WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable floating altitude

  1. Floating plant dominance as a stable state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Szabo, S.; Gragnani, A.; Nes, van E.H.; Rinaldi, S.; Kautsky, N.; Norberg, J.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Franken, R.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that floating-plant dominance can be a self-stabilizing ecosystem state, which may explain its notorious persistence in many situations. Their results, based on experiments, field data, and models (in Dutch ditches and Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe), represent evidence for

  2. Stable Failure-Inducing Micro-Silica Aqua Epoxy Bonding Material for Floating Concrete Module Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Ho Jay Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies in the development of floating concrete structures focused on a connection system made of modules. In the connection system, the modules are designed to be attached by pre-stressing (PS while floating on the water, which exposes them to loads on the surface of the water. Therefore, the development of a pre-connection material becomes critical to ensure successful bonding of floating concrete modules. Micro-silica mixed aqua-epoxy (MSAE was developed for this task. To find the proper MSAE mix proportion, 0% to 4% micro-silica was mixed in a standard mixture of aqua-epoxy for material testing. Also, the effect of micro-silica on the viscosity of the aqua epoxy was evaluated by controlling the epoxy silane at proportions of 0%, ±5%, and ±10%. After completion of the performance tests of the MSAE, we evaluated the effect of MSAE in a connected structure. The plain unreinforced concrete module joint specimens applied with MSAE at thicknesses of 5, 10, and 20 mm were prepared to be tested. Finally, we evaluated the performance of MSAE-applied reinforced concrete (RC module specimens connected by PS tendons, and these were compared with those of continuous RC and non-MSAE-applied beams. The results showed that the mix of micro-silica in the aqua-epoxy changed the performance of the aqua-epoxy and the mix ratio of 2% micro-silica gave a stable failure behavior. The flexural capacity of concrete blocks bonded with MSAE changed according to the bond thickness and was better than that of concrete blocks bonded with aqua-epoxy without micro-silica. Even though MSAE insignificantly increases the load-carrying capacity of the attached concrete module structure, the stress concentration reduction effect stabilized the failure of the structure.

  3. Thermally Stable Catalytic Combustors for Very High Altitude Airbreathing Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerospace vehicles operating at high altitudes have the potential to be less expensive and more versatile alternatives to space based systems for earth/space...

  4. Correlation Between Stable Isotope Composition and Cloud Altitude (Radar Echo Tops) in Tropical Rainfall: Puerto Rico and Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M. A.; Coplen, T. B.

    2010-12-01

    Observed patterns of isotopic composition of rainfall in the tropics are different than those at higher latitudes, where seasonal temperature changes have a large effect. Land surface temperatures vary little over the course of the year in the tropics, and the amount effect (involving evaporative enrichment, droplet size, and rainout processes) has been invoked as an explanation for variations in isotopic composition of rain measured at the land surface. Previous work by Scholl et al. (2009) in Eastern Puerto Rico showed that variations in the altitude (and temperature) of the clouds producing rain were highly correlated with the monthly stable isotope composition of rainfall. The altitude of rain droplets within the clouds was obtained using NEXRAD echo tops, which indicate the maximum altitude of rainfall determined by radar. Atmospheric temperature in rainfall-producing clouds was then estimated with archived NCEP data at the mean and maximum echo top altitudes for large rain events during the sampling period. Isotopic signatures associated with the major climate patterns in Puerto Rico were determined and are being utilized in local hydrological studies. For Eastern Puerto Rico, at latitude 18° N, δ18O and δ2H values and mean monthly echo top altitude were significantly correlated (average coefficient = -0.69). The analysis was repeated using a 24-month stable isotope data set of rain from sites on windward and leeward Maui, Hawaii, latitude 21° N. Results were similar; mean monthly echo top altitude was highly correlated with rainfall isotopic composition (windward site correlation coefficient = -0.86, leeward = -0.87). The data also showed a significant rainout effect in monthly samples dominated by tropical storms, where cloud heights were similar to other monthly samples but δ18O and δ2H values were much more negative. Variations in water vapor isotopic composition also affect isotopic composition of rain, and ongoing work will focus on investigating

  5. Positron annihilation lifetime in float-zone n-type silicon irradiated by fast electrons: a thermally stable vacancy defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, Nikolay [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies (Institute of Electronics), 700170 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Emtsev, Vadim; Oganesyan, Gagik [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Elsayed, Mohamed [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Minia University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, 61519 Minia (Egypt); Kozlovskii, Vitalii [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Temperature dependency of the average positron lifetime has been investigated for n-type float-zone silicon, n-FZ-Si(P), subjected to irradiation with 0.9 MeV electrons at RT. In the course of the isochronal annealing a new defect-related temperature-dependent pattern of the positron lifetime spectra has been revealed. Beyond the well known intervals of isochronal annealing of acceptor-like defects such as E-centers, divacancies and A-centers, the positron annihilation at the vacancy defects has been observed in the course of the isochronal annealing from ∝ 320 C up to the limit of reliable detecting of the defect-related positron annihilation lifetime at ≥ 500 C. These data correlate with the ones of recovery of the concentration of the charge carriers and their mobility which is found to continue in the course of annealing to ∝ 570 C; the annealing is accomplished at ∝650 C. A thermally stable complex consisting of the open vacancy volume and the phosphorus impurity atom, V{sub op}-P, is suggested as a possible candidate for interpreting the data obtained by the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. An extended couple of semi-vacancies, 2V{sub s-ext}, as well as a relaxed inwards a couple of vacancies, 2V{sub inw}, are suggested as the open vacancy volume V{sub op} to be probed with the positron. It is argued that a high thermal stability of the V{sub s-ext} PV{sub s-ext} (or V{sub inw}PV{sub inw.}) configuration is contributed by the efficiency of PSi{sub 5} bonding. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Stable Imaging and Accuracy Issues of Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable imaging of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photogrammetry system is an important issue that affects the data processing and application of the system. Compared with traditional aerial images, the large rotation of roll, pitch, and yaw angles of UAV images decrease image quality and result in image deformation, thereby affecting the ground resolution, overlaps, and the consistency of the stereo models. These factors also cause difficulties in automatic tie point matching, image orientation, and accuracy of aerial triangulation (AT. The issues of large-angle photography of UAV photogrammetry system are discussed and analyzed quantitatively in this paper, and a simple and lightweight three-axis stabilization platform that works with a low-precision integrated inertial navigation system and a three-axis mechanical platform is used to reduce this problem. An experiment was carried out with an airship as the flight platform. Another experimental dataset, which was acquired by the same flight platform without a stabilization platform, was utilized for a comparative test. Experimental results show that the system can effectively isolate the swing of the flying platform. To ensure objective and reliable results, another group of experimental datasets, which were acquired using a fixed-wing UAV platform, was also analyzed. Statistical results of the experimental datasets confirm that stable imaging of a UAV platform can help improve the quality of aerial photography imagery and the accuracy of AT, and potentially improve the application of images acquired by a UAV.

  7. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob; Gatterer, Karl; Maier, Eugen; Pecnik, Rene; Holler, Gert; Eisenkoelbl, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  8. FLOAT Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Aarup, Bendt

    The objective of the FLOAT project is to study the reliability of high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete, also known as Compact Reinforced Composite (CRC), for the floats of wave energy converters. In order to reach a commercial breakthrough, wave energy converters need to achieve a lower price...

  9. Multiproxy Holocene paleoclimate records from the southern Peruvian Andes - what new can we learn from the stable carbon isotope composition of high altitude organic matter deposits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Engel, Zbyněk

    2015-04-01

    Interpretation of the Central Andean paleoclimate over the last millennia still represents a research challenge demanding deeper studies [1,2]. Several high-resolution paleoclimate proxies for the last 10,000 years have been developed for the northern hemisphere. However, similar proxies are very limited for South America, particularly for high altitudes where, for example, tree-ring chronologies are not available and instrumental records are very limited. Consequently, our knowledge of high altitude climate changes in arid regions of the Peruvian Andes mainly relies on ice-core and lake deposit studies. In our study, we used a new alternative proxy for interpretation of palaeoclimate conditions based on a peat core taken from the Carhuasanta Valley at the foot of Nevado Mismi in the southern Peruvian Andes (15° 30'S, 71° 43'W, 4809m a.s.l.). The stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of Distichia peat reflects mainly the relative variation of the mean air temperature during subsequent growing seasons [3], and allows reconstructions of palaeotemperature changes. In contrast, peat organic carbon concentration (C % wt) records mainly wetness in the valley, directly corresponding to the changes in runoff in the upper part of the catchment. The most prominent climate changes recorded in the peat over last 4ka occurred between 3040 and 2750 cal. yrs BP. The initial warming turned to a very rapid cooling to temperatures at least 2° C lower than the mean for the Late Holocene. Initially drier conditions within this event turned to a short wet phase after 2780 cal. yrs BP, when the temperature increased again. This event coincides with significant changes in peat and ice core records in the Central Andes that match the timing of the global climate event around 2.8 cal. ka BP. Climatic conditions in the study area became relatively dry and stable after the event for about 800 years. Highly variable temperatures and humidity prevailed during the last 2000 years, when

  10. Floating offshore turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, John Olav Giæver; Merz, Karl; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Floating wind turbines enable harvesting the offshore wind resources over deep sea. About 20 concepts are under development, at varying stages of maturity. Two concepts are demonstrated in full scale; these are HyWind and WindFloat. Both employ a standard on-shore wind turbine with only minor...... modifications, but on a spar and a semi-submersible floater, respectively. Other concepts suggest new types of turbines, e.g., the DeepWind concept consisting of a vertical axis turbine and a subsea generator. The three concepts represent different approaches: HyWind and WindFloat are already in a demonstration...... metric of energy production per unit steel mass. Floating offshore wind turbines represent a promising technology. The successful operation of HyWind and WindFloat in full scale demonstrates a well advanced technology readiness level, where further development will go into refining the concepts, cost...

  11. Bilateral Floating Hip and Floating Knee: a Rare Complex Injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a rare complex injury of a 45-year-old man who sustained a bilateral floating hip and floating knee and hospitalised in our service six days after a traffic accident. The floating knees were open type III and II of Cauchoix score in phase of suppuration. He also presented with a floating ankle on the right side.

  12. FLOAT Project - Task 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchalot, Tanguy; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The objective of the FLOAT project is to study the reliability of high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete, also known as Compact Reinforced Composite (CRC), for the floats of wave energy converters. In order to reach commercial breakthrough, wave energy converters need to achieve a lower price.......com, 2011). CRC floats could be a very cost-effective technology with enhanced loading capacity and environmental resistance, and very low maintenance requirements, affecting directly the final energy price. The project involves DEXA Wave Energy Ltd, Wave Star A/S, Aalborg University and Hi-Con A...

  13. The floating knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz Vives, Josep; Bel, Jean-Christophe; Capel Agundez, Arantxa

    2016-01-01

    In 1975, Blake and McBryde established the concept of 'floating knee' to describe ipsilateral fractures of the femur and tibia.1This combination is much more than a bone lesion; the mechanism is usually a high-energy trauma in a patient with multiple injuries and a myriad of other lesions...

  14. The floating knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz Vives, Josep; Bel, Jean-Christophe; Capel Agundez, Arantxa

    2016-01-01

    fixation when both fractures (femoral and tibial) are extra-articular.Plates are the 'standard of care' in cases with articular fractures.A combination of implants are required by 40% of floating knees.Associated ligamentous and meniscal lesions are common, but may be irrelevant in the case of an intra...

  15. Floating self adjusting skimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus, P.E.; Hanson, J.R.

    1972-09-05

    A skimming mechanism is designed to remove all or part of a layer of oil floating on the surface of water. A pivoted receptable having a weir is buoyed to position the weir adjacent to the interface of the liquids. Liquids accumulating in the receptacle are withdrawn for disposal. A stabilizing member extends around a substantial portion of the periphery of the skimmer to prevent submergence of the weir due to wave or current movement of the liquids. (9 claims)

  16. Athletes at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza; Grothe, Heather L; Seyfert, Jonathan H; VanBaak, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. There is a general belief that altitude training improves athletic performance for competitive and recreational athletes. A review of relevant publications between 1980 and 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Clinical review. Level 3. AHAI is a relatively uncommon and potentially serious condition among travelers to altitudes above 2500 m. The broad term AHAI includes several syndromes such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Athletes may be at higher risk for developing AHAI due to faster ascent and more vigorous exertion compared with nonathletes. Evidence regarding the effects of altitude training on athletic performance is weak. The natural live high, train low altitude training strategy may provide the best protocol for enhancing endurance performance in elite and subelite athletes. High altitude sports are generally safe for recreational athletes, but they should be aware of their individual risks. Individualized and appropriate acclimatization is an essential component of injury and illness prevention.

  17. Floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindt, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the legal regime for floating nuclear power plants (FNPs), in view of the absence of specific US legislation and the very limited references to artificial islands in the Law of the Sea Convention. The environmental impacts of FNPs are examined and changes in US regulation following the Three Mile Island accident and recent US court decisions are described. References in the Law of the Sea Convention relevant to FNPs are outlined and the current status of international law on the subject is analysed. (author)

  18. Floating microspheres: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagtap Yogesh Mukund

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastric emptying is a complex process, one that is highly variable and that makes in vivo performance of drug delivery systems uncertain. A controlled drug delivery system with prolonged residence time in the stomach can be of great practical importance for drugs with an absorption window in the upper small intestine. The main limitations are attributed to the inter- and intra-subject variability of gastro-intestinal (GI transit time and to the non-uniformity of drug absorption throughout the alimentary canal. Floating or hydrodynamically controlled drug delivery systems are useful in such applications. Various gastroretentive dosage forms are available, including tablets, capsules, pills, laminated films, floating microspheres, granules and powders. Floating microspheres have been gaining attention due to the uniform distribution of these multiple-unit dosage forms in the stomach, which results in more reproducible drug absorption and reduced risk of local irritation. Such systems have more advantages over the single-unit dosage forms. The present review briefly addresses the physiology of the gastric emptying process with respect to floating drug delivery systems. The purpose of this review is to bring together the recent literature with respect to the method of preparation, and various parameters affecting the performance and characterization of floating microspheres.O esvaziamento gástrico é um processo complexo, com elevada variabilidade e responsável pela incerteza do desempenho dos medicamentos in vivo. Dessa forma, os sistemas de liberação modificada de fármacos, com tempo de residência prolongado no estômago, em especial, considerando aqueles fármacos com janela de absorção na porção superior do intestino delgado, apresentam fundamental importância. As principais limitações relativas à absorção do fármaco são, no geral, atribuídas à variabilidade inter e intra-paciente do tempo de trânsito gastro-intestinal (GI e

  19. Wave attenuation charcteristics of tethered float system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.

    that the system performs well when it is just submerged. As float velocity decreases with increase in float size, transmission coefficient increases with increase in float size. The influence of wave period on wave attenuation is remarkable compared to other... characteristics of floating breakwaters. Seymour and Isaacs (1974), Agerton et al. (1976) and Seymour and Hanes (1979) studied the performance of a tethered float breakwater (tethered float system), assuming that drag is the major contributor-factor for wave...

  20. Classical altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann-Bette, B

    2008-08-01

    For more than 40 years, the effects of classical altitude training on sea-level performance have been the subject of many scientific investigations in individual endurance sports. To our knowledge, no studies have been performed in team sports like football. Two well-controlled studies showed that living and training at an altitude of >or=1800-2700 m for 3-4 weeks is superior to equivalent training at sea level in well-trained athletes. Most of the controlled studies with elite athletes did not reveal such an effect. However, the results of some uncontrolled studies indicate that sea-level performance might be enhanced after altitude training also in elite athletes. Whether hypoxia provides an additional stimulus for muscular adaptation, when training is performed with equal intensity compared with sea-level training is not known. There is some evidence for an augmentation of total hemoglobin mass after classical altitude training with duration >or=3 weeks at an altitude >or=2000 m due to altitude acclimatization. Considerable individual variation is observed in the erythropoietic response to hypoxia and in the hypoxia-induced reduction of aerobic performance capacity during training at altitude, both of which are thought to contribute to inter-individual variation in the improvement of sea-level performance after altitude training.

  1. Floating Silicon Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  2. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  3. Altitude-related cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Altitude-related cough is a troublesome condition of uncertain aetiology that affects many visitors to high altitude. The traditionally held belief that it was due solely to the inspiration of cold, dry air was refuted by observations and experiments in long duration hypobaric chamber studies. It is likely that altitude-related cough is a symptom of a number of possible perturbations in the cough reflex arc that may exist independently or together. These include loss of water from the respiratory tract; respiratory tract infections and sub-clinical high altitude pulmonary oedema. The published work on altitude-related cough is reviewed and possible aetiologies for the condition are discussed. PMID:24175933

  4. Large floating structures technological advances

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, BT

    2015-01-01

    This book surveys key projects that have seen the construction of large floating structures or have attained detailed conceptual designs. This compilation of key floating structures in a single volume captures the innovative features that mark the technological advances made in this field of engineering, and will provide a useful reference for ideas, analysis, design, and construction of these unique and emerging urban projects to offshore and marine engineers, urban planners, architects and students.

  5. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  6. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  7. Endurance training at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1968 Olympic Games when the effects of altitude on endurance performance became evident, moderate altitude training ( approximately 2000 to 3000 m) has become popular to improve competition performance both at altitude and sea level. When endurance athletes are exposed acutely to moderate altitude, a number of physiological responses occur that can comprise performance at altitude; these include increased ventilation, increased heart rate, decreased stroke volume, reduced plasma volume, and lower maximal aerobic power ((.)Vo(2max)) by approximately 15% to 20%. Over a period of several weeks, one primary acclimatization response is an increase in the volume of red blood cells and consequently of (.)Vo(2max). Altitudes > approximately 2000 m for >3 weeks and adequate iron stores are required to elicit these responses. However, the primacy of more red blood cells for superior sea-level performance is not clear-cut since the best endurance athletes in the world, from Ethiopia (approximately 2000 to 3000 m), have only marginally elevated hemoglobin concentrations. The substantial reduction in (.)Vo(2max) of athletes at moderate altitude implies that their training should include adequate short-duration (approximately 1 to 2 min), high-intensity efforts with long recoveries to avoid a reduction in race-specific fitness. At the elite level, athlete performance is not dependent solely on (.)Vo(2max), and the "smallest worthwhile change" in performance for improving race results is as little as 0.5%. Consequently, contemporary statistical approaches that utilize the concept of the smallest worthwhile change are likely to be more appropriate than conventional statistical methods when attempting to understand the potential benefits and mechanisms of altitude training.

  8. Altitude and endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (altitude training period (training effect at altitude may have been compromised due to insufficient training stimuli for enhancing the function of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems; and (3) enhanced stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  9. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  10. Artisanal fishing net float loss and a proposal for a float design solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Chaves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic floats from fishing nets are commonly found washed up on beaches in southern Brazil. They are usually broken and show signs of having been repaired. Characteristics of floats and interviews with fishermen suggest two main causes of float loss. First, collisions between active gear, bottom trawl nets for shrimp, and passive gear, drift nets for fish, destroy nets and release fragments of them, including floats. Second, the difficulty with which floats are inserted on the float rope of the nets when they are used near the surface. Floats are inserted to replace damaged or lost floats, or they may be removed if it is desired that the nets be used in deeper waters. Floats may thus be poorly fixed to the cables and lost. Here a new float design that offers greater safety in use and for the replacement of floats is described and tested.

  11. Optimal Floating and Queuing Strategies: The Logic of Territory Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J

    2000-04-01

    This is a response to a recent article by Hanna Kokko and William J. Sutherland (American Naturalist 152:354-366), who consider evolutionarily stable territory acceptance rules for animals that face the decision between settling on a poor territory now (which is then retained for life) or waiting for better habitat to become available later (taking a chance of dying before reproducing). In contrast to these authors, we argue that the evolutionarily stable threshold quality above which territories are acceptable does depend on whether individuals compete for a single territory (queuing) or for multiple territories (floating) and also on whether access to territories is determined by a hierarchy among waiting individuals. More specifically, we show the following: First, if the choice is between floating and settling, the evolutionarily stable acceptance threshold is such that threshold territories yield an expected lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of [Formula: see text], the survival probability of a floater. Second, if the choice is between queuing and settling, the evolutionarily stable threshold may correspond to any LRS between [Formula: see text] and unity. Third, the number of nonbreeding individuals in the population is maximized at a threshold of unity. In other words, the evolutionarily stable threshold does not maximize the nonbreeding fraction of the population. We argue that models of territory choice should carefully specify the mechanism of choice because some choice processes (e.g., indiscriminate habitat use above the threshold) do not admit an evolutionarily stable acceptance rule.

  12. Strength Tests on Hulls and Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaes, K

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with strength tests on hulls and floats intended in part for the collection of construction data for the design of these components and in part for the stress analysis of the finished hulls and floats.

  13. Floating Microparticulate Oral Diltiazem Hydrochloride Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and evaluate floating microparticulate oral diltiazem delivery system for possible delivery to the heart. Method: Floating microspheres were prepared using cellulose acetate and Eudragit RS100 polymers by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The dried floating microspheres were evaluated for ...

  14. Long-Term Observations of Ocean Biogeochemistry with Nitrate and Oxygen Sensors in Apex Profiling Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. S.; Coletti, L.; Jannasch, H.; Martz, T.; Swift, D.; Riser, S.

    2008-12-01

    expect that the OSP and Southern Ocean floats will provide a quantitative measurement of the timing and magnitude of the spring bloom via the drawdown of surface nitrate. We are funded through NSF and NOPP to continue float deployments at HOT, BATS, OSP and the Southern Ocean for the next 3 years and to refine the sensor so it can be offered as a commercial option for all float users. New sensors in development for float deployments include a stable ISFET pH sensor.

  15. Brain Food at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts. This pathophysiological condition is known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) which leads to oxidative stress and further causes cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Hypoxia causes neurodegeneration in different brain regions; however, the hippocampus is found to be more prone in comparison to other brain regions. As the hippocampus is affected most, therefore, spatial memory is impaired most during such condition. This chapter will give a brief review of the damaging effect of high altitude on cognition and also throw light on possible herbal interventions at high altitude, which can improve cognitive performance as well as provide protection against the deteriorating effect of hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude.

  16. 14 CFR 29.753 - Main float design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 29.753 Section 29.753... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand— (1) The maximum pressure differential...

  17. 14 CFR 27.753 - Main float design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 27.753 Section 27.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand— (1) The maximum pressure differential...

  18. [Assessment of concomitant floating knees injuries severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eone, Daniel Handy; Lamah, Léopold; Bayiha, Jean Emile; Ondoa, Danielle Larissa Essomba; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Ibrahima, Farikou; Bahebeck, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Floating knee is caused by high-energy trauma, whose genesis is suggestive of extensive locoregional and general damages. Referring to multiple trauma. The aim of our study was to collect data on all concomitant floating knee injuries in our practice environment and to evaluate their severity. We conducted a descriptive and retrospective study over a period of 14 years and 9 months. Our sample consisted of 75 floating knees, the average age was 35 years. Sixty six patients had an ISS≥16 (classified as polytrauma). Head traumas, chest and abdominal injuries associated with floating knee injuries require adequate resuscitation.

  19. Wave drag on floating bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David; Raphaël, Élie; Chevy, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We measure the deceleration of liquid nitrogen drops floating at the surface of a liquid bath. On water, the friction force is found to be about 10 to 100 times larger than on a solid substrate, which is shown to arise from wave resistance. We investigate the influence of the bath viscosity and show that the dissipation decreases as the viscosity is increased, owing to wave damping. The measured resistance is well predicted by a model imposing a vertical force (i.e., the drop weight) on a finite area, as long as the wake can be considered stationary. PMID:21876186

  20. Implementing floating-point DSP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jiří; Chappel, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2006), s. 12-14 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750406; GA MŠk 1M0567 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 027611 - AETHER Program:FP6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : PicoBlaze * floating point * FPGA Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://www.xilinx.com/publications/magazines/emb_03/xc_pdf/p12-14_3emb-point.pdf

  1. High altitude organic gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Pyakurel, Dipesh; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    . Heightened demand in China over the past 15 years, coupled with limited production, has led to a price hike and increased economic importance of harvests to rural households throughout the species’ range. There is, however, limited knowledge on the actors and profit distribution in the O. sinensis production...... by collectors, limited value enhancement, and a high degree of network and territorial embeddedness. Conclusions O. sinensis income is of major economic importance for rural households at the margin of its distribution range in Nepal. Production networks operated by informal actors establishing trust......Ethnopharmacological relevance Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H.Sung, J.M.Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora, a high altitude Himalayan fungus-caterpillar product found in alpine meadows in China, Bhutan, Nepal, and India, has been used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine system for over 2000 years...

  2. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  3. Nuclear floating power desalination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, Y.K.; Polunichev, V.I.; Zverev, K.V.

    1998-01-01

    Russia is a single country in the world which possesses a powerful ice-breaker transport fleet that allows a solution of important social-economic tasks of the country's northern regions by maintaining a year-round navigation along the Arctic sea route. A total operating record of the marine nuclear reactors up until till now exceeds 150 reactor-years, with their main equipment operating life reacting 120 thousand hours. Design and constructional progresses have been made continuously during forty years of nuclear-powered ships construction in Russia. Well proven technology of all components experienced in the marine nuclear reactors give grounds to recommend marine NSSSs of KLT-40 type as energy sources for the heat and power co-generation plants and the sea water desalination complexes, particularly as a floating installation. Co-generation stations are considered for deployment in the extreme Northern Region of Russia. Nuclear floating desalination complexes can be used for drinkable water production in the coastal regions of Northern Africa, the Near East, India etc. (author)

  4. Novel Floating General Element Simulators Using CBTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. E. Ayten

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel floating frequency dependent negative resistor (FDNR, floating inductor, floating capacitor and floating resistor simulator circuit employing two CBTAs and three passive components is proposed. The presented circuit can realize floating FDNR, inductor, capacitor or resistor depending on the passive component selection. Since the passive elements are all grounded, this circuit is suitable for fully integrated circuit design. The circuit does not require any component matching conditions, and it has a good sensitivity performance with respect to tracking errors. Moreover, the proposed FDNR, inductance, capacitor and resistor simulator can be tuned electronically by changing the biasing current of the CBTA or can be controlled through the grounded resistor or capacitor. The high-order frequency dependent element simulator circuit is also presented. Depending on the passive component selection, it realizes high-order floating circuit defining as V(s = snAI(s or V(s = s-nBI(s. The proposed floating FDNR simulator circuit and floating high-order frequency dependent element simulator circuit are demonstrated by using PSPICE simulation for 0.25 μm, level 7, TSMC CMOS technology parameters.

  5. Formulation and Characterization of Sustained Release Floating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rouge N, Cale ET, Doelker E, Buri P. Buoyancy and drug release patterns of floating minitablets containing piretanide and atenolol as model drugs. Pharm. Dev. Technol. 1998; 3: 73-84. 6. Lee JH, Park TG, Choi HK. Development of oral drug delivery system using floating microspheres. J. Microencapsul. 1999; 16: 715-729 ...

  6. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump is described which has a bottom discharge with a free floating check valve disposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions

  7. Formulation of Nimesulide Floating Microparticles Using Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nimesulide release was faster in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) than in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and distilled water (pH 6.5). Conclusion: Coacervation non-solvent addition is a suitable technique for preparing floating microparticles of nimesulide using low-viscosity HPMC. Keywords: Floating microparticles ...

  8. High altitude dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G K Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc., cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc. nail changes (koilonychias, airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place.

  9. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  10. Growing halophytes floating at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Radulovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater shortages are increasingly limiting both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. To expand possibilities for controlled plant production without using land nor freshwater, we cultivated potted halophytes floating at sea that were provided with rain- and seawater. Plantlets of two mangroves (Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle and plants of two herbaceous species, sea purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum and salt couch grass (Sporobolus virginicus were grown in near-coastal tropical Pacific waters of Costa Rica for 733 days. There were a total of 504 rainless days, including two dry periods of ca. 150 d long each, evidencing prolonged and exclusive reliance on seawater. Pots with a sandy soil mixture and the transplanted plants were placed on low-cost wooden floating rafts with their lower end perforated and immersed for capillary rise of water. Free seawater entry and exit through the bottom from bobbing with waves, which also occasionally added water from the top, effectively controlled soil salinity build-up even during the rainless seasons. Continuous leaching made necessary frequent fertilizer addition. No water deficit symptoms were observed and midday canopy temperature during rainless periods was not significantly different between species or from air temperature. With all-year-round growth, height increase of mangrove plantlets ranged from 208.1 to 401.5 mm yr−1. Fresh biomass production of sea purslane and the grass was 10.9 and 3.0 kg m−2 yr−1 respectively. High yield, edibility and protein content of 10.2% dry weight established sea purslane as a potential crop. While further research is needed, the method evidenced to be a viable plant production option of potentially far-reaching applications.

  11. Acute high-altitude sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Luks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At any point 1–5 days following ascent to altitudes ≥2500 m, individuals are at risk of developing one of three forms of acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness, a syndrome of nonspecific symptoms including headache, lassitude, dizziness and nausea; high-altitude cerebral oedema, a potentially fatal illness characterised by ataxia, decreased consciousness and characteristic changes on magnetic resonance imaging; and high-altitude pulmonary oedema, a noncardiogenic form of pulmonary oedema resulting from excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be fatal if not recognised and treated promptly. This review provides detailed information about each of these important clinical entities. After reviewing the clinical features, epidemiology and current understanding of the pathophysiology of each disorder, we describe the current pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of these diseases.

  12. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  13. Grid Simulator for Testing a Wind Turbine on Offshore Floating Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.

    2012-02-01

    An important aspect of such offshore testing of a wind turbine floating platform is electrical loading of the wind turbine generator. An option of interconnecting the floating wind turbine with the onshore grid via submarine power cable is limited by many factors such as costs and associated environmental aspects (i.e., an expensive and lengthy sea floor study is needed for cable routing, burial, etc). It appears to be a more cost effective solution to implement a standalone grid simulator on a floating platform itself for electrical loading of the test wind turbine. Such a grid simulator must create a stable fault-resilient voltage and frequency bus (a micro grid) for continuous operation of the test wind turbine. In this report, several electrical topologies for an offshore grid simulator were analyzed and modeled.

  14. 14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main float must meet the requirements of § 23.521. [Doc...

  15. Floating terminal as an alternative to shore terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terenzio, M. [CoeClerici Logistics S.p.A. (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    Transfer vessels, floating terminals, catamaran type or Floating Transfer Stations (FTSs) are some of the latest alternative solutions to standard floating cranes. The CoeClerici 'Bulkwayuu' and 'Boca Grande' floating terminals are described and their advantages over shore-based structures are itemised. The text is accompanied by 17 overhead/slides. 1 fig.

  16. Altitude training improves glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Man; Lin, Hsueh-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-08-31

    Under altitude hypoxia condition, energy reliance on anaerobic glycolysis increases to compensate the shortfall caused by reduced fatty acid oxidation. Short-term moderate altitude exposure plus endurance physical activity has been found to improve glucose tolerance (not fasting glucose) in humans, which is associated with the improvement in the whole-body insulin sensitivity. However, most of people cannot accommodate high altitude exposure above 4500 M due to acute mountain sickness and insulin resistance. There is a wide variation among individuals in response to the altitude challenge. In particular, the improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by prolonged altitude hiking activity was not apparent in those individuals with low baseline dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentration. In rats, exercise training recovery under prolonged hypoxia exposure (14-15% oxygen, 8 h per day for 6 weeks) can also improve insulin sensitivity, secondary to an effective suppression of adiposity. After prolonged hypoxia training, obese abnormality in upregulated baseline levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AS160 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle can be reversed. In humans, moderate hypoxia increases postprandial blood distribution towards skeletal muscle during a training recovery. This physiological response plays a role in the redistribution of fuel storage among important energy storage sites and may explain its potent effect on the favorable change in body composition. Altitude training can exert strong impact on our metabolic system, and has the potential to be designed as a non-pharmacological or recreational intervention regimen for correcting metabolic syndromes.

  17. Cholecystosonographic findings of clonorchiasis: Floating echogenic foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Kyun

    1989-01-01

    Author analysed cholecystosonographic findings in 22 patients with clonorchiasis, suspected prospectively by ultrasound and proved subsequently by demonstration of eggs in the stools. Fifteen gallbladders had nonshadowing, fusiform, discrete echogenic foci measuring 3∼6 mm in the lumen. Among these, the echogenic foci floated spontaneously in three cases, while in twelve cases they floated by position change or a light blow by the transducer. In the rest of the seven gallbladders, the echogenic foci were at the dependent portion. In the in vitro study with a worm suspension in saline in a surgical glove, the same echogenic foci as those seen in the gallbladders were demonstrated. The echogenic foci were precipitated in the dependent portion but float with a light blow on the glove. Author conclude that the floating echogenic foci in the lumen of the gallbladder are due to adult worms of clonorchis sinensis

  18. Feasibility study on floating nuclear power plant (2). Safety design study of FNPP. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Shimazaki, Junya; Ochiai, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Toshio

    2001-02-01

    In the previous report of 'Conceptual Design Study of FNPP (Floating Nuclear Power Plant)', a design study on a concept for FNPP, which is sited off the sea coast on the open sea with water depth of 20m and it is moored on protected sea by the breakwater was conducted and the floating platform guarded by the breakwater was found to be stable enough to install the nuclear power plant from analysis simulating the movement of the platform due to sea wave or wind. In this report, studies on a basic safety design concept of the FNPP, setting natural phenomena for design condition, required safety functions and a review on dynamic analysis of the large floating structure are presented. The studies revealed that the stability of the floating platform is an essential issue for the FNPP soundness, and the design base natural phenomena such as S1 and S2-class storm including S1 and S2-class earthquake should be considered in evaluation of the stability of the floating platform, and it is one of key technical subjects how to set the magnitude of these storm in application of design evaluation on each FNPP case. (J.P.N.)

  19. Dynamic Response of a Floating Bridge Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Viuff, Thomas; Leira, Bernt Johan; Øiseth, Ole; Xiang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical overview of the stochastic dynamic analysis of a floating bridge structure is presented. Emphasis is on the wave-induced response and the waves on the sea surface are idealized as a zero mean stationary Gaussian process. The first-order wave load processes are derived using linear potential theory and the structural idealization is based on the Finite Element Method. A frequency response calculation is presented for a simplified floating bridge structure example emphasising the ...

  20. Sensitivity analysis of floating offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Santos, Laura; Diaz-Casas, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop a sensitivity analysis of a floating offshore wind farm. • Influence on the life-cycle costs involved in a floating offshore wind farm. • Influence on IRR, NPV, pay-back period, LCOE and cost of power. • Important variables: distance, wind resource, electric tariff, etc. • It helps to investors to take decisions in the future. - Abstract: The future of offshore wind energy will be in deep waters. In this context, the main objective of the present paper is to develop a sensitivity analysis of a floating offshore wind farm. It will show how much the output variables can vary when the input variables are changing. For this purpose two different scenarios will be taken into account: the life-cycle costs involved in a floating offshore wind farm (cost of conception and definition, cost of design and development, cost of manufacturing, cost of installation, cost of exploitation and cost of dismantling) and the most important economic indexes in terms of economic feasibility of a floating offshore wind farm (internal rate of return, net present value, discounted pay-back period, levelized cost of energy and cost of power). Results indicate that the most important variables in economic terms are the number of wind turbines and the distance from farm to shore in the costs’ scenario, and the wind scale parameter and the electric tariff for the economic indexes. This study will help investors to take into account these variables in the development of floating offshore wind farms in the future

  1. FATTY ACID PROFILE IN MILK OF BOVEC SHEEP FED IN THE STABLE OR GRAZED IN DIFFERENT PASTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Cividini, Angela; Simčič, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid profile in the milk of Bovec sheep fed total mixed ratio (TMR) and grazed natural pastures in the lowland (480 m altitude) supplemented with the second harvest (L) as well as grazed different altitude mountain pastures; M1 (1100- 1300 m altitude), M2 (1600-1700 m altitude), M3 (1800 m altitude), M4 (1900 m altitude), M5 (2200 m altitude) were determined. There was an important effect when ewes were turned from the stable to the pasture on all fatty acids. The percentage of α-li...

  2. High-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X-Q. Xu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH is a specific disease affecting populations that live at high elevations. The prevalence of HAPH among those residing at high altitudes needs to be further defined. Whereas reduction in nitric oxide production may be one mechanism for the development of HAPH, the roles of endothelin-1 and prostaglandin I2 pathways in the pathogenesis of HAPH deserve further study. Although some studies have suggested that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of HAPH, data published to date are insufficient for the identification of a significant number of gene polymorphims in HAPH. The clinical presentation of HAPH is nonspecific. Exertional dyspnoea is the most common symptom and signs related to right heart failure are common in late stages of HAPH. Echocardiography is the most useful screening tool and right heart catheterisation is the gold standard for the diagnosis of HAPH. The ideal management for HAPH is migration to lower altitudes. Phosphodiesterase 5 is an attractive drug target for the treatment of HAPH. In addition, acetazolamide is a promising therapeutic agent for high-altitude pulmonary hypertension. To date, no evidence has confirmed whether endothelin-receptor antagonists have efficacy in the treatment of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Sphagnum growth in floating cultures: Effect of planting design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hoshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To establish rapid and stable Sphagnum growth, capitulum culture of a selected strain of S. palustre was carried out using a floating culture method. Four planting treatments were tested at mountain and urban sites in Kumamoto Prefecture on Kyushu Island, south-west Japan. Capitula were planted in colonies of different sizes on 30 cm square floating rafts, but with strict control of the number (75–77 of capitula per raft. The initial cover of live green Sphagnum ranged from 15 to 20 %. Growth of the colonies was followed throughout the growing season (April to November of 2008. After three months, green coverage rates reached 40–50 % in all planting treatments. At the end of the growing season, the highest Sphagnum cover (almost 90 % at the urban site was recorded in the planting treatment with eleven re-introduced colonies of seven capitula (‘11×7cap’, while the highest capitulum number and biomass (dry weight gain occurred in the ‘4×19cap’ planting treatment. Average stem elongation ranged from 5 cm to 7 cm in the ‘77×1cap’ and ‘4×19cap’planting treatments, respectively, indicating that the larger sized colony grew longer stems. However, contrary to expectation, the ‘4×19cap’planting treatment - which had the largest colony size - did not deliver the highest number of newly formed side shoots.

  4. Form of breathing at altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Arnáez Lapeyre, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated by the studies of Professor Monge and colleagues, that the phenomena of cardiac activity in altitude show a predominant vagal influence, which determines paradoxical bradycardic reactions apparently sympathetic origin. Está demostrado, por los estudios del Profesor Monge y colaboradores, que los fenómenos de la actividad cardíaca en la altitud muestran una influencia vagal preponderante, que determina reacciones paradójicas bradicárdicas, al parecer de origen simpático....

  5. Operation Everest II. Altitude Decompression Sickness during Repeated Altitude Exposure,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Mayo, D.A. and Bancroft, R.W. Body fat , denitrogeration and decompression sickness in men exercising after abrupt exposure to altitude. Aerospace...Conkin, J., Waligora, J.M., Horrigan Jr., D.J. and Hadley Ill, A.T. Comparison of venous gas emboli and decompression sickness incidence in excercising

  6. Dispersion measurements from Sofar floats on the Iberian Abyssal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.M.; Gmitrowicz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Tracks of SOFAR floats launched on the Iberian Abyssal Plain are presented. The floats were launched in two groups in early October 1984 and mid-February 1985 to a nominal depth of 2500 m. Of these floats, 4 from the first deployment and 2 from the second functioned properly. Float signals were recorded by four autonomous listening stations at a depth of 1900 m. These preliminary results show the tracks of floats up to July 1986 and represent 3600 float days of information. The main task of the experiment was to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  7. Coupled analysis of floating production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, D.L. [Stress Engineering Services, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Fully coupled global analysis of Floating Production Systems, including the vessel, the mooring system and the riser system is described. Design of the system can be a daunting task, involving more than 1000 load cases for global analysis. The primary driver for the mooring system and for the riser system is motion of the vessel. Vessel motions are driven by environmental forces, but are restrained by forces from the mooring and riser systems. Numerical models and procedures that provide accurate and efficient global modeling of the Floating Production System are presented. Both Time Domain and Frequency Domain procedures are included. The accuracy and efficiency of the procedures are illustrated in an example: a large semi with 16 mooring lines and 20 risers. The procedures provide the accuracy and efficiency for use of fully coupled analysis in design of Floating Production Systems from concept selection to final design, installation and operation. (Author)

  8. Effect of altitude on the protein metabolism of Bolivian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Miguel Simron, J.L.; Berger, J.; Spielvogel, H.; Tellez Castellon, W.; Lujan Medina, C.; Caceres, E.

    1996-01-01

    The malnutrition is prevalent and is a major problem among Bolivian children. It is caused by several interacting factors: (1) inadequate protein energy intake due to low socio-economic status; (ii) exposure to acute, repeated and chronic bacterial infections; (iii) exposure to multiple and chronic parasitic infections; (iv) high altitude of the capital, La Paz, 3600 m, with a numerous populations compared to the rest of the country. The research objectives in the first phase are: (i) determination of protein utilization with a non-invasive method using stable isotope tracer among children living at high and low altitude; (ii) determination of protein metabolism among eutrophic children without parasitic or acute bacterial infections at both altitudes; (iii) determination of protein requirement among these children. Two groups of 10 pubertal children, matched for age and sex, of same socio-economic status, eutrophic, without malnutrition, infections or intestinal parasites will be studied; the different status being arrived by anthropometric, nutritional intake, biochemical and pediatrical evaluation. For the metabolic study, stable isotopes L-[1-13C] leucine labelled casein will be used and 13 CO 2 excreted will be measured. All the basic nutritional assessment and VCO 2 measurements will be performed in Bolivia, while the samples of expired gas will be stored in Vacutainers for further analysis by isotope radio mass spectrometer (IRMS), in Clermont-Ferrand, France. The plans for future work is based on the study of the effects of the different variables and their interactions. The following will be evaluated: (i) the socio-economic status; (ii) the bacterial infections: (iii) the parasitic infections; (iv) the altitude. As published by Obert, et al., the socio-economic variable is more connected with the nutritional status than with the altitude. 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Effects of Electrolyte on Floating Water Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Hideo Nishiumi; Fumitaka Honda

    2009-01-01

    Fuchs found phenomena that when high voltage is applied to deionized water filled in two contacted beakers, a floating water bridge forms spontaneously. In this paper, we examined flow direction of water bridge and what effects the addition of electrolytes such as NaCl, NaOH, and N H 4 C l to the floating water bridge would give. We found that ionization degree reduced the length of water bridge though insoluble electrolyte A l 2 O 3 had no effect on the length of water bridge.

  10. Block floating point for radar data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz

    1999-01-01

    Integer, floating point, and block floating point (BFP) data formats are analyzed and compared in order to establish the mathematical tools for selection of an optimal format which fulfils the demands of high resolution radar (SAR) data to large dynamic range and adequate S/N. The analysis takes...... quantization noise and saturation distortion into account and concludes that it is preferred to use small blocks and a (new) modified BFP format applying fractional exponents. Data from the EMISAR radar system are applied to illustrate the merits of the different schemes....

  11. Floating plant can get uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A floating plant has been designed to extract uranium from seawater using solid adsorbents. Ore is removed from the adsorbent material by means of a solvent and concentrated in ion exchangers. Seawater is supplied to the adsorbent inside by wave energy and is based on the principle that waves will rush up a sloping plane that is partly submerged and fill a reservoir to a level higher than the still water level in the sea. The company projects that an offshore plant for recovering 600 tons of uranium/yr would comprise 22 floating concrete units, each measuring 430 x 75 meters

  12. Ge /Si heteronanocrystal floating gate memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Liu, Jianlin; Liu, G. F.; Yarmoff, J. A.

    2007-09-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor memories with Ge /Si heteronanocrystals (HNCs) as floating gate were fabricated and characterized. Ge /Si HNCs with density of 5×1011cm-2 were grown on n-type Si (100) substrate with thin tunnel oxide on the top. Enhanced device performances including longer retention time, faster programming speed, and higher charge storage capability are demonstrated compared with Si nanocrystal (NC) memories. The erasing speed and endurance performance of Ge /Si HNC memories are similar to that of Si NC devices. The results suggest that Ge /Si HNCs may be an alternative to make further floating gate memory scaling down possible.

  13. FLOAT2 WP4: Development of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Aarup, Bendt

    This report refers to complementary material testing to support the design and production of UHPC floaters for installation in the Wave Star Machine under FLOAT2 project. The main objective of WP4 is the characterization of mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced UHPC.......This report refers to complementary material testing to support the design and production of UHPC floaters for installation in the Wave Star Machine under FLOAT2 project. The main objective of WP4 is the characterization of mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced UHPC....

  14. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  15. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  16. Floating Inductance and FDNR Using Positive Polarity Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalized circuit based on five positive polarity second-generation current conveyors is introduced. The circuit simulates a floating inductance, capacitor floatation circuit and floating fdnr. All these circuits use grounded capacitors.

  17. Argo Float Data from the APDRC DAPPER Server, 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The floats are designed to drift at a fixed pressure (usually 1000 dbar) for 10 days. After this period, the floats move to a profiling pressure (usually between...

  18. ELAHA - ELASTIC AIRCRAFT FOR HIGH ALTITUDES

    OpenAIRE

    Wlach, Sven; Balmer, Georg Robert; Hermann, Milan; Wüsthoff, Tilo

    2017-01-01

    The group Flying Robots at the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics in Oberpfaffenhofen conducts research on solar powered high altitude aircraft. Due to the high altitude and the almost infinite mission duration, these platforms are also denoted as High Altitude Pseudo-Satellites (HAPS) or High Altitude Platforms (HAP). After the successful flight of HABLEG, which was presented at ESA PAC 2015, work continued with the goal to reach the stratosphere under own power with a reasonable ...

  19. Mood States at 1600 and 4300 Meters High Terrestrial Altitude,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), *STRESS(PSYCHOLOGY), *ALTITUDE SICKNESS, ACCLIMATIZATION, BASE LINES, ARRIVAL, DAY, SCALE, STANDARDIZATION, ASCENT TRAJECTORIES, HIGH ALTITUDE, ALTITUDE, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS , TIME, BEHAVIOR.

  20. 14 CFR 25.753 - Main float design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 25.753 Section 25.753 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.753 Main float design...

  1. associated injuries and complications in floating knee management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Associated injuries, complications, Floating knee, Management. INTRODUCTION. Floating knee refers to ipsilateral fractures of femur and tibia. Road accidents with high-energy trauma are the most frequent aetiology leading to that type of injury. In the management of floating knee, the lower limb deformation ...

  2. Validation of salinity data from ARGO floats: Comparison between the older ARGO floats and that of later deployments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Youn, Y.-H.; Lee, H.; Chang, Y.-S.; Pankajakshan, T.

    Continued observation of ARGO floats or years (about 4 years) makes the conductivity sensor more vulnerable to fouling by marine life and associated drift in salinity measurements. In this paper, we address this issue by making use of floats...

  3. A novel floating offshore wind turbine concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vita, Luca; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present a novel concept of a floating offshore wind turbine. The new concept is intended for vertical-axis wind turbine technology. The main purpose is to increase simplicity and to reduce total costs of an installed offshore wind farm. The concept is intended for deep water...

  4. Two New Families of Floating FDNR Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new configurations for realizing ideal floating frequency-dependent negative resistor elements (FDNR are introduced. The proposed circuits are symmetrical and are realizable by four CCII or ICCII or a combination of both. Each configuration is realizable by eight different circuits. Simulation results are included to support the theory.

  5. Floating Microparticulate Oral Diltiazem Hydrochloride Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of micromeritic properties of floating microspheres. The microspheres were characterized for their micromeritic properties, such as particle size (by optical microscopy), true density (by liquid displacement method) and flow properties (angle of repose) as reported in various previous studies [17-19]. Drug loading.

  6. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...

  7. Floating search methods in feature selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Novovičová, Jana; Kittler, J.

    1994-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (1994), s. 1119-1125 ISSN 0167-8655 Grant - others:GA AV(CZ) A275107 Impact factor: 0.381, year: 1994 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/somol-floating search methods in feature selection.pdf

  8. Reis kosmosesse : [Floating-kambrist] / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Ameerika psühholoogi John C. Lilly poolt kasutusele võetud Floating-kambrist ehk hõljumisvannist, mis aeglustab ajulaineid ning seeläbi aitab vähendada lihaspinget, stressi, ärevust, peavalusid, vererõhku ning parandada und, selgroo- ja kaelavigastusi, suurendada loovust ja heaolu jne

  9. Effects of Electrolyte on Floating Water Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nishiumi

    2009-01-01

    spontaneously. In this paper, we examined flow direction of water bridge and what effects the addition of electrolytes such as NaCl, NaOH, and NH4Cl to the floating water bridge would give. We found that ionization degree reduced the length of water bridge though insoluble electrolyte Al2O3 had no effect on the length of water bridge.

  10. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  11. IEEE Standard for Floating Point Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    is to decide how to represent real numbers using these bits. Normally, in ... numbers explained above, the largest floating point number which can be represented is. The number of bits to be used for the mantissa is determined by the number of significant decimal .... This is used to give an error message. When an operation.

  12. Investigation on solar stills having floating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, Hitesh [KSV Univ., Gandhinagar Gujarat (India); Gujarat Power Engineering and Research Institute, Mehsana (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Shah, Pravin K. [Silver Oak College of Engineering and Technology, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India)

    2012-07-01

    Potable water is always a need of every human being in the world. Only one third of water is potable water and two third of water is saline water, which is not used for drinking purpose. Solar still is a device, which converts the saline or brackish water into drinkable water. Here, in place of saline water, industrial waste water is used to convert potable water. In this research work, three solar stills have developed by locally available materials and tested in climate conditions of Mehsana (latitude of 23 59' and the longitude of 72 38'). Among three solar stills, two solar stills consist of Floating plates like Aluminum and galvanized iron. Third solar still used as a reference solar still called conventional solar still. Three month research showed that, solar still consist of Aluminum floating plate, gave considerable daily distillate as well as cumulative output compared with galvanized Iron floating plate solar still as well as conventional solar still Hence, performance of solar still could be increase by use of Aluminum Floating plate, which can use as a energy absorbing plate. (orig.)

  13. IEEE Standard for Floating Point Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This is a conservative definition used by industry. In MATLAB, machine epsilon is as defined above. However, academics define machine epsilon as the upper bound of the relative error when numbers are rounded. Thus, for 32-bit floating point numbers, the machine epsilon is 2–23/2. 5.96 ×10–8. The machine epsilon is ...

  14. Phytophilous Macroinvertebrates of Floating Nymphaea lotus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytophilous macroinvertebrates associated with two dominant floating aquatic macrophytes, water lilly (Nymphaea lotus) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) in River Orogodo, Niger Delta were sampled between February and July 2006. The location of both plant species exhibited similar water quality characteristics during ...

  15. Floating-Emitter Solar-Cell Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, C. T.; Cheng, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual transistor embedded in photovoltaic diode promises to increase efficiency to more than 20 percent. Solar-cell transistor has front-surface contact, rear contact, and floating emitter. Variety of other contact and junction configurations possible, but do not offer ease of fabrication in combination with high performance.

  16. Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…

  17. Gastroretentive Floating Microspheres of Silymarin: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Cellulose microspheres – formulated with hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and ethyl cellulose (EC) – and Eudragit microspheres – formulated with Eudragit® S 100 (ES) and Eudragit® RL (ERL) - were prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The floating microspheres were evaluated for flow ...

  18. IEEE Standard for Floating Point Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 1. IEEE Standard for Floating Point Numbers. V Rajaraman. General Article Volume 21 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 11-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/01/0011-0030. Keywords.

  19. The body weight loss during acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia in sea level residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ri-Li; Wood, Helen; Yang, Hui-Huang; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Babb, Tony

    2010-12-25

    Weight loss is frequently observed after acute exposure to high altitude. However, the magnitude and rate of weight loss during acute exposure to high altitude has not been clarified in a controlled prospective study. The present study was performed to evaluate weight loss at high altitude. A group of 120 male subjects [aged (32±6) years] who worked on the construction of the Golmud-Lhasa Railway at Kunlun Mountain (altitude of 4 678 m) served as volunteer subjects for this study. Eighty-five workers normally resided at sea level (sea level group) and 35 normally resided at an altitude of 2 200 m (moderate altitude group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured in all subjects after a 7-day stay at Golmud (altitude of 2 800 m, baseline measurements). Measurements were repeated after 33-day working on Kunlun Mountain. In order to examine the daily rate of weight loss at high altitude, body weight was measured in 20 subjects from the sea level group (sea level subset group) each morning before breakfast for 33 d at Kunlun Mountain. According to guidelines established by the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) consensus report, each subject completed an AMS self-report questionnaire two days after arriving at Kunlun Mountain. After 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m, the average weight loss for the sea level group was 10.4% (range 6.5% to 29%), while the average for the moderate altitude group was 2.2% (-2% to 9.1%). The degree of weight loss (Δ weight loss) after a 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m was significantly correlated with baseline body weight in the sea level group (r=0.677, P0.05). In the sea level subset group, a significant weight loss was observed within 20 d, but the weight remained stable thereafter. AMS-score at high altitude was significantly higher in the sea level group (4.69±2.48) than that in the moderate altitude group (2.97±1.38), and was significantly correlated with baseline body weight

  20. An Undergraduate-Built Prototype Altitude Determination System (PADS) for High Altitude Research Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Abot, J.; Casarotto, V.; Dichoso, J.; Doody, E.; Esteves, F.; Morsch Filho, E.; Gonteski, D.; Lamos, M.; Leo, A.; Mulder, N.; Matubara, F.; Schramm, P.; Silva, R.; Quisberth, J.; Uritsky, G.; Kogut, A.; Lowe, L.; Mirel, P.; Lazear, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this project a multi-disciplinary undergraduate team from CUA, comprising majors in Physics, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and Biology, design, build, test, fly, and analyze the data from a prototype attitude determination system (PADS). The goal of the experiment is to determine if an inexpensive attitude determination system could be built for high altitude research balloons using MEMS gyros. PADS is a NASA funded project, built by students with the cooperation of CUA faculty, Verner, Bruhweiler, and Abot, along with the contributed expertise of researchers and engineers at NASA/GSFC, Kogut, Lowe, Mirel, and Lazear. The project was initiated through a course taught in CUA's School of Engineering, which was followed by a devoted effort by students during the summer of 2014. The project is an experiment to use 18 MEMS gyros, similar to those used in many smartphones, to produce an averaged positional error signal that could be compared with the motion of the fixed optical system as recorded through a string of optical images of stellar fields to be stored on a hard drive flown with the experiment. The optical system, camera microprocessor, and hard drive are enclosed in a pressure vessel, which maintains approximately atmospheric pressure throughout the balloon flight. The experiment uses multiple microprocessors to control the camera exposures, record gyro data, and provide thermal control. CUA students also participated in NASA-led design reviews. Four students traveled to NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas to integrate PADS into a large balloon gondola containing other experiments, before being shipped, then launched in mid-August at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. The payload is to fly at a float altitude of 40-45,000 m, and the flight last approximately 15 hours. The payload is to return to earth by parachute and the retrieved data are to be analyzed by CUA undergraduates. A description of the instrument is presented

  1. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  2. Generalized math model for simulation of high-altitude balloon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, N. J.; Elkouh, A. F.; Hinton, D. E.; Yang, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Balloon systems have proved to be a cost-effective means for conducting research experiments (e.g., infrared astronomy) in the earth's atmosphere. The purpose of this paper is to present a generalized mathematical model that can be used to simulate the motion of these systems once they have attained float altitude. The resulting form of the model is such that the pendulation and spin motions of the system are uncoupled and can be analyzed independently. The model is evaluated by comparing the simulation results with data obtained from an actual balloon system flown by NASA.

  3. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  4. Measuring high-altitude adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lorna G

    2017-11-01

    High altitudes (>8,000 ft or 2,500 m) provide an experiment of nature for measuring adaptation and the physiological processes involved. Studies conducted over the past ~25 years in Andeans, Tibetans, and, less often, Ethiopians show varied but distinct O 2 transport traits from those of acclimatized newcomers, providing indirect evidence for genetic adaptation to high altitude. Short-term (acclimatization, developmental) and long-term (genetic) responses to high altitude exhibit a temporal gradient such that, although all influence O 2 content, the latter also improve O 2 delivery and metabolism. Much has been learned concerning the underlying physiological processes, but additional studies are needed on the regulation of blood flow and O 2 utilization. Direct evidence of genetic adaptation comes from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome scans and whole genome sequencing studies that have identified gene regions acted upon by natural selection. Efforts have begun to understand the connections between the two with Andean studies on the genetic factors raising uterine blood flow, fetal growth, and susceptibility to Chronic Mountain Sickness and Tibetan studies on genes serving to lower hemoglobin and pulmonary arterial pressure. Critical for future studies will be the selection of phenotypes with demonstrable effects on reproductive success, the calculation of actual fitness costs, and greater inclusion of women among the subjects being studied. The well-characterized nature of the O 2 transport system, the presence of multiple long-resident populations, and relevance for understanding hypoxic disorders in all persons underscore the importance of understanding how evolutionary adaptation to high altitude has occurred. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Variation in O 2 transport characteristics among Andean, Tibetan, and, when available, Ethiopian high-altitude residents supports the existence of genetic adaptations that improve the distribution of blood flow to vital

  5. A new method for aerodynamic test of high altitude propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiying Gong

    Full Text Available A ground test system is designed for aerodynamic performance tests of high altitude propellers. The system is consisted of stable power supply, servo motors, two-component balance constructed by tension-compression sensors, ultrasonic anemometer, data acquisition module. It is loaded on a truck to simulate propellers’ wind-tunnel test for different wind velocities at low density circumstance. The graphical programming language LABVIEW for developing virtual instrument is used to realize the test system control and data acquisition. Aerodynamic performance test of a propeller with 6.8 m diameter was completed by using this system. The results verify the feasibility of the ground test method. Keywords: High altitude propeller, Ground test, Virtual instrument control system

  6. Silicon-Based Microfabrication of Free-Floating Neural Probes and Insertion Tool for Chronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schander

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional neural interfaces for multi-channel, high-density recording and electrical stimulation of neural activity in the central nervous system are fundamental tools for neuroscience and medical applications. Especially for clinical use, these electrical interfaces must be stable over several years, which is still a major challenge due to the foreign body response of neural tissue. A feasible solution to reduce this inflammatory response is to enable a free-floating implantation of high-density, silicon-based neural probes to avoid mechanical coupling between the skull and the cortex during brain micromotion. This paper presents our latest development of a reproducible microfabrication process, which allows a monolithic integration of a highly-flexible, polyimide-based cable with a silicon-stiffened neural probe at a high resolution of 1 µm. For a precise and complete insertion of the free-floating probes into the cortex, a new silicon-based, vacuum-actuated insertion tool is presented, which can be attached to commercially available electrode drives. To reduce the electrode impedance and enable safe and stable microstimulation an additional coating with the electrical conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS is used. The long-term stability of the presented free-floating neural probes is demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The promising results suggest the feasibility of these neural probes for chronic applications.

  7. Voltage-Controlled Floating Resistor Using DDCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumngern

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new simple configuration to realize the voltage-controlled floating resistor, which is suitable for integrated circuit implementation. The proposed resistor is composed of three main components: MOS transistor operating in the non-saturation region, DDCC, and MOS voltage divider. The MOS transistor operating in the non-saturation region is used to configure a floating linear resistor. The DDCC and the MOS transistor voltage divider are used for canceling the nonlinear component term of MOS transistor in the non-saturation region to obtain a linear current/voltage relationship. The DDCC is employed to provide a simple summer of the circuit. This circuit offers an ease for realizing the voltage divider circuit and the temperature effect that includes in term of threshold voltage can be compensated. The proposed configuration employs only 16 MOS transistors. The performances of the proposed circuit are simulated with PSPICE to confirm the presented theory.

  8. Floating platform for offshore hydrocarbon production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, J.W.

    1994-07-27

    A floating platform comprises a vessel having a deck or topsides portion mounted above the highest expected water level at the site where the platform is to be located, and a tension moored wellhead/manifold assembly secured to the seabed by at least two tethers against the action of its own buoyancy and floating below the water surface at a predetermined height above the seabed, the arrangement being such that the vessel can be positioned directly over the tension moored wellhead/manifold assembly and can draw oil and/or gas from risers and/or conductors terminating in that assembly for processing and export via the deck or topsides. The vessel may be fixed in position by catenary anchors or tension legs. (Author)

  9. Fresh water generators onboard a floating platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Misra, B.M.; Sadhulkan, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    A dependable supply of fresh water is essential for any ocean going vessel. The operating and maintenance personnel on offshore platforms and marine structures also require a constant and regular supply of fresh water to meet their essential daily needs. A seawater thermal desalination unit onboard delivers good quality fresh water from seawater. The desalination units developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) suitable for ocean going vessels and offshore platforms have been discussed. Design considerations of such units with reference to floating platforms and corrosive environments have been presented. The feasibility of coupling a low temperature vacuum evaporation (LTVE) desalination plant suitable for an onboard floating platform to a PHWR nuclear power plant has also been discussed. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Robust Adaptive Control of a Free-Floating Space Robot System in Cartesian Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhai Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel, robust, adaptive trajectory-tracking control scheme for the free-floating space robot system in Cartesian space. The dynamic equation of the free-floating space robot system in Cartesian space is derived from the augmented variable method. The proposed basic robust adaptive controller is able to deal with parametric and non-parametric uncertainties simultaneously. Another advantage of the control scheme is that the known and unknown external disturbance bounds can be considered using a modification of the parameter-estimation law. In addition, three cases are certified to achieve robustness for both parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. The simulation results show that the control scheme can ensure stable tracking of the desired trajectory of the end-effector.

  11. ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

  12. Adaptive floating search methods in feature selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somol, Petr; Pudil, Pavel; Novovičová, Jana; Paclík, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 20, 11/13 (1999), s. 1157-1163 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/97/1242 Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) VS96063 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.315, year: 1999 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/somol-adaptive floating search methods in feature selection.pdf

  13. Acoustic Float for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    development by several teams, is to equip several ocean gliders with hydrophones and marine mammal call-detection software and send them out to monitor in...real time, but the gliders are relatively expensive, at upwards of $100,000 each [Rogers et al., 2004]. A vertical profiler float has been in...inexpensive and reliable tool for oceanogrphers [Kobayashi et al., 2006]. They also can dive to 2000 m whereass Slocum gilder and Seaglider are rated

  14. Floating nuclear power plant safety assurance principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, B.M.; Kuchin, N.L.; Sergeev, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    In the north regions of the Russian federation and low density population areas, there is a real necessity for ecological clean energy small power sources. For this purpose, floating nuclear power plants, designed on the basis of atomic ship building engineering, are being conceptualized. It is possible to use the ship building plants for the reactor purposes. Issues such as radioactive waste management are described

  15. Floating matrix dosage form for propranolol hydrochloride based on gas formation technique: development and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Kiran; Umadevi, S; Vaghani, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    Gastroretentive tablets of propranolol hydrochloride were developed by direct compression method using citric acid and sodium bicarbonate as the effervescent base. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; HPMC K15M was used to prepare the floating tablets to retard the drug release for 12h in stomach. Na-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) or carbopol 934P was added to alter the drug release profile or the dimensional stability of the formulation. Dicalcium phosphate (DCP) was used as filler. Formulations were evaluated for floating lag time, duration of floating, dimensional stability, drug content and in vitro drug release profile. The formulations were found to have floating lag time less than 1min. It was found that the dimensional stability of the formulations increase with increasing concentration of the swelling agent. The release mechanism of propranolol hydrochloride from floating tablets was evaluated on the basis of Peppas and Higuchi model. The ânâ value of the formulations ranged from 0.5201 to 0.7367 (0.5citric acid and 18.75% sodium bicarbonate seemed most desirable. FTIR, DSC and XRPD studies indicated the absence of any significant chemical interaction within dug and excipients. Stability study of optimized formulation revealed no significant change and found to be stable.

  16. Floating debris in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    Results from the first large-scale survey of floating natural (NMD) and anthropogenic (AMD) debris (>2 cm) in the central and western part of the Mediterranean Sea are reported. Floating debris was found throughout the entire study area with densities ranging from 0 to 194.6 items/km(2) and mean abundances of 24.9 AMD items/km(2) and 6.9 NMD items/km(2) across all surveyed locations. On the whole, 78% of all sighted objects were of anthropogenic origin, 95.6% of which were petrochemical derivatives (i.e. plastic and styrofoam). Maximum AMD densities (>52 items/km(2)) were found in the Adriatic Sea and in the Algerian basin, while the lowest densities (<6.3 items/km(2)) were observed in the Central Tyrrhenian and in the Sicilian Sea. All the other areas had mean densities ranging from 10.9 to 30.7 items/km(2). According to our calculations, more than 62 million macro-litter items are currently floating on the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rocket Engine Altitude Simulation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jody L.; Lansaw, John

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center is embarking on a very ambitious era in its rocket engine propulsion test history. The first new large rocket engine test stand to be built at Stennis Space Center in over 40 years is under construction. The new A3 Test Stand is designed to test very large (294,000 Ibf thrust) cryogenic propellant rocket engines at a simulated altitude of 100,000 feet. A3 Test Stand will have an engine testing chamber where the engine will be fired after the air in the chamber has been evacuated to a pressure at the simulated altitude of less than 0.16 PSIA. This will result in a very unique environment with extremely low pressures inside a very large chamber and ambient pressures outside this chamber. The test chamber is evacuated of air using a 2-stage diffuser / ejector system powered by 5000 lb/sec of steam produced by 27 chemical steam generators. This large amount of power and flow during an engine test will result in a significant acoustic and vibrational environment in and around A3 Test Stand.

  18. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Shahid

    Full Text Available Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT, hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig. Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number. Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number ‘3’ and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number. Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects. Keywords: Mach number, Reynolds number, Blunt body, Altitude effect, Angle of attacks

  19. Cardiovascular Effects of Altitude on Performance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit B; Coplan, Neil

    Altitude plays an important role in cardiovascular performance and training for athletes. Whether it is mountaineers, skiers, or sea-level athletes trying to gain an edge by training or living at increased altitude, there are many potential benefits and harms of such endeavors. Echocardiographic studies done on athletes at increased altitude have shown evidence for right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, but no change in left ventricular ejection fraction. In addition, 10% of athletes are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension and high-altitude pulmonary edema. Some studies suggest that echocardiography may be able to identify athletes susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema prior to competing or training at increased altitudes. Further research is needed on the long-term effects of altitude training, as repeated, transient episodes of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction may have long-term implications. Current literature suggests that performance athletes are not at higher risk for ventricular arrhythmias when training or competing at increased altitudes. For sea-level athletes, the optimal strategy for attaining the benefits while minimizing the harms of altitude training still needs to be clarified, although-for now-the "live high, train low" approach appears to have the most rationale.

  20. On seismic response characteristics of floating nuclear plant barge, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Yutaka; Masuko, Yoshio; Nakamura, Shuuji; Matsuura, Shinichi; Shiojiri, Hiroo

    1986-01-01

    Since Floating Nuclear Plants (FNP) are considered to be isolated from horizontal seismic motion, reduction and standardization of the aseismic design conditions of the floating plants are anticipated. However, studies on FNP in closed and shallow basin have almost not been executed to data, and there are many problems remaining unsolved. The purpose of the present report is to obtain sufficient elementary data and materials on the seismic response of floating body in the closed and shallow basin. Some interesting points to be extracted from shaking table tests, finite element analyses and simplified analyses are summarized as follows: 1) The seismic isolation characteristics of the floating body are remarkable to short period horizontal seismic motion. 2) Resonances of the floating body's motion, which coupled with surface waves, are induced by long period horizontal seismic motion. 3) Vertical seismic motion is transmitted directly to the floating body. (author)

  1. Investigation of Tank 241-AW-104 Composite Floating Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meznarich, H. K. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Bolling, S. D. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Lachut, J. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Cooke, G. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-02-27

    Seven grab samples and one field blank were taken from Tank 241-AW-104 (AW-104) on June 2, 2017, and received at 222-S Laboratory on June 5, 2017. A visible layer with brown solids was observed floating on the top of two surface tank waste samples (4AW-17-02 and 4AW 17 02DUP). The floating layer from both samples was collected, composited, and submitted for chemical analyses and solid phase characterization in order to understand the composition of the floating layer. Tributyl phosphate and tridecane were higher in the floating layer than in the aqueous phase. Density in the floating layer was slightly lower than the mean density of all grab samples. Sodium nitrate and sodium carbonate were major components with a trace of gibbsite and very small size agglomerates were present in the solids of the floating layer. The supernate consisted of organics, soluble salt, and particulates.

  2. The floating knee: epidemiology, prognostic indicators & outcome following surgical management

    OpenAIRE

    Yesupalan Rajam S; Rethnam Ulfin; Nair Rajagopalan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Floating Knee injuries are complex injuries. The type of fractures, soft tissue and associated injuries make this a challenging problem to manage. We present the outcome of these injuries after surgical management. Methods 29 patients with floating knee injuries were managed over a 3 year period. This was a prospective study were both fractures of the floating knee injury were surgically fixed using different modalities. The associated injuries were managed appropriately. ...

  3. Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Ranković Goran; Radovanović Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatization, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training), live low and train high (training thr...

  4. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faiza; Hussain, Mukkarum; Baig, Mirza Mehmood; Haq, Ihtram ul

    Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT), hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig). Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number). Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number '3' and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number). Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number) and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number) slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number) at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects.

  5. Stress analysis and mitigation measures for floating pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenpeng, Guo; Yuqing, Liu; Chao, Li

    2017-03-01

    Pipeline-floating is a kind of accident with contingency and uncertainty associated to natural gas pipeline occurring during rainy season, which is significantly harmful to the safety of pipeline. Treatment measures against pipeline floating accident are summarized in this paper on the basis of practical project cases. Stress states of pipeline upon floating are analyzed by means of Finite Element Calculation method. The effectiveness of prevention ways and subsequent mitigation measures upon pipeline-floating are verified for giving guidance to the mitigation of such accidents.

  6. Advantages of floating covers with LLDPE Liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gomez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using floating covers in irrigation pounds and waste dam gives many advantages. It is a very interesting investment for those place with a high evaporation ratio. this is an easy system which improves several aspects in irrigation or drinkable water reservoirs, mainly it saves water and it saves clean-works (time and cost). It is also used in waste dam to deodorization. Time ago this application was developed with PVC liners and TPO liners, now the innovation is LLDPE liners which improve mechanical properties, durability and an easier installation. This paper develops the state of art of this design technology, and the back ground of our experience. (Author)

  7. Experiments in a floating water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisetschläger, Jakob; Gatterer, Karl; Fuchs, Elmar C.

    2010-01-01

    In a high-voltage direct-current experiment, a watery connection formed between two beakers filled with deionized water, giving the impression of a `floating water bridge'. Having a few millimeters diameter and up to 2.5 cm length, this watery connection reveals a number of interesting phenomena currently discussed in water science. Focusing on optical measurement techniques, the flow through the bridge was visualized and data were recorded such as flow velocity and directions, heat production, density fluctuations, pH values, drag force and mass transfer. To provide a better understanding of the basic phenomena involved the discussion references related literature.

  8. Dynamics of the floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Gatterer, Karl; Holler, Gert; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled into two beakers close to each other, a water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. The build-up mechanism, the chemical properties and the dynamics of this bridge as well as related additional phenomena are presented and discussed

  9. Multicentric Chemodectomata at High Altitude | Nathanson | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multicentric chemodectomata in the right glomus intravagale and both carotid bodies were excised from a 74year-old woman. These are rare tumours. The patient was born and lived at an altitude of 1 800 m above sea level. The effects of altitude and chronic hypoxia on the carotid bodies are discussed.

  10. Training-dependent cognitive advantage is suppressed at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Gang; You, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Ran; Gao, Yu-Qi

    2012-06-25

    Ascent to high altitude is associated with decreases in cognitive function and work performance as a result of hypoxia. Some workers with special jobs typically undergo intensive mental training because they are expected to be agile, stable and error-free in their job performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk to cognitive function acquired from training following hypoxic exposure. The results of WHO neurobehavioral core tests battery (WHO-NCTB) and Raven's standard progressive matrices (RSPM) tests of a group of 54 highly trained military operators were compared with those of 51 non-trained ordinary people and were investigated at sea level and on the fifth day after arrival at high altitudes (3900m). Meanwhile, the plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were examined. The result showed that at sea level, the trained group exhibited significantly better performance on neurobehavioral and RSPM tests. At high altitude, both groups had decreased accuracy in most cognitive tests and took longer to finish them. More importantly, the highly trained subjects showed more substantial declines than the non-trained subjects in visual reaction accuracy, auditory reaction speed, digit symbol scores, ability to report correct dots in a pursuit aiming test and total RSPM scores. This means that the training-dependent cognitive advantages in these areas were suppressed at high altitudes. The above phenomenon maybe associated with decreased BDNF and elevated inflammatory factor during hypoxia, and other mechanisms could not be excluded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of stereoscopic artificial floating wetlands on nekton abundance and biomass in the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Chao; Gao, Yu; Geng, Zhi; Zhuang, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Habitat degradation is one of the greatest existing threats to nekton biodiversity in estuarine and coastal habitats. Stereoscopic artificial floating wetlands (SAFWs) can provide new nekton habitats and have been widely used as conservation and management tools in freshwater and marine environments. In the current study, we constructed Phragmites australis SAFWs: the P. australis rhizomes were planted on the artificial floating beds, and palm slices were hung under the floating platforms to act as submerged plants. These SAFWs were anchored in the north channel of the Yangtze Estuary. To determine if SAFWs can serve as fish aggregation devices, fishes and crustaceans were sampled monthly using a bottom lift net during high-tide from July to October 2014. Our assessment was based on environmental parameters, nekton density, nekton species composition and the total length of the three most abundant fishes at the experimental and control sites. Nekton abundance was approximately three times greater in the SAFWs than that in the control habitats (108.2 ± 27.56 ind./m 2 vs. 28.37 ± 15.88 ind./m 2 , respectively). There were no significant habitat-specific differences in the size distribution of the three most abundant fish species (Acanthogobius ommaturus, Odontamblyopus rubicundus and Eleutheronema tetradactylum) because most of the individuals sampled were juveniles. This study demonstrates that SAFWs can form stable environments for nekton and increase habitat available to juvenile fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parametric studies on floating pad journal bearing for high speed cryogenic turboexpanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.; Jadhav, M. M.; Karimulla, S.; Chakravarty, A.

    2017-12-01

    Most modern medium and large capacity helium liquefaction/refrigeration plants employ high speed cryogenic turboexpanders in their refrigeration/liquefaction cycles as active cooling devices. The operating speed of these turboexpanders is in the range of 3000-5000 Hz and hence specialized types of bearings are required. Floating pad journal bearing, which is a special type of tilting pad journal bearing, where mechanical pivots are absent and pads are fully suspended in gas, can be a good solution for stable operation of these high speed compact rotors. The pads are separated from shaft as well as from housing by fluid film between them, and both these sides of pad are interconnected by a network of feed holes. The work presented in this article aims to characterize floating pad journal bearings through parametric studies. The steady state performance characteristics of the bearing are represented by load capacity, stiffness coefficients and heat generation rate of the bearing. The geometrical parameters such as bearing clearances, preload of pads, etc. are varied and performance characteristics of the floating pad journal bearing are studied and presented. The dependence of stiffness coefficients on rotational speed of shaft is also analyzed.

  13. Equilibrium configuration of a stratus floating above accretion disks: Full-disk calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itanishi, Yusuke; Fukue, Jun

    2017-06-01

    We examine floating strati above a luminous accretion disk, supported by the radiative force from the entire disk, and calculate the equilibrium locus, which depends on the disk luminosity and the optical depth of the stratus. Due to the radiative transfer effect (albedo effect), the floating height of the stratus with a finite optical depth generally becomes high, compared with the particle case. In contrast to the case of the near-disk approximation, moreover, the floating height becomes yet higher in the present full-disk calculation, since the intense radiation from the inner disk is taken into account. As a result, when the disk luminosity normalized by the Eddington luminosity is ˜0.3 and the stratus optical depth is around unity, the stable configuration disappears at around r ˜ 50 rg, rg being the Schwarzschild radius, and the stratus would be blown off as a cloudy wind consisting of many strati with appropriate conditions. This luminosity is sufficiently smaller than the Eddington one, and the present results suggest that the radiation-driven cloudy wind can be easily blown off from the sub-Eddington disk, and this can explain various outflows observed in ultra-fast outflow objects as well as in broad-absorption-line quasars.

  14. Graphene-graphene oxide floating gate transistor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sukjae; Hwang, Euyheon; Lee, Jung Heon; Park, Ho Seok; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-01-21

    A novel transparent, flexible, graphene channel floating-gate transistor memory (FGTM) device is fabricated using a graphene oxide (GO) charge trapping layer on a plastic substrate. The GO layer, which bears ammonium groups (NH3+), is prepared at the interface between the crosslinked PVP (cPVP) tunneling dielectric and the Al2 O3 blocking dielectric layers. Important design rules are proposed for a high-performance graphene memory device: (i) precise doping of the graphene channel, and (ii) chemical functionalization of the GO charge trapping layer. How to control memory characteristics by graphene doping is systematically explained, and the optimal conditions for the best performance of the memory devices are found. Note that precise control over the doping of the graphene channel maximizes the conductance difference at a zero gate voltage, which reduces the device power consumption. The proposed optimization via graphene doping can be applied to any graphene channel transistor-type memory device. Additionally, the positively charged GO (GO-NH3+) interacts electrostatically with hydroxyl groups of both UV-treated Al2 O3 and PVP layers, which enhances the interfacial adhesion, and thus the mechanical stability of the device during bending. The resulting graphene-graphene oxide FGTMs exhibit excellent memory characteristics, including a large memory window (11.7 V), fast switching speed (1 μs), cyclic endurance (200 cycles), stable retention (10(5) s), and good mechanical stability (1000 cycles). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Performance of portable ventilators at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Thomas; Britton, Tyler; Rodriquez, Dario; Branson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Aeromedical transport of critically ill patients requires continued, accurate performance of equipment at altitude. Changes in barometric pressure can affect the performance of mechanical ventilators calibrated for operation at sea level. Deploying ventilators that can maintain a consistent tidal volume (VT) delivery at various altitudes is imperative for lung protection when transporting wounded war fighters to each echelon of care. Three ventilators (Impact 731, Hamilton T1, and CareFusion Revel) were tested at pediatric (50 and 100 mL) and adult (250-750 mL) tidal VTs at 0 and 20 cm H₂O positive end expiratory pressure and at inspired oxygen of 0.21 and 1.0. Airway pressure, volume, and flow were measured at sea level as well as at 8,000, 16,000, and 22,000 ft (corresponding to barometric pressures of 760, 564, 412, and 321 mm Hg) using a calibrated pneumotachograph connected to a training test lung in an altitude chamber. Set VT and delivered VT as well as changes in VT at each altitude were compared by t test. The T1 delivered VT within 10% of set VT at 8,000 ft. The mean VT was less than set VT at sea level as a result of circuit compressible volume with the Revel and the 731. Changes in VT varied widely among the devices at sea level and at altitude. Increasing altitudes resulted in larger VT than set for the Revel and the T1. The 731 compensated for changes in altitude delivered VT within 10% at the adult settings at all altitudes. Altitude compensation is an active software algorithm. Only the 731 actively accounts for changes in barometric pressure to maintain the set VT at all tested altitudes.

  16. Floating / Travelling Gardens of (Postcolonial Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay on travelling gardens of (postcolonial time opens with two iconic images of floating gardens in contemporary postcolonial literature: Will Phantom’s bio-garbage rafter, which saves him in the midst of a cyclone in Carpentaria (2008, by the Aboriginal author Alexis Wright, and Pi’s carnivore island-organism in Life of Pi (2001, which cannot save him from his shipwreck, by Canadian writer Yan Martel. These floating, hybrid gardens of the Anthropocene precede the real travelling gardens of both Michael Ondaatje’s The Cat’s Table (2011 and Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis Trilogy (2008-2015, two authors who both indirectly and directly tell the story of botanical gardens in Asia, and of plant and seed smuggling and transplantation (“displacement” also hinting at their historical and economic colonial implications. For, after all, botanical gardens imply a very specific version of care, Cura (Robert Pogue Harrison 2009, while embodying a precise, imperial scientific and economic project (Brockway 2002; Johnson 2011.

  17. Water-Pressure Distribution on Seaplane Float

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, F L

    1929-01-01

    The investigation presented in this report was conducted for the purpose of determining the distribution and magnitude of water pressures likely to be experienced on seaplane hulls in service. It consisted of the development and construction of apparatus for recording water pressures lasting one one-hundredth second or longer and of flight tests to determine the water pressures on a UO-1 seaplane float under various conditions of taxiing, taking off, and landing. The apparatus developed was found to operate with satisfactory accuracy and is suitable for flight tests on other seaplanes. The tests on the UO-1 showed that maximum pressures of about 6.5 pounds per square inch occur at the step for the full width of the float bottom. Proceeding forward from the step the maximum pressures decrease in magnitude uniformly toward the bow, and the region of highest pressures narrows toward the keel. Immediately abaft the step the maximum pressures are very small, but increase in magnitude toward the stern and there once reached a value of about 5 pounds per square inch. (author)

  18. Feasibility study on floating nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajima, Ryoichi

    1987-01-01

    It is stipulated that nuclear power plants are to be built on solid rock bases on land in Japan. However, there are a limited number of appropriate siting grounds. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has engaged since 1981 in the studies on the construction technology of power plants, aiming at establishing new siting technology to expand the possible siting areas for nuclear power plants. Underground siting is regarded as a proven technology due to the experience in underground hydroelectric power plants. The technology of siting on quaternary ground is now at the stage of verification. In this report, the outline of floating type offshore/inshore siting technology is introduced, which is considered to be feasible in view of the technical and economical aspects. Three fixed structure types were selected, of which the foundations are fixed to seabed, plant superstructures are above sea surface, and which are floating type. Aiming at ensuring the aseismatic stability of the plant foundations, the construction technology is studied, and the structural concept omitting buoyancy is possible. The most practical water depth is not more than 20 m. The overall plant design, earthquake isolation effect and breakwater are described. (Kako, I.)

  19. Formulation and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present investigation is to develop and optimize gastroretentive floating drug delivery systems for propranolol HCl. Propranolol HCl is an effective anti hypertensive drug, with a relatively short half life and is freely soluble in water. In the present work, propranolol HCl floating tablets were prepared with PEO ...

  20. Response estimation for a floating bridge using acceleration output only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Øyvind Wiig; Øiseth, Ole; Nord, Torodd Skjerve; Lourens, E.; Sas, P.; Moens, D.; van de Walle, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian Public Roads Administration is reviewing the possibility of using floating bridges as fjord crossings. The dynamic behaviour of very long floating bridges with novel designs are prone to uncertainties. Studying the dynamic behaviour of existing bridges is valuable for understanding

  1. Development and evaluation of floating microspheres of curcumin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate floating microspheres of curcumin for prolonged gastric residence and to study their effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Floating microsphere were prepared by emulsion-solvent diffusion method, using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and Eudragit S 100 polymer in ...

  2. Development and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Curcumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate floating microspheres of curcumin for prolonged gastric residence time and increased drug bioavailability. Methods: Floating microsphere were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method, using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), ethyl cellulose (EC), Eudragit S 100 polymer in ...

  3. C/O logging neutron generator with floating power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang Zhon Gjin; Li Wen Sheng; Guo Jing Fu; Wei Bao Jie

    2002-01-01

    Floating power supply is used to neutron tube in logging neutron generator, which minimizes the space of high-strength electric field, and reduces the voltage gradient by 1/3 in the high-strength electric field. Under condition of floating power supply pulse width modulation autocontrol is used to stabilize operation of neutron generator in high temperature circumstance

  4. 3D float tracking: in situ floodplain roughness estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel technique to quantify in situ hydrodynamic roughness of submerged floodplain vegetation: 3D float tracking. This method uses a custom-built floating tripod that is released on the inundated floodplain and tracked from shore by a robotic total station. Simultaneously, an

  5. Design Optimization and Evaluation of Gastric Floating Matrix Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: CCD demonstrated the role of the derived equations, contour plots and response surface plots in predicting the values of independent variables for the preparation and optimization of glipizide gastric floating matrix tablet. Keywords: Effervescent, Floating tablet, Design of Experiment, Release kinetics, Central ...

  6. Production of floating pellets using appropriate methods | Suleiman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated into the use of floating materials like candle wax, yeast and baking powder to achieve pellet buoyancy. Ten diets were formulated with incorporation of floating agents; Diet I-YBCT- (yeast-baking powder in cold water -toasted), Diet II-YBCU- (yeast-baking powder in cold water -untoasted) Diet III ...

  7. Design and Evaluation of an Oral Floating Matrix Tablet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop floating matrix tablets of salbutamol sulphate using ethyl cellulose and acrycoat S-100 as polymers, and sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid as gas generating agents. Methods: Twenty four formulations were prepared and segregated into four major categories, A to D. The floating tablets ...

  8. Design and Evaluation of an Oral Floating Matrix Tablet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop floating matrix tablets of salbutamol sulphate using ethyl cellulose and acrycoat S-. 100 as polymers, and sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid as gas generating agents. Methods: Twenty four formulations were prepared and segregated into four major categories, A to D. The floating tablets ...

  9. Herbal carrier-based floating microparticles of diltiazem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and characterize a gastroretentive floating drug delivery system for diltiazem hydrochloride using psyllium husk and sodium alginate as natural herbal carriers to improve the therapeutic effect of the drug in cardiac patients. Methods: Floating microparticles containing diltiazem hydrochloride were ...

  10. Page | 155 FLOATING CHARGE: A CHILD OF EQUITABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Hence it has been pungently stated that ….. it is evident that crystallization is the transition stage of a floating charge, … which could be quite vulnerable in protecting a creditor's money, to a more reliable security of the fixed charge. However, this is not to say that a floating charge is not desirable in the creation of securities.

  11. Monocular Vision System for Fixed Altitude Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Lung; Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Teng, Yao-Jen; Hao, Shu-Sheng

    2015-07-13

    The fastest and most economical method of acquiring terrain images is aerial photography. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been investigated for this task. However, UAVs present a range of challenges such as flight altitude maintenance. This paper reports a method that combines skyline detection with a stereo vision algorithm to enable the flight altitude of UAVs to be maintained. A monocular camera is mounted on the downside of the aircraft's nose to collect continuous ground images, and the relative altitude is obtained via a stereo vision algorithm from the velocity of the UAV. Image detection is used to obtain terrain images, and to measure the relative altitude from the ground to the UAV. The UAV flight system can be set to fly at a fixed and relatively low altitude to obtain the same resolution of ground images. A forward-looking camera is mounted on the upside of the aircraft's nose. In combination with the skyline detection algorithm, this helps the aircraft to maintain a stable flight pattern. Experimental results show that the proposed system enables UAVs to obtain terrain images at constant resolution, and to detect the relative altitude along the flight path.

  12. Monocular Vision System for Fixed Altitude Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Lung Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fastest and most economical method of acquiring terrain images is aerial photography. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has been investigated for this task. However, UAVs present a range of challenges such as flight altitude maintenance. This paper reports a method that combines skyline detection with a stereo vision algorithm to enable the flight altitude of UAVs to be maintained. A monocular camera is mounted on the downside of the aircraft’s nose to collect continuous ground images, and the relative altitude is obtained via a stereo vision algorithm from the velocity of the UAV. Image detection is used to obtain terrain images, and to measure the relative altitude from the ground to the UAV. The UAV flight system can be set to fly at a fixed and relatively low altitude to obtain the same resolution of ground images. A forward-looking camera is mounted on the upside of the aircraft’s nose. In combination with the skyline detection algorithm, this helps the aircraft to maintain a stable flight pattern. Experimental results show that the proposed system enables UAVs to obtain terrain images at constant resolution, and to detect the relative altitude along the flight path.

  13. A novel grounded to floating admittance converter with electronic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Dinesh; Ahmad, Javed; Srivastava, Mayank

    2018-01-01

    This article suggests a new grounded to floating admittance convertor employing only two voltage differencing transconductance amplifiers (VDTAs). The proposed circuit can convert any arbitrary grounded admittance into floating admittance with electronically controllable scaling factor. The presented converter enjoys the following beneficial: (1) no requirement of any additional passive element (2) scaling factor can be tuned electronically through bias currents of VDTAs (3) no matching constraint required (4) low values of active/passive sensitivity indexes and (5) excellent non ideal behavior that indicates no deviation in circuit behavior even under non ideal environment. Application of the proposed configuration in realization of floating resistor and floating capacitor has been presented and the workability of these floating elements has been confirmed by active filter design examples. SPICE simulations have been performed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed circuits.

  14. Evaluating the Capability of High-Altitude Infrasound Platforms to Cover Gaps in Existing Networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A variety of Earth surface and atmospheric sources generate low frequency sound waves that can travel great distances. Despite a rich history of ground-based sensor studies, very few experiments have investigated the prospects of free floating microphone arrays at high altitudes. However, recent initiatives have shown that such networks have very low background noise and may sample an acoustic wave field that is fundamentally different than that at the Earth's surface. The experiments have been limited to at most two stations at altitude, limiting their utility in acoustic event detection and localization. We describe the deployment of five drifting microphone stations at altitudes between 21 and 24 km above sea level. The stations detected one of two regional ground-based explosions as well as the ocean microbarom while traveling almost 500 km across the American Southwest. The explosion signal consisted of multiple arrivals; signal amplitudes did not correlate with sensor elevation or source range. A sparse network method that employed curved wave front corrections was able to determine the backazimuth from the free flying network to the acoustic source. Episodic broad band signals similar to those seen on previous flights in the same region were noted as well, but their source remains unclear. Background noise levels were commensurate with those on infrasound stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) below 2 seconds, but sensor self noise appears to dominate at higher frequencies.

  15. Solid dispersions in the development of a nimodipine floating tablet formulation and optimization by artificial neural networks and genetic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpalexis, Panagiotis; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos; Georgarakis, Emanouil

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of nimodipine-polyethylene glycol solid dispersions for the development of effervescent controlled release floating tablet formulations. The physical state of the dispersed nimodipine in the polymer matrix was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and polarized light microscopy, and the mixture proportions of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), effervescent agents (EFF) and nimodipine were optimized in relation to drug release (% release at 60 min, and time at which the 90% of the drug was dissolved) and floating properties (tablet's floating strength and duration), employing a 25-run D-optimal mixture design combined with artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP). It was found that nimodipine exists as mod I microcrystals in the solid dispersions and is stable for at least a three-month period. The tablets showed good floating properties and controlled release profiles, with drug release proceeding via the concomitant operation of swelling and erosion of the polymer matrix. ANNs and GP both proved to be efficient tools in the optimization of the tablet formulation, and the global optimum formulation suggested by the GP equations consisted of PEG=9%, PVP=30%, HPMC=36%, EFF=11%, nimodipine=14%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  17. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  18. Analysis of Switched-Rigid Floating Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar R. Marur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In explicit finite element simulations, a technique called deformable-to-rigid (D2R switching is used routinely to reduce the computation time. Using the D2R option, the deformable parts in the model can be switched to rigid and reverted back to deformable when needed during the analysis. The time of activation of D2R however influences the overall dynamics of the system being analyzed. In this paper, a theoretical basis for the selection of time of rigid switching based on system energy is established. A floating oscillator problem is investigated for this purpose and closed-form analytical expressions are derived for different phases in rigid switching. The analytical expressions are validated by comparing the theoretical results with numerical computations.

  19. Preliminary results from NOAMP deep drifting floats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollitrault, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a very brief and preliminary outline of first results obtained with deep SOFAR floats in the NOAMP area. The work is now going toward more precise statistical estimations of mean and variable currents, together with better tracking to resolve submesoscales and estimate diffusivities due to mesoscale and smaller scale motions. However the preliminary results confirm that the NOAMP region (and surroundings) has a deep mesoscale eddy field that is considerably more energetic that the mean field (r.m.s. velocities are of order 5 cm s -1 ), although both values are diminished compared to the western basin. A data report containing trajectories and statistics is scheduled to be published by IFREMER in the near future. The project main task is to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  20. Sharing risk and reward - floating production contractorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisvold, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper summarizes the contractual experience so far gained on Petrojarl 1 floating production system and the associated shuttling services on the Norwegian continental shelf. The paper attempts to draw some lines into the future with respect to development of the business format and the evolution of the relationship between the contractor and the various oil companies in question. Turnkey production services as well as transport and project services to the oil industry are provided. The scope of these services ranges from top of the sea bed wellhead to quayside at the refinery, and is based on ownership control of the employed vessels as well as complete manning of all services. 7 figs

  1. Ionizing radiation effects on floating gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Visconti, A.; Bonanomi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Floating gate (FG) memories, and in particular Flash, are the dominant among modern nonvolatile memory technologies. Their performance under ionizing radiation was traditionally studied for the use in space, but has become of general interest in recent years. We are showing results on the charge loss from programmed FG arrays after 10 keV x-rays exposure. Exposure to ionizing radiation results in progressive discharge of the FG. More advanced devices, featuring smaller FG, are less sensitive to ionizing radiation that older ones. The reason is identified in the photoemission of electrons from FG, since at high doses it dominates over charge loss deriving from electron/hole pairs generation in the oxides

  2. Measurement of Low-Altitude Infrared Transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeisse, C

    1999-01-01

    Infrared propagation at low altitudes is determined by extinction caused by molecules, aerosol particles, and ray bending by refraction, three effects that control the mean value of the signal (the transmission...

  3. 78 FR 68699 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... routes for which a minimum or maximum en route authorized IFR altitude is prescribed. This regulatory... Federal Airway V70 is Amended to Read in Part U.S./MEXICO BORDER BROWNSVILLE, TX VORTAC.. *5000 *1600...

  4. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  5. First census of floating population in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    This study presents the findings of the first census of the floating population in Beijing, China, in 1997. The census was conducted in 18 urban districts and counties among migrants living or staying in Beijing with household registration elsewhere. In 1997, the floating population amounted to 2.86 million, of whom 2.30 million stayed in Beijing over 1 day. 66.1% were males; 33.9% were females. 1.38 million (59.9%) lived in institutional households. 755,000 (32.9%) formed their own family units; 166,000 (7.2%) lived with resident Beijing families. 12,000 lived in railway stations and 22,000 were homeless. In-migrants numbered 435,000 and out-migrants numbered 42,000 in the preceding 24 hours. 84,000 (a doubling since 1984) were from Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. In-migration was lower by 436,000 persons than in 1994. The decline is attributed to government policy to limit migration and to economic recession. Better communication and transportation facilitate foreign migration. 1.81 million migrants out of 2.30 million lived in 4 urban and 4 suburban districts. The others lived in 10 remote suburban areas. Migrants accounted for 537,000 persons in Chaoyang District (23.3%), 493,000 in Haidan District (21.5%), and 315,000 in Fengtai District (13.7%). The ratio of in-migrants to residents was 1:8 in Beijing urban districts, 1:4 in suburban districts, and 1:10 in remote areas. Stays averaged 19.2 months. 1.81 million had jobs. About 74% came from Hebei, Henan, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Shandong, Jiangsu, and Anhui. Zhejiang migrants stayed the longest (24.9 months), while Jiangsu in-migrants stayed the shortest (16.6 months).

  6. Potential of water surface-floating microalgae for biodiesel production: Floating-biomass and lipid productivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Masaki; Nojima, Daisuke; Yue, Liang; Kanehara, Hideyuki; Naruse, Hideaki; Ujiro, Asuka; Yoshino, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae have been accepted as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production owing to their capability of converting solar energy into lipids through photosynthesis. However, the high capital and operating costs, and high energy consumption, are hampering commercialization of microalgal biodiesel. In this study, the surface-floating microalga, strain AVFF007 (tentatively identified as Botryosphaerella sudetica), which naturally forms a biofilm on surfaces, was characterized for use in biodiesel production. The biofilm could be conveniently harvested from the surface of the water by adsorbing onto a polyethylene film. The lipid productivity of strain AVFF007 was 46.3 mg/L/day, allowing direct comparison to lipid productivities of other microalgal species. The moisture content of the surface-floating biomass was 86.0 ± 1.2%, which was much lower than that of the biomass harvested using centrifugation. These results reveal the potential of this surface-floating microalgal species as a biodiesel producer, employing a novel biomass harvesting and dewatering strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Introduction to altitude/hypoxic training symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Randall L

    2007-09-01

    Altitude/hypoxic training has traditionally been an intriguing and controversial area of research and sport performance. This controversial aspect was evident recently in the form of scholarly debates in highly regarded professional journals, as well as the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) consideration of placing "artificially-induced hypoxic conditions" on the 2007 Prohibited List of Substances/Methods. In light of the ongoing controversy surrounding altitude/hypoxic training, this symposium was organized with the following objectives in mind: 1) to examine the primary physiological responses and underlying mechanisms associated with altitude/hypoxic training, including the influence of genetic predisposition; 2) to present evidence supporting the effect of altitude/hypoxic acclimatization on both hematological and nonhematological markers, including erythrocyte volume, skeletal muscle-buffering capacity, hypoxic ventilatory response, and physiological efficiency/economy; 3) to evaluate the efficacy of several contemporary simulated altitude modalities and training strategies, including hypoxic tents, nitrogen apartments, and intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) or training, and to address the legal and ethical issues associated with the use of simulated altitude; and 4) to describe different altitude/hypoxic training strategies used by elite-level athletes, including Olympians and military special forces. In addressing these objectives, papers will be presented on the topics of: 1) effect of hypoxic "dose" on physiological responses and sea-level performance (Drs. Benjamin Levine and James Stray-Gundersen), 2) nonhematological mechanisms of improved performance after hypoxic exposure (Dr. Christopher Gore), 3) application of altitude/hypoxic training by elite athletes (Dr. Randall Wilber), and 4) military applications of hypoxic training (Dr. Stephen Muza).

  8. Child health and living at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermeyer, S; Andrade Mollinedo, P; Huicho, L

    2009-10-01

    The health of children born and living at high altitude is shaped not only by the low-oxygen environment, but also by population ancestry and sociocultural determinants. High altitude and the corresponding reduction in oxygen delivery during pregnancy result in lower birth weight with higher elevation. Children living at high elevations are at special risk for hypoxaemia during infancy and during acute lower respiratory infection, symptomatic high-altitude pulmonary hypertension, persistence of fetal vascular connections, and re-entry high-altitude pulmonary oedema. However, child health varies from one population group to another due to genetic adaptation as well as factors such as nutrition, intercurrent infection, exposure to pollutants and toxins, socioeconomic status, and access to medical care. Awareness of the risks uniquely associated with living at high altitude and monitoring of key health indicators can help protect the health of children at high altitude. These considerations should be incorporated into the scaling-up of effective interventions for improving global child health and survival.

  9. WindWaveFloat (WWF): Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Alla; Roddier, Dominique; Banister, Kevin

    2012-03-30

    Principle Power Inc. and National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) have completed a contract to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating wave energy converters into the WindFloat, resulting in a new concept called the WindWaveFloat (WWF). The concentration of several devices on one platform could offer a potential for both economic and operational advantages. Wind and wave energy converters can share the electrical cable and power transfer equipment to transport the electricity to shore. Access to multiple generation devices could be simplified, resulting in cost saving at the operational level. Overall capital costs may also be reduced, provided that the design of the foundation can be adapted to multiple devices with minimum modifications. Finally, the WindWaveFloat confers the ability to increase energy production from individual floating support structures, potentially leading to a reduction in levelized energy costs, an increase in the overall capacity factor, and greater stability of the electrical power delivered to the grid. The research conducted under this grant investigated the integration of several wave energy device types into the WindFloat platform. Several of the resulting system designs demonstrated technical feasibility, but the size and design constraints of the wave energy converters (technical and economic) make the WindWaveFloat concept economically unfeasible at this time. Not enough additional generation could be produced to make the additional expense associated with wave energy conversion integration into the WindFloat worthwhile.

  10. [Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranković, Goran; Radovanović, Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatisation, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilisation, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training), live low and train high (training through hypoxia), and live high and train low (the new trend). In an effort to reduce the financial and logistical challenges of travelling to high-altitude training sites, scientists and manufactures have developed artificial high-altitude environments, which simulate the hypoxic conditions of moderate altitude (2000-3000 meters). Endurance athletes from many sports have recently started using nitrogen environments, or hypoxic rooms and tents as part of their altitude training programmes. The results of controlled studies on these modalities of high-altitude training, their practical approach, and ethics are summarised.

  11. Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatization, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training, live low and train high (training through hypoxia, and live high and train low (the new trend. In an effort to reduce the financial and logistical challenges of traveling to high-altitude training sites, scientists and manufactures have developed artificial high-altitude environments, which simulate the hypoxic conditions of moderate altitude (2000-3000 meters. Endurance athletes from many sports have recently started using nitrogen environments, or hypoxic rooms and tents as part of their altitude training programmes. The results of controlled studies on these modalities of high-altitude training, their practical approach, and ethics are summarized.

  12. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.G.

    1993-11-16

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  13. Floating cultivation of marine cyanobacteria using coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M.; Yoshida, E.; Takeyama, H.; Matsunaga, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Biotetechnology

    2000-07-01

    The aim was to develop improved methodologies for bulk culturing of biotechnologically useful marine cyanobacteria in the open ocean. The viability of using coal fly ash (CFA) blocks as the support medium in a novel floating culture system for marine microalgae was investigated. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBC 040607 was found to adhere to floating CFA blocks in liquid culture medium. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG 042902 weakly adhered to floating CFA blocks in BG-11 medium. Increasing the concentration of calcium ion in the culture medium enhanced adherence to CFA blocks.

  14. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine...

  15. 33 CFR 149.550 - What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lights on a floating hose string? 149.550 Section 149.550 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Floating Hose Strings § 149.550 What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string? Hose strings that are floating or supported on trestles must display the...

  16. Acute high-altitude illness | Hofmeyr | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A substantial proportion of South Africa (SA)'s population lives at high altitude (>1 500 m), and many travel to very high altitudes (>3 500 m) for tourism, business, recreation or religious pilgrimages every year. Despite this, knowledge of acute altitude illnesses is poor among SA doctors. At altitude, the decreasing ambient ...

  17. The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant de Guélis, Thibault; Chepfer, Hélène; Noel, Vincent; Guzman, Rodrigo; Dubuisson, Philippe; Winker, David M.; Kato, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    According to climate model simulations, the changing altitude of middle and high clouds is the dominant contributor to the positive global mean longwave cloud feedback. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of this longwave cloud altitude feedback and its magnitude have not yet been verified by observations. Accurate, stable, and long-term observations of a metric-characterizing cloud vertical distribution that are related to the longwave cloud radiative effect are needed to achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of longwave cloud altitude feedback. This study shows that the direct measurement of the altitude of atmospheric lidar opacity is a good candidate for the necessary observational metric. The opacity altitude is the level at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated when probing an opaque cloud. By combining this altitude with the direct lidar measurement of the cloud-top altitude, we derive the effective radiative temperature of opaque clouds which linearly drives (as we will show) the outgoing longwave radiation. We find that, for an opaque cloud, a cloud temperature change of 1 K modifies its cloud radiative effect by 2 W m-2. Similarly, the longwave cloud radiative effect of optically thin clouds can be derived from their top and base altitudes and an estimate of their emissivity. We show with radiative transfer simulations that these relationships hold true at single atmospheric column scale, on the scale of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instantaneous footprint, and at monthly mean 2° × 2° scale. Opaque clouds cover 35 % of the ice-free ocean and contribute to 73 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. Thin-cloud coverage is 36 % and contributes 27 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated provides a simple formulation of the cloud radiative effect in the longwave domain and so helps us to

  18. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  19. RAFOS Float Processing at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wooding, Christine M; Furey, Heather H; Pachece, Marguerite A

    2005-01-01

    This report and its accompanying web page (http://www.whoi.edu/science/PO/rafos/) describe the processing steps for RAFOS floats, from subscribing to Service Argos to plotting the final data for a data report...

  20. WindFloat Pacific Project, Final Scientific and Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banister, Kevin [Principle Power, Inc., Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2017-01-17

    PPI’s WindFloat Pacific project (WFP) was an up to 30 MW floating offshore wind demonstration project proposed off the Coast of Oregon. The project was to be sited approximately 18 miles due west of Coos Bay, in over 1000 ft. of water, and is the first floating offshore wind array proposed in the United States, and the first offshore wind project of any kind proposed off the West Coast. PPI’s WindFloat, a semi-submersible foundation designed for high-capacity (6MW+) offshore wind turbines, is at the heart of the proposed project, and enables access to the world class wind resource at the project site and, equally, to other deep water, high wind resource areas around the country.

  1. Herbal carrier-based floating microparticles of diltiazem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various physicochemical properties of the floating microspheres were characterized, including drug content, particle ... develop the delivery system. Keywords: Diltiazem, Cardiac disease, Psyllium husk, Sodium alginate, Microsphere, Microparticle, ... mechanical strength of the microparticles was improved by gentle stirring ...

  2. Floating Cities: ‘we have a dream to realize’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. de Graaf; ir. Floris Boogaard

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental new approach to urban development is needed for the challenges of the 21st century. Floating houses and cities can accommodate future urbanization without sacrificing land and provide a sustainable living.

  3. Multifractal analysis of managed and independent float exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stošić, Darko; Stošić, Dusan; Stošić, Tatijana; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-06-01

    We investigate multifractal properties of daily price changes in currency rates using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We analyze managed and independent floating currency rates in eight countries, and determine the changes in multifractal spectrum when transitioning between the two regimes. We find that after the transition from managed to independent float regime the changes in multifractal spectrum (position of maximum and width) indicate an increase in market efficiency. The observed changes are more pronounced for developed countries that have a well established trading market. After shuffling the series, we find that the multifractality is due to both probability density function and long term correlations for managed float regime, while for independent float regime multifractality is in most cases caused by broad probability density function.

  4. Review of radiological problems of floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodd, T.

    1982-01-01

    Radiological problems associated with floating nuclear power plants under both normal operation and accident conditions are discussed. In the latter case, aspects of both the airborne and liquid pathways are reviewed

  5. Can Heavier Liquid Float on Top of a Lighter One?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyad, A. H.; Takrori, F.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a first observation of a floating spherical Hg (density 13 g/cm 3 ) drop on top of a glycerin (density 1.26 g/cm 3 ) drop, the latter is hemispherical and about four times larger in volume. This observation is clearly against nature's gravity law and has never been reported before. Here we present spectacular high resolution photos that clearly demonstrate this remarkable floating phenomenon. Using milli-Q water, the Hg drop would stay down adhered at the triple line. Instead, the coincidental use of tap water displays the same phenomenon. Increasing the volume of the supporting liquid to a certain value causes the Hg drop to sink. A 5-M NaCl aqueous solution is found enough to show the same floating phenomenon. This floating mercury as a phenomenon is puzzling. On this length scale it seems that surface tension and curvature dominate over gravity. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  6. Detection of EASs at high altitude with ARGO-YBJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sciascio, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking for about 5 years at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm 2 ). With a duty-cycle greater than 86% the detector collected about 5×10 11 events in a wide energy range, from few hundreds GeV up to about 10 PeV. Exploiting the full coverage approach with a high segmentation of the readout at high altitude, ARGO-YBJ imaged the front of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) with unprecedented resolution and detail. A number of important problems in galactic cosmic ray physics has been faced through different analyses. In this contribution we summarize the latest results in gamma-ray astronomy and in cosmic ray physics. (paper)

  7. Altitude Registration of Limb-Scattered Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Leslie; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jaross, Glen; Loughman, Robert; Kramarova, Natalya; Chen, Zhong; Taha, Ghassan; Chen, Grace; Xu, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    One of the largest constraints to the retrieval of accurate ozone profiles from UV backscatter limb sounding sensors is altitude registration. Two methods, the Rayleigh scattering attitude sensing (RSAS) and absolute radiance residual method (ARRM), are able to determine altitude registration to the accuracy necessary for long-term ozone monitoring. The methods compare model calculations of radiances to measured radiances and are independent of onboard tracking devices. RSAS determines absolute altitude errors, but, because the method is susceptible to aerosol interference, it is limited to latitudes and time periods with minimal aerosol contamination. ARRM, a new technique introduced in this paper, can be applied across all seasons and altitudes. However, it is only appropriate for relative altitude error estimates. The application of RSAS to Limb Profiler (LP) measurements from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite indicates tangent height (TH) errors greater than 1 km with an absolute accuracy of +/-200 m. Results using ARRM indicate a approx. 300 to 400m intra-orbital TH change varying seasonally +/-100 m, likely due to either errors in the spacecraft pointing or in the geopotential height (GPH) data that we use in our analysis. ARRM shows a change of approx. 200m over 5 years with a relative accuracy (a long-term accuracy) of 100m outside the polar regions.

  8. Sprite initiation altitude measured by triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Haaland, R.; McHarg, M. G.; Hensley, B. A.; Kanmae, T.

    2010-03-01

    High time resolution (10,000 frames per second) images of sprites combined with multistation concurrent video recordings have provided data for triangulation of the altitude of the initial sprite onset. The high-speed images were obtained from the Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, during summer campaigns in 2007 and 2008 with video observations from sites at Portales, New Mexico, and Las Vegas, New Mexico. Sprites start with one or more downward-propagating streamer heads. The triangulated onset altitudes of this initial downward streamer vary between 66 and 89 km. In some sprites the downward streamers are followed a little later by upward-propagating streamers. The upward streamers start from a lower altitude and existing luminous sprite structures and their triangulated altitudes vary from 64 to 78 km. The downward streamers create C sprite characteristics, while the upward streamers form the broad diffuse tops of carrot sprites. In the sprites analyzed the higher onset altitudes for the downward-propagating initial streamers were associated with C sprites and the lower with carrot sprites, but our larger data set indicates that this is not generally the case. It appears that the dominant sprite types vary from year to year, indicating that some longer-lasting environmental parameter, such as mesospheric conductivity and composition or thunderstorm cloud dynamics, may play an important role in determining the types of sprites observed.

  9. Altitude, gun ownership, rural areas, and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namkug; Mickelson, Jennie B; Brenner, Barry E; Haws, Charlotte A; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-01-01

    The authors recently observed a correlation between state altitude and suicide rate in the United States, which could be explained by higher rates of gun ownership and lower population density in the intermountain West. The present study evaluated the relationship between mean county and state altitude in the United States and total age-adjusted suicide rates, firearm-related suicide rates, and non-firearm-related suicide rates. The authors hypothesized that altitude would be significantly associated with suicide rate. Elevation data were calculated with an approximate spatial resolution of 0.5 km, using zonal statistics on data sets compiled from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Suicide and population density data were obtained through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER database. Gun ownership data were obtained through the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. A significant positive correlation was observed between age-adjusted suicide rate and county elevation (r=0.51). Firearm (r=0.41) and non-firearm suicide rates (r=0.32) were also positively correlated with mean county elevation. When altitude, gun ownership, and population density are considered as predictor variables for suicide rates on a state basis, altitude appears to be a significant independent risk factor. This association may be related to the effects of metabolic stress associated with mild hypoxia in individuals with mood disorders.

  10. Dynamic characteristics between waves and a floating cylindrical body connected to a tension-leg mooring cable placed in a simulated offshore environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhun Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapid progress made in understanding the dynamics of an offshore floating body in an ocean environment, the present study aimed to simulate ocean waves in a small-sized wave flume and to observe the motion of a cylindrical floating body placed in an offshore environment. To generate regular ocean waves in a wave flume, we combined a wave generator and a wave absorber. In addition, to precisely visualise the oscillation of the body, a set of light-emitting diode illuminators and a high-speed charge-coupled device camera were installed in the flume. This study also focuses on the spectral analysis of the movement of the floating body. The wave generator and absorbers worked well to simulate stable regular waves. In addition, the simulated waves agreed well with the plane waves predicted by shallow-water theory. As the period of the oncoming waves changed, the movement of the floating body was substantially different when tethered to a tension-leg mooring cable. In particular, when connected to the tension-leg mooring cable, the natural frequency of the floating body appeared suddenly at 0.391 Hz as the wave period increased.

  11. Determination of bacterial and fungal numbers in floats of pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... skim milk or 2% Tween 80 were used to detect proteolytic and lipolytic activity, respectively. While the media containing 0, 10, 15 and 25% NaCl were used to count micro-organisms in the main soaking float and the media containing 0, 5 and 10% NaCl for all other pre-tanning processes floats. pH values of ...

  12. Entropie analysis of floating car data systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gössel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the actual traffic state is a basic prerequisite of modern traffic telematic systems. Floating Car Data (FCD systems are becoming more and more important for the provision of actual and reliable traffic data. In these systems the vehicle velocity is the original variable for the evaluation of the current traffic condition. As real FCDsystems are operating under conditions of limited transmission and processing capacity the analysis of the original variable vehicle speed is of special interest. Entropy considerations are especially useful for the deduction of fundamental restrictions and limitations. The paper analyses velocity-time profiles by means of information entropy. It emphasises in quantification of the information content of velocity-time profiles and the discussion of entropy dynamic in velocity-time profiles. Investigations are based on empirical data derived during field trials. The analysis of entropy dynamic is carried out in two different ways. On one hand velocity differences within a certain interval of time are used, on the other hand the transinformation between velocities in certain time distances was evaluated. One important result is an optimal sample-rate for the detection of velocity data in FCD-systems. The influence of spatial segmentation and of different states of traffic was discussed.

  13. Enhancing Water Evaporation with Floating Synthetic Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, Jonathan; Vieitez, Joshua; Berrier, Austin; Roseveare, Matthew; Shi, Weiwei

    2017-11-01

    When a wetted nanoporous medium is exposed to a subsaturated ambient environment, the water menisci assume a concave curvature to achieve a negative pressure. This negative water pressure is required to balance the mismatch in water activity across the water-air interface to achieve local equilibrium. Here, we show that the diffusive evaporation rate of water can be greatly modulated by floating a nanoporous synthetic leaf at the water's free interface. For high ambient humidities, adding the leaf serves to enhance the evaporation rate, presumably by virtue of the menisci enhancing the effective liquid-vapor surface area. For low humidities, the menisci cannot achieve a local equilibrium and retreat partway into the leaf, which increases the local humidity directly above the menisci. In light of these two effects, we find the surprising result that leaves exposed to an ambient humidity of 90 percent can evaporate water at the same rate as leaves exposed to only 50 percent humidity. These findings have implications for using synthetic trees to enhance steam generation or water harvesting. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1653631).

  14. Evaluation of floating impeller phenomena in a Gyro centrifugal pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Ikuya; Ichikawa, S; Mikami, M; Ishitoya, H; Motomura, T; Kawamura, M; Linneweber, J; Glueck, J; Shinohara, T; Nosé, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Gyro centrifugal pump developed as a totally implantable artificial heart was designed with a free impeller, in which the rotational shaft (male bearing) of the impeller was completely separated from the female bearing. For this type of pump, it is very important to keep the proper magnet balance (impeller-magnet and actuator-magnet) in order to prevent thrombus formation and/or bearing wear. When the magnet balance is not proper, the impeller is jerked down into the bottom bearing. On the other hand, if magnet balance is proper, the impeller lifted off the bottom of the pump housing within a certain range of pumping conditions. In this study, this floating phenomenon was investigated in detail. The floating phenomenon was proved by observation of the impeller behavior using a transparent acrylic pump. The impeller floating phenomenon was mapped on a pump performance curve. The impeller floating phenomenon is affected by the magnet-magnet coupling distance and rotational speed of the impeller. In order to keep the proper magnet balance and to maintain the impeller floating phenomenon at the driving condition of right and left pump, the magnet-magnet coupling distance was altered by a spacer which was installed between the pump and actuator. It became clear that the same pump could handle different conditions (right and left ventricular assist), by just changing the thickness of the spacer. When magnet balance is proper, the floating impeller phenomenon occurs automatically in response to the impeller rev. It is called "the dynamic RPM suspension".

  15. Altitude retinopathy on Mount Everest, 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, F K; Harris, D J; Reynolds, R D

    1992-05-01

    The authors studied prospectively the incidence of and risk factors for high altitude retinal hemorrhages among 14 members of the 1989 American Everest Expedition. All subjects had comprehensive eye examinations and fundus photography performed at sea level before the expedition and again at the Mt. Everest Base Camp after 6 weeks of exposure to altitudes between 5300 and 8200 meters. Asymptomatic intraretinal hemorrhages were found in five eyes of four climbers. An additional eye of one of these climbers had a central retinal vein occlusion with vitreous hemorrhage, which reduced visual acuity to counting fingers. Higher baseline intraocular pressure and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were found to be significant risk factors for development of altitude retinopathy.

  16. Paschen Considerations for High Altitude Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. C.; Hillard, G. B.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there have been several proposals submitted to funding agencies for long-lived high altitude (about 70,000 feet) airships for communications, surveillance, etc. In order for these airships to remain at altitude, high power, high efficiency, lightweight solar arrays must be used, and high efficiency power management and distribution systems must be employed. The needs for high power and high efficiency imply high voltage systems. However, the air pressure at these extreme altitudes is such that electrical power systems will be near the Paschen discharge minimum over a wide range of electrode separations. In this paper, preliminary calculations are made for acceptable high voltage design practices under ambient, hydrogen and helium gas atmospheres.

  17. Atmospheric electron flux at airplane altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, R.; Chiba, J.; Ogawa, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Kifune, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Nishimura, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a new detector to systematically measure the cosmic-ray electron flux at airplane altitudes. We loaded a lead-glass-based electron telescope onto a commercial cargo airplane. The first experiment was carried out using the air route between Narita (Japan) and Sydney (Australia); during this flight we measured the electron flux at various altitudes and latitudes. The thresholds of the electron energies were 1, 2, and 4 GeV. The results agree with a simple estimation using one-dimensional shower theory. A comparison with a Monte Carlo calculation was made

  18. Stable computation of generalized singular values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmac, Z.; Jessup, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study floating-point computation of the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of a general matrix pair (A, B), where A and B are real matrices with the same numbers of columns. The GSVD is a powerful analytical and computational tool. For instance, the GSVD is an implicit way to solve the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem Kx = {lambda}Mx, where K = A{sup {tau}}A and M = B{sup {tau}}B. Our goal is to develop stable numerical algorithms for the GSVD that are capable of computing the singular value approximations with the high relative accuracy that the perturbation theory says is possible. We assume that the singular values are well-determined by the data, i.e., that small relative perturbations {delta}A and {delta}B (pointwise rounding errors, for example) cause in each singular value {sigma} of (A, B) only a small relative perturbation {vert_bar}{delta}{sigma}{vert_bar}/{sigma}.

  19. Position control of a floating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, K.; Hamamoto, T.; Sasaki, R.; Kojima, M.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of the increasing demand of electricity in Japan, the sites of nuclear power plants suitable for conventional seismic regulations become severely limited. Under these circumstances, several types of advanced siting technology have been developed. Among them, floating power plants have a great advantage of seismic isolation that leads to the seismic design standardization and factory fabrication. The feasibility studies or preliminary designs of floating power plants enclosed by breakwaters in the shallow sea have been carried out last two decades in U.S. and Japan. On the other hand, there are few investigations on the dynamic behavior of floating power plants in the deep sea. The offshore floating nuclear power plants have an additional advantage in that large breakwaters are not required, although the safety checking is inevitable against wind-induced waves. The tension-leg platforms which have been constructed for oil drilling in the deep sea seem to be a promising offshore siting technology of nuclear power plants. The tension-leg mooring system can considerably restrain the heave and pitch of a floating power plant because of significant stiffness in the vertical direction. Different from seismic effects, wind-induced waves may be predicted in advance by making use of ocean weather forecasts using artificial satellites. According to the wave prediction, the position of the floating plant may be controlled by adjusting the water content in ballast tanks and the length of tension-legs before the expected load arrives. The position control system can reduce the wave force acting on the plant and to avoid the unfavorable response behavior of the plant. In this study a semi-submerged circular cylinder with tension-legs is considered as a mathematical model. The configuration of circular cylinder is effective because the dynamic behavior does not depend on incident wave directions. It is also unique in that it can obtain the closed-form solution of

  20. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  1. Free-floating atmospheric pressure ball plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurden, G. A.; Ticos, C.; Wang, Z.; Wurden, C. J. V.

    2007-11-01

    A long-lived (0.3 second, 10-20 cm diameter) ball plasma floating in the air above a water surface has been formed and studied in the laboratory. A 0.4 - 1 mF capacitor is charged to 4-5 kV, and subsequently discharged (30-60 Amps, 20-50 msec duration) into central copper cathode held fixed just below the surface of a bucket of water (with a weak solution of various salts in distilled water, such as CuSO4 or CuCl2, LiCl or NaCl). An underwater ring anode completes the circuit. A bubble of hot vapor from the water surface rises up in the first few milliseconds, and changes from a mushroom cloud with stalk, to a detached quasi-spherical object, finally evolving into a vortex ring. The plasma consists of ionized water vapor, with positive salts and OH- radicals, as well as molecular species, and it completely excludes nitrogen or oxygen from the rising plasma structure. A fine boundary layer is visible in orange, in contrast to a green ball interior when using Cu/CuSO4, and filamentary structures are visible at late times. Finally, a whisp of smoke ring is observed as a residue. A variety of visible and infrared imaging (both video and still cameras) are used, along with 200-800 nm time & space resolved spectroscopy, to identify features of this laboratory analog to ball lightning. Possible applications include a windowless ball- plasma powered pulsed copper vapor laser operating at 510 nm.

  2. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Islands floating and moving on a lake naturally were already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia almost two millennia ago. Actually, he devoted a whole chapter of Naturalis historia to "Of Islands Ever Floating and Swimming", reporting how certain isles were always waving and never stood still. The status of "flotant" has been defined transitory; in fact, these small isles often disappear, in most of the cases because of a transition from floating island to firm land during decades is likely to happen. That is why most of the floating islands described by Pliny the Elder (e.g., Lacus Fundanus, Lacus Cutiliensis, Lacus Mutinensis, Lacus Statoniensis, Lacus Tarquiniensis, Lydia Calaminae, Lacus Vadimonis) do not exist anymore. In the present study, peat formation and organic matter evolution were investigated in order to understand how these peculiar environments form, and how stable actually they are. In fact, it is hoped that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of organic sediments isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island formed ca. 700 yrs ago (620±30 yr BP). The top 100 cm, consisting almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, show a very low bulk density (avg., 0.03±0.01 g cm-3

  3. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Woo; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Youngeun; Hong, Seung-Han; Kim, Soohwaun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Shin, Dong Chun; Lim, Youngwook

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.

  4. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Woo Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.

  5. Pengaruh Frekuensi Melihat Iklan Floating terhadap Tingkat Kesadaran Merek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forddhanto Bimantoro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Floating ad  is online advertisement aiming to stimulate brand awareness by increasing familiarity through reexposing advertisement. This research examines the influence of ARCO Depok members’ exposure of floating ad at www.detik.com to their brand awareness about Samsung LED TV. The frequency of consuming the advertisement is differentiated into three categories, namely three times, five times and never. The result shows that the respondents’ exposure of floating ad could influence the level of brand awareness as much as 40.7%. However, this tendency was not represented in the category of five times. The result also shows that the only control variable which was able to significantly influence the level of brand awareness was the variable of respondents’ visitation to the site of detik.com. Abstrak: Iklan floating merupakan iklan di media internet yang bertujuan mencapai kesadaran merek dengan cara meningkatkan familiarity melalui frekuensi pengulangan iklan. Frekuensi melihat iklan floating dibedakan  dengan memilah kelompok responden yang dikenai frekuensi melihat iklan 3 kali, 5 kali dan tidak melihat iklan. Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh frekuensi melihat iklan floating di www.detik.com terhadap tingkat kesadaran merek Samsung LED TV pada warga ARCO Depok, Jawa Barat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa frekuensi melihat iklan floating dapat mempengaruhi tingkat kesadaran merek sebesar 40,7%; namun tidak terbukti pada kelompok yang melihat iklan sebanyak lima kali. Variabel kontrol yang mampu mempengaruhi tingkat kesadaran merek secara signifikan hanya variabel kunjungan responden ke detik.com.Â

  6. High-Altitude Cirrus Clouds and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-12-03

    Dec 3, 2002 ... High-Altitude Cirrus Clouds and Climate. S Veerabuthiran. Introduction. Clouds are aesthetically appealing. Without them, there would be no rain or snow, thunder or lightning, rainbows or halos. A cloud is a visible aggregate of tiny water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air. Most clouds result from ...

  7. Menstrual history in altitude chamber trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, J U; Workman, W T

    1992-07-01

    Previous studies have determined a higher rate of altitude-induced decompression sickness (DCS) in women than in men. Women are reportedly at higher risk for developing DCS during menses. A study of menstrual history in women completing altitude chamber training without developing DCS has never been accomplished. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze menstrual history in these women. Thirteen U.S. Air Force Aerospace Physiology Units participated in a USAF-approved survey for 1 year. After completing altitude chamber flights, data on age, day of menstrual cycle (DMC), birth control pill use (BCP), and mean durations of menstrual cycle and menses were collected. There were 508 responses analyzed. There was no differences between mean duration of menstrual cycle and menses in the Yes (Y) and No (N) BCP groups. Y and N BCP groups were equally distributed across the menstrual cycle. Women completing altitude chamber training without developing DCS appear to be evenly distributed across their menstrual cycle, with use of BCPs not affecting their susceptibility to DCS.

  8. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-06-18

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  9. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH, “live high, train low” (LH-TL or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT. Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  10. Physiology of High-Altitude Acclimatization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    alkalosis due to HVR is offset by increased excretion of sodium and bicarbonate ions in the urine and retention of hydrogen ions. (shifting towards acidosis). Hormonal responses play very important regulatory functions during high altitude exposure. Under this, the role of renin– angiotensin–aldosterone axis as an important ...

  11. Ocular morbidity among porters at high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyawali, Subodh; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Khanal, Safal; Dennis, Talisa; Spencer, John C

    2017-01-01

    High altitude, often characterized by settings over 2400m, can be detrimental to the human body and pose a significant risk to ocular health. Reports concerning various ocular morbidities occurring as a consequence of high altitude are limited in the current literature. This study was aimed at evaluating the ocular health of porters working at high altitudesof Himalayas in Nepal. A mobile eye clinic was set up in Ghat and patient data were collected from its out- patient unit by a team of seven optometrists which was run for five days. Ghat is a small village in north-eastern Nepal, located at 2860 m altitude. Travellers walking through the trekking route were invited to get their eyes checked at the clinic. Comprehensive ocular examinations were performed, including visual acuities, objective and subjective refraction, anterior and posterior segment evaluations, and intraocular pressure measurements; blood pressure and blood glucose levels were also measured as required. Ocular therapeutics, prescription glasses, sunglasses and ocular health referrals were provided free of cost as necessary. A total of 1890 people visited the eye clinic, among which 57.4% (n=1084) were porters. Almost half of the porters had an ocular morbidity. Correctable refractive error was most prevalent, with other ocular health-related complications, including dry eye disease, infectious disorders, glaucoma and cataract. Proper provision of regular and effective eye care services should be made more available for those residing at these high altitudes in Nepal. © NEPjOPH.

  12. Mesenteric ischemia, high altitude and Hill's criteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia in high altitude of southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Ann Afr Med 2012;11: 5-10. Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None declared. .... Relocation of residence to sea level, which in most cases in this area involves a distance of less than 50 km such as from Abha to. Ad Darb or ...

  13. High altitude pulmonary edema among "Amarnath Yatris"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz A Koul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual pilgrimage (Yatra to the cave shrine of Shri Amarnath Ji′ is a holy ritual among the Hindu devotees of Lord Shiva. Located in the Himalayan Mountain Range (altitude 13,000 ft in south Kashmir, the shrine is visited by thousands of devotees and altitude sickness is reportedly common. Materials and Methods: More than 600,000 pilgrims visited the cave shrine in 2011 and 2012 with 239 recorded deaths. Thirty one patients with suspected altitude sickness were referred from medical centers en-route the cave to Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary-care center in capital Srinagar (5,000 ft. The clinical features and the response to treatment were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients (all lowlanders, 19 male; age 18-60 years, median 41 had presented with acute onset breathlessness of 1-4 days (median 1.9 d starting within 12-24 h of a rapid ascent; accompanied by cough (68%, headache (8%, dizziness and nausea (65%. Sixteen patients had associated encephalopathy. Clinical features on admission included tachypnea ( n = 31, tachycardia ( n = 23, bilateral chest rales ( n = 29, cyanosis ( n = 22 and grade 2-4 encephalopathy. Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 24 cases and bilateral infiltrates on radiologic imaging in 29. Ten patients had evidence of high-altitude cerebral edema. All patients were managed with oxygen, steroids, nifedipine, sildenafil and other supportive measures including invasive ventilation ( n = 3. Three patients died due to multiorgan dysfunction. Conclusions: Altitude sickness is common among Amaranath Yatris from the plains and appropriate educational strategies should be invoked for prevention and prompt treatment.

  14. Application of Floating Photovoltaic Energy Generation Systems in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate air pollution problems caused mainly by the excessive emission of carbon dioxide, in 2012, the South Korean government decided to introduce a renewable portfolio standards (RPS program that requires electricity providers to gradually increase their production of renewable energy. In order to meet the government’s target through this RPS program, electricity providers in Korea have looked to various types of new and renewable energy resources, such as biomass, wind, and solar. Recently, floating photovoltaic (PV systems have attracted increased interest in Korea as a desirable renewable energy alternative. This paper provides a discussion of recent research into floating PV systems and the installation of floating PV power plants in Korea from 2009 to 2014. To date, thirteen floating PV power plants have been installed in Korea, and several plans are underway by many different organizations, including government-funded companies, to install more floating PV power plants with various generation capacities. These building trends are expected to continue due to the Korean government’s RPS program.

  15. Free-floating planets from microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Takahiro

    2014-06-01

    Gravitational microlensing has an unique sensitivity to exoplanets at outside of the snow-line and even exoplanets unbound to any host stars because the technique does not rely on any light from the host but the gravity of the lens. MOA and OGLE collaborations reported the discovery of a population of unbound or distant Jupiter-mass objects, which are almost twice (1.8_{-0.8}^{+1.7}) as common as main-sequence stars, based on two years of gravitational microlensing survey observations toward the Galactic Bulge. These planetary-mass objects have no host stars that can be detected within about ten astronomical units by gravitational microlensing. However a comparison with constraints from direct imaging suggests that most of these planetary-mass objects are not bound to any host star. The such short-timescale unbound planetary candidates have been detected with the similar rate in on-going observations and these groups are working to update the analysis with larger statistics. Recently, there are also discoveries of free-floating planetary mass objects by the direct imaging in young star-forming regions and in the moving groups, but these objects are limited to massive objects of 3 to 15 Jupiter masses.They are more massive than the population found by microlensing. So they may be a different population with the different formation process, either similar with that of stars and brown dwarfs, or formed in proto-planetary disks and subsequently scattered into unbound or very distant orbits. It is important to fill the gap of these mass ranges to fully understand these populations. The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is the highest ranked recommendation for a large space mission in the recent New Worlds, New Horizons (NWNH) in Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey. Exoplanet microlensing program is one of the primary science of WFIRST. WFIRST will find about 3000 bound planets and 2000 unbound planets by the high precision continuous survey 15 min

  16. Viscous effects on the interaction of granular particles with floating oils in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Boglaienko, Daria

    2018-07-01

    Light hydrophobic liquids (LHLs) can be submerged in water with granular particles by forming particle encapsulated liquid sacks. Formation and submergence of granular encapsulated LHL sacks can be an effective method for capturing and controlling the fate of floating oils. However, formation characteristics of the LHL sacks and effect of LHL viscosity on their behavior are not well understood. In this study, we examined the encapsulation characteristics of LHL sacks depending on liquid viscosity. Silicone oils with viscosities ranging from 10cSt to 1000cSt were used as the LHLs. Sand with two different particle sizes (40-100mesh and 20-30mesh) were used as the granular particles. The submerged LHL sacks were stable and remained separate from each other without collapsing or aggregating over time. They could be moved in water by sliding while keeping their encapsulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Optimization of pentacene double floating gate memories based on charge injection regulated by SAM functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Guérin, D.; Lenfant, S.; Lmimouni, K.

    2018-02-01

    Pentacene based double nano-floating gate memories (NFGM) by using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets as charge trapping layers are prepared and demonstrated. Particularly, the NFGM chemically treated by 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzenethiol (PFBT) self-assembled monolayers (SAM) exhibits excellent memory performances, including high mobility of 0.23 cm2V-1s-1, the large memory window of 51 V, and the stable retention property more than 108 s. Comparing the performances of NFGM without treating with PFBT SAM, the improving performances of the memory devices by SAM modification are explained by the increase of charge injection, which could be further investigated by XPS and UPS. In particular, the results highlight the utility of SAM modulations and controlling of charge transport in the development of organic transistor memories.

  18. Optimization of pentacene double floating gate memories based on charge injection regulated by SAM functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pentacene based double nano-floating gate memories (NFGM by using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO sheets as charge trapping layers are prepared and demonstrated. Particularly, the NFGM chemically treated by 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzenethiol (PFBT self-assembled monolayers (SAM exhibits excellent memory performances, including high mobility of 0.23 cm2V-1s-1, the large memory window of 51 V, and the stable retention property more than 108 s. Comparing the performances of NFGM without treating with PFBT SAM, the improving performances of the memory devices by SAM modification are explained by the increase of charge injection, which could be further investigated by XPS and UPS. In particular, the results highlight the utility of SAM modulations and controlling of charge transport in the development of organic transistor memories.

  19. Observing the seasonal cycle of the upper ocean in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, with autonomous profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. F.; Springer, S. R.; Padman, L.; Fricker, H. A.; Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The upper layers of the Southern Ocean where it meets the Antarctic ice sheet undergoes a large seasonal cycle controlled by surface radiation and by freshwater fluxes, both of which are strongly influenced by sea ice. In regions where seasonal sea ice and icebergs limit use of ice-tethered profilers and conventional moorings, autonomous profiling floats can sample the upper ocean. The deployment of seven Apex floats (by sea) and six ALAMO floats (by air) provides unique upper ocean hydrographic data in the Ross Sea close to the Ross Ice Shelf front. A novel choice of mission parameters - setting parking depth deeper than the seabed - limits their drift, allowing us to deploy the floats close to the ice shelf front, while sea ice avoidance algorithms allow the floats to to sample through winter under sea ice. Hydrographic profiles show the detailed development of the seasonal mixed layer close to the Ross front, and interannual variability of the seasonal mixed layer and deeper water masses on the central Ross Sea continental shelf. After the sea ice breakup in spring, a warm and fresh surface mixed layer develops, further warming and deepening throughout the summer. The mixed layer deepens, with maximum temperatures exceeding 0ºC in mid-February. By March, the surface energy budget becomes negative and sea ice begins to form, creating a cold, saline and dense surface layer. Once these processes overcome the stable summer stratification, convection erodes the surface mixed layer, mixing some heat downwards to deeper layers. There is considerable interannual variability in the evolution and strength of the surface mixed layer: summers with shorter ice-free periods result in a cooler and shallower surface mixed layer, which accumulates less heat than the summers with longer ice-free periods. Early ice breakup occurred in all floats in 2016/17 summer, enhancing the absorbed solar flux leading to a warmer surface mixed layer. Together, these unique measurements from

  20. CAMEX-4 ER-2 HIGH ALTITUDE DROPSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 ER-2 High Altitude Dropsonde dataset was collected by the ER-2 High Altitude Dropsonde System (EHAD), which used dropwinsondes fitted with Global...

  1. GRIP HIGH-ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP High-Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) dataset was collectd by the High Altitude monolithic microwave integrated Circuit (MMIC) Sounding Radiometer...

  2. Develop of a generator of current impulses with floating electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Diana; Velasquez, Augusto; Roman Francisco

    1999-01-01

    Under very defined conditions, the floating electrodes have the property of generating repetitive current impulses and of constant energy, which can have diverse electric applications. One of these applications is described in this paper: The construction of a prototype generates of repetitive impulses of current, of constant energy, with floating electrodes. In the design it was defined the available energy for the discharge starting from the capacity of the floating electrode. The distances inter-electrodes they were obtained starting from the field's electric disruptive. Once it determines two the electric parameters; the generator were modeled with the program A TP/EMTP. In this article the results of the modeling and the obtained mensurations of the currents are presented and the generator prototype

  3. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) floats for surveillance of Ochlerotatus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jamesina J; Crans, Wayne J

    2003-12-01

    Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) were placed in a variety of habitats to investigate their potential as an egg-collection device for container-dwelling Aedes and Ochlerotatus species. Eggs from Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. triseriatus, Oc. hendersoni, and Aedes albopictus were collected with EPS floats. The float provides an inexpensive, low-maintenance alternative to the Centers for Disease Control ovitrap for sampling container-dwelling mosquito species that are important vectors of disease. Eggs collected on the floats have many potential applications, including use in routine population surveillance; detection of Oc. japonicus, Ae. albopictus, and other container-dwelling species in new areas; species distribution studies; natural transovarial transmission studies; ovipositional studies; collection of local field populations for insecticide resistance assays; assessment of adulticiding efficacy; and establishment of new laboratory colonies.

  4. Numerical modelling of floating debris in the world's oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, L C-M; Greer, S D; Borrero, J C

    2012-03-01

    A global ocean circulation model is coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking model to simulate 30 years of input, transport and accumulation of floating debris in the world ocean. Using both terrestrial and maritime inputs, the modelling results clearly show the formation of five accumulation zones in the subtropical latitudes of the major ocean basins. The relative size and concentration of each clearly illustrate the dominance of the accumulation zones in the northern hemisphere, while smaller seas surrounded by densely populated areas are also shown to have a high concentration of floating debris. We also determine the relative contribution of different source regions to the total amount of material in a particular accumulation zone. This study provides a framework for describing the transport, distribution and accumulation of floating marine debris and can be continuously updated and adapted to assess scenarios reflecting changes in the production and disposal of plastic worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical investigation of floating breakwater movement using SPH method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafi-Jilani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the movement pattern of a floating breakwater is numerically analyzed using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH method as a Lagrangian scheme. At the seaside, the regular incident waves with varying height and period were considered as the dynamic free surface boundary conditions. The smooth and impermeable beach slope was defined as the bottom boundary condition. The effects of various boundary conditions such as incident wave characteristics, beach slope, and water depth on the movement of the floating body were studied. The numerical results are in good agreement with the available experimental data in the literature The results of the movement of the floating body were used to determine the transmitted wave height at the corresponding boundary conditions

  6. Investigation of Tank 241-AN-101 Floating Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Douglas P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, VA (United States); Meznarich, H. K. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, VA (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Tank 241-AN-101 is the receiver tank for retrieval of several C-Farms waste tanks, including Tanks 241-C-102 and 241-C-111. Tank 241 C 111 received first-cycle decontamination waste from the bismuth phosphate process and Plutonium and Uranium Extraction cladding waste, as well as hydraulic fluid. Three grab samples, 1AN-16-01, 1AN-16-01A, and 1AN-16-01B, were collected at the surface of Tank 241-AN-101 on April 25, 2016, after Tank 241-C-111 retrieval was completed. Floating solids were observed in the three grab samples in the 11A hot cell after the samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory. Routine chemical analyses, solid phase characterization on the floating and settled solids, semivolatile organic analysis mainly on the aqueous phase for identification of degradation products of hydraulic fluids were performed. Investigation of the floating solids is reported.

  7. Optimal Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. The use of floating structures for deeper waters is being explored. The control objective is a tradeoff between power capture and fatigue, especially that produced by the oscillations caused by the reduced...... structural stiffness of a floating installation in combination with a coupling between the fore–aft motion of the tower and the blade pitch. To address this problem, the present paper models a ballast-stabilized floating wind turbine, and suggests a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) in combination with a wind...... estimator and a state observer. The results are simulated using aero elastic code and analysed in terms of damage equivalent loads. When compared to a baseline controller, this controller clearly demonstrates better generator speed and power tracking while reducing fatigue loads....

  8. Capture of free-floating planets by planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulinski, Nadav; Ribak, Erez N.

    2018-01-01

    Evidence of exoplanets with orbits that are misaligned with the spin of the host star may suggest that not all bound planets were born in the protoplanetary disc of their current planetary system. Observations have shown that free-floating Jupiter-mass objects can exceed the number of stars in our Galaxy, implying that capture scenarios may not be so rare. To address this issue, we construct a three-dimensional simulation of a three-body scattering between a free-floating planet and a star accompanied by a Jupiter-mass bound planet. We distinguish between three different possible scattering outcomes, where the free-floating planet may get weakly captured after the brief interaction with the binary, remain unbound or 'kick out' the bound planet and replace it. The simulation was performed for different masses of the free-floating planets and stars, as well as different impact parameters, inclination angles and approach velocities. The outcome statistics are used to construct an analytical approximation of the cross-section for capturing a free-floating planet by fitting their dependence on the tested variables. The analytically approximated cross-section is used to predict the capture rate for these kinds of objects, and to estimate that about 1 per cent of all stars are expected to experience a temporary capture of a free-floating planet during their lifetime. Finally, we propose additional physical processes that may increase the capture statistics and whose contribution should be considered in future simulations in order to determine the fate of the temporarily captured planets.

  9. Flexible-hybrid sequential floating search in statistical feature selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somol, Petr; Novovičová, Jana; Pudil, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4109 (2006), s. 623-639 ISSN 0302-9743. [Joint IAPR International Workshops SSPR 2006 and SPR 2006. Hong Kong , 17.08.2006-19.08.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:Commision EU(XE) FP6507752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : feature selection * flexible-hybrid * sequential floating search Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/somol-flexible-hybrid sequential floating search in statistical feature selection.pdf

  10. Floating electrode microelectromechanical system capacitive switches: A different actuation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, G.; Giacomozzi, F.; Papandreou, E.; Margesin, B.

    2011-08-01

    The paper investigates the actuation mechanism in floating electrode microelectromechanical system capacitive switches. It is demonstrated that in the pull-in state, the device operation turns from voltage to current controlled actuation. The current arises from Poole-Frenkel mechanism in the dielectric film and Fowler-Nordheim in the bridge-floating electrode air gap. The pull-out voltage seems to arise from the abrupt decrease of Fowler-Nordheim electric field intensity. This mechanism seems to be responsible for the very small difference with respect to the pull-in voltage.

  11. Development of floating production systems for the new era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennesland, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Maritime Group will give a presentation of present and future trends within the floating production area. Based on the successful operation of Petrojarl 1 (Tentech 885) and now lately the Gryphon A (Tentech 850 C) operated by Kerr McGee a number of floating production systems are now under construction/design for North Sea applications. A status of three developments will be given with emphasize on field development scenarios and market opportunities for the vessels. Based on these on-going projects a discussion of future development trends and possibilities will be presented with special attention to making smaller North-Sea oil fields economically profitable

  12. The High Altitude Gamma Ray Observatory, HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M. M.

    2011-10-01

    The Volcano Sierra Negra in Puebla, Mexico was selected to host HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov), a unique obervatory of wide field of view (2π sr) capable of observing the sky continously at energies from 0.5 TeV to 100 TeV. HAWC is an array of 300 large water tanks (7.3 m diameter × 5 m depth) at an altitude of 4100 m. a. s. l. Each tank is instrumented with three upward-looking photomultipliers tubes. The full array will be capable of observing the most energetic gamma rays from the most violent events in the universe. HAWC will be 15 times more sensitive than its predecesor, Milagro. We present HAWC, the scientific case and capabilities.

  13. The yak genome and adaptation to life at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Qiang; Zhang, Guojie; Ma, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) provide meat and other necessities for Tibetans living at high altitude on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and in adjacent regions. Comparison between yak and the closely related low-altitude cattle (Bos taurus) is informative in studying animal adaptation to high altitude...

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of ionospheric currents-4: altitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (a) The continuous distribution of current density model reproduces the altitude distribution parameters of EEJ current density very well, (b) the altitude distribution parameters of EEJ current density in India and Peru are not significantly different and (c) The altitude distribution parameters of EEJ current density from rockets ...

  15. The effect of altitude hypoxia on glucose homeostasis in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J J; Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1997-01-01

    1. Exposure to altitude hypoxia elicits changes in glucose homeostasis with increases in glucose and insulin concentrations within the first few days at altitude. Both increased and unchanged hepatic glucose production (HGP) have previously been reported in response to acute altitude hypoxia...

  16. The effect of altitude hypoxia on glucose homeostasis in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J J; Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1997-01-01

    1. Exposure to altitude hypoxia elicits changes in glucose homeostasis with increases in glucose and insulin concentrations within the first few days at altitude. Both increased and unchanged hepatic glucose production (HGP) have previously been reported in response to acute altitude hypoxia. Ins...

  17. Thermodynamic constrains for life based on non-aqueous polar solvents on free-floating planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Viorel

    2011-02-01

    Free-floating planets (FFPs) might originate either around a star or in solitary fashion. These bodies can retain molecular gases atmospheres which, upon cooling, have basal pressures of tens of bars or more. Pressure-induced opacity of these gases prevents such a body from eliminating its internal radioactive heat and its surface temperature can exceed for a long term the melting temperature of a life-supporting solvent. In this paper two non-aqueous but still polar solvents are considered: hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Thermodynamic requirements to be fulfilled by a hypothetic gas constituent of a life-supporting FFP's atmosphere are studied. The three gases analyzed here (nitrogen, methane and ethane) are candidates. We show that bodies with ammonia oceans are possible in interstellar space. This may happen on FFPs of (significantly) smaller or larger mass than the Earth. Generally, in case of FFP smaller in size than the Earth, the atmosphere exhibits a convective layer near the surface and a radiative layer at higher altitudes while the atmosphere of FFPs larger in size than Earth does not exhibit a convective layer. The atmosphere mass of a life-hosting FFP of Earth size is two or three orders of magnitude larger than the mass of Earth atmosphere. For FFPs larger than the Earth and specific values of surface pressure and temperature, there are conditions for condensation (in the ethane atmosphere). Some arguments induce the conclusion than the associated surface pressures and temperatures should be treated with caution as appropriate life conditions.

  18. Magion-4 High-Altitude Cusp Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Merka, J.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Šimůnek, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1-3 (2005), s. 57-69 ISSN 0169-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/02/0947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : cusp-like plasma * dipole tilt angle * high-altitude cusp * magnetopause * magnetopause * reconnection Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2005

  19. HIGH ALTITUDES EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGIC BLOOD PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasim Rushiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach and the objective of this experiment are consistent with the determination of changes of blood parameters after the stay of the students at an altitude of 1800-2300 meters, for a ten-day long ski course. In this paper are included a total of 64 students of the Faculty of Sport Sciences in Prishtina, of the age group of 19-25 (the average age is 21. All students previously have undergone a medical check for TA, arterial pulse and respiratory rate. In particular, the health situation is of subjects was examined, then, all students, at the same time, gave blood for analysis. In this experiment, three main hematologic parameters were taken in consideration: such as hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells. The same analyses were carried out after the 10-day stay at a high altitude. The results of the experiment have shown significant changes after the ten-day stay at high altitude, despite the previous results that show changes only after the twenty-day stay in such elevations.

  20. Drag derived altitude aided navigation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua SONG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The navigation problem of the lifting reentry vehicles has attracted much research interest in the past decade. This paper researches the navigation in the blackout zone during the reentry phase of the aircraft, when the communication signals are attenuated and even interrupted by the blackout zone. However, when calculating altitude, a pure classic inertial navigation algorithm appears imprecise and divergent. In order to obtain a more precise aircraft altitude, this paper applies an integrated navigation method based on inertial navigation algorithms, which uses drag derived altitude to aid the inertial navigation during the blackout zone. This method can overcome the shortcomings of the inertial navigation system and improve the navigation accuracy. To further improve the navigation accuracy, the applicable condition and the main error factors, such as the atmospheric coefficient error and drag coefficient error are analyzed in detail. Then the damping circuit design of the navigation control system and the damping coefficients determination is introduced. The feasibility of the method is verified by the typical reentry trajectory simulation, and the influence of the iterative times on the accuracy is analyzed. Simulation results show that iterative three times achieves the best effect.

  1. Altitude variation of cosmic-ray neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Ohkubo, T.; Hara, A.

    1987-01-01

    The altitude variation of the cosmic-ray neutron energy spectrum and the dose equivalent rate was measured at an average geomagnetic latitude of 24 degrees N by using the high-efficiency multi-sphere neutron spectrometer and neutron dose-equivalent counter developed by the authors. The data were obtained from a 2-h flight over Japan on 27 February 1985. The neutron energy spectra measured at sea level and at altitudes of 4880 m and at 11,280 m were compared with the calculated spectra of O'Brien and with other experimental spectra, and they are in moderately good agreement with them. The dose equivalent rate increases according to a quadratic curve up to about 6000 m and then increases linearly between 6000 m and 11,280 m. The dependence of dose equivalent rates at sea level and at an altitude of 12,500 m on geomagnetic latitude also is given by referring to other experimental results

  2. Trajectory Control For High Altitude Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, K.; Nock, K.; Heun, M.; Wyszkowski, C.

    We will discuss the continuing development of the StratoSailTM Balloon Trajectory Control System presented at the 33rd COSPAR in 2000. A vertical wing suspended on a 15-km tether from a high altitude balloon uses the difference in wind velocity between the altitude of the balloon and the altitude of the wing to create an aerodynamic sideforce. This sideforce, transmitted to the balloon gondola via the tether, causes the balloon to move laterally. Although the balloon's resultant drift velocity is quite small (a few meters per second), the effect becomes significant over long periods of time (hours to days). Recently, a full-scale wing, rudder and boom assembly has been fabricated, a winch system testbed has been completed, and a lightweight tether with reduced susceptibility to ultraviolet damage has been developed. The development effort for this invention, with pending international patents, has been funded by the NASA/SBIR program in support of the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program.

  3. The response of pile-guided floats subjected to dynamic loading : volume I final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Pile : - : Guided floats can be a desirable alternative to stationary berthing structures. Both floats and guide piles are subjected to dynamic : forces such as wind generated waves and impacts from vessels. This project developed a rational basis fo...

  4. Comparative clinical study in plaque removal efficacy of a new sonic toothbrush (Float-Brush) with floating bristle action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Miki; Shizukuishi, Satoshi; Matsuo, Tadayuki; Kanesaki, Nobuo; Hanioka, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Floating action toothbrush bristles have been incorporated into a V-shaped sonic toothbrush. The base of the bristles moves down or up according to the pressure of the toothbrush being applied to a tooth surface. It was thought that this floating action with sonic vibration may generate new motion for increased plaque removal efficacy through increased contact between bristles and tooth surfaces. The objective of this investigation was to compare the plaque removal efficacy of a sonic toothbrush with floating bristle action (Float-Brush) to either a conventional V-shaped sonic toothbrush (Techno-Brush) or a manual toothbrush. A single-blind, three-treatment cross-over study was performed on 42 subjects. Each subject refrained from brushing for 24 hours, followed by assessment for dental plaque on the Ramfjord teeth employing the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index. Plaque removal efficacy was determined by the percentage of plaque score reduction in a single-use toothbrushing under supervision for two minutes. Forty participants completed this study. No significant difference in pre-brushing plaque scores was detected among the three toothbrushes. In the comparison of whole mouth mean scores, plaque removal efficacy of the Float-Brush (65.0%) was significantly higher than that of the Techno-Brush (59.1%, p = 0.0487) and the manual toothbrush (50.9%, p Brush was similar to whole mouth scores, when comparing the gumline and interproximal tooth area scores. These findings indicate the superiority of the Float-Brush for plaque removal compared to the Techno-Brush and the manual toothbrush.

  5. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  7. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  8. Floating Collection in an Academic Library: An Audacious Experiment That Succeeded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopey, Barbara; Eshbach, Barbara; Notartomas, Trish

    2016-01-01

    Can a floating collection thrive in a large multicampus academic research library? Floating collections have been successful in public libraries for some time, but it is uncommon for academic libraries and unheard of for a large academic library system. This article will discuss the investigation into the feasibility of a floating collection at…

  9. Sabrewing: A lightweight architecture for combined floating-point and integer arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruintjes, Tom; Walters, K.H.G.; Gerez, Sabih H.; Molenkamp, Egbert; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    In spite of the fact that floating-point arithmetic is costly in terms of silicon area, the joint design of hardware for floating-point and integer arithmetic is seldom considered. While components like multipliers and adders can potentially be shared, floating-point and integer units in

  10. Separating Internal Waves and Vortical Motions: Analysis of LatMix -EM-APEX Float Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    absolute velocity using GPS fixes for every surfacing of the floats and compared the processed absolute velocities to nearby ADCP shipboard data for...rate. The floats were programmed to rise to the surface at the same time. In addition to Slocum gliders and Lagrangian floats, three-ship ADCP , S, T

  11. Floating frame grounding system. [for wind tunnel static force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a floating frame grounding system (FFGS) for the 40- by 80-foot low speed wind tunnel facility at the NASA Ames Research Center National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex is addresssed. When electrical faults are detected, the FFGS ensures a ground path for the fault current. In addition, the FFGS alerts the tunnel operator when a mechanical foul occurs.

  12. Udpegning af potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splid Svendsen, Martin; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Lahrmann, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med dette paper er at undersøge, om det er muligt at udpege potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data. Der er i projektet udført teoretiske litteraturstudier for at skabe et grundlag for det senere analysearbejde, som danner baggrund for analysearbejdet. Dataene stammer fra Aalborg...

  13. Design Optimization and Evaluation of Gastric Floating Matrix Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    CP934P polymers for floating and release rate control. Sodium bicarbonate was added as a gas-generating agent (CO2) in the presence of gastric fluid. Glipizide was mixed with the required quantities of HPMC K4M, CP 934P and. Sodium bicarbonate by geometric mixing then mixture was blended with microcrystalline.

  14. Floating greenhouses : an expert system for integral design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.C.; Boer, de S.B.; Meijer, J.P.R.; Leppers, R.F.L.; Ruiter, de M.J.; Zevenbergen, C.

    2005-01-01

    The main advantages of floating greenhouses compared to greenhouses on solid ground are the possibilities for multiple use of space and for energy saving. As in the coming years large area¿s in the Netherlands will be necessary to create water storage, the capability to give these areas an

  15. Ranitidine Loaded Biopolymer Floats: Designing, Characterization, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The float formulation is a strategy to improve the bioavailability of drugs by gastroretentive drug delivery system (GRDDS. A drug delivery model based on swellable and reswellable low density biopolymers has been designed to evaluate its drug release profile using ranitidine (RNT as a model drug and formulations have been prepared utilizing 32 factorial designs. The drug release (DR data has been subjected to various kinetic models to investigate the DR mechanism. A reduction in rate has been observed by expanding the amounts of PSG and LSG parts, while an expansion has been noted by increasing the concentration of tragacanth (TG and citric acid (CA with an increment in floating time. The stearic acid (SA has been used to decrease the lag time because a decrease in density of system was observed. The kinetic analysis showed that the optimized formulation (S4F3 followed zero-order kinetics and power law was found to be best fitted due to its minimum lag time and maximum floating ability. The resemblance of observed and predicted values indicated the validity of derived equations for evaluating the effect of independent variables while kinetic study demonstrated that the applied models are feasible for evaluating and developing float for RNT.

  16. A floating trap for sampling downstream migrant fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. McLemore; Fred H. Everest; William R. Humphreys; Mario F. Solazzi

    1989-01-01

    Fishery scientists and managers are interested in obtaining information about downstream movements of fish species for biological and economic reasons. Different types of nets and traps have been used for this purpose with only partial success. The floating, self-cleaning downstream migrant trap described here proved successful for sampling several salmoniform and...

  17. Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    The formation of floating sulphur biofilm was observed in the microbial ecology studies of tannery ponds undertaken by the. Environmental Biotechnology Group at Rhodes University. This was related to the steep Redox gradients established at the air/ water interface of anaerobic, organically loaded and actively sulphate ...

  18. An Asynchronous IEEE Floating-Point Arithmetic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Noche

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An asynchronous floating-point arithmetic unit is designed and tested at the transistor level usingCadence software. It uses CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor and DCVS (differentialcascode voltage switch logic in a 0.35 µm process using a 3.3 V supply voltage, with dual-rail data andsingle-rail control signals using four-phase handshaking.Using 17,085 transistors, the unit handles single-precision (32-bit addition/subtraction, multiplication,division, and remainder using the IEEE 754-1985 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, withrounding and other operations to be handled by separate hardware or software. Division and remainderare done using a restoring subtractive algorithm; multiplication uses an additive algorithm. Exceptionsare noted by flags (and not trap handlers and the output is in single-precision.Previous work on asynchronous floating-point arithmetic units have mostly focused on single operationssuch as division. This is the first work to the authors' knowledge that can perform floating-point addition,multiplication, division, and remainder using a common datapath.

  19. Experimental testing of moorings for large floating wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a test campaign, which investigates the behaviour of a synthetic mooring system applied to the Floating Power Plant wave energy converter. The study investigates the motion and tension response under operational and extreme sea states expected at the deployment ...

  20. Development and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Curcumin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shape and surface morphology of the microspheres were characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Result: The floating microspheres showed particle size, buoyancy, drug entrapment efficiency and yield in the ranges of 251 - 387 µm, 74.6 - 90.6 %, and 72.6 - 83.5 %, and 45.5 - 82.0 %, respectively.

  1. The effect of floating houses on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rutten; R. Lima; R. de Graaf; E. Foka; ir. Floris Boogaard; N. van de Giesen

    2015-01-01

    The need of an adaptive sustainable solution for the increased land scarcity, growing urbanization, climate change and flood risks resulted in the concept of the floating urbanization. In The Netherlands this new type of housing attracted the interest of local authorities, municipalities and water

  2. Floating knee: epidemiology and results of treatment | Abalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Fraser's classification, there were 21 type I, 10 type IIa, 7 type IIb, and 5 type IIc. Most of the floating knee injuries were treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing for both the femur and tibia. The mean follow up was 24.8 months. All the fractures united within a reasonable time except for three femur and 14 ...

  3. A global inventory of small floating plastic debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sebille, Erik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831921; Wilcox, Chris; Lebreton, Laurent; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Van Franeker, Jan A.; Eriksen, Marcus; Siegel, David; Galgani, Francois; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on the North

  4. A global inventory of small floating plastic debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebille, van Erik; Wilcox, Chris; Lebreton, Laurent; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Franeker, van J.A.; Eriksen, Marcus; Siegel, David; Galgani, F.; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on

  5. Charging free floating shared cars in metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, Gijs; Tensen, Tim; van Goeverden, Tom; van den Hoed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of two new developments: electrification and ‘free floating’ car sharing and their impact on public space. Contrary to station based shared cars, free floating cars do not have dedicated parking or charging stations. They therefore park at public parking spots and

  6. Life cycle assessment of a floating offshore wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinzettel, Jan [Department of Electrotechnology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, Praha 166 27 (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague Environment Center, U Krize 8, Prague 158 00 (Czech Republic); Reenaas, Marte; Solli, Christian [Industrial Ecology Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-03-15

    A development in wind energy technology towards higher nominal power of the wind turbines is related to the shift of the turbines to better wind conditions. After the shift from onshore to offshore areas, there has been an effort to move further from the sea coast to the deep water areas, which requires floating windmills. Such a concept brings additional environmental impact through higher material demand. To evaluate additional environmental burdens and to find out whether they can be rebalanced or even offset by better wind conditions, a prospective life cycle assessment (LCA) study of one floating concept has been performed and the results are presented in this paper. A comparison with existing LCA studies of conventional offshore wind power and electricity from a natural gas combined cycle is presented. The results indicate similar environmental impacts of electricity production using floating wind power plants as using non-floating offshore wind power plants. The most important stage in the life cycle of the wind power plants is the production of materials. Credits that are connected to recycling these materials at the end-of-life of the power plant are substantial. (author)

  7. Children's Typically-Perceived-Situations of Floating and Sinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Yong Jae

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore children's typically-perceived-situations (TPS) of "floating" and "sinking". TPS refers to the situation rising spontaneously in an individual's mind when they first think of a phenomenon or concept. Data were collected from 148 Year 5 Korean children. As a result of analysing the data…

  8. Determination of bacterial and fungal numbers in floats of pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at determining the numbers of bacteria and fungi in the floats of main soaking, liming, deliming-bating, degreasing and pickling stages. To this end, the numbers of total aerobic mesophilic, proteolytic, lipolytic and aerobic spore-forming bacteria and, the numbers of total aerobic fungi (yeast and mould), ...

  9. On Hydroelastic Body-Boundary Condition of Floating Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu

    1996-01-01

    A general linear body boundary condition of hydroelastic analysis of arbitrary shaped floating structures generalizes the classic kinematic rigid-body (Timman-Newman) boundary condition for seakeeping problems. The new boundary condition is consistent with the existing theories under certain...

  10. Observation of floating potential asymmetry in the edge plasma of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Floating potential; vertical magnetic field; vertical electric field reversal; vertical electric field reversal time. PACS No. 52.55.F. 1. Introduction. The motion of plasma in a toroidal magnetic field leads to a separation of charge particles through charge dependent toroidal drifts. This creates a vertical electric field which along.

  11. Design And Testing of The Floating Potential Probe For ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, G. Barry; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2001-01-01

    Flight 4A was an especially critical mission for the International Space Station (ISS). For the first time, the high voltage solar arrays generated significant amounts of power and long predicted environmental interactions (high negative floating potential and concomitant dielectric charging) became serious concerns. Furthermore, the same flight saw the Plasma Contacting Unit (PCU) deployed and put into operation to mitigate and control these effects. The ISS program office has recognized the critical need to verify, by direct measurement, that ISS does not charge to unacceptable levels. A Floating Potential Probe (FPP) was therefore deployed on ISS to measure ISS floating potential relative to the surrounding plasma and to measure relevant plasma parameters. The primary objective of FPP is to verify that ISS floating potential does not exceed the specified level of 40 volts with respect to the ambient. Since it is expected that in normal operations the PCU will maintain ISS within this specification, it is equivalent to say that the objective of FPP is to monitor the functionality of the PCU. In this paper, we report on the design and testing of the ISS FPP. In a separate paper, the operations and results obtained so far by the FPP will be presented.

  12. Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide oxidation in biological water treatment systems. ... water interface of anaerobic, organically loaded and actively sulphate reducing systems. ... The effect of influent sulphide concentrations, flow rate and reactor dimensions on the sulphur biofilm formation were

  13. The floating knee: epidemiology, prognostic indicators & outcome following surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethnam, Ulfin; Yesupalan, Rajam S; Nair, Rajagopalan

    2007-11-26

    Floating Knee injuries are complex injuries. The type of fractures, soft tissue and associated injuries make this a challenging problem to manage. We present the outcome of these injuries after surgical management. 29 patients with floating knee injuries were managed over a 3 year period. This was a prospective study were both fractures of the floating knee injury were surgically fixed using different modalities. The associated injuries were managed appropriately. Assessment of the end result was done by the Karlstrom criteria after bony union. The mechanism of injury was road traffic accident in 27/29 patients. There were 38 associated injuries. 20/29 patients had intramedullary nailing for both fractures. The complications were knee stiffness, foot drop, delayed union of tibia and superficial infection. The bony union time ranged from 15 - 22.5 weeks for femur fractures and 17 - 28 weeks for the tibia. According to the Karlstrom criteria the end results were Excellent - 15, Good - 11, Acceptable - 1 and Poor - 3. The associated injuries and the type of fracture (open, intra-articular, comminution) are prognostic indicators in the Floating knee. Appropriate management of the associated injuries, intramedullary nailing of both the fractures and post operative rehabilitation are necessary for good final outcome.

  14. Hydrodynamic analysis of elastic floating collars in random waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Yun-peng; Dong, Guo-hai; Li, Yu-cheng

    2015-06-01

    As the main load-bearing component of fish cages, the floating collar supports the whole cage and undergoes large deformations. In this paper, a mathematical method is developed to study the motions and elastic deformations of elastic floating collars in random waves. The irregular wave is simulated by the random phase method and the statistical approach and Fourier transfer are applied to analyze the elastic response in both time and frequency domains. The governing equations of motions are established by Newton's second law, and the governing equations of deformations are obtained based on curved beam theory and modal superposition method. In order to validate the numerical model of the floating collar attacked by random waves, a series of physical model tests are conducted. Good relationship between numerical simulation and experimental observations is obtained. The numerical results indicate that the transfer function of out-of-plane and in-plane deformations increase with the increasing of wave frequency. In the frequency range between 0.6 Hz and 1.1 Hz, a linear relationship exists between the wave elevations and the deformations. The average phase difference between the wave elevation and out-of-plane deformation is 60° with waves leading and the phase between the wave elevation and in-plane deformation is 10° with waves lagging. In addition, the effect of fish net on the elastic response is analyzed. The results suggest that the deformation of the floating collar with fish net is a little larger than that without net.

  15. Automated ''float'' method for determination of densities of molten salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Helge A.; Bjerrum, Niels; Foverskov, Carl Erik

    1977-01-01

    wound with platinum wire, an amplifier, a digital voltmeter, an interface, a paper tape punch, and a recorder. The advantages of the system are its ease of operation compared to other ''float'' methods, and the possibility of looking at highly colored melts and also melts having a high vapor pressure...

  16. Formulation and Evaluation of Gastro-retentive Floating Multi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a floating multiparticulate unit system for metoprolol tartarate, using a porous carrier, with an outcome for delayed gastric emptying. Methods: Dried microparticles of metoprolol tartarate were prepared by solvent evaporation using Eudragit® RS-PO, polypropylene foam powder, and dichloromethane as ...

  17. Informed floating voters? : The impact of media on electoral volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geers, S.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades the number of floating voters has risen in many democracies and particularly in the Netherlands. Although media is likely to influence electoral volatility, it has often been neglected as a possible explanation for vote switching. Therefore, this dissertation examines how

  18. High-Altitude Illnesses: Physiology, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude illnesses encompass the pulmonary and cerebral syndromes that occur in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The most common syndrome is acute mountain sickness (AMS which usually begins within a few hours of ascent and typically consists of headache variably accompanied by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and dizziness. With millions of travelers journeying to high altitudes every year and sleeping above 2,500 m, acute mountain sickness is a wide-spread clinical condition. Risk factors include home elevation, maximum altitude, sleeping altitude, rate of ascent, latitude, age, gender, physical condition, intensity of exercise, pre-acclimatization, genetic make-up, and pre-existing diseases. At higher altitudes, sleep disturbances may become more profound, mental performance is impaired, and weight loss may occur. If ascent is rapid, acetazolamide can reduce the risk of developing AMS, although a number of high-altitude travelers taking acetazolamide will still develop symptoms. Ibuprofen can be effective for headache. Symptoms can be rapidly relieved by descent, and descent is mandatory, if at all possible, for the management of the potentially fatal syndromes of high-altitude pulmonary and cerebral edema. The purpose of this review is to combine a discussion of specific risk factors, prevention, and treatment options with a summary of the basic physiologic responses to the hypoxia of altitude to provide a context for managing high-altitude illnesses and advising the non-acclimatized high-altitude traveler.

  19. Biogeochemical sensor performance in the SOCCOM profiling float array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Coletti, Luke J.; Jannasch, Hans W.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Riser, Stephen C.; Swift, Dana D.; Williams, Nancy L.; Boss, Emmanuel; Haëntjens, Nils; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) program has begun deploying a large array of biogeochemical sensors on profiling floats in the Southern Ocean. As of February 2016, 86 floats have been deployed. Here the focus is on 56 floats with quality-controlled and adjusted data that have been in the water at least 6 months. The floats carry oxygen, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll fluorescence, and optical backscatter sensors. The raw data generated by these sensors can suffer from inaccurate initial calibrations and from sensor drift over time. Procedures to correct the data are defined. The initial accuracy of the adjusted concentrations is assessed by comparing the corrected data to laboratory measurements made on samples collected by a hydrographic cast with a rosette sampler at the float deployment station. The long-term accuracy of the corrected data is compared to the GLODAPv2 data set whenever a float made a profile within 20 km of a GLODAPv2 station. Based on these assessments, the fleet average oxygen data are accurate to 1 ± 1%, nitrate to within 0.5 ± 0.5 µmol kg-1, and pH to 0.005 ± 0.007, where the error limit is 1 standard deviation of the fleet data. The bio-optical measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter are used to estimate chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon concentration. The particulate organic carbon concentrations inferred from optical backscatter appear accurate to with 35 mg C m-3 or 20%, whichever is larger. Factors affecting the accuracy of the estimated chlorophyll a concentrations are evaluated.Plain Language SummaryThe ocean science community must move toward greater use of autonomous platforms and sensors if we are to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate driven change within the ocean. Essential to this shift in observing strategies is an understanding of the performance that can be obtained from biogeochemical sensors on platforms deployed for years and the

  20. Altitude Distribution of the Auroral Acceleration Potential Determined from Cluster Satellite Data at Different Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, Goeran T.; Sadeghi, Soheil; Karlsson, Tomas; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Hans; Forsyth, Colin; Fazakerley, Andrew; Lucek, Elizabeth A.; Pickett, Jolene

    2011-01-01

    Aurora, commonly seen in the polar sky, is a ubiquitous phenomenon occurring on Earth and other solar system planets. The colorful emissions are caused by electron beams hitting the upper atmosphere, after being accelerated by quasistatic electric fields at 1-2 R E altitudes, or by wave electric fields. Although aurora was studied by many past satellite missions, Cluster is the first to explore the auroral acceleration region with multiprobes. Here, Cluster data are used to determine the acceleration potential above the aurora and to address its stability in space and time. The derived potential comprises two upper, broad U-shaped potentials and a narrower S-shaped potential below, and is stable on a 5 min time scale. The scale size of the electric field relative to that of the current is shown to depend strongly on altitude within the acceleration region. To reveal these features was possible only by combining data from the two satellites.

  1. The influence of microclimates and fog on stable isotope signatures used in interpretation of regional hydrology: East Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M.A.; Gingerich, S.B.; Tribble, G.W.

    2002-01-01

    Stable isotopes of precipitation, ground water and surface water measured on the windward side of East Maui from 0 to 3055 m altitude were used to determine recharge sources for stream flow and ground water. Correct interpretation of the hydrology using rainfall ??18O gradients with altitude required consideration of the influence of fog, as fog samples had isotopic signatures enriched by as much as 3??? in ??18O and 21??? in ??D compared to volume-weighted average precipitation at the same altitude. The isotopic analyses suggested that fog drip was a major component of stream flow and shallow ground water at higher altitudes in the watershed. 18O/altitude gradients in rainfall were comparable for similar microclimates on Maui (this study) and Hawaii Island (1990-1995 study), however, East Maui ??18O values for rain in trade-wind and high-altitude microclimates were enriched compared to those from Hawaii Island. Isotopes were used to interpret regional hydrology in this volcanic island aquifer system. In part of the study area, stable isotopes indicate discharge of ground water recharged at least 1000 m above the sample site. This deep-flowpath ground water was found in springs from sea level up to 240 m altitude, indicating saturation to altitudes much higher than a typical freshwater lens. These findings help in predicting the effects of ground water development on stream flow in the area. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Dose-response of altitude training: how much altitude is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Benjamin D; Stray-Gundersen, James

    2006-01-01

    Altitude training continues to be a key adjunctive aid for the training of competitive athletes throughout the world. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated from many groups of investigators that the "living high--training low" approach to altitude training provides the most robust and reliable performance enhancements. The success of this strategy depends on two key features: 1) living high enough, for enough hours per day, for a long enough period of time, to initiate and sustain an erythropoietic effect of high altitude; and 2) training low enough to allow maximal quality of high intensity workouts, requiring high rates of sustained oxidative flux. Because of the relatively limited access to environments where such a strategy can be practically applied, numerous devices have been developed to "bring the mountain to the athlete," which has raised the key issue of the appropriate "dose" of altitude required to stimulate an acclimatization response and performance enhancement. These include devices using molecular sieve technology to provide a normobaric hypoxic living or sleeping environment, approaches using very high altitudes (5,500m) for shorter periods of time during the day, and "intermittent hypoxic training" involving breathing very hypoxic gas mixtures for alternating 5 minutes periods over the course of 60-90 minutes. Unfortunately, objective testing of the strategies employing short term (less than 4 hours) normobaric or hypobaric hypoxia has failed to demonstrate an advantage of these techniques. Moreover individual variability of the response to even the best of living high--training low strategies has been great, and the mechanisms behind this variability remain obscure. Future research efforts will need to focus on defining the optimal dosing strategy for these devices, and determining the underlying mechanisms of the individual variability so as to enable the individualized "prescription" of altitude exposure to optimize the performance of

  3. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  4. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  5. Effect of oxygen and heliox breathing on air bubbles in adipose tissue during 25-kPa altitude exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, T.; Kvist, T.M.; Hyldegaard, O.

    2008-01-01

    At altitude, bubbles are known to form and grow in blood and tissues causing altitude decompression sickness. Previous reports indicate that treatment of decompression sickness by means of oxygen breathing at altitude may cause unwanted bubble growth. In this report we visually followed the in vivo...... changes of micro air bubbles injected into adipose tissue of anesthetized rats at 101.3 kPa (sea level) after which they were decompressed from 101.3 kPa to and held at 25 kPa (10,350 m), during breathing of oxygen or a heliox(34:66) mixture (34% helium and 66% oxygen). Furthermore, bubbles were studied...... during oxygen breathing preceded by a 3-h period of preoxygenation to eliminate tissue nitrogen before decompression. During oxygen breathing, bubbles grew from 11 to 198 min (mean: 121 min, +/-SD 53.4) after which they remained stable or began to shrink slowly. During heliox breathing bubbles grew from...

  6. A vitivinicultura de altitude em Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Losso, Flavia Baratieri

    2016-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia, Florianópolis, 2016. O presente estudo analisou as relações entre a formação sócio-espacial, a produção e o consumo de vinhos finos de altitude em Santa Catarina como indutores do desenvolvimento do Enoturismo no Estado mediante o entendimento de que este tipo de turismo poderá intervir na economia do vinho, agregando valor e influenciando o consumo des...

  7. Multi-input and binary reproducible, high bandwidth floating point adder in a collective network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-03-10

    To add floating point numbers in a parallel computing system, a collective logic device receives the floating point numbers from computing nodes. The collective logic devices converts the floating point numbers to integer numbers. The collective logic device adds the integer numbers and generating a summation of the integer numbers. The collective logic device converts the summation to a floating point number. The collective logic device performs the receiving, the converting the floating point numbers, the adding, the generating and the converting the summation in one pass. One pass indicates that the computing nodes send inputs only once to the collective logic device and receive outputs only once from the collective logic device.

  8. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  9. Fog Chemistry at Different Altitudes in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, P.; Eugster, W.; Wanner, H.

    2010-07-01

    During two extended summer seasons in 2006 and 2007, we installed two battery driven versions of the Caltech active strand cloud water collector (MiniCASCC) at the Niesen mountain in the northern Swiss Alps. Along, we measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and visibility. During these two field operation phases we gained weekly samples of fogwater, where we analysed the major anions and cations, and the stable water isotopes δD and δ18O. The fog collectors were installed at an altitude of 2300 and 1600 m asl to resolve altitudinal differences in fog chemistry. We found a large variability between the events, but no clear altitudinal gradient. At both sites, the most important ions were nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate. Higher concentrations occured preferably in late spring (start of sampling period) and in autumn (end of sampling). Compared to previous studies at lower elevations in the Swiss Plateau during wintertime, our measurements showed considerable lower ion loads in the fogwater. The combination of these results suggest that lowest ion loads are found in convective clouds with a short lifetime and that the highest ion loads occur during radiation fog events at lower elevations.

  10. Blood Pressure and Altitude: An Observational Cohort Study of Hypertensive and Nonhypertensive Himalayan Trekkers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Linda E; Sallade, Thomas Douglas; Duke, Charles; Starling, Jennifer; Sheets, Alison; Pant, Sushil; Young, David S; Twillman, David; Regmi, Nirajan; Phelan, Benoit; Paudel, Purshotam; McElwee, Matthew; Mather, Luke; Cole, Devlin; McConnell, Theodore; Basnyat, Buddha

    2017-09-01

    that their BP will remain relatively stable at high altitude. Although extremely elevated BP may be observed at high altitude in normotensive and hypertensive people, it is unlikely to be symptomatic. The ideal antihypertensive regimen at high altitude remains unclear.

  11. Designs and applications for floating-hydro power systems in small streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehder, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The project focuses on an appropriate technology for small-scale hydro power: floating waterwheels and turbines. For background, relic and existing systems such as early floating mills, traditional Amish waterwheels, and micro-hydro systems are examined. In the design phase of the project, new designs for Floating Hydro Power Systems include: an analysis of floatation materials and systems; a floating undershot waterwheel design; a floating cylinder (fiberglass storage tank) design; a submerged tube design; and a design for a floating platform with submerged propellers. Finally, in the applications phase, stream flow data from East Tennessee streams are used in a discussion of the potential applications of floating hydro power systems in small streams.

  12. Random Deviations from Cruise Altitudes of a Turbojet Transport at Altitudes of a Turbojet Transport at Altitudes between 20,000 and 41,000 Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, William; Shipp, Jo Ann

    1961-01-01

    An evaluation has been made of the random deviations from the cruise altitudes (called flight technical error) of a large turbojet transport on scheduled, passenger-carrying operations over the Eastern United States, the Atlantic Ocean, and Western Europe. Data were collected from l9O flights through an altitude range of 20,000 to 41,000 feet and for a time period from January to August 1959. The results of the investigation, based on an evaluation of the altitude recordings of an NASA VGH recorder, showed that for a high percentage of the total cruise time (99.0 percent) the airplane operated within 100 feet of its stabilized cruise altitude. On occasion, however, the excursions of the airplane from the cruise altitude reached large values (in excess of 1,000 feet in the worst case).

  13. The FAA altitude chamber training flight profile : a survey of altitude reactions, 1965-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Reactions from 1,161 trainees out of 12,759 trainees subjected to the FAA altitude chamber training flights from 1965-1989 are annotated in this survey. Although there were some mild and expected reactions, these training profiles appear to provide a...

  14. Simulated altitude exposure assessment by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Macovei, Adrian; Miclos, Sorin; Parasca, Sorin Viorel; Savastru, Roxana; Hristea, Razvan

    2017-05-01

    Testing the human body's reaction to hypoxia (including the one generated by high altitude) is important in aeronautic medicine. This paper presents a method of monitoring blood oxygenation during experimental hypoxia using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and a spectral unmixing model based on a modified Beer-Lambert law. A total of 20 healthy volunteers (males) aged 25 to 60 years were included in this study. A line-scan HSI system was used to acquire images of the faces of the subjects. The method generated oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin distribution maps from the foreheads of the subjects at 5 and 10 min of hypoxia and after recovery in a high oxygen breathing mixture. The method also generated oxygen saturation maps that were validated using pulse oximetry. An interesting pattern of desaturation on the forehead was discovered during the study, showing one of the advantages of using HSI for skin oxygenation monitoring in hypoxic conditions. This could bring new insight into the physiological response to high altitude and may become a step forward in air crew testing.

  15. A comparison between rad-hard float zone silicon diodes as gamma dosimeter in radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Fábio de [Amazônia Azul Tecnologias de Defesa S.A. (AMAZUL), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C., E-mail: dcamargo@gmail.com, E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we report on the results obtained with rad-hard Standard Float Zone (STFZ) and Diffused Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon diodes in radiation processing dosimetry. The dosimetric probes were designed to operate in the direct current mode, as on-line radiation dosimeter. The irradiation of the samples was performed using a {sup 60}Co source with a dose rate of almost 2.4 kGy/h. The current response of each diode was measured as a function of the exposure time in steps from 5 kGy up to 50 kGy to achieve a total absorbed dose of 275 kGy. In this dose range it is observed a significant decrease in the photocurrent generated in both devices due to gamma radiation defects produced in their active volumes. To mitigate this effect, the samples were pre-irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays at 700 kGy. Despite of being less sensitive, these devices presented stable and reproducible current signals with a relative sensitivity decrease of about 19% within the whole range of dose studied. The dose-response curves of the pre-irradiated diodes showed quadratic behavior with correlation coefficient higher than 0.9999 for total absorbed dose up to 275 kGy. The comparison of the FZ and DOFZ responses evidenced that the latter was slightly superior to the first. However, it is important to note that all pre-irradiated diodes can be used as gamma dosimeters in radiation processing applications. (author)

  16. A comparison between rad-hard float zone silicon diodes as gamma dosimeter in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fábio de; Gonçalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report on the results obtained with rad-hard Standard Float Zone (STFZ) and Diffused Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon diodes in radiation processing dosimetry. The dosimetric probes were designed to operate in the direct current mode, as on-line radiation dosimeter. The irradiation of the samples was performed using a 60 Co source with a dose rate of almost 2.4 kGy/h. The current response of each diode was measured as a function of the exposure time in steps from 5 kGy up to 50 kGy to achieve a total absorbed dose of 275 kGy. In this dose range it is observed a significant decrease in the photocurrent generated in both devices due to gamma radiation defects produced in their active volumes. To mitigate this effect, the samples were pre-irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays at 700 kGy. Despite of being less sensitive, these devices presented stable and reproducible current signals with a relative sensitivity decrease of about 19% within the whole range of dose studied. The dose-response curves of the pre-irradiated diodes showed quadratic behavior with correlation coefficient higher than 0.9999 for total absorbed dose up to 275 kGy. The comparison of the FZ and DOFZ responses evidenced that the latter was slightly superior to the first. However, it is important to note that all pre-irradiated diodes can be used as gamma dosimeters in radiation processing applications. (author)

  17. The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vaillant de Guélis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to climate model simulations, the changing altitude of middle and high clouds is the dominant contributor to the positive global mean longwave cloud feedback. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of this longwave cloud altitude feedback and its magnitude have not yet been verified by observations. Accurate, stable, and long-term observations of a metric-characterizing cloud vertical distribution that are related to the longwave cloud radiative effect are needed to achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of longwave cloud altitude feedback. This study shows that the direct measurement of the altitude of atmospheric lidar opacity is a good candidate for the necessary observational metric. The opacity altitude is the level at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated when probing an opaque cloud. By combining this altitude with the direct lidar measurement of the cloud-top altitude, we derive the effective radiative temperature of opaque clouds which linearly drives (as we will show the outgoing longwave radiation. We find that, for an opaque cloud, a cloud temperature change of 1 K modifies its cloud radiative effect by 2 W m−2. Similarly, the longwave cloud radiative effect of optically thin clouds can be derived from their top and base altitudes and an estimate of their emissivity. We show with radiative transfer simulations that these relationships hold true at single atmospheric column scale, on the scale of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES instantaneous footprint, and at monthly mean 2° × 2° scale. Opaque clouds cover 35 % of the ice-free ocean and contribute to 73 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. Thin-cloud coverage is 36 % and contributes 27 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated provides a simple formulation of the cloud radiative effect in the

  18. Floating plastic debris in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Orejón, Luis F; Sardá, Rafael; Ramis-Pujol, Juan

    2016-09-01

    In two sea voyages throughout the Mediterranean (2011 and 2013) that repeated the historical travels of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria (1847-1915), 71 samples of floating plastic debris were obtained with a Manta trawl. Floating plastic was observed in all the sampled sites, with an average weight concentration of 579.3 g dw km(-2) (maximum value of 9298.2 g dw km(-2)) and an average particle concentration of 147,500 items km(-2) (the maximum concentration was 1,164,403 items km(-2)). The plastic size distribution showed microplastics (plastic in the entire Mediterranean region, with various potential spatial accumulation areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Floating Marine Debris in waters of the Mexican Central Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Torres, Evelyn R; Ortega-Ortiz, Christian D; Silva-Iñiguez, Lidia; Nene-Preciado, Alejandro; Orozco, Ernesto Torres

    2017-02-15

    The presence of marine debris has been reported recently in several oceans basins; there is very little information available for Mexican Pacific coasts, however. This research examined the composition, possible sources, distribution, and density of Floating Marine Debris (FMD) during nine research surveys conducted during 2010-2012 in the Mexican Central Pacific (MCP). Of 1820 floating objects recorded, 80% were plastic items. Sources of FMD were determined using key objects, which indicated that the most were related to the presence of the industrial harbor and of a growing fishing industry in the study area. Densities were relatively high, ranging from 40 to 2440objects/km 2 ; the highest densities were recorded in autumn. FMD were distributed near coastal regions, mainly in Jalisco, influenced by river outflow and surface currents. Our results seem to follow worldwide trends and highlight the need for further studies on potential ecological impacts within coastal waters of the MCP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Measurements of Indoor Radon in Homes and Floating Houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changmuang, Wirote; Tantawiroon, Malulee; Polphong, Pornsri

    2003-06-01

    A survey of the radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in 318 homes and 152 floating houses (1410 samples) in Phitsanulok province, using a passive 222 Rn charcoal canister and measurement by gamma spectrometry. Floating houses showed significant lower mean levels (8.22 Bqm -3 ) than homes (21.56 Bqm -3 ) (p 222 Rn concentrations indicated that concrete homes had a higher level than wooden homes and homes lying on ground had a higher level than those built at 1 meter or more above ground. The estimated annual mean effective dose equivalent 0.35 mSvy -1 and the annual lung dose equivalent of 5.94 mSvy -1 were only one-third of the world mean estimates

  1. Proton production, neutralisation and reduction in a floating water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammer, Martina; Wexler, Adam D.; Kuntke, Philipp; Wiltsche, Helmar; Stanulewicz, Natalia; Lankmayr, Ernst; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Fuchs, Elmar C.

    2015-10-01

    This work reports on proton production, transport, reduction and neutralization in floating aqueous bridges under the application of a high dc voltage (‘floating water bridge’). Recently possible mechanisms for proton transfer through the bridge were suggested. In this work we visualize and describe the production of protons in the anolyte and their neutralization in the catholyte. Apart from that, protons are reduced to hydrogen due to electrolysis. Microbubbles are detached instantly, due to the electrohydrodynamic flow at the electrode surface. No larger, visible bubbles are formed and the system degasses through the bridge due to its higher local temperature. A detailed analysis of trace elements originating from beaker material, anode or the atmosphere is presented, showing that their influence on the overall conduction compared to the contribution of protons is negligible. Finally, an electrochemical rationale of high voltage electrolysis of low ionic strength solutions is presented.

  2. A floating water bridge produces water with excess charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Sammer, Martina; Wexler, Adam D; Kuntke, Philipp; Woisetschläger, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Excess positive and negative Bjerrum-defect like charge (protonic and ‘aterprotonic’, from ancient Greek ατερ, ‘without’) in anolyte and catholyte of high voltage electrolysis of highly pure water was found during the so-called ‘floating water bridge’ experiment. The floating water bridge is a special case of an electrohydrodynamic liquid bridge and constitutes an intriguing phenomenon that occurs when a high potential difference (∼kV cm −1 ) is applied between two beakers of water. To obtain such results impedance spectroscopy was used. This measurement technique allows the depiction and simulation of complex aqueous systems as simple electric circuits. In the present work we show that there is an additional small contribution from the difference in conductivity between anolyte and catholyte which cannot be measured with a conductivity meter, but is clearly visible in an impedance spectrum. (paper)

  3. Neutron scattering of a floating heavy water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Bitschnau, Brigitte; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob; Maier, Eugen; Beuneu, Brigitte; Teixeira, Jose

    2009-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled into two beakers close to each other, a water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4, 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185502). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. In this work, the first data on neutron scattering of a floating heavy water bridge are presented and possible interpretations are discussed. D 2 O was measured instead of H 2 O because of the very strong incoherent scattering of H. The obtained data support the 'bubble hypothesis' suggested earlier (Fuchs et al 2008).

  4. A floating water bridge produces water with excess charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Elmar C.; Sammer, Martina; Wexler, Adam D.; Kuntke, Philipp; Woisetschläger, Jakob

    2016-03-01

    Excess positive and negative Bjerrum-defect like charge (protonic and ‘aterprotonic’, from ancient Greek ἄ'τɛρ, ‘without’) in anolyte and catholyte of high voltage electrolysis of highly pure water was found during the so-called ‘floating water bridge’ experiment. The floating water bridge is a special case of an electrohydrodynamic liquid bridge and constitutes an intriguing phenomenon that occurs when a high potential difference (~kV cm-1) is applied between two beakers of water. To obtain such results impedance spectroscopy was used. This measurement technique allows the depiction and simulation of complex aqueous systems as simple electric circuits. In the present work we show that there is an additional small contribution from the difference in conductivity between anolyte and catholyte which cannot be measured with a conductivity meter, but is clearly visible in an impedance spectrum.

  5. Floating and flying ferrofluid bridges induced by external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rongchao; Zhou, Yixin; Liu, Jing

    2015-04-01

    A ferrofluid is a mixture that exhibits both magnetism and fluidity. This merit enables the ferrofluid to be used in a wide variety of areas. Here we show that a floating ferrofluid bridge can be induced between two separated boards under a balanced external magnetic field generated by two magnets, while a flying ferrofluid bridge can be induced under an unbalanced external magnetic field generated by only one magnet. The mechanisms of the ferrofluid bridges were discussed and the corresponding mathematical equations were also established to describe the interacting magnetic force between the ferro particles inside the ferrofluid. This work answered a basic question that, except for the well-known floating water bridges that are related to electricity, one can also build up a liquid bridge that is related to magnetism.

  6. Proton production, neutralisation and reduction in a floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammer, Martina; Wexler, Adam D; Kuntke, Philipp; Stanulewicz, Natalia; Lankmayr, Ernst; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Fuchs, Elmar C; Wiltsche, Helmar

    2015-01-01

    This work reports on proton production, transport, reduction and neutralization in floating aqueous bridges under the application of a high dc voltage (‘floating water bridge’). Recently possible mechanisms for proton transfer through the bridge were suggested. In this work we visualize and describe the production of protons in the anolyte and their neutralization in the catholyte. Apart from that, protons are reduced to hydrogen due to electrolysis. Microbubbles are detached instantly, due to the electrohydrodynamic flow at the electrode surface. No larger, visible bubbles are formed and the system degasses through the bridge due to its higher local temperature. A detailed analysis of trace elements originating from beaker material, anode or the atmosphere is presented, showing that their influence on the overall conduction compared to the contribution of protons is negligible. Finally, an electrochemical rationale of high voltage electrolysis of low ionic strength solutions is presented. (paper)

  7. Effect of combined ecological floating bed for eutrophic lake remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liguo; Wang, Haiping

    2017-05-01

    A novel combined ecological floating bed(CEFB) integrated high-density hydrophyte and aquatic animals, the wave-making equipments, water cycling automatic aerators and fluorescence inducing equipments. The water quality of a eutrophic lake was improved significantly after three months remediation of CEFB. Compared with the background value, the results showed that the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia(NH3-N), total phosphorous(TP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the water reached 31.5%, 33%, 30.5% and 53%, respectively. CEFB could manipulate biotic interactions in the aquatic ecosystem, and then absorb eutrophic material efficiently by the co-effect of floating the sediment slowly, refreshing the static eutrophic water body, changing the photosynthetic and biochemical environment of the eutrophic water body and inducing plankton directional movement. At the same time, plants and fish grew good in CEFB,which can bring economic income to some extent.

  8. Pattern transitions in a compressible floating elastic sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Oz; Diamant, Haim

    2017-09-13

    Thin rigid sheets floating on a liquid substrate appear, for example, in coatings and surfactant monolayers. Upon uniaxial compression the sheet undergoes transitions from a compressed flat state to a periodic wrinkled pattern to a localized folded pattern. The stability of these states is determined by the in-plane elasticity of the sheet, its bending rigidity, and the hydrostatics of the underlying liquid. Wrinkles and folds, and the wrinkle-to-fold transition, were previously studied for incompressible sheets. In the present work we extend the theory to include finite compressibility. We analyze the details of the flat-to-wrinkle transition, the effects of compressibility on wrinkling and folding, and the compression field associated with pattern formation. The state diagram of the floating sheet including all three states is presented.

  9. Mathematical modeling of a hydrophilic cylinder floating on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zai-Sha; Yang, Chao; Chen, Jiayong

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a hydrostatic model of the surface profile anchored to the upper edge of a vertical cylinder is proposed to explain why coins can float on water surface. The sharp edge of a cylinder is thus modeled as a round smooth surface on which the contact line may be anchored at a position according to the weight of the cylinder. The mathematical model of the surface profile is established based on the hydrostatics and a third order ordinary differential equation is resulted. Numerical solution of the model demonstrates under practical conditions the existence of the surface profiles that provide reasonable uplifting force at the contact line so that the force is available for floating coins on water surface. The proposed model explains the obviously enlarged apparent contact angle and the edge effect in the literature. The numerical simulation is found in very good agreement with the experimental data in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting vehicle fuel consumption patterns using floating vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiman; Wu, Jianping; Yang, Senyan; Zhou, Liutong

    2017-09-01

    The status of energy consumption and air pollution in China is serious. It is important to analyze and predict the different fuel consumption of various types of vehicles under different influence factors. In order to fully describe the relationship between fuel consumption and the impact factors, massive amounts of floating vehicle data were used. The fuel consumption pattern and congestion pattern based on large samples of historical floating vehicle data were explored, drivers' information and vehicles' parameters from different group classification were probed, and the average velocity and average fuel consumption in the temporal dimension and spatial dimension were analyzed respectively. The fuel consumption forecasting model was established by using a Back Propagation Neural Network. Part of the sample set was used to train the forecasting model and the remaining part of the sample set was used as input to the forecasting model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Floating tumor debris. A cause of intermittent biliary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyn, J J; Kuchenbecker, S; Longmire, W P; Tompkins, R K

    1984-11-01

    Tumor debris, free-floating in the major biliary ductal system, is a cause of intermittent biliary obstruction that has previously not been recognized. Six patients had hepatic neoplasms with episodic jaundice and/or cholangitis due to floating tumor debris. Diagnosis included metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon (n = 3), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 1), and cavernous hemangioma (n = 1). All patients underwent biliary exploration, with hepatic resection and transhepatic intubation in two and T-tube placement in four. One patient died in the early postoperative period, and the major complication rate in the five survivors was 0%. Four of the five survivors had no further episodes suggestive of major bile duct obstruction. Our experience emphasizes the importance of distinguishing extrahepatic obstruction secondary to tumor debris from the more common causes of jaundice in patients with tumors and suggests that safe and effective palliation can be achieved in these patients.

  12. Management of “floating elbow” in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, SS

    2007-01-01

    Background: Supracondylar fractures associated with ipsilateral forearm fractures, aptly termed as “floating elbow” is a rare injury in children after a fall from height. The various authors have reported their results with conservative treatment of one or both injuries to aggressive emergency operative fixation of both components. Materials and Methods: During a period of three years, the author managed four cases of floating elbow in children. All cases were managed by closed reduction and pinning of both components of the injury. Results: All patients recovered full elbow range of motion at three months followup and were rated as excellent as per modified Flynn's criteria. None of the patients developed cubitus varus deformity, complications related to the pins or delayed union. Conclusions: Early closed reduction and K wire fixation of both components of this injury gives better stability and prevents development of complications like compartment syndrome and elbow deformities. PMID:21139796

  13. Free-floating magnetic microstructures by mask photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong Au, Thi; Thien Trinh, Duc; Bich Do, Danh; Phu Nguyen, Dang; Cong Tong, Quang; Diep Lai, Ngoc

    2018-03-01

    This work explores the fabrication of free-floating magnetic structures on a photocurable nanocomposite consisting of superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) and a commercial SU-8 negative tone photoresist. The nanocomposite was synthesized by mixing magnetic nanoparticles with different kinds of SU-8 resin. We demonstrated that the dispersion of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in nanocomposite solution strongly depended on the particles concentration, the viscosity of SU-8 polymer, and the mixing time. The influence of these factors was demonstrated by examining the structures fabricated by mask photolithography technique. We obtained the best quality of structures at a low concentration, below 5 wt%, of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in SU-8 2005 photoresist for a mixing time of about 20 days. The manipulation of free-floating magnetic microstructures by an external magnetic field was also demonstrated showing promising applications of this magnetic nanocomposite.

  14. Altitude variations of ionospheric currents at auroral latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.; Brekke, A.

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of updated EISCAT experiments, the first full derivation of the ionospheric current density of the auroral electrojets at six different altitudes are presented. It is found that current vectors at different altitudes are quite different, although the eastward and westward currents prevail in the evening and morning sectors, respectively, once the currents are integrated over altitude. The eastward electrojet becomes almost northward whilst the westward electrojet becomes almost southward, at the highest altitude, 125 km, in this study. The physical implications of these characteristics are discussed

  15. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been proven...

  16. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  17. GRIP HIGH-ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Altitude monolithic microwave integrated Circuit (MMIC) Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) is a microwave atmospheric sounder developed by JPL under the NASA...

  18. Exposure fire protection for floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caines, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    It is stressed that the development of a nuclear power plant that will float on water, yet will remain in a stationary position, requires a reassessment of the type of protection available for exposure protection. The function of the external fire protection system designed to extinguish or control combustible liquid fires within the basin area and protect the plant against radiant heat fluxes from exposure fires more than 100 feet from the plant is discussed. 6 refs

  19. Classifying Floating Potential Measurement Unit Data Products as Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria; Minow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We are Co-Investigators for the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) on the International Space Station (ISS) and members of the FPMU operations and data analysis team. We are providing this memo for the purpose of classifying raw and processed FPMU data products and ancillary data as NASA science data with unrestricted, public availability in order to best support science uses of the data.

  20. Debate - Trafficking as a Floating Signifier: The view from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Grupo Davida

    2015-01-01

    The fact that the United Nations (UN) Trafficking Protocol is not an autochthonous product of the Brazilian political system has resulted in its being brought into that system as a ‘floating signifier’: something that does not point to any actual object or agreed upon meaning.[1] People who wish to criminalise prostitution have attempted to bend the Protocol in that direction while prostitutes’ rights groups have used it to critique current Brazilian laws, emphasising the need to distinguish ...

  1. Overcoming Fear of Floating: Exchange Rate Policies in Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Jose De Gregorio; Andrea Tokman R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the exchange rate management experience in Chile, with particular emphasis on the floating exchange rate regime and its two forex intervention episodes. It presents evidence on Chile’s favorable conditions to face exchange rate shocks: a well-developed financial sector, that offers hedging opportunities taken up by the corporate sector to decrease its vulnerability through balance sheet effects; and a low and decreasing level of passthrough from the exchange rate to prices. ...

  2. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Geon Woo; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Youngeun; Hong, Seung-Han; Kim, Soohwaun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Shin, Dong Chun; Lim, Youngwook

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the o...

  3. Mature ovarian teratoma with large floating fat globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hye Min; Kim, See Hyung; Hwang, Il Seon [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Mature ovarian teratoma (dermoid cyst), a germ cell neoplasm, is one of the most common ovarian tumors. It is composed of derivatives of three germ cell layers. A mature ovarian teratoma with intracystic fat globules is rare. The pathogenesis on the formation of fat globules is unclear. Here we present a pathologically proven cystic ovarian teratoma with three large floating fat globules in a young woman with CT and MR findings.

  4. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  5. High Altitude Emissions of Black Carbon Aerosols: Potential Climate Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Synthesizing a series of ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosols over the Indian region during summer and pre-monsoon seasons have revealed the persistence of elevated absorbing aerosol layers over most of the Indian region; more than 50% of which located above clouds. Subsequent, in situ measurements of black carbon (BC) using high-altitude balloons, showed surprising layers with high concentrations in the middle and upper troposphere even at an altitude of 8 to 10 kms. Simultaneous measurements of the vertical thermal structure have shown localized warming due to BC absorption leading to large reduction in lapse rate and sharp temperature inversion, which in turn increases the atmospheric stability. This aerosol-induced stable layer is conducive for maintaining the black carbon layer longer at that level, leading thereby to further solar absorption and subsequently triggering dry convection. These observations support the `solar escalator' concept through which absorption-warming-convection cycles lead to self-lifting of BC to upper troposphere or even to lower stratosphere under favorable conditions in a matter of a few days. Employing an on-line regional chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem), incorporating aircraft emissions, it is shown that emissions from high-flying aircrafts as the most likely source of these elevated black carbon layers. These in-situ injected particles, produce significant warming of the thin air in those heights and lift these layers to even upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric heights, aided by the strong monsoonal convection occurring over the region, which are known to overshoot the tropical tropopause leading to injection of tropospheric air mass (along with its constituent aerosols) into the stratosphere, especially during monsoon season when the tropical tropopause layer is known to be thinnest. These simulations are further supported by the CALIPSO space-borne LIDAR derived extinction coefficient profiles. Based on

  6. Prospect of floating desalination facilities using nuclear energy in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli, A.; Rina, G.; Gunandjar; Subki, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies on the water demand and supply problems in Indonesia in the last few years. During the dry season in 1990, it was reported that lack of fresh drinking water in Java and Bali amounted to 2.4 x 10 6 ton/month. Since Indonesia consists of more than 13,000 islands, more problems are faced by other islands. The studies are focused on certain regions (groups of islands) which may have a potential for using a floating desalination facility. Water reservoirs in each island and delivery systems from the floating desalination facilities need to be assessed to see the prospective uses of the systems. Cheap, self-forgiving and easily operated systems, using transportable ship mounted desalination facilities, may be required as a solution to the water supply shortages for these islands. Conclusions based on current problems in water demand and supply and comments on the prospective future market using floating desalination facilities in Indonesia are also given. (author). 9 refs, 10 tabs

  7. Seismic response analysis of floating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Yutaka; Nakamura, Hideharu; Shiojiri, Hiroo

    1988-01-01

    Since Floating Nuclear Power Plants (FNPs) are considered to be isolated from horizontal seismic motion, it is anticipated to reduce seismic load for plant components and buildings on the barge. On the other hand, barge oscillation and sloshing in the closed basin might be excited by earthquakes, because natural periods of those motions correspond to relatively-long period component (between 2 and 20 seconds) of seismic motion. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate seismic isolation effects and barge oscillation, for the rational design of FNPs. However, there do not exist any reasonable analytical tools which can evaluate seismic response of floating structures in closed basin. The purpose of the present report is to develop a seismic analysis method for FNPs. The proposed method is based on the finite element method, and the formulation includes fluid-structure interaction, water surface wave, buoyancy effect, and non-linear characteristics of mooring system. Response analysis can be executed in both time-domain and frequency-domain. Shaking table tests were conducted to validate the proposed method of analysis. The test results showed significant isolation effect of floating structure, and apparent interaction between the barge and the basin. And 2-D and 3-D frequency domain analyses and the 2-D linear and non-linear time-domain analyses were done and those analyses could simulate the test results well. (author)

  8. On seismic response characteristics of floating nuclear plant barge, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Yutaka; Masuko, Yosio; Kurihara, Chizuko; Sasaki, Shunji; Sakurai, Akio

    1987-01-01

    Though floating nuclear plants (FNPs) is effectively isolated from horizontal earthquake motion, vertical earthquake motion on FNPs is almost the same as the ground motion inevitably. Therefore an alternative design concept of FNPs has been developed, which is isolated from vertical earthquake motion as well, utilizing pneumatic chambers equipped to the bottom of the barge. In this report, a simple analytical solution, which describes the vertical earthquake response of a floating body which has pneumatic chambers below its bottom, is derived. And a shaking table test and an earthquake response observation of floating bodies with pneumatic chambers are conducted to verify the solution. The prediction by the analytical solution gives sufficient agreement with the experimental results, so that the solution is confirmed to be valid. Then the fundamental geometry of a FNP barge with pneumatic chambers is assumed, and finally, it is evaluated by the solution that high-frequency ( ≥ 1 Hz) vertical acceleration on the barge induced by vertical component of earthquakes, will be reduced to approximately, a quater of the ground motion. (author)

  9. In vitro Evaluation of Acyclovir/Chitosan Floating Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Veiga, María D

    2010-12-06

    Chitosan (CS) floating lyophilized formulations (L) for gastric drug delivery of acyclovir (ACV) have been developed. The freeze-dried formulations were obtained from acidic aqueous suspensions prepared with different ACV/CS ratios. No changes in ACV crystallinity were observed during X-ray diffraction powder studies as a consequence of the manufacturing process. Considering that fed and fasted states modified the intragastric pH, swelling and in vitro dissolution studies were carried out in different acidic media (0.1 M HCl and progressive pH medium) in order to understand the influence of these physiological states on ACV/CS formulations. Swelling behavior of the floating lyophilized formulations was dependent on CS and ACV proportions within L and on medium nature due to pH dependent CS solubility. Furthermore, no interactions between ACV and CS were detected in solid state according to the X-ray studies. In vitro dissolution of ACV from L was influenced by the swelling behavior. However, it is feasible to optimize the ACV/CS ratios to achieve a desired formulation that releases the total quantity of ACV at a specific time. Moreover, floatability was assessed by buoyancy tests. The results demonstrated that the freeze-drying process achieved effective floating systems capable of remaining within the stomach while the total amount of ACV is released from L.

  10. Water Pressure Distribution on a Twin-Float Seaplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, F L

    1930-01-01

    This is the second of a series of investigations to determine water pressure distribution on various types of seaplane floats and hulls, and was conducted on a twin-float seaplane. It consisted of measuring water pressures and accelerations on a TS-1 seaplane during numerous landing and taxiing maneuvers at various speeds and angles. The results show that water pressures as great as 10 lbs. per sq. in.may occur at the step in various maneuvers and that pressures of approximately the same magnitude occur at the stern and near the bow in hard pancake landings with the stern way down. At the other parts of the float the pressures are less and are usually zero or slightly negative for some distance abaft the step. A maximum negative pressure of 0.87 lb. Per square inch was measured immediately abaft the step. The maximum positive pressures have a duration of approximately one-twentieth to one-hundredth second at any given location and are distributed over a very limited area at any particular instant.

  11. Experimental investigation of the stability of the floating water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri Namin, Reza; Azizpour Lindi, Shiva; Amjadi, Ahmad; Jafari, Nima; Irajizad, Peyman

    2013-09-01

    When a high voltage is applied between two beakers filled with deionized water, a floating bridge of water is formed in between exceeding the length of 2 cm when the beakers are pulled apart. Currently two theories regarding the stability of the floating water bridge exist, one suggesting that the tension caused by electric field in the dielectric medium is holding the bridge and the other suggesting surface tension to be responsible for the vertical equilibrium. We construct experiments in which the electric field and the geometry of the bridge are measured and compared with predictions of theories of the floating water bridge stability. We use a numerical simulation for estimation of the electric field. Our results indicate that the two forces of dielectric and surface tensions hold the bridge against gravity simultaneously and, having the same order of magnitude, neither of the two forces are negligible. In bridges with larger diameters, the effect of dielectric tension is slightly more in the vertical equilibrium than surface tension. Results show that the stability can be explained by macroscopic forces, regardless of the microscopic changes in the water structure.

  12. Performance of floating oil booms in unsheltered waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; Castro, Alberte

    2013-04-01

    Oil booms are a fundamental tool to diminish the impact of an oil spill. They tend to perform reasonably well in sheltered waters, e.g. within a harbour. However, their performance is often inadequate in open water conditions, under waves, winds and currents. And it is precisely in those conditions that they are needed if oil slicks are to be prevented from reaching certain particularly sensitive areas, such as estuaries, rias, etc. (Castro et al., 2010; Iglesias et al., 2010). In this work the performance of floating oil booms under waves and currents is assessed on the basis of laboratory experiments carried out in a state-of-the-art wave-current flume. Different oil boom models are used, representative of booms with long and short skirts and with different weights. The results show that different booms behave very differently under waves and currents, hence the importance of selecting the boom design that is appropriate for the actual conditions under which it will have to contain the oil slick. Thus, different oil booms should be used for different areas. References A. Castro, G. Iglesias, R. Carballo, J.A. Fraguela, 2010. Floating boom performance under waves and currents, Journal of Hazardous Materials 174, 226-235 G. Iglesias, A.Castro, J.A.Fraguela, 2010. Artificial intelligence applied to floating boom behavior under waves and currents, Ocean Engineering 37, 1513-1521.

  13. Computational fluid dynamic analysis for independent floating water treatment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, M. H.; Swee, M. G.; Zainal, N. S.; Zahari, N. M.; Kamarudin, M. A.; Ramli, M. Z.

    2017-09-01

    This project is to design and develop 3D Independent Floating Water Treatment Device using 3D CAD software. The device is designed to treat water for better water qualities and water flows of the lakes. A prototype was manufactured to study the water treatment efficiency of the device. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis was used to capture the efficiency of the Independent Floating Water Treatment Device by simulates and model the water flows, pressure and velocity. According to the results, the maximum velocity magnitude was around 1m3/s. The velocity contour showed the device has high velocity at the pipe outlet. The velocity became lower and lower as the distance is further from the pipe outlet. The result from the velocity measurement was 1.05m/s. The pressure magnitude was in between 1426 Pa to 1429 Pa. The laboratory results based on water parameters proved that the water movement and direction of water flow of the Independent Floating Water Treatment Device enable the efficient pollutant removal. The vector plot, velocity contour, water flow path lines, water flow streamline and pressure contour was successful modeled.

  14. Floating-to-Fixed-Point Conversion for Digital Signal Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing applications are specified with floating-point data types but they are usually implemented in embedded systems with fixed-point arithmetic to minimise cost and power consumption. Thus, methodologies which establish automatically the fixed-point specification are required to reduce the application time-to-market. In this paper, a new methodology for the floating-to-fixed point conversion is proposed for software implementations. The aim of our approach is to determine the fixed-point specification which minimises the code execution time for a given accuracy constraint. Compared to previous methodologies, our approach takes into account the DSP architecture to optimise the fixed-point formats and the floating-to-fixed-point conversion process is coupled with the code generation process. The fixed-point data types and the position of the scaling operations are optimised to reduce the code execution time. To evaluate the fixed-point computation accuracy, an analytical approach is used to reduce the optimisation time compared to the existing methods based on simulation. The methodology stages are described and several experiment results are presented to underline the efficiency of this approach.

  15. Anticoagulation Considerations for Travel to High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2015-09-01

    DeLoughery, Thomas G. Anticoagulation considerations for travel to high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:181-185, 2015.-An increasing percentage of the population are on anticoagulation medicine for clinical reasons ranging from stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation to long term prevention of deep venous thrombosis. In recent years, several new direct oral anticoagulants have entered the market. The key questions that should be kept in mind when approaching a potential traveler on anticoagulation are: 1) why is the patient on anticoagulation? 2) do they need to stay on anticoagulation? 3) what are the choices for their anticoagulation? 4) will there be any drug interactions with medications needed for travel? and 5) how will they monitor their anticoagulation while traveling? Knowing the answers to these questions then can allow for proper counseling and planning for the anticoagulated traveler's trip.

  16. HAWC: The high altitude water Cherenkov observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jordan A.

    2013-02-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is currently being deployed at 4100m above sea level on the Vulcan Sierra Negra near Puebla, Mexico. The HAWC observatory will consist of 250-300 Water Cherenkov Detectors totaling approximately 22,000 m2 of instrumented area. The water Cherenkov technique allows HAWC to have a nearly 100% duty cycle and large field of view, making the HAWC observatory an ideal instrument for the study of transient phenomena. With its large effective area, excellent angular and energy resolutions, and efficient gamma-hadron separation, HAWC will survey the TeV gamma-ray sky, measure spectra of galactic sources from 1 TeV to beyond 100 TeV, and map galactic diffuse gamma ray emission. The science goals, instrument performance and status of the HAWC observatory will be presented.

  17. Effects of altitude to blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelkapić Milosava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing of partial pressure of oxygen in the air leads to a reduced arterial oxygen saturation and increases secretion of erythropoietin, wich stimulates erythropoiesis. Study included 63 healthy children aged 7 years, devided into 3 groups. I group consists of 21 children from suburb of altitude of 370 m, II group of 22 children from the village on 822 m, III group of 21 children from the town on 411 m. Complete blood count was determined on a Hematology analyzer HmX ( Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis of data showed that children from II group have a higher average values of erythrocytes than children from the I (p0.05. Results show that stay in the village is useful for stimulation of erythropoiesis.

  18. Power Budget Analysis for High Altitude Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Elliott, James R.; King, Glen C.

    2006-01-01

    The High Altitude Airship (HAA) has various potential applications and mission scenarios that require onboard energy harvesting and power distribution systems. The energy source considered for the HAA s power budget is solar photon energy that allows the use of either photovoltaic (PV) cells or advanced thermoelectric (ATE) converters. Both PV cells and an ATE system utilizing high performance thermoelectric materials were briefly compared to identify the advantages of ATE for HAA applications in this study. The ATE can generate a higher quantity of harvested energy than PV cells by utilizing the cascaded efficiency of a three-staged ATE in a tandem mode configuration. Assuming that each stage of ATE material has the figure of merit of 5, the cascaded efficiency of a three-staged ATE system approaches the overall conversion efficiency greater than 60%. Based on this estimated efficiency, the configuration of a HAA and the power utility modules are defined.

  19. The Impact of Altitude on Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children Dwelling at High Altitude: A Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Benjamin H; Brinton, John T; Ingram, David G; Halbower, Ann C

    2017-09-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is prevalent among children and is associated with adverse health outcomes. Worldwide, approximately 250 million individuals reside at altitudes higher than 2000 meters above sea level (masl). The effect of chronic high-altitude exposure on children with SDB is unknown. This study aims to determine the impact of altitude on sleep study outcomes in children with SDB dwelling at high altitude. A single-center crossover study was performed to compare results of high-altitude home polysomnography (H-PSG) with lower altitude laboratory polysomnography (L-PSG) in school-age children dwelling at high altitude with symptoms consistent with SDB. The primary outcome was apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), with secondary outcomes including obstructive AHI; central AHI; and measures of oxygenation, sleep quality, and pulse rate. Twelve participants were enrolled, with 10 included in the final analysis. Median altitude was 1644 masl on L-PSG and 2531 masl on H-PSG. Median AHI was 2.40 on L-PSG and 10.95 on H-PSG. Both obstructive and central respiratory events accounted for the difference in AHI. Oxygenation and sleep fragmentation were worse and pulse rate higher on H-PSG compared to L-PSG. These findings reveal a clinically substantial impact of altitude on respiratory, sleep, and cardiovascular outcomes in children with SDB who dwell at high altitude. Within this population, L-PSG underestimates obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea compared to H-PSG. Given the shortage of high-altitude pediatric sleep laboratories, these results suggest a role for home sleep apnea testing for children residing at high altitude. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the UV photolysis of CFC-11 and CFC-12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.; Kaiser, J.; Laube, J.C.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2012-01-01

    The chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 (CFCl3) and CFC-12 (CF2Cl2) are stable atmospheric compounds that are produced at the earth’s surface, but removed only at high altitudes in the stratosphere by photolytic reactions. Their removal liberates atomic chlorine that then catalytically destroys stratospheric

  1. Hydrological processes in glacierized high-altitude basins of the western Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Shah, Rouf A.; Fryar, Alan E.; Deshpande, Rajendrakumar D.; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Perrin, Jerome

    2018-03-01

    Western Himalaya is a strategically important region, where the water resources are shared by China, India and Pakistan. The economy of the region is largely dependent on the water resources delivered by snow and glacier melt. The presented study used stable isotopes of water to further understand the basin-scale hydro-meteorological, hydrological and recharge processes in three high-altitude mountainous basins of the western Himalayas. The study provided new insights in understanding the dominant factors affecting the isotopic composition of the precipitation, snowpack, glacier melt, streams and springs. It was observed that elevation-dependent post-depositional processes and snowpack evolution resulted in the higher isotopic altitude gradient in snowpacks. The similar temporal trends of isotopic signals in rivers and karst springs reflect the rapid flow transfer due to karstification of the carbonate aquifers. The attenuation of the extreme isotopic input signal in karst springs appears to be due to the mixing of source waters with the underground karst reservoirs. Basin-wise, the input-output response demonstrates the vital role of winter precipitation in maintaining the perennial flow in streams and karst springs in the region. Isotopic data were also used to estimate the mean recharge altitude of the springs.

  2. Effects of ascent to high altitude on human antimycobacterial immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Eisen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis infection, disease and mortality are all less common at high than low altitude and ascent to high altitude was historically recommended for treatment. The immunological and mycobacterial mechanisms underlying the association between altitude and tuberculosis are unclear. We studied the effects of altitude on mycobacteria and antimycobacterial immunity.Antimycobacterial immunity was assayed in 15 healthy adults residing at low altitude before and after they ascended to 3400 meters; and in 47 long-term high-altitude residents. Antimycobacterial immunity was assessed as the extent to which participants' whole blood supported or restricted growth of genetically modified luminescent Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG mycobacteria during 96 hours incubation. We developed a simplified whole blood assay that could be used by a technician in a low-technology setting. We used this to compare mycobacterial growth in participants' whole blood versus positive-control culture broth and versus negative-control plasma.Measurements of mycobacterial luminescence predicted the number of mycobacterial colonies cultured six weeks later. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood at similar rates to positive-control culture broth whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.002 of mycobacterial growth to be 4-times less than in culture broth. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood 25-times more than negative-control plasma whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.01 of mycobacterial growth to be only 6-times more than in plasma. There was no evidence of differences in antimycobacterial immunity at high altitude between people who had recently ascended to high altitude versus long-term high-altitude residents.An assay of luminescent mycobacterial growth in whole blood was adapted and found to be feasible in low-resource settings. This demonstrated that ascent to or residence at high altitude was

  3. Water flow and solute transport in floating fen root mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofberg, Sija F.; EATM van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2015-04-01

    Floating fens are valuable wetlands, found in North-Western Europe, that are formed by floating root mats when old turf ponds are colonized by plants. These terrestrialization ecosystems are known for their biodiversity and the presence of rare plant species, and the root mats reveal different vegetation zones at a small scale. The vegetation zones are a result of strong gradients in abiotic conditions, including groundwater dynamics, nutrients and pH. To prevent irreversible drought effects such as land subsidence and mineralization of peat, water management involves import of water from elsewhere to maintain constant surface water levels. Imported water may have elevated levels of salinity during dry summers, and salt exposure may threaten the vegetation. To assess the risk of exposure of the rare plant species to salinity, the hydrology of such root mats must be understood. Physical properties of root mats have scarcely been investigated. We have measured soil characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, vertical root mat movement and groundwater dynamics in a floating root mat in the nature reserve Nieuwkoopse Plassen, in the Netherlands. The root mat mostly consists of roots and organic material, in which the soil has a high saturated water content, and strongly varies in its stage of decomposition. We have found a distinct negative correlation between degree of decomposition and hydraulic conductivity, similar to observations for bogs in the literature. Our results show that the relatively young, thin edge of the root mat that colonizes the surface water has a high hydraulic conductivity and floats in the surface water, resulting in very small groundwater fluctuations within the root mat. The older part of the root mat, that is connected to the deeper peat layers is hydrologically more isolated and the material has a lower conductivity. Here, the groundwater fluctuates strongly with atmospheric forcing. The zones of hydraulic properties and vegetation, appear to

  4. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  5. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  6. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  7. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  8. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  9. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  10. Lavoisier: A Low Altitude Balloon Network for Probing the Deep Atmosphere and Surface of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaasefiere, E.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Rannou, P.; Raulin, F.; Coll, P.; Coscia, D.; Jambon, A.; hide

    2005-01-01

    The in-situ exploration of the low atmosphere and surface of Venus is clearly the next step of Venus exploration. Understanding the geochemistry of the low atmosphere, interacting with rocks, and the way the integrated Venus system evolved, under the combined effects of inner planet cooling and intense atmospheric greenhouse, is a major challenge of modern planetology. Due to the dense atmosphere (95 bars at the surface), balloon platforms offer an interesting means to transport and land in-situ measurement instruments. Due to the large Archimede force, a 2 cubic meter He-pressurized balloon floating at 10 km altitude may carry up to 60 kg of payload. LAVOISIER is a project submitted to ESA in 2000, in the follow up and spirit of the balloon deployed at cloud level by the Russian Vega mission in 1986. It is composed of a descent probe, for detailed noble gas and atmosphere composition analysis, and of a network of 3 balloons for geochemical and geophysical investigations at local, regional and global scales.

  11. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  12. Cognition and metacognition at extreme altitudes on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T O; Dunlosky, J; White, D M; Steinberg, J; Townes, B D; Anderson, D

    1990-12-01

    The FACTRETRIEVAL2 test battery, which assesses both retrieval of general information from memory and metacognition about that retrieval, was administered to people before and after a recent expedition to Mount Everest and at extreme altitudes above 6,400 m (higher than any mountain in North America or Europe). The major findings were as follows: First, the same extreme altitudes already known to impair learning did not affect either accuracy or latency of retrieval, and this robustness of retrieval occurred for both recall and forced-choice recognition. Second, extreme altitude did affect metacognition: The climbers showed a decline in their feeling of knowing both while at extreme altitude and after returning to Kathmandu (i.e., both an effect and an aftereffect of extreme altitude). Third, extreme altitude had different effects than alcohol intoxication (previously assessed by Nelson. McSpadden, Fromme, & Marlatt, 1986). Alcohol intoxication affected retrieval without affecting metacognition, whereas extreme altitude affected metacognition without affecting retrieval; this different pattern for extreme altitude versus alcohol intoxication implies that (a) hypoxia does not always yield the same outcome as alcohol intoxication and (b) neither retrieval nor metacognition is strictly more sensitive than the other for detecting changes in independent variables.

  13. Improving estimation of flight altitude in wildlife telemetry studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Duerr, Adam E.; Hall, Jonathan C.; Braham, Melissa A.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Altitude measurements from wildlife tracking devices, combined with elevation data, are commonly used to estimate the flight altitude of volant animals. However, these data often include measurement error. Understanding this error may improve estimation of flight altitude and benefit applied ecology.There are a number of different approaches that have been used to address this measurement error. These include filtering based on GPS data, filtering based on behaviour of the study species, and use of state-space models to correct measurement error. The effectiveness of these approaches is highly variable.Recent studies have based inference of flight altitude on misunderstandings about avian natural history and technical or analytical tools. In this Commentary, we discuss these misunderstandings and suggest alternative strategies both to resolve some of these issues and to improve estimation of flight altitude. These strategies also can be applied to other measures derived from telemetry data.Synthesis and applications. Our Commentary is intended to clarify and improve upon some of the assumptions made when estimating flight altitude and, more broadly, when using GPS telemetry data. We also suggest best practices for identifying flight behaviour, addressing GPS error, and using flight altitudes to estimate collision risk with anthropogenic structures. Addressing the issues we describe would help improve estimates of flight altitude and advance understanding of the treatment of error in wildlife telemetry studies.

  14. Effect of high altitude cosmic irradiation upon cell generation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Croute, F.; Tixador, R.; Blanquet, Y.; Planel, H.

    1975-01-01

    Paramecia cultures placed at 3800 meter altitude show a proliferating activity acceleration compared to control cultures placed at low altitude under the same environment conditions. These results confirm the cosmic irradiation influence upon the activating effect produced by the natural ionizing radiations on living organisms [fr

  15. Respiratory Muscle Training and Exercise Endurance at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Samuel; Quackenbush, Joseph; Fletcher, Michael; Pendergast, David R

    2016-08-01

    Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups. Subjects pedaled an ergometer until exhaustion at simulated altitude in a hypobaric chamber while noninvasive arterial saturation (Sao2), ventilation (VE), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) were measured. As expected, Sao2 decreased to 88 ± 4% saturation at rest and to 81 ± 2% during exercise, and was not affected by VIHT. VIHT resulted in a 40% increase in maximal training VE compared to pre-VIHT. Exercise endurance significantly increased 44% after VIHT (P = altitude post-VIHT increased more (49%) for longer (21 min) and decreased less (11% at 25.4 ± 6.7 min). VIHT improved exercise time at altitude and sustained VE. This suggests that VIHT reduced respiratory muscle fatigue and would be useful to trekkers and military personnel working at altitude. Helfer S, Quackenbush J, Fletcher M, Pendergast DR. Respiratory muscle training and exercise endurance at altitutde. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):704-711.

  16. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  17. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  18. Cold induced peripheral vasodilation at high altitudes- a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Ruiten, H.J.A. van

    2000-01-01

    A significant reduction in cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) is observed at high altitudes. No agreement is found in the literature about acclimatization effects on CIVD. Two studies were performed to investigate the effect of altitude acclimatization on CIVD. In the first study 13 male subjects

  19. Short communication: Effect of altitude on erosive characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High-resolution rainfall data from two stations in the northern KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg provide insight into the effect of altitude on individual rainfall event characteristics. The effect of altitude on the duration and erosivity (rainfall intensity and kinetic energy) of concurrent rainfall on the escarpment and in the foothills is ...

  20. AltitudeOmics: Resetting of cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity following acclimatization to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Lin eFan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL, upon ascent (ALT1 and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16 to 5,260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95% vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P=0.024 and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5 %/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P=0.026 to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177%, 95% CI [139, 215], P<0.001; slope: 10.3 %/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P=0.003 compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P=0.982, while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P=0.001 vs. SL, indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2 following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude.

  1. Low-Altitude Operation of Unmanned Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Sebastian

    Currently deployed unmanned rotorcraft rely on preplanned missions or teleoperation and do not actively incorporate information about obstacles, landing sites, wind, position uncertainty, and other aerial vehicles during online motion planning. Prior work has successfully addressed some tasks such as obstacle avoidance at slow speeds, or landing at known to be good locations. However, to enable autonomous missions in cluttered environments, the vehicle has to react quickly to previously unknown obstacles, respond to changing environmental conditions, and find unknown landing sites. We consider the problem of enabling autonomous operation at low-altitude with contributions to four problems. First we address the problem of fast obstacle avoidance for a small aerial vehicle and present results from over a 1000 rims at speeds up to 10 m/s. Fast response is achieved through a reactive algorithm whose response is learned based on observing a pilot. Second, we show an algorithm to update the obstacle cost expansion for path planning quickly and demonstrate it on a micro aerial vehicle, and an autonomous helicopter avoiding obstacles. Next, we examine the mission of finding a place to land near a ground goal. Good landing sites need to be detected and found and the final touch down goal is unknown. To detect the landing sites we convey a model based algorithm for landing sites that incorporates many helicopter relevant constraints such as landing sites, approach, abort, and ground paths in 3D range data. The landing site evaluation algorithm uses a patch-based coarse evaluation for slope and roughness, and a fine evaluation that fits a 3D model of the helicopter and landing gear to calculate a goodness measure. The data are evaluated in real-time to enable the helicopter to decide on a place to land. We show results from urban, vegetated, and desert environments, and demonstrate the first autonomous helicopter that selects its own landing sites. We present a generalized

  2. Model predictive control for a dual active bridge inverter with a floating bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Shajjad; Wheeler, Patrick W.; Gerada, C.; Patel, Chintan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a Model Predictive Control technique applied to a dual active bridge inverter where one of the bridges is floating. The proposed floating bridge topology eliminates the need for isolation transformer in a dual inverter system and therefore reduces the size, weight and losses in the system. To achieve multilevel output voltage waveforms the floating inverter DC link capacitor is charged to the half of the main DC link voltage. A finite-set Model Predictive Control technique...

  3. IEEE-754 compliant Algorithms for Fast Multiplication of Double Precision Floating Point Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Geetanjali Wasson

    2011-01-01

    In image and signal processing applications floating-point multiplication is major concern in calculations. Performing multiplication on floating point data is a long course of action and requires huge quantity of processing time. By improving the speed of multiplication task overall speed of the system can be enhanced. The Bottleneck in the floating point multiplication process is the multiplication of mantissas which needs 53*53 bit integer multiplier f...

  4. Accuracy of handheld blood glucose meters at high altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter de Mol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e.g., high-altitude trekking, reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior studies reported bias in blood glucose measurements using different BGMs at high altitude. We hypothesized that glucose-oxidase based BGMs are more influenced by the lower atmospheric oxygen pressure at altitude than glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Glucose measurements at simulated altitude of nine BGMs (six glucose dehydrogenase and three glucose oxidase BGMs were compared to glucose measurement on a similar BGM at sea level and to a laboratory glucose reference method. Venous blood samples of four different glucose levels were used. Moreover, two glucose oxidase and two glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs were evaluated at different altitudes on Mount Kilimanjaro. Accuracy criteria were set at a bias 6.5 mmol/L and <1 mmol/L from reference glucose (when <6.5 mmol/L. No significant difference was observed between measurements at simulated altitude and sea level for either glucose oxidase based BGMs or glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs as a group phenomenon. Two GDH based BGMs did not meet set performance criteria. Most BGMs are generally overestimating true glucose concentration at high altitude. CONCLUSION: At simulated high altitude all tested BGMs, including glucose oxidase based BGMs, did not show influence of low atmospheric oxygen pressure. All BGMs, except for two GDH based BGMs, performed within predefined criteria. At true high altitude one GDH based BGM had best precision and accuracy.

  5. Floating macro-litter along the Mediterranean French coast: Composition, density, distribution and overlap with cetacean range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di-Méglio, Nathalie; Campana, Ilaria

    2017-05-15

    This study investigated the composition, density and distribution of floating macro-litter along the Liguro-Provençal basin with respect to cetaceans presence. Survey transects were performed in summer between 2006 and 2015 from sailing vessels with simultaneous cetaceans observations. During 5171km travelled, 1993 floating items were recorded, widespread in the whole study area. Plastics was the predominant category, with bags/packaging always representing >45% of total items. Overall mean density (14.98 items/km 2 ) was stable with significant increase reported only in 2010-2011; monthly analysis showed lower litter densities in July-September, suggesting possible seasonal patterns. Kernel density estimation for plastics revealed ubiquitous distribution rather than high accumulation areas, mainly due to the circulation dynamics of this area. The presence range of cetaceans (259 sightings, 6 species) corresponded by ~50% with plastic distribution, indicating high potential of interaction, especially in the eastern part of the area, but effective risks for marine species might be underrepresented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  7. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of floating riboflavin pellets developed using the melt pelletization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, J; Goole, J; Moës, A J; Amighi, K

    2006-10-12

    Floating pellets were prepared using the melt pelletization process in a Mi-Pro high shear mixer (Pro-C-epT, Belgium). Formulations were based on a mixture of Compritol and Precirol as meltable binders and on the use of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid as gas-generating agents. Good floating abilities were obtained by using the gas-generating agents in both the inner matrix and the outer coating layer of the pellets. In vitro evaluation of floating capability was performed both by using the resultant weight apparatus and by counting floating pellets at the surface of beakers containing 0.1N HCl solution, in vivo evaluation of floating pellets capabilities was also performed. Riboflavin-containing floating pellets (FRF) were administered orally to nine healthy volunteers versus non-floating pellets (NFRF). Volunteers were divided in two groups, fasted group (n=4) 729 kcal and fed group (n=5) 1634 kcal as the total calorie intake on the testing day. An increase of urinary excretion of riboflavin was observed when the volunteers were dosed with the floating pellets, especially after feeding. As riboflavin has a narrow window of absorption in the upper part of small intestine, this phenomenon could be attributable to the gastric retention of floating pellets.

  9. Floating point only SIMD instruction set architecture including compare, select, Boolean, and alignment operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K [Chappaqua, NY

    2011-03-01

    Mechanisms for implementing a floating point only single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture are provided. A processor is provided that comprises an issue unit, an execution unit coupled to the issue unit, and a vector register file coupled to the execution unit. The execution unit has logic that implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA). The floating point vector registers of the vector register file store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements. The processor may be part of a data processing system.

  10. Development and characterization of floating spheroids of atorvastatin calcium loaded NLC for enhancement of oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kritika; Hallan, Supandeep Singh; Lal, Bharat; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Mishra, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    The obejctive of the present study was to investigate the potential use of floating spheroids of Atorvastatin Calcium (ATS) Loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). The final formula of floating spheroids was optimized on the basis of shape (spherical), diameter (0.47 mm), lag time (20 s), and floating time (> 32 h). The results were further confirmed by different pharmacokinetic parameters-it was observed that the developed optimized floating ATS spheroid-loaded NLCs formulation has significantly improved relative bioavailability, that is, 3.053-folds through oral route in comparison to marketed formulation.

  11. Extended onshore control of a floating wind turbine with wave disturbance reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, S.; Knudsen, T.; Bak, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reaching for higher wind resources floating wind turbines are being investigated. Wave induced loads significantly increase for floating wind turbines, and applying conventional onshore control strategies to floating wind turbines has been shown to impose negative damped oscillations in fore......-aft due to the low natural frequency of the floating structure. We suggest a control loop extension of the onshore controller which stabilizes the system and reduces the wave disturbance. The result is improved performance in power fluctuations, blade pitch activity, and platform oscillations...

  12. Intriguing radiation signatures at aviation altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) project captures absorbed dose in Si with a fleet of 6 instruments on research aircraft. These dose rates are then converted to an effective dose rate. Over 325 flights since 2013 have captured global radiation at nearly all altitudes and latitudes. The radiation is predominantly caused by atmospheric neutrons and protons from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). We have not yet obtained dose from solar energetic particle (SEP) events, which are rather rare. On 13 flights we have also measured dose rates that are up to twice the GCR background for approximately a half an hour per event while flying at higher magnetic latitudes near 60 degrees. The timing of the radiation appears to be coincident with periods of mild geomagnetic disturbances while flying above 10 km at L-shells of 3 to 6. The radiation source is best modeled as secondary gamma-ray photons caused by precipitating ultra-relativistic electrons from the outer Van Allen radiation belt originating as loss cone electrons scattered by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. We describe the observations and the lines of evidence for this intriguing new radiation source relevant to aviation crew and frequent flyers.

  13. The high-altitude water Cherenkov Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Miguel A., E-mail: miguel@psu.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a large field of view, continuously operated, TeV γ -ray experiment under construction at 4,100ma.s.l. in Mexico. The HAWC observatory will have an order of magnitude better sensitivity, angular resolution, and background rejection than its predecessor, the Milagro experiment. The improved performance will allow to detect both the transient and steady emissions, to study the Galactic diffuse emission at TeV energies, and to measure or constrain the TeV spectra of GeV γ -ray sources. In addition, HAWC will be the only ground-based instrument capable of detecting prompt emission from γ -ray bursts above 50 GeV. The HAWC observatory will consist of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each with four photomultiplier tubes. This array is currently under construction on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near the city of Puebla, Mexico. The first 30 WCDs (forming an array approximately the size of Milagro) were deployed in Summer 2012, and 100 WCDs will be taking data by May, 2013. We present in this paper the motivation for constructing the HAWC observatory, the status of the deployment, and the first results from the constantly growing array. (author)

  14. The high-altitude water Cherenkov Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a large field of view, continuously operated, TeV γ -ray experiment under construction at 4,100ma.s.l. in Mexico. The HAWC observatory will have an order of magnitude better sensitivity, angular resolution, and background rejection than its predecessor, the Milagro experiment. The improved performance will allow to detect both the transient and steady emissions, to study the Galactic diffuse emission at TeV energies, and to measure or constrain the TeV spectra of GeV γ -ray sources. In addition, HAWC will be the only ground-based instrument capable of detecting prompt emission from γ -ray bursts above 50 GeV. The HAWC observatory will consist of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each with four photomultiplier tubes. This array is currently under construction on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near the city of Puebla, Mexico. The first 30 WCDs (forming an array approximately the size of Milagro) were deployed in Summer 2012, and 100 WCDs will be taking data by May, 2013. We present in this paper the motivation for constructing the HAWC observatory, the status of the deployment, and the first results from the constantly growing array. (author)

  15. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafá, Miguel A.

    2014-10-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a large field of view, continuously operated, TeV γ-ray experiment under construction at 4,100 m a.s.l. in Mexico. The HAWC observatory will have an order of magnitude better sensitivity, angular resolution, and background rejection than its predecessor, the Milagro experiment. The improved performance will allow us to detect both the transient and steady emissions, to study the Galactic diffuse emission at TeV energies, and to measure or constrain the TeV spectra of GeV γ-ray sources. In addition, HAWC will be the only ground-based instrument capable of detecting prompt emission from γ-ray bursts above 50 GeV. The HAWC observatory will consist of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each with four photomultiplier tubes. This array is currently under construction on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near the city of Puebla, Mexico. The first 30 WCDs (forming an array approximately the size of Milagro) were deployed in Summer 2012, and 100 WCDs will be taking data by May, 2013. We present in this paper the motivation for constructing the HAWC observatory, the status of the deployment, and the first results from the constantly growing array.

  16. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Wayne

    2014-06-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a continuously operated, wide field of view detector based upon a water Cherenkov technology developed by the Milagro experiment. HAWC observes, at an elevation of 4100 m on Sierra Negra Mountain in Mexico, extensive air showers initiated by gamma and cosmic rays. The completed detector will consist of 300 closely spaced water tanks each instrumented with four photomultiplier tubes that provide timing and charge information used to reconstruct energy and arrival direction. HAWC has been optimized to observe transient and steady emission from point as well as diffuse sources of gamma rays in the energy range from several hundred GeV to several hundred TeV. Studies in solar physics as well as the properties of cosmic rays will also be performed. HAWC has been making observations at various stages of deployment since completion of 10% of the array in summer 2012. A discussion of the detector design, science capabilities, current construction/commissioning status, and first results will be presented...

  17. Fracture characterisation of float glass under static and dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nyounguè

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of float glass fracture under static and dynamic loading, with the use of experimental and numerical fracture mechanics methods. It has been shown that the value of notch fracture toughness under static loading depends neither on the kind of test nor on specimen geometry. This makes it possible to replace the three-points-bending specimens with the Brazilian discs which are, under certain test conditions, simpler and convenient to study. For both types of specimens, an analysis of the fracture strength, the notch stress intensity factor and fragmentation of specimens was carried out.

  18. Extreme load predictions for floating offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    An effective stochastic procedure for extreme value predictions related to wave and wind induced stochastic loads is applied to a tension-leg concept for floating offshore wind turbines. The method is based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and as the procedure makes use of only short...... time-domain simulations all kinds of non-linearities can be included. The procedure has been used previously for wave induced loads and is in this note extended to combined wave and wind loads....

  19. Electronically Tunable Multi-Terminal Floating Nullor and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tangsrirat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A realization scheme of an electronically tun- able multi-terminal floating nullor (ET-MTFN is de- scribed in this paper. The proposed circuit mainly employs a transconductance amplifier, an improved translinear cell, two complementary current mirrors with variable current gain and improved Wilson current mirrors, which provide an electronic tuning of the current gain. The va- lidity of the performance of the scheme is verified through PSPICE simulation results. Example applications employing the proposed ET-MTFN as an active element demonstrate that the circuit properties can be varied by electronic means.

  20. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Niwa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization. (paper)

  1. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Niwa, Masaaki

    2014-12-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization.

  2. A custom floating point format ADC for LHC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermel, V.; Lecoq, J.; Bohner, G.

    1996-01-01

    Due to their large dynamic range (in excess of 16 bits) signals from LHC calorimetry poses severe problems to the shaping and digitizing circuits. We are investigating a solution for an ADC based on a custom floating point format. Since the calorimeter precision is limited, the full dynamic range can be split into 8 positive sub-ranges and 5 negative ones, each with an 8 bits dynamic. The reduced number of bits (8 for the mantissa, 4 for the exponent and 1 for the sign) translates itself into a reduction of the power consumption both of the ADC and of the following digital filtering stages. (authors)

  3. The floating face: Garbo, photography and death masks

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    A number of writers have noted the influence of Ernst Benkard’s 1927 book of death masks, Das Ewige Antlitz, on Modernist artists and writers of the inter-war period. This article links it specifically to the emergence in the late 1920s of a very particular way of photographing people, termed here “the floating face”, which is epitomised in publicity portraits of Greta Garbo. It is suggested that this photographic convention is linked to changing attitudes associated with war, to the techniqu...

  4. Floating Carpets and the Delamination of Elastic Sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J. W.

    2011-07-22

    We investigate the deformation of a thin elastic sheet floating on a liquid surface and subject to a uniaxial compression. We show that at a critical compression the sheet delaminates from the liquid over a finite region forming a delamination "blister." This blistering regime adds to the wrinkling and localized folding regimes that have been studied previously. The transition from wrinkled to blistered states occurs when delamination becomes energetically favorable compared with wrinkling. We determine the initial blister size and the evolution of blister size with continuing compression before verifying our theoretical results with experiments at a macroscopic scale. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. Experience in float over integrated deck -- Design and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, J.H.; Naudin, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    Since early 1980, Technip-Geoproduction (TPG), as designer or as installation contractor, has been using with success the float over system UNIDECK-TPG for the transportation and installation of integrated decks for offshore platforms. The concept offers the advantages of significant savings in transportation and installation cost by minimizing the installation time and offshore hook-up and eliminating the need for a heavy lift derrick barge. The paper describes the technology used for the installation, the required engineering studies, the consequences of using such a concept on platform design and the selection of an appropriate barge size to be used.

  6. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of

  7. Underwater Shock Response Analysis of a Floating Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. van Aanhold

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of a surface vessel to underwater shock has been calculated using an explicit finite element analysis. The analysis model is two-dimensional and contains the floating steel structure, a large surrounding water volume and the free surface. The underwater shock is applied in the form of a plane shock wave and cavitation is considered in the analysis. Advanced computer graphics, in particular video animations, provide a powerful and indispensable means for the presentation and evaluation of the analysis results.

  8. Potential impacts of climate change on stable flies, investigated along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, J; David, J-F; Duvallet, G; Tillard, E

    2008-03-01

    Adult populations of stable flies were sampled along an altitudinal transect in Reunion Island to determine whether higher temperatures were associated with: (a) higher numbers of flies; (b) a longer season of infestation, and/or (c) different responses to warming in the cosmopolitan Stomoxys calcitrans (L) and the tropical Stomoxys niger niger Macquart (Diptera: Muscidae). Flies of both species were trapped at seven farms situated at four altitudes (100-1600 m a.s.l.) over a 90-week period. For both species, there were no relationships between the maximum or mean fly abundance and altitude. Only minimum abundance in winter was significantly higher at lower altitudes. Maximum and mean abundances differed significantly between nearby farms under similar climatic conditions. Seasonal fluctuations in fly abundance changed along the gradient. At lower altitudes, population growth started earlier after the winter but abundance declined earlier in summer, which resulted in a shift of the season of infestation. Seasonal fluctuations of both species were strongly related to climate variables at high altitude, mainly temperature. However, climate variables explained a decreasing proportion of the variations in abundance at lower altitudes. Stomoxys calcitrans was the most abundant species overall, but the proportion of S. n. niger increased significantly at lower altitudes and this species became predominant at 100 m a.s.l. It is concluded that stable fly infestations are unlikely to worsen in response to global warming. Maximum abundance is limited by local factors, possibly larval resources, which suggests that adequate husbandry practices could override the impact of climate change. Because S. n. niger tends to be the predominant pest at elevated temperatures, it is recommended that this species should not be introduced in areas where climate is changing.

  9. DLR HABLEG- High Altitude Balloon Launched Experimental Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlach, S.; Schwarzbauch, M.; Laiacker, M.

    2015-09-01

    The group Flying Robots at the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics in Oberpfaffenhofen conducts research on solar powered high altitude aircrafts. Due to the high altitude and the almost infinite mission duration, these platforms are also denoted as High Altitude Pseudo-Satellites (HAPS). This paper highlights some aspects of the design, building, integration and testing of a flying experimental platform for high altitudes. This unmanned aircraft, with a wingspan of 3 m and a mass of less than 10 kg, is meant to be launched as a glider from a high altitude balloon in 20 km altitude and shall investigate technologies for future large HAPS platforms. The aerodynamic requirements for high altitude flight included the development of a launch method allowing for a safe transition to horizontal flight from free-fall with low control authority. Due to the harsh environmental conditions in the stratosphere, the integration of electronic components in the airframe is a major effort. For regulatory reasons a reliable and situation dependent flight termination system had to be implemented. In May 2015 a flight campaign was conducted. The mission was a full success demonstrating that stratospheric research flights are feasible with rather small aircrafts.

  10. Respiratory Muscle Training and Cognitive Function Exercising at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Joseph; Duquin, Aubrey; Helfer, Samuel; Pendergast, David R

    2016-01-01

    Hiking and trekking often occur at altitudes up to 12,000 ft altitude. The hypoxia-induced hyperventilation at altitude paradoxically reduces arterial CO2 (Paco2). A reduction in Paco2 results in vasoconstriction of the blood vessels of the brain and thus in local hypoxia. The local hypoxia likely affects cognitive function, which may result in reduced performance and altitude accidents. Recent publications have demonstrated that voluntary isocapnic hyperventilatory training of the respiratory muscles (VIHT) can markedly enhance exercise endurance as it is associated with reduced ventilation and its energy cost. VIHT may be useful in blunting the altitude-induced hyperventilation leading to higher Paco2 and improved cognitive function. This study examined the effects of VIHT, compared to control (C) and placebo (PVIHT) groups, on selected measures of executive functioning, including working memory and processing speed (i.e., Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Digit Span Forward) at simulated altitude up to 12,000 ft. Associated physiological parameters were also measured. The Digit Span Forward Test did not show improvements after VIHT in any group. The VIHT group, but not C or PVIHT groups, improved significantly (17-30%) on the Stroop Test. Similarly the VIHT group, but not the C and PVIHT groups, improved correct responses (26%) and number of attempts (24%) on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. In addition, reaction time was also improved (16%). VIHT improved processing speed and working memory during exercise at altitude.

  11. Application of altitude/hypoxic training by elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Randall L

    2007-09-01

    At the Olympic level, differences in performance are typically less than 0.5%. This helps explain why many contemporary elite endurance athletes in summer and winter sport incorporate some form of altitude/hypoxic training within their year-round training plan, believing that it will provide the "competitive edge" to succeed at the Olympic level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical application of altitude/hypoxic training as used by elite athletes. Within the general framework of the paper, both anecdotal and scientific evidence will be presented relative to the efficacy of several contemporary altitude/hypoxic training models and devices currently used by Olympic-level athletes for the purpose of legally enhancing performance. These include the three primary altitude/hypoxic training models: 1) live high+train high (LH+TH), 2) live high+train low (LH+TL), and 3) live low+train high (LL+TH). The LH+TL model will be examined in detail and will include its various modifications: natural/terrestrial altitude, simulated altitude via nitrogen dilution or oxygen filtration, and hypobaric normoxia via supplemental oxygen. A somewhat opposite approach to LH+TL is the altitude/hypoxic training strategy of LL+TH, and data regarding its efficacy will be presented. Recently, several of these altitude/hypoxic training strategies and devices underwent critical review by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for the purpose of potentially banning them as illegal performance-enhancing substances/methods. This paper will conclude with an update on the most recent statement from WADA regarding the use of simulated altitude devices.

  12. Plasmonic heating from indium nanoparticles on a floating microporous membrane for enhanced solar seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lulu; Xing, Jun; Wen, Xinglin; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Shijie; Xiong, Qihua

    2017-09-14

    Passive solar evaporation represents a promising and environmentally benign method of water purification/desalination. Plasmonic nanoparticles have been demonstrated as an effective approach for enhancing solar steam generation through a plasmonic heating effect, nonetheless the efficiency is constrained by unnecessary bulk heating of the entire liquid volume, while the noble metals commonly used are not cost-effective in terms of availability and their sophisticated preparation. Herein, a paper-like plasmonic device consisting of a microporous membrane and indium nanoparticles (In NPs/MPM) is fabricated through a simple thermal evaporation method. Due to the light-weight and porous nature of the device, the broadband light absorption properties, and theoretically the excellent plasmonic heating effect from In NP which could be even higher than gold, silver and aluminium nanoparticles, our device can effectively enhance solar water evaporation by floating on the water surface and its utility has been demonstrated in the solar desalination of a real seawater sample. The durability of the device in solar seawater desalination has also been investigated over multiple cycles with stable performances. This portable device could provide a solution for individuals to do water/seawater purification in under-developed areas with limited/no access to electricity or a centralized drinking water supply.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA response to high altitude: a new perspective on high-altitude adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria are the energy metabolism centers of the cell. More than 95% of cellular energy is produced by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Hypoxia affects a wide range of energy generation and consumption processes in animals. The most important mechanisms limiting ATP consumption increase the efficiency of ATP production and accommodate the reduced production of ATP by the body. All of these mechanisms relate to changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial function can be affected by variations in mitochondrial DNA, including polymorphisms, content changes, and deletions. These variations play an important role in acclimatization or adaptation to hypoxia. In this paper, the association between mitochondrial genome sequences and high-altitude adaptation is reviewed.

  14. Altitude Training in Elite Swimmers for Sea Level Performance (Altitude Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ferran A; Iglesias, Xavier; Feriche, Belén; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Chaverri, Diego; Wachsmuth, Nadine B; Schmidt, Walter; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-09-01

    This controlled, nonrandomized, parallel-groups trial investigated the effects on performance, V˙O2 and hemoglobin mass (tHbmass) of four preparatory in-season training interventions: living and training at moderate altitude for 3 and 4 wk (Hi-Hi3, Hi-Hi), living high and training high and low (Hi-HiLo, 4 wk), and living and training at sea level (SL) (Lo-Lo, 4 wk). From 61 elite swimmers, 54 met all inclusion criteria and completed time trials over 50- and 400-m crawl (TT50, TT400), and 100 (sprinters) or 200 m (nonsprinters) at best stroke (TT100/TT200). Maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and HR were measured with an incremental 4 × 200 m test. Training load was estimated using cumulative training impulse method and session RPE. Initial measures (PRE) were repeated immediately (POST) and once weekly on return to SL (PostW1 to PostW4). tHbmass was measured in duplicate at PRE and once weekly during the camp with CO rebreathing. Effects were analyzed using mixed linear modeling. TT100 or TT200 was worse or unchanged immediately at POST, but improved by approximately 3.5% regardless of living or training at SL or altitude after at least 1 wk of SL recovery. Hi-HiLo achieved greater improvement 2 (5.3%) and 4 wk (6.3%) after the camp. Hi-HiLo also improved more in TT400 and TT50 2 (4.2% and 5.2%, respectively) and 4 wk (4.7% and 5.5%) from return. This performance improvement was not linked linearly to changes in V˙O2max or tHbmass. A well-implemented 3- or 4-wk training camp may impair performance immediately but clearly improves performance even in elite swimmers after a period of SL recovery. Hi-HiLo for 4 wk improves performance in swimming above and beyond altitude and SL controls through complex mechanisms involving altitude living and SL training effects.

  15. Station-keeping of a high-altitude balloon with electric propulsion and wireless power transmission: A concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wynsberghe, Erinn; Turak, Ayse

    2016-11-01

    A stable, ultra long-duration high-altitude balloon (HAB) platform which can maintain stationary position would represent a new paradigm for telecommunications and high-altitude observation and transmission services, with greatly reduced cost and complexity compared to existing technologies including satellites, telecom towers, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This contribution proposes a lightweight superpressure balloon platform for deployment to an altitude of 25 km. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thrusters are presented to maintain position by overcoming stratospheric winds. Critical to maintaining position is a continual supply of electrical power to operate the on-board propulsion system. One viable solution is to deliver power wirelessly to a high-altitude craft from a ground-based transmitter. Microwave energy, not heavily attenuated by the atmosphere, can be provided remotely from a ground-based generator (magnetron, klystron, etc.) and steered electrically with an antenna array (phased array) at a designated frequency (such as 2.45 or 5.8 GHz). A rectifying antenna ("rectenna") on the bottom of the balloon converts waves into direct current for on-board use. Preliminary mission architecture, energy requirements, and safety concerns for a proposed system are presented along with recommended future work.

  16. Ferrum metabolism after permanence at extreme altitude on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ballarín, E; Arregui, R

    1994-05-01

    High altitude has always intrigued physiologists because of the remarkable ability of man to adapt to the hostile environment. Despite numerous studies examining the physiological alterations occurring during exercise after exposure to hypoxia and the adaptative effects of sustained residence at altitude, several issues remain unresolved. The aim of investigation of the Spanish Medical Research Expedition to Mount Everest in 1992 was an extensive study on the physiological adaptations to the hypobaric environment at extreme altitude. We are presenting advance results the gasometry, acid-base parameters and ferrum metabolism.

  17. Altitude training considerations for the winter sport athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Stickford, Jonathon L; Levine, Benjamin D

    2010-03-01

    Winter sports events routinely take place at low to moderate altitudes, and nearly all Winter Olympic Games have had at least one venue at an altitude >1000 m. The acute and chronic effects of altitude can have a substantial effect on performance outcomes. Acutely, the decline in oxygen delivery to working muscle decreases maximal oxygen uptake, negatively affecting performance in endurance events, such as cross-country skiing and biathlon. The reduction in air resistance at altitude can dramatically affect sports involving high velocities and technical skill components, such as ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating and ice hockey. Dissociation between velocity and sensations usually associated with work intensity (ventilation, metabolic signals in skeletal muscle and heart rate) may impair pacing strategy and make it difficult to determine optimal race pace. For competitions taking place at altitude, a number of strategies may be useful, depending on the altitude of residence of the athlete and ultimate competition altitude, as follows. First, allow extra time and practice (how much is yet undetermined) for athletes to adjust to the changes in projectile motion; hockey, shooting, figure skating and ski jumping may be particularly affected. These considerations apply equally in the reverse direction; that is, for athletes practising at altitude but competing at sea level. Second, allow time for acclimatization for endurance sports: 3-5 days if possible, especially for low altitude (500-2000 m); 1-2 weeks for moderate altitude (2000-3000 m); and at least 2 weeks if possible for high altitude (>3000 m). Third, increase exercise-recovery ratios as much as possible, with 1:3 ratio probably optimal, and consider more frequent substitutions for sports where this is allowed, such as ice hockey. Fourth, consider the use of supplemental O(2) on the sideline (ice hockey) or in between heats (skating and Alpine skiing) to facilitate recovery. For competitions at sea

  18. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.

    2008-01-01

    . The alteration at the muscle level at altitude is minor and so is the effect on the metabolism, although it is debated whether a possible reduction in blood lactate accumulation occurs during exercise at altitude. Transient acute mountain sickness (headache, anorexia, and nausea) is present in 10-30% of subjects...... ascent (average ascent rate 300 m/day above 2000 m a.s.l.), primarily in order to sleep and feel well, and minimize the risk of mountain sickness. A new classification of altitude levels based on the effects on performance and well-being is proposed and an overview given over the various modalities using...

  19. Productivity of Permanent Pastures Located at Different Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Rechiţean

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the yielding and grazing capacity of some permanent pastures located in Banat’s Mountains, at 236 – 1300 m altitude. The mean results achieved showed that the yield difference between the minimal altitude level (236 m and the maximal one (1300 m is 0.93 t/ha DM. This difference leads to the conclusion that the yield of the permanent pastures located in the studied area decreases with 0.87 kg/ha DM (about 0.5 t/ha fresh mass for each 100 m of altitude.

  20. Oxidative stress and the high altitude environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been considerable interest in mountain sports, including mountaineering, owing to the general availability of climbing clothing and equipment as well trainings and professional literature. This raised a new question for the environmental and mountain medicine: Is mountaineering harmful to health? Potential hazards include the conditions existing in the alpine environment, i.e. lower atmospheric pressure leading to the development of hypobaric hypoxia, extreme physical effort, increased UV radiation, lack of access to fresh food, and mental stress. A reasonable measure of harmfulness of these factors is to determine the increase in the level of oxidative stress. Alpine environment can stimulate the antioxidant enzyme system but under specific circumstances it may exceed its capabilities with simultaneous consumption of low-molecular antioxidants resulting in increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This situation is referred to as oxidative stress. Rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of reactive oxygen species leads to a number of adverse changes, resulting in the above-average damage to the lipid structures of cell membranes (peroxidation, proteins (denaturation, and nucleic acids. Such situation within the human body cannot take place without resultant systemic consequences. This explains the malaise of people returning from high altitude and a marked decrease in their physical fitness. In addition, a theory is put forward that the increase in the level of oxidative stress is one of the factors responsible for the onset of acute mountain sickness (AMS. However, such statement requires further investigation because the currently available literature is inconclusive. This article presents the causes and effects of development of oxidative stress in the high mountains.

  1. Functionalization of Carbon Nanofibres Obtained by Floating Catalyst Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The excellent physicochemical and electrical properties of carbon nanofibres (CNF combined with the possibility of being produced at industrial scale at reasonable costs have promoted the interest in their use in very diverse areas. However, there are still some drawbacks that must be solved in order to optimize their set of properties such as the presence of impurities or the imperfections in the crystalline structure. In this work, different modification treatments of CNFs produced by the floating catalyst method have been studied. Three types of modification processes have been explored that can be grouped as mechanical, thermal, and chemical functionalization processes. Mechanical processing has allowed solving the agglomeration problem related to CNFs produced by floating catalyst method and the resulting modified product ensures the secure handling of carbon nanofibres. Thermal and chemical treatments lead to purer and more crystalline products by removing catalyst impurities and amorphous carbon. Functionalization processes explored in this work open the possibility of customized posttreatment of carbon nanofibres according to the desired requirements.

  2. Feasibility of Floating Platform Systems for Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Boone, A.

    2003-11-01

    This paper provides a general technical description of several types of floating platforms for wind turbines. Platform topologies are classified into multiple- or single-turbine floaters and by mooring method. Platforms using catenary mooring systems are contrasted to vertical mooring systems and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Specific anchor types are described in detail. A rough cost comparison is performed for two different platform architectures using a generic 5-MW wind turbine. One platform is a Dutch study of a tri-floater platform using a catenary mooring system, and the other is a mono-column tension-leg platform developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Cost estimates showed that single unit production cost is $7.1 M for the Dutch tri-floater, and $6.5 M for the NREL TLP concept. However, value engineering, multiple unit series production, and platform/turbine system optimization can lower the unit platform costs to $4.26 M and $2.88 M, respectively, with significant potential to reduce cost further with system optimization. These foundation costs are within the range necessary to bring the cost of energy down to the DOE target range of $0.05/kWh for large-scale deployment of offshore floating wind turbines.

  3. Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Hu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water. The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.

  4. Coupled Thermal Field of the Rotor of Liquid Floated Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhengjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inertial navigation devices include star sensor, GPS, and gyroscope. Optical fiber and laser gyroscopes provide high accuracy, and their manufacturing costs are also high. Magnetic suspension rotor gyroscope improves the accuracy and reduces the production cost of the device because of the influence of thermodynamic coupling. Therefore, the precision of the gyroscope is reduced and drift rate is increased. In this study, the rotor of liquid floated gyroscope, particularly the dished rotor gyroscope, was placed under a thermal field, which improved the measurement accuracy of the gyroscope. A dynamic theory of the rotor of liquid floated gyroscope was proposed, and the thermal field of the rotor was simulated. The maximum stress was in x, 1.4; y, 8.43; min 97.23; and max 154.34. This stress occurred at the border of the dished rotor at a high-speed rotation. The secondary flow reached 5549 r/min, and the generated heat increased. Meanwhile, the high-speed rotation of the rotor was volatile, and the dished rotor movement was unstable. Thus, nanomaterials must be added to reduce the thermal coupling fluctuations in the dished rotor and improve the accuracy of the measurement error and drift rate.

  5. Raman scattering measurements on a floating water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterio, R. C.; Pochylski, M.; Aliotta, F.; Vasi, C.; Fontanella, M. E.; Saija, F.

    2010-05-01

    It was observed that when polarized by an intense electric field, water is able to self-arrange into macroscopic cylindrical wires that can hang up and remain floating against gravity. This phenomenon is now known as a 'water bridge'. Several attempts have been made to give an explanation of this apparently unusual behaviour of water. A number of experiments have been performed with the aim of probing any possible structural change of bulk water, after application of the electric field. None of the available findings appear conclusive at the moment. Here we report the results of the first Raman scattering experiment on floating water bridges. The inter-molecular OH-stretching band has been investigated and the results have been compared with those from bulk water. Some changes in the scattering profiles after application of the electric field are shown to have a structural origin. The bridges have been obtained, for the first time, in a vertical geometry and under application of an alternating field. The adopted geometry has allowed us to reveal a clear asymmetry between opposite direct current biasing, which can be related to the nature of the charge carriers.

  6. Raman scattering measurements on a floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponterio, R C; Aliotta, F; Vasi, C; Fontanella, M E; Saija, F; Pochylski, M

    2010-01-01

    It was observed that when polarized by an intense electric field, water is able to self-arrange into macroscopic cylindrical wires that can hang up and remain floating against gravity. This phenomenon is now known as a 'water bridge'. Several attempts have been made to give an explanation of this apparently unusual behaviour of water. A number of experiments have been performed with the aim of probing any possible structural change of bulk water, after application of the electric field. None of the available findings appear conclusive at the moment. Here we report the results of the first Raman scattering experiment on floating water bridges. The inter-molecular OH-stretching band has been investigated and the results have been compared with those from bulk water. Some changes in the scattering profiles after application of the electric field are shown to have a structural origin. The bridges have been obtained, for the first time, in a vertical geometry and under application of an alternating field. The adopted geometry has allowed us to reveal a clear asymmetry between opposite direct current biasing, which can be related to the nature of the charge carriers.

  7. Fragility of Floating Docks for Small Craft Marinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, A.; Eskijian, M.; Lynett, P. J.; Ayca, A.

    2015-12-01

    Because of the damage resulting from the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japanese tele-tsunamis, damage to the small craft marinas in California has become an important concern. This paper will explain the methodology and results used to simulate the demand and also the structural capacity of the floating dock system, composed of floating docks, fingers and moored vessels during tsunami events. The intent is to develop a predictive tool to understand the vulnerability of California's small craft harbors to tsunami events. To validate the methodology, the probabilistic model will be applied to Santa Cruz Harbor. Maps of maximum velocity and mean current direction from the 2011 Japan tsunami have been developed using a numerical model. Cleat and pile guide locations will be recorded and georeferenced from aerial images before the event. The fragility curves for each dock/finger system will be compared with damage reports and aerial images from just after the tsunami event. A discussion of how the fragility curves compare with the damage reports will be included. It is anticipated that these curves will be useful to marina operators to use as a tool to determine where rehabilitation might be necessary to mitigate some of the damage from the next event. Conclusions will focus on how results can be used by marina operators to reduce harbor vulnerability to tsunamis.

  8. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, J., E-mail: jonathan.bortfeldt@cern.ch [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Magallanes, L. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Müller, R. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Parodi, K. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlüter, T. [LMU Munich, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Voss, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zibell, A. [JMU Würzburg, Sanderring 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm{sup 2} with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X{sub 0}. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF{sub 4} gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  9. JPEG2000 Compatible Lossless Coding of Floating-Point Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usevitch BryanE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific applications require that image data be stored in floating-point format due to the large dynamic range of the data. These applications pose a problem if the data needs to be compressed since modern image compression standards, such as JPEG2000, are only defined to operate on fixed-point or integer data. This paper proposes straightforward extensions to the JPEG2000 image compression standard which allow for the efficient coding of floating-point data. These extensions maintain desirable properties of JPEG2000, such as lossless and rate distortion optimal lossy decompression from the same coded bit stream, scalable embedded bit streams, error resilience, and implementation on low-memory hardware. Although the proposed methods can be used for both lossy and lossless compression, the discussion in this paper focuses on, and the test results are limited to, the lossless case. Test results on real image data show that the proposed lossless methods have raw compression performance that is competitive with, and sometime exceeds, current state-of-the-art methods.

  10. JPEG2000 Compatible Lossless Coding of Floating-Point Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan E. Usevitch

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific applications require that image data be stored in floating-point format due to the large dynamic range of the data. These applications pose a problem if the data needs to be compressed since modern image compression standards, such as JPEG2000, are only defined to operate on fixed-point or integer data. This paper proposes straightforward extensions to the JPEG2000 image compression standard which allow for the efficient coding of floating-point data. These extensions maintain desirable properties of JPEG2000, such as lossless and rate distortion optimal lossy decompression from the same coded bit stream, scalable embedded bit streams, error resilience, and implementation on low-memory hardware. Although the proposed methods can be used for both lossy and lossless compression, the discussion in this paper focuses on, and the test results are limited to, the lossless case. Test results on real image data show that the proposed lossless methods have raw compression performance that is competitive with, and sometime exceeds, current state-of-the-art methods.

  11. On the mechanism of floating and sliding of liquid marbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Bormashenko, Yelena; Musin, Albina; Barkay, Zahava

    2009-03-09

    The mechanisms of floating and sliding of liquid marbles are studied. Liquid marbles containing CaCl(2) and marbles containing NaOH water solutions float on water containing Na(2)CO(3) and an alcoholic solution of phenolphthalein with no chemical reaction. Sliding of liquid marbles, consisting of NaOH water solutions, on polymer substrates coated with phenolphthalein is studied as well. No chemical reaction is observed. These observations supply direct experimental evidence for the suggestion that interfaces are separated by an air layer when marbles roll on solid substrates. It is concluded that a liquid marble rests on hydrophobic particles coating the liquid. In contrast, drops containing an NaOH water solution sliding on superhydrophobic surfaces coated with phenolphthalein leave a colored trace. The mechanism of low-friction sliding of drops deposited on superhydrophobic surfaces and liquid marbles turns out to be quite different: there is no direct contact between liquid and solid in the case of marbles' motion.

  12. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Buchheit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1 was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h-1 (D>14.4 km·h-1 and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1 were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen’s d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8 and D>14.4 km·h-1 (+0.5 ± 0.8 in AUS. D>14.4 km.h-1 was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8. Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h-1 increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7; conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2. In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in ‘fitness’ do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity.

  13. Wake Influence on Dynamic Load Characteristics of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Minu; Lee, Soogab; Kim, Taeseong

    2016-01-01

    Because the flow conditions of an offshore floating wind turbine and onshore fixed wind turbine differ, it is debatable whether the aerodynamic load predictions of an offshore floating wind turbine using the conventional blade-element momentum theory, which does not consider the dynamic wake effe...

  14. Low Noise Bias Current/Voltage References Based on Floating-Gate MOS Transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Igor, Mucha

    1997-01-01

    The exploitation of floating-gate MOS transistors as reference current and voltage sources is investigated. Test structures of common source and common drain floating-gate devices have been implemented in a commercially available 0.8 micron double-poly CMOS process. The measurements performed...

  15. 14 CFR 25.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... float landing conditions. (a) Symmetrical step, bow, and stern landing. For symmetrical step, bow, and stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those computed under § 25.527. In addition— (1.... (b) Unsymmetrical landing for hull and single float seaplanes. Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern...

  16. Floating mats: their occurrence and influence on shoreline distribution of emergent vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azza, N.; Denny, P.; Van de Koppel, J.; Kansiime, F.

    2006-01-01

    1. A study was conducted on the northern shore of Lake Victoria (Uganda) to determine the factors controlling the occurrence of floating root mats and the influence of the floating mats on the distribution of emergent vegetation. 2. Environmental conditions within 78 bays in the study area were

  17. Kazuo Ishiguros romaner i helteperspektiv, specielt An Artist of the Floating World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    På baggrund af en forfatterskabskarakteristik behandles Kazuo Ishiguros romaner i helteperspektiv og i forlængelse heraf foretages en romananalyse af An Artist of the Floating World fra 1986.......På baggrund af en forfatterskabskarakteristik behandles Kazuo Ishiguros romaner i helteperspektiv og i forlængelse heraf foretages en romananalyse af An Artist of the Floating World fra 1986....

  18. A Descriptive Study of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions about Sinking-Floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiray, Seyit Ahmet; Aktan, Filiz; Kaynar, Hamza; Kilinc, Sena; Gorkemli, Tugce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, it attempts to determine the pre-service science teachers' misconceptions about floating and sinking. Secondly, it aims to reveal the level of pre-service science teachers' misconceptions, scientific knowledge, lack of knowledge, and lack of confidence related to floating and sinking. To conduct the…

  19. Definition of the Semisubmersible Floating System for Phase II of OC4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Masciola, M.; Song, H.; Goupee, A.; Coulling, A.; Luan, C.

    2014-09-01

    Phase II of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) project involved modeling of a semisubmersible floating offshore wind system as shown below. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which were needed by the OC4 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  20. Conceptual Design of a Floating Support Structure and Mooring System for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Petter Andreas; Fylling, Ivar; Vita, Luca

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the conceptual design of a floating support structure and mooring system for a 5MW vertical axis offshore wind turbine. The work is carried out as part of the DeepWind project, where the main objective is to investigate the feasibility of a floating vertical axis offshore wind...

  1. Integrated simulation challenges with the DeepWind floating vertical axis wind turbine concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Borg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences and challenges with concurrently carrying out numerical model development, integrated simulations and design of a novel floating vertical axis wind turbine, the DeepWind concept. The floating VAWT modelling capabilities of the aero-hydro-elastic HAWC2 simulation...

  2. Wake losses optimization of offshore wind farms with moveable floating wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Rodrigues; R. Teixeira Pinto (Rodrigo); M. Soleimanzadeh (Maryam); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); P. Bauer (Pavol)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the future, floating wind turbines could be used to harvest energy in deep offshore areas where higher wind mean speeds are observed. Currently, several floating turbine concepts are being designed and tested in small scale projects; in particular, one concept allows the turbine to

  3. Hydroelastic analysis of a very large floating plate with large deflections in stochastic seaway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu-jun; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, Wei-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The hydroelasticity of a very large floating plate with large deflections in multidirectional irregular waves is discussed. After a brief introduction on wave loads on a flexible structure, the paper derives the generalised fluid force acting on a floating structure in multidirectional irregular ...

  4. Development and Characterization of Novel Floating-Mucoadhesive Tablets Bearing Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Misra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is concerned about the development of floating bioadhesive drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride which after oral administration exhibits a unique combination of floating and bioadhesion to prolong gastric residence time and increase drug bioavailability within the stomach. The floating bioadhesive tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using different ratios of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4MCR and Carbopol 934PNF as polymers. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 and citric acid were used as gas (CO2 generating agents. Tablets were characterized for floating properties, in vitro drug release, detachment force, and swelling index. The concentration of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and Carbopol 934PNF significantly affects the in vitro drug release, floating properties, detachment force, and swelling properties of the tablets. The optimized formulation showed the floating lag time 72±2.49 seconds and duration of floating 24.50±0.74 hr. The in vitro release studies and floating behavior were studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF at pH 1.2. Different drug release kinetics models were also applied. The in vitro drug release from tablets was sufficiently sustained (more than 18 hr and the Fickian transports of the drug from the tablets were confirmed. The radiological evidence suggests that the tablets remained buoyant and altered position in the stomach of albino rabbit and mean gastric residence time was prolonged (more than > 6 hr.

  5. Resistance and resilience of floating mat fens in interior Alaska following airboat disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy Zacheis; Kate Doran

    2009-01-01

    The floating mat fens of the Tanana Flats in interior Alaska are productive wetlands near the urban center of Fairbanks. Airboat traffic has created a network of trails through the floating vegetation mats. We established protected areas along established trails, which allowed for measurement of plant community resistance to airboat traffic and resilience following...

  6. Quality of temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, V.; Pankajakshan, T.; Rajkumar, M.; Prasannakumar, S.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Ravichandran, M.; Rao, R.R.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    In the present study, temperature and salinity from APEX -Argo floats with reported SPB (Argo-SPB) and salinity from normal floats without any reported SPB (Argo-N) in the BoB have been subjected to quality check (QC) Method used for QC depends...

  7. Definition of the Floating System for Phase IV of OC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.

    2010-05-01

    Phase IV of the IEA Annex XXIII Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) involves the modeling of an offshore floating wind turbine. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which are needed by the OC3 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  8. Evaluation of an Oxygen Concentrator for Use at High Altitude

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forte, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    Supplying medical oxygen at high altitude sites is a major logistical problem. Oxygen concentrators based on molecular sieve technology provide an almost inexhaustible source of medical grade oxygen at a relatively low cost...

  9. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Transonic Performance Flight Demonstration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Altitude compensating nozzles continue to be of interest for use on future launch vehicle boosters and upper stages because of their higher mission average Isp and...

  10. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers

  11. Physiology and pathophysiology at high altitude: considerations for the anesthesiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissner, Kay B; Mahmood, Feroze U

    2009-01-01

    Millions of people live in, work in, and travel to areas of high altitude (HA). Skiers, trekkers, and mountaineers reach altitudes of 2500 m to more than 8000 m for recreation, and sudden ascents to high altitude without the benefits of acclimatization are increasingly common. HA significantly affects the human body, especially the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, because of oxygen deprivation due to decreased ambient barometric pressure. Rapid ascents may lead to high-altitude diseases that sometimes have fatal consequences. Other factors, such as severe cold, dehydration, high winds, and intense solar radiation, increase the morbidity of patients at HA. Anesthesiologists working in or visiting areas of higher elevations should become familiar with the human physiology, altered pharmacology, and disease pattern of HA.

  12. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-04-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

  13. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

  14. Obesity as a Conditioning Factor for High-Altitude Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío San Martin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, has become a major health burden because it is usually accompanied by an increased risk for insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and even some kinds of cancer. It also results in associated increases in healthcare expenditures and labor and economic consequences. There are also other fields of medicine and biology where obesity or being overweight play a major role, such as high-altitude illnesses (acute mountain sickness, hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, and chronic mountain sickness, where an increasing relationship among these two morbid statuses has been demonstrated. This association could be rooted in the interactions between obesity-related metabolic alterations and critical ventilation impairments due to obesity, which would aggravate hypobaric hypoxia at high altitudes, leading to hypoxemia, which is a trigger for developing high-altitude diseases. This review examines the current literature to support the idea that obesity or overweight could be major conditioning factors at high altitude.

  15. NAMMA HIGH ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) dataset consists of data collected by HAMSR, which is a 25-channel microwave atmospheric sounder operating...

  16. Plants at high altitude exhibit higher component of alternative respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narinder; Vyas, Dhiraj; Kumar, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Total respiration, capacities of cytochrome (CytR) and alternative respiration (AR) were studied in two varieties of barley (Horedum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) each and one variety of pea (Pisum sativum) at low (Palampur; 1300 m) and high altitudes (Kibber; 4200 m). Similar studies were carried out in naturally growing Rumex nepalensis and Trifoilum repenses at Palampur, Palchan (2250 m) and Marhi (3250 m). All the plants species exhibited lower CytR but significantly higher AR capacity at high altitude (HA) (72-1117% higher) as compared to those at low altitude (LA). Glycolytic product, pyruvate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, citrate increased with increase in altitude. While the role of these metabolites in relation to HA biology is discussed, significantly higher AR at HA is proposed to be an adaptive mechanism against the metabolic perturbations wherein it might act to lower reactive oxygen species and also provides metabolic homeostasis to plants under the environment of HA.

  17. Ben Macdhui High Altitude Trace Gas and Aerosol Transport Experiment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Piketh, SJ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ben Macdhui High Altitude Aerosol and Trace Gas Transport Experiment (BHATTEX) was started to characterize the nature and magnitude of atmospheric, aerosol and trace gas transport paths recirculation over and exiting from southern Africa...

  18. Are the older ARGO-Floats more vulnerable to Fouling and Associated Salinity drift compared to that of later deployments?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Youn, Y.H.; Lee, H.

    Continued existence of ARGO floats for years together (4 year) make the conductivity cell more vulnerable to fouling and associated drift in salinity measurements In this paper, the authors address this issue by making use of floats deployed...

  19. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  20. New levodopa sustained-release floating minitablets coated with insoluble acrylic polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goole, J; Deleuze, Ph; Vanderbist, F; Amighi, K

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new coated multiple-unit sustained-release floating system that is able to float over an extended period of time. Levodopa was used as a model drug. The system consisted of a 3mm drug-containing gas-generating core, prepared by melt granulation and subsequent compression, and coated with a flexible polymeric membrane. Eudragit RL30D and ATEC were used as a film former and a plasticizer, respectively. The coating level was fixed at 20% (w/w). The floating lag time decreased as the proportion of effervescent agents increased. The optimized coated floating minitablets could float within 20min and remained buoyant for more than 13h. In addition, a sustained release of levodopa for more than 20h was observed.

  1. Current-Sensitive Path Planning for an Underactuated Free-Floating Ocean Sensorweb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Kristen P.; Thompson, David R.; McLaren, David; Chao, Yi; Chien, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates multi-agent path planning in strong, dynamic currents using thousands of highly under-actuated vehicles. We address the specific task of path planning for a global network of ocean-observing floats. These submersibles are typified by the Argo global network consisting of over 3000 sensor platforms. They can control their buoyancy to float at depth for data collection or rise to the surface for satellite communications. Currently, floats drift at a constant depth regardless of the local currents. However, accurate current forecasts have become available which present the possibility of intentionally controlling floats' motion by dynamically commanding them to linger at different depths. This project explores the use of these current predictions to direct float networks to some desired final formation or position. It presents multiple algorithms for such path optimization and demonstrates their advantage over the standard approach of constant-depth drifting.

  2. The Application Modular Floating Pontoon to Support Floods Disaster Evacuation System in Heavy Populated Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzan Zakki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During floods disaster in the heavy populated residential area, the lack of existing life saving appliances system such as rubber boat and wooden boat were not able to evacuate the disaster victims spontaneously in mass. The condition might be explained since the rubber boat and wooden boat have limited occupant capacity. Based on the conditions, the main objectives of the research are focused on the evaluation of the application of modular floating pontoon as multipurpose floating equipment to support floods disaster evacuation process. The investigation of the modular floating pontoon performance such as hydrostatics characteristics, the equilibrium condition and the intact stability was studied using strip theory and Krylov’s method. Furthermore, the strength analysis of the modular floating pontoon structure was calculated using finite element method. The results show that the modular floating pontoon is reliable to support the evacuation process.

  3. Frequency-domain characteristics of aerodynamic loads of offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Michael; Collu, M.

    2015-01-01

    The re-emerging interest in vertical axis wind turbines for floating offshore applications has led to a need to investigate the relatively complex dynamics of such floating offshore structures. Through the use of a coupled model of dynamics this article investigates the frequency-domain character......The re-emerging interest in vertical axis wind turbines for floating offshore applications has led to a need to investigate the relatively complex dynamics of such floating offshore structures. Through the use of a coupled model of dynamics this article investigates the frequency......-domain characteristics of floating vertical axis wind turbine aerodynamic loads. The impact of platform induced motion on aerodynamic loads is discussed in detail, with results indicating an increase in aerodynamic loads of several orders of magnitude over the range of frequencies usually containing significant wave...

  4. Floating microspheres of valacyclovir HCl: Formulation, optimization, characterization, in vitro and in vivo floatability studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilamgiri Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floating microspheres are multiple unit Gastroretentive drug delivery systems. Valacyclovir hydrochloride (VCH is L-valyl ester prodrug of acyclovir. VCH degrades in intestinal fluid. The objective was to develop floating microspheres of VCH to localise the drug at upper part of GIT, for improved absorption. Floating microspheres were prepared by W/O emulsification solvent evaporation method using Ethylcellulose (EC as polymer. Particle size and % EE were 550.021±0.241 μm, 79.88±2.236% respectively. in vitro and in vivo floatability studies confirmed floating behaviour of microspheres. VCH loaded floating microspheres can be a suitable alternative to the conventional formulation, by localizing the drug at upper GIT.

  5. Development of the Floating Centrifugal Pump by Use of Non Contact Magnetic Drive and Its Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Uno

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the impeller construction, non contact driving method and performance of a newly developed shaftless floating pump with centrifugal impeller. The drive principle of the floating impeller pump used the magnet induction method similar to the levitation theory of the linear motor. In order to reduce the axial thrust by the pressure different between shroud and disk side, the balance hole and the aileron blade were installed in the floating impeller. Considering the above effect, floating of an impeller in a pump was realized. Moreover, the performance curves of a developed pump are in agreement with a general centrifugal pump, and the dimensionless characteristic curve also agrees under the different rotational speed due to no mechanical friction of the rotational part. Therefore, utility of a non contacting magnetic-drive style pump with the floating impeller was made clear.

  6. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  7. Altitude training for elite endurance performance: a 2012 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Barry W; Pringle, Jamie S M; Maxwell, Neil S; Turner, Gareth; Ingham, Stephen A; Jones, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Altitude training is commonly used by endurance athletes and coaches in pursuit of enhancement of performance on return to sea level. The purpose of the current review article was to update and evaluate recent literature relevant to the practical application of altitude training for endurance athletes. Consequently, the literature can be considered in either of two categories: performance-led investigations or mechanistic advancements/insights. Each section discusses the relevant literature and proposes future directions where appropriate.

  8. Impact of Altitude on Power Output during Cycling Stage Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Bradley; Martin, David T; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; McDonald, Warren; Stephens, Brian; Ma, Fuhai; Thompson, Kevin G; Gore, Christopher J; Menaspà, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour. Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP) and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000 m (3000 m) according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin. Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5-600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005) during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001) while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes.

  9. Evolutionary adaptation to high altitude: a view from in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Wilson, Megan J.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2010-01-01

    A primary focus within biological anthropology has been to elucidate the processes of evolutionary adaptation. A. Roberto Frisancho helped move anthropology towards more mechanistic explanations of human adaptation by drawing attention to the importance of the functional relevance of human variation. Using the natural laboratory of high altitude, he and others asked whether the unique physiology of indigenous high-altitude residents was the result of acclimatization, developmental plasticity and/or genetic adaptation in response to the high-altitude environment. We approach the question of human adaptation to high altitude from a somewhat unique vantage point; namely, by examining physiological characteristics – pregnancy and pregnancy outcome -- that are most closely associated with reproductive fitness. Here we review the potent example of high-altitude native population’s resistance to hypoxia-associated reductions in birth weight, which is often associated with higher infant morbidity and mortality at high altitude. With the exception of two recent publications, these comparative birth weight studies have utilized surnames, self-identification and/or linguistic characteristics to assess ancestry, and none have linked ‘advantageous’ phenotypes to specific genetic variations. Recent advancements in genetic and statistical tools have enabled us to assess individual ancestry with higher resolution, identify the genetic basis of complex phenotypes and to infer the effect of natural selection on specific gene regions. Using these technologies our studies are now directed to determine the genetic variations that underlie the mechanisms by which high-altitude ancestry protects fetal growth and, in turn, to further our understanding of evolutionary processes involved in human adaptation to high altitude. PMID:19367578

  10. Can people with Raynaud's phenomenon travel to high altitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luks, Andrew M; Grissom, Colin K; Jean, Dominique; Swenson, Erik R

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether high altitude travel adversely affects mountain enthusiasts with Raynaud's phenomenon. Volunteers with Raynaud's phenomenon were recruited using announcements disseminated by organizations dedicated to climbing or wilderness travel and Internet discussion boards dedicated to mountain activities to complete an online, anonymous survey. Survey questions addressed demographic variables, aspects of their Raynaud's phenomenon, and features of their mountain activities. Respondents compared experiences with Raynaud's phenomenon between high (>2440 m; 8000 feet) and low elevations and rated agreement with statements concerning their disease and the effects of high altitude. One hundred forty-two people, 98% of whom had primary Raynaud's phenomenon, completed the questionnaire. Respondents spent 5 to 7 days per month at elevations above 2440 m and engaged in 5.4 +/- 2.0 different activities. Eighty-nine percent of respondents engaged in winter sports and only 22% reported changing their mountain activities because of Raynaud's phenomenon. Respondents reported a variety of tactics to prevent and treat Raynaud's attacks, but only 12% used prophylactic medications. Fifteen percent of respondents reported an episode of frostbite following a Raynaud's phenomenon attack at high altitude. There was considerable heterogeneity in participants' perceptions of the frequency, duration, and severity of attacks at high altitude compared to their home elevation. Motivated individuals with primary Raynaud's phenomenon, employing various prevention and treatment strategies, can engage in different activities, including winter sports, at altitudes above 2440 m. Frostbite may be common in this population at high altitude, and care must be taken to prevent its occurrence.

  11. Reentry High Altitude Pulmonary Edema in the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniya, Santosh; Holden, Christopher; Basnyat, Buddha

    2017-12-01

    Baniya, Santosh, Christopher Holden, and Buddha Basnyat. Reentry high altitude pulmonary edema in the Himalayas. High Alt Med Biol. 18:425-427, 2017.-Reentry high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), a subset of HAPE, is a well recognized, life-threatening illness documented almost exclusively in the North and South Americans, who live at high altitude (>2500 m) and return to their homes after a brief sojourn of days to months at lower altitude. This phenomenon has not been reported in Sherpas or other people of Tibetan origin in Nepal or India. And it has rarely been reported from Tibet. In this study we document a case of reentry HAPE in Manang region (3500 m) of Nepal in a 7-year-old Nepali boy of Tibetan ancestry who fell ill when he ascended to his village (Manang, 3500 m) from Besisahar (760 m) in 1 day in a motor vehicle after spending the winter (December to March) at Besisahar with his family. With more motorable road access to high altitude settlements in the Himalayas, reentry HAPE may need to be strongly considered by healthcare professionals in local residents of high altitude; otherwise life-threatening complications may ensue as in our case report.

  12. Evaluation of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Thomas; Rodriquez, Dario; Petro, Michael; Branson, Richard

    Devices may forgo US military air worthiness and safety testing in an attempt to expedite the availability of critical assets such as mechanical ventilators with a waiver for one-time use in extenuating circumstances. We evaluated two Intensive Care Unit (ICU) level ventilators: Drager Evita XL and Puritan Bennett (PB) 840 in an altitude chamber at sea level and altitudes of 8,000 and 16,000 feet. Altitude affected delivered tidal volumes (VTs) in volume control mode (VCV) and Pressure Regulated Volume Controlled (PRVC) mode at altitude with the Evita XL but the differences were not considered clinically important with the PB 840. Sixty-seven percent of the V T s were outside the ASTM standard of ± 10% of set V T with the Evita XL at altitude. The PB 840 did not deliver V T s that were larger than the ASTM standard up to an altitude of 16,000 feet while the majority of the delivered V T s with the Därger XL were greater than the ASTM standard. This could present a patient safety issue. Caregivers must be aware of the capabilities and limitations of ICU ventilators when utilized in a hypobaric environment in order to provide safe care. Copyright © 2017 Air Medical Journal Associates. All rights reserved.

  13. The Study of a Super Low Altitude Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Atsushi; Homma, Masanori; Utashima, Masayoshi

    This paper reports the result of a study for super low altitude satellite. The altitude of this satellite's orbit is lower than ever. The altitude of a conventional earth observing satellite is generally around from 600km to 900km. The lowest altitude of earth observing satellite launched in Japan was 350km; the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). By comparison, the satellite reported in this paper is much lower than that and it is planned to orbit below 200km. Furthermore, the duration of the flight planned is more than two years. Any satellite in the world has not achieved to keep such a low altitude that long term. The satellite in such a low orbit drops quickly because of the strong air drag. Our satellite will cancel the air drag effect by ion engine thrust. To realize this idea, a drag-free system will be applied. This usually leads a complicated and expensive satellite system. We, however, succeeded in finding a robust control law for a simple system even under the unpredictable change of air drag. When the altitude of the satellite is lowered successfully, the spatial resolution of an optical sensor can be highly improved. If a SAR is equipped with the satellite, it enables the drastic reduction of electric power consumption and the fabulous spatial resolution improvement at the same time.

  14. Characterization of airborne float coal dust emitted during continuous mining, longwall mining and belt transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, M R; Seaman, C E; Beck, T W; Colinet, J F; Mischler, S E

    2017-09-01

    Float coal dust is produced by various mining methods, carried by ventilating air and deposited on the floor, roof and ribs of mine airways. If deposited, float dust is re-entrained during a methane explosion. Without sufficient inert rock dust quantities, this float coal dust can propagate an explosion throughout mining entries. Consequently, controlling float coal dust is of critical interest to mining operations. Rock dusting, which is the adding of inert material to airway surfaces, is the main control technique currently used by the coal mining industry to reduce the float coal dust explosion hazard. To assist the industry in reducing this hazard, the Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health initiated a project to investigate methods and technologies to reduce float coal dust in underground coal mines through prevention, capture and suppression prior to deposition. Field characterization studies were performed to determine quantitatively the sources, types and amounts of dust produced during various coal mining processes. The operations chosen for study were a continuous miner section, a longwall section and a coal-handling facility. For each of these operations, the primary dust sources were confirmed to be the continuous mining machine, longwall shearer and conveyor belt transfer points, respectively. Respirable and total airborne float dust samples were collected and analyzed for each operation, and the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust was calculated. During the continuous mining process, the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ranged from 10.3 to 13.8. The ratios measured on the longwall face were between 18.5 and 21.5. The total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ratio observed during belt transport ranged between 7.5 and 21.8.

  15. The Quechua manta pouch: a caretaking practice for buffering the Peruvian infant against the multiple stressors of high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronick, E Z; Thomas, R B; Daltabuit, M

    1994-08-01

    The manta pouch--a caretaking practice of tightly swaddling and enclosing the infant in a set of cloths and blankets--and other caretaking practices are described for high-altitude resident (> 4,000 m) Quechua mother-infant pairs (N = 14). The manta pouch modifies the microenvironment inside the pouch so that, compared to the ambient environment, the temperature is higher and more stable, the humidity is higher, the partial pressure of O2 is lower, and stimulation levels are reduced. As the infant gets older, the characteristics of the pouch are modified such that the infant is increasingly exposed to ambient conditions. These caretaking practices may benefit the infant by buffering the infant from the multiple ecological stressors of high altitude, but they may also incur costs by exposing the infant to additional microenvironmental stressors (e.g., higher CO2 levels) and by reducing stimulation and limiting infant movement.

  16. Verification of New Floating Capabilities in FAST v8: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, F.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Hayman, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the latest release of NREL's wind turbine aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation software, FAST v8, several new capabilities and major changes were introduced. FAST has been significantly altered to improve the simulator's modularity and to include new functionalities in the form of modules in the FAST v8 framework. This paper is focused on the improvements made for the modeling of floating offshore wind systems. The most significant change was to the hydrodynamic load calculation algorithms, which are embedded in the HydroDyn module. HydroDyn is now capable of applying strip-theory (via an extension of Morison's equation) at the member level for user-defined geometries. Users may now use a strip-theory-only approach for applying the hydrodynamic loads, as well as the previous potential-flow (radiation/diffraction) approach and a hybrid combination of both methods (radiation/diffraction and the drag component of Morison's equation). Second-order hydrodynamic implementations in both the wave kinematics used by the strip-theory solution and the wave-excitation loads in the potential-flow solution were also added to HydroDyn. The new floating capabilities were verified through a direct code-to-code comparison. We conducted a series of simulations of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) floating semisubmersible model and compared the wind turbine response predicted by FAST v8, the corresponding FAST v7 results, and results from other participants in the OC4 project. We found good agreement between FAST v7 and FAST v8 when using the linear radiation/diffraction modeling approach. The strip-theory-based approach inherently differs from the radiation/diffraction approach used in FAST v7 and we identified and characterized the differences. Enabling the second-order effects significantly improved the agreement between FAST v8 and the other OC4 participants.

  17. FATTY ACID PROFILE IN MILK OF BOVEC SHEEP FED IN THE STABLE OR GRAZED IN DIFFERENT PASTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cividini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile in the milk of Bovec sheep fed total mixed ratio (TMR and grazed natural pastures in the lowland (480 m altitude supplemented with the second harvest (L as well as grazed different altitude mountain pastures; M1 (1100- 1300 m altitude, M2 (1600-1700 m altitude, M3 (1800 m altitude, M4 (1900 m altitude, M5 (2200 m altitude were determined. There was an important effect when ewes were turned from the stable to the pasture on all fatty acids. The percentage of α-linolenic acid (ALA, arachidonic acid (ARA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA increased significantly (P<0.001 with the diet. In the milk from M5 grazing the percentage of ALA was 2.5 times higher than in milk from L and 2.6 times higher than in milk from TMR. The percentage of ARA and DHA in milk was the highest when ewes were grazing on the M5 pasture (0.21±0.02 wt. %; 0.22±0.02 wt. % respectively. Total n-3PUFA and n-6PUFA increased significantly (P<0.001 by the diet. Therefore, the n-6/n-3PUFA ratio was the best (1.2 in milk produced in the highest mountain pasture (M5, in terms of nutritional requirements.

  18. On the relative importance of loads acting on a floating verticalaxis wind turbine system when evaluating the global system response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collu, Maurizio; Borg, Michael; Manuel, Lance

    2016-01-01

    Interest in offshore floating wind turbines has been growing over the last decade. While a number of studies have been conducted to model the dynamics of offshore floating HAWT systems (e.g. OC3-Phase IV, OC4-Phase II), relatively few studies have been conducted on floating VAWT systems, despite ...

  19. Analysis of high-altitude de-acclimatization syndrome after exposure to high altitudes: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Binfeng; Wang, Jianchun; Qian, Guisheng; Hu, Mingdong; Qu, Xinming; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Chen, Yan; Chen, Huaping; Zhou, Qiquan; Wang, Guansong

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of high-altitude de-acclimatization commonly takes place after long-term exposure to high altitudes upon return to low altitudes. The syndrome severely affects the returnee's quality of life. However, little attention has been paid to careful characterization of the syndrome and their underlying mechanisms. Male subjects from Chongqing (n = 67, 180 m) and Kunming (n = 70, 1800 m) visited a high-altitude area (3650 m) about 6 months and then returned to low-altitude. After they came back, all subjects were evaluated for high-altitude de-acclimatization syndrome on the 3(rd), 50(th), and 100(th). Symptom scores, routine blood and blood gas tests, and myocardial zymograms assay were used for observation their syndrome. The results showed that the incidence and severity of symptoms had decreased markedly on the 50(th) and 100(th) days, compared with the 3(rd) day. The symptom scores and incidence of different symptoms were lower among subjects returning to Kunming than among those returning to Chongqing. On the 3(rd) day, RBC, Hb, Hct, CK, CK-MB, and LDH values were significantly lower than values recorded at high altitudes, but they were higher than baseline values. On the 50(th) day, these values were not different from baseline values, but LDH levels did not return to baseline until the 100(th) day. These data show that, subjects who suffered high-altitude de-acclimatization syndrome, the recovery fully processes takes a long time (≥ 100(th) days). The appearance of the syndrome is found to be related to the changes in RBC, Hb, Hct, CK, CK-MB, and LDH levels, which should be caused by reoxygenation after hypoxia.

  20. When should oxygen be given to children at high altitude? A systematic review to define altitude-specific hypoxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhi, Rami; Smith, Katherine; Duke, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) cause 3 million deaths in children worldwide each year. Most of these deaths occur from pneumonia in developing countries, and hypoxaemia is the most common fatal complication. Simple and adaptable indications for oxygen therapy are important in the management of ARI. The current WHO definition of hypoxaemia as any arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) oxygen saturation with altitude. This study aimed to define normal oxygen saturation and to estimate the threshold of hypoxaemia for children permanently living at different altitudes. We carried out a systematic review of the literature addressing normal values of oxygen saturation in children aged 1 week to 12 years. Hypoxaemia was defined as any SpO(2) at or below the 2.5th centile for a population of healthy children at a given altitude. Meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the change in mean SpO(2) and the hypoxaemia threshold with increasing altitude. 14 studies were reviewed and analysed to produce prediction equations for estimating the expected mean SpO(2) in normal children, and the threshold SpO(2) indicating hypoxaemia at various altitudes. An SpO(2) of 90% is the 2.5th centile for a population of healthy children living at an altitude of approximately 2500 m above sea level. This decreases to 85% at an altitude of approximately 3200 m. For health facilities at very high altitudes, giving oxygen to all children with an SpO(2) oxygen supplies are limited. In such settings, Spo(2) children most in need of oxygen supplementation.

  1. Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. To enable deployment of wind turbines in deep-water locations, structures are being explored, where wind turbines are placed on a floating platform. This combined structure presents a new control problem, due...... to the partly unconstrained movement of the platform and ocean wave excitation. If this additional complexity is not dealt with properly, this may lead to a significant increase in the structural loads and, potentially, instability of the controlled system. In this paper, the wave excitation is investigated......, and we show the influence that both wind speed, wave frequencies and misalignment between wind and waves have on the system dynamics. A new control model is derived that extends standard turbine models to include the hydrodynamics, additional platform degrees of freedom, the platform mooring system...

  2. Mooring line damping estimation for a floating wind turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT). Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design.

  3. A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof

    and purposes oriented design procedures are the backbone of a cost efficient offshore wind industry. Conventional engineering procedures for the assessment of extreme event impacts, i.e. ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of floating structures, as they have been used in the oil and gas industry, neglect two...... not be sufficient to describe realistic wave shapes and the respective loads, especially in ULS conditions. In shallow or intermediate water depth environments, i.e. when the ratio between the water depth and the wave length becomes smaller than 0.5, waves need to be described by non-linear approaches, in order...... and water depths are considered, where wave shapes in the extreme sea states deviate from the 1st order description. A design basis is developed, which defines parametric extreme sea state caused by measured cyclonic storm conditions. The sea state parameters are defined, such that their reoccurrence...

  4. A Numerical Model for a Floating TLP Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumari Ramachandran, Gireesh Kumar Vasanta

    A numerical model is developed for a TLP configuration of a floating offshore wind turbine. The platform dynamics and hydrodynamic forces are derived and implemented in an advanced aero-elastic code, Flex5, to compute the hydro-aero-servo-elastic loads and responses on the floater and the wind...... turbine. This is achieved through three steps. In the first step, an independent 2D code with fourteen degrees of freedom (DOFs) is developed and the responses are verified for load cases concerning steady and spatially coherent turbulent wind with regular and irregular waves. In the second step, the 2D...... irregular waves. In addition, the effect of wind-wave misalignment is investigated. Further, in the third step, the 3D platform dynamics and wave loading are implemented into Flex5, resulting in a fully coupled hydro-aero-servo-elastic code. The implementation is tested to make the model reliable and robust...

  5. Photo-active float for field water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwetharani, R; Balakrishna, R Geetha

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the antibacterial activity of a photoactive float fabricated with visible light active N-F-TiO2 for the disinfection of field water widely contaminated with Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria like, Salmonella typhimurium (Gram negative), Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive), Bacillus species (Gram positive), and Pseudomonas species (Gram negative). The antibacterial activity can be attributed to the unique properties of the photocatalyst, which releases reactive oxygen species in aqueous solution, under the illumination of sunlight. N-F-TiO2 nanoparticles efficiently photocatalyse the destruction of all the bacteria present in the contaminated water, giving clean water. The inactivation of bacteria is confirmed by a standard plate count method, MDA, RNA and DNA analysis. The purity of water was further validated by SPC indicating nil counts of bacteria after two days of storing and testing. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET measurement, SEM, EDX, UV-Vis and PL analysis.

  6. A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof

    for further optimization and the consequent potential to make FOWT cost competitive. Generally the study shows that the hybrid modelling approach might currently be sufficient for pre-Detailed Design stages, where higher degrees of conservatism are acceptable. However for multi-unit production the current......While the design of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWT) is still at an infant stage, the general desire to realise them is strong. According to a poll conducted by GL Garrad Hassan at the HUSUM 2012 Wind Energy Trade Fair, 62% of the attendees believed that floaters will be a part of the mix...... and will even overtake bottom fixed foundation within the coming two decades, Bossler (2011). FOWTs are believed having a large potential of lowering the cost of energy (CoE). The CoE minimization is currently the main driver for technological development in the offshore wind industry. Therefore reliable...

  7. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, John; Greaves, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape......A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting...... and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape....

  8. Mooring Line Damping Estimation for a Floating Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT. Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design.

  9. Wave-induced collisions of thin floating disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiew, L. J.; Bennetts, L. G.; Meylan, M. H.; Thomas, G. A.; French, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Collisions between two thin floating disks forced by regular water waves are studied for a range of wave amplitudes and lengths, using laboratory wave basin experiments and a mathematical model. Three collision regimes are identified from the experiments in terms of collision frequency and strength, and the collisions are shown to be caused by drift for short incident wavelengths and relative surge motion between the disks for longer incident waves. The model is based on slope-sliding theory for the wave-induced disk motions and rigid-body collisions. It is shown to predict collision frequencies and velocities accurately for intermediate-long incident wavelengths. Incorporating drift and wave scattering forces into the model is shown to capture the collision behaviours for short incident wavelengths.

  10. Unique ecological impacts associated with offshore floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; McLean, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The ecological impacts that could occur as a result of site construction and operation of an offshore floating nuclear power plant are identified by comparing the principal ecological features associated with offshore siting with those associated with the siting of onshore estuarine plants. In general, the ecological impacts of offshore nuclear plants should be relatively smaller than those of estuarine plants. Possible factors that could increase the relative impacts of offshore plants are high frequency of contact with schools of fish, siting near inlets to estuaries or other ecologically important areas, and the persistence of halogen residuals. Identifying the potential ecological impacts associated with the siting of offshore plants permits the development of various monitoring programs and measures to minimize these impacts

  11. Optimized Latching Control of Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadodia, Chaitanya; Shandilya, Shubham; Bansal, Hari Om

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for energy in today’s world. Currently main energy resources are fossil fuels, which will eventually drain out, also the emissions produced from them contribute to global warming. For a sustainable future, these fossil fuels should be replaced with renewable and green energy sources. Sea waves are a gigantic and undiscovered vitality asset. The potential for extricating energy from waves is extensive. To trap this energy, wave energy converters (WEC) are needed. There is a need for increasing the energy output and decreasing the cost requirement of these existing WECs. This paper presents a method which uses prediction as a part of the control scheme to increase the energy efficiency of the floating-point absorber WECs. Kalman Filter is used for estimation, coupled with latching control in regular as well as irregular sea waves. Modelling and Simulation results for the same are also included.

  12. Kajian Teknologi High Altitude Platform (HAP [Study of High Altitude Platform (HAP Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amry Daulat Gultom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High Altitude Platform (HAP merupakan solusi alternatif untuk mengatasi keterbatasan infrastruktur terestrial maupun satelit. HAP merupakan pesawat ataupun balon udara yang ditempatkan pada ketinggian 20-50 km di atas permukaan bumi. Kelebihan yang utama dari HAP adalah kemudahan dalam penempatan, fleksibilitas, biaya operasionalnya rendah, delay  propagasi rendah, sudut elevasi lebar, cakupan yang luas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui potensi HAP untuk komunikasi pita lebar dan perkembangannya di Indonesia. Analisis dilakukan secara deskriptif dengan mengolah data literatur yang didapat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di Indonesia terdapat potensi teknologi HAP untuk komunikasi pita lebar dengan lebar pita 2x300 MHz di band 27,9-28,2 GHz dan 31-31,3 GHz. Namun, belum ada peraturan yang mengatur alokasi frekuensi untuk HAP secara khusus di Indonesia.*****High Altitude Platform (HAP has been developed as an alternative solution in order to overcome limitation of terrestrial and satellite communication system. HAP is an aircraft or balloon situated on 20-50 km above the earth. Main advantages of HAP are flexibility in deployment, low propagation delay, wide elevation angle and broad coverage. The research is conducted to gather HAP potential for broadband communication and its development in Indonesia. Analysis is conducted by descriptive analysis from literature study gather. The research result shows that in Indonesia, there is potential of HAP technology for broadband communication with 2x300 MHz bandwidth within 27,9-28,2 GHz and 31-31,3 GHz. Yet, there are no specific regulations managing frequency allocation for HAP in Indonesia.

  13. Wave energy, lever operated pivoting float LOPF study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margheritini, L.

    2012-11-01

    The fully instrumented Resen Waves Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF wave energy buoy model has gone through the first stage of testing in regular waves in scale 1:25 of the North Sea wave conditions, in the 3D deep wave basin at the Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering Laboratory of Aalborg University in Denmark. The model size was 60cm W x 90cm L x 21cm H. The 60 cm width pointed towards the wave front. The LOPF buoy is characterized by a simple mechanical design with few moving parts and direct electrical output and it is taut moored to the sea bed, so all forces are referenced to the seabed for maximum energy output in regular as well as irregular waves. During storms the buoy pivots and streamlines itself to minimize loads on the mooring line. A conservative estimate shows that a full scale system for North Sea conditions has a float size width of 15 m that will, with 60% generator efficiency, produce 610 MWh/y (609.497 kWh/y) with an average power output of 69.6 kW, which requires a generator capacity of 700 kW. It is expected the generator efficiency can be increased to 90% in the future. More specific calculations (from EnergiNet) show that with one generator of 695 kW the expected power production is 585 MWh/y; with a generator of 250 kW and 100 kW, the expected power production is 481 MWh/y and 182 MWh/y respectively. In addition there are several areas for future improvements for increased power production. (Author)

  14. Systematic Analysis of Resolution and Uncertainties in Gravity Interpretation of Bathymetry Beneath Floating Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, J. R.; Tinto, K. J.; Elieff, S. H.; Bell, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne geophysical surveys in West Antarctica and Greenland carried out during Operation IceBridge (OIB) utilized the Sander Geophysics AIRGrav gravimeter, which collects high quality data during low-altitude, draped flights. This data has been used to determine bathymetry beneath ice shelves and floating ice tongues (e.g., Tinto et al, 2010, Cochran et al, 2010). This paper systematically investigates uncertainties arising from survey, instrumental and geologic constraints in this type of study and the resulting resolution of the bathymetry model. Gravity line data is low-pass filtered with time-based filters to remove high frequency noise. The spatial filter length is dependent on aircraft speed. For parameters used in OIB (70-140 s filters and 270-290 knots), spatial filter half-wavelengths are ~5-10 km. The half-wavelength does not define a lower limit to the width of feature that can be detected, but shorter wavelength features may appear wider with a lower amplitude. Resolution can be improved either by using a shorter filter or by flying slower. Both involve tradeoffs; a shorter filter allows more noise and slower speeds result in less coverage. These filters are applied along tracks, rather than in a region surrounding a measurement. In areas of large gravity relief, tracks in different directions can sample a very different range of gravity values within the length of the filter. We show that this can lead to crossover mismatches of >5 mGal, complicating interpretation. For dense surveys, gridding the data and then sampling the grid at the measurement points can minimize this effect. Resolution is also affected by the elevation of survey flights. For a distributed mass, the gravity amplitude decreases with distance and short-wavelength components attenuate faster. This is not a serious issue for OIB, which flew draped flights radar, gravity data can be used to study the nature of the bed including the presence of sedimentary basins and intrusions. Our

  15. Fit for high altitude: are hypoxic challenge tests useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthys Heinrich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Altitude travel results in acute variations of barometric pressure, which induce different degrees of hypoxia, changing the gas contents in body tissues and cavities. Non ventilated air containing cavities may induce barotraumas of the lung (pneumothorax, sinuses and middle ear, with pain, vertigo and hearing loss. Commercial air planes keep their cabin pressure at an equivalent altitude of about 2,500 m. This leads to an increased respiratory drive which may also result in symptoms of emotional hyperventilation. In patients with preexisting respiratory pathology due to lung, cardiovascular, pleural, thoracic neuromuscular or obesity-related diseases (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea an additional hypoxic stress may induce respiratory pump and/or heart failure. Clinical pre-altitude assessment must be disease-specific and it includes spirometry, pulsoximetry, ECG, pulmonary and systemic hypertension assessment. In patients with abnormal values we need, in addition, measurements of hemoglobin, pH, base excess, PaO2, and PaCO2 to evaluate whether O2- and CO2-transport is sufficient. Instead of the hypoxia altitude simulation test (HAST, which is not without danger for patients with respiratory insufficiency, we prefer primarily a hyperoxic challenge. The supplementation of normobaric O2 gives us information on the acute reversibility of the arterial hypoxemia and the reduction of ventilation and pulmonary hypertension, as well as about the efficiency of the additional O2-flow needed during altitude exposure. For difficult judgements the performance of the test in a hypobaric chamber with and without supplemental O2-breathing remains the gold standard. The increasing numbers of drugs to treat acute pulmonary hypertension due to altitude exposure (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil or to other etiologies (anticoagulants, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists including mechanical aids to

  16. Effect of oxygen supplementation in a hatchery at high altitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oxygen supplementation on broiler eggs in a hatchery at high altitude on the growth performance and ascites syndrome of broilers reared at low altitude. The treatment groups were low altitude with no oxygen supplemented in the hatchery (LA-NOX); high altitude with ...

  17. Effect of altitude on physiological performance: a statistical analysis using results of international football games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick E

    2007-12-22

    To assess the effect of altitude on match results and physiological performance of a large and diverse population of professional athletes. Statistical analysis of international football (soccer) scores and results. FIFA extensive database of 1460 football matches in 10 countries spanning over 100 years. Altitude had a significant (Pnegative impact on physiological performance as revealed through the overall underperformance of low altitude teams when playing against high altitude teams in South America. High altitude teams score more and concede fewer goals with increasing altitude difference. Each additional 1000 m of altitude difference increases the goal difference by about half of a goal. The probability of the home team winning for two teams from the same altitude is 0.537, whereas this rises to 0.825 for a home team with an altitude difference of 3695 m (such as Bolivia v Brazil) and falls to 0.213 when the altitude difference is -3695 m (such as Brazil v Bolivia). Altitude provides a significant advantage for high altitude teams when playing international football games at both low and high altitudes. Lowland teams are unable to acclimatise to high altitude, reducing physiological performance. As physiological performance does not protect against the effect of altitude, better predictors of individual susceptibility to altitude illness would facilitate team selection.

  18. Preparation and investigation of novel gastro-floating tablets with 3D extrusion-based printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qijun; Guan, Xiaoying; Cui, Mengsuo; Zhu, Zhihong; Chen, Kai; Wen, Haoyang; Jia, Danyang; Hou, Jian; Xu, Wenting; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan

    2018-01-15

    Three dimensional (3D) extrusion-based printing is a paste-based rapid prototyping process, which is capable of building complex 3D structures. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of 3D extrusion-based printing as a pharmaceutical manufacture technique for the fabrication of gastro-floating tablets. Novel low-density lattice internal structure gastro-floating tablets of dipyridamole were developed to prolong the gastric residence time in order to improve drug release rate and consequently, improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Excipients commonly employed in the pharmaceutical study could be efficiently applied in the room temperature 3D extrusion-based printing process. The tablets were designed with three kinds of infill percentage and prepared by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E15) as hydrophilic matrices and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH101) as extrusion molding agent. In vitro evaluation of the 3D printed gastro-floating tablets was performed by determining mechanical properties, content uniformity, and weight variation. Furthermore, re-floating ability, floating duration time, and drug release behavior were also evaluated. Dissolution profiles revealed the relationship between infill percentage and drug release behavior. The results of this study revealed the potential of 3D extrusion-based printing to fabricate gastro-floating tablets with more than 8h floating process with traditional pharmaceutical excipients and lattice internal structure design. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Castaways can't be choosers - Homogenization of rafting assemblages on floating seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutow, Lars; Beermann, Jan; Buschbaum, Christian; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.; Thiel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    After detachment from benthic habitats, the epibiont assemblages on floating seaweeds undergo substantial changes, but little is known regarding whether succession varies among different seaweed species. Given that floating algae may represent a limiting habitat in many regions, rafting organisms may be unselective and colonize any available seaweed patch at the sea surface. This process may homogenize rafting assemblages on different seaweed species, which our study examined by comparing the assemblages on benthic and floating individuals of the fucoid seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Sargassum muticum in the northern Wadden Sea (North Sea). Species richness was about twice as high on S. muticum as on F. vesiculosus, both on benthic and floating individuals. In both seaweed species benthic samples were more diverse than floating samples. However, the species composition differed significantly only between benthic thalli, but not between floating thalli of the two seaweed species. Separate analyses of sessile and mobile epibionts showed that the homogenization of rafting assemblages was mainly caused by mobile species. Among these, grazing isopods from the genus Idotea reached extraordinarily high densities on the floating samples from the northern Wadden Sea, suggesting that the availability of seaweed rafts was indeed limiting. Enhanced break-up of algal rafts associated with intense feeding by abundant herbivores might force rafters to recolonize benthic habitats. These colonization processes may enhance successful dispersal of rafting organisms and thereby contribute to population connectivity between sink populations in the Wadden Sea and source populations from up-current regions.

  20. Impact of associated injuries in the Floating knee: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethnam, Ulfin; Yesupalan, Rajam S; Nair, Rajagopalan

    2009-01-01

    Background Floating knee injuries are usually associated with other significant injuries. Do these injuries have implications on the management of the floating knee and the final outcome of patients? Our study aims to assess the implications of associated injuries in the management and final outcome of floating knee. Methods 29 patients with floating knees were assessed in our institution. A retrospective analysis of medical records and radiographs were done and all associated injuries were identified. The impact of associated injuries on delay in initial surgical management, delay in rehabilitation & final outcome of the floating knee were assessed. Results 38 associated injuries were noted. 7 were associated with ipsilateral knee injuries. Lower limb injuries were most commonly associated with the floating knee. Patients with some associated injuries had a delay in surgical management and others a delay in post-operative rehabilitation. Knee ligament and vascular injuries were associated with poor outcome. Conclusion The associated injuries were quite frequent with the floating knee. Some of the associated injuries caused a delay in surgical management and post-operative rehabilitation. In assessment of the final outcome, patients with associated knee and vascular injuries had a poor prognosis. Majority of the patients with associated injuries had a good or excellent outcome. PMID:19144197

  1. The isotope altitude effect reflected in groundwater: a case study from Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezga, Kim; Urbanc, Janko; Cerar, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the stable isotope data of oxygen (δ(18)O) and hydrogen (δ(2)H) in groundwater from 83 sampling locations in Slovenia and their interpretation. The isotopic composition of water was monitored over 3 years (2009-2011), and each location was sampled twice. New findings on the isotopic composition of sampled groundwater are presented, and the data are also compared to past studies regarding the isotopic composition of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in Slovenia. This study comprises: (1) the general characteristics of the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwater in Slovenia, (2) the spatial distribution of oxygen isotope composition (δ(18)O) and d-excess in groundwater, (3) the groundwater isotope altitude effect, (4) the correlation between groundwater d-excess and the recharge area altitude of the sampling location, (5) the relation between hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in groundwater in comparison to the global precipitation isotope data, (6) the groundwater isotope effect of distance from the sea, and (7) the estimated relation between the mean temperature of recharge area and δ(18)O in groundwater.

  2. Equipment for decontamination of inner vessel surfaces featuring sound or ultrasound transducer on float inside liquid-filled vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Straka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The equipment for the decontamination of the inner surfaces of vessels consists of an immersion float which is provided with a screw, an electric motor, a rudder and at least one float chamber, and a remotely controlled valve. The float is provided with a power source, a high frequency a.c. current generator and a control panel outside the vessel. The float is connected to parts of the equipment outside the vessel by a multi-core cable. The immersion float may also be provided with a detector for measuring the quantity of ionizing radiation whose display is placed outside the vessel being decontaminated. (B.S.)

  3. Differential Response of Floating and Submerged Leaves of Longleaf Pondweed to Silver Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Shabnam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated variations in the potential of floating and submerged leaves of longleaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus to withstand silver ion (Ag+-toxicity. Both floating and submerged leaves changed clear colorless AgNO3 solutions to colloidal brown in the presence of light. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of distinct crystalline Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs in these brown solutions. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed that Ag-NPs were composed of Ag0 and Ag2O. Photosystem (PS II efficiency of leaves declined upon exposure to Ag+ with a significantly higher decline in the submerged leaves than in the floating leaves. Similarly, Ag+ treatment caused a significant reduction in the carboxylase activity of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in leaves. The reduction in this carboxylase activity was significantly higher in the submerged than in the floating leaves. Ag+ treatment also resulted in a significant decline in the levels of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants; the decline was significantly lower in the floating than in submerged leaves. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of Ag2O in these leaves. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis revealed a three-fold higher Ag content in the submerged than in floating leaves. Our study demonstrates that floating leaves of longleaf pondweed have a superior potential to counter Ag+-toxicity compared with submerged leaves, which could be due to superior potential of floating leaves to reduce Ag+ to less/non-toxic Ag0/Ag2O-nanoparticles/nanocomplexes. We suggest that modulating the genotype of longleaf pondweed to bear higher proportion of floating leaves would help in cleaning fresh water bodies contaminated with ionic forms of heavy metals.

  4. Towards Interactive Steering of a Very Large Floating Structure Code by Using HPC Parallelisation Strategies

    KAUST Repository

    Frisch, Jerome

    2012-09-01

    Very large floating structures (VLFSs) have been used for broad applications such as floating storage facilities, floating piers, floating bridges, floating airports, entertainment facilities, even habitation, and other purposes. Owing to its small bending rigidity, VLFS deforms elastically when subjected to wave action. This elastic deformation due to wave is called hydro elastic response and it can be obtained by solving the interaction between the surface wave and the floating structure in the frequency domain. In solving the fluid-structure interaction, the floating structure can be modelled by applying the finite element method, whereas the fluid part may be analyzed by using the Green\\'s function method. When using the Green\\'s function which satisfies the boundary condition on the free-surface, the sea bottom and that at infinite distance from the floating structure, the unknown parameters to be determined for the fluid part can be minimized to be only those associated with the wetted surface of the floating structure. However, in the evaluation of the Green\\'s function, extensive computation time O(N2) is needed (N is the number of unknowns). Therefore, acceleration techniques are necessary to tackle the computational complexity. Nowadays, standard multi-core office PCs are already quite powerful if all the cores can be used efficiently. This paper will show different parallelisation strategies for speeding up the Green\\'s function computation. A shared memory based implementation as well as a distributed memory concept will be analysed regarding speed-up and efficiency. For large computations, batch jobs can be used to compute detailed results in high resolution on a large computational cluster or supercomputer. Different speed-up computations on clusters will be included for showing strong speed-up results. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Transcriptome and network changes in climbers at extreme altitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Extreme altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are largely unknown. To obtain a more complete picture of the transcriptional regulatory landscape and networks involved in extreme altitude response, we followed four climbers on an expedition up Mount Xixiabangma (8,012 m, and collected blood samples at four stages during the climb for mRNA and miRNA expression assays. By analyzing dynamic changes of gene networks in response to extreme altitudes, we uncovered a highly modular network with 7 modules of various functions that changed in response to extreme altitudes. The erythrocyte differentiation module is the most prominently up-regulated, reflecting increased erythrocyte differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells, probably at the expense of differentiation into other cell lineages. These changes are accompanied by coordinated down-regulation of general translation. Network topology and flow analyses also uncovered regulators known to modulate hypoxia responses and erythrocyte development, as well as unknown regulators, such as the OCT4 gene, an important regulator in stem cells and assumed to only function in stem cells. We predicted computationally and validated experimentally that increased OCT4 expression at extreme altitude can directly elevate the expression of hemoglobin genes. Our approach established a new framework for analyzing the transcriptional regulatory network from a very limited number of samples.

  6. Gender not a factor for altitude decompression sickness risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, James T.; Kannan, Nandini; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Early, retrospective reports of the incidence of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) during altitude chamber training exposures indicated that women were more susceptible than men. We hypothesized that a controlled, prospective study would show no significant difference. METHODS: We conducted 25 altitude chamber decompression exposure profiles. A total of 291 human subjects, 197 men and 94 women, underwent 961 exposures to simulated altitude for up to 8 h, using zero to 4 h of preoxygenation. Throughout the exposures, subjects breathed 100% oxygen, rested or performed mild or strenuous exercise, and were monitored for precordial venous gas emboli (VGE) and DCS symptoms. RESULTS: No significant differences in DCS incidence were observed between men (49.5%) and women (45.3%). However, VGE occurred at significantly higher rates among men than women under the same exposure conditions, 69.3% and 55.0% respectively. Women using hormonal contraception showed significantly greater susceptibility to DCS than those not using hormonal contraception during the latter two weeks of the menstrual cycle. Significantly higher DCS incidence was observed in the heaviest men, in women with the highest body fat, and in subjects with the highest body mass indices and lowest levels of fitness. CONCLUSION: No differences in altitude DCS incidence were observed between the sexes under our test conditions, although men developed VGE more often than women. Age and height showed no significant influence on DCS incidence, but persons of either sex with higher body mass index and lower physical fitness developed DCS more frequently.

  7. Andean and Tibetan patterns of adaptation to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Abigail W; Wilson, Megan J; Julian, Colleen G; Kiyamu, Melisa; Vargas, Enrique; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Rodriquez, Carmelo; Browne, Vaughn A; Parra, Esteban; Brutsaert, Tom D; Moore, Lorna G; Shriver, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    High-altitude hypoxia, or decreased oxygen levels caused by low barometric pressure, challenges the ability of humans to live and reproduce. Despite these challenges, human populations have lived on the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau for millennia and exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. We and others have identified natural selection candidate genes and gene regions for these adaptations using dense genome scan data. One gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. Interestingly, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Continued research among Tibetan populations has identified statistical associations between hemoglobin concentration and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype at EGLN1 and a second gene, endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1). To measure for the effects of EGLN1 and EPAS1 altitude genotypes on hemoglobin concentration among Andean highlanders, we performed a multiple linear regression analysis of 10 candidate SNPs in or near these two genes. Our analysis did not identify significant associations between EPAS1 or EGLN1 SNP genotypes and hemoglobin concentration in Andeans. These results contribute to our understanding of the unique set of adaptations developed in different highland groups to the hypoxia of high altitude. Overall, the results provide key insights into the patterns of genetic adaptation to high altitude in Andean and Tibetan populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Relationship between baroreflex function and training effects on altitude training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Mizuochi, Fumio; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Takahashi, Masanori; Iwasaki, Kenichi

    2012-05-01

    Altitude training is frequently used for athletes requiring competitive endurance in an attempt to improve their sea-level performance. However, there has been no study in which the mechanisms by which spontaneous arterial-cardiac baroreflex function changes was examined in responders or nonresponders of altitude training. The purpose of this study was to clarify the different effects of altitude training on baroreflex function between responders and nonresponders. Twelve university student cross-country skiers (6 men, 6 women; age, 19±1 years) participated in the altitude training in a camp for 3 weeks, which was carried out in accordance with the method of Living High-Training Low. Baroreflex function was estimated by transfer function analysis before and after the training. The responders of the training were 3 men and 2 women, and the nonresponders were 3 men and 4 women. In the responders, the transfer function gain in the high-frequency range significantly increased after the training (28.9→46.5 ms/mmHg p=0.021). On the other hand, no significant change in this index was observed in the nonresponders (25.9→21.2 ms/mmHg p=0.405). As indicated by the results of transfer function gain in the high-frequency range, the baroreflex function in the responders increased significantly after the altitude training, whereas no significant change was observed in the nonresponders.

  9. Arterial thrombosis at high altitude resulting in loss of limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagenholz, Peter J; Gutman, Jonathan A; Murray, Alice F; Noble, Vicki E; Wu, Anette; Zeimer, Gerhard; Harris, N Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Vascular thrombosis is an uncommon but recognized peril of high altitude travel. Traditionally, this has been associated with prolonged exposure to extreme altitudes where dehydration, hemoconcentration, cold, use of constrictive clothing, and enforced stasis due to severe weather have been named as contributing factors. It is widely hypothesized that hypoxia itself alters the coagulation cascade to create a prothrombotic milieu, though evidence thus far is limited and frequently conflicting. Case reports have described venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cerebrovascular accidents, transient ischemic attacks, and thromboses of the portal circulation at altitude. We report a unique case of aortic thrombosis presenting with critical lower extremity ischemia in a previously healthy individual after a brief exposure to altitudes up to 4620 m. None of the frequently invoked risk factors of dehydration, cold, enforced use of constrictive clothing, weather-imposed inactivity, or extreme altitude were present, and no medical predisposition to thrombosis was identified, suggesting hypoxia as the most likely prothrombotic stimulus. We discuss the treatment of this problem and the application of Doppler ultrasonography in a wilderness setting.

  10. High-altitude headache and acute mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    2014-01-01

    Headache is the most common complication associated with exposure to high altitude, and can appear as an isolated high-altitude headache (HAH) or in conjunction with acute mountain sickness (AMS). The purpose of this article is to review several aspects related to diagnosis and treatment of HAH. HAH occurs in 80% of all individuals at altitudes higher than 3000 meters. The second edition of ICHD-II includes HAH in the chapter entitled "Headaches attributed to disorder of homeostasis". Hypoxia elicits a neurohumoral and haemodynamic response that may provoke increased capillary pressure and oedema. Hypoxia-induced cerebral vasodilation is a probable cause of HAH. The main symptom of AMS is headache, frequently accompanied by sleep disorders, fatigue, dizziness and instability, nausea and anorexia. Some degree of individual susceptibility and considerable inter-individual variability seem to be present in AMS. High-altitude cerebral oedema is the most severe form of AMS, and may occur above 2500 meters. Brain MRI studies have found variable degrees of oedema in subcortical white matter and the splenium of the corpus callosum. HAH can be treated with paracetamol or ibuprofen. Pharmacological treatment of AMS is intended to increase ventilatory drive with drugs such as acetazolamide, and reduce inflammation and cytokine release by means of steroids. Symptom escalation seems to be present along the continuum containing HAH, AMS, and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Apparatus and method for implementing power saving techniques when processing floating point values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Moon; Park, Sang Phill

    2017-10-03

    An apparatus and method are described for reducing power when reading and writing graphics data. For example, one embodiment of an apparatus comprises: a graphics processor unit (GPU) to process graphics data including floating point data; a set of registers, at least one of the registers of the set partitioned to store the floating point data; and encode/decode logic to reduce a number of binary 1 values being read from the at least one register by causing a specified set of bit positions within the floating point data to be read out as 0s rather than 1s.

  12. The method of rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article includes a methodology for the rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports. This methodology includes an analysis of the possibilities of using blocks from the park pontoon PP-64 as a support for the floating folding DMS-65 bridge, built as a tem-porary crossing for civilian application. The analysis was carried out for the bridge loaded with a moving vehicle. The results of this analysis have been developed in the form of nomograms that enable rapid development of crossings in different structural systems.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, folding bridges, floating supports

  13. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2014-10-20

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  14. Ambipolar organic thin-film transistor-based nano-floating-gate nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jinhua; Wang, Wei; Ying, Jun; Xie, Wenfa

    2014-01-01

    An ambipolar organic thin-film transistor-based nano-floating-gate nonvolatile memory was demonstrated, with discrete distributed gold nanoparticles, tetratetracontane (TTC), pentacene as the floating-gate layer, tunneling layer, and active layer, respectively. The electron traps at the TTC/pentacene interface were significantly suppressed, which resulted in an ambipolar operation in present memory. As both electrons and holes were supplied in the channel and trapped in the floating-gate by programming/erasing operations, respectively, i.e., one type of charge carriers was used to overwrite the other, trapped, one, a large memory window, extending on both sides of the initial threshold voltage, was realized

  15. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-01-01

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  16. The capture rate of free-floating planets in our galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulinski, N.; Ribak, E. N.

    2017-09-01

    We propose that planetary nebulae and supernova remnants may constitute a significant source of free-floating planets. With a large population of free-floating planets, the rate at which these planets get captured by planetary systems may be non-negligible. We predict that about one out of every 100 sub-solar stars are expected to experience a capture of a free-floating planet during their lifetime. The capture cross section calculated through three-body scattering simulations in vacuum conditions. Since planetary systems usually contain multiple planets, and dissipation processes where not included in the simulation, the capture rate may be higher.

  17. Automatic Estimation of Verified Floating-Point Round-Off Errors via Static Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscato, Mariano; Titolo, Laura; Dutle, Aaron; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a static analysis technique for computing formally verified round-off error bounds of floating-point functional expressions. The technique is based on a denotational semantics that computes a symbolic estimation of floating-point round-o errors along with a proof certificate that ensures its correctness. The symbolic estimation can be evaluated on concrete inputs using rigorous enclosure methods to produce formally verified numerical error bounds. The proposed technique is implemented in the prototype research tool PRECiSA (Program Round-o Error Certifier via Static Analysis) and used in the verification of floating-point programs of interest to NASA.

  18. Floating wind generators offshore wind farm: Implications for structural loads and control actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Morant F, Quiles E.; Correcher, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the work currently carried out in the design of floating wind generators and their involvement in the future development of power generation in marine farms in depths exceeding 20 m. We discuss the main issues to be taken into account in the design of floating platforms, including the involvement of structural loads they bear. Also from a standpoint of control engineering are discussed strategies to reduce structural loads such a system to ensure adequate durability and therefore ensuring their economic viability. Finally, the abstract modeling tools for floating wind turbines that can be used in both structural design and the design of appropriate control algorithms

  19. Influence of Model Simplifications Excitation Force in Surge for a Floating Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Hindhede, Dennis; Lauridsen, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    As offshore wind turbines move towards deeper and more distant sites, the concept of floating foundations is a potential technically and economically attractive alternative to the traditional fixed foundations. Unlike the well-studied monopile, the geometry of a floating foundation is complex and......, thereby, increases the difficulty in wave force determination due to limitations of the commonly used simplified methods. This paper deals with a physical model test of the hydrodynamic excitation force in surge on a fixed three-columned structure intended as a floating foundation for offshore wind...

  20. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...