acid mine drainage (AMD) and established to be an alternative, cheap and economically viable agent compared to the conventional alkaline agents. However, this treatment option also leads to generation of solid residues (SR) that require disposal and one of the proposed disposal method is a backfill in coal mine voids. In this study, the interaction of the SR with AMD that is likely to be present in such backfill scenario was simulated by draining columns packed with SR and SR + 6% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) unsaturated with simulated AMD over a 6 month period. The evolving geochemistry of the liquid/solid (L/S) system was evaluated in-terms of the mineral phases likely or controlling contaminants attenuation at the different pH regimes generated. Stepwise acidification of the percolates was observed as the drainage progressed. Two pH buffer zones were observed (7.5-9 and 3-4) for SR and (11.2-11.3 and 3.5-4) for SR + 6% OPC. The solid residue cores (SR) appeared to have a significant buffering capacity, maintaining a neutral to slightly alkaline pH in the leachates for an extended period of time (97 days: L/S 4.3) while SR + 6% OPC reduced this neutralization capacity to 22 days (L/S 1.9). Interaction of AMD with SR or SR + 6% OPC generated alkaline conditions that favored precipitation of Fe, Al, Mn-(oxy) hydroxides, Fe and Ca-Al hydroxysulphates that greatly contributed to the contaminants removal. However, precipitation of these phases was restricted to the pH of the leachates remaining at neutral to circum-neutral levels. Backfill of mine voids with SR promises to be a feasible technology for the disposal of the SR but its success will greatly depend on the disposal scenario, AMD generated and the alkalinity generating potential of the SR. A disadvantage would be the possible re-dissolution of the precipitated phases at pH water column. However extrapolation of this concept to a field

  11. Breeding sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the sand fly vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Judean Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncaz, Aviad; Faiman, Roy; Kirstein, Oscar; Warburg, Alon

    2012-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity and decaying organic matter. We describe studies designed to identify and characterize sand fly breeding habitats in a Judean Desert focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To detect breeding habitats we constructed emergence traps comprising sand fly-proof netting covering defined areas or cave openings. Large size horizontal sticky traps within the confined spaces were used to trap the sand flies. Newly eclosed male sand flies were identified based on their un-rotated genitalia. Cumulative results show that Phlebotomus sergenti the vector of Leishmania tropica rests and breeds inside caves that are also home to rock hyraxes (the reservoir hosts of L. tropica) and several rodent species. Emerging sand flies were also trapped outside covered caves, probably arriving from other caves or from smaller, concealed cracks in the rocky ledges close by. Man-made support walls constructed with large boulders were also identified as breeding habitats for Ph. sergenti albeit less important than caves. Soil samples obtained from caves and burrows were rich in organic matter and salt content. In this study we developed and put into practice a generalized experimental scheme for identifying sand fly breeding habitats and for assessing the quantities of flies that emerge from them. An improved understanding of sand fly larval ecology should facilitate the implementation of effective control strategies of sand fly vectors of Leishmania.

  12. Breeding sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the sand fly vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Judean Desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviad Moncaz

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity and decaying organic matter. We describe studies designed to identify and characterize sand fly breeding habitats in a Judean Desert focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To detect breeding habitats we constructed emergence traps comprising sand fly-proof netting covering defined areas or cave openings. Large size horizontal sticky traps within the confined spaces were used to trap the sand flies. Newly eclosed male sand flies were identified based on their un-rotated genitalia. Cumulative results show that Phlebotomus sergenti the vector of Leishmania tropica rests and breeds inside caves that are also home to rock hyraxes (the reservoir hosts of L. tropica and several rodent species. Emerging sand flies were also trapped outside covered caves, probably arriving from other caves or from smaller, concealed cracks in the rocky ledges close by. Man-made support walls constructed with large boulders were also identified as breeding habitats for Ph. sergenti albeit less important than caves. Soil samples obtained from caves and burrows were rich in organic matter and salt content. In this study we developed and put into practice a generalized experimental scheme for identifying sand fly breeding habitats and for assessing the quantities of flies that emerge from them. An improved understanding of sand fly larval ecology should facilitate the implementation of effective control strategies of sand fly vectors of Leishmania.

  13. Yarrowia lipolytica Lipase 2 Is Stable and Highly Active in Test Meals and Increases Fat Absorption in an Animal Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloulou, Ahmed; Schué, Mathieu; Puccinelli, Delphine; Milano, Stéphane; Delchambre, Chantal; Leblond, Yves; Laugier, René; Carrière, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) reduces pancreatic secretion of digestive enzymes, including lipases. Oral pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) with pancreatin produces unsatisfactory results. The lipase 2 produced by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (YLLIP2; GenBank: AJ012632) might be used in PERT. We investigated its ability to digest triglycerides in a test meal and its efficacy in reducing fecal fat in an animal model of PEI. YLLIP2 was produced by genetically engineered Y lipolytica and purified from culture media. YLLIP2 or other gastric (LIPF) and pancreatic (PNLIPD) lipases were added to a meal paste containing dietary triglycerides, at a range of pH values (pH 2-7), with and without pepsin or human bile and incubated at 37°C. We collected samples at various time points and measured lipase activities and stabilities. To create an animal model of PEI, steatorrhea was induced by embolization of the exocrine pancreas gland and pancreatic duct ligation in minipigs. The animals were given YLLIP2 (1, 4, 8, 40, or 80 mg/d) or pancreatin (100,000 US Pharmacopeia lipase units/d, controls) for 9 days. We then collected stool samples, measured fat levels, and calculated coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) values. YLLIP2 was highly stable and poorly degraded by pepsin, and had the highest activity of all lipases tested on meal triglyceride at pH 4-7 (pH 6 with bile: 94 ± 34 U/mg; pH 4 without bile: 43 ± 13 U/mg). Only gastric lipase was active and stable at pH 3, whereas YLLIP2 was sensitive to pepsin hydrolysis after pH inactivation. From in vitro test meal experiments, the lipase activity of YLLIP2 (10 mg) was estimated to be equivalent to that of pancreatin (1200 mg; 100,000 US Pharmacopeia units) at pH 6. In PEI minipigs, CFA values increased from 60.1% ± 9.3% before surgery to 90.5% ± 3.2% after administration of 1200 mg pancreatin (P meal triglycerides in a large pH range, with and without bile. Oral administration of milligram amounts of

  14. Stability of fatigue, pain, patient global assessment and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) in spondyloarthropathy patients with stable disease according to the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2018-01-01

    The study objective was to examine natural variation of the patient-reported outcome measures fatigue, pain, patient global assessment (PaGl) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) in patients with stable axial spondyloarthropathy (ax-SpA) defined on the basis of the Bath...... Spondylitis Ankylosing Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). 107 TNF-inhibitor treated stable ax-SpA patients were identified in the Danish rheumatology registry (DANBIO). According to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) response criteria, stable disease was defined as a change...

  15. A Mathematic Model That Describes Modes of MdSGHV Transmission within House Fly Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste R. Vallejo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is proposed that one potential component by which the Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV infects individual flies is through cuticular damage. Breaks in the cuticle allow entry of the virus into the hemocoel causing the infection. Male flies typically have a higher rate of infection and a higher rate of cuticular damage than females. A model for the transmission of MdSGHV was formulated assuming several potential and recognized means of transmission. The model yields results that are in agreement with field data that measured the infection rate in house flies on dairy farms in Florida. The results from this model indicate that MdSGHV will be maintained at a stable rate within house fly populations and support the future use of MdSGHV as a birth control agent in house fly management.

  16. The High Teperature Influence on Geopolymer Fly Ash Mixture’s Compressisive Strength with Insudtrial Waste Material Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuaji, R.; Wibowo, B.; Subekti, S.; Santoso, S. E.; Hardiyanto, E.; Kaelani, Y.; Mallu, L. L.

    2017-11-01

    This research aimed to figure out the influence of fly ash mixture from the industrial waste at the temperatures of 150°C, 450°C, 750°C viewed from the strength and resistance of geopolymer paste. As a result, cement will be substituted by industrial waste like fly ash. This experimental research was conducted on the mix design of geopolymer concrete which was made by dimension with 2.5 cm in diameter and 5 cm in height from four mixture composition of fly ash and industrial waste i.e. 100% fly ash, 50% fly ash+50% bottom ash, 50% fly ash+50% sandblast, and 50% fly ash+50% carbide waste. Each mixture was tested in terms of porosity and compressive strength. In conclusion, in the mixture of 50% fly ash+50% Sandblast and 50% fly ash+50% bottom ash in 12 molars, 1.5 activator comparison can be used to substitute fly ash at high temperature. Meanwhile, the mixture of 50% fly ash+50% carbide waste in 8 molars, 0.5 activator comparison has very small strength remaining if it is compared to the mixture of fly ash and other industrial waste (Bottom ash and Sandblast). The performance of mixture paste of 50% fly ash+50% carbide waste was very vulnerable after being burnt. Consequently, it cannot be used as the main structure at high temperature.

  17. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  18. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The...

  19. Mechanism of HIV reverse transcriptase inhibition by zinc: formation of a highly stable enzyme-(primer-template) complex with profoundly diminished catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Katherine J; DeStefano, Jeffrey J

    2011-11-25

    Several physiologically relevant cations including Ca(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+) have been shown to inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase (RT), presumably by competitively displacing one or more Mg(2+) ions bound to RT. We analyzed the effects of Zn(2+) on reverse transcription and compared them to Ca(2+) and Mn(2+). Using nucleotide extension efficiency as a readout, Zn(2+) showed significant inhibition of reactions with 2 mM Mg(2+), even when present at only ∼5 μM. Mn(2+) and Ca(2+) were also inhibitory but at higher concentrations. Both Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) (but not Ca(2+)) supported RT incorporation in the absence of Mg(2+) with Mn(2+) being much more efficient. The maximum extension rates with Zn(2+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+) were ∼0.1, 1, and 3.5 nucleotides per second, respectively. Zinc supported optimal RNase H activity at ∼25 μM, similar to the optimal for nucleotide addition in the presence of low dNTP concentrations. Surprisingly, processivity (average number of nucleotides incorporated in a single binding event with enzyme) during reverse transcription was comparable with Zn(2+) and Mg(2+), and single RT molecules were able to continue extension in the presence of Zn(2+) for several hours on the same template. Consistent with this result, the half-life for RT-Zn(2+)-(primer-template) complexes was 220 ± 60 min and only 1.7 ± 1 min with Mg(2+), indicating ∼130-fold more stable binding with Zn(2+). Essentially, the presence of Zn(2+) promotes the formation of a highly stable slowly progressing RT-(primer-template) complex.

  20. Horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) resistance to organophosphate insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, A T; Ottea, J; Sanson, D; Foil, L D

    2001-04-02

    Insecticidal ear tags impregnated with organophosphate (OP) insecticides were used each year from 1989 to 1998 at Rosepine, LA. Weekly fly counts were conducted to evaluate control efficacy of the treatments, and bioassays were conducted at least twice per year to measure fly susceptibility to OP and pyrethroid insecticides. Between 1989 and 1992, the efficacy of 20% diazinon-impregnated ear tags was reduced from >20 to just 1 week of control. A high risk of control failure was observed when a resistance frequency of approximately 5% was measured in pre-season bioassays. Resistance to diazinon, fenthion, ethion, pirimiphos-methyl, and tetrachlorvinphos was observed. Esterase activity toward alpha-naphthyl acetate was significantly higher in flies collected at Rosepine in 1997 than in flies from a laboratory colony and from a susceptible field population.

  1. INFLUENCES OF SUPERPLASTICIZER, MIXING TIME, MIXING TEMPERATURE AND CEMENT CONTENT ON HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuhiro, KAWAGUCHI; Kiyoshi, KOHNO; Masakazu, MITA; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokushima; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokushima; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokushima

    1996-01-01

    The influences of superplasticizers, mixing time, mixing temperature and cement content on high-volume fly ash concrete were investigated in order to use the industrial by-product, fly ash from coal thermal power plant, more actively for concrete. The slump, air content, compressive strength and tensile strength of high-volume fly ash concrete were investigated using different mixtures. The results of these investigations indicate that the properties of fly ash concrete are influenced by the ...

  2. Kinetics of Colonization of Adult Queensland Fruit Flies (Bactrocera tryoni) by Dinitrogen-Fixing Alimentary Tract Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K M; Teakle, D S; Macrae, I C

    1994-07-01

    The average total population of bacteria remained constant in the alimentary tracts of adult laboratory-raised Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) although the insects had ingested large numbers of live bacteria as part of their diet. The mean number of bacteria (about 13 million) present in the gut of the insects from 12 to 55 days after emergence was not significantly modified when, at 5 days after emergence, the flies were fed antibiotic-resistant bacteria belonging to two species commonly isolated from the gut of field-collected B. tryoni. Flies were fed one marked dinitrogen-fixing strain each of either Klebsiella oxytoca or Enterobacter cloacae, and the gastrointestinal tracts of fed flies were shown to be colonized within 7 days by antibiotic-resistant isolates of K. oxytoca but not E. cloacae. The composition of the microbial population also appeared to be stable in that the distribution and frequency of bacterial taxa among individual flies exhibited similar patterns whether or not the flies had been bacteria fed. Isolates of either E. cloacae or K. oxytoca, constituting 70% of the total numbers, were usually dominant, with oxidative species including pseudomonads forming the balance of the population. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be spread from one cage of flies to the adjacent surfaces of a second cage within a few days and had reached a control group several meters distant by 3 weeks. Restriction of marked bacteria to the population of one in five flies sampled from the control group over the next 30 days suggested that the bacterial population in the gut of the insect was susceptible to alteration in the first week after emergence but that thereafter it entered a steady state and was less likely to be perturbed by the introduction of newly encountered strains. All populations sampled, including controls, included at least one isolate of the dinitrogen-fixing family Enterobacteriaceae; many were distinct from the marked strains fed to the

  3. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  4. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  5. In vivo activity of miR-34a mimics delivered by stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs against multiple myeloma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Di Martino

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a disease with an adverse outcome and new therapeutic strategies are urgently awaited. A rising body of evidence supports the notion that microRNAs (miRNAs, master regulators of eukaryotic gene expression, may exert anti-MM activity. Here, we evaluated the activity of synthetic miR-34a in MM cells. We found that transfection of miR-34a mimics in MM cells induces a significant change of gene expression with relevant effects on multiple signal transduction pathways. We detected early inactivation of pro-survival and proliferative kinases Erk-2 and Akt followed at later time points by caspase-6 and -3 activation and apoptosis induction. To improve the in vivo delivery, we encapsulated miR-34a mimics in stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs. We found that SNALPs miR-34a were highly efficient in vitro in inhibiting growth of MM cells. Then, we investigated the activity of the SNALPs miR-34a against MM xenografts in SCID mice. We observed significant tumor growth inhibition (p<0.05 which translated in mice survival benefits (p=0.0047. Analysis of miR-34a and NOTCH1 expression in tumor retrieved from animal demonstrated efficient delivery and gene modulation induced by SNALPs miR-34a in the absence of systemic toxicity. We here therefore provide evidence that SNALPs miR-34a may represent a promising tool for miRNA-therapeutics in MM.

  6. Population activity of peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders (Diptera: Tephiritidae at fruits orchards in Kafer El-Shikh Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil A. Draz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peach Fruit Fly (PFF Bactrocera zonata (Saunders is one of most dominant and destructive key pest in fruit orchards in different agro-ecosystem in Egypt, so monitoring adults' population fluctuation in orchards, through capturing adults, has been considered as main way to forecasting or management the pest. So current study aimed to assay the efficiency of Jackson traps baited with methyl eugenol (M.E. on male capture, that were distributed in different fruit trees orchards, in different positions and hang levels in one of Egyptian agroecosystem (Kafer El-Shikh Governorate, from (May 2014 to April 2015. Moreover, adults capture in McPhail traps in navel orange orchards intercropping with Guava were exploded to detect abundant and rearing season of the pest studying impact of abiotic factors on population, and estimation number, time and duration of annual generation. Obtained results declared that the pest had 7-8 annually generation. Jackson traps that placed in center of orchard and hanged at 2 m height more efficient than others for male catches. Highest numbers of PFF male attack orchards of Navel orange intercropping with Guava, while the lowest were with Navel orange and Guava. Each of season and kind of orchard or intercropping system had combined and significant effect on mass trapping. In McPhail traps, highest mass trapping of adult was observed in autumn (20.353 adult/ trap/ week, while each of spring, summer and winter season were similar in mass trapping. Only Wind direction as climatic factors had negative significant effect on mass trapping of PFF adults in McPhail traps, while each of maximum and mean temperature of winter season had positive significant effect on mass trapping.

  7. Selected Properties Of Geopolymers With Different Portions Of Ground Fly-Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želinková Miroslava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are polymeric materials resulting from the polycondensation reaction of alumino-silicate materials in a strongly alkaline environment. In consequence, stable polymeric networks of aluminosilicates are formed. The binding potential of FA (fly ash amorphous component can also be “activated” by mechanical activation, which unfolds new possibilities of FA utilization. Mechanical activation, such as the method, which can improve FA reactivity, is often applied for different applications for geopolymers based on ground fly ash. This paper presents possibilities of preparation of geopolymer mixtures based on modified (ground FA (TEKO – produced by the Heating plant Kosice, which was used in varying percentages to unground (original FA. The particle size of the original unground FA (PVT was 84.7μm and particle size of the ground FA (T60S1 was 52.8μm. Properties to be evaluated were selected from the expected application point of view – protective coating of concrete. Next properties of geopolymer mixtures after 28 days of hardening were tested and evaluated: dry density, absorptivity, capillarity, compressive and flexural strength.

  8. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Abdeladhim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the world are still neglected, as Bichromomyia olmeca (formerly known as Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca, a proven vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and Central America. Despite the importance of this vector in transmitting Leishmania parasite in Mesoamerica there is no information on the repertoire of B. olmeca salivary proteins and their relationship to salivary proteins from other sand fly species.A cDNA library of the salivary glands of wild-caught B. olmeca was constructed, sequenced, and analyzed. We identified transcripts encoding for novel salivary proteins from this sand fly species and performed a comparative analysis between B. olmeca salivary proteins and those from other sand fly species. With this new information we present an updated catalog of the salivary proteins specific to New World sand flies and salivary proteins common to all sand fly species. We also report in this work the anti-Factor Xa activity of Lofaxin, a salivary anticoagulant protein present in this sand fly species.This study provides information on the first transcriptome of a sand fly from Mesoamerica and adds information to the limited repertoire of salivary transcriptomes from the Americas. This comparative analysis also shows a fast degree of evolution in salivary proteins from New World sand flies as compared with Old World sand flies.

  9. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeladhim, Maha; V Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano; Townsend, Shannon; Pasos-Pinto, Silvia; Sanchez, Laura; Rasouli, Manoochehr; B Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson; Aslan, Hamide; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Oliveira, Fabiano; Becker, Ingeborg; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Jochim, Ryan C; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2016-07-01

    Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the world are still neglected, as Bichromomyia olmeca (formerly known as Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca), a proven vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and Central America. Despite the importance of this vector in transmitting Leishmania parasite in Mesoamerica there is no information on the repertoire of B. olmeca salivary proteins and their relationship to salivary proteins from other sand fly species. A cDNA library of the salivary glands of wild-caught B. olmeca was constructed, sequenced, and analyzed. We identified transcripts encoding for novel salivary proteins from this sand fly species and performed a comparative analysis between B. olmeca salivary proteins and those from other sand fly species. With this new information we present an updated catalog of the salivary proteins specific to New World sand flies and salivary proteins common to all sand fly species. We also report in this work the anti-Factor Xa activity of Lofaxin, a salivary anticoagulant protein present in this sand fly species. This study provides information on the first transcriptome of a sand fly from Mesoamerica and adds information to the limited repertoire of salivary transcriptomes from the Americas. This comparative analysis also shows a fast degree of evolution in salivary proteins from New World sand flies as compared with Old World sand flies.

  10. Quantitative proteomics on the fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, J.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837377

    2009-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms is characterized by complex processes that progressively transform essentially a single cell into a creature with complicated structures and highly specialized functions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model system to

  11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  12. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  13. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  14. N-Acetylcysteine Combined with Home Based Physical Activity: Effect on Health Related Quality of Life in Stable COPD Patients- A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Vijay Tukaram; Atram, Jitesh S

    2016-12-01

    Quality of life is adversely affected in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), due to irreversible, progressive nature of the disease and limitations of current treatment options available. One of the important aim of treatment of COPD is to improve Quality of Life (QoL). Cigarette smoke contains numerous free radicals and other oxidants. Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathogenesis, progression of disease and exacerbation in COPD. Pulmonary tuberculosis, outdoor and indoor air pollution and many others are aetiologies of COPD in non-smokers. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a precursor of endogenous anti-oxidant, Glutathione (GSH) and both agents act as free radical scavengers. Exercise limitation results in poor physical performance and eventually poor QoL in COPD. To observe the combined effect of 600mg of NAC once daily and physical activity (home based) in addition to standard treatment for ten weeks, compared with placebo as control group with standard treatment. This randomised controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai for two years from December 2011 to December 2013. Hundred patients diagnosed as stable COPD (as per Global Initiative against Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2010 guidelines) were enrolled in the study. There were 50 patients in study group and control group each. The QoL was assessed using Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire-C (SGRQ-C) initially and at the end of ten weeks. The study group was treated with NAC 600mg once a day combined with daily physical activity in addition to standard treatment. Control group patients were treated with placebo and standard treatment. At the end of 10 weeks, it was observed that, mean change in SGRQ-C was significant in "study group" as compared to "control group". Mean change in score among study group was 4.72 and the same in control was 1.32, p-value=0.007. There was significant improvement in SGRQ-C score at the end of 10 weeks and QoL in the study group (p-value-0

  15. Characterization of cements and fly ashes from India : phase 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, R.L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET International Centre for Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete

    2004-03-15

    This paper provided details of fly ashes, cements, and admixtures received from India as part of a Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) project. The materials for the first phase of the project included 2 cements and 19 fly ash samples. Specific gravity, Blaine Fineness, and fineness by the 45 {mu}m sieve were determined. Compressive strength tests were conducted on the cements and a strength activity index for the fly ashes was presented. Materials for the second phase of the project included 2 cements; 2 fly ashes; a water-reducing admixture; and a superplasticizer. Data were presented in tabular format and included details of their assigned laboratory reference numbers, and the original weight of the materials as received, and the collection origin of the fly ashes. The results of chemical analyses and physical property tests on the fly ashes and cements were presented. A strength activity index with Portland cement was also included. 10 tabs.

  16. Application of RNA Stable Isotope Probing (SIP) to Link Community Activity with Microorganisms Responsible for Autotrophy in the Subseafloor at Axial Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J. A.; Fortunato, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The global ocean comprises the Earth's largest biome, with microorganisms playing a dominant biogeochemical role. However, the potential for production of new microbial biomass within the subseafloor is rarely considered in traditional oceanographic paradigms of carbon cycling or microbial food webs. In this study, we used RNA Stable Isotope Probing (RNA SIP) to determine the microbial community composition and genetic repertoire of active subseafloor autotrophs in warm venting fluids from Axial Seamount. RNA is a responsive biomarker because it is a reflection of cellular activity independent of replication, and RNA SIP thus provides access to both the function of a microbial community and the phylogeny of the organisms accountable for key functions. Diffuse fluids were incubated shipboard at 30°C, 55°C, and 80°C with 13DIC and H2. Metatranscriptomic sequencing of both the enriched and non-enriched RNA was carried out from 13C and 12C controls. In addition, filtered fluid samples were preserved in situ for comparative meta -transcriptomic and -genomic analyses. Diverse lineages of bacteria and archaea and accompanying metabolisms were detected in situ, but RNA SIP results show dominance of three different groups of autotrophs active under each experimental condition. At 30°C, members of the Sulfurimonas genus dominated, with genes for hydrogen oxidation, nitrate reduction, and carbon fixation via the rTCA cycle highly expressed. At 55°C, both Caminibacter and Nautilia transcripts were detected for rTCA cycle, hydrogen oxidation, and nitrate reduction. At 80°C, transcripts for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis mediated by members of Methanocaldococcus were detected. These results suggest the subseafloor hosts various anaerobic chemolithoautotrophs that span a wide temperature range, with hydrogen playing a key role in microbial metabolism. Complementary experiments are currently being carried out on the seafloor with a novel in situ incubator unit to provide

  17. Stable phase-shift despite quasi-rhythmic movements: a CPG-driven dynamic model of active tactile exploration in an insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin eHarischandra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An essential component of autonomous and flexible behaviour in animals is active exploration of the environment, allowing for perception-guided planning and control of actions. An important sensory system involved is active touch. Here, we introduce a general modelling framework of Central Pattern Generators (CPGs for movement generation in active tactile exploration behaviour. The CPG consists of two network levels: (i phase-coupled Hopf oscillators for rhythm generation, and (ii pattern formation networks for capturing the frequency and phase characteristics of individual joint oscillations. The model captured the natural, quasi-rhythmic joint kinematics as observed in coordinated antennal movements of walking stick insects. Moreover, it successfully produced tactile exploration behaviour on a three-dimensional skeletal model of the insect antennal system with physically realistic parameters. The effect of proprioceptor ablations could be simulated by changing the amplitude and offset parameters of the joint oscillators, only. As in the animal, the movement of both antennal joints was coupled with a stable phase difference, despite the quasi-rhythmicity of the joint angle time courses. We found that the phase-lead of the distal scape-pedicel joint relative to the proximal head-scape joint was essential for producing the natural tactile exploration behaviour and, thus, for tactile efficiency. For realistic movement patterns, the phase-lead could vary within a limited range of 10 to 30 degrees only. Tests with artificial movement patterns strongly suggest that this phase sensitivity is not a matter of the frequency composition of the natural movement pattern. Based on our modelling results, we propose that a constant phase difference is coded into the CPG of the antennal motor system and that proprioceptors are acting locally to regulate the joint movement amplitude.

  18. Preliminary study on removing Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ by activated porous calcium silicate-A by-product from high-alumina fly ash recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingying; Wang, Rong; Chen, Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    ¹³⁷Cs⁺/⁹⁰Sr²⁺-containing radioactive wastewater is one of the most important problems that the world has been facing with. A by-product, activated porous calcium silicate, is generated at high levels by the pre-desiliconizing and soda-lime-sintering processes for producing Al₂O₃from high-alumina fly ash. In order to examine if this by-product could be used as an absorbent for removal of ¹³⁷Cs⁺/⁹⁰Sr²⁺ from radioactive wastewater, various parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration, were discussed. Results indicated that the equilibrium reached in about 2 hr. Activated porous calcium silicate was highly pH sensitive and able to remove Cs(+)/Sr²⁺ in a near-neutral environment. The adsorption equilibrium was best described by Freundlich isotherm equations, and the adsorption of Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ was a physical process. The adsorption kinetic data could be better fitted by the pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption was controlled by multidiffusion. Current study showed that activated porous calcium silicate has a good adsorption of Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ for their removal. However, other characteristics, such as selectivity because of coexisting cations, elution and regeneration, thermal stability, and acid resistance, should be discussed carefully before using it in an actual field.

  19. Research on Adsorbent Using Modified Fly Ash for Campus Domestic Sewage Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jinping; Gan Jinhua; Wang Guangkun; Chen Ziwei; Gong Yimin

    2016-01-01

    As a kind of extensive sources and low cost industrial waste, fly ash has many features, such as porosity, large surface area, adsorption capacity, chemical activity and weakly alkaline, which seem a wide prospect of application in wastewater treatment. This study proposed the acid modification test on fly ash. The effect of key factors including the particle size, pH, the dosage of fly ash, adsorption time and dosage of the modifier on domestic sewage removal efficiencies were evaluated. The...

  20. Fundamental study of low-NOx combustion fly ash utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives

  1. Co-digestion of molasses or kitchen waste with high-rate activated sludge results in a diverse microbial community with stable methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Jo; Plovie, Kristof; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2015-04-01

    Kitchen waste and molasses are organic waste streams with high organic content, and therefore are interesting substrates for renewable energy production by means of anaerobic digestion. Both substrates, however, often cause inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process, when treated separately, hence, co-digestion with other substrates is required to ensure stable methane production. In this research, A-sludge (sludge harvested from a high rate activated sludge system) was used to stabilize co-digestion with kitchen waste or molasses. Lab-scale digesters were fed with A-sludge and kitchen waste or molasses for a total period of 105 days. Increased methane production values revealed a stabilizing effect of concentrated A-sludge on kitchen waste digestion. Co-digestion of molasses with A-sludge also resulted in a higher methane production. Volumetric methane production rates up to 1.53 L L(-1) d(-1) for kitchen waste and 1.01 L L(-1) d(-1) for molasses were obtained by co-digestion with A-sludge. The stabilizing effect of A-sludge was attributed to its capacity to supplement various nutrients. Microbial community results demonstrated that both reactor conditions and substrate composition determined the nature of the bacterial community, although there was no direct influence of micro-organisms in the substrate itself, while the methanogenic community profile remained constant as long as optimal conditions were maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory with a poly(4-vinyl phenol) charge trapping layer based on a pn-heterojunction active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Lanyi; Ying, Jun; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Letian, E-mail: zlt@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn; Wang, Wei, E-mail: zlt@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-04-25

    In this letter, we demonstrate a high reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor (OFET) based nonvolatile memory (NVM) with a polymer poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) as the charge trapping layer. In the unipolar OFETs, the inreversible shifts of the turn-on voltage (V{sub on}) and severe degradation of the memory window (ΔV{sub on}) at programming (P) and erasing (E) voltages, respectively, block their application in NVMs. The obstacle is overcome by using a pn-heterojunction as the active layer in the OFET memory, which supplied a holes and electrons accumulating channel at the supplied P and E voltages, respectively. Both holes and electrons transferring from the channels to PVP layer and overwriting the trapped charges with an opposite polarity result in the reliable bidirectional shifts of V{sub on} at P and E voltages, respectively. The heterojunction OFET exhibits excellent nonvolatile memory characteristics, with a large ΔV{sub on} of 8.5 V, desired reading (R) voltage at 0 V, reliable P/R/E/R dynamic endurance over 100 cycles and a long retention time over 10 years.

  3. The Proteolytically Stable Peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-ßNSpe)6-NH2 Selectively Inhibits Human Neutrophil Activation via Formyl Peptide Receptor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Larsen, Camilla J.

    2015-01-01

    of proteolytically stable HDP mimics consisting of lipidated α-peptide/β-peptoid oligomers was investigated for their effect on neutrophil function. The most promising compound, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2, was shown to inhibit formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) agonist-induced neutrophil granule mobilization and release...... of reactive oxygen species. The potency of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 was comparable to that of PBP10, the most potent FPR2-selective inhibitor known. The immunomodulatory effects of structural analogues of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 emphasized the importance of both the lipid and peptidomimetic parts. By using imaging...... flow cytometry in primary neutrophils and FPR-transfected cell lines we found that a fluorescently labelled analogue of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 interacted selectively with FPR2. Furthermore the interaction between Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 and FPR2 was found to prevent binding of the FPR2-specific activating...

  4. A biomimetic synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles derived from aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare seeds and evaluation of their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Sharma, Shweta

    2017-10-01

    A facile biomimetic approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using aqueous extract of fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare) seeds have been reported in this article. The seeds of F. vulgare are rich in various plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) such as polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and saponins. The phytochemicals of F. vulgare seeds play dual role of reducing and stabilizing agents. The formation of gold nanoparticles was evidenced from the appearance of intense purple color at room temperature with λ max around 550 nm in the UV-Vis absorption spectra. The stable AuNPs were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles were observed to be polydispersed, spherical and ranged from 10 to 30 nm with an average size of 20 ± 2 nm, as obtained from TEM images. The catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles was investigated by studying the reduction of anthropogenic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh-B) with sodium borohydride. Results showed the possible applications of biogenic AuNPs in environment related problems.

  5. Identification of active denitrifiers by DNA-stable isotope probing and amplicon sequencing reveals Betaproteobacteria as responsible for attenuation of nitrate contamination in a low impacted aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, M Inés; Kumaresan, Deepak; Tarlera, Silvana; Murrell, J Colin; Fernández-Scavino, Ana

    2018-02-01

    Groundwater reservoirs constitute important freshwater resources. However, these ecosystems are highly vulnerable to contamination and have to rely on the resident microbiota to attenuate the impact of this contamination. Nitrate is one of the main contaminants found in groundwater, and denitrification is the main process that removes the compound. In this study, the response to nutrient load on indigenous microbial communities in groundwater from a low impacted aquifer in Uruguay was evaluated. Denitrification rates were measured in groundwater samples from three different sites with nitrate, acetate and pyrite amendments. Results showed that denitrification is feasible under in situ nitrate and electron donor concentrations, although the lack of readily available organic energy source would limit the attenuation of higher nitrate concentrations. DNA-stable isotope probing, combined with amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA, nirS and nirK genes, was used to identify the active denitrifiers. Members of the phylum Betaproteobacteria were the dominant denitrifiers in two of three sites, with different families being observed; members of the genus Vogesella (Neisseriaceae) were key denitrifiers at one site, while the genera Dechloromonas (Rhodocyclaceae) and Comamonas (Comamonadaceae) were the main denitrifiers detected at the other sites. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Phytosynthesis of stable Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using J. Sambac leaves extract, and their enhanced antimicrobial activity in presence of organic antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallappa, S.; Manjanna, J.; Dhananjaya, B. L.

    2015-02-01

    A green chemistry approach for the synthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles (NPs) using the corresponding metal precursors and Jasminum sambac leaves extract as both reducing and capping media, under microwave irradiation, is reported. During the formation, as expected, the reaction mixture shows marginal decrease in pH and an increase in solution potential. The formation of NPs is evident from their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak observed at ∼555 nm for Au, ∼435 nm for Ag and ∼510 nm for Au-Ag alloy. The XRD pattern shows fcc structure while the FTIR spectra indicate the presence of plant residues adsorbed on these NPs. Such a bio-capping of NPs is characterized by their weight loss, ∼35% due to thermal degradation of biomass, as observed in TG analysis. The colloidal dispersion of NPs is stable for about 6 weeks. The near spherical shape of NPs (ϕ20-50 nm) is observed by FE-SEM/TEM images and EDAX gives the expected elemental composition. Furthermore, these NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial activity (∼1-4-fold increase in zone of inhibition) in combination with antimicrobials against test strains. Thus, the phytosynthesized NPs could be used as effective growth inhibitors for various microorganisms.

  7. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  8. Horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) saliva targets thrombin action in hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, M S; Zhang, D; Cupp, E W

    2000-05-01

    The horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), is an important pest of livestock because the adult stage of both sexes are aggressive blood-feeders. Remarkably, even though horn fly adults feed recurrently on their hosts as ectoparasites, these flies lack the ADP-responsive antiplatelet aggregation and vasodilatory antihemostatic systems described for other blood-feeding Diptera. Horn fly salivary gland extracts do interfere with the normal coagulation process as demonstrated by the recalcification time assay. Using this as a baseline, the effects of saliva on recalcification time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time were measured to determine which arm(s) of the coagulation cascade might be impacted. Factor-deficient plasma assays also were used to measure possible perturbations in clotting. Gland-free saliva delayed the recalcification time as well as the activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time. Saliva also further delayed clotting times of plasmas deficient in factor V, factor VIII, and factor XIII, indicating that other factors in the coagulation cascade were inhibited. Although horn fly saliva did not alter the ability of deficient plasma reconstituted with factor X to clot, it did inhibit deficient plasma reconstituted with factor II (thrombin). Antithrombin activity in saliva was confirmed by its ability to interfere with thrombin hydrolysis of fibrinogen, its normal substrate, and by its inhibition of thrombin action on a chromagenic substrate that mimics the hydrolytic site of fibrinogen. Thus, horn fly saliva contains a factor that specifically targets thrombin, a key component in the coagulation cascade. While the biochemical mechanisms of inhibition may vary, this antihemostatic characteristic is shared with other zoophilic Diptera such as black flies, Simulium spp., and tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, that feed on ungulates.

  9. Research on Adsorbent Using Modified Fly Ash for Campus Domestic Sewage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of extensive sources and low cost industrial waste, fly ash has many features, such as porosity, large surface area, adsorption capacity, chemical activity and weakly alkaline, which seem a wide prospect of application in wastewater treatment. This study proposed the acid modification test on fly ash. The effect of key factors including the particle size, pH, the dosage of fly ash, adsorption time and dosage of the modifier on domestic sewage removal efficiencies were evaluated. The optimum conditions and the corresponding removal efficiency were determined. The results show that the removal efficiency is increased firstly and steady subsequently with the increase of fly ash dosage, increased firstly and decreased subsequently with the increase of adsorption time, and increased firstly and decreased subsequently with the increase of pH value. The removal efficiency can up to 95.19% when 0.7 g fly ash added in 200 mL wastewater when the pH value was adjusted to 5 at the adsorption time of 20 min. And the best particle size of fly ash is 200 meshes, when used 2mol/L hydrochloride as modifier and soaked fly ash for 2h, and the ratio of hydrochloride and fly ash is 1mL / g, the effect is best. It also finds obviously that fly ash can have a better effect on removal efficiency than raw fly ash.

  10. The proteolytically stable peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 selectively inhibits human neutrophil activation via formyl peptide receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Heegaard, Peter M H; Larsen, Camilla J; Franzyk, Henrik; Forsman, Huamei; Dahlgren, Claes

    2015-01-15

    Immunomodulatory host defense peptides (HDPs) are considered to be lead compounds for novel anti-sepsis and anti-inflammatory agents. However, development of drugs based on HDPs has been hampered by problems with toxicity and low bioavailability due to in vivo proteolysis. Here, a subclass of proteolytically stable HDP mimics consisting of lipidated α-peptide/β-peptoid oligomers was investigated for their effect on neutrophil function. The most promising compound, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2, was shown to inhibit formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) agonist-induced neutrophil granule mobilization and release of reactive oxygen species. The potency of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 was comparable to that of PBP10, the most potent FPR2-selective inhibitor known. The immunomodulatory effects of structural analogs of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 emphasized the importance of both the lipid and peptidomimetic parts. By using imaging flow cytometry in primary neutrophils and FPR-transfected cell lines, we found that a fluorescently labeled analog of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 interacted selectively with FPR2. Furthermore, the interaction between Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 and FPR2 was found to prevent binding of the FPR2-specific activating peptide agonist Cy5-WKYMWM, while the binding of an FPR1-selective agonist was not inhibited. To our knowledge, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 is the first HDP mimic found to inhibit activation of human neutrophils via direct interaction with FPR2. Hence, we consider Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 to be a convenient tool in the further dissection of the role of FPR2 in inflammation and homeostasis as well as for investigation of the importance of neutrophil stimulation in anti-infective therapy involving HDPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    Many species of tephritid fruit flies have gained global status as pests of economic importance in fruit and vegetable cultivation. Bactrocera species are no exception. Males of most Bactrocera species are known to be attracted to either methyl eugenol (ME) or cuelure (CL)/raspberry ketone (RK) (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1987 and 1990). At the turn of the century, male fruit flies of both B. diversa (Coquillett) (formerly Dacus diversus) and B. zonata (Saunders) (formerly Dacus zonatus) were first observed to have a strong attraction to citronella oil (Howlett 1912). The chemical responsible for the attraction was discovered to be ME (Howlett 1915). Since that discover