WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable equilibrium state

  1. On Nash Equilibrium and Evolutionarily Stable States That Are Not Characterised by the Folk Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Kendall, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In evolutionary game theory, evolutionarily stable states are characterised by the folk theorem because exact solutions to the replicator equation are difficult to obtain. It is generally assumed that the folk theorem, which is the fundamental theory for non-cooperative games, defines all Nash equilibria in infinitely repeated games. Here, we prove that Nash equilibria that are not characterised by the folk theorem do exist. By adopting specific reactive strategies, a group of players can be better off by coordinating their actions in repeated games. We call it a type-k equilibrium when a group of k players coordinate their actions and they have no incentive to deviate from their strategies simultaneously. The existence and stability of the type-k equilibrium in general games is discussed. This study shows that the sets of Nash equilibria and evolutionarily stable states have greater cardinality than classic game theory has predicted in many repeated games. PMID:26288088

  2. Stable and metastable equilibrium states of the Zr-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versaci, R.A.; Abriata, J.P.; Garces, J.; Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche

    1987-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the phase diagrams is of fundamental importance for the comprehension of processes like soldering and thermal treatment. The Zr-O diagram has been widely studied, mainly in the zone corresponding to ZrO 2 . A critical analysis of the existing information about this diagram is presented. Furthermore, a lot of information about the phase equilibrium, metastable phase, crystal structure, thermodynamic properties and a possible diagram for pressures higher than one atmosphere is presented. (M.E.L.) [es

  3. Stability Analysis of Equilibrium States of an SEIR Tuberculosis Model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examine the stability and equilibrium states of the extended model with respect to the basic reproduction number R0. We show that the disease-free equilibrium (DFE) is globally asymptotically stable if R0 ≤ 1 and that there exists at least one endemic equilibrium which is globally asymptotically stable if R0 > 1. Finally ...

  4. Two stable steady states in the Hodgkin-Huxley axons

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, K.; Matsumoto, G.

    1983-01-01

    Two stable steady states were found in the numerical solution of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations for the intact squid axon bathed in potassium-rich sea water with an externally applied inward current. Under the conditions the two stable steady-states exist, the Hodgkin-Huxley equations have a complex bifurcation structure including, in addition to the two stable steady-states, a stable limit cycle, two unstable equilibrium points, and one asymptotically stable equilibrium point. It was also conc...

  5. Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.

    1985-07-01

    A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations

  6. Stable hydrostatic equilibrium configurations of the galaxy and implications for its halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemen, J.B.G.M.

    1987-01-01

    Using a variety of observations, it is shown that the gaseous, magnetic field, and cosmic-ray components in the local region of the Galaxy may be in a large-scale hydrostatic equilibrium that is stable against Parker-type instabilities. Lower limits for the density of the halo are derived as a function of its scale height. The temperature of the hot medium in the disk and at large distances from the plane is found to be typically about a million K in a stable equilibrium, whereas around z roughly 1-3 kpc the temperature could be only 200,000-300,000 K. The scale height of the sum of cosmic-ray and magnetic field pressures in a stable hydrostatic equilibrium state is found to be only weakly dependent on the scale height of the gaseous halo. 109 references

  7. Identifying apparent local stable isotope equilibrium in a complex non-equilibrium system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuyang; Cao, Xiaobin; Wang, Jianwei; Bao, Huiming

    2018-02-28

    Although being out of equilibrium, biomolecules in organisms have the potential to approach isotope equilibrium locally because enzymatic reactions are intrinsically reversible. A rigorous approach that can describe isotope distribution among biomolecules and their apparent deviation from equilibrium state is lacking, however. Applying the concept of distance matrix in graph theory, we propose that apparent local isotope equilibrium among a subset of biomolecules can be assessed using an apparent fractionation difference (|Δα|) matrix, in which the differences between the observed isotope composition (δ') and the calculated equilibrium fractionation factor (1000lnβ) can be more rigorously evaluated than by using a previous approach for multiple biomolecules. We tested our |Δα| matrix approach by re-analyzing published data of different amino acids (AAs) in potato and in green alga. Our re-analysis shows that biosynthesis pathways could be the reason for an apparently close-to-equilibrium relationship inside AA families in potato leaves. Different biosynthesis/degradation pathways in tubers may have led to the observed isotope distribution difference between potato leaves and tubers. The analysis of data from green algae does not support the conclusion that AAs are further from equilibrium in glucose-cultured green algae than in the autotrophic ones. Application of the |Δα| matrix can help us to locate potential reversible reactions or reaction networks in a complex system such as a metabolic system. The same approach can be broadly applied to all complex systems that have multiple components, e.g. geochemical or atmospheric systems of early Earth or other planets. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Stability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems and evolutionary stable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleria, Iram, E-mail: iram@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Brenig, Leon [Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rocha Filho, Tarcísio M.; Figueiredo, Annibal [Instituto de Física and International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2017-03-18

    Highlights: • We address the problem of equilibrium stability in a general class of non-linear systems. • We link Evolutionary Stable States (ESS) to stable fixed points of square quasi-polynomial (QP) systems. • We show that an interior ES point may be related to stable interior fixed points of QP systems. - Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of stability in a general class of non-linear systems. We establish a link between the concepts of asymptotic stable interior fixed points of square Quasi-Polynomial systems and evolutionary stable states, a property of some payoff matrices arising from evolutionary games.

  9. A 3D Fractional-Order Chaotic System with Only One Stable Equilibrium and Controlling Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyun Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One 3D fractional-order chaotic system with only one locally asymptotically stable equilibrium is reported. To verify the chaoticity, the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MAXLE with respect to the fractional-order and chaotic attractors are obtained by numerical calculation for this system. Furthermore, by linear scalar controller consisting of a single state variable, one control scheme for stabilization of the 3D fractional-order chaotic system is suggested. The numerical simulations show the feasibility of the control scheme.

  10. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  11. On the definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Akimoto, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    We propose a definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems on the basis of the time average. We show numerically that there exists a non-equilibrium non-stationary state in the coupled modified Bernoulli map lattice.

  12. Comments on deriving the equilibrium height of the stable boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the equilibrium height of the stable boundary layer received much attention in a series of papers by Zilitinkevich and co-workers. In these studies the stable boundary-layer height is derived in terms of inverse interpolation of different boundary-layer height scales, each representing a

  13. On the Equilibrium States of Interconnected Bubbles or Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhaus, F.; Barker, W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the equilibrium states of a system composed of two interconnected, air-filled spherical membranes of different sizes. The equilibrium configurations are determined by the method of minimization of the availability of the system at constant temperature. (GA)

  14. Entropic bounds between two thermal equilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saldívar, Julio A.; Castaños, Octavio; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.

    2018-02-01

    The positivity conditions of the relative entropy between two thermal equilibrium states ρ̂1 and ρ̂2 are used to obtain upper and lower bounds for the subtraction of their entropies, the Helmholtz potential and the Gibbs potential of the two systems. These limits are expressed in terms of the mean values of the Hamiltonians, number operator, and temperature of the different systems. In particular, we discuss these limits for molecules that can be represented in terms of the Franck-Condon coefficients. We emphasize the case where the Hamiltonians belong to the same system at two different times t and t'. Finally, these bounds are obtained for a general qubit system and for the harmonic oscillator with a time-dependent frequency at two different times.

  15. Gibbsian Stationary Non-equilibrium States

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlo, Leonardo; Gabrielli, Davide

    2017-09-01

    We study the structure of stationary non-equilibrium states for interacting particle systems from a microscopic viewpoint. In particular we discuss two different discrete geometric constructions. We apply both of them to determine non reversible transition rates corresponding to a fixed invariant measure. The first one uses the equivalence of this problem with the construction of divergence free flows on the transition graph. Since divergence free flows are characterized by cyclic decompositions we can generate families of models from elementary cycles on the configuration space. The second construction is a functional discrete Hodge decomposition for translational covariant discrete vector fields. According to this, for example, the instantaneous current of any interacting particle system on a finite torus can be canonically decomposed in a gradient part, a circulation term and an harmonic component. All the three components are associated with functions on the configuration space. This decomposition is unique and constructive. The stationary condition can be interpreted as an orthogonality condition with respect to an harmonic discrete vector field and we use this decomposition to construct models having a fixed invariant measure.

  16. Calculation of equilibrium stable isotope partition function ratios for aqueous zinc complexes and metallic zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay R.; Kavner, Abby; Schauble, Edwin A.

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study is to determine reduced partition function ratios for a variety of species of zinc, both as a metal and in aqueous solutions in order to calculate equilibrium stable isotope partitioning. We present calculations of the magnitude of Zn stable-isotope fractionation ( 66,67,68Zn/ 64Zn) between aqueous species and metallic zinc using measured vibrational spectra (fit from neutron scattering studies of metallic zinc) and a variety of electronic structure models. The results show that the reduced metal, Zn(0), will be light in equilibrium with oxidized Zn(II) aqueous species, with the best estimates for the Zn(II)-Zn(0) fractionation between hexaquo species and metallic zinc being Δ 66/64Zn aq-metal ˜ 1.6‰ at 25 °C, and Δ 66/64Zn aq-metal ˜ 0.8‰ between the tetrachloro zinc complex and metallic zinc at 25 °C using B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory and basis set. To examine the behavior of zinc in various aqueous solution chemistries, models for Zn(II) complex speciation were used to determine which species are thermodynamically favorable and abundant under a variety of different conditions relevant to natural waters, experimental and industrial solutions. The optimal molecular geometries for [Zn(H 2O) 6] 2+, [Zn(H 2O) 6]·SO 4, [ZnCl 4] 2- and [Zn(H 2O) 3(C 3H 5O(COO) 3)] - complexes in various states of solvation, protonation and coordination were calculated at various levels of electronic structure theory and basis set size. Isotopic reduced partition function ratios were calculated from frequency analyses of these optimized structures. Increasing the basis set size typically led to a decrease in the calculated reduced partition function ratios of ˜0.5‰ with values approaching a plateau using the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set or larger. The widest range of species were studied at the B3LYP/LAN2DZ/6-31G ∗ level of theory and basis-set size for comparison. Aqueous zinc complexes where oxygen is bound to the metal center tended to have the

  17. Physics of future equilibrium state of nuclear energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.

    1994-01-01

    The governing equations for future equilibrium nuclear state are presented and their characteristics are discussed. These equations are solved for several typical cases. In the present study on the equilibrium state, two coincidences are found. The first is the coincidence on the neutron balance performed by the nuclides satisfying the equilibrium condition. The finite neutron multiplication factor is near unity. The second is the coincidence on the toxicity. The produced long-life fission product toxicity is near the incinerated natural fuel toxicity. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash A. Deshpande

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State. AVINASH A. DESHPANDE. ∗ and N. KUMAR. Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080, India. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: desh@rri.res.in. MS received 25 March 2017; accepted 31 July 2017; published online 12 September ...

  19. States of Water in Non-Equilibrium Glassy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric; Elabd, Yossef

    2013-03-01

    For many applications (e.g., packaging, medical devices) a deeper fundamental understanding of the molecular nature of water in glassy polymer coatings is of significant interest. In this study, the sorption and diffusion of water in two glassy polymers, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene) (PS), were measured with both quartz crystal microbalance (QSM) and time-resolved Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. Non-Fickian diffusion was observed in both PMMA and PS using both experimental techniques due to the non-equilibrium state of the polymers. The specific states of water were observed with FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, where dimers exist in PMMA below a critical concentration and larger clusters were observed above this concentration. Contrastingly, water only exists in PS as larger clusters over the entire sorption isotherm. A correlation between the states of water and the diffusive activation energy of water was observed. Additionally, the pseudo-equilibrium water sorption isotherms in PMMA and PS were accurately predicted with the non-equilibrium statistical associating fluid theory (NE-SAFT). We predict that the combination of time-resolved FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and NE-SAFT can be used on other water-glassy polymer systems to provide a molecular understanding of non-equilibrium sorption and diffusion.

  20. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhasan, Razieh [Science Institute, University of Iceland,Dunhaga 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2016-02-01

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P=P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  1. Stable states in a strong IR field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2015-05-01

    It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.

  2. Local thermal equilibrium and KMS states in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solveen, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    On the example of a free massless and conformally coupled scalar field, it is argued that in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes with the time-like Killing field, the corresponding KMS states (generalized Gibbs ensembles) at parameter β > 0 need not possess a definite temperature in the sense of the zeroth law. In fact, these states, although passive in the sense of the second law, are not always in local thermal equilibrium (LTE). A criterion characterizing LTE states with sharp local temperature is discussed. Moreover, a proposal is made for fixing the renormalization freedom of composite fields which serve as ‘thermal observables’ and a new definition of the thermal energy of LTE states is introduced. Based on these results, a general relation between the local temperature and the parameter β is established for KMS states in (anti) de Sitter spacetime. (paper)

  3. The equation of state with non-equilibrium methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jarzynski’s equality provides an elegant and powerful tool to directly compute differences in free energy in Monte Carlo simulations and it can be readily extended to lattice gauge theories to compute a large set of physically interesting observables. In this talk we present a novel technique to determine the thermodynamics of stronglyinteracting matter based on this relation, which allows for a direct and efficient determination of the pressure using out-of-equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations on the lattice. We present results for the equation of state of the SU(3 Yang-Mills theory in the confined and deconfined phases. Finally, we briefly discuss the generalization of this method for theories with fermions, with particular focus on the equation of state of QCD.

  4. Non-equilibrium steady states in supramolecular polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Sato, Akihiro; Hermans, Thomas M.

    2017-06-01

    Living systems use fuel-driven supramolecular polymers such as actin to control important cell functions. Fuel molecules like ATP are used to control when and where such polymers should assemble and disassemble. The cell supplies fresh ATP to the cytosol and removes waste products to sustain steady states. Artificial fuel-driven polymers have been developed recently, but keeping them in sustained non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) has proven challenging. Here we show a supramolecular polymer that can be kept in NESS, inside a membrane reactor where ATP is added and waste removed continuously. Assembly and disassembly of our polymer is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. Waste products lead to inhibition, causing the reaction cycle to stop. Inside the membrane reactor, however, waste can be removed leading to long-lived NESS conditions. We anticipate that our approach to obtain NESS can be applied to other stimuli-responsive materials to achieve more life-like behaviour.

  5. A numerical study of equilibrium states in tidal network morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Coco, Giovanni; Zhou, Zeng; Tao, Jianfeng; Zhang, Changkuan

    2017-12-01

    The long-term morphodynamic evolution of tidal networks on tidal flats is investigated using a two-dimensional numerical model. We explore the physical processes related to the development of the morphology and the presence of equilibrium configurations. Tidal networks are simulated over a rectangular domain representing a tidal platform, a different setting compared to estuaries (subject to riverine influence) and lagoons (offshore bars constricting the flow). In the early and middle phases of the tidal network evolution, large sediment patches with rhombus-like shape form and gradually migrate in the flood direction, even though the overall sediment flux is ebb-directed. A cross-section-averaged "equilibrium" state is asymptotically approached after about 500 years. The area and peak discharge of the lower flat cross-sections at year 500 approximately show a 1:1 relationship, which is in agreement with field observations. We also show that model results are consistent with the Q-A relationship (peak discharge Q versus cross-sectional area A), which is obtained under the assumption of a constant Chézy friction.

  6. Monte Carlo modeling of Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor in adiabatic equilibrium state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanisz, Przemysław, E-mail: pstanisz@agh.edu.pl; Oettingen, Mikołaj, E-mail: moettin@agh.edu.pl; Cetnar, Jerzy, E-mail: cetnar@mail.ftj.agh.edu.pl

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present the Monte Carlo modeling of the LFR in the adiabatic equilibrium state. • We assess the adiabatic equilibrium fuel composition using the MCB code. • We define the self-adjusting process of breeding gain by the control rod operation. • The designed LFR can work in the adiabatic cycle with zero fuel breeding. - Abstract: Nuclear power would appear to be the only energy source able to satisfy the global energy demand while also achieving a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, it can provide a stable and secure source of electricity, and plays an important role in many European countries. However, nuclear power generation from its birth has been doomed by the legacy of radioactive nuclear waste. In addition, the looming decrease in the available resources of fissile U235 may influence the future sustainability of nuclear energy. The integrated solution to both problems is not trivial, and postulates the introduction of a closed-fuel cycle strategy based on breeder reactors. The perfect choice of a novel reactor system fulfilling both requirements is the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor operating in the adiabatic equilibrium state. In such a state, the reactor converts depleted or natural uranium into plutonium while consuming any self-generated minor actinides and transferring only fission products as waste. We present the preliminary design of a Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor operating in the adiabatic equilibrium state with the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code – MCB. As a reference reactor model we apply the core design developed initially under the framework of the European Lead-cooled SYstem (ELSY) project and refined in the follow-up Lead-cooled European Advanced DEmonstration Reactor (LEADER) project. The major objective of the study is to show to what extent the constraints of the adiabatic cycle are maintained and to indicate the phase space for further improvements. The analysis

  7. Analysis of radioactive-matter interaction near thermodynamical equilibrium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damamme, G.

    1993-01-01

    We study the absorption/emission process of photon by matter in the framework of a radiativo-collisionnal model of atom, a thermodynamical approach being used. The considered matter description is the atomic sphere one. First we give the expression of the balance equation around an equilibrium state. Then we express the atomic populations in function of the characteristics of the radiation and of the free electrons and of their time history. This permit us to interpret the photon balance as being due to true emission/absorption process of photons as well as fluorescence terms, all these processes being affected by relaxation effects. The total energy balance between matter and radiation can also be analyzed in the same way and conduct to introduce one photon effective interactions terms for each radiative proper mode, terms also affected by retardation effects. Such a taking into account of atom populations has no consequence on the radiative flux equation (i.e. the transfer opacity) but can considerably modify the energy balance between matter and radiation. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  8. Floating plant dominance as a stable state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Szabo, S.; Gragnani, A.; Nes, van E.H.; Rinaldi, S.; Kautsky, N.; Norberg, J.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Franken, R.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that floating-plant dominance can be a self-stabilizing ecosystem state, which may explain its notorious persistence in many situations. Their results, based on experiments, field data, and models (in Dutch ditches and Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe), represent evidence for

  9. Equilibrium states of a variational formulation for the Ginzburg-Landau equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, A. N.; Kulikov, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Periodic boundary value problem for one of the versions of the complex Ginzburg- Landau equation, which is commonly called the variational Ginzburg-Landau equation are studied. Questions of existence and stability in the sense of Lyapunov, and also the local bifurcations problem of spatially nonhomogeneous equilibrium states are investigated. Three types of such solutions for the given problem are indicated. The exact formulas of the solutions for the first two types are suggested. Equilibrium states of the second type are expressed through elliptic functions. The third type of equilibrium states appears as a result of bifurcations of automodel equilibrium states, i.e., solutions of the first type in the case when the stability changes. It is shown that equilibrium states of the second and third types are unstable.

  10. Classical orbital paramagnetism in non-equilibrium steady state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    Kumar (2012) negated the result of Kumar & Ku- mar (2009) through similar numerical simulation, but now with finer time steps, for the motion of the charged particle on the surface of a sphere –in fact, in the long-time limit (i.e. in thermal equilibrium) the orbital moment indeed again turned out to van- ish with decreasing time ...

  11. Beam-foil-gas spectroscopy - A technique for studying steady-state non-equilibrium processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, W. S.; Veje, E.; Carriveau, G.; Anderson, N.

    1971-01-01

    When a thin foil is inserted in the beam of a beam-gas experiment, the beam particle state populations are driven far from their beam-gas equilibrium values. Downstream from the foil, the 'new beam' and gas species interact to produce a new equilibrium, usually different from the beam-gas equilibrium. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate this effect and to show how relative cross-section measurements can be used to study the beam-foil interaction.

  12. Equilibrium charge state distributions for boron and carbon ions emerging from carbon and aluminum targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Chris; LaVerne, Jay A.; Robertson, Daniel; Bowers, Matthew; Lu Wenting; Collon, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state distributions of boron and carbon ions through carbon and aluminum targets were measured with an energy range of 3-6 MeV. Comparisons of the data with relevant semi-empirical models for the equilibrium mean charge states and for the charge state distribution widths could provide valuable insight on the underlying mechanisms for a fast ion to lose or capture electrons. In-depth examinations of the experimental results in combination with semi-empirical models suggest that equilibrium charge state distributions are well represented by Gaussian distributions.

  13. Near-Nash equilibrium strategies for LQ differential games with inaccurate state information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ε -Nash equilibrium or “near equilibrium” for a linear quadratic cost game is considered. Due to inaccurate state information, the standard solution for feedback Nash equilibrium cannot be applied. Instead, an estimation of the players' states is substituted into the optimal control strategies equation obtained for perfect state information. The magnitude of the ε in the ε -Nash equilibrium will depend on the quality of the estimation process. To illustrate this approach, a Luenberger-type observer is used in the numerical example to generate the players' state estimates in a two-player non-zero-sum LQ differential game.

  14. [The accuracy of rapid equilibrium assumption in steady-state enzyme kinetics is the function of equilibrium segment structure and properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzheshch, P V

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the accuracy of the rapid equilibrium assumption in the steady-state enzyme kinetics was obtained for an arbitrary mechanism of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. This evaluation depends only on the structure and properties of the equilibrium segment, but doesn't depend on the structure and properties of the rest (stationary part) of the kinetic scheme. The smaller the values of the edges leaving equilibrium segment in relation to values of the edges within the equilibrium segment, the higher the accuracy of determination of intermediate concentrations and reaction velocity in a case of the rapid equilibrium assumption.

  15. Quasi-particle states of electron systems out of equilibrium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 19 (2007), 195125/1-195125/9 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0585 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Green’s functions * quantum transport equations * quasi-particles Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007

  16. Fluorescence lifetime components reveal kinetic intermediate states upon equilibrium denaturation of carbonic anhydrase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtseva, Elena V; Lashchuk, Olesya O; Gerasimova, Marina A; Melnik, Tatiana N; Nagibina, Galina S; Melnik, Bogdan S

    2017-12-21

    In most cases, intermediate states of multistage folding proteins are not 'visible' under equilibrium conditions but are revealed in kinetic experiments. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used in equilibrium denaturation studies. The technique allows for detecting changes in the conformation and environment of tryptophan residues in different structural elements of carbonic anhydrase II which in its turn has made it possible to study the intermediate states of carbonic anhydrase II under equilibrium conditions. The results of equilibrium and kinetic experiments using wild-type bovine carbonic anhydrase II and its mutant form with the substitution of leucine for alanine at position 139 (L139A) were compared. The obtained lifetime components of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence allowed for revealing that, the same as in kinetic experiments, under equilibrium conditions the unfolding of carbonic anhydrase II ensues through formation of intermediate states.

  17. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F.; Kort, Peter M.; Novak, Andreas J.; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure’s actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader. PMID:23565027

  18. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F; Kort, Peter M; Novak, Andreas J; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure's actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader.

  19. A philosophy of rivers: Equilibrium states, channel evolution, teleomatic change and least action principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanson, Gerald C.; Huang, He Qing

    2018-02-01

    Until recently no universal agreement as to a philosophical or scientific methodological framework has been proposed to guide the study of fluvial geomorphology. An understanding of river form and process requires an understanding of the principles that govern the behaviour and evolution of alluvial rivers at the most fundamental level. To date, the investigations of such principles have followed four approaches: develop qualitative unifying theories that are usually untested; collect and examine data visually and statistically to define semi-quantitative relationships among variables; apply Newtonian theoretical and empirical mechanics in a reductionist manner; resolve the primary flow equations theoretically by assuming maximum or minimum outputs. Here we recommend not a fifth but an overarching philosophy to embrace all four: clarifying and formalising an understanding of the evolution of river channels and iterative directional changes in the context of least action principle (LAP), the theoretical basis of variational mechanics. LAP is exemplified in rivers in the form of maximum flow efficiency (MFE). A sophisticated understanding of evolution in its broadest sense is essential to understand how rivers adjust towards an optimum state rather than towards some other. Because rivers, as dynamic contemporary systems, flow in valleys that are commonly historical landforms and often tectonically determined, we propose that most of the world's alluvial rivers are over-powered for the work they must do. To remain stable they commonly evolve to expend surplus energy via a variety of dynamic equilibrium forms that will further adjust, where possible, to maximise their stability as much less common MFE forms in stationary equilibrium. This paper: 1. Shows that the theory of evolution is derived from, and applicable to, both the physical and biological sciences; 2. Focusses the development of theory in geomorphology on the development of equilibrium theory; 3. Proposes

  20. Imaging the equilibrium state and magnetization dynamics of partially built hard disk write heads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkass, R. A. J., E-mail: rajv202@ex.ac.uk; Yu, W.; Shelford, L. R.; Keatley, P. S.; Loughran, T. H. J.; Hicken, R. J. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Cavill, S. A. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Laan, G. van der; Dhesi, S. S. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bashir, M. A.; Gubbins, M. A. [Research and Development, Seagate Technology, 1 Disc Drive, Springtown Industrial Estate, Derry BT48 0BF (United Kingdom); Czoschke, P. J.; Lopusnik, R. [Recording Heads Operation, Seagate Technology, 7801 Computer Avenue South, Bloomington, Minnesota 55435 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Four different designs of partially built hard disk write heads with a yoke comprising four repeats of NiFe (1 nm)/CoFe (50 nm) were studied by both x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM). These techniques were used to investigate the static equilibrium domain configuration and the magnetodynamic response across the entire structure, respectively. Simulations and previous TRSKM studies have made proposals for the equilibrium domain configuration of similar structures, but no direct observation of the equilibrium state of the writers has yet been made. In this study, static XPEEM images of the equilibrium state of writer structures were acquired using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism as the contrast mechanism. These images suggest that the crystalline anisotropy dominates the equilibrium state domain configuration, but competition with shape anisotropy ultimately determines the stability of the equilibrium state. Dynamic TRSKM images were acquired from nominally identical devices. These images suggest that a longer confluence region may hinder flux conduction from the yoke into the pole tip: the shorter confluence region exhibits clear flux beaming along the symmetry axis, whereas the longer confluence region causes flux to conduct along one edge of the writer. The observed variations in dynamic response agree well with the differences in the equilibrium magnetization configuration visible in the XPEEM images, confirming that minor variations in the geometric design of the writer structure can have significant effects on the process of flux beaming.

  1. Non-existence of Steady State Equilibrium in the Neoclassical Growth Model with a Longevity Trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Mikkel Nørlem

    of steady state equilibrium when considering the empirically observed trend in longevity. We extend a standard continuous time overlapping generations model by a longevity trend and are thereby able to study the properties of mortality-driven population growth. This turns out to be exceedingly complicated...... to handle, and it is shown that in general no steady state equilibrium exists. Consequently analytical results and long run implications cannot be obtained in a setting with a realistic demographic setup....

  2. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose a new input-to-state stable (ISS) synchronization method for a general class of chaotic systems with disturbances. Based on Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, for the first time, the ISS synchronization controller is presented not only to guarantee the asymptotic ...

  3. A class of almost equilibrium states in Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueskue, Muharrem

    2008-01-01

    In quantum field theory in curved spacetimes the construction of the algebra of observables of linear fields is today well understood. However, it remains a non-trivial task to construct physically meaningful states on the algebra. For instance, we are in the unsatisfactory situation that there exist no examples of states suited to describe local thermal equilibrium in a non-stationary spacetime. In this thesis, we construct a class of states for the Klein-Gordon field in Robertson-Walker spacetimes, which seem to provide the first example of thermal states in a spacetime without time translation symmetry. More precisely, in the setting of real, linear, scalar fields in Robertson-Walker spacetimes we define on the set of homogeneous, isotropic, quasi-free states a free energy functional that is based on the averaged energy density measured by an isotropic observer along his worldline. This functional is well defined and lower bounded by a suitable quantum energy inequality. Subsequently, we minimize this functional and obtain states that we interpret as 'almost equilibrium states'. It turns out that the states of low energy are the ground states of the almost equilibrium states. Finally, we prove that the almost equilibrium states satisfy the Hadamard condition, which qualifies them as physically meaningful states. (orig.)

  4. A class of almost equilibrium states in Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueskue, Muharrem

    2008-11-06

    In quantum field theory in curved spacetimes the construction of the algebra of observables of linear fields is today well understood. However, it remains a non-trivial task to construct physically meaningful states on the algebra. For instance, we are in the unsatisfactory situation that there exist no examples of states suited to describe local thermal equilibrium in a non-stationary spacetime. In this thesis, we construct a class of states for the Klein-Gordon field in Robertson-Walker spacetimes, which seem to provide the first example of thermal states in a spacetime without time translation symmetry. More precisely, in the setting of real, linear, scalar fields in Robertson-Walker spacetimes we define on the set of homogeneous, isotropic, quasi-free states a free energy functional that is based on the averaged energy density measured by an isotropic observer along his worldline. This functional is well defined and lower bounded by a suitable quantum energy inequality. Subsequently, we minimize this functional and obtain states that we interpret as 'almost equilibrium states'. It turns out that the states of low energy are the ground states of the almost equilibrium states. Finally, we prove that the almost equilibrium states satisfy the Hadamard condition, which qualifies them as physically meaningful states. (orig.)

  5. Poloidal field coil design for known plasma equilibrium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, C.C.; Todd, A.M.M.; Reusch, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    The technique for obtaining plasma equilibria with given boundary conditions has long been known and understood. The inverse problem of obtaining a poloidal field (PF) coil system from a given plasma equilibrium has been widely studied, however its solution has remained largely an art form. An investigation, by the writers, of this fundamentally ill-posed inverse problem has resulted in a new understanding of the requirements that solutions must satisfy. A set of interacting computer codes has been written which may be used to successfully design PF coil systems capable of supporting given plasma equilibria. It is shown that for discrete coil systems with a reasonable number of elements the standard minimization of the R M S flux error can lead to undesirable results. Examples are given to show that an additional stability requirement must be imposed on the regularization parameter to obtain correct solutions. For some equilibria, the authors find that the inverse problem admits dual solutions corresponding to two possible magnetic field configurations that fit the constraining relations on the plasma surface equally well. An additional minimization of the absolute value of the limiter flux is required to discriminate between these solutions

  6. Stochastic pumping of non-equilibrium steady-states: how molecules adapt to a fluctuating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astumian, R D

    2018-01-11

    In the absence of input energy, a chemical reaction in a closed system ineluctably relaxes toward an equilibrium state governed by a Boltzmann distribution. The addition of a catalyst to the system provides a way for more rapid equilibration toward this distribution, but the catalyst can never, in and of itself, drive the system away from equilibrium. In the presence of external fluctuations, however, a macromolecular catalyst (e.g., an enzyme) can absorb energy and drive the formation of a steady state between reactant and product that is not determined solely by their relative energies. Due to the ubiquity of non-equilibrium steady states in living systems, the development of a theory for the effects of external fluctuations on chemical systems has been a longstanding focus of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The theory of stochastic pumping has provided insight into how a non-equilibrium steady-state can be formed and maintained in the presence of dissipation and kinetic asymmetry. This effort has been greatly enhanced by a confluence of experimental and theoretical work on synthetic molecular machines designed explicitly to harness external energy to drive non-equilibrium transport and self-assembly.

  7. Stability analysis of uniform equilibrium foam states for EOR processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.; Marchesin, D.; Rossen, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of foam for mobility control is a promising mean to improve sweep efficiency in EOR. Experimental studies discovered that foam exhibits three different states (weak foam, intermediate foam, and strong foam). The intermediate-foam state is found to be unstable in the lab whereas the weak- and

  8. Temporally stable coherent states for a free magnetic Schroedinger operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirulogasanthar, K.; Saad, Nasser; Keviczky, Attila B. von

    2004-01-01

    Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the free magnetic Schroedinger operator, describing a spinless particle confined to an infinite layer of fixed width, are discussed in detail. The eigenfunctions are realized as an orthonormal basis of a suitable Hilbert space. Four different classes of temporally stable coherent states associated with the operator are presented. The first two classes are derived as coherent states with one degree of freedom and the last two classes are derived with two degrees of freedom. The dynamical algebra of each class is found. Statistical quantities associated to each class of coherent states are calculated explicitly

  9. Quantum thermodynamics of nanoscale steady states far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Nobuhiko

    2018-04-01

    We develop an exact quantum thermodynamic description for a noninteracting nanoscale steady state that couples strongly with multiple reservoirs. We demonstrate that there exists a steady-state extension of the thermodynamic function that correctly accounts for the multiterminal Landauer-Büttiker formula of quantum transport of charge, energy, or heat via the nonequilibrium thermodynamic relations. Its explicit form is obtained for a single bosonic or fermionic level in the wide-band limit, and corresponding thermodynamic forces (affinities) are identified. Nonlinear generalization of the Onsager reciprocity relations are derived. We suggest that the steady-state thermodynamic function is also capable of characterizing the heat current fluctuations of the critical transport where the thermal fluctuations dominate. Also, the suggested nonequilibrium steady-state thermodynamic relations seemingly persist for a spin-degenerate single level with local interaction.

  10. Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Doyon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.

  11. Equilibrium state of a cylindrical particle with flat ends in nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, S Masoomeh; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    A continuum theory is employed to numerically study the equilibrium orientation and defect structures of a circular cylindrical particle with flat ends under a homeotropic anchoring condition in a uniform nematic medium. Different aspect ratios of this colloidal geometry from thin discotic to long rodlike shapes and several colloidal length scales ranging from mesoscale to nanoscale are investigated. We show that the equilibrium state of this colloidal geometry is sensitive to the two geometrical parameters: aspect ratio and length scale of the particle. For a large enough mesoscopic particle, there is a specific asymptotic equilibrium angle associated to each aspect ratio. Upon reducing the particle size to nanoscale, the equilibrium angle follows a descending or ascending trend in such a way that the equilibrium angle of a particle with the aspect ratio bigger than 1:1 (a discotic particle) goes to a parallel alignment with respect to the far-field nematic, whereas the equilibrium angle for a particle with the aspect ratio 1:1 and smaller (a rodlike particle) tends toward a perpendicular alignment to the uniform nematic direction. The discrepancy between the equilibrium angles of the mesoscopic and nanoscopic particles originates from the significant differences between their defect structures. The possible defect structures related to mesoscopic and nanoscopic colloidal particles of this geometry are also introduced.

  12. Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash A. Deshpande

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Abstract. We report the results of our numerical simulation of classical-dissipative dynamics of a charged particle subjected to a non-Markovian stochastic forcing. We find that the system develops a steady-state orbital magnetic moment in the presence of a static magnetic field. Very significantly, the sign of ...

  13. Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We report the results of our numerical simulation of classical-dissipative dynamics of a charged particle subjected to a non-Markovian stochastic forcing. We find that the system develops a steady-state orbital magnetic moment in the presence of a static magnetic field. Very significantly, the sign of the orbital ...

  14. The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.

    2012-09-01

    Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.

  15. Typical equilibrium state of an embedded quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier, Grégoire; Ascroft, Saeed; Benaych-Georges, Florent

    2017-12-01

    We consider an arbitrary quantum system coupled nonperturbatively to a large arbitrary and fully quantum environment. In the work by Ithier and Benaych-Georges [Phys. Rev. A 96, 012108 (2017)2469-992610.1103/PhysRevA.96.012108] the typicality of the dynamics of such an embedded quantum system was established for several classes of random interactions. In other words, the time evolution of its quantum state does not depend on the microscopic details of the interaction. Focusing on the long-time regime, we use this property to calculate analytically a partition function characterizing the stationary state and involving the overlaps between eigenvectors of a bare and a dressed Hamiltonian. This partition function provides a thermodynamical ensemble which includes the microcanonical and canonical ensembles as particular cases. We check our predictions with numerical simulations.

  16. Resource theory of quantum states out of thermal equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G S L; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renes, Joseph M; Spekkens, Robert W

    2013-12-20

    The ideas of thermodynamics have proved fruitful in the setting of quantum information theory, in particular the notion that when the allowed transformations of a system are restricted, certain states of the system become useful resources with which one can prepare previously inaccessible states. The theory of entanglement is perhaps the best-known and most well-understood resource theory in this sense. Here, we return to the basic questions of thermodynamics using the formalism of resource theories developed in quantum information theory and show that the free energy of thermodynamics emerges naturally from the resource theory of energy-preserving transformations. Specifically, the free energy quantifies the amount of useful work which can be extracted from asymptotically many copies of a quantum system when using only reversible energy-preserving transformations and a thermal bath at fixed temperature. The free energy also quantifies the rate at which resource states can be reversibly interconverted asymptotically, provided that a sublinear amount of coherent superposition over energy levels is available, a situation analogous to the sublinear amount of classical communication required for entanglement dilution.

  17. Optimal Data-Driven Estimation of Generalized Markov State Models for Non-Equilibrium Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Koltai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There are multiple ways in which a stochastic system can be out of statistical equilibrium. It might be subject to time-varying forcing; or be in a transient phase on its way towards equilibrium; it might even be in equilibrium without us noticing it, due to insufficient observations; and it even might be a system failing to admit an equilibrium distribution at all. We review some of the approaches that model the effective statistical behavior of equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamical systems, and show that both cases can be considered under the unified framework of optimal low-rank approximation of so-called transfer operators. Particular attention is given to the connection between these methods, Markov state models, and the concept of metastability, further to the estimation of such reduced order models from finite simulation data. All these topics bear an important role in, e.g., molecular dynamics, where Markov state models are often and successfully utilized, and which is the main motivating application in this paper. We illustrate our considerations by numerical examples.

  18. Stable corrugated state of the two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Moreno, R.M.; Moreno, M.; Ortiz, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A corrugated and stable ground state is found for the two-dimensional electron gas in both the normal paramagnetic and the fully polarized phases. The self-consistent Hartree-Fock method is used with a modulated set of trial wave functions within the deformable jellium model. The results for high metallic densities reproduce the usual noncorrugated ferromagnetic electron-gas behavior. A transition to a paramagnetic corrugated state for values of r s ∼6.5 is predicted. At lower densities r s ∼30, a second transition to a corrugated ferromagnetic phase is suggested

  19. Equilibrium excited state and emission spectra of molecular aggregates from the hierarchical equations of motion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liping; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

    2013-01-28

    The hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) method was applied to calculate the emission spectra of molecular aggregates using the Frenkel exciton model. HEOM equations for the one-exciton excited state were first propagated until equilibration. The reduced density operator and auxiliary density operators (ADOs) were used to characterize the coupled system-bath equilibrium. The dipole-dipole correlation functions were then calculated to obtain the emission spectra of model dimers, and the B850 band of light-harvesting complex II (LH2) in purple bacteria. The effect of static disorder on equilibrium excited state and the emission spectra of LH2 was also explicitly considered. Several approximation schemes, including the high temperature approximation (HTA) of the HEOM, a modified version of the HTA, the stochastic Liouville equation approach, the perturbative time-local and time-nonlocal generalized quantum master equations, were assessed in the calculation of the equilibrium excited state and emission spectra.

  20. STABLE STATIONARY STATES OF NON-LOCAL INTERACTION EQUATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    FELLNER, KLEMENS

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the large-time behaviour of a solution to a non-local interaction equation, where a density of particles/individuals evolves subject to an interaction potential and an external potential. It is known that for regular interaction potentials, stable stationary states of these equations are generically finite sums of Dirac masses. For a finite sum of Dirac masses, we give (i) a condition to be a stationary state, (ii) two necessary conditions of linear stability w.r.t. shifts and reallocations of individual Dirac masses, and (iii) show that these linear stability conditions imply local non-linear stability. Finally, we show that for regular repulsive interaction potential Wε converging to a singular repulsive interaction potential W, the Dirac-type stationary states ρ̄ ε approximate weakly a unique stationary state ρ̄ ∈ L∞. We illustrate our results with numerical examples. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  1. Phase diagram and structural evolution of tin/indium (Sn/In) nanosolder particles: from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yang; Ando, Teiichi; Yin, Qiyue; Zhou, Guangwen; Gu, Zhiyong

    2017-08-31

    A binary system of tin/indium (Sn/In) in the form of nanoparticles was investigated for phase transitions and structural evolution at different temperatures and compositions. The Sn/In nanosolder particles in the composition range of 24-72 wt% In were synthesized by a surfactant-assisted chemical reduction method under ambient conditions. The morphology and microstructure of the as-synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). HRTEM and SAED identified InSn 4 and In, with some Sn being detected by XRD, but no In 3 Sn was observed. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermographs of the as-synthesized nanoparticles exhibited an endothermic peak at around 116 °C, which is indicative of the metastable eutectic melting of InSn 4 and In. When the nanosolders were subjected to heat treatment at 50-225 °C, the equilibrium phase In 3 Sn appeared while Sn disappeared. The equilibrium state was effectively attained at 225 °C. A Tammann plot of the DSC data of the as-synthesized nanoparticles indicated that the metastable eutectic composition is about 62% In, while that of the DSC data of the 225 °C heat-treated nanoparticles yielded a eutectic composition of 54% In, which confirmed the attainment of the equilibrium state at 225 °C. The phase boundaries estimated from the DSC data of heat-treated Sn/In nanosolder particles matched well with those in the established Sn-In equilibrium phase diagram. The phase transition behavior of Sn/In nanosolders leads to a new understanding of binary alloy particles at the nanoscale, and provides important information for their low temperature soldering processing and applications.

  2. Diffusion in coronas around clinopyroxene: modelling with local equilibrium and steady state, and a non-steady-state modification to account for zoned actinolite-hornblende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, J. R.; Birdi, J. J.; Emmett, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    evolution of actinolite to more stable aluminous compositions. This is modelled by a non-steady-state modification of the theory, retaining local equilibrium in grain boundaries while relatively steep zoning profiles develop in grain interiors through slow intracrystalline diffusion. Replacement of actinolite by hornblende does not require a change in P- T conditions if actinolite is a kinetically determined, non-equilibrium product. The common preservation of a sharp contact between hornblende and actionolite layers may be explained by ineffectiveness of intracrystalline diffusion: according to the theory, given sufficient grain-boundary Al flux, a metastable actinolite + quartz layer in contact with hornblende may be diffusionally stable and may continue to grow in a steady state.

  3. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I [Fayetteville, AR; Bellaiche, Laurent M [Fayetteville, AR; Prosandeev, Sergey A [Fayetteville, AR; Ponomareva, Inna V [Fayetteville, AR; Kornev, Igor A [Fayetteville, AR

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  4. Stability analysis of the endemic equilibrium state of an infection age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we present an infection-age-structured mathematical model of AIDS disease dynamics and examine the endemic equilibrium state for stability. An explicit formula for the basic reproduction number R0 was obtained in terms of the demographic and epidemiological parameters of the model. The endemic ...

  5. Equilibrium points of the tilted perfect fluid Bianchi VIh state space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S.

    2005-05-01

    We present the full set of evolution equations for the spatially homogeneous cosmologies of type VIh filled with a tilted perfect fluid and we provide the corresponding equilibrium points of the resulting dynamical state space. It is found that only when the group parameter satisfies h > -1 a self-similar solution exists. In particular we show that for h > -{1/9} there exists a self-similar equilibrium point provided that γ ∈ ({2(3+sqrt{-h})/5+3sqrt{-h}},{3/2}) whereas for h VIh.

  6. Frontier of plasma physics. 'Research network on non-equilibrium and extreme state plasmas'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae-I.; Fujisawa, Akihide; Kodama, Ryosuke; Sato, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Kazuo A.; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2011-01-01

    Plasma physics and fusion science have been applied to a wide variety of plasmas such as nuclear fusion plasmas, high-energy-density plasmas, processing plasmas and nanobio- plasmas. They are pioneering science and technology frontiers such as new energy sources and new functional materials. A large project 'research network on non-equilibrium and extreme state plasmas' is being proposed to reassess individual plasma researches from a common view of the non-equilibrium extreme plasma and to promote collaboration among plasma researchers all over the country. In the present review, recent collaborative works related to this project are being introduced. (T.I.)

  7. Adiabatic non-equilibrium steady states in the partition free approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Purice, Radu

    2012-01-01

    Consider a small sample coupled to a finite number of leads and assume that the total (continuous) system is at thermal equilibrium in the remote past. We construct a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) by adiabatically turning on an electrical bias between the leads. The main mathematical...... challenge is to show that certain adiabatic wave operators exist and to identify their strong limit when the adiabatic parameter tends to zero. Our NESS is different from, though closely related with the NESS provided by the Jakic–Pillet–Ruelle approach. Thus we partly settle a question asked by Caroli et...

  8. Chemical reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure of reacting gas mixtures in the state-to-state approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustova, Elena V., E-mail: e.kustova@spbu.ru [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Saint Petersburg State University, 198504 Universitetskiy pr. 28, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kremer, Gilberto M., E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-980 Curitiba (Brazil)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • State-to-state approach for coupled vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions. • Self-consistent model for rates of non-equilibrium reactions and energy transitions. • In viscous flows mass action law is violated. • Cross coupling between reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure in viscous flow. • Results allow implementing the state-to-state approach for viscous flow simulations. - Abstract: Viscous gas flows with vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in the state-to-state approach are analyzed. A modified Chapman–Enskog method is used for the determination of chemical reaction and vibrational transition rates and non-equilibrium pressure. Constitutive equations depend on the thermodynamic forces: velocity divergence and chemical reaction/transition affinity. As an application, N{sub 2} flow with vibrational relaxation across a shock wave is investigated. Two distinct processes occur behind the shock: for small values of the distance the affinity is large and vibrational relaxation is in its initial stage; for large distances the affinity is small and the chemical reaction is in its final stage. The affinity contributes more to the transition rate than the velocity divergence and the effect of these two contributions are more important for small distances from the shock front. For the non-equilibrium pressure, the term associated with the bulk viscosity increases by a small amount the hydrostatic pressure.

  9. Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO: an improved state to state approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; Capitelli, M.

    2017-12-01

    Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO for conditions typically met in microwave discharges have been developed based on the coupling of excited state kinetics and the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). Particular attention is given to the insertion in the vibrational kinetics of a complete set of electron molecule resonant processes linking the whole vibrational ladder of the CO molecule, as well as to the role of Boudouard reaction, i.e. the process of forming CO2 by two vibrationally excited CO molecules, in shaping the vibrational distribution of CO and promoting reaction channels assisted by vibrational excitation (pure vibrational mechanisms, PVM). PVM mechanisms can become competitive with electron impact dissociation processes (DEM) in the activation of CO. A case study reproducing the conditions of a microwave discharge has been considered following the coupled kinetics also in the post discharge conditions. Results include the evolution of EEDF in discharge and post discharge conditions highlighting the role of superelastic vibrational and electronic collisions in shaping the EEDF. Moreover, PVM rate coefficients and DEM ones are studied as a function of gas temperature, showing a non-Arrhenius behavior, i.e. the rate coefficients increase with decreasing gas temperature as a result of a vibrational–vibrational (V–V) pumping up mechanism able to form plateaux in the vibrational distribution function. The accuracy of the results is discussed in particular in connection to the present knowledge of the activation energy of the Boudouard process.

  10. Bifurcation and Stability Analysis of the Equilibrium States in Thermodynamic Systems in a Small Vicinity of the Equilibrium Values of Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsuk, Alexandr A.; Paladi, Florentin

    2018-04-01

    The dynamic behavior of thermodynamic system, described by one order parameter and one control parameter, in a small neighborhood of ordinary and bifurcation equilibrium values of the system parameters is studied. Using the general methods of investigating the branching (bifurcations) of solutions for nonlinear equations, we performed an exhaustive analysis of the order parameter dependences on the control parameter in a small vicinity of the equilibrium values of parameters, including the stability analysis of the equilibrium states, and the asymptotic behavior of the order parameter dependences on the control parameter (bifurcation diagrams). The peculiarities of the transition to an unstable state of the system are discussed, and the estimates of the transition time to the unstable state in the neighborhood of ordinary and bifurcation equilibrium values of parameters are given. The influence of an external field on the dynamic behavior of thermodynamic system is analyzed, and the peculiarities of the system dynamic behavior are discussed near the ordinary and bifurcation equilibrium values of parameters in the presence of external field. The dynamic process of magnetization of a ferromagnet is discussed by using the general methods of bifurcation and stability analysis presented in the paper.

  11. Vegetation engineers marsh morphology through multiple competing stable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marani, Marco; Da Lio, Cristina; D’Alpaos, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Marshes display impressive biogeomorphic features, such as zonation, a mosaic of extensive vegetation patches of rather uniform composition, exhibiting sharp transitions in the presence of extremely small topographic gradients. Although generally associated with the accretion processes necessary for marshes to keep up with relative sea level rise, competing environmental constraints, and ecologic controls, zonation is still poorly understood in terms of the underlying biogeomorphic mechanisms. Here we find, through observations and modeling interpretation, that zonation is the result of coupled geomorphological–biological dynamics and that it stems from the ability of vegetation to actively engineer the landscape by tuning soil elevation within preferential ranges of optimal adaptation. We find multiple peaks in the frequency distribution of observed topographic elevation and identify them as the signature of biologic controls on geomorphodynamics through competing stable states modulated by the interplay of inorganic and organic deposition. Interestingly, the stable biogeomorphic equilibria correspond to suboptimal rates of biomass production, a result coherent with recent observations. The emerging biogeomorphic structures may display varying degrees of robustness to changes in the rate of sea level rise and sediment availability, with implications for the overall resilience of marsh ecosystems to climatic changes. PMID:23401529

  12. Some Considerations on the Fundamentals of Chemical Kinetics: Steady State, Quasi-Equilibrium, and Transition State Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Benito, Joaquin F.

    2017-01-01

    The elementary reaction sequence A ? I ? Products is the simplest mechanism for which the steady-state and quasi-equilibrium kinetic approximations can be applied. The exact integrated solutions for this chemical system allow inferring the conditions that must fulfill the rate constants for the different approximations to hold. A graphical…

  13. Using equilibrium passive dosing to maintain stable exposure concentrations of triclosan in a 6-week toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobek, A.; Ribbenstedt, A.; Mustajärvi, L.

    2015-01-01

    toxicity tests. Yet, the European Commission’s criteria for chemicals’ risk assessments aim at protecting higher levels in the environment. To achieve protection of populations and ecosystems, reliable long-term ecotoxicologial tests are needed. In this study, we used equilibrium passive dosing to maintain...

  14. Local Nash equilibrium in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M A; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-08-29

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures.

  15. Incorporation of a Chemical Equilibrium Equation of State into LOCI-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carey F.

    2005-01-01

    Renewed interest in development of advanced high-speed transport, reentry vehicles and propulsion systems has led to a resurgence of research into high speed aerodynamics. As this flow regime is typically dominated by hot reacting gaseous flow, efficient models for the characteristic chemical activity are necessary for accurate and cost effective analysis and design of aerodynamic vehicles that transit this regime. The LOCI-Chem code recently developed by Ed Luke at Mississippi State University for NASA/MSFC and used by NASA/MSFC and SSC represents an important step in providing an accurate, efficient computational tool for the simulation of reacting flows through the use of finite-rate kinetics [3]. Finite rate chemistry however, requires the solution of an additional N-1 species mass conservation equations with source terms involving reaction kinetics that are not fully understood. In the equilibrium limit, where the reaction rates approach infinity, these equations become very stiff. Through the use of the assumption of local chemical equilibrium the set of governing equations is reduced back to the usual gas dynamic equations, and thus requires less computation, while still allowing for the inclusion of reacting flow phenomenology. The incorporation of a chemical equilibrium equation of state module into the LOCI-Chem code was the primary objective of the current research. The major goals of the project were: (1) the development of a chemical equilibrium composition solver, and (2) the incorporation of chemical equilibrium solver into LOCI-Chem. Due to time and resource constraints, code optimization was not considered unless it was important to the proper functioning of the code.

  16. Models of fluidized granular materials: examples of non-equilibrium stationary states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, Andrea [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique Batiment 210, Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Cecconi, Fabio [INFM Center for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale A Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Vulpiani, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita ' La Sapienza' , INFM Center for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), INFN Sezione di Roma-1 ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale A Moro 2, I-00185, Rome (Italy)

    2005-06-22

    We review some models of granular materials fluidized by means of external forces, such as random homogeneous forcing with damping, vibrating plates, flow in an inclined channel and flow in a double well potential. All these systems show the presence of density correlations and non-Gaussian velocity distributions. These models are useful in understanding the role of a kinetically defined 'temperature' (in this case the so-called granular temperature) in a non-equilibrium stationary state. In the homogeneously randomly driven gas the granular temperature is different from that of the driving bath. Moreover, two different granular materials mixed together may stay in a stationary state with different temperatures. At the same time, the granular temperature determines (as in equilibrium systems) the escape time in a double well potential.

  17. Acoustics of permeable heterogeneous materials with local non-equilibrium pressure states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Rodolfo; Boutin, Claude

    2018-03-01

    The key idea developed in this work is the enforcement of local non-equilibrium pressure states in permeable materials by means of introducing geometrical and/or material heterogeneities. The two-scale asymptotic method of homogenisation is used to derive the macroscopic equations that describe sound propagation in the investigated class of materials. This allowed us to conclude that, at the leading order, the macroscopic fluid flow is mostly determined by that occurring in the most permeable fluid network. In contrast, the effective compressibility of the saturating fluid is modified by the non-equilibrium pressure states occurring in the different much less permeable local heterogeneities of the materials. The theory is exemplified by introducing an analytical model for the acoustical properties of a perforated microporous matrix with cylindrical microporous inclusions co-axially inserted in the perforations. The experimental validation of the theory is also provided.

  18. Thermal Equilibrium of a Macroscopic Quantum System in a Pure State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Huse, David A; Lebowitz, Joel L; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-09-04

    We consider the notion of thermal equilibrium for an individual closed macroscopic quantum system in a pure state, i.e., described by a wave function. The macroscopic properties in thermal equilibrium of such a system, determined by its wave function, must be the same as those obtained from thermodynamics, e.g., spatial uniformity of temperature and chemical potential. When this is true we say that the system is in macroscopic thermal equilibrium (MATE). Such a system may, however, not be in microscopic thermal equilibrium (MITE). The latter requires that the reduced density matrices of small subsystems be close to those obtained from the microcanonical, equivalently the canonical, ensemble for the whole system. The distinction between MITE and MATE is particularly relevant for systems with many-body localization for which the energy eigenfuctions fail to be in MITE while necessarily most of them, but not all, are in MATE. We note, however, that for generic macroscopic systems, including those with MBL, most wave functions in an energy shell are in both MATE and MITE. For a classical macroscopic system, MATE holds for most phase points on the energy surface, but MITE fails to hold for any phase point.

  19. Estimation of radon progeny equilibrium factors and their uncertainty bounds using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eappen, K.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Patnaik, R.L.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    For the assessment of inhalation doses due to radon and its progeny to uranium mine workers, it is necessary to have information on the time integrated gas concentrations and equilibrium factors. Passive single cup dosimeters using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are best suited for this purpose. These generally contain two SSNTDs, one placed inside the cup to measure only the radon gas concentration and other outside the cup for recording tracks due to both radon gas and the progeny species. However, since one obtains only two numbers by this method whereas information on four quantities is required for an unambiguous estimation of dose, there is a need for developing an optimal methodology for extracting information on the equilibrium factors. Several techniques proposed earlier have essentially been based on deterministic approaches, which do not fully take into account all the possible uncertainties in the environmental parameters. Keeping this in view, a simple 'mean of bounds' methodology is proposed to extract equilibrium factors based on their absolute bounds and the associated uncertainties as obtained from general arguments of radon progeny disequilibrium. This may be considered as reasonable estimates of the equilibrium factors in the absence of a knowledge of fluctuation in the environmental variables. The results are compared with those from direct measurements both in the laboratory and in real field situations. In view of the good agreement found between these, it is proposed that the simple mean of bounds estimate may be useful for practical applications in inhalation dosimetry of mine workers

  20. Chemical equilibrium model for high- Tc and heavy fermion superconductors: the density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, A.; Hissa, J.; Hayrynen, T.; Braysy, V.; Sakkinen, T.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical equilibrium model is based on the idea of correlated electron pairs, which in singlet state can exist as quasimolecules in the superfluid and normal states of a superconductor. These preformed pairs are bosons which can undergo a Bose-Einstein condensation in analogy with the superfluidity of 4 He+ 3 He-mixture. The bosons (B ++ ) and the fermions (h + ) are in chemical equilibrium with respect to the reaction B ++ ↔ 2h + , at any temperature. The mean densities of bosons and fermions (quasiholes) n B (T) and n h (T) are determined from the thermodynamics of the equilibrium reaction in terms of a single function f(T). By thermodynamics the function f(T) is connected to equilibrium constant φ(T) by 1-f(T) = [1 + φ(T)] -1/2 . Using a simple power law, known to be valid near T = 0, for the chemical constant φ(T) α/t 2γ , t = T/T*, the mean density of quasiholes is given in closed form. This enables one to calculate the corresponding density of states (DOS) D(E) N s /N(0), by solving an integral equation. The NIS- tunneling conductivity near T = 0, given by D(E) compares well with the most recent experiments: D(E) ∼ E γ , for small E and a finite maximum of right size, corresponding to 'finite quasiparticle lifetime'. The corresponding SIS-tunneling conductivity is obtained from a simple convolution and is also in agreement with recent break junction experiments of Hancotte et al. The position of the maximum can be used to obtain the scaling temperature T*, which comes close to the one measured by Hall coefficient in the normal state. A simple explanation for the spingap effect in NMR is given. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  1. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  2. The Donnan equilibrium: I. On the thermodynamic foundation of the Donnan equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipse, A; Vrij, A

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium between charged colloids and an electrolyte reservoir is named after Frederic Donnan who first published on it one century ago (Donnan 1911 Z. Electrochem. 17 572). One of the intriguing features of the Donnan equilibrium is the ensuing osmotic equation of state which is a nonlinear one, even when both colloids and ions obey Van 't Hoff's ideal osmotic pressure law. The Donnan equation of state, nevertheless, is internally consistent; we demonstrate it to be a rigorous consequence of the phenomenological thermodynamics of a neutral bulk suspension equilibrating with an infinite salt reservoir. Our proof is based on an exact thermodynamic relation between osmotic pressure and salt adsorption which, when applied to ideal ions, does indeed entail the Donnan equation of state. Our derivation also shows that, contrary to what is often assumed, the Donnan equilibrium does not require ideality of the colloids: the Donnan model merely evaluates the osmotic pressure of homogeneously distributed ions, in excess of the pressure exerted by an arbitrary reference fluid of uncharged colloids. We also conclude that results from the phenomenological Donnan model coincide with predictions from statistical thermodynamics in the limit of weakly charged, point-like colloids.

  3. High-Temperature Equilibrium Isotope Fractionation of Non-Traditional Stable Isotopes: Experiments, Theory, and Applications (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E. D.; Lazar, G. C.; Macris, C. A.; Manning, C. E.; Schauble, E. A.; Shahar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Experiments are crucial for validating our understanding of stable isotope fractionation at high temperatures. The three-isotope method has been applied with success in the Si, Mg, Fe, and Ni isotope systems to date. The results of these experiments can be compared with expectations from theory and measurements of natural samples. Qualitative insights into the partitioning of heavy and light isotopes between mineral phases are gained by treating the force constant for relevant bonds, Kf j, as electrostatic in origin. The ionic model, based on the mean bond strength as defined by Pauling, has obvious limitations but is useful for rationalizing structures and site occupancies in silicates and oxide minerals and is equally useful in formulating expectations for isotope fractionation between phases. In some cases, as in Fe isotopes in spinels, the expectations are contrary to predictions based on modeling but similar to observations in natural samples. Experimental verification is required. The force constant for a bond between cation i (Mg, Fe, etc.) and anion j (e.g., O) can be written in terms of mean bond strengths si and sj (as defined by Pauling) as Kf,ij = sisj e2 (1-n)/(4 π ɛο r3ij ) where ɛo is the electric constant (vacuum permittivity for simplicity), e is the charge of an electron, n is the exponent in the Born-Mayer formulation for ion repulsion (Born and Mayer 1932), and rij is the interatomic spacing. This equation shows explicitly that larger values for the force constant Kf correspond to smaller coordination numbers (via si and sj). We therefore expect an inverse relationship between isotope ratios (heavy/light) and coordination of its oxygen bond partners in silicate and oxides minerals and this is verified in mantle minerals. Our work with Fe isotope partitioning in mantle spinels suggests that coordination may be equally important as oxidation state, recognizing that these distinctions are not orthogonal. Recent work on the Mg isotopic

  4. Fluctuation relations for equilibrium states with broken discrete or continuous symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, D; Gaspard, P

    2015-01-01

    Isometric fluctuation relations are deduced for the fluctuations of the order parameter in equilibrium systems of condensed-matter physics with broken discrete or continuous symmetries. These relations are similar to their analogues obtained for non-equilibrium systems where the broken symmetry is time reversal. At equilibrium, these relations show that the ratio of the probabilities of opposite fluctuations goes exponentially with the symmetry-breaking external field and the magnitude of the fluctuations. These relations are applied to the Curie–Weiss, Heisenberg, and XY models of magnetism where the continuous rotational symmetry is broken, as well as to the q-state Potts model and the p-state clock model where discrete symmetries are broken. Broken symmetries are also considered in the anisotropic Curie–Weiss model. For infinite systems, the results are calculated using large-deviation theory. The relations are also applied to mean-field models of nematic liquid crystals where the order parameter is tensorial. Moreover, their extension to quantum systems is also deduced. (paper)

  5. Steady State Transportation Cooling in Porous Media Under Local, Non-Thermal Equilibrium Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Alvaro Che

    2002-01-01

    An analytical solution to the steady-state fluid temperature for 1-D (one dimensional) transpiration cooling has been derived. Transpiration cooling has potential use in the aerospace industry for protection against high heating environments for re-entry vehicles. Literature for analytical treatments of transpiration cooling has been largely confined to the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the porous matrix and fluid. In the present analysis, the fundamental fluid and matrix equations are coupled through a volumetric heat transfer coefficient and investigated in non-thermal equilibrium. The effects of varying the thermal conductivity of the solid matrix and the heat transfer coefficient are investigated. The results are also compared to existing experimental data.

  6. Ionization equilibrium and equation of state of partially ionized hydrogen plasmas: Pseudopotential approach in chemical picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, Yu.V.; Baimbetov, F.B.; Davletov, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the Bogolyubov hierarchy for the equilibrium distribution functions, a novel approach to the chemical model of partially ionized plasmas is proposed. Unlike the ordinary chemical picture it allows one to determine, in a self-consistent manner, both the ionization equilibrium and correlation functions as well. It is shown that the charged and neutral components of the plasma are closely interrelated and, as a consequence, the short-range order formation turns possible. The equation of state of partially ionized hydrogen plasmas is studied and detailed comparison with an exact quantum-mechanical expansion is made. The approach developed is quite analogous to the Debye-Hueckel theory of weakly coupled fully ionized plasmas and includes it as a limiting case

  7. Assessing Embayed Equilibrium State, Beach Rotation and Environmental Forcing Influences; Tenby Southwest Wales, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphological change of a headland bay beach—Tenby, West Wales, UK—was analysed over a 73-year period (1941–2014. Geo-referenced aerial photographs were used to extract shoreline positions which were subsequently compared with wave models based on storm event data. From the 1941 baseline, results showed shoreline change rates reduced over time with regression models enabling a prediction of shoreline equilibrium circa 2061. Further temporal analyses showed southern and central sector erosion and northern accretion, while models identified long-term plan-form rotation, i.e., a negative phase relationship between beach extremities and a change from negative to positive correlation within the more stable central sector. Models were then used in conjunction with an empirical 2nd order polynomial equation to predict the 2061 longshore equilibrium shoreline position under current environmental conditions. Results agreed with previous regional research which showed that dominant south and southwesterly wave regimes influence south to north longshore drift with counter drift generated by less dominant easterly regimes. The equilibrium shoreline was also used to underpin flood and inundation assessments, identifying areas at risk and strategies to increase resilience. UK shoreline management plans evaluate coastal vulnerability based upon temporal epochs of 20, 50 and 100 years. Therefore, this research evaluating datasets spanning 73 years has demonstrated the effectiveness of linear regression in integrating temporal and spatial consequences of sea level rise and storms. The developed models can be used to predict future shoreline positions aligned with shoreline management plan epochs and inform embayed beach shoreline assessments at local, regional and international scales, by identifying locations of vulnerability and enabling the development of management strategies to improve resilience under scenarios of sea level rise and climate

  8. Non-linear neutron star oscillations viewed as deviations from an equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperhake, U

    2002-01-01

    A numerical technique is presented which facilitates the evolution of non-linear neutron star oscillations with a high accuracy essentially independent of the oscillation amplitude. We apply this technique to radial neutron star oscillations in a Lagrangian formulation and demonstrate the superior performance of the new scheme compared with 'conventional' techniques. The key feature of our approach is to describe the evolution in terms of deviations from an equilibrium configuration. In contrast to standard perturbation analysis we keep all higher order terms in the evolution equations and thus obtain a fully non-linear description. The advantage of our scheme lies in the elimination of background terms from the equations and the associated numerical errors. The improvements thus achieved will be particularly significant in the study of mildly non-linear effects where the amplitude of the dynamic signal is small compared with the equilibrium values but large enough to warrant non-linear effects. We apply the new technique to the study of non-linear coupling of Eigenmodes and non-linear effects in the oscillations of marginally stable neutron stars. We find non-linear effects in low amplitude oscillations to be particularly pronounced in the range of modes with vanishing frequency which typically mark the onset of instability. (author)

  9. The average equilibrium charge-states of heavy ions with Z > 60 stripped in He and H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Yu.T.; Lobanov, Yu.V.; Popeko, A.G.; Abdullin, F.Sh.; Kharitonov, Yu.P.; Ledovskoy, A.A.; Tsyganov, Yu.S.

    1991-01-01

    The equilibrium charges of heavy ions (61 < Z < 101) with energies from 5 to 100 MeV stripped in He and H2 have been measured. New empirical formulae for the average charge state are presented. (orig.)

  10. Impacts of energy consumption and emissions on the trip cost without late arrival at the equilibrium state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Wang, Tao; Chen, Liang; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we apply a car-following model, fuel consumption model, emission model and electricity consumption model to explore the influences of energy consumption and emissions on each commuter's trip costs without late arrival at the equilibrium state. The numerical results show that the energy consumption and emissions have significant impacts on each commuter's trip cost without late arrival at the equilibrium state. The fuel cost and emission cost prominently enhance each commuter's trip cost and the trip cost increases with the number of vehicles, which shows that considering the fuel cost and emission cost in the trip cost will destroy the equilibrium state. However, the electricity cost slightly enhances each commuter's trip cost, but the trip cost is still approximately a constant, which indicates that considering the electricity cost in the trip cost does not destroy the equilibrium state.

  11. Equilibrium state analysis of a nonneutral plasma under a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Molinari, V.G.; Sumini, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    By recourse to the Boltzmann H-theorem, the existence of a thermodynamic equilibrium state has been proved for a nonneutral plasma under an external magnetic field. The equation describing the density profile of ions or electrons has been found. The density equation has been numerically solved for a generic magnetic field and plasma frequency, giving a parametric limit for the confinement region. An appropriate change of variable allows to approximate the density equation whose analytical solution has been found. The approximated density closely fits the numerical solution of the original equation. (Author)

  12. A reduction method for phase equilibrium calculations with cubic equations of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Nichita

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we propose a new reduction method for phase equilibrium calculations using a general form of cubic equations of state (CEOS. The energy term in the CEOS is a quadratic form, which is diagonalized by applying a linear transformation. The number of the reduction parameters is related to the rank of the matrix C with elements (1-Cij, where Cij denotes the binary interaction parameters (BIPs. The dimensionality of the problem depends only on the number of reduction parameters, and is independent of the number of components in the mixture.

  13. Core-state models for fuel management of equilibrium and transition cycles in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J.M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Corella, M.R.

    1977-08-01

    Fuel management requires that mass, energy, and reactivity balance be satisfied in each reload cycle. Procedures for selection of alternatives, core-state models, and fuel cost calculations have been developed for both equilibrium and transition cycles. Effective cycle lengths and fuel cycle variables--namely, reload batch size, schedule of incore residence for the fuel, feed enrichments, energy sharing cycle by cycle, and discharge burnup and isotopics--are the variables being considered for fuel management planning with a given energy generation plan, fuel design, recycling strategy, and financial assumptions.

  14. Thermomechanical responses of nonlinear torsional vibration with NiTi shape memory alloy - Alternative stable states and their jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minglu; Sun, Qingping

    2017-05-01

    The dynamic response of nonlinear torsional vibration system with phase transformable NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire is investigated by experiment in this paper. The thermomechanical responses of the NiTi wire as a softening nonlinear damping spring in the torsional vibration system are measured by synchronized acquisition of rotational angle and temperature under external excitation. Frequency Response Curves (FRCs) at fixed excitation amplitude and Amplitude Response Curves (ARCs) at fixed frequency are obtained in the frequency and amplitude domains respectively. It is found that, as the deformation of NiTi wire goes into the softening nonlinear phase transition region, the smooth and stable dynamic responses along one branch of FRC or ARC will gradually enter into metastable region and eventually become unstable and drastically switch to a new contrasting alternative stable state along the other branch. The jump phenomenon between the alternative stable states on the lower and upper branches of the FRC or ARC and the hysteresis between the jump-up and jump-down are identified by experiments. In addition, the effects of external disturbance (both magnitude and direction) on triggering the jumps between the alternative stable states along the two metastable branches are examined in the time domain. The stability of the nonlinear dynamic response is analyzed by the Duffing oscillator model and interpreted via the stability landscape. For the first time, we directly reveal the alternative stable states and jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses by experiments in the frequency, amplitude and time domains. The results not only show the important roles of phase transition nonlinearity in bringing multiple equilibrium states and their fast switches, but also provide a solid experimental base for the identification of metastable regions as well as further management of the undesired dynamic responses of vibration system where NiTi is used as a nonlinear

  15. Influence of neural adaptation on dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities in a ring neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Ken

    2017-12-01

    How neural adaptation affects neural information processing (i.e. the dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities) is a central question in computational neuroscience. In my previous works, I analytically clarified the dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities in a ring-type neural network model that is widely used to model the visual cortex, motor cortex, and several other brain regions. The neural dynamics and the equilibrium state in the neural network model corresponded to a Bayesian computation and statistically optimal multiple information integration, respectively, under a biologically inspired condition. These results were revealed in an analytically tractable manner; however, adaptation effects were not considered. Here, I analytically reveal how the dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities in a ring neural network are influenced by spike-frequency adaptation (SFA). SFA is an adaptation that causes gradual inhibition of neural activity when a sustained stimulus is applied, and the strength of this inhibition depends on neural activities. I reveal that SFA plays three roles: (1) SFA amplifies the influence of external input in neural dynamics; (2) SFA allows the history of the external input to affect neural dynamics; and (3) the equilibrium state corresponds to the statistically optimal multiple information integration independent of the existence of SFA. In addition, the equilibrium state in a ring neural network model corresponds to the statistically optimal integration of multiple information sources under biologically inspired conditions, independent of the existence of SFA.

  16. On the state dependency of the equilibrium climate sensitivity during the last 5 million years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Köhler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is still an open question how equilibrium warming in response to increasing radiative forcing – the specific equilibrium climate sensitivity S – depends on background climate. We here present palaeodata-based evidence on the state dependency of S, by using CO2 proxy data together with a 3-D ice-sheet-model-based reconstruction of land ice albedo over the last 5 million years (Myr. We find that the land ice albedo forcing depends non-linearly on the background climate, while any non-linearity of CO2 radiative forcing depends on the CO2 data set used. This non-linearity has not, so far, been accounted for in similar approaches due to previously more simplistic approximations, in which land ice albedo radiative forcing was a linear function of sea level change. The latitudinal dependency of ice-sheet area changes is important for the non-linearity between land ice albedo and sea level. In our set-up, in which the radiative forcing of CO2 and of the land ice albedo (LI is combined, we find a state dependence in the calculated specific equilibrium climate sensitivity, S[CO2,LI], for most of the Pleistocene (last 2.1 Myr. During Pleistocene intermediate glaciated climates and interglacial periods, S[CO2,LI] is on average ~ 45 % larger than during Pleistocene full glacial conditions. In the Pliocene part of our analysis (2.6–5 Myr BP the CO2 data uncertainties prevent a well-supported calculation for S[CO2,LI], but our analysis suggests that during times without a large land ice area in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g. before 2.82 Myr BP, the specific equilibrium climate sensitivity, S[CO2,LI], was smaller than during interglacials of the Pleistocene. We thus find support for a previously proposed state change in the climate system with the widespread appearance of northern hemispheric ice sheets. This study points for the first time to a so far overlooked non-linearity in the land ice albedo radiative forcing, which is important for similar

  17. Generalized hydrodynamics and non-equilibrium steady states in integrable many-body quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Romain; Bulchandani, Vir; Karrasch, Christoph; Moore, Joel

    The long-time dynamics of thermalizing many-body quantum systems can typically be described in terms of a conventional hydrodynamics picture that results from the decay of all but a few slow modes associated with standard conservation laws (such as particle number, energy, or momentum). However, hydrodynamics is expected to fail for integrable systems that are characterized by an infinite number of conservation laws, leading to unconventional transport properties and to complex non-equilibrium states beyond the traditional dogma of statistical mechanics. In this talk, I will describe recent attempts to understand such stationary states far from equilibrium using a generalized hydrodynamics picture. I will discuss the consistency of ``Bethe-Boltzmann'' kinetic equations with linear response Drude weights and with density-matrix renormalization group calculations. This work was supported by the Department of Energy through the Quantum Materials program (R. V.), NSF DMR-1206515, AFOSR MURI and a Simons Investigatorship (J. E. M.), DFG through the Emmy Noether program KA 3360/2-1 (C. K.).

  18. Usefulness of an equal-probability assumption for out-of-equilibrium states: A master equation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, Tomoaki

    2012-10-18

    We examine the effectiveness of assuming an equal probability for states far from equilibrium. For this aim, we propose a method to construct a master equation for extensive variables describing nonstationary nonequilibrium dynamics. The key point of the method is the assumption that transient states are equivalent to the equilibrium state that has the same extensive variables, i.e., an equal probability holds for microscopic states in nonequilibrium. We demonstrate an application of this method to the critical relaxation of the two-dimensional Potts model by Monte Carlo simulations. While the one-variable description, which is adequate for equilibrium, yields relaxation dynamics that are very fast, the redundant two-variable description well reproduces the true dynamics quantitatively. These results suggest that some class of the nonequilibrium state can be described with a small extension of degrees of freedom, which may lead to an alternative way to understand nonequilibrium phenomena. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  19. Switching behavior and novel stable states of magnetic hexagonal nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasir Rafique, M., E-mail: myasir.rafique@ciitlahore.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Pan, Liqing; Guo, Zhengang [College of Science and Research Institute for New Energy, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Micromagnetic simulations for Cobalt hexagonal shape nanorings show onion (O) and vortex state (V) along with new state named “tri-domain state”. The tri-domain state is observed in sufficiently large width of ring. The magnetic reversible mechanism and transition of states are explained with help of vector field display. The transitions from one state to other occur by propagation of domain wall. The vertical parts of hexagonal rings play important role in developing the new “tri-domain” state. The behaviors of switching fields from onion to tri-domain (HO-Tr), tri-domain to vortex state (HTr-V) and vortex to onion state and “states size” are discussed in term of geometrical parameter of ring.

  20. Shielding property for thermal equilibrium states in the quantum Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móller, N. S.; de Paula, A. L.; Drumond, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    We show that Gibbs states of nonhomogeneous transverse Ising chains satisfy a shielding property. Namely, whatever the fields on each spin and exchange couplings between neighboring spins are, if the field in one particular site is null, then the reduced states of the subchains to the right and to the left of this site are exactly the Gibbs states of each subchain alone. Therefore, even if there is a strong exchange coupling between the extremal sites of each subchain, the Gibbs states of the each subchain behave as if there is no interaction between them. In general, if a lattice can be divided into two disconnected regions separated by an interface of sites with zero applied field, then we can guarantee a similar result only if the surface contains a single site. Already for an interface with two sites we show an example where the property does not hold. When it holds, however, we show that if a perturbation of the Hamiltonian parameters is done in one side of the lattice, then the other side is completely unchanged, with regard to both its equilibrium state and dynamics.

  1. Equilibrium and generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    This work studies the behaviour of radionuclides when it produce a desintegration activity,decay and the isotopes stable creation. It gives definitions about the equilibrium between activity of parent and activity of the daughter, radioactive decay,isotope stable and transient equilibrium and maxim activity time. Some considerations had been given to generators that permit a disgregation of two radioisotopes in equilibrium and its good performance. Tabs

  2. Average equilibrium charge state of 278113 ions moving in a helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, D.; Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.

    2005-01-01

    Difficulty to identify a new heavy element comes from the small production cross section. For example, the production cross section was about 0.5 pb in the case of searching for the 112th element produced by the cold fusion reaction of 208 Pb( 70 Zn,n) 277 ll2. In order to identify heavier elements than element 112, the experimental apparatus with a sensitivity of sub-pico barn level is essentially needed. A gas-filled recoil separator, in general, has a large collection efficiency compared with other recoil separators as seen from the operation principle of a gas-filled recoil separator. One of the most important parameters for a gas-filled recoil separator is the average equilibrium charge state q ave of ions moving in a used gas. This is because the recoil ion can not be properly transported to the focal plane of the separator, if the q ave of an element of interest in a gas is unknown. We have systematically measured equilibrium charge state distributions of heavy ions ( 169 Tm, 208 Pb, 193,209 Bi, 196 Po, 200 At, 203,204 Fr, 212 Ac, 234 Bk, 245 Fm, 254 No, 255 Lr, and 265 Hs) moving in a helium gas by using the gas-filled recoil separator GARIS at RIKEN. Ana then, the empirical formula on q ave of heavy ions in a helium gas was derived as a function of the velocity and the atomic number of an ion on the basis of the Tomas-Fermi model of the atom. The formula was found to be applicable to search for transactinide nuclides of 271 Ds, 272 Rg, and 277 112 produced by cold fusion reactions. Using the formula on q ave , we searched for a new isotope of element 113 produced by the cold fusion reaction of 209 Bi( 70 Zn,n) 278 113. As a result, a decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113 was observed. Recently, we have successfully observed the 2nd decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113. In this report, we will present experimental results in detail, and will also discuss the average equilibrium charge sate of 278 113 in a helium gas by

  3. Impact of different moderator ratios with light and heavy water cooled reactors in equilibrium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Takaki, Naoyuki; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    As an issue of sustainable development in the world, energy sustainability using nuclear energy may be possible using several different ways such as increasing breeding capability of the reactors and optimizing the fuel utilization using spent fuel after reprocessing as well as exploring additional nuclear resources from sea water. In this present study the characteristics of light and heavy water cooled reactors for different moderator ratios in equilibrium states have been investigated. The moderator to fuel ratio (MFR) is varied from 0.1 to 4.0. Four fuel cycle schemes are evaluated in order to investigate the effect of heavy metal (HM) recycling. A calculation method for determining the required uranium enrichment for criticality of the systems has been developed by coupling the equilibrium fuel cycle burn-up calculation and cell calculation of SRAC 2000 code using nuclear data library from the JENDL 3.2. The results show a thermal spectrum peak appears for light water coolant and no thermal peak for heavy water coolant along the MFR (0.1 ≤ MFR ≤ 4.0). The plutonium quality can be reduced effectively by increasing the MFR and number of recycled HM. Considering the effect of increasing number of recycled HM; it is also effective to reduce the uranium utilization and to increase the conversion ratio. trans-Plutonium production such as americium (Am) and curium (Cm) productions are smaller for heavy water coolant than light water coolant. The light water coolant shows the feasibility of breeding when HM is recycled with reducing the MFR. Wider feasible area of breeding has been obtained when light water coolant is replaced by heavy water coolant

  4. Chemical potential in active systems: predicting phase equilibrium from bulk equations of state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Siddharth; Rodenburg, Jeroen; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2018-01-01

    We derive a microscopic expression for a quantity μ that plays the role of chemical potential of active Brownian particles (ABPs) in a steady state in the absence of vortices. We show that μ consists of (i) an intrinsic chemical potential similar to passive systems, which depends on density and self-propulsion speed, but not on the external potential, (ii) the external potential, and (iii) a newly derived one-body swim potential due to the activity of the particles. Our simulations on ABPs show good agreement with our Fokker–Planck calculations, and confirm that μ (z) is spatially constant for several inhomogeneous active fluids in their steady states in a planar geometry. Finally, we show that phase coexistence of ABPs with a planar interface satisfies not only mechanical but also diffusive equilibrium. The coexistence can be well-described by equating the bulk chemical potential and bulk pressure obtained from bulk simulations for systems with low activity but requires explicit evaluation of the interfacial contributions at high activity.

  5. The crossover between organized and disorganized states in some non-equilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Téllez, Gabriel

    2009-05-01

    We study numerically the crossover between organized and disorganized states of three non-equilibrium systems: the Poisson/coalesce random walk (PCRW), a one-dimensional spin system and a quasi one-dimensional lattice gas. In all cases, we describe this crossover in terms of the average spacing between particles/domain borders langS(t)rang and the spacing distribution functions p(n)(s). The nature of the crossover is not the same for all systems; however, we found that for all systems the nearest neighbor distribution p(0)(s) is well fitted by the Berry-Robnik model. The destruction of the level repulsion in the crossover between organized and disorganized states is present in all systems. Additionally, we found that the correlations between domains in the gas and spin systems are not strong and can be neglected in a first approximation, but for the PCRW the correlations between particles must be taken into account. To find p(n)(s) with n > 1, we propose two different analytical models based on the Berry-Robnik model. Our models give us a good approximation for the statistical behavior of these systems at their crossover and allow us to quantify the degree of order/disorder of the system.

  6. Disassembly of Faceted Macrosteps in the Step Droplet Zone in Non-Equilibrium Steady State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Akutsu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A Wulff figure—the polar graph of the surface tension of a crystal—with a discontinuity was calculated by applying the density matrix renormalization group method to the p-RSOS model, a restricted solid-on-solid model with a point-contact-type step–step attraction. In the step droplet zone in this model, the surface tension is discontinuous around the (111 surface and continuous around the (001 surface. The vicinal surface of 4H-SiC crystal in a Si–Cr–C solution is thought to be in the step droplet zone. The dependence of the vicinal surface growth rate and the macrostep size 〈 n 〉 on the driving force Δ μ for a typical state in the step droplet zone in non-equilibrium steady state was calculated using the Monte Carlo method. In contrast to the known step bunching phenomenon, the size of the macrostep was found to decrease with increasing driving force. The detachment of elementary steps from a macrostep was investigated, and it was found that 〈 n 〉 satisfies a scaling function. Moreover, kinetic roughening was observed for | Δ μ | > Δ μ R , where Δ μ R is the crossover driving force above which the macrostep disappears.

  7. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... be obtained by solving a convex optimization problem represented by the. LMI. Simulation studies are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ... one is the linear state feedback controller and the other is the nonlinear feedback controller. By the proposed control scheme, the closed-loop error system is ...

  8. Hematopoietic differentiation: a coordinated dynamical process towards attractor stable states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Simona

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differentiation process, proceeding from stem cells towards the different committed cell types, can be considered as a trajectory towards an attractor of a dynamical process. This view, taking into consideration the transcriptome and miRNome dynamics considered as a whole, instead of looking at few 'master genes' driving the system, offers a novel perspective on this phenomenon. We investigated the 'differentiation trajectories' of the hematopoietic system considering a genome-wide scenario. Results We developed serum-free liquid suspension unilineage cultures of cord blood (CB CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells through erythroid (E, megakaryocytic (MK, granulocytic (G and monocytic (Mo pathways. These cultures recapitulate physiological hematopoiesis, allowing the analysis of almost pure unilineage precursors starting from initial differentiation of HPCs until terminal maturation. By analyzing the expression profile of protein coding genes and microRNAs in unilineage CB E, MK, G and Mo cultures, at sequential stages of differentiation and maturation, we observed a coordinated, fully interconnected and scalable character of cell population behaviour in both transcriptome and miRNome spaces reminiscent of an attractor-like dynamics. MiRNome and transcriptome space differed for a still not terminally committed behaviour of microRNAs. Conclusions Consistent with their roles, the transcriptome system can be considered as the state space of a cell population, while the continuously evolving miRNA space corresponds to the tuning system necessary to reach the attractor. The behaviour of miRNA machinery could be of great relevance not only for the promise of reversing the differentiated state but even for tumor biology.

  9. Non-equilibrium theory employing enthalpy-based equation of state for binary solid and porous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B.; Menon, S. V. G.

    2018-03-01

    A generalized enthalpy-based equation of state, which includes thermal electron excitations and non-equilibrium thermal energies, is formulated for binary solid and porous mixtures. Our approach gives rise to an extra contribution to mixture volume, in addition to those corresponding to average mixture parameters. This excess term involves the difference of thermal enthalpies of the two components, which depend on their individual temperatures. We propose to use the Hugoniot of the components to compute non-equilibrium temperatures in the mixture. These are then compared with the average temperature obtained from the mixture Hugoniot, thereby giving an estimate of non-equilibrium effects. The Birch-Murnaghan model for the zero-temperature isotherm and a linear thermal model are then used for applying the method to several mixtures, including one porous case. Comparison with experimental data on the pressure-volume Hugoniot and shock speed versus particle speed shows good agreement.

  10. The Non-Equilibrium Statistical Distribution Function for Electrons and Holes in Semiconductor Heterostructures in Steady-State Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jόzwikowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to determine a statistical non-equilibrium distribution function for the electron and holes in semiconductor heterostructures in steady-state conditions. Based on the postulates of local equilibrium, as well as on the integral form of the weighted Gyarmati’s variational principle in the force representation, using an alternative method, we have derived general expressions, which have the form of the Fermi–Dirac distribution function with four additional components. The physical interpretation of these components has been carried out in this paper. Some numerical results of a non-equilibrium distribution function for an electron in HgCdTe structures are also presented.

  11. Looking for chemical reaction networks exhibiting a drift along a manifold of marginally stable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogioli, Doriano

    2013-02-07

    I recently reported some examples of mass-action equations that have a continuous manifold of marginally stable stationary states [Brogioli, D., 2010. Marginally stable chemical systems as precursors of life. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 058102; Brogioli, D., 2011. Marginal stability in chemical systems and its relevance in the origin of life. Phys. Rev. E 84, 031931]. The corresponding chemical reaction networks show nonclassical effects, i.e. a violation of the mass-action equations, under the effect of the concentration fluctuations: the chemical system drifts along the marginally stable states. I proposed that this effect is potentially involved in abiogenesis. In the present paper, I analyze the mathematical properties of mass-action equations of marginally stable chemical reaction networks. The marginal stability implies that the mass-action equations obey some conservation law; I show that the mathematical properties of the conserved quantity characterize the motion along the marginally stable stationary state manifold, i.e. they allow to predict if the fluctuations give rise to a random walk or a drift under the effect of concentration fluctuations. Moreover, I show that the presence of the drift along the manifold of marginally stable stationary-states is a critical property, i.e. at least one of the reaction constants must be fine tuned in order to obtain the drift. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bio-geomorphic feedback causes alternative stable landscape states: insights from coastal marshes and tidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Stijn; Wang, Chen

    2014-05-01

    Many bio-geomorphic systems, such as hill slopes, river floodplains, tidal floodplains and dune areas, seem to be vulnerable to shifts between alternative bare and vegetated landscape states, and these shifts seem to be driven by bio-geomorphic feedbacks. Here we search for empirical evidence for alternative stable state behavior in intertidal flats and marshes, where bio-geomorphic interactions are known to be intense. Large-scale transitions have been reported worldwide between high-elevation vegetated marshes and low-elevation bare flats in intertidal zones of deltas, estuaries, and coastal embayments. It is of significant importance to understand and predict such transitions, because vegetated marshes provide significant services to coastal societies. Previous modeling studies suggest that the ecological theory of catastrophic shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states potentially explains the transition between bare flats and vegetated marshes. However, up to now only few empirical evidence exists. In our study, the hypothesis is empirically tested that vegetated marshes and bare tidal flats can be considered as alternative stable landscape states with rapid shifts between them. We studied historical records (1930s - 2000s) of intertidal elevation surveys and aerial pictures from the Westerschelde estuary (SW Netherlands). Our results demonstrated the existence of: (1) bimodality in the intertidal elevation distribution, i.e., the presence of two peaks in the elevation frequency distribution corresponding to a completely bare state and a densely vegetated state; (2) the relatively rapid transition in elevation when intertidal flats evolve from bare to vegetated states, with sedimentation rates that are 2 to 8 times faster than during the stable states; (3) a threshold elevation above which the shift from bare to vegetated state has a high chance to occur. Our observations demonstrate the abrupt non-linear shift between low-elevation bare flats and high

  13. In vivo absorption spectra of the two stable states of the Euglena photoreceptor photocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, Laura; Coltelli, Primo; Evangelista, Valtere; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Vesentini, Nicoletta; Santoro, Fabrizio; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Euglena gracilis possesses a simple but sophisticated light detecting system, consisting of an eyespot formed by carotenoids globules and a photoreceptor. The photoreceptor of Euglena is characterized by optical bistability, with two stable states. In order to provide important and discriminating information on the series of structural changes that Euglena photoreceptive protein(s) undergoes inside the photoreceptor in response to light, we measured the in vivo absorption spectra of the two stable states A and B of photoreceptor photocycle. Data were collected using two different devices, i.e. a microspectrophotometer and a digital microscope. Our results show that the photocycle and the absorption spectra of the photoreceptor possess strong spectroscopic similarities with a rhodopsin-like protein. Moreover, the analysis of the absorption spectra of the two stable states of the photoreceptor and the absorption spectrum of the eyespot suggests an intriguing hypothesis for the orientation of microalgae toward light.

  14. A Review of Equation of State Models, Chemical Equilibrium Calculations and CERV Code Requirements for SHS Detonation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson (BKW) 2. Jacobs-Cowperthwaite-Zwisler ( JCZ ) 3. Hayes 4. Davis 5. Williamsburg 6. JWL 7. HOM the JWL and HOM EOS...have often been used in hydrocode/CFD simulations. On the other hand, the BKW and JCZ equations remain the EOS of choice in chemical equilibrium code...development for condensed explosives. Various databases have been constructed for the BKW and JCZ equations of state. These include: BKWC

  15. The effect of time-dependent coupling on non-equilibrium steady states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin

    Consider (for simplicity) two one-dimensional semi-infinite leads coupled to a quantum well via time dependent point interactions. In the remote past the system is decoupled, and each of its components is at thermal equilibrium. In the remote future the system is fully coupled. We define and comp...

  16. The effect of time-dependent coupling on non-equilibrium steady states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin A.

    2009-01-01

    Consider (for simplicity) two one-dimensional semi-infinite leads coupled to a quantum well via time dependent point interactions. In the remote past the system is decoupled, and each of its components is at thermal equilibrium. In the remote future the system is fully coupled. We define and comp...

  17. General and Partial Equilibrium Modeling of Sectoral Policies to Address Climate Change in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizer, William; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, James; Toman, Michael

    2003-03-31

    This document provides technical documentation for work using detailed sectoral models to calibrate a general equilibrium analysis of market and non-market sectoral policies to address climate change. Results of this work can be found in the companion paper, "Modeling Costs of Economy-wide versus Sectoral Climate Policies Using Combined Aggregate-Sectoral Model".

  18. The Matrix model, a driven state variables approach to non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the new approaches in non-equilibrium thermodynamics is the so-called matrix model of Jongschaap. In this paper some features of this model are discussed. We indicate the differences with the more common approach based upon internal variables and the more sophisticated Hamiltonian and GENERIC

  19. Thermodynamically equilibrium roton states of nanoparticles in molten and vapour phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasevskii, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    We show a possibility for a thermodynamically equilibrium nanocrystalline structure consisting of nanosized solid inclusions to appear in a melt just beyond the melting curve. Thermodynamic stability of the nanocrystalline structure in the melt results from the free energy lowering due to rotational motion of nanoparticles. The main contribution to the reduction of the free energy of the system is due to an increase in the rotational entropy and change in formation energy of nanocrystals, i.e. the nanocrystalline structure in the melt, like vacancies in a crystal, is an equilibrium defect structure of the melt. It is demonstrated that similar nanocrystalline structures can also appear in the vapour phase in the form of liquid nanodrops and in liquid solutions, e.g. in He II.

  20. About positive, energy conservative and equilibrium state preserving schemes for the isotropic Fokker-Planck-Landau equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buet, Ch.; Le Thanh, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the discretization of the Fokker-Planck-Landau (FPL) collision term in the isotropic case which models the self collision for the electrons when they are totally isotropized by heavy particles background such as ions. The discussion focus on schemes which could preserve positivity, mass, energy and Maxwellian equilibrium. First, we analyze in detail the popular Chang and Cooper method for this non-linear collision term: derivation, conservation and positivity properties. We show that some variants of this method, based on the drift-diffusion form of the FPL operator, could not be positive or could not conserve the energy. We present a new variant of the Chang and Cooper method derived from the Landau form that is both positive and conservative. We also propose two new alternatives and simpler schemes for the FPL operator which show that the Chang and Cooper method is not the only way to construct positive, energy conservative and equilibrium state preserving schemes for this operator. For all these schemes, we explain clearly the properties of conservation of the density and the energy, the positivity of the solution and the conservation of the equilibrium states, or their lack. The case of Maxwellian and Coulombian potentials are emphasized. (authors)

  1. Self-assembled materials and supramolecular chemistry within microfluidic environments: from common thermodynamic states to non-equilibrium structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevim, S; Sorrenti, A; Franco, C; Furukawa, S; Pané, S; deMello, A J; Puigmartí-Luis, J

    2018-05-01

    Self-assembly is a crucial component in the bottom-up fabrication of hierarchical supramolecular structures and advanced functional materials. Control has traditionally relied on the use of encoded building blocks bearing suitable moieties for recognition and interaction, with targeting of the thermodynamic equilibrium state. On the other hand, nature leverages the control of reaction-diffusion processes to create hierarchically organized materials with surprisingly complex biological functions. Indeed, under non-equilibrium conditions (kinetic control), the spatio-temporal command of chemical gradients and reactant mixing during self-assembly (the creation of non-uniform chemical environments for example) can strongly affect the outcome of the self-assembly process. This directly enables a precise control over material properties and functions. In this tutorial review, we show how the unique physical conditions offered by microfluidic technologies can be advantageously used to control the self-assembly of materials and of supramolecular aggregates in solution, making possible the isolation of intermediate states and unprecedented non-equilibrium structures, as well as the emergence of novel functions. Selected examples from the literature will be used to confirm that microfluidic devices are an invaluable toolbox technology for unveiling, understanding and steering self-assembly pathways to desired structures, properties and functions, as well as advanced processing tools for device fabrication and integration.

  2. Biogeomorphic feedback between plant growth and flooding causes alternative stable states in an experimental floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Wang, Q.; Meire, D.; Ma, W.; Wu, C.; Meng, Z.; van de Koppel, J.; Troch, P.; Verhoeven, R.; De Mulder, T.; Temmerman, S.

    2016-01-01

    It is important to understand the mechanisms of vegetation establishment on bare substrate in a disturbance-driven ecosystem because of many valuable ecosystem services. This study tested for empirical indications of local alternative stable states controlled by biogeomorphic feedbacks using flume

  3. Soluble and stable heptazethrenebis(dicarboximide) with a singlet open-shell ground state

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Zhe

    2011-08-10

    A soluble and stable heptazethrene derivative was synthesized and characterized for the first time. This molecule exhibits a singlet biradical character in the ground state, which is the first case among zethrene homologue series. Exceptional stability of this heptazethrenebis(dicarboximide) raises the likelihood of its practical applications in materials science. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Analysis of plasma equilibrium based on orbit-driven current density profile in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.

  5. Chaos in a dynamic model of urban transportation network flow based on user equilibrium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Meng; Gao Ziyou

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the dynamical behavior of network traffic flow. We first build a two-stage mathematical model to analyze the complex behavior of network flow, a dynamical model, which is based on the dynamical gravity model proposed by Dendrinos and Sonis [Dendrinos DS, Sonis M. Chaos and social-spatial dynamic. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1990] is used to estimate the number of trips. Considering the fact that the Origin-Destination (O-D) trip cost in the traffic network is hard to express as a functional form, in the second stage, the user equilibrium network assignment model was used to estimate the trip cost, which is the minimum cost of used path when user equilibrium (UE) conditions are satisfied. It is important to use UE to estimate the O-D cost, since a connection is built among link flow, path flow, and O-D flow. The dynamical model describes the variations of O-D flows over discrete time periods, such as each day and each week. It is shown that even in a system with dimensions equal to two, chaos phenomenon still exists. A 'Chaos Propagation' phenomenon is found in the given model.

  6. Continuous control of asymmetric forebody vortices in a bi-stable state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-te; Cheng, Ke-ming; Gu, Yun-song; Li, Zhuo-qi

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the problem of continuous control of asymmetric forebody vortices at a high angle of attack in a bi-stable regime, a dual synthetic jet actuator embedded in an ogive forebody was designed. Alternating unsteady disturbance with varying degree asymmetrical flow fields near the nozzles is generated by adjusting the duty cycle of the drive signal of the actuator, specifically embodying the asymmetric time-averaged pattern of jet velocity, vorticity, and turbulent kinetic energy. Experimental results show that within the range of relatively high angles of attack, including the angle-of-attack region in a bi-stable state, the lateral force of the ogive forebody is continuously controlled by adjusting the duty cycle of the drive signal; the position of the forebody vortices in space, the vorticity magnitude, the total pressure coefficient near the vortex core, and the vortex breakdown location are continuously changed with the duty cycle increased observed from the time-averaged flow field. Instantaneous flow field results indicate that although the forebody vortices are in an unsteady oscillation state, a continuous change in the forebody vortices' oscillation balance position as the duty cycle increases leads to a continuous change in the model's surface pressure distribution and time-averaged lateral force. Different from the traditional control principle, in this study, other different degree asymmetrical states of the forebody vortices except the bi-stable state are obtained using the dual synthetic jet control technology.

  7. Split degenerate states and stable p+ip phases from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Zhang-Yu; Zeng, Hui [Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Pan, Qiyuan [Hunan Normal Univ., Key Lab. of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Dept. of Physics, Changsha (China); Zeng, Hua-Bi [Yangzhou University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Yangzhou, Jiangsu (China); National Central University, Department of Physics, Chungli (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we investigate the p+ip superfluid phases in the complex vector field holographic p-wave model. We find that in the probe limit, the p+ip phase and the p-wave phase are equally stable, hence the p and ip orders can be mixed with an arbitrary ratio to form more general p+λip phases, which are also equally stable with the p-wave and p+ip phases. As a result, the system possesses a degenerate thermal state in the superfluid region. We further study the case on considering the back-reaction on the metric, and we find that the degenerate ground states will be separated into p-wave and p+ip phases, and the p-wave phase is more stable. Finally, due to the different critical temperature of the zeroth order phase transitions from p-wave and p+ip phases to the normal phase, there is a temperature region where the p+ip phase exists but the p-wave phase does not. In this region we find the stable holographic p+ip phase for the first time. (orig.)

  8. Negative velocity fluctuations and non-equilibrium fluctuation relation for a driven high critical current vortex state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K

    2017-07-17

    Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS 2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].

  9. State of the Art: Blood Biomarkers for Risk Stratification in Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omland, Torbjørn; White, Harvey D

    2017-01-01

    Multiple circulating biomarkers have been associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events and proposed as potential tools for risk stratification in stable ischemic heart disease (IHD), yet current guidelines do not make any firm recommendations concerning the use of biomarkers for risk stratification in this setting. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of biomarkers for risk stratification in stable IHD. Circulating biomarkers associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with stable IHD reflect different pathophysiological processes, including myocardial injury, myocardial stress and remodeling, metabolic status, vascular inflammation, and oxidative stress. Compared to the primary prevention setting, biomarkers reflecting end-organ damage and future risk of heart failure development and cardiovascular death may play more important roles in the stable IHD setting. Accordingly, biomarkers that reflect chronic, low-grade myocardial injury, and stress, i.e., high-sensitivity cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, provide graded and incremental prognostic information to conventional risk markers. In contrast, in stable IHD patients the prognostic value of traditional metabolic biomarkers, including serum lipids, is limited. Among several novel biomarkers, growth-differentiation factor-15 may provide the most robust prognostic information, whereas most inflammatory markers provide limited incremental prognostic information to risk factor models that include conventional risk factors, natriuretic peptides, and high-sensitivity troponins. Circulating biomarkers hold promise as useful tools for risk stratification in stable IHD, but their future incorporation into clinically useful risk scores will depend on prospective, rigorously performed clinical trials that document enhanced risk prediction. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  10. Algorithm For Hypersonic Flow In Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Grant

    1989-01-01

    Implicit, finite-difference, shock-capturing algorithm calculates inviscid, hypersonic flows in chemical equilibrium. Implicit formulation chosen because overcomes limitation on mathematical stability encountered in explicit formulations. For dynamical portion of problem, Euler equations written in conservation-law form in Cartesian coordinate system for two-dimensional or axisymmetric flow. For chemical portion of problem, equilibrium state of gas at each point in computational grid determined by minimizing local Gibbs free energy, subject to local conservation of molecules, atoms, ions, and total enthalpy. Major advantage: resulting algorithm naturally stable and captures strong shocks without help of artificial-dissipation terms to damp out spurious numerical oscillations.

  11. Observing non-equilibrium state of transport through graphene channel at the nano-second time-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhishek; Meersha, Adil; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Shrivastava, Mayank

    2017-12-01

    Electrical performance of a graphene FET is drastically affected by electron-phonon inelastic scattering. At high electric fields, the out-of-equilibrium population of optical phonons equilibrates by emitting acoustic phonons, which dissipate the energy to heat sinks. The equilibration time of the process is governed by thermal diffusion time, which is few nano-seconds for a typical graphene FET. The nano-second time-scale of the process keeps it elusive to conventional steady-state or DC measurement systems. Here, we employ a time-domain reflectometry-based technique to electrically probe the device for few nano-seconds and investigate the non-equilibrium state. For the first time, the transient nature of electrical transport through graphene FET is revealed. A maximum change of 35% in current and 50% in contact resistance is recorded over a time span of 8 ns, while operating graphene FET at a current density of 1 mA/μm. The study highlights the role of intrinsic heating (scattering) in deciding metal-graphene contact resistance and transport through the graphene channel.

  12. Equilibrium charge-state distributions of 35--146-MeV Cu ions behind carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, K.; Ishihara, T.; Miyoshi, T.; Mikumo, T.

    1983-01-01

    Equilibrium charge-state distributions of Cu ions behind carbon foils have been measured in the energy region 35-146 MeV. The equilibration is obtained with about 30- and 50-μg/cm 2 -thick carbon at energies of 65 and 120 MeV, respectively. Almost-constant values of distribution width have been observed in the 35-47-MeV and 96-146-MeV energy regions. The former corresponds to the Cu ions whose outermost electrons are mainly distributed in the M shell, while the latter in the L shell. The asymmetry of the charge distribution has been observed in the boundary charge state between the Cu L and M shells. Such an asymmetric distribution function has been well approximated with the connection of two Gaussian distributions with an equal centroid but with different standard deviations

  13. Combining the GW formalism with the polarizable continuum model: A state-specific non-equilibrium approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, Ivan; Jacquemin, Denis; Blase, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    We have implemented the polarizable continuum model within the framework of the many-body Green's function GW formalism for the calculation of electron addition and removal energies in solution. The present formalism includes both ground-state and non-equilibrium polarization effects. In addition, the polarization energies are state-specific, allowing to obtain the bath-induced renormalisation energy of all occupied and virtual energy levels. Our implementation is validated by comparisons with ΔSCF calculations performed at both the density functional theory and coupled-cluster single and double levels for solvated nucleobases. The present study opens the way to GW and Bethe-Salpeter calculations in disordered condensed phases of interest in organic optoelectronics, wet chemistry, and biology.

  14. Combining the GW formalism with the polarizable continuum model: A state-specific non-equilibrium approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchemin, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.duchemin@cea.fr [INAC, SP2M/L-Sim, CEA/UJF Cedex 09, 38054 Grenoble (France); Jacquemin, Denis [Laboratoire CEISAM - UMR CNR 6230, Université de Nantes, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Institut Universitaire de France, 1 rue Descartes, 75005 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Blase, Xavier [CNRS, Inst. NÉEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NÉEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-04-28

    We have implemented the polarizable continuum model within the framework of the many-body Green’s function GW formalism for the calculation of electron addition and removal energies in solution. The present formalism includes both ground-state and non-equilibrium polarization effects. In addition, the polarization energies are state-specific, allowing to obtain the bath-induced renormalisation energy of all occupied and virtual energy levels. Our implementation is validated by comparisons with ΔSCF calculations performed at both the density functional theory and coupled-cluster single and double levels for solvated nucleobases. The present study opens the way to GW and Bethe-Salpeter calculations in disordered condensed phases of interest in organic optoelectronics, wet chemistry, and biology.

  15. Far-from-Equilibrium Field Theory of Many-Body Quantum Spin Systems: Prethermalization and Relaxation of Spin Spiral States in Three Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrtash Babadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study theoretically the far-from-equilibrium relaxation dynamics of spin spiral states in the three-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model. The investigated problem serves as an archetype for understanding quantum dynamics of isolated many-body systems in the vicinity of a spontaneously broken continuous symmetry. We present a field-theoretical formalism that systematically improves on the mean field for describing the real-time quantum dynamics of generic spin-1/2 systems. This is achieved by mapping spins to Majorana fermions followed by a 1/N expansion of the resulting two-particle-irreducible effective action. Our analysis reveals rich fluctuation-induced relaxation dynamics in the unitary evolution of spin spiral states. In particular, we find the sudden appearance of long-lived prethermalized plateaus with diverging lifetimes as the spiral winding is tuned toward the thermodynamically stable ferro- or antiferromagnetic phases. The emerging prethermalized states are characterized by different bosonic modes being thermally populated at different effective temperatures and by a hierarchical relaxation process reminiscent of glassy systems. Spin-spin correlators found by solving the nonequilibrium Bethe-Salpeter equation provide further insight into the dynamic formation of correlations, the fate of unstable collective modes, and the emergence of fluctuation-dissipation relations. Our predictions can be verified experimentally using recent realizations of spin spiral states with ultracold atoms in a quantum gas microscope [S. Hild et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 147205 (2014PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.147205].

  16. Molecular effect on equilibrium charge-state distributions. [of nitrogen ions injected through carbon foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickholm, D.; Bickel, W. S.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment consisting of the acceleration of N(+) and N2(+) ions to energies between 0.25 and 1.75 MeV and their injection through a thin carbon foil, whereupon they were charge-state analyzed with an electrostatic analyzer. A foil-covered electrically suppressed Faraday cup, connected to a stepping motor, moved in the plane of the dispersed beams. The Faraday cup current, which was proportional to the number of incident ions, was sent to a current digitizer and computer programmed as a multiscaler. The energy-dependent charge-state fractions, the mean charge and the distribution width were calculated. It was shown that for incident atoms, the charge state distribution appeared to be spread over more charge states, while for the incident molecules, there was a greater fraction of charge states near the mean charge.

  17. Stable π-Extended p -Quinodimethanes: Synthesis and Tunable Ground States

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Zebing

    2014-12-18

    © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. p-Quinodimethane (p-QDM) is a highly reactive hydrocarbon showing large biradical character in the ground state. It has been demonstrated that incorporation of the p-QDM moiety into an aromatic hydrocarbon framework could lead to new π-conjugated systems with significant biradical character and unique optical, electronic and magnetic properties. On the other hand, the extension of p-QDM is expected to result in molecules with even larger biradical character and higher reactivity. Therefore, the synthesis of stable π-extended p-QDMs is very challenging. In this Personal Account we will briefly discuss different stabilizing strategies and synthetic methods towards stable π-extended p-QDMs with tunable ground states and physical properties, including two types of polycyclic hydrocarbons: (1) tetrabenzo-Tschitschibabin\\'s hydrocarbons, and (2) tetracyano-rylenequinodimethanes. We will discuss how the aromaticity, substituents and steric hindrance play important roles in determining their ground states and properties. Incorporation of the p-quinodimethane moiety into aromatic hydrocarbon frameworks can lead to new π-conjugated systems with significant biradical character and unique optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Furthermore, the extension of p-QDM is expected to result in molecules with even larger biradical character and higher reactivity. In this Personal Account, different stabilizing strategies and synthetic methods towards stable π-extended p-QDMs with tunable ground states and physical properties are briefly discussed, including the roles of aromaticity, substituents and steric hindrance.

  18. Study on characteristics for different moderation ratios of heavy water coolant with different reactor types in equilibrium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Takaki, Naoyuki; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Several characteristics for different moderation ratios of heavy water coolant with different reactor types in equilibrium states have been investigated. Performances of PWR and CANDU reactors are compared. A calculation method for determining the required uranium enrichment for criticality of the systems has been developed by coupling the equilibrium fuel cycle burn-up calculation and cell calculation of PIJ module of SRAC2000 code. In the present study, we have compared the characteristics for different moderator to fuel ratio (MFR, 0.1 to 30), different burn-up for CANDU type and four fuels cycle schemes. Nuclide density of 235 U at MFR=1.9 decreases with increasing number of confined HM, while 235 U at higher MFR has the opposite trend. However, the nuclide density of fissile material at higher MFR is lower except 238 U. CANDU type requires lower uranium enrichment and obtains higher conversion ratio than PWR type. Lowest burn-up requires the lowest uranium enrichment and obtains the highest conversion ratio. The breeding condition can be obtained for plutonium recycle cases at MFR=2.1 of Case 4 and MFR=1.4 of Case 3. The natural uranium can be achieved at MFR=14 of plutonium recycle cases, and it can be used easier by increasing number of confined HM. (author)

  19. Why should state government invest in college education? An equilibrium approach for the US in 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary look at the benefits to states in the US of subsidizing college education. The benefits studies are the external benefits of college education on the earnings of both college graduates and those who have not graduated from college. In completing a college education individuals earn more. In addition, if there are positive external benefits others will also earn more because the average level of college graduates in the state has risen. This study confirms the exist...

  20. Heterogeneity of equilibrium molten globule state of cytochrome c induced by weak salt denaturants under physiological condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidur Rahaman

    Full Text Available While many proteins are recognized to undergo folding via intermediate(s, the heterogeneity of equilibrium folding intermediate(s along the folding pathway is less understood. In our present study, FTIR spectroscopy, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD, ANS and tryptophan fluorescence, near IR absorbance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS were used to study the structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the native (N, denatured (D and intermediate state (X of goat cytochorme c (cyt-c induced by weak salt denaturants (LiBr, LiCl and LiClO4 at pH 6.0 and 25°C. The LiBr-induced denaturation of cyt-c measured by Soret absorption (Δε400 and CD ([θ]409, is a three-step process, N ↔ X ↔ D. It is observed that the X state obtained along the denaturation pathway of cyt-c possesses common structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the molten globule (MG state. The MG state of cyt-c induced by LiBr is compared for its structural and thermodynamic parameters with those found in other solvent conditions such as LiCl, LiClO4 and acidic pH. Our observations suggest: (1 that the LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c retains the native Met80-Fe(III axial bond and Trp59-propionate interactions; (2 that LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c is more compact retaining the hydrophobic interactions in comparison to the MG states induced by LiCl, LiClO4 and 0.5 M NaCl at pH 2.0; and (3 that there exists heterogeneity of equilibrium intermediates along the unfolding pathway of cyt-c as highly ordered (X1, classical (X2 and disordered (X3, i.e., D ↔ X3 ↔ X2 ↔ X1 ↔ N.

  1. A study of a stable Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal in solid and liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lifan; Chen Xishen

    1992-01-01

    A stable Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 quasicrystal with an icosahedral structure is studied in solid and liquid state. It is found that the icosahedral phase in Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy does not grow directly from the pure liquid state, but rather forms between monoclinic Al 13 Fe 4 and residual liquid state at 865degC. The melting point of the Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 icosahedral quasicrystal occurs at 865degC and that of the Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy occurs at 1008degC. Moreover, the monoclinic Al 13 Fe 4 is transformed into the icosahedral phase easily at the temperature of 845degC. The icosahedral quasicrystal in Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy has a high thermal stability even at 950degC. Above 950degC, the icosahedral structure tends to an amorphous structure. (orig.)

  2. Muon-Substituted Malonaldehyde: Transforming a Transition State into a Stable Structure by Isotope Substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Shant

    2016-02-12

    Isotope substitutions are usually conceived to play a marginal role on the structure and bonding pattern of molecules. However, a recent study [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 13706-13709; Angew. Chem. 2014, 126, 13925-13929] further demonstrates that upon replacing a proton with a positively charged muon, as the lightest radioisotope of hydrogen, radical changes in the nature of the structure and bonding of certain species may take place. The present report is a primary attempt to introduce another example of structural transformation on the basis of the malonaldehyde system. Accordingly, upon replacing the proton between the two oxygen atoms of malonaldehyde with the positively charged muon a serious structural transformation is observed. By using the ab initio nuclear-electronic orbital non-Born-Oppenheimer procedure, the nuclear configuration of the muon-substituted species is derived. The resulting nuclear configuration is much more similar to the transition state of the proton transfer in malonaldehyde rather than to the stable configuration of malonaldehyde. The comparison of the "atoms in molecules" (AIM) structure of the muon-substituted malonaldehyde and the AIM structure of the stable and the transition-state configurations of malonaldehyde also unequivocally demonstrates substantial similarities of the muon-substituted malonaldehyde to the transition state. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Changes of Respiratory Mechanics in COPD Patients from Stable State to Acute Exacerbations with Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriana, Piero; Vitacca, Michele; Carlucci, Annalisa; Paneroni, Mara; Pisani, Lara; Nava, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Symptoms, clinical course, functional and biological data during an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EXCOPD) have been investigated, but data on physiological changes of respiratory mechanics during a severe exacerbation with respiratory acidosis requiring noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) are scant. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of respiratory mechanics in COPD patients comparing data observed during EXCOPD with those observed during stable state in the recovery phase. In 18 COPD patients having severe EXCOPD requiring NIMV for global respiratory failure, we measured respiratory mechanics during both EXCOPD (T0) and once the patients achieved a stable state (T1). The diaphragm and inspiratory muscles effort was significantly increased under relapse, as well as the pressure-time product of the diaphragm and the inspiratory muscle (PTPdi and PTPes). The resistive loads to breathe (i.e., PEEPi,dyn, compliance and inspiratory resistances) were also markedly increased, while the maximal pressures generated by the diaphragm and the inspiratory muscles, together with forced expired volumes were decreased. All these indices statistically improved but with a great intrasubject variability in stable condition. Moreover, tension-time index (TTdi) significantly improved from the EXCOPD state to the condition of clinical stability (0.156 ± 0.04 at T0 vs. 0.082 ± 0.02 at T1 p < 0.001). During an EXCOPD, the load/capacity of the respiratory pump is impaired, and although the patients exhibit a rapid shallow breathing pattern, this does not necessarily correlate with a TTdi ≥ 0.15. These changes are reverted once they recover from the EXCOPD, despite a large variability between patients.

  4. On the influence of environmental factors on radon levels in caves of Ribeira valley state parks, SP and evaluation of radioactive equilibrium and equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2011-01-01

    In the present study it was carried out the monitoring of radon in caves distributed among three state parks of Sao Paulo. The radon concentration were determinate in Morro Preto and Santana caves, located at PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Tourist State Park), Diabo cave, situated in PEJ - Parque Estadual de Jacupiranga (Jacupiranga State Park) and Colorida cave located in PEI - Parque Estadual Intervales (Intervales State Park PEI). The monitoring covered measurements between April 2009 and June 2010. Radon concentrations were carried out by using the technique of passive detection with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors and NRPB diffusion chambers. The detectors were exposed in periods ranging from 30 to 150 days. Radon concentrations varied from 132 Bq/m 3 to 9456 Bq/m 3 . The values of radon concentrations were analyzed together with information about rainfall and internal and external temperature values of the Santana cave environment and regional literature values for a possible relationship between radon variations and weather information. Both the determinations of 22 '6Ra in water samples collected in some caves and rivers and radon emanation from a stalactite collected at Santana cave allowed to verify that the radon in the caves comes from the walls rocks. The verification of the radioactive equilibrium between 222 Rn, 218 Po and '2 14 Po in the exposed detectors was prejudiced by the high tracks densities, committing the methodology effectiveness. The annual effective dose was calculated for three values obtained from the literature for the equilibrium factor. Considering the most realistic scenario, with equilibrium factor of 0.5 and 52 working weeks, the annual effective dose was 5.1 mSv/y. Concerning the worst scenario, which simulates an extreme case, adopting an equilibrium factor equal to 1 and 52 weeks of work per year, the annual effective dose is 10.2 mSv/y. Also with information received from a

  5. Evaluation of equations of state for simultaneous representation of phase equilibrium and critical phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto Coelho Muniz Vinhal, Andre; Yan, Wei; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    of the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). We obtained new parameters for methanol and alkanes from n-hexane to n-decane. The comparison with the original parameters showed that this procedure is important for associating compounds, since for inert species the equation reduces to the Soave......Precise description of the critical points with association equations of state requires rescaling of the parameters to match experimental critical temperature and pressure of pure components. In this work we developed a method to include critical data restrictions in the parametrization procedure...

  6. Phase equilibrium modelling for mixtures with acetic acid using an association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    over extended temperature and pressure ranges. From the scientific point of view, modeling of such equilibria is challenging because of the complex association and solvation phenomena present. In this work, a previously developed association equation of state (cubic-plus-association, CPA) is applied...

  7. Steady state drift vortices in plasmas with shear flow in equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Hasegawa-Mima equation in the presence of sheared poloidal flow is solved for two-dimensional steady state vortex. It is shown that when the phase velocity of the vortex is the same as the diamagnetic drift velocity, an exact solution in the form of counter-rotating vortices may appear...

  8. Economic Impacts of Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Agro-terrorism in the United States: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois

    2013-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus has high agro-terrorism potential because it is contagious, can be easily transmitted via inanimate objects and can be spread by wind. An outbreak of FMD in developed countries results in massive slaughtering of animals (for disease control) and disruptions in meat supply chains and trade, with potentially large economic losses. Although the United States has been FMD-free since 1929, the potential of FMD as a deliberate terrorist weapon calls for estimates of the physical and economic damage that could result from an outbreak. This paper estimates the economic impacts of three alternative scenarios of potential FMD attacks using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy. The three scenarios range from a small outbreak successfully contained within a state to a large multi-state attack resulting in slaughtering of 30 percent of the national livestock. Overall, the value of total output losses in our simulations range between $37 billion (0.15% of 2006 baseline economic output) and $228 billion (0.92%). Major impacts stem from the supply constraint on livestock due to massive animal slaughtering. As expected, the economic losses are heavily concentrated in agriculture and food manufacturing sectors, with losses ranging from $23 billion to $61 billion in the two industries.

  9. Prediction of the Chapman-Jouguet chemical equilibrium state in a detonation wave from first principles based reactive molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dezhou; Zybin, Sergey V; An, Qi; Goddard, William A; Huang, Fenglei

    2016-01-21

    The combustion or detonation of reacting materials at high temperature and pressure can be characterized by the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state that describes the chemical equilibrium of the products at the end of the reaction zone of the detonation wave for sustained detonation. This provides the critical properties and product kinetics for input to macroscale continuum simulations of energetic materials. We propose the ReaxFF Reactive Dynamics to CJ point protocol (Rx2CJ) for predicting the CJ state parameters, providing the means to predict the performance of new materials prior to synthesis and characterization, allowing the simulation based design to be done in silico. Our Rx2CJ method is based on atomistic reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) using the QM-derived ReaxFF force field. We validate this method here by predicting the CJ point and detonation products for three typical energetic materials. We find good agreement between the predicted and experimental detonation velocities, indicating that this method can reliably predict the CJ state using modest levels of computation.

  10. Spatial variations in food web structures with alternative stable states: evidence from stable isotope analysis in a large eutrophic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunkai; Zhang, Yuying; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Shuo

    2017-05-01

    Food web structures are well known to vary widely among ecosystems. Moreover, many food web studies of lakes have generally attempted to characterize the overall food web structure and have largely ignored internal spatial and environmental variations. In this study, we hypothesize that there is a high degree of spatial heterogeneity within an ecosystem and such heterogeneity may lead to strong variations in environmental conditions and resource availability, in turn resulting in different trophic pathways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were employed for the whole food web to describe the structure of the food web in different sub-basins within Taihu Lake. This lake is a large eutrophic freshwater lake that has been intensively managed and highly influenced by human activities for more than 50 years. The results show significant isotopic differences between basins with different environmental characteristics. Such differences likely result from isotopic baseline differences combining with a shift in food web structure. Both are related to local spatial heterogeneity in nutrient loading in waters. Such variation should be explicitly considered in future food web studies and ecosystem-based management in this lake ecosystem.

  11. An extended corresponding-states model for predicting thermodynamic properties of N2-Ar-O2 mixtures including vapor-liquid equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, W. P.; Jacobsen, R. T.; Lemmon, E. W.; Penoncello, S. G.; Beyerlein, S. W.

    1994-11-01

    A formulation developed previously for the prediction of the thermodynamic properties of single-phase states of binary and ternary mixtures in the nitrogen-argon-oxygen system has been revised to include the calculation of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) properties. The model is based on the theory of extended corresponding states with van der Waals mixing rules. Binary interaction parameters have been determined with single-phase P-p-T and vaporliquid equilibrium data to improve the accuracy of thermodynamic property predictions. The model accurately represents single-phase and vapor-liquid equilibrium properties over a wide range of compositions for binary and ternary mixtures. Comparisons of calculated properties to selected mixture data for both single-phase and VLE states are included.

  12. Growth and decay of large fluctuations far from equilibrium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    tems which admit of stable dynamical attractors in absence of noise. An interesting 'detailed balance' like condition in the steady state which is manifested in the time reversal symmetry between growth and decay of fluctuation far from equilibrium, similar to what is observed in thermally equilibrated systems, is demonstrated ...

  13. Applying the concept of ecohydrological equilibrium to predict steady-state leaf area index for Australian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Medlyn, B.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Duursma, R.

    2017-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is a key variable in modelling terrestrial vegetation, because it has a major impact on carbon, water and energy fluxes. However, LAI is difficult to predict: several recent intercomparisons have shown that modelled LAI differs significantly among models, and between models and satellite-derived estimates. Empirical studies show that long-term mean LAI is strongly related to mean annual precipitation. This observation is predicted by the theory of ecohydrological equilibrium, which provides a promising alternative means to predict steady-state LAI. We implemented this theory in a simple optimisation model. We hypothesized that, when water availability is limited, plants should adjust long-term LAI and stomatal behavior (g1) to maximize net canopy carbon export, under the constraint that canopy transpiration is a fixed fraction of total precipitation. We evaluated the predicted LAI (Lopt) for Australia against ground-based observations of LAI at 135 sites, and continental-scale satellite-derived estimates. For the site-level data, the RMSE of predicted Lopt was 0.14 m2 m-2, which was similar to the RMSE of a comparison of the data against nine-year mean satellite-derived LAI at those sites. Continentally, Lopt had a R2 of over 70% when compared to satellite-derived LAI, which is comparable to the R2 obtained when different satellite products are compared against each other. The predicted response of Lopt to the increase in atmospheric CO2 over the last 30 years also agreed with the estimate based on satellite-derivatives. Our results indicate that long-term equilibrium LAI can be successfully predicted from a simple application of ecohydrological theory. We suggest that this theory could be usefully incorporated into terrestrial vegetation models to improve their predictions of LAI.

  14. Equilibrium Unfolding Thermodynamics of β2-Microglobulin Analyzed through Native-State H/D Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennella, Enrico; Corazza, Alessandra; Fogolari, Federico; Viglino, Paolo; Giorgetti, Sofia; Stoppini, Monica; Bellotti, Vittorio; Esposito, Gennaro

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The exchange rates for the amide hydrogens of β2-microglobulin, the protein responsible for dialysis-related amyloidosis, were measured under native conditions at different temperatures ranging from 301 to 315 K. The pattern of protection factors within different regions of the protein correlates well with the hydrogen-bonding pattern of the deposited structures. Analysis of the exchange rates indicates the presence of mixed EX1- and EX2-limit mechanisms. The measured parameters are consistent with a two-process model in which two competing pathways, i.e., global unfolding in the core region and partial openings of the native state, determine the observed exchange rates. These findings are analyzed with respect to the amyloidogenic properties of the protein. PMID:18835891

  15. Effective equilibrium states in mixtures of active particles driven by colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, René; Brader, J. M.; Sharma, A.; Marconi, U. Marini Bettolo

    2018-01-01

    We consider the steady-state behavior of pairs of active particles having different persistence times and diffusivities. To this purpose we employ the active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model, where the particles are driven by colored noises with exponential correlation functions whose intensities and correlation times vary from species to species. By extending Fox's theory to many components, we derive by functional calculus an approximate Fokker-Planck equation for the configurational distribution function of the system. After illustrating the predicted distribution in the solvable case of two particles interacting via a harmonic potential, we consider systems of particles repelling through inverse power-law potentials. We compare the analytic predictions to computer simulations for such soft-repulsive interactions in one dimension and show that at linear order in the persistence times the theory is satisfactory. This work provides the toolbox to qualitatively describe many-body phenomena, such as demixing and depletion, by means of effective pair potentials.

  16. Rich structure in the correlation matrix spectra in non-equilibrium steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soham; Leyvraz, Francois; Monroy Castillero, Paulino; Seligman, Thomas H

    2017-01-17

    It has been shown that, if a model displays long-range (power-law) spatial correlations, its equal-time correlation matrix will also have a power law tail in the distribution of its high-lying eigenvalues. The purpose of this paper is to show that the converse is generally incorrect: a power-law tail in the high-lying eigenvalues of the correlation matrix may exist even in the absence of equal-time power law correlations in the initial model. We may therefore view the study of the eigenvalue distribution of the correlation matrix as a more powerful tool than the study of spatial Correlations, one which may in fact uncover structure, that would otherwise not be apparent. Specifically, we show that in the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process, whereas there are no clearly visible correlations in the steady state, the eigenvalues of its correlation matrix exhibit a rich structure which we describe in detail.

  17. Non-equilibrium coherent vortex states and subharmonic giant Shapiro steps in Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, D.; Jose, J.V.; Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA

    1994-01-01

    This is a review of recent work on the dynamic response of Josephson junction arrays driven by dc and ac currents. The arrays are modeled by the resistively shunted Josephson junction model, appropriate for proximity effect junctions, including self-induced magnetic fields as well as disorder. The relevance of the self-induced fields is measured as a function of a parameter κ = λ L /a, with λ L the London penetration depth of the arrays, and a the lattice spacing. The transition from Type II (κ > 1) to Type I (κ < 1) behavior is studied in detail. The authors compare the results for models with self, self + nearest-neighbor, and full inductance matrices. In the κ = ∞ limit, they find that when the initial state has at least one vortex-antivortex pair, after a characteristic transient time these vortices unbind and radiate other vortices. These radiated vortices settle into a parity-broken, time-periodic, axisymmetric coherent vortex state (ACVS), characterized by alternate rows of positive and negative vortices lying along a tilted axis. The ACVS produces subharmonic steps in the current voltage (IV) characteristics, typical of giant Shapiro steps. For finite κ they find that the IV's show subharmonic giant Shapiro steps, even at zero external magnetic field. They find that these subharmonic steps are produced by a whole family of coherent vortex oscillating patterns, with their structure changing as a function of κ. In general, they find that these patterns are due to a breakdown of translational invariance produced, for example, by disorder of antisymmetric edge-fields. The zero field case results are in good qualitative agreement with experiments in Nb-Au-Nb arrays

  18. Generation and extinction of crystal nuclei in an extremely non-equilibrium glassy state of salol

    CERN Document Server

    Paladi, F

    2003-01-01

    Strange generation and subsequent extinction of crystal nuclei were observed in the glassy state of salol (phenyl salicylate) during the course of ageing at very low constant-temperatures. The presence/absence of crystal nuclei within the glass were judged, by using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), from whether the crystal growth and fusion phenomena were observed in the following heating process or not. The liquid sample was cooled rapidly at 200 K min sup - sup 1 from 333 K above the fusion temperature down to a desired ageing temperature (T sub a) below the glass transition temperature (T sub g = 220 K), aged there for different periods (t sub a), and then heated up to 213 K at 200 K min sup - sup 1. The DSC measurement was carried out at 10 K min sup - sup 1 from 213 to 333 K. The ageing periods were taken in a range between 30 s and 316 min. At T sub a = 213 K, crystal nucleation was found to proceed for ageing longer than 100 min. No crystal nucleation was found at T sub a in between 123 and 1...

  19. Phosphorus (32 P) adsorption kinetics and equilibrium in soils of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Lucivaldo Celestino.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the relationship between the P fixing capacity of various soils and their hydrous oxide content. The relationship with other soil variables was also analysed. This fixing capacity was evaluated through adsorption isotherms and isotopic exchange kinetics of 32 P in samples with high and low P concentrations. Samples from 11 soils, cultivated with sugar-cane, representing five soil classes (non-humic gley, red-yellow Podzolic, red-yellow latossolic, distrofic quartzitic sand and distrofic organic). The soils were sampled in the southern humid coastal region of the state of Pernambuco. Soil were sampled immediately after harvest of the plant-cane. The results of the basic soil chemical analysis showed that all soils had pH values in the acid range,varying from 3.87 to 6.31. Total organic C was always less than 12 mg C/g, except for the organic soil that had 75 mg C/g soil. In soils with R 1 /R 0 between 0,01 and 0,1 the proportion of resin P oscillated between 10 and 20 of the increase in total inorganic P, while in those with R 1 /R 0 > 0,1 the proportion was larger than 20% with one exception. (author). 44 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Stable Isotope Identification of Nitrogen Sources for United States (U.S.) Pacific Coast Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. A.; Kaldy, J. E.; Fong, P.; Fong, C.; Mochon Collura, T.; Clinton, P.

    2016-02-01

    Nutrients are the leading cause of water quality impairments in the United States, and as a result tools are needed to identify the sources of nutrients. We used natural abundance stable isotope data to evaluate nitrogen sources to U.S. west coast estuaries. We collected macroalgae and analyzed these samples for natural abundance of stable isotopes (δ15N) and supplemented this with available data from the literature for estuaries from Mexico to Alaska. Stable isotope ratios of green macroalgae were compared to δ15N of dissolved inorganic nitrogen of oceanic and watershed end members. There was a latitudinal gradient in δ15N of macroalgae with southern estuaries being 7 per mil heavier than northern estuaries. Gradients in isotope data were compared to nitrogen sources estimated by the USGS using the SPARROW model. In California estuaries, the elevation of isotope data appeared to be related to anthropogenic nitrogen sources. In Oregon systems, the nitrogen levels of streams flowing into the estuaries are related to forest cover, rather than to developed land classes. In Oregon estuaries, the δ15N of macroalgae suggested that the ocean and nitrogen-fixing trees in the watersheds were the dominant nitrogen sources with heavier sites located near the estuary mouth. In California estuaries, the gradient was reversed with heavier sites located upriver. In some Oregon estuaries, there was an elevation an elevation of δ15N above marine end members in the vicinity of wastewater treatment facility discharge locations, suggesting isotopes may be useful for distinguishing inputs along an estuarine gradient.

  1. Ground state properties and non-equilibrium dynamics of hard-core bosons confined on optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Marcos; Muramatsu, Alejandro

    2004-03-01

    We study by means of an exact approach, a gas of hard core bosons (HCB) confined on optical lattices. The ground state properties of such systems are analyzed. Local incompressible phases appear in the system, like in the case of interacting soft-core bosons [1] and fermions [2,3]. The changes in momentum distribution function and in the natural orbitals (effective single particle states) introduced by the formation of such phases are analyzed. We also study non-equilibrium properties for those systems, which within our numerical approach can be obtained exactly for systems with 200 particles on lattices with 3000 sites. In particular we analyze the free expansion of the gas when it is released from the trap turning off the confining potential. We show that the expansion is non-trivial (as opposed to the fermionic case) and new features to be observed in the experiments are analyzed. [1] G. G. Batrouni, V. Rousseau, R. T. Scalettar, M. Rigol, A. Muramatsu, P. J. H. Denteneer, and M. Troyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 117203 (2002). [2] M. Rigol, A. Muramatsu, G. G. Batrouni, and R. T. Scalettar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130403 (2003). [3] M. Rigol and A. Muramatsu, cond-mat/0309670 (2003).

  2. Effects of marine protected areas on overfished fishing stocks with multiple stable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, Nao; Mougi, Akihiko

    2014-01-21

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have attracted much attention as a tool for sustainable fisheries management, restoring depleted fisheries stocks and maintaining ecosystems. However, even with total exclusion of fishing effort, depleted stocks sometimes show little or no recovery over a long time period. Here, using a mathematical model, we show that multiple stable states may hold the key to understanding the tendency for fisheries stocks to recover because of MPAs. We find that MPAs can have either a positive effect or almost no effect on the recovery of depleted fishing stocks, depending on the fish migration patterns and the fishing policies. MPAs also reinforce ecological resilience, particularly for migratory species. In contrast to previous reports, our results show that MPAs have small or sometimes negative effects on the recovery of sedentary species. Unsuitable MPA planning might result in low effectiveness or even deterioration of the existing condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mowing Submerged Macrophytes in Shallow Lakes with Alternative Stable States: Battling the Good Guys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Jan J.; Verhofstad, Michiel J. J. M.; Louwers, Evelien L. M.; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Brederveld, Robert J.; van Gerven, Luuk P. A.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2017-04-01

    Submerged macrophytes play an important role in maintaining good water quality in shallow lakes. Yet extensive stands easily interfere with various services provided by these lakes, and harvesting is increasingly applied as a management measure. Because shallow lakes may possess alternative stable states over a wide range of environmental conditions, designing a successful mowing strategy is challenging, given the important role of macrophytes in stabilizing the clear water state. In this study, the integrated ecosystem model PCLake is used to explore the consequences of mowing, in terms of reducing nuisance and ecosystem stability, for a wide range of external nutrient loadings, mowing intensities and timings. Elodea is used as a model species. Additionally, we use PCLake to estimate how much phosphorus is removed with the harvested biomass, and evaluate the long-term effect of harvesting. Our model indicates that mowing can temporarily reduce nuisance caused by submerged plants in the first weeks after cutting, particularly when external nutrient loading is fairly low. The risk of instigating a regime shift can be tempered by mowing halfway the growing season when the resilience of the system is highest, as our model showed. Up to half of the phosphorus entering the system can potentially be removed along with the harvested biomass. As a result, prolonged mowing can prevent an oligo—to mesotrophic lake from becoming eutrophic to a certain extent, as our model shows that the critical nutrient loading, where the lake shifts to the turbid phytoplankton-dominated state, can be slightly increased.

  4. Internal proton transfer and H2 rotations in the H5(+) cluster: a marked influence on its thermal equilibrium state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tudela, Ricardo Pérez; Barragán, Patricia; Prosmiti, Rita; Villarreal, Pablo; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo

    2011-03-31

    Classical and path integral Monte Carlo (CMC, PIMC) "on the fly" calculations are carried out to investigate anharmonic quantum effects on the thermal equilibrium structure of the H5(+) cluster. The idea to follow in our computations is based on using a combination of the above-mentioned nuclear classical and quantum statistical methods, and first-principles density functional (DFT) electronic structure calculations. The interaction energies are computed within the DFT framework using the B3(H) hybrid functional, specially designed for hydrogen-only systems. The global minimum of the potential is predicted to be a nonplanar configuration of C(2v) symmetry, while the next three low-lying stationary points on the surface correspond to extremely low-energy barriers for the internal proton transfer and to the rotation of the H2 molecules, around the C2 axis of H5(+), connecting the symmetric C(2v) minima in the planar and nonplanar orientations. On the basis of full-dimensional converged PIMC calculations, results on the quantum vibrational zero-point energy (ZPE) and state of H5(+) are reported at a low temperature of 10 K, and the influence of the above-mentioned topological features of the surface on its probability distributions is clearly demonstrated.

  5. Numerical analysis of Markov-perfect equilibria with multiple stable steady states : A duopoly application with innovative firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawid, H.; Keoula, M.Y.; Kort, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical method for the characterization of Markov-perfect equilibria of symmetric differential games exhibiting coexisting stable steady states. The method relying on the calculation of ‘local value functions’ through collocation in overlapping parts of the state space, is

  6. SU-G-IeP2-11: Measurement of Equilibrium Doses in Computed Tomography: Comparative Study of Ionization and Solid-State Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, K; Kobayashi, A; Koshida, K [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Kobayashi, M [Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Noto, K [Kanazawa university hospital, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare equilibrium doses in computed tomography (CT) obtained from ionization and solid-state dosimeters based on the approach presented in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report No. 111. The equilibrium doses were also compared with the CT dose index (CTDI) using a 10-cm pencil-type ionization chamber. Methods: A 0.6-cm{sup 3} ionization chamber (10X6-0.6CT) and a solid-state detector (CT Dose Profiler [CTDP]) were calibrated using 80–130 kVp X-ray beams (44.5–55.8 keV of effective energy) from a radiography X-ray machine against a reference ionization dosimeter. Three 16- or 32-cm diameter polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms were assembled consecutively on the CT table to obtain equilibrium doses. The 10X6-0.6CT and CTDP were each placed at the center and peripheral holes (12, 3, 6, and 9 o’clock) of the z-center. Central and mean peripheral equilibrium doses were obtained by scanning with longitudinal translation for a length less than the entire phantom length. CTDIs were also obtained with a 10-cm pencil-type ionization chamber (10X6-0.6CT) by scanning a 16- or 32-cm diameter PMMA phantom with one rotation of the X-ray tube. Results: The difference of calibration coefficients between 80 and 130 kVp was 21.1% for the CTDP and 0.7% for the 10X6-0.6CT. The equilibrium doses were higher than the CTDI. Especially at the peripheral positions and 80 kVp, the 10X6-0.6CT showed higher equilibrium doses than CTDP. However, the relation between the equilibrium dose for the 10X6-0.6CT and the CTDP differed depending on the phantom size, scanner type, measurement position, and selected acquisition parameters. Conclusion: The use of a 10-cm pencil-type ionization chamber causes underestimation of the equilibrium dose. The CTDP has a higher energy dependency than the 10X6-0.6CT. The obtained equilibrium doses are different between the 10X6-0.6CT and the CTDP depending on various conditions. This study was supported

  7. An application of the spatial equilibrium model to soybean production in tocantins and neighboring states in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Clara Barraza De La Cruz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the production chain of soybeans in Brazil a sizable part of the corresponding cost structure is the result of logistics costs. Given the location of its production sites, distant from the ocean, the optimization of the transportation costs is essential for preserving competitiveness. Using nonlinear programming, this study proposes a spatial multimodal and temporal equilibrium model. The applicability of the model is tested with a case study regarding the exports of the soybeans produced in three states in the northern part of the Brazilian cerrado region. In the state of Tocantins, the effects of infrastructure investments in the competitiveness of the production are described through four proposed scenarios, while the basic scenario compares the three states. The data are treated using the GAMS/MINOS program. The study asserts that soybean production will be more competitive if warehousing facilities are used extensively and when the project hydroway becomes operational.Na cadeia de produção da soja no Brasil, parte substancial da estrutura correspondente dos custos é resultado dos custos logísticos. Dada a localização das áreas produtivas, distante do oceano, a otimização dos custos de transporte é essencial para garantir a competitividade. Usando programação não-linear, este estudo propõe um modelo de equilíbrio espacial temporal e multimodal. A aplicabilidade do modelo proposto é testada com um estudo de caso referente às exportações de soja produzida em três estados na parte norte do cerrado brasileiro. No estado de Tocantins, o efeito na competitividade de investimentos na infraestrutura de transporte estão descritos por meio de quatro cenários, enquanto que os três estados são comparados pelo cenário básico. Os dados são tratados usando o programa GAMS/MINOS. O estudo assegura que a produção de soja nesses estados será mais competitiva se armazéns forem usados mais extensamente e quando o projeto

  8. Chemical Equilibrium Models for the S3 State of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Hiroshi; Shoji, Mitsuo; Shen, Jian-Ren; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    2016-01-19

    We have performed hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate how chemical equilibria can be described in the S3 state of the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II. For a chosen 340-atom model, 1 stable and 11 metastable intermediates have been identified within the range of 13 kcal mol(-1) that differ in protonation, charge, spin, and conformational states. The results imply that reversible interconversion of these intermediates gives rise to dynamic equilibria that involve processes with relocations of protons and electrons residing in the Mn4CaO5 cluster, as well as bound water ligands, with concomitant large changes in the cluster geometry. Such proton tautomerism and redox isomerism are responsible for reversible activation/deactivation processes of substrate oxygen species, through which Mn-O and O-O bonds are transiently ruptured and formed. These results may allow for a tentative interpretation of kinetic data on substrate water exchange on the order of seconds at room temperature, as measured by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The reliability of the hybrid DFT method for the multielectron redox reaction in such an intricate system is also addressed.

  9. Positive feedback and alternative stable states in inbreeding, cooperation, sex roles and other evolutionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Kokko, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of studies in systems science focus on processes involving a mixture of positive and negative feedbacks, which are also common themes in evolutionary ecology. Examples of negative feedback are density dependence (population regulation) and frequency-dependent selection (polymorphisms). Positive feedback, in turn, plays a role in Fisherian ‘runaway’ sexual selection, the evolution of cooperation, selfing and inbreeding tolerance under purging of deleterious alleles, and the evolution of sex differences in parental care. All these examples feature self-reinforcing processes where the increase in the value of a trait selects for further increases, sometimes via a coevolutionary feedback loop with another trait. Positive feedback often leads to alternative stable states (evolutionary endpoints), making the interpretation of evolutionary predictions challenging. Here, we discuss conceptual issues such as the relationship between self-reinforcing selection and disruptive selection. We also present an extension of a previous model on parental care, focusing on the relationship between the operational sex ratio and sexual selection, and the influence of this relationship on the evolution of biparental or uniparental care. PMID:22144384

  10. Present state and problems of the measures for securing stable supply of uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Fumishige

    1982-01-01

    The long-term stable supply of uranium resources must be secured in order to accelerate the development and utilization of nuclear power in Japan. All uranium required in Japan is imported from foreign countries, and depends on small number of suppliers. On the use of uranium, various restrictions have been imposed by bilateral agreements from the viewpoint of nuclear non-proliferation policy. At present, the demand-supply relation in uranium market is not stringent, but in the latter half of 1980s, it is feared that it will be stringent. The prospect of the demand and supply of uranium resources, the state of securing uranium resources, the present policy on uranium resources, the necessity of establishing the new policy, and the active promotion of uranium resource measures are described. The measures to be taken are the promotion of exploration and development of mines, the participation in the management of such foreign projects, the promotion of diversifying the supply sources, the establishment of the structure to accept uranium resources, the promotion of the storage of uranium, and the rearrangement of general coordination and promotion functions for uranium resource procurement. (Kako, I.)

  11. Positive feedback and alternative stable states in inbreeding, cooperation, sex roles and other evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Kokko, Hanna

    2012-01-19

    A large proportion of studies in systems science focus on processes involving a mixture of positive and negative feedbacks, which are also common themes in evolutionary ecology. Examples of negative feedback are density dependence (population regulation) and frequency-dependent selection (polymorphisms). Positive feedback, in turn, plays a role in Fisherian 'runaway' sexual selection, the evolution of cooperation, selfing and inbreeding tolerance under purging of deleterious alleles, and the evolution of sex differences in parental care. All these examples feature self-reinforcing processes where the increase in the value of a trait selects for further increases, sometimes via a coevolutionary feedback loop with another trait. Positive feedback often leads to alternative stable states (evolutionary endpoints), making the interpretation of evolutionary predictions challenging. Here, we discuss conceptual issues such as the relationship between self-reinforcing selection and disruptive selection. We also present an extension of a previous model on parental care, focusing on the relationship between the operational sex ratio and sexual selection, and the influence of this relationship on the evolution of biparental or uniparental care.

  12. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in stable adult Chinese renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huifen Faye; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Xiongfe; Fang, Juanzhi; Crownover, Penelope; Korth-Bradley, Joan; Schulman, Seth

    2014-05-01

    This open-label, nonrandomized study was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in 24 stable Chinese renal transplant patients receiving daily oral maintenance doses of sirolimus (1-4 mg). Repeated trough and serial whole blood sirolimus concentrations over a 24-hour dosing interval were collected and assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Non-compartmental analysis (NCA) was employed to calculate sirolimus pharmacokinetic parameters. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 genotyping was performed. Cyclosporine (CsA) levels were determined for patients who took concomitant CsA. Mean (±SD) sirolimus maximum concentration (Cmax ), area under the concentration-time curve within a dosing interval of τ (AUCτ ), oral clearance (CL/F), and trough concentration (Ctrough ) at steady state were: 14.1 ± 13.4 ng/mL, 199 ± 210 ng · h/mL, 10.1 ± 4.4 L/h, and 5.9 ± 6.3 ng/mL, respectively. Median tmax (range) was 2.49 hours (1-12 hours). A strong correlation was observed between Ctrough and AUCτ . Pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in patients with and without concomitant CsA were comparable. Allele frequency of CYP3A5*3 was 70.9% and a trend of higher oral clearance was observed in CYP3A5 expressers compared with non-expressers although the number of subjects in each genotype was small. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Equilibrium Dialysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    context of antimicrobial therapy in malnutrition. Dialysis has in the past presented technical problems, being complicated and time-consuming. A new dialysis system based on the equilibrium technique has now become available, and it is the principles and practical application of this apparatus (Kontron Diapack; Kontron.

  14. Maximin equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new concept which extends von Neumann and Morgenstern's maximin strategy solution by incorporating `individual rationality' of the players. Maximin equilibrium, extending Nash's value approach, is based on the evaluation of the strategic uncertainty of the whole game. We show that

  15. Strategic Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    An outcome in a noncooperative game is said to be self-enforcing, or a strategic equilibrium, if, whenever it is recommended to the players, no player has an incentive to deviate from it.This paper gives an overview of the concepts that have been proposed as formalizations of this requirement and of

  16. Dynamic Data-Driven Reduced-Order Models of Macroscale Quantities for the Prediction of Equilibrium System State for Multiphase Porous Medium Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, C.; McClure, J. E.; Armstrong, R. T.; Mostaghimi, P.; Hu, Y.; Miller, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Microscale simulation of multiphase flow in realistic, highly-resolved porous medium systems of a sufficient size to support macroscale evaluation is computationally demanding. Such approaches can, however, reveal the dynamic, steady, and equilibrium states of a system. We evaluate methods to utilize dynamic data to reduce the cost associated with modeling a steady or equilibrium state. We construct data-driven models using extensions to dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and its connections to Koopman Operator Theory. DMD and its variants comprise a class of equation-free methods for dimensionality reduction of time-dependent nonlinear dynamical systems. DMD furnishes an explicit reduced representation of system states in terms of spatiotemporally varying modes with time-dependent oscillation frequencies and amplitudes. We use DMD to predict the steady and equilibrium macroscale state of a realistic two-fluid porous medium system imaged using micro-computed tomography (µCT) and simulated using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We apply Koopman DMD to direct numerical simulation data resulting from simulations of multiphase fluid flow through a 1440x1440x4320 section of a full 1600x1600x5280 realization of imaged sandstone. We determine a representative set of system observables via dimensionality reduction techniques including linear and kernel principal component analysis. We demonstrate how this subset of macroscale quantities furnishes a representation of the time-evolution of the system in terms of dynamic modes, and discuss the selection of a subset of DMD modes yielding the optimal reduced model, as well as the time-dependence of the error in the predicted equilibrium value of each macroscale quantity. Finally, we describe how the above procedure, modified to incorporate methods from compressed sensing and random projection techniques, may be used in an online fashion to facilitate adaptive time-stepping and parsimonious storage of system states over time.

  17. NMR spectroscopic studies of a TAT-derived model peptide in imidazolium-based ILs: influence on chemical shifts and the cis/trans equilibrium state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Christoph; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Mrestani-Klaus, Carmen; Bordusa, Frank

    2017-09-13

    NMR spectroscopy was used to study systematically the impact of imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) solutions on a TAT-derived model peptide containing Xaa-Pro peptide bonds. The selected IL anions cover a wide range of the Hofmeister series of ions. Based on highly resolved one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra individual 1 H and 13 C peptide chemical shift differences were analysed and a classification of IL anions according to the Hofmeister series was derived. The observed chemical shift changes indicate significant interactions between the peptide and the ILs. In addition, we examined the impact of different ILs towards the cis/trans equilibrium state of the Xaa-Pro peptide bonds. In this context, the IL cations appear to be of exceptional importance for inducing an alteration of the native cis/trans equilibrium state of Xaa-Pro bonds in favour of the trans-isomers.

  18. Mapping Precipitation Patterns from the Stable Isotopic Composition of Surface Waters: Olympic Peninsula, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, A. M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Available data indicate that large and persistent precipitation gradients are tied to topography at scales down to a few kilometers, but precipitation patterns in the majority of mountain ranges are poorly constrained at scales less than tens of kilometers. A lack of knowledge of precipitation patterns hampers efforts to understand the processes of orographic precipitation and identify the relationships between geomorphic evolution and climate. A new method for mapping precipitation using the stable isotopic composition of surface waters is tested in the Olympic Mountains of Washington State. Measured δD and δ18O of 97 samples of surface water are linearly related and nearly inseparable from the global meteoric water line. A linear orographic precipitation model extended to include in effects of isotopic fractionation via Rayleigh distillation predicts precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of surface water. Seven parameters relating to the climate and isotopic composition of source water are used. A constrained random search identifies the best-fitting parameter set. Confidence intervals for parameter values are defined and precipitation patterns are determined. Average errors for the best-fitting model are 4.8 permil in δD. The difference between the best fitting model and other models within the 95% confidence interval was less than 20%. An independent high-resolution precipitation climatology documents precipitation gradients similar in shape and magnitude to the model derived from surface water isotopic composition. This technique could be extended to other mountain ranges, providing an economical and fast assessment of precipitation patterns requiring minimal field work.

  19. Cross sections for charge change in argon and equilibrium charge states of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions passing through argon and carbon targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumal, A.N.; Horvat, V.; Watson, R.L.; Peng, Y.; Fruchey, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Cross sections for single and multiple electron capture and loss were measured for 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions, traveling in argon gas, as a function of incident charge state. Multiple electron loss in single collisions was found to contribute significantly to the total loss cross section. The measured cross sections were used to determine the average equilibrium charge in argon by three different methods. The resulting charges were in good agreement with each other and with the effective charge calculated from stopping powers. In order to investigate the gas-solid (density) effect on the average equilibrium charge, the charge distributions of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions emerging from carbon foils of different thicknesses were measured. It was found that the average equilibrium charge of the uranium ions emerging from the solid is 41% larger than that of the uranium ions emerging from the gas. The energy dependences of the average equilibrium charges for uranium ions exiting carbon and argon targets were examined by combining the present results with previous results of other investigators and compared with the predictions of a semiempirical formula developed recently by Schiwietz and Grande

  20. Afghanistan: Challenges and Options for Reconstructing a Stable and Moderate State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Richard P

    2002-01-01

    The U.S.-led effort to end Afghanistan's role as host to Osarna bin Laden and other anti-western Islamic terrorists requires not only the defeat of the Taliban but also the reconstmction of a stable...

  1. Afghanistan: Challenges and Options for Reconstructing a Stable and Moderate State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Richard P

    2002-01-01

    The U.S.-led effort to end Afghanistan's role as host to Osama bin Laden and other anti-western Islamic terrorists requires not only the defeat of the Taliban but also the reconstruction of a stable...

  2. Non-equilibrium steady states: maximization of the Shannon entropy associated with the distribution of dynamical trajectories in the presence of constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    Filyokov and Karpov (1967 Inzh.-Fiz. Zh. 13 624) have proposed a theory of non-equilibrium steady states in direct analogy with the theory of equilibrium states: the principle is to maximize the Shannon entropy associated with the probability distribution of dynamical trajectories in the presence of constraints, including the macroscopic current of interest, via the method of Lagrange multipliers. This maximization leads directly to the generalized Gibbs distribution for the probability distribution of dynamical trajectories, and to some fluctuation relation of the integrated current. The simplest stochastic dynamics where these ideas can be applied are discrete-time Markov chains, defined by transition probabilities W i→j between configurations i and j: instead of choosing the dynamical rules W i→j a priori, one determines the transition probabilities and the associate stationary state that maximize the entropy of dynamical trajectories with the other physical constraints that one wishes to impose. We give a self-contained and unified presentation of this type of approach, both for discrete-time Markov chains and for continuous-time master equations. The obtained results are in full agreement with the Bayesian approach introduced by Evans (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 150601) under the name 'Non-equilibrium Counterpart to detailed balance', and with the 'invariant quantities' derived by Baule and Evans (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 240601), but provide a slightly different perspective via the formulation in terms of an eigenvalue problem

  3. Sweatshop Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a capability-augmented model of on the job search, in which sweatshop conditions stifle the capability of the working poor to search for a job while on the job. The augmented setting unveils a sweatshop equilibrium in an otherwise archetypal Burdett-Mortensen economy, and reconciles a number of oft noted yet perplexing features of sweatshop economies. We demonstrate existence of multiple rational expectation equilibria, graduation pathways out of sweatshops in complete abs...

  4. Equilibrium models and variational inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Konnov, Igor

    2007-01-01

    The concept of equilibrium plays a central role in various applied sciences, such as physics (especially, mechanics), economics, engineering, transportation, sociology, chemistry, biology and other fields. If one can formulate the equilibrium problem in the form of a mathematical model, solutions of the corresponding problem can be used for forecasting the future behavior of very complex systems and, also, for correcting the the current state of the system under control. This book presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts in economics, including several models from related sciences.- Presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts and also the present state of investigations in this field- Describes static and dynamic input-output models, Walras, Cassel-Wald, spatial price, auction market, oligopolistic equilibrium models, transportation and migration equilibrium models- Covers the basics of theory and solution methods both for the complementarity and variational inequality probl...

  5. Investigation of defect states in organic semiconductors. Towards long term stable materials for organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafferhans, Julia

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the trap states in the conjugated polymer P3HT, often used as electron donor in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, three commonly used fullerene based electron acceptors and P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM blends were investigated. Concerning the lifetime of organic solar cells the influence of oxygen on P3HT and P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM blends was studied. Fractional TSC measurements on P3HT diodes revealed a quasi-continuous trap distribution. The deeper traps exhibited a strong dependence on oxygen. Exposure of the P3HT diodes to oxygen, ambient air and synthetic (dry) air all revealed an increase of the deeper traps density with exposure time in the same manner. While the lower limit of the trap density in non aged P3HT samples was in the range of (1.0-1.2) x 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, it was more than doubled after an exposure of 50 h to air. An increase of the trap density with oxygen exposure time was also seen in the Q-DLTS measurements accompanied with an increase of the temperature dependence of the emission rates. Due to the raise in density of the deeper traps, the charge carrier mobility in P3HT significantly decreased, as revealed by photo-CELIV measurements, resulting in a loss in mobility of about two orders of magnitude after 100 h exposure to synthetic air. This effect was partially reversible by applying vacuum to the sample for several hours or, more significantly, by a thermal treatment of the devices in nitrogen atmosphere. The trap states in the methanofullerenes PC{sub 61}BM, bisPC{sub 61}BM and PC71BM were investigated by TSC measurements. PC{sub 61}BM yielded a broad quasi-continuous trap distribution with the maximum of the distribution at about 75 meV. The comparison of the TSC spectra of the three methanofullerenes exhibited significant differences in the trap states with higher activation energies of the most prominent traps in bisPC{sub 61}BM and PC71BM compared to PC{sub 61}BM. The lower limit of the trap density of all of the three

  6. Self-similar decay to the marginally stable ground state in a model for film flow over inclined wavy bottoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hacker

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The integral boundary layer system (IBL with spatially periodic coefficients arises as a long wave approximation for the flow of a viscous incompressible fluid down a wavy inclined plane. The Nusselt-like stationary solution of the IBL is linearly at best marginally stable; i.e., it has essential spectrum at least up to the imaginary axis. Nevertheless, in this stable case we show that localized perturbations of the ground state decay in a self-similar way. The proof uses the renormalization group method in Bloch variables and the fact that in the stable case the Burgers equation is the amplitude equation for long waves of small amplitude in the IBL. It is the first time that such a proof is given for a quasilinear PDE with spatially periodic coefficients.

  7. Folding equilibrium constants of telomere G-quadruplexes in free state or associated with proteins determined by isothermal differential hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Ma, Li; Hao, Yu-Hua; Tan, Zheng

    2010-11-15

    Guanine rich (G-rich) nucleic acids form G-quadruplex structures that are implicated in many biological processes, pharmaceutical applications, and molecular machinery. The folding equilibrium constant (K(F)) of the G-quadruplex not only determines its stability and competition against duplex formation in genomic DNA but also defines its recognition by proteins and drugs and technical specifications. The K(F) is most conveniently derived from thermal melting analysis that has so far yielded extremely diversified results for the human telomere G-quadruplex. Melting analysis cannot be used for nucleic acids associated with proteins, thus has difficulty to study how protein association affects the folding equilibrium of G-quadruplex structure. In this work, we established an isothermal differential hybridization (IDH) method that is able to determine the K(F) of G-quadruplex, either alone or associated with proteins. Using this method, we studied the folding equilibrium of the core sequence G(3)(T(2)AG(3))(3) from vertebrate telomere in K(+) and Na(+) solutions and how it is affected by proteins associated at its adjacent regions. Our results show that the K(F) obtained for the free G-quadruplex is within 1 order of magnitude of most of those obtained by melting analysis and protein binding beside a G-quadruplex can dramatically destabilize the G-quadruplex.

  8. Seven years of geomorphic change in the head of Monterey Canyon, CA: Steady state equilibrium or monotonic change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. P.; Kvitek, R. G.; Ross, E.; Iampietro, P.; Paull, C. K.; Sandersfeld, M.

    2010-12-01

    The head of Monterey submarine canyon has been surveyed with high-precision multibeam sonar at least once each year since September 2002. This poster provides a summary of changes between September 2002 and September 2008. Data were collected with a variety of Reson mulitbeam sonar heads, and logged with an ISIS data acquisition system. Vessel attitude was corrected using an Applanix POS MV equipped with an auxillary C-Nav 2050 GPS receiver. Data were processed and filtered and cleaned in Caris HIPS. Depth changes for various time spans were determined through raster subtraction of pairs of 3-m resolution bathymetric grids in ArcMap. The depth change analyses focused on the canyon floor, except where a landslide occurred on a wall, and where obvious gullying near the headwall had occurred during the time of our study. Canyon walls were generally excluded from analysis. The analysis area was 1,414,240 sq meters. The gross changes between 2002 and 2008 include net erosion of 2,300,000 m^3 +/- 800,000 m^3 of material from the canyon. The annualized rate of net sediment loss from this time frame agrees within an order of magnitude with our previously published estimates from earlier (shorter) time frames, so the erosion events seem to be moderate magnitude and frequent, rather than infrequent and catastrophic. The greatest sediment loss appears to be from lateral erosion of channel-bounding terraces rather than deepening or scouring of the existing channel axis. A single landslide event that occurred in summer 2003 had an initial slide scar (void) volume of 71,000 m^3. The scar was observed to increase annually, and had grown to approximately 96,000 m^3 by 2008. The initial slide was too small to be tsunamigenic. In contrast to the monotonic canyon axis widening, the shoreward terminus of the canyon (canyon lip) appears to be in steady state equilibrium with sediment supply entering the canyon from the littoral zone. The lip position, indicated by the clearly defined

  9. Input-to-State Stabilizing MPC for Neutrally Stable Linear Systems subject to Input Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jung-Su; Yoon, Tae-Woong; Jadbabaie, Ali; Persis, Claudio De

    2004-01-01

    MPC(Model Predictive Control) is representative of control methods which are able to handle physical constraints. Closed-loop stability can therefore be ensured only locally in the presence of constraints of this type. However, if the system is neutrally stable, and if the constraints are imposed

  10. Towards long-term stable solid state electrolyzers with infiltrated catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovtar, Simona; Chen, Ming; Brodersen, Karen

    Renewable energy sources like wind and solar are widely considered as the key technologies to cover our growing demands. However, the fluctuating nature of these sources requires a flexible energy system and storage technologies to ensure that energy supply can be covered in a stable and affordable...

  11. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M

    2017-09-18

    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  12. Immunity by equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard

    2016-08-01

    The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.

  13. Random Hamiltonian in thermal equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, Dorje C.; Ellis, David C. P.; Holm, Darryl D.

    2009-01-01

    A framework for the investigation of disordered quantum systems in thermal equilibrium is proposed. The approach is based on a dynamical model--which consists of a combination of a double-bracket gradient flow and a uniform Brownian fluctuation--that `equilibrates' the Hamiltonian into a canonical distribution. The resulting equilibrium state is used to calculate quenched and annealed averages of quantum observables.

  14. Kelp Forests versus Urchin Barrens: Alternate Stable States and Their Effect on Sea Otter Prey Quality in the Aleutian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgal and urchin barren communities are alternately stable and persist in the Aleutians due to sea otter presence and absence. In the early 1990s a rapid otter population decline released urchins from predation and caused a shift to the urchin-dominated state. Despite increases in urchin abundance, otter numbers continued to decline. Although debated, prey quality changes have been implicated in current otter population status. This study examined otter prey abundance, size, biomass, and potential energy density in remnant kelp forest and urchin-dominated communities to determine if alternate stable states affect prey quality. Findings suggest that although urchin barrens provide more abundant urchin prey, individual urchins are smaller and provide lower biomass and potential energy density compared to kelp forests. Shifts to urchin barrens do affect prey quality but changes are likely compensated by increased prey densities and are insufficient in explaining current otter population status in the Aleutians.

  15. Equilibrium and non equilibrium in fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorso, C.O.; Chernomoretz, A.; Lopez, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In this communication we present recent results regarding the interplay of equilibrium and non equilibrium in the process of fragmentation of excited finite Lennard Jones drops. Because the general features of such a potential resemble the ones of the nuclear interaction (fact that is reinforced by the similarity between the EOS of both systems) these studies are not only relevant from a fundamental point of view but also shed light on the problem of nuclear multifragmentation. We focus on the microscopic analysis of the state of the fragmenting system at fragmentation time. We show that the Caloric Curve (i e. the functional relationship between the temperature of the system and the excitation energy) is of the type rise plateau with no vapor branch. The usual rise plateau rise pattern is only recovered when equilibrium is artificially imposed. This result puts a serious question on the validity of the freeze out hypothesis. This feature is independent of the dimensionality or excitation mechanism. Moreover we explore the behavior of magnitudes which can help us determine the degree of the assumed phase transition. It is found that no clear cut criteria is presently available. (Author)

  16. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Mário J

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions. These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This new edit...

  17. Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…

  18. Association Between Pathogens Detected Using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction With Airway Inflammation in COPD at Stable State and Exacerbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Bethan L.; Haldar, Koirobi; Patel, Hemu; Pavord, Ian D.; Barer, Michael R.; Brightling, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relationships between airway inflammation and respiratory potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in subjects with COPD are unclear. Our aim was to evaluate mediators of airway inflammation and their association with PPMs in subjects with COPD at stable state and during exacerbations. METHODS: Sputum from 120 stable subjects with COPD was analyzed for bacteriology (colony-forming units; total 16S; and qPCR targeting Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae), differential cell counts, and inflammatory mediators using the Meso-Scale Discovery Platform. Subjects were classified as colonized if any PPM was identified above the threshold of detection by qPCR. Symptoms were quantified using the visual analog scale. RESULTS: At stable state, 60% of subjects were qPCR positive for H influenzae, 48% for M catarrhalis, and 28% for S pneumoniae. Elevated sputum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in samples qPCR positive for either H influenzae or M catarrhalis. Bacterial loads of H influenzae positively correlated with IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and symptoms; and M catarrhalis correlated with IL-10 and TNF-α. H influenzae qPCR bacterial load was an independent predictor of sputum TNF-α and IL-1β. In 55 subjects with paired exacerbation data, qPCR bacterial load fold change at exacerbation in M catarrhalis but not H influenzae correlated to changes in sputum TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: At stable state, H influenzae is associated with increased airway inflammation in COPD. The relationship between bacterial load changes of specific pathogens and airway inflammation at exacerbation and recovery warrants further investigation. PMID:25103335

  19. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF THE CURRENCY REGIME CHANGE SHOCK ON THE EXTERNAL EQUILIBRIUM OF SOME NEW EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA MILEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and regionalization, we consider to be important an analysis of the asymmetries from the balances of payments of the member states of the European Union (EU. The propagation of a shock determines different effects in the member states of the European Union, due to the existence of some heterogeneous elements in the structure of these economies. Such a situation implies the risk of occurrence of divergences between the member states regarding the joint decisions with impact on the economic development and the external equilibrium. The article aims at providing a theoretical analysis of the way a shock considered by the authors as being representative affects the current account balance of some countries with different economic characteristics, at least in terms of the foreign exchange regime. The theoretical analysis is followed by an empirical analysis of two European Union countries that have undergone the shock of the exchange rate regime shift generated by the entry into ERM II (Exchange Rate Mechanism II. Our research aims at showing the way in which this shock has been reflected upon the balance of the current account, and if the change of the exchange rate regime has been beneficial or not for the economies analysed. The article is based on wider research studies concerning the matters of external equilibrium, asymmetric shocks and European integration, and which have been developed by the authors during the last three years.

  20. Electronic states and nature of bonding of the molecule PdGe by all electron ab initio HF–CI calculations and mass spectrometric equilibrium experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Irene; Kingcade, Joseph E. , Jr.; Gingerich, Karl A.

    1986-01-01

    In the present work we present all-electron ab initio Hartree–Fock (HF) and configuration interaction (CI) calculations of six electronic states of the PdGe molecule. The molecule is predicted to have a 3Pi ground state and two low-lying excited states 3Sigma− and 1Sigma+. The electronic structure...... with a small charge transfer from the Pd to the Ge atom. The dissociation energy of the PdGe molecule has been determined from the mass spectrometric equilibrium data combined with the theoretical results as D00 =252.0±10.5 kJ mol−1. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute...

  1. THE STABILITY OF VAPOR CONDENSATION EQUILIBRIUM

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIN ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The system must get across an energy peak of unstable equilibrium during the condensation of pure vapor; as the supersaturated extent of vapor increases and the temperature decreases, the energy peak shortens and vapor condensation becomes easier. The system must get across an energy peak of unstable equilibrium first, and then get into an energy valley of stable equilibrium during the condensation of impure vapor; as the partial pressure of vapor decreases, the energy peak becomes taller, th...

  2. Teaching the Concept of Gibbs Energy Minimization through Its Application to Phase-Equilibrium Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privat, Romain; Jaubert, Jean-Noe¨l; Berger, Etienne; Coniglio, Lucie; Lemaitre, Ce´cile; Meimaroglou, Dimitrios; Warth, Vale´rie

    2016-01-01

    Robust and fast methods for chemical or multiphase equilibrium calculation are routinely needed by chemical-process engineers working on sizing or simulation aspects. Yet, while industrial applications essentially require calculation tools capable of discriminating between stable and nonstable states and converging to nontrivial solutions,…

  3. The nucleotide-free state of heterotrimeric G proteins α-subunit adopts a highly stable conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andhirka, Sai Krishna; Vignesh, Ravichandran; Aradhyam, Gopala Krishna

    2017-08-01

    Deciphering the mechanism of activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by their cognate receptors continues to be an intriguing area of research. The recently solved crystal structure of the ternary complex captured the receptor-bound α-subunit in an open conformation, without bound nucleotide has improved our understanding of the activation process. Despite these advancements, the mechanism by which the receptor causes GDP release from the α-subunit remains elusive. To elucidate the mechanism of activation, we studied guanine nucleotide-induced structural stability of the α-subunit (in response to thermal/chaotrope-mediated stress). Inherent stabilities of the inactive (GDP-bound) and active (GTP-bound) forms contribute antagonistically to the difference in conformational stability whereas the GDP-bound protein is able to switch to a stable intermediate state, GTP-bound protein loses this ability. Partial perturbation of the protein fold reveals the underlying influence of the bound nucleotide providing an insight into the mechanism of activation. An extra stable, pretransition intermediate, 'empty pocket' state (conformationally active-state like) in the unfolding pathway of GDP-bound protein mimics a gating system - the activation process having to overcome this stable intermediate state. We demonstrate that a relatively more complex conformational fold of the GDP-bound protein is at the core of the gating system. We report capturing this threshold, 'metastable empty pocket' conformation (the gate) of α-subunit of G protein and hypothesize that the receptor activates the G protein by enabling it to achieve this structure through mild structural perturbation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Stress-Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of One of Africa’s Stable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    head of the ANC Youth League, Julius Malema, led students at a University of Johannesburg rally in singing a song including the lyrics “shoot the boer...positions of influence for self-aggrandizement and financial gain are severely harming the image of the state and fuelling resentment. State resources are

  5. Thermalization and Return to Equilibrium on Finite Quantum Lattice Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Terry; Brandão, Fernando G S L; Cramer, Marcus

    2017-04-07

    Thermal states are the bedrock of statistical physics. Nevertheless, when and how they actually arise in closed quantum systems is not fully understood. We consider this question for systems with local Hamiltonians on finite quantum lattices. In a first step, we show that states with exponentially decaying correlations equilibrate after a quantum quench. Then, we show that the equilibrium state is locally equivalent to a thermal state, provided that the free energy of the equilibrium state is sufficiently small and the thermal state has exponentially decaying correlations. As an application, we look at a related important question: When are thermal states stable against noise? In other words, if we locally disturb a closed quantum system in a thermal state, will it return to thermal equilibrium? We rigorously show that this occurs when the correlations in the thermal state are exponentially decaying. All our results come with finite-size bounds, which are crucial for the growing field of quantum thermodynamics and other physical applications.

  6. Information theory explanation of the fluctuation theorem, maximum entropy production and self-organized criticality in non-equilibrium stationary states

    CERN Document Server

    Dewar, R

    2003-01-01

    Jaynes' information theory formalism of statistical mechanics is applied to the stationary states of open, non-equilibrium systems. First, it is shown that the probability distribution p subGAMMA of the underlying microscopic phase space trajectories GAMMA over a time interval of length tau satisfies p subGAMMA propor to exp(tau sigma subGAMMA/2k sub B) where sigma subGAMMA is the time-averaged rate of entropy production of GAMMA. Three consequences of this result are then derived: (1) the fluctuation theorem, which describes the exponentially declining probability of deviations from the second law of thermodynamics as tau -> infinity; (2) the selection principle of maximum entropy production for non-equilibrium stationary states, empirical support for which has been found in studies of phenomena as diverse as the Earth's climate and crystal growth morphology; and (3) the emergence of self-organized criticality for flux-driven systems in the slowly-driven limit. The explanation of these results on general inf...

  7. A potential new, stable state of the E-cadherin strand-swapped dimer in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann-Gillett, Alexandra; Mark, Alan E; Deplazes, Evelyne; O'Mara, Megan L

    2018-01-01

    E-cadherin is a transmembrane glycoprotein that facilitates inter-cellular adhesion in the epithelium. The ectodomain of the native structure is comprised of five repeated immunoglobulin-like domains. All E-cadherin crystal structures show the protein in one of three alternative conformations: a monomer, a strand-swapped trans homodimer and the so-called X-dimer, which is proposed to be a kinetic intermediate to forming the strand-swapped trans homodimer. However, previous studies have indicated that even once the trans strand-swapped dimer is formed, the complex is highly dynamic and the E-cadherin monomers may reorient relative to each other. Here, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the stability and conformational flexibility of the human E-cadherin trans strand-swapped dimer. In four independent, 100 ns simulations, the dimer moved away from the starting structure and converged to a previously unreported structure, which we call the Y-dimer. The Y-dimer was present for over 90% of the combined simulation time, suggesting that it represents a stable conformation of the E-cadherin dimer in solution. The Y-dimer conformation is stabilised by interactions present in both the trans strand-swapped dimer and X-dimer crystal structures, as well as additional interactions not found in any E-cadherin dimer crystal structures. The Y-dimer represents a previously unreported, stable conformation of the human E-cadherin trans strand-swapped dimer and suggests that the available crystal structures do not fully capture the conformations that the human E-cadherin trans homodimer adopts in solution.

  8. Top-down influences on ambiguous perception: the role of stable and transient states of the observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocchia, Lisa; Valsecchi, Matteo; Triesch, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The world as it appears to the viewer is the result of a complex process of inference performed by the brain. The validity of this apparently counter-intuitive assertion becomes evident whenever we face noisy, feeble or ambiguous visual stimulation: in these conditions, the state of the observer may play a decisive role in determining what is currently perceived. On this background, ambiguous perception and its amenability to top-down influences can be employed as an empirical paradigm to explore the principles of perception. Here we offer an overview of both classical and recent contributions on how stable and transient states of the observer can impact ambiguous perception. As to the influence of the stable states of the observer, we show that what is currently perceived can be influenced (1) by cognitive and affective aspects, such as meaning, prior knowledge, motivation, and emotional content and (2) by individual differences, such as gender, handedness, genetic inheritance, clinical conditions, and personality traits and by (3) learning and conditioning. As to the impact of transient states of the observer, we outline the effects of (4) attention and (5) voluntary control, which have attracted much empirical work along the history of ambiguous perception. In the huge literature on the topic we trace a difference between the observer's ability to control dominance (i.e., the maintenance of a specific percept in visual awareness) and reversal rate (i.e., the switching between two alternative percepts). Other transient states of the observer that have more recently drawn researchers' attention regard (6) the effects of imagery and visual working memory. (7) Furthermore, we describe the transient effects of prior history of perceptual dominance. (8) Finally, we address the currently available computational models of ambiguous perception and how they can take into account the crucial share played by the state of the observer in perceiving ambiguous displays. PMID

  9. Top-down influences on ambiguous perception: the role of stable and transient states of the observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eScocchia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The world as it appears to the viewer is the result of a complex process of inference performed by the brain. The validity of this apparently counter-intuitive assertion becomes evident whenever we face noisy, feeble or ambiguous visual stimulation: in these conditions, the state of the observer may play a decisive role in determining what is currently perceived. On this background, ambiguous perception and its amenability to top-down influences can be employed as an empirical paradigm to explore the principles of perception. Here we offer an overview of both classical and recent contributions on how stable and transient states of the observer can impact ambiguous perception. As to the influence of the stable states of the observer, we show that what is currently perceived can be influenced (1 by cognitive and affective aspects, such as meaning, prior knowledge, motivation and emotional content and (2 by individual differences, such as gender, handedness, genetic inheritance, clinical conditions and personality traits and by (3 learning and conditioning. As to the impact of transient states of the observer, we outline the effects of (4 attention and (5 voluntary control, which have attracted much empirical work along the history of ambiguous perception. In the huge literature on the topic we trace a difference between the observer’s ability to control dominance (i.e: the maintenance of a specific percept in visual awareness and reversal rate (i.e: the switching between two alternative percepts. Other transient states of the observer that have more recently drawn researchers’ attention regard (6 the effects of imagery and visual working memory. (7 Furthermore, we describe the transient effects of prior history of perceptual dominance. (8 Finally, we address the currently available computational models of ambiguous perception and how they can take into account the crucial share played by the state of the observer in perceiving ambiguous

  10. Can we use redox sensitive elements to indicate past stable state transitions? Preliminary results from three shallow lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeck, B. C.; Deschamp, M. L.; Hagen, S.; Theissen, K. M.; Hobbs, W.

    2010-12-01

    Shallow lakes are known to exist in two distinct stable states; either a clear-water state which is dominated by macrophytes or a turbid state which is dominated by algae. Results of past studies suggest that when lakes exist in the clear-water state they are more efficient at sequestering organic carbon. This is because lakes in the clear-water state generally have longer periods of low oxygen conditions which prevent the decomposition of organic matter, allowing lakes in this state to bury more organic carbon. With this in mind we decided to test redox sensitive elements’ ability to distinguish trends in the redox status of the lakes through time. We performed acid digestions to extract the environmentally available metals from the sediments of three shallow lakes in West-Central Minnesota. We used an ICP-AES to analyze 11 metals (Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Th, U, V and Zn) while using Al as an indicator of the erosion of weathered materials. 210-Pb age dates were determined for cores from all three lakes, providing strong chronologies for each record. Near the time of settlement there is an overall increase in metal concentrations other than Th and U, which show an overall decrease. The accumulation rates of metals show similar trends to the sedimentation rates for each lake. After normalizing against Al, both Pb and Co have sharp increases around the time of settlement and Pb:Al doubles. Most other elements show a decrease in concentrations after settlement, suggesting that something other than erosion of weathered materials is a factor in the concentrations of metals in the lake. We attempt to determine whether this signal is due to changes in redox status or another factor. Elemental and stable isotopic values for C and N were also analyzed to get a better understanding of the source of organic matter and how productive the lakes have been through time.

  11. Non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation dynamics in a strongly interacting explicit solvent: F + CD{sub 3}CN treated with a parallel multi-state EVB model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, David R., E-mail: drglowacki@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); PULSE Institute and Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Orr-Ewing, Andrew J. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Harvey, Jeremy N. [Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-07-28

    We describe a parallelized linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM and TINKER. Forces are obtained using the Hellmann-Feynman relationship, giving continuous gradients, and good energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD{sub 3}CN → DF + CD{sub 2}CN reaction in CD{sub 3}CN solvent (recently reported in Dunning et al. [Science 347(6221), 530 (2015)]). This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We ran molecular dynamics simulations to examine a range of observables which follow in the wake of the reactive event: energy deposition in the nascent reaction products, vibrational relaxation rates of excited DF in CD{sub 3}CN solvent, equilibrium power spectra of DF in CD{sub 3}CN, and time dependent spectral shifts associated with relaxation of the nascent DF. Many of our results are in good agreement with time-resolved experimental observations, providing evidence for the accuracy of our MS-EVB framework in treating both the solute and solute/solvent interactions. The simulations provide additional insight into the dynamics at sub-picosecond time scales that are difficult to resolve experimentally. In particular, the simulations show that (immediately following deuterium abstraction) the nascent DF finds itself in a non-equilibrium regime in two different respects: (1) it is highly vibrationally excited, with ∼23 kcal mol{sup −1} localized in the stretch and (2) its post-reaction solvation environment, in which it is not yet hydrogen-bonded to CD{sub 3}CN solvent molecules, is intermediate between the non-interacting gas-phase limit and the solution-phase equilibrium limit. Vibrational

  12. Non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation dynamics in a strongly interacting explicit solvent: F + CD3CN treated with a parallel multi-state EVB model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, David R.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Harvey, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a parallelized linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM and TINKER. Forces are obtained using the Hellmann-Feynman relationship, giving continuous gradients, and good energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD 3 CN → DF + CD 2 CN reaction in CD 3 CN solvent (recently reported in Dunning et al. [Science 347(6221), 530 (2015)]). This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We ran molecular dynamics simulations to examine a range of observables which follow in the wake of the reactive event: energy deposition in the nascent reaction products, vibrational relaxation rates of excited DF in CD 3 CN solvent, equilibrium power spectra of DF in CD 3 CN, and time dependent spectral shifts associated with relaxation of the nascent DF. Many of our results are in good agreement with time-resolved experimental observations, providing evidence for the accuracy of our MS-EVB framework in treating both the solute and solute/solvent interactions. The simulations provide additional insight into the dynamics at sub-picosecond time scales that are difficult to resolve experimentally. In particular, the simulations show that (immediately following deuterium abstraction) the nascent DF finds itself in a non-equilibrium regime in two different respects: (1) it is highly vibrationally excited, with ∼23 kcal mol −1 localized in the stretch and (2) its post-reaction solvation environment, in which it is not yet hydrogen-bonded to CD 3 CN solvent molecules, is intermediate between the non-interacting gas-phase limit and the solution-phase equilibrium limit. Vibrational relaxation of the nascent DF results

  13. Non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation dynamics in a strongly interacting explicit solvent: F + CD3CN treated with a parallel multi-state EVB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, David R; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J; Harvey, Jeremy N

    2015-07-28

    We describe a parallelized linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM and TINKER. Forces are obtained using the Hellmann-Feynman relationship, giving continuous gradients, and good energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD3CN → DF + CD2CN reaction in CD3CN solvent (recently reported in Dunning et al. [Science 347(6221), 530 (2015)]). This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We ran molecular dynamics simulations to examine a range of observables which follow in the wake of the reactive event: energy deposition in the nascent reaction products, vibrational relaxation rates of excited DF in CD3CN solvent, equilibrium power spectra of DF in CD3CN, and time dependent spectral shifts associated with relaxation of the nascent DF. Many of our results are in good agreement with time-resolved experimental observations, providing evidence for the accuracy of our MS-EVB framework in treating both the solute and solute/solvent interactions. The simulations provide additional insight into the dynamics at sub-picosecond time scales that are difficult to resolve experimentally. In particular, the simulations show that (immediately following deuterium abstraction) the nascent DF finds itself in a non-equilibrium regime in two different respects: (1) it is highly vibrationally excited, with ∼23 kcal mol(-1) localized in the stretch and (2) its post-reaction solvation environment, in which it is not yet hydrogen-bonded to CD3CN solvent molecules, is intermediate between the non-interacting gas-phase limit and the solution-phase equilibrium limit. Vibrational relaxation of the nascent DF results in a spectral

  14. Transition of Facilities at Hanford to a Stable and Low Cost State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAILEY, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will discuss the implications of focusing on end states and interim end points in the deactivation planning process and managing the budget and personnel to achieve these end points as a ''project,'' not another phase of operations

  15. An underdamped stochastic resonance method with stable-state matching for incipient fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yaguo; Qiao, Zijian; Xu, Xuefang; Lin, Jing; Niu, Shantao

    2017-09-01

    Most traditional overdamped monostable, bistable and even tristable stochastic resonance (SR) methods have three shortcomings in weak characteristic extraction: (1) their potential structures characterized by single stable-state type are insufficient to match with the complicated and diverse mechanical vibration signals; (2) they vulnerably suffer the interference from multiscale noise and largely depend on the help of highpass filters whose parameters are selected subjectively, probably resulting in false detection; and (3) their rescaling factors are fixed as constants generally, thereby ignoring the synergistic effect among vibration signals, potential structures and rescaling factors. These three shortcomings have limited the enhancement ability of SR. To explore the SR potential, this paper initially investigates the SR in a multistable system by calculating its output spectral amplification, further analyzes its output frequency response numerically, then examines the effect of both damping and rescaling factors on output responses and finally presents a promising underdamped SR method with stable-state matching for incipient bearing fault diagnosis. This method has three advantages: (1) the diversity of stable-state types in a multistable potential makes it easy to match with various vibration signals; (2) the underdamped multistable SR, equivalent to a moving nonlinear bandpass filter that is dependent on the rescaling factors, is able to suppress the multiscale noise; and (3) the synergistic effect among vibration signals, potential structures and rescaling and damping factors is achieved using quantum genetic algorithms whose fitness functions are new weighted signal-to-noise ratio (WSNR) instead of SNR. Therefore, the proposed method is expected to possess good enhancement ability. Simulated and experimental data of rolling element bearings demonstrate its effectiveness. The comparison results show that the proposed method is able to obtain higher

  16. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven

    2009-01-01

    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  17. Self-similarly evolving and minimally dissipated stable states of plasmas realized after relaxation and self-organization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Hakoiwa, Toru; Okada, Akihito; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Takahashi, Toshiki

    2006-01-01

    A novel set of simultaneous eigenvalue equations having dissipative terms are derived to find self-similarly evolving and minimally dissipated stable states of plasmas realized after relaxation and self-organization processes. By numerically solving the set of eigenvalue equations in a cylindrical model, typical spatial profiles of plasma parameters, electric and magnetic fields and diffusion factors are presented, all of which determine self-consistently with each other by physical laws and mutual relations among them, just as in experimental plasmas. (author)

  18. Shift in the Equilibrium between On and Off States of the Allosteric Switch in Ras-GppNHp Affected by Small Molecules and Bulk Solvent Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Genevieve; Buhrman, Greg; Mattos, Carla (NCSU)

    2012-08-31

    Ras GTPase cycles between its active GTP-bound form promoted by GEFs and its inactive GDP-bound form promoted by GAPs to affect the control of various cellular functions. It is becoming increasingly apparent that subtle regulation of the GTP-bound active state may occur through promotion of substates mediated by an allosteric switch mechanism that induces a disorder to order transition in switch II upon ligand binding at an allosteric site. We show with high-resolution structures that calcium acetate and either dithioerythritol (DTE) or dithiothreitol (DTT) soaked into H-Ras-GppNHp crystals in the presence of a moderate amount of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can selectively shift the equilibrium to the 'on' state, where the active site appears to be poised for catalysis (calcium acetate), or to what we call the 'ordered off' state, which is associated with an anticatalytic conformation (DTE or DTT). We also show that the equilibrium is reversible in our crystals and dependent on the nature of the small molecule present. Calcium acetate binding in the allosteric site stabilizes the conformation observed in the H-Ras-GppNHp/NOR1A complex, and PEG, DTE, and DTT stabilize the anticatalytic conformation observed in the complex between the Ras homologue Ran and Importin-{beta}. The small molecules are therefore selecting biologically relevant conformations in the crystal that are sampled by the disordered switch II in the uncomplexed GTP-bound form of H-Ras. In the presence of a large amount of PEG, the ordered off conformation predominates, whereas in solution, in the absence of PEG, switch regions appear to remain disordered in what we call the off state, unable to bind DTE.

  19. Direct observation of the solvent effects on the low-lying nπ* and ππ* excited triplet states of acetophenone derivatives in thermal equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Sudhakar; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2015-03-05

    Low-lying excited triplet states of aromatic carbonyl compounds exhibit diverse photophysical and photochemical properties of fundamental importance. Despite tremendous effort in studying those triplet states, the effects of substituents and solvents on the energetics of the triplet manifold and on photoreactivity remain to be fully understood. We have recently studied the ordering of the low-lying nπ* and ππ* excited triplet states and its substituent dependence in acetophenone derivatives using nanosecond time-resolved near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy. Here we address the other important issue, the solvent effects, by directly observing the electronic bands in the NIR that originate from the lowest nπ* and ππ* states of acetophenone derivatives in four solvents of different polarity (n-heptane, benzene, acetonitrile, and methanol). The two transient NIR bands decay synchronously in all the solvents, indicating that the lowest nπ* and ππ* states are in thermal equilibrium irrespective of the solvent polarity studied here. We found that the ππ* band increases in intensity relative to the nπ* band as solvent polarity increases. These results are compared with the photoreduction rate constant for the acetophenone derivatives in the solvents to which 2-propanol was added as a hydrogen-atom donor. Based on the present findings, we present a comprehensive, solvent- and substituent-dependent energy level diagram of the low-lying nπ* and ππ* excited triplet states.

  20. The concept of equilibrium in organization theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many organization theories consist of an interpretation frame and an idea about the ideal equilibrium state. This article explains how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or

  1. The concept of equilibrium in organization theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, Henk W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Many organization theories consist of an interpretation frame and an idea about the ideal equilibrium state. This article explains how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or

  2. Direct Observation of Thermal Equilibrium of Excited Triplet States of 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone. A Time-Resolved Resonance Raman Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Venkatraman Ravi; Rajkumar, Nagappan; Ariese, Freek; Umapathy, Siva

    2015-10-08

    The photochemistry of aromatic ketones plays a key role in various physicochemical and biological processes, and solvent polarity can be used to tune their triplet state properties. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the conformational structure and the solvent polarity induced energy level reordering of the two lowest triplet states of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) was carried out using nanosecond-time-resolved absorption (ns-TRA), time-resolved resonance Raman (TR(3)) spectroscopy, and time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) studies. The ns-TRA of PQ in acetonitrile displays two bands in the visible range, and these two bands decay with similar lifetime at least at longer time scales (μs). Interestingly, TR(3) spectra of these two bands indicate that the kinetics are different at shorter time scales (ns), while at longer time scales they followed the kinetics of ns-TRA spectra. Therefore, we report a real-time observation of the thermal equilibrium between the two lowest triplet excited states of PQ, assigned to nπ* and ππ* of which the ππ* triplet state is formed first through intersystem crossing. Despite the fact that these two states are energetically close and have a similar conformational structure supported by TD-DFT studies, the slow internal conversion (∼2 ns) between the T(2)(1(3)nπ*) and T(1)(1(3)ππ*) triplet states indicates a barrier. Insights from the singlet excited states of PQ in protic solvents [ J. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 142 , 24305 ] suggest that the lowest nπ* and ππ* triplet states should undergo hydrogen bond weakening and strengthening, respectively, relative to the ground state, and these mechanisms are substantiated by TD-DFT calculations. We also hypothesize that the different hydrogen bonding mechanisms exhibited by the two lowest singlet and triplet excited states of PQ could influence its ISC mechanism.

  3. Coherence and quasi-stable states in a strong infrared field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2016-05-01

    We study the quasi-stability of UV-pulse-train-excited H atoms in a strong infrared (IR) laser as a function of the phase delay of the UV-pulse-train relative to the IR laser. The UV-pulse-train contains two frequency components. When the two components have frequencies separated by two IR photons, the population of surviving electrons is modulated by up to ten percent. When electrons are excited to right above or below the threshold, the survival probabilities have inverted phase delay dependence which can be explained classically. When the two frequencies are one IR-photon apart, the angular symmetry of the quasi-stable electrons is broken, and the asymmetry is also controlled by the phase delay. The asymmetrical distribution can be observed while the IR is on and smoothly evolves to a nonzero asymmetry that only weakly depends on the duration of the IR field. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award No. DE-SC0012193.

  4. Accelerating Multiagent Reinforcement Learning by Equilibrium Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yujing; Gao, Yang; An, Bo

    2015-07-01

    An important approach in multiagent reinforcement learning (MARL) is equilibrium-based MARL, which adopts equilibrium solution concepts in game theory and requires agents to play equilibrium strategies at each state. However, most existing equilibrium-based MARL algorithms cannot scale due to a large number of computationally expensive equilibrium computations (e.g., computing Nash equilibria is PPAD-hard) during learning. For the first time, this paper finds that during the learning process of equilibrium-based MARL, the one-shot games corresponding to each state's successive visits often have the same or similar equilibria (for some states more than 90% of games corresponding to successive visits have similar equilibria). Inspired by this observation, this paper proposes to use equilibrium transfer to accelerate equilibrium-based MARL. The key idea of equilibrium transfer is to reuse previously computed equilibria when each agent has a small incentive to deviate. By introducing transfer loss and transfer condition, a novel framework called equilibrium transfer-based MARL is proposed. We prove that although equilibrium transfer brings transfer loss, equilibrium-based MARL algorithms can still converge to an equilibrium policy under certain assumptions. Experimental results in widely used benchmarks (e.g., grid world game, soccer game, and wall game) show that the proposed framework: 1) not only significantly accelerates equilibrium-based MARL (up to 96.7% reduction in learning time), but also achieves higher average rewards than algorithms without equilibrium transfer and 2) scales significantly better than algorithms without equilibrium transfer when the state/action space grows and the number of agents increases.

  5. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  6. Transition state theory demonstrated at the micron scale with out-of-equilibrium transport in a confined environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian L.; Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Reisner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Transition state theory (TST) provides a simple interpretation of many thermally activated processes. It applies successfully on timescales and length scales that differ several orders of magnitude: to chemical reactions, breaking of chemical bonds, unfolding of proteins and RNA structures...

  7. Gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders Folmer, S.C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the clinical applications of gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy, performed with either a gamma camera or a portable detector system, the nuclear stethoscope. The main goal has been to define the value and limitations of noninvasive measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction as a parameter of cardiac performance in various disease states, both for diagnostic purposes as well as during follow-up after medical or surgical intervention. Secondly, it was attempted to extend the use of the equilibrium bloodpool techniques beyond the calculation of ejection fraction alone by considering the feasibility to determine ventricular volumes and by including the possibility of quantifying valvular regurgitation. In both cases, it has been tried to broaden the perspective of the observations by comparing them with results of other, invasive and non-invasive, procedures, in particular cardiac catheterization, M-mode echocardiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (Auth.)

  8. Population of Metastable States in Stable Hafnium and Ytterbium Nuclei via Beam Break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malwela, T.; Ntshangase, S.S.; Shirinda, O.; Bark, R.A.; Gueorguieva, E.; Lawrie, J.J.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Molnar, J.; Nyako, B.M.; Timar, J.; Zolnai, L.; Hlatshwayo, T.; Juhasz, K.; Komati, F.S.; Scheurer, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The ''Chessboard'' section of the DIAMANT charged-particle array has been coupled with the AFRODITE γ-ray spectrometer at the iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences. Charged-particle-γ-ray coincidence data were recorded during the bombardment of a 176Yb target with a 13C beam at an energy of 90 MeV. The purpose of the investigation was to study the population of metastable states in hafium nuclei via incomplete fusion reactions in which the beam breaks up due to its α-cluster character. Of note was the observation of the band based on the Kπ = 16+, T1/2 = 31 year isomer in 178Hf to its 19+ member. Also, decays from the high-K isomeric states in 174Yb and 176Yb. which were populated via 3αxn channels, indicative of complete break-up of the 13C beam

  9. Mathematical models and equilibrium in irreversible microeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly M. Tsirlin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of equilibrium states in a system consisting of economic agents, economic reservoirs, and firms is considered. Methods of irreversible microeconomics are used. We show that direct sale/purchase leads to an equilibrium state which depends upon the coefficients of supply/demand functions. To reach the unique equilibrium state it is necessary to add either monetary exchange or an intermediate firm.

  10. Effects of tree harvest on the stable-state dynamics of savanna and forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredennick, Andrew T; Hanan, Niall P

    2015-05-01

    Contemporary theory on the maintenance and stability of the savanna biome has focused extensively on how climate and disturbances interact to affect tree growth and demography. In particular, the role of fire in reducing tree cover from climatic maxima is now well appreciated, and in certain cases, herbivory also strongly affects tree cover. However, in African savannas and forests, harvest of trees by humans for cooking and heating is an oft overlooked disturbance. Thus, we incorporate tree harvest into a population dynamic model of grasses, savanna saplings, savanna trees, and forest trees. We use assumptions about the differential demographic responses of savanna trees and forest trees to harvest to show how tree harvest influences tree cover, demography, and community composition. Tree harvest can erode the intrinsic basin of attraction for forest and make a state transition via fire to savanna more likely. The savanna state is generally resilient to all but high levels of tree harvest because of the resprouting abilities of savanna trees. In the absence of active fire suppression, our analysis suggests that we can expect to see large and potentially irreversible shifts from forest to savanna as demand increases for charcoal in sub-Saharan Africa. On the other hand, savanna tree species' traits promote savanna stability in the face of low to moderate harvest pressure.

  11. Modeling the liquid-liquid equilibrium of petroleum fluid and polar compounds containing systems with the PC-SAFT equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Yan, Wei; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    A critical test for the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) equation of state (FOS) is the modeling of systems containing petroleum fluid and polar compounds. In this work, two approaches are proposed for the simplified PC-SAFT EOS to obtain the necessary pure component...... parameters for the characterized non-associating pseudo-components of petroleum fluids. New pure component parameters of mono-ethylene glycol (MEG) are obtained by considering the liquid liquid equilibrium (LLE) data of MEG with normal hydrocarbons in the estimation process and a simple binary interaction...... scheme of MEG with pseudo-components is proposed. These new parameters are applied to model LLE of the systems of petroleum fluid + MEG with or without water. The results show that the simplified PC-SAFT EOS yields promising predictions of the key mutual solubility of these systems: 15-18% overall...

  12. Noise-induced modulation of the relaxation kinetics around a non-equilibrium steady state of non-linear chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; González-Segredo, Nélido

    2011-01-28

    Stochastic effects from correlated noise non-trivially modulate the kinetics of non-linear chemical reaction networks. This is especially important in systems where reactions are confined to small volumes and reactants are delivered in bursts. We characterise how the two noise sources confinement and burst modulate the relaxation kinetics of a non-linear reaction network around a non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the lifetimes of species change with burst input and confinement. Confinement increases the lifetimes of all species that are involved in any non-linear reaction as a reactant. Burst monotonically increases or decreases lifetimes. Competition between burst-induced and confinement-induced modulation may hence lead to a non-monotonic modulation. We quantify lifetime as the integral of the time autocorrelation function (ACF) of concentration fluctuations around a non-equilibrium steady state of the reaction network. Furthermore, we look at the first and second derivatives of the ACF, each of which is affected in opposite ways by burst and confinement. This allows discriminating between these two noise sources. We analytically derive the ACF from the linear Fokker-Planck approximation of the chemical master equation in order to establish a baseline for the burst-induced modulation at low confinement. Effects of higher confinement are then studied using a partial-propensity stochastic simulation algorithm. The results presented here may help understand the mechanisms that deviate stochastic kinetics from its deterministic counterpart. In addition, they may be instrumental when using fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) or fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure confinement and burst in systems with known reaction rates, or, alternatively, to correct for the effects of confinement and burst when experimentally measuring reaction rates.

  13. Diffusion and Spatial Equilibrium of a Social Norm: Voting Participation in the United States, 1920-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Social conformity can spread social norms and behaviors through a society. This research examines such a process geographically and over time for voting, which is strongly influenced by the norm that citizens should vote. A mathematical model for the spread of voting participation under the influence of social conformity is developed based on the diffusion equation, and predictions are tested with spatial analysis of state-level voter turnout in American presidential elections from 1920 to 20...

  14. Water uptake in woody riparian phreatophytes of the southwestern United States: a stable isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, D.E.; Ingraham, N.L.; Smith, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Alluvial forest associations are often dominated by woody phreatophytes, plants that are tightly linked to aquifers for water uptake. Anthropogenic hydrological alterations (e.g., water impoundment or diversion) are of clear importance to riparian ecosystem function. Because decreased frequency of flooding and depression of water tables may, in effect, sever riparian plants from their natural water sources, research was undertaken to determine water uptake patterns for the dominant native and introduced woody taxa of riparian plant communities of the southwestern United States. At floodplain study sites along the Bill Williams and lower Colorado Rivers (Arizona, USA), naturally occurring D and 18 O were used to distinguish among potential water sources. Isotopic ratios from potential uptake locations were compared to water extracted from the dominant woody taxa of the study area (Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, and Tamarix ramosissima) to elucidate patterns of water absorption. Isotopic composition of water obtained from sapwood cores did not differ significantly from heartwood or branch water, suggesting that heartwood water exchange, stem capacitance, and phloem sap mixing may be inconsequential in actively transpiring Salix and Populus. There was evidence for close hydrologic linkage of river, ground, and soil water during the early part of the growing season. Surface soils exhibited D enrichment due to cumulative exposure to evaporation as the growing season progressed. Isotopic ratios of water extracted from Populus and Salix did not exhibit isotopic enrichment and were not significantly different from groundwater or saturated soil water sources, indicating a phreatophytic uptake pattern. Associations of isotopic ratios with water relations parameters indicated high levels of canopy evaporation and possible use of moisture from unsaturated alluvial soils in addition to groundwater in Tamarix. (author)

  15. Constitutive activation of Nrf2 induces a stable reductive state in the mouse myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinath Shanmugam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox homeostasis regulates key cellular signaling pathways in both physiology and pathology. The cell's antioxidant response provides a defense against oxidative stress and establishes a redox tone permissive for cell signaling. The molecular regulation of the well-known Keap1/Nrf2 system acts as sensor responding to changes in redox homeostasis and is poorly studied in the heart. Importantly, it is not yet known whether Nrf2 alone can serve as a master regulator of cellular redox homeostasis without compensation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant response element (ARE genes through alternate mechanisms. Here, we addressed this question using cardiac-specific transgenic expression at two different levels of constitutively active nuclear erythroid related factor 2 (caNrf2 functioning independently of Keap1. The caNrf2 mice showed augmentation of glutathione (GSH, the key regulator of the cellular thiol redox state. The Trans-AM assay for Nrf2-binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE showed a dose-dependent increase associated with upregulation of several major antioxidant genes and proteins. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in dihydroethidium staining and malondialdehyde (MDA in the caNrf2-TG mice myocardium. Interestingly, caNrf2 gene-dosage dependent redox changes were noted resulting in generation of a multi-stage model of pro-reductive and reductive conditions in the myocardium of TG-low and TG-high mice, respectively. These data clearly show that Nrf2 levels alone are capable of serving as the master regulator of the ARE. These models provide an important platform to investigate the impact of the Nrf2 system independent of the need to regulate the activity of Keap1 and the consequent exposure to pro-oxidants or electrophiles, which have numerous off-target effects.

  16. Sampling the Denatured State of Polypeptides in Water, Urea, and Guanidine Chloride to Strict Equilibrium Conditions with the Help of Massively Parallel Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Roberto; Camilloni, Carlo; Tiana, Guido

    2014-02-11

    The denatured state of polypeptides and proteins, stabilized by chemical denaturants like urea and guanidine chloride, displays residual secondary structure when studied by nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy. However, these experimental techniques are weakly sensitive, and thus molecular-dynamics simulations can be useful to complement the experimental findings. To sample the denatured state, we made use of massively-parallel computers and of a variant of the replica exchange algorithm, in which the different branches, connected with unbiased replicas, favor the formation and disruption of local secondary structure. The algorithm is applied to the second hairpin of GB1 in water, in urea, and in guanidine chloride. We show with the help of different criteria that the simulations converge to equilibrium. It results that urea and guanidine chloride, besides inducing some polyproline-II structure, have different effect on the hairpin. Urea disrupts completely the native region and stabilizes a state which resembles a random coil, while guanidine chloride has a milder effect.

  17. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  18. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  19. Bioprocess optimization for production of thermoalkali-stable protease from Bacillus subtilis K-1 under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satbir; Bajaj, Bijender Kumar

    2016-10-02

    Cost-effective production of proteases, which are robust enough to function under harsh process conditions, is always sought after due to their wide industrial application spectra. Solid-state production of enzymes using agro-industrial wastes as substrates is an environment-friendly approach, and it has several advantages such as high productivity, cost-effectiveness, being less labor-intensive, and less effluent production, among others. In the current study, different agro-wastes were employed for thermoalkali-stable protease production from Bacillus subtilis K-1 under solid-state fermentation. Agricultural residues such as cotton seed cake supported maximum protease production (728 U ml(-1)), which was followed by gram husk (714 U ml(-1)), mustard cake (680 U ml(-1)), and soybean meal (653 U ml(-1)). Plackett-Burman design of experiment showed that peptone, moisture content, temperature, phosphates, and inoculum size were the significant variables that influenced the protease production. Furthermore, statistical optimization of three variables, namely peptone, moisture content, and incubation temperature, by response surface methodology resulted in 40% enhanced protease production as compared to that under unoptimized conditions (from initial 728 to 1020 U ml(-1)). Thus, solid-state fermentation coupled with design of experiment tools represents a cost-effective strategy for production of industrial enzymes.

  20. On the local equilibrium condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessling, H.

    1994-11-01

    A physical system is in local equilibrium if it cannot be distinguished from a global equilibrium by ''infinitesimally localized measurements''. This should be a natural characterization of local equilibrium, but the problem is to give a precise meaning to the qualitative phrase ''infinitesimally localized measurements''. A solution is suggested in form of a Local Equilibrium Condition (LEC), which can be applied to linear relativistic quantum field theories but not directly to selfinteracting quantum fields. The concept of local temperature resulting from LEC is compared to an old approach to local temperature based on the principle of maximal entropy. It is shown that the principle of maximal entropy does not always lead to physical states if it is applied to relativistic quantum field theories. (orig.)

  1. Numerical Verification Of Equilibrium Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Markus; Lewis, Brent; Thompson, William T.; Simunovic, Srdjan; Besmann, Theodore M.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical tool is in an advanced state of development to compute the equilibrium compositions of phases and their proportions in multi-component systems of importance to the nuclear industry. The resulting software is being conceived for direct integration into large multi-physics fuel performance codes, particularly for providing boundary conditions in heat and mass transport modules. However, any numerical errors produced in equilibrium chemistry computations will be propagated in subsequent heat and mass transport calculations, thus falsely predicting nuclear fuel behaviour. The necessity for a reliable method to numerically verify chemical equilibrium computations is emphasized by the requirement to handle the very large number of elements necessary to capture the entire fission product inventory. A simple, reliable and comprehensive numerical verification method is presented which can be invoked by any equilibrium chemistry solver for quality assurance purposes.

  2. Modeling vapor liquid equilibrium of ionic liquids + gas binary systems at high pressure with cubic equations of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. D. Freitas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (IL have been described as novel environmentally benign solvents because of their remarkable characteristics. Numerous applications of these solvents continue to grow at an exponential rate. In this work, high pressure vapor liquid equilibria for 17 different IL + gas binary systems were modeled at different temperatures with Peng-Robinson (PR and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equations of state, combined with the van der Waals mixing rule with two binary interaction parameters (vdW-2. The experimental data were taken from the literature. The optimum binary interaction parameters were estimated by minimization of an objective function based on the average absolute relative deviation of liquid and vapor phases, using the modified Simplex algorithm. The solubilities of all gases studied in this work decrease as the temperature increases and increase with increasing pressure. The correlated results were highly satisfactory, with average absolute relative deviations of 2.10% and 2.25% for PR-vdW-2 and SRK-vdW-2, respectively.

  3. Radionuclide imaging for assessment of myocarditis and postmyocarditic state in infant and children. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging and technetium-99m-HSA gated equilibrium ventriculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saji, T; Matsuo, N; Hashiguchi, R; Sato, K; Umezawa, T; Morishita, K; Yamazaki, J; Kawamura, Y; Okuzumi, K; Yabe, Y

    1985-05-01

    T1-201 myocardial imaging and Tc-99m-HSA gated equilibrium ventriculography were performed in 1 infant and 11 children between 2 months old and 12 years old with myocarditis. The time of first evaluation was between 1 week and 13 months after the onset. Their clinical manifestations were congestive heart failure in 2 patients, pericardial effusion in 2 patients, syncope in 1 patient, convulsions in 1 patient and palpitations in 7 patients. Significant elevation of virus antibody titer was demonstrated in 6 patients. A perfusion defect was observed with T1-201 imaging in 9 of 12 patients with myocarditis. A right ventricular image was observed in 5 patients. A reduced LVEF was present in 4 patients and a reduced RVEF was found in 2 patients. Cardiac catheterization was performed in 8 patients and an endomyocardial biopsy was done in 7. The myocardial specimens revealed postmyocarditic pathological changes upon microscopic evaluation. No coronary artery obstructive or stenotic lesions were observed in these patients. T1-201 myocardial imaging is a useful non-invasive technique for evaluating the cardiac performance and myocardial damage in acute myocarditis and the postmyocarditic state. We conclude that T1-201 uptake of myocardium is dependent upon both regional coronary perfusion and the activity of myocardial cells in patients with myocarditis and in the postmyocarditic state.

  4. Flood effects provide evidence of an alternate stable state from dam management on the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Schenk, Edward R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2017-01-01

    We examine how historic flooding in 2011 affected the geomorphic adjustments created by dam regulation along the approximately 120 km free flowing reach of the Upper Missouri River bounded upstream by the Garrison Dam (1953) and downstream by Lake Oahe Reservoir (1959) near the City of Bismarck, ND, USA. The largest flood since dam regulation occurred in 2011. Flood releases from the Garrison Dam began in May 2011 and lasted until October, peaking with a flow of more than 4200 m3 s−1. Channel cross-section data and aerial imagery before and after the flood were compared with historic rates of channel change to assess the relative impact of the flood on the river morphology. Results indicate that the 2011 flood maintained trends in island area with the loss of islands in the reach just below the dam and an increase in island area downstream. Channel capacity changes varied along the Garrison Segment as a result of the flood. The thalweg, which has been stable since the mid-1970s, did not migrate. And channel morphology, as defined by a newly developed shoaling metric, which quantifies the degree of channel braiding, indicates significant longitudinal variability in response to the flood. These results show that the 2011 flood exacerbates some geomorphic trends caused by the dam while reversing others. We conclude that the presence of dams has created an alternate geomorphic and related ecological stable state, which does not revert towards pre-dam conditions in response to the flood of record. This suggests that management of sediment transport dynamics as well as flow modification is necessary to restore the Garrison Segment of the Upper Missouri River towards pre-dam conditions and help create or maintain habitat for endangered species. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Internal equilibrium layer growth over forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    the magnitude of the scatter. Different theoretical friction velocity profiles for the Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) are tested against the forest data. The results yield information on the Internal Equilibrium Layer (IEL) growth and an equation for the IEL height fur neutral conditions is derived. For stable...... conditions the results indicate that very long fetches are required in order to measure parameters in equilibrium with the actual surface....

  6. Nanoscale Correlated Disorder in Out-of-Equilibrium Myelin Ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, Gaetano; Di Gioacchino, Michael; Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Burghammer, Manfred; Ciasca, Gabriele; Bianconi, Antonio

    2018-01-23

    Ultrastructural fluctuations at nanoscale are fundamental to assess properties and functionalities of advanced out-of-equilibrium materials. We have taken myelin as a model of supramolecular assembly in out-of-equilibrium living matter. Myelin sheath is a simple stable multilamellar structure of high relevance and impact in biomedicine. Although it is known that myelin has a quasi-crystalline ultrastructure, there is no information on its fluctuations at nanoscale in different states due to limitations of the available standard techniques. To overcome these limitations, we have used scanning micro X-ray diffraction, which is a unique non-invasive probe of both reciprocal and real space to visualize statistical fluctuations of myelin order of the sciatic nerve of Xenopus laevis. The results show that the ultrastructure period of the myelin is stabilized by large anticorrelated fluctuations at nanoscale, between hydrophobic and hydrophilic layers. The ratio between the total thickness of hydrophilic and hydrophobic layers defines the conformational parameter, which describes the different states of myelin. Our key result is that myelin in its out-of-equilibrium functional state fluctuates point-to-point between different conformations showing a correlated disorder described by a Levy distribution. As the system approaches the thermodynamic equilibrium in an aged state, the disorder loses its correlation degree and the structural fluctuation distribution changes to Gaussian. In a denatured state at low pH, it changes to a completely disordered stage. Our results aim to clarify the degradation mechanism in biological systems by associating these states with ultrastructural dynamic fluctuations at nanoscale.

  7. Effect of steady-state faldaprevir on the pharmacokinetics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone in subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, David; Schobelock, Michael J; Riesenberg, Robert R; Vince, Bradley D; Webster, Lynn R; Adeniji, Abidemi; Elgadi, Mabrouk; Huang, Fenglei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of steady-state faldaprevir on the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone were assessed in 34 healthy male and female subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy. Subjects continued receiving a stable oral dose of either methadone (up to a maximum dose of 180 mg per day) or buprenorphine-naloxone (up to a maximum dose of 24 mg-6 mg per day) and also received oral faldaprevir (240 mg) once daily (QD) for 8 days following a 480-mg loading dose. Serial blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacodynamics of the opioid maintenance regimens were evaluated by the objective and subjective opioid withdrawal scales. Coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in geometric mean ratios for the steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24,ss)), the steady-state maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (C(max,ss)), and the steady-state concentration of the drug in plasma at 24 h (C(24,ss)) of 0.92 to 1.18 for (R)-methadone, (S)-methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone, with 90% confidence intervals including, or very close to including, 1.00 (no effect), suggesting a limited overall effect of faldaprevir. Although individual data showed moderate variability in the exposures between subjects and treatments, there was no evidence of symptoms of opiate overdose or withdrawal either during the coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone or after faldaprevir dosing was stopped. Similar faldaprevir exposures were observed in the methadone- and buprenorphine-naloxone-treated subjects. In conclusion, faldaprevir at 240 mg QD can be coadministered with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone without dose adjustment, although given the relatively narrow therapeutic windows of these agents, monitoring for opiate overdose and withdrawal may still be appropriate. (This

  8. Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G chemistry textbooks and even in some more advanced texts. Similarly, the criteria for equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…

  9. Phase equilibrium for surfactant Ls-54 in liquid CO(2) with water and solubility estimation using the Peng-Robinson equation of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafa, Pedro J; Matthews, Michael A

    2010-11-25

    It is known that the commercial surfactant Dehypon® Ls-54 is soluble in supercritical CO(2) and that it enables formation of water-in-CO(2) microemulsions. In this work we observed phase equilibrium for the Ls-54/CO(2) and Ls-54/water/CO(2) systems in the liquid CO(2) region, from 278.15 - 298.15 K. In addition, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PREOS) was used to model the phase behavior of Ls-54/CO(2) binary system as well as to estimate water solubilities in CO(2). Ls-54 in CO(2) can have solubilities as high as 0.086 M at 278.15 K and 15.2 MPa. The stability of the microemulsion decreases with increasing concentration of water, and lower temperatures favor increased solubility of water into the one-phase microemulsion. The PREOS model showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental data for both Ls-54/CO(2) and water/CO(2) systems.

  10. Evaluating cubic equations of state for calculation of vapor-liquid equilibrium of CO2 and CO2-mixtures for CO2 capture and storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Yan, J.

    2009-01-01

    Proper solution of vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) is essential to the design and operation of CO 2 capture and storage system (CCS). According to the requirements of engineering applications, cubic equations of state (EOS) are preferable to predict VLE properties. This paper evaluates the reliabilities of five cubic EOSs, including PR, PT, RK, SRK and 3P1T for predicting VLE of CO 2 and binary CO 2 -mixtures containing CH 4 , H 2 S, SO 2 , Ar, N 2 or O 2 , based on the comparisons with the collected experimental data. Results show that SRK is superior in the calculations about the saturated pressure of pure CO 2 ; while for the VLE properties of binary CO 2 -mixtures, PR, PT and SRK are generally superior to RK and 3P1T. The impacts of binary interaction parameter k ij were also analyzed. k ij has very clear effects on the calculating accuracy of an EOS in the property calculations of CO 2 -mixtures. In order to improve the calculation accuracy, the binary interaction parameter was calibrated for all of the studied EOSs regarding every binary CO 2 -mixture. (author)

  11. On the influence of environmental factors on radon levels in caves of Ribeira valley state parks, SP and evaluation of radioactive equilibrium and equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny; Sobre a influencia de fatores ambientais nos niveis de radonio em cavernas dos parques estaduais do vale do Ribeira, SP e avaliacao do equilibrio radioativo e fator de equilibrio entre radonio e seus descendentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2011-07-01

    In the present study it was carried out the monitoring of radon in caves distributed among three state parks of Sao Paulo. The radon concentration were determinate in Morro Preto and Santana caves, located at PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Tourist State Park), Diabo cave, situated in PEJ - Parque Estadual de Jacupiranga (Jacupiranga State Park) and Colorida cave located in PEI - Parque Estadual Intervales (Intervales State Park PEI). The monitoring covered measurements between April 2009 and June 2010. Radon concentrations were carried out by using the technique of passive detection with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors and NRPB diffusion chambers. The detectors were exposed in periods ranging from 30 to 150 days. Radon concentrations varied from 132 Bq/m{sup 3} to 9456 Bq/m{sup 3}. The values of radon concentrations were analyzed together with information about rainfall and internal and external temperature values of the Santana cave environment and regional literature values for a possible relationship between radon variations and weather information. Both the determinations of {sup 22}'6Ra in water samples collected in some caves and rivers and radon emanation from a stalactite collected at Santana cave allowed to verify that the radon in the caves comes from the walls rocks. The verification of the radioactive equilibrium between {sup 222}Rn, {sup 218}Po and '2{sup 14}Po in the exposed detectors was prejudiced by the high tracks densities, committing the methodology effectiveness. The annual effective dose was calculated for three values obtained from the literature for the equilibrium factor. Considering the most realistic scenario, with equilibrium factor of 0.5 and 52 working weeks, the annual effective dose was 5.1 mSv/y. Concerning the worst scenario, which simulates an extreme case, adopting an equilibrium factor equal to 1 and 52 weeks of work per year, the annual effective dose is 10.2 m

  12. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  13. Structural relaxation and thermal conductivity of high-pressure formed, high-density di-n-butyl phthalate glass and pressure induced departures from equilibrium state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, G P; Andersson, Ove

    2017-06-21

    We report a study of structural relaxation of high-density glasses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by measuring thermal conductivity, κ, under conditions of pressure and temperature (p,T) designed to modify both the vibrational and configurational states of a glass. Various high-density glassy states of DBP were formed by (i) cooling the liquid under a fixed high p and partially depressurizing the glass, (ii) isothermal annealing of the depressurized glass, and (iii) pressurizing the glass formed by cooling the liquid under low p. At a given low p, κ of the glass formed by cooling under high p is higher than that of the glass formed by cooling under low p, and the difference increases as glass formation p is increased. κ of the glass formed under 1 GPa is ∼20% higher at ambient p than κ of the glass formed at ambient p. On heating at low p, κ decreases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. This is the opposite of the increase in κ observed when a glass formed under a certain p is heated under the same p. At a given high p, κ of the low-density glass formed by cooling at low p is lower than that of the high-density glass formed by cooling at that high p. On heating at high p, κ increases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. The effects observed are due to a thermally assisted approach toward equilibrium at p different from the glass formation p. In all cases, the density, enthalpy, and entropy would change until the glasses become metastable liquids at a fixed p, thus qualitatively relating κ to variation in these properties.

  14. Quantity Constrained General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenko, R.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In a standard general equilibrium model it is assumed that there are no price restrictions and that prices adjust infinitely fast to their equilibrium values.In case of price restrictions a general equilibrium may not exist and rationing on net demands or supplies is needed to clear the markets.In

  15. Stellar atmosphere in statistical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R.I.

    1979-01-01

    A static atmosphere with only Lyman continuum radiation in radiative equilibrium is studied for the effectsof radiative and collisional ionization on deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Large increases and decreases of the kinetic temperature (range in Tapprox. factor 2) and, correspondingly, very large over- and underpopulation of the bound state (range in bapprox. factor 10 6 ) are found, depending on the frequency dependence of the photoionization cross section. Despite these large deviations from LTE, which strongly modify the emergent spectrum, there is almost no effect on the particle densities, the degree of ionization, and the basic structure of the atmosphere

  16. Statistical physics ""Beyond equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The scientific challenges of the 21st century will increasingly involve competing interactions, geometric frustration, spatial and temporal intrinsic inhomogeneity, nanoscale structures, and interactions spanning many scales. We will focus on a broad class of emerging problems that will require new tools in non-equilibrium statistical physics and that will find application in new material functionality, in predicting complex spatial dynamics, and in understanding novel states of matter. Our work will encompass materials under extreme conditions involving elastic/plastic deformation, competing interactions, intrinsic inhomogeneity, frustration in condensed matter systems, scaling phenomena in disordered materials from glasses to granular matter, quantum chemistry applied to nano-scale materials, soft-matter materials, and spatio-temporal properties of both ordinary and complex fluids.

  17. Relationships of stable isotopes, water-rock interaction and salinization in fractured aquifers, Petrolina region, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Sousa, E-mail: priscila.silva@cprm.gov.br [Serviço Geológico do Brasil (CPRM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Campos, José Eloi Guimarães; Cunha, Luciano Soares; Mancini, Luís Henrique, E-mail: eloi@unb.br, E-mail: lucianosc@unb.br, E-mail: lmancini@unb.br [Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    The Petrolina County, Pernambuco State, Brazil, presents specificities that make it unique from a hydrogeological point of view. Water resource scarcity is both a quantitative and qualitative issue. The climate is classified as semiarid, having low precipitation, along with high temperatures and evapotranspiration rates. Aquifer zones are related to low connected fractures resulting in a restricted water flow in the aquifer. The recharge is limited and the groundwater salinity is high. Stable isotope analyses of H and O were developed in groundwater samples (with different electrical conductivity) and surface water collected in a bypass channel flowing from the São Francisco River. The results were plotted in a δD ‰ versus δ{sup 18}O ‰ graph along with the curves of the global and local meteoric water line. Groundwater samples showed unexpected results showing a lighter sign pattern when compared to the meteoric waters. More negative δD and δ{sup 18}O values indicate an enrichment in light isotopes, which show that this process is not influenced by surface processes, where the enrichment occurs in heavy isotopes due to evaporation. The isotopic signature observed is interpreted either as resulting from the water-rock interaction, or as resulting from recharge from paleo rains. The waters are old and show restricted flow. So the water-rock contact time is extended. In the rock weathering processes, through the hydration of feldspars, there is preferential assimilation of heavy isotopes at the expense of the lighter ones that remain in the water. Analyses of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio and isotopic groundwater dating assist in the interpretations. (author)

  18. Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using ionic gel electrolyte with low molecular mass organogelator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Li [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huo, Zhipeng, E-mail: zhipenghuo@163.com [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Dai, Songyuan, E-mail: sydai@ncepu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Changneng; Pan, Xu; Huang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yang, Shangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi [Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Long-term stability is essential for the application and commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A quasi-solid-state DSC (QS-DSC) with excellent long-term stability is fabricated using ionic gel electrolyte (IGE) with N,N′-methylenebisdodecanamide as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG). The gel to solution transition temperature (T{sub gel}) of this IGE is 127 °C, well above the working temperature of the device, which contributes to the thermal properties of the IGE and the device. The electrochemical properties of the IGE and the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination of the QS-DSC are investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). Due to the obstructed diffusion of redox species caused by the network of IGE, the electron recombination at the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the QS-DSC is accelerated. More importantly, compared with the ionic liquid electrolyte (ILE) based DSC, the QS-DSC based on the IGE exhibits excellent thermal and light-soaking stabilities during the accelerated aging tests for 1000 h. Especially, there is almost no degradation in the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) in the IGE based QS-DSC, while the J{sub sc} of the ILE based DSC decreased to 85–94% of their initial values. - Highlights: • A novel IGE with high T{sub gel} is obtained by using a diamide derivative as LMOG. • The IGE based QS-DSC is very stable during the accelerated aging tests. • The influences of gelation on the electron kinetic processes are investigated.

  19. Do intertidal flats ever reach equilibrium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, D.C.; van Prooijen, B.C.; Wang, Z.B.; de Vriend, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have identified a strong relation between the hydrodynamic forces and the equilibrium profile for intertidal flats. A thorough understanding of the interplay between the hydrodynamic forces and the morphology, however, concerns more than the equilibrium state alone. We study the

  20. Influence of collective excitations on pre-equilibrium and equilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.; Lunev, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of the collective states excitations on equilibrium and preequilibrium processes in reaction is discussed. It is shown that for a consistent description of the contribution of preequilibrium and equilibrium compound processes collective states should be taken into account in the level density calculations. The microscopic and phenomenological approaches for the level density calculations are discussed. 13 refs.; 8 figs

  1. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  2. Equilibrium-torus bifurcation in nonsmooth systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubahyev, Z.T.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Considering a set of two coupled nonautonomous differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides describing the behavior of a DC/DC power converter, we discuss a border-collision bifurcation that can lead to the birth of a two-dimensional invariant torus from a stable node equilibrium...

  3. Computer simulation of the free energy of peptides with the local states method: analogues of gonadotropin releasing hormone in the random coil and stable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirovitch, H; Koerber, S C; Rivier, J E; Hagler, A T

    1994-07-01

    The Helmholtz free energy F (rather than the energy) is the correct criterion for stability; therefore, calculation of F is important for peptides and proteins that can populate a large number of metastable states. The local states (LS) method proposed by H. Meirovitch [(1977) Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 45, p. 389] enables one to obtain upper and lower bounds of the conformational free energy, FB (b,l) and FA (b,l), respectively, from molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo samples. The correlation parameter b is the number of consecutive dihedral or valence angles along the chain that are taken into account explicitly. The continuum angles are approximated by a discretization parameter l; the larger are b and l, the better the approximations; while FA can be estimated efficiently, it is more difficult to estimate FB. The method is further developed here by applying it to MD trajectories of a relatively large molecule (188 atoms), the potent "Asp4-Dpr10" antagonist [cyclo(4/10)-(Ac-delta 3Pro1-D-pFPhe2-D-Trp3-Asp4-Tyr5-D-Nal6-Leu7-Arg8 -Pro9- Dpr10-NH2)] of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). The molecule was simulated in vacuo at T = 300 K in two conformational states, previously investigated [J. Rizo et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society, (1992) Vol. 114, p. 2860], which differ by the orientation of the N-terminal tail, above (tail up, TU) and below (tail down, TD) the cyclic heptapeptide ring. As in previous applications of the LS method, we have found the following: (1) While FA is a crude approximation for the correct F, results for the difference, delta FA = FA (TD)-FA (TU) converge rapidly to 5.6 (1) kcal/mole as the approximation is improved (i.e., as b and l are increased), which suggests that this is the correct value for delta F; therefore TD is more stable than TU. (The corresponding difference in entropy, T delta SA = 1.3(2) kcal/mole, is equal to the value obtained by the harmonic approximation.) (2) The lowest approximation, which has

  4. Phase equilibrium engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, Esteban Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and

  5. Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzà, F; Vedral, V

    2017-03-07

    A crucial point in statistical mechanics is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which can be given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy, under the validity of some constraints. Arguing that such a notion can never be experimentally probed, in this paper we propose a new notion of thermal equilibrium, focused on observables rather than on the full state of the quantum system. We characterise such notion of thermal equilibrium for an arbitrary observable via the maximisation of its Shannon entropy and we bring to light the thermal properties that it heralds. The relation with Gibbs ensembles is studied and understood. We apply such a notion of equilibrium to a closed quantum system and show that there is always a class of observables which exhibits thermal equilibrium properties and we give a recipe to explicitly construct them. Eventually, an intimate connection with the Eigenstate Thermalisation Hypothesis is brought to light.

  6. Application of a Crossover Equation of State to Describe Phase Equilibrium and Critical Properties of n-Alkanes and Methane/n-Alkane Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. C. M. Vinhal, Andre; Yan, Wei; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2017-01-01

    and the asymptotic one near the critical point. Although several crossover EOSs have been developed in the last decades their use in modeling industrial processes is rather limited. In this work, we use the crossover Soave–Redlich–Kwong (CSRK) to describe phase equilibrium and critical properties of pure n......-alkanes and methane/n-alkane binary mixtures and compare the results to two other modeling approaches of the SRK EOS. In the case of the pure fluids, CSRK gives an accurate overall description of the phase equilibrium and critical properties; nevertheless, a minor increase in the deviation of the saturation pressure...

  7. Stable isotopic analysis of fossil chironomids as an approach to environmental reconstruction: state of development and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Heiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Remains of chironomid larvae, especially their strongly sclerotized head capsules, can be found abundantly and well preserved in most lake sediment records. These remains mainly consist of chitin and proteins and, since their chemical composition does not seem to be strongly affected by decompositional processes, they can be used to develop palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on their stable isotopic composition. Here we review available stable isotope studies based on fossil chironomids and indicate future research necessary to further develop this still relatively new research approach. Efforts to produce stable isotope records based on fossil chironomids have mainly examined the elements H, N, C, and O. They have focussed on (1 developing the methodology for preparing samples for isotopic analysis, (2 laboratory studies cultivating chironomid larvae under controlled conditions to determine the factors affecting their stable isotopic composition, (3 ecosystem-scale studies relating stable isotopic measurements of fossil chironomid assemblages to environmental conditions, and (4 developing first down-core records describing past changes in the stable isotopic composition of chironomid assemblages. These studies have shown that chemical sample pretreatment may affect the isotopic composition for some elements. Laboratory runs suggest that the diet of the larvae influences their stable isotopic composition for H, N, C and O, whereas stable isotopes in the ambient water also strongly influence their oxygen and to a lesser extent hydrogen isotopic composition. These experiments also indicate only minor offsets between the nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of chironomid soft tissue and the fossilizing head capsules, whereas for hydrogen and oxygen this offset remains to be explored. Though few datasets have been published, the available ecosystem studies and developed down-core sediment records indicate that stable isotopes in

  8. Weinberg equilibrium and association study of insertion/deletion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mostafa Saadat

    2014-08-22

    Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) predicts that in a very large population with random mating, the allelic fre- quencies will remain stable from generation to generation provided there is no mutation, no migration and no natural selection.

  9. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  10. Entropy production in a fluid-solid system far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bong Jae; Ortega, Blas; Vaidya, Ashwin

    2017-11-24

    The terminal orientation of a rigid body in a moving fluid is an example of a dissipative system, out of thermodynamic equilibrium and therefore a perfect testing ground for the validity of the maximum entropy production principle (MaxEP). Thus far, dynamical equations alone have been employed in studying the equilibrium states in fluid-solid interactions, but these are far too complex and become analytically intractable when inertial effects come into play. At that stage, our only recourse is to rely on numerical techniques which can be computationally expensive. In our past work, we have shown that the MaxEP is a reliable tool to help predict orientational equilibrium states of highly symmetric bodies such as cylinders, spheroids and toroidal bodies. The MaxEP correctly helps choose the stable equilibrium in these cases when the system is slightly out of thermodynamic equilibrium. In the current paper, we expand our analysis to examine i) bodies with fewer symmetries than previously reported, for instance, a half-ellipse and ii) when the system is far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Using two-dimensional numerical studies at Reynolds numbers ranging between 0 and 14, we examine the validity of the MaxEP. Our analysis of flow past a half-ellipse shows that overall the MaxEP is a good predictor of the equilibrium states but, in the special case of the half-ellipse with aspect ratio much greater than unity, the MaxEP is replaced by the Min-MaxEP, at higher Reynolds numbers when inertial effects come into play. Experiments in sedimentation tanks and with hinged bodies in a flow tank confirm these calculations.

  11. PLASMA EQUILIBRIUM IN TOKAMAKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blank, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This lecture treats the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium of axisymmetric plasmas, as given by the Grad-Shafranov equation. In a brief introduction, equilibrium parameters such as the q-profile, the internal inductance, and the poloidal beta are introduced. The properties of these quantities

  12. Plasma equilibrium in tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blank, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture treats the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium of axisymmetric plasmas, as given by the Grad-Shafranov equation. In a brief introduction, equilibrium parameters such as the q-profile, the internal inductance, and the poloidal beta are introduced. The properties of these quantities

  13. Plasma equilibrium in tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blank, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture treats the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium of axisymmetric plasmas, as given by the Grad-Shafranov equation. In a brief introduction, equilibrium parameters such as the q-profile, the internal inductance, and the poloidal beta are introduced. The properties of these quantities

  14. Fall Back Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Fall back equilibrium is a refinement of the Nash equilibrium concept. In the underly- ing thought experiment each player faces the possibility that, after all players decided on their action, his chosen action turns out to be blocked. Therefore, each player has to decide beforehand on a back-up

  15. Stable tetrabenzo-Chichibabin's hydrocarbons: Tunable ground state and unusual transition between their closed-shell and open-shell resonance forms

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Zebing

    2012-09-05

    Stable open-shell polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of fundamental interest due to their unique electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and promising applications in materials sciences. Chichibabin\\'s hydrocarbon as a classical open-shell PAH has been investigated for a long time. However, most of the studies are complicated by their inherent high reactivity. In this work, two new stable benzannulated Chichibabin\\'s hydrocarbons 1-CS and 2-OS were prepared, and their electronic structure and geometry in the ground state were studied by various experiments (steady-state and transient absorption spectra, NMR, electron spin resonance (ESR), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), FT Raman, X-ray crystallographic etc.) and density function theory (DFT) calculations. 1-CS and 2-OS exhibited tunable ground states, with a closed-shell quinoidal structure for 1-CS and an open-shell biradical form for 2-OS. Their corresponding excited-state forms 1-OS and 2-CS were also chemically approached and showed different decay processes. The biradical 1-OS displayed an unusually slow decay to the ground state (1-CS) due to a large energy barrier (95 ± 2.5 kJ/mol) arising from severe steric hindrance during the transition from an orthogonal biradical form to a butterfly-like quinoidal form. The quick transition from the quinoidal 2-CS (excited state) to the orthogonal biradicaloid 2-OS (ground state) happened during the attempted synthesis of 2-CS. Compounds 1-CS and 2-OS can be oxidized into stable dications by FeCl 3 and/or concentrated H 2SO 4. The open-shell 2-OS also exhibited a large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section (760 GM at 1200 nm). © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. State of radionuclides in seawater. Comparison of natural stable and artificial radioactive isotope s of mercury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone of the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhmatov, U; Khikmatov, K; Kist, A.A.; Kulmatov, R.A.; Teshabaev, S.T.; Volkov, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the state of stable and artificial radioactive isotopes of merury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone of the USSR by radioactivity and radiochemical methods. Convergent results have been obtained for the dissolved forms of mercury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone in a comparison of the results of radioactivation analysis and laboratory simulation using the radionuclides mercury-203 and zinc-65

  17. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  18. Geochemical and stable isotopic evolution of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sracek, Ondra; Hirata, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to explain geochemical and stable isotopes trends in the Brazilian unit of the Guarani Aquifer System (Botucatu and Piramboia aquifers) in São Paulo State, Brazil. Trends of dissolved species concentrations and geochemical modeling indicated a significant role of cation exchange and dissolution of carbonates in downgradient evolution of groundwater chemistry. Loss of calcium by the exchange for sodium drives dissolution of carbonates and results in Na-HCO3 type of groundwater. The cation-exchange front moves downgradient at probably much slower rate compared to the velocity of groundwater flow and at present is located near to the cities of Sertãozinho and Águas de Santa Barbara (wells PZ-34 and PZ-148, respectively) in a shallow confined area, 50-70 km from the recharge zone. Part of the sodium probably enters the Guarani Aquifer System. together with chloride and sulfate from the underlying Piramboia Formation by diffusion related to the dissolution of evaporates like halite and gypsum. High concentrations of fluorine (up to 13.3 mg/L) can be explained by dissolution of mineral fluoride also driven by cation exchange. However, it is unclear if the dissolution takes place directly in the Guarani Aquifer System or in the overlying basaltic Serra Geral Formation. There is depletion in δ2H and δ18O values in groundwater downgradient. Values of δ13C(DIC) are enriched downgradient, indicating dissolution of calcite under closed system conditions. Values of δ13C(DIC) in deep geothermal wells are very high (>-6.0‰) and probably indicate isotopic exchange with carbonates with δ13C about -3.0‰. Future work should be based on evaluation of vertical fluxes and potential for penetration of contamination to the Guarani Aquifer System. Résumé. Cet article a pour objet d'expliquer l'évolution de la géochimie et des isotopes stables dans l'unité brésilienne du système aquifère du Guarani (aquifères de Botucatu et Piramboia), dans

  19. Effect of Built-Up Edge Formation during Stable State of Wear in AISI 304 Stainless Steel on Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of the Machined Part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yassmin Seid; Fox-Rabinovich, German; Paiva, Jose Mario; Wagg, Terry; Veldhuis, Stephen Clarence

    2017-10-25

    During machining of stainless steels at low cutting -speeds, workpiece material tends to adhere to the cutting tool at the tool-chip interface, forming built-up edge (BUE). BUE has a great importance in machining processes; it can significantly modify the phenomenon in the cutting zone, directly affecting the workpiece surface integrity, cutting tool forces, and chip formation. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 304 stainless steel has a high tendency to form an unstable BUE, leading to deterioration of the surface quality. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of the surface integrity induced during machining operations. Although many reports have been published on the effect of tool wear during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel on surface integrity, studies on the influence of the BUE phenomenon in the stable state of wear have not been investigated so far. The main goal of the present work is to investigate the close link between the BUE formation, surface integrity and cutting forces in the stable sate of wear for uncoated cutting tool during the cutting tests of AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce BUE formation during machining. X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used for measuring superficial residual stresses of the machined surface through the stable state of wear in the cutting and feed directions. In addition, surface roughness of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with chip undersurface analyses. The investigated BUE formation during the stable state of wear showed that the BUE can cause a significant improvement in the surface integrity and cutting forces. Moreover, it can be used to compensate for tool wear through changing the tool geometry, leading to the protection of the cutting tool from wear.

  20. Effect of Built-Up Edge Formation during Stable State of Wear in AISI 304 Stainless Steel on Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of the Machined Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovich, German; Wagg, Terry

    2017-01-01

    During machining of stainless steels at low cutting -speeds, workpiece material tends to adhere to the cutting tool at the tool–chip interface, forming built-up edge (BUE). BUE has a great importance in machining processes; it can significantly modify the phenomenon in the cutting zone, directly affecting the workpiece surface integrity, cutting tool forces, and chip formation. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 304 stainless steel has a high tendency to form an unstable BUE, leading to deterioration of the surface quality. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of the surface integrity induced during machining operations. Although many reports have been published on the effect of tool wear during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel on surface integrity, studies on the influence of the BUE phenomenon in the stable state of wear have not been investigated so far. The main goal of the present work is to investigate the close link between the BUE formation, surface integrity and cutting forces in the stable sate of wear for uncoated cutting tool during the cutting tests of AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce BUE formation during machining. X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used for measuring superficial residual stresses of the machined surface through the stable state of wear in the cutting and feed directions. In addition, surface roughness of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with chip undersurface analyses. The investigated BUE formation during the stable state of wear showed that the BUE can cause a significant improvement in the surface integrity and cutting forces. Moreover, it can be used to compensate for tool wear through changing the tool geometry, leading to the protection of the cutting tool from wear. PMID:29068405

  1. Effect of Built-Up Edge Formation during Stable State of Wear in AISI 304 Stainless Steel on Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of the Machined Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassmin Seid Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During machining of stainless steels at low cutting -speeds, workpiece material tends to adhere to the cutting tool at the tool–chip interface, forming built-up edge (BUE. BUE has a great importance in machining processes; it can significantly modify the phenomenon in the cutting zone, directly affecting the workpiece surface integrity, cutting tool forces, and chip formation. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 304 stainless steel has a high tendency to form an unstable BUE, leading to deterioration of the surface quality. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of the surface integrity induced during machining operations. Although many reports have been published on the effect of tool wear during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel on surface integrity, studies on the influence of the BUE phenomenon in the stable state of wear have not been investigated so far. The main goal of the present work is to investigate the close link between the BUE formation, surface integrity and cutting forces in the stable sate of wear for uncoated cutting tool during the cutting tests of AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce BUE formation during machining. X-ray diffraction (XRD method was used for measuring superficial residual stresses of the machined surface through the stable state of wear in the cutting and feed directions. In addition, surface roughness of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with chip undersurface analyses. The investigated BUE formation during the stable state of wear showed that the BUE can cause a significant improvement in the surface integrity and cutting forces. Moreover, it can be used to compensate for tool wear through changing the tool geometry, leading to the protection of the cutting tool from wear.

  2. Equilibrium Constant as Solution to the Open Chemical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zilbergleyt, B.

    2008-01-01

    According to contemporary views, equilibrium constant is relevant only to true thermodynamic equilibria in isolated systems with one chemical reaction. The paper presents a novel formula that ties-up equilibrium constant and chemical system composition at any state, isolated or open as well. Extending the logarithmic logistic map of the Discrete Thermodynamics of Chemical Equilibria, this formula maps the system population at isolated equilibrium into the population at any open equilibrium at...

  3. Dark halos and elliptical galaxies as marginally stable dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Zant, A. A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Sheikh Zayed, 12588 Giza (Egypt); The British University in Egypt, Sherouk City, Cairo 11837 (Egypt)

    2013-12-10

    The origin of equilibrium gravitational configurations is sought in terms of the stability of their trajectories, as described by the curvature of their Lagrangian configuration manifold of particle positions—a context in which subtle spurious effects originating from the singularity in the two-body potential become particularly clear. We focus on the case of spherical systems, which support only regular orbits in the collisionless limit, despite the persistence of local exponential instability of N-body trajectories in the anomalous case of discrete point particle representation even as N → ∞. When the singularity in the potential is removed, this apparent contradiction disappears. In the absence of fluctuations, equilibrium configurations generally correspond to positive scalar curvature and thus support stable trajectories. A null scalar curvature is associated with an effective, averaged equation of state describing dynamically relaxed equilibria with marginally stable trajectories. The associated configurations are quite similar to those of observed elliptical galaxies and simulated cosmological halos and are necessarily different from the systems dominated by isothermal cores, expected from entropy maximization in the context of the standard theory of violent relaxation. It is suggested that this is the case because a system starting far from equilibrium does not reach a 'most probable state' via violent relaxation, but that this process comes to an end as the system finds and (settles in) a configuration where it can most efficiently wash out perturbations. We explicitly test this interpretation by means of direct simulations.

  4. Non-equilibrium Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.

  5. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  6. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, J E

    1968-01-01

    The International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Volume 1: Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics covers the fundamental principles and the development of theoretical aspects of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanical is the study of the connection between the macroscopic behavior of bulk matter and the microscopic properties of its constituent atoms and molecules. This book contains eight chapters, and begins with a presentation of the master equation used for the calculation of the fundamental thermodynamic functions. The succeeding chapters highlight t

  7. Nonideal plasmas as non-equilibrium media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E; Valuev, A A; Valuev, I A

    2003-01-01

    Various aspects of the collective behaviour of non-equilibrium nonideal plasmas are studied. The relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method for two-component non-degenerate strongly non-equilibrium plasmas. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration and the subsequent exponential stage of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of ion charge, nonideality parameter and ion mass. A simulation model of the nonideal plasma excited by an electron beam is proposed. An approach is developed to calculate the dynamic structure factor in non-stationary conditions. Instability increment is obtained from MD simulations

  8. Quantum mechanical evolution towards thermal equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J; Winter, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    The circumstances under which a system reaches thermal equilibrium, and how to derive this from basic dynamical laws, has been a major question from the very beginning of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Despite considerable progress, it remains an open problem. Motivated by this issue, we address the more general question of equilibration. We prove, with virtually full generality, that reaching equilibrium is a universal property of quantum systems: almost any subsystem in interaction with a large enough bath will reach an equilibrium state and remain close to it for almost all times. We also prove several general results about other aspects of thermalization besides equilibration, for example, that the equilibrium state does not depend on the detailed microstate of the bath.

  9. Quantum mechanics gives stability to a Nash equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Toor, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a slightly modified version of the rock-scissors-paper (RSP) game from the point of view of evolutionary stability. In its classical version the game has a mixed Nash equilibrium (NE) not stable against mutants appearing in small numbers. We find a quantized version of the RSP game for which the classical mixed NE becomes stable

  10. Non-Equilibrium Properties from Equilibrium Free Energy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Calculating free energy in computer simulations is of central importance in statistical mechanics of condensed media and its applications to chemistry and biology not only because it is the most comprehensive and informative quantity that characterizes the eqUilibrium state, but also because it often provides an efficient route to access dynamic and kinetic properties of a system. Most of applications of equilibrium free energy calculations to non-equilibrium processes rely on a description in which a molecule or an ion diffuses in the potential of mean force. In general case this description is a simplification, but it might be satisfactorily accurate in many instances of practical interest. This hypothesis has been tested in the example of the electrodiffusion equation . Conductance of model ion channels has been calculated directly through counting the number of ion crossing events observed during long molecular dynamics simulations and has been compared with the conductance obtained from solving the generalized Nernst-Plank equation. It has been shown that under relatively modest conditions the agreement between these two approaches is excellent, thus demonstrating the assumptions underlying the diffusion equation are fulfilled. Under these conditions the electrodiffusion equation provides an efficient approach to calculating the full voltage-current dependence routinely measured in electrophysiological experiments.

  11. Binding Energy and Equilibrium of Compact Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of the existence of a limit mass for compact astronomic ob- jects requires the solution of the Einstein’s equations of g eneral relativity together with an appropriate equation of state. Analytical solutions exi st in some special cases like the spherically symmetric static object without energy sou rces that is here considered. Solutions, i.e. the spacetime metrics, can have a singular m athematical form (the so called Schwarzschild metric due to Hilbert or a nonsingula r form (original work of Schwarzschild. The former predicts a limit mass and, conse quently, the existence of black holes above this limit. Here it is shown that, the origi nal Schwarzschild met- ric permits compact objects, without mass limit, having rea sonable values for central density and pressure. The lack of a limit mass is also demonst rated analytically just imposing reasonable conditions on the energy-matter densi ty, of positivity and decreas- ing with radius. Finally the ratio between proper mass and to tal mass tends to 2 for high values of mass so that the binding energy reaches the lim it m (total mass seen by a distant observer. As it is known the negative binding energ y reduces the gravitational mass of the object; the limit of m for the binding energy provides a mechanism for stable equilibrium of any amount of mass to contrast the gravitatio nal collapse.

  12. Quasi-equilibrium interpretation of aging dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, S.; Virasoro, M.A.

    2000-04-01

    We develop an interpretation of the off-equilibrium dynamical solution of mean-field glassy models in terms of quasi-equilibrium concepts. We show that the relaxation of the 'thermoremanent magnetization' follows a generalized version of the Onsager regression postulate of induced fluctuations. We then find the rationale for the equality between the fluctuation-dissipation ratio and the rate of growth of the configurational entropy close to the asymptotic state, found empirically in mean-field solutions. (author)

  13. A stable algorithm for calculating phase equilibria with capillarity at specified moles, volume and temperature using a dynamic model

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2017-09-30

    Capillary pressure can significantly affect the phase properties and flow of liquid-gas fluids in porous media, and thus, the phase equilibrium calculation incorporating capillary pressure is crucial to simulate such problems accurately. Recently, the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature (NVT-flash) becomes an attractive issue. In this paper, capillarity is incorporated into the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature. A dynamical model for such problem is developed for the first time by using the laws of thermodynamics and Onsager\\'s reciprocal principle. This model consists of the evolutionary equations for moles and volume, and it can characterize the evolutionary process from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium state in the presence of capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. The phase equilibrium equations are naturally derived. To simulate the proposed dynamical model efficiently, we adopt the convex-concave splitting of the total Helmholtz energy, and propose a thermodynamically stable numerical algorithm, which is proved to preserve the second law of thermodynamics at the discrete level. Using the thermodynamical relations, we derive a phase stability condition with capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. Moreover, we propose a stable numerical algorithm for the phase stability testing, which can provide the feasible initial conditions. The performance of the proposed methods in predicting phase properties under capillarity effect is demonstrated on various cases of pure substance and mixture systems.

  14. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  15. Local equilibrium in bird flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.

  16. Sensor Data Fusion for Body State Estimation in a Bipedal Robot and Its Feedback Control Application for Stable Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Pei Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a sensor data fusion algorithm via an extended Kalman filter for estimating the spatial motion of a bipedal robot. Through fusing the sensory information from joint encoders, a 6-axis inertial measurement unit and a 2-axis inclinometer, the robot’s body state at a specific fixed position can be yielded. This position is also equal to the CoM when the robot is in the standing posture suggested by the detailed CAD model of the robot. In addition, this body state is further utilized to provide sensory information for feedback control on a bipedal robot with walking gait. The overall control strategy includes the proposed body state estimator as well as the damping controller, which regulates the body position state of the robot in real-time based on instant and historical position tracking errors. Moreover, a posture corrector for reducing unwanted torque during motion is addressed. The body state estimator and the feedback control structure are implemented in a child-size bipedal robot and the performance is experimentally evaluated.

  17. Wheat bran as a substrate for thermo stable alpha-amylase production by gamma irradiated bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElVatal, A.I.; Khalaf, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Thermo stable alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) production from cheap agriculture-industrial waste wheat bran (WB) medium by superior potent gamma irradiated locally isolated strain of Bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. A highly yielding, stable enhanced isolated strain of bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. A highly yielding stable enhanced isolate B. megaterium- gamma 21F derived from the 10 kGy, treatment, exhibited the highest alpha-amylase activity under SSF, with 2.8 fold more enzyme titer as compared to the unirradiated wild strain. A vancomycin (Vm) resistant gamma irradiated enhanced isolate B. megaterium-gamma 21F2 (which was selected throughout the subsequent work) secreted (1.27 and 3.58) folds superior titers of alpha-amylase than the gamma irradiated parent isolate (B.megaterium -gamma21F) and unirradiated wild strain, respectively under SSF process. The effects of various parameters, such as moistening agent, initial moisture content level, initial ph, incubation temperature, inoculum size and incubation time on thermo stable alpha-amylase production by B.megaterium-gamma 21F2 under SSF were studied. Maximum enzyme production was recorded in WB medium moistened with (1:2, w/v) distilled water at initial ph (7.0) and inoculated with (2.24 x 10 8 cells/g WB) after 48 h incubation at 40 C degree. Between different solvents used for enzyme extraction from fermented WB mass, distilled water at ph (7.0) was the superior efficient leaching solvent. The specific activity of the precipitated partially purified crude thermo stable enzyme was (258.7 U/mg protein) with ph optima (6.5-7.0), at optimal temperatures (65-70 c degree) and it retained about 53% of its maximum activity after 12 h incubation at 70 c degree. The partially purified crude enzyme was used for starch digestion (5%0 under optimized reaction conditions, wherein (98.2%) starch hydrolysis was attained after 6 h

  18. Equilibrium shoreface profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Hughes, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale coastal behaviour models use the shoreface profile of equilibrium as a fundamental morphological unit that is translated in space to simulate coastal response to, for example, sea level oscillations and variability in sediment supply. Despite a longstanding focus on the shoreface...... profile and its relevance to predicting coastal response to changing environmental conditions, the processes and dynamics involved in shoreface equilibrium are still not fully understood. Here, we apply a process-based empirical sediment transport model, combined with morphodynamic principles to provide...... new insight into equilibrium shoreface profile development and shape. The quantitative model is based on field measurements and shows that a balance between onshore sediment transport due to oscillatory wave motion, and offshore sediment transport due to gravity, produces profile shapes...

  19. EFFECTIVE SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES FOR THE NORM BELONGED TO 238U AND 232TH SERIES BEING IN THE STATE OF DISTURBED RADIOACTIVE EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sanitary Rules SR 2.6.1.1292-03 and SR 2.6.6.1169-02 classification of the industrial waste containing naturally occurring radioactive materials is adopted in accordance to the values of their effective specific activity Aeff. In a case of the disturbed equilibrium in 238U and 232Th series it is necessary to take into consideration actual contribution of the separate natural radionuclides of the mentioned series into the value of gamma dose rate of the waste. This will permit to avoid unjustified overestimating or understating of the waste category which prevents as unjustified expenditures on their treating so undertaking of the necessary measures providing radiation safety.

  20. A Bioeconomic Foundation of the Malthusian Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    equilibrium in a two-dimensional state space characterized by population density and body size (metabolic rate) of the representative adult. As a result, the analysis allows us to examine the link between human biology, economic productivity, body size, and population size. Off the steady-state we investigate...

  1. Equilibrium-constant expressions for aqueous plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium-constant expressions for Pu disproportionation reactions traditionally contain three or four terms representing the concentrations or fractions of the oxidation states. The expressions can be rewritten so that one of the oxidation states is replaced by a term containing the oxidation number of the plutonium. Experimental estimations of the numerical values of the constants can then be checked in several ways. (author)

  2. Sensor Data Fusion for Body State Estimation in a Bipedal Robot and Its Feedback Control Application for Stable Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ching-Pei; Chen, Jing-Yi; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lu, Jau-Ching; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We report on a sensor data fusion algorithm via an extended Kalman filter for estimating the spatial motion of a bipedal robot. Through fusing the sensory information from joint encoders, a 6-axis inertial measurement unit and a 2-axis inclinometer, the robot’s body state at a specific fixed position can be yielded. This position is also equal to the CoM when the robot is in the standing posture suggested by the detailed CAD model of the robot. In addition, this body state is further utilized...

  3. Kinetically blocked stable heptazethrene and octazethrene: Closed-shell or open-shell in the ground state?

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuan

    2012-09-12

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with an open-shell singlet biradical ground state are of fundamental interest and have potential applications in materials science. However, the inherent high reactivity makes their synthesis and characterization very challenging. In this work, a convenient synthetic route was developed to synthesize two kinetically blocked heptazethrene (HZ-TIPS) and octazethrene (OZ-TIPS) compounds with good stability. Their ground-state electronic structures were systematically investigated by a combination of different experimental methods, including steady-state and transient absorption spectroscopy, variable temperature NMR, electron spin resonance (ESR), superconducting quantum interfering device (SQUID), FT Raman, and X-ray crystallographic analysis, assisted by unrestricted symmetry-broken density functional theory (DFT) calculations. All these demonstrated that the heptazethrene derivative HZ-TIPS has a closed-shell ground state while its octazethrene analogue OZ-TIPS with a smaller energy gap exists as an open-shell singlet biradical with a large measured biradical character (y = 0.56). Large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross sections (σ(2)) were determined for HZ-TIPS (σ(2)max = 920 GM at 1250 nm) and OZ-TIPS (σ(2)max = 1200 GM at 1250 nm). In addition, HZ-TIPS and OZ-TIPS show a closely stacked 1D polymer chain in single crystals. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Computation of Phase Equilibrium and Phase Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    In this technical report, we describe the computation of phase equilibrium and phase envelopes based on expressions for the fugacity coefficients. We derive those expressions from the residual Gibbs energy. We consider 1) ideal gases and liquids modeled with correlations from the DIPPR database...... and 2) nonideal gases and liquids modeled with cubic equations of state. Next, we derive the equilibrium conditions for an isothermal-isobaric (constant temperature, constant pressure) vapor-liquid equilibrium process (PT flash), and we present a method for the computation of phase envelopes. We...... formulate the involved equations in terms of the fugacity coefficients. We present expressions for the first-order derivatives. Such derivatives are necessary in computationally efficient gradient-based methods for solving the vapor-liquid equilibrium equations and for computing phase envelopes. Finally, we...

  5. The Stability of Tidal Equilibrium for Hierarchical Star-Planet-Moon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by the current search for exomoons, this talk considers the stability of tidal equilibrium for hierarchical three-body systems containing a star, a planet, and a moon. In this treatment, the energy and angular momentum budgets include contributions from the planetary orbit, lunar orbit, stellar spin, planetary spin, and lunar spin. The goal is to determine the optimized energy state of the system subject to the constraint of constant angular momentum. Due to the lack of a closed form solution for the full three-body problem, however, we must use use an approximate description of the orbits. We first consider the Keplerian limit and find that the critical energy states are saddle points, rather than minima, so that these hierarchical systems have no stable tidal equilibrium states. We then generalize the calculation so that the lunar orbit is described by a time-averaged version of the circular restricted three-body problem. In this latter case, the critical energy state is a shallow minimum, so that a tidal equilibrium state exists. In both cases, however, the lunar orbit for the critical point lies outside the boundary (roughly half the Hill radius) where (previous) numerical simulations indicate dynamical instability.

  6. A minimal model of fire-vegetation feedbacks and disturbance stochasticity generates alternative stable states in grassland-shrubland-woodland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batllori, Enric; Ackerly, David D.; Moritz, Max A.

    2015-03-01

    Altered disturbance regimes in the context of global change are likely to have profound consequences for ecosystems. Interactions between fire and vegetation are of particular interest, as fire is a major driver of vegetation change, and vegetation properties (e.g., amount, flammability) alter fire regimes. Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) constitute a paradigmatic example of temperate fire-prone vegetation. Although these ecosystems may be heavily impacted by global change, disturbance regime shifts and the implications of fire-vegetation feedbacks in the dynamics of such biomes are still poorly characterized. We developed a minimal modeling framework incorporating key aspects of fire ecology and successional processes to evaluate the relative influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on disturbance and vegetation dynamics in systems composed of grassland, shrubland, and woodland mosaics, which characterize many MTEs. In this theoretical investigation, we performed extensive simulations representing different background rates of vegetation succession and disturbance regime (fire frequency and severity) processes that reflect a broad range of MTE environmental conditions. Varying fire-vegetation feedbacks can lead to different critical points in underlying processes of disturbance and sudden shifts in the vegetation state of grassland-shrubland-woodland systems, despite gradual changes in ecosystem drivers as defined by the environment. Vegetation flammability and disturbance stochasticity effectively modify system behavior, determining its heterogeneity and the existence of alternative stable states in MTEs. Small variations in system flammability and fire recurrence induced by climate or vegetation changes may trigger sudden shifts in the state of such ecosystems. The existence of threshold dynamics, alternative stable states, and contrasting system responses to environmental change has broad implications for MTE management.

  7. A minimal model of fire-vegetation feedbacks and disturbance stochasticity generates alternative stable states in grassland–shrubland–woodland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batllori, Enric; Ackerly, David D; Moritz, Max A

    2015-01-01

    Altered disturbance regimes in the context of global change are likely to have profound consequences for ecosystems. Interactions between fire and vegetation are of particular interest, as fire is a major driver of vegetation change, and vegetation properties (e.g., amount, flammability) alter fire regimes. Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) constitute a paradigmatic example of temperate fire-prone vegetation. Although these ecosystems may be heavily impacted by global change, disturbance regime shifts and the implications of fire-vegetation feedbacks in the dynamics of such biomes are still poorly characterized. We developed a minimal modeling framework incorporating key aspects of fire ecology and successional processes to evaluate the relative influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on disturbance and vegetation dynamics in systems composed of grassland, shrubland, and woodland mosaics, which characterize many MTEs. In this theoretical investigation, we performed extensive simulations representing different background rates of vegetation succession and disturbance regime (fire frequency and severity) processes that reflect a broad range of MTE environmental conditions. Varying fire-vegetation feedbacks can lead to different critical points in underlying processes of disturbance and sudden shifts in the vegetation state of grassland–shrubland–woodland systems, despite gradual changes in ecosystem drivers as defined by the environment. Vegetation flammability and disturbance stochasticity effectively modify system behavior, determining its heterogeneity and the existence of alternative stable states in MTEs. Small variations in system flammability and fire recurrence induced by climate or vegetation changes may trigger sudden shifts in the state of such ecosystems. The existence of threshold dynamics, alternative stable states, and contrasting system responses to environmental change has broad implications for MTE management. (letter)

  8. MHD equilibrium and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.

    1978-01-01

    The first part of this lecture discusses the influence of current profiles and noncircular cross-sections on the maximum β obtainable in a Tokamak from the MHD equilibrium point of view. The second part treats limitations on such MHD equilibria resulting from various MHD instabilities like external and internal kinks, localized and nonlocalized modes- and axisymmetric instabilities

  9. Microeconomics : Equilibrium and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2013-01-01

    Microeconomics: Equilibrium and Efficiency teaches how to apply microeconomic theory in an innovative, intuitive and concise way. Using real-world, empirical examples, this book not only covers the building blocks of the subject, but helps gain a broad understanding of microeconomic theory and

  10. Differential Equation of Equilibrium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the ... tedious and more time saving than the classical method in the solution of the aforementioned differential equation. ... silos, pipelines, bridge arches or wind turbine towers [3]. The objective of this ...

  11. Differential Equation of Equilibrium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Civil Engineering. University of Nigeria Nsukka. ABSTRACT. Analysis of underground circular cylindrical shell is carried out in this work. The forth order differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the assumptions of P. L Pasternak.

  12. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast...

  13. Comments on equilibrium, transient equilibrium, and secular equilibrium in serial radioactive decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Equations describing serial radioactive decay are reviewed along with published descriptions or transient and secular equilibrium. It is shown that terms describing equilibrium are not used in the same way by various authors. Specific definitions are proposed; they suggest that secular equilibrium is a subset of transient equilibrium

  14. The potential and flux landscape, Lyapunov function and non-equilibrium thermodynamics for dynamic systems and networks with an application to signal-induced Ca2+ oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarize our recent efforts in exploring the non-equilibrium potential and flux landscape for dynamical systems and networks. The driving force of non-equilibrium dynamics can be decomposed into the gradient of the non-equilibrium potential and the divergent free probability flux divided by the steady-state probability distribution. The potential landscape is linked to the probability distribution of the steady state. We found that the intrinsic potential landscape in the zero noise limit is a Lyapunov function. We have defined and quantified the entropy, energy and free energy of the non-equilibrium systems. These can be used for formulating the first law of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The free energy of the non-equilibrium system is also a Lyapunov function. Therefore, we can use both the intrinsic potential landscape and the free energy to quantify the robustness and global stability of the system. The Lyapunov property provides the formulation for the second law of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The non-zero probability flux breaks the detailed balance. The two driving forces from the gradient of intrinsic potential landscape and the probability flux are perpendicular to each other under the zero noise limit. We investigate the dynamics of a new biological example of signal-induced Ca 2+ oscillation. We explored the underlying potential landscape which shows a Mexican hat shape attracting the system down to the oscillation ring and the flux which provides the driving force on the ring for coherent and stable oscillation. We explored how the landscape and flux topography change with respect to the system parameters and the relationship to the period of oscillations and how the non-equilibrium free energy changes with respect to different dynamic phases and phase transitions when the system parameters vary. These explain how the system becomes robust and stable under different conditions and can help guide the experiment. (invited article)

  15. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed With NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Madsen, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variability...... degrees. This level of misalignment does not significantly change (and may even improve) the agreement between our reflection results and the thermal continuum results regarding the black hole spin. The spectral variability observed by NuSTAR is dominated by the primary continuum, implying variability...... companion star....

  16. General Equilibrium Pricing with Information Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhong eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a general equilibrium model for asset pricing that incorporates asymmetric information as the key element determining security prices. In our setting, the concepts of completeness, arbitrage, state price and equivalent martingale measure are extended to the case of asymmetric information. Our model shows that in a so-called quasi-complete market, the agents with differential information can reach an agreement on an universal equilibrium price. The corresponding state price and martingale measure are determined. The key intuition is that agents evaluate consumption choices conditioned on their private information and the public information generated by price. As a consequence, information asymmetry can lead to mispricing as well.

  17. Electronic states and nature of bonding in the molecule YC by all electron ab initio multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculations and mass spectrometric equilibrium experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Irene; Pelino, Mario; Gingerich, Karl A.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work we present results of all electron ab initio multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculations of eight electronic states of the molecule YC. Also reported are the calculated spectroscopic constants. The predicted electronic ground state is 4PI, but this state is found to ...... in the dissociation energy D0-degrees = 414.2 +/- 14 kJ mol-1 for YC(g), and a standard heat of formation DELTAH(f,298.15)-degrees = 708.1 +/- 16 kJ mol-1.......In the present work we present results of all electron ab initio multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculations of eight electronic states of the molecule YC. Also reported are the calculated spectroscopic constants. The predicted electronic ground state is 4PI, but this state is found...... to be separated from a 2PI state by only 225 cm-1, and by 1393 cm-1 from a 2SIGMA+ state. The chemical bond in the 4PI ground state is mainly due to the formation of a bonding molecular orbital composed of the 4dpi of Y and the 2ppi on C. The 5s electrons of Y are partly transferred to the 2psigma orbital on C...

  18. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  19. Instability Versus Equilibrium Propagation of Laser Beam in Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Rose, Harvey A.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain, for the first time, an analytic theory of the forward stimulated Brillouin scattering instability of a spatially and temporally incoherent laser beam, that controls the transition between statistical equilibrium and non-equilibrium (unstable) self-focusing regimes of beam propagation. The stability boundary may be used as a comprehensive guide for inertial confinement fusion designs. Well into the stable regime, an analytic expression for the angular diffusion coefficient is obtain...

  20. Problems in equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aliprantis, Charalambos D

    1996-01-01

    In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.

  1. Passivation of interstitial and vacancy mediated trap-states for efficient and stable triple-cation perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Md Arafat; Elumalai, Naveen Kumar; Upama, Mushfika Baishakhi; Wang, Dian; Gonçales, Vinicius R.; Wright, Matthew; Xu, Cheng; Haque, Faiazul; Uddin, Ashraf

    2018-04-01

    The current work reports the concurrent passivation of interstitial and oxygen vacancy mediated defect states in low temperature processed ZnO electron transport layer (ETL) via Ultraviolet-Ozone (UVO) treatment for fabricating highly efficient (maximum efficiency: 16.70%), triple cation based MA0.57FA0.38Rb0.05PbI3 (MA: methyl ammonium, FA: formamidinium, Rb: rubidium) perovskite solar cell (PSC). Under UV exposure, ozone decomposes to free atomic oxygen and intercalates into the interstitial and oxygen vacancy induced defect sites in the ZnO lattice matrix, which contributes to suppressed trap-assisted recombination phenomena in perovskite device. UVO treatment also reduces the content of functional hydroxyl group on ZnO surface, that increases the inter-particle connectivity and grain size of perovskite film on UVO treated ZnO ETL. Owing to this, the perovskite film atop UVO treated ZnO film exhibits reduced micro-strain and dislocation density values, which contribute to the enhanced photovoltaic performance of PSC with modified ZnO ETL. The modified PSCs exhibit higher recombination resistance (RRec) ∼40% compared to pristine ZnO ETL based control devices. Adding to the merit, the UVO treated ZnO PSC also demonstrates superior device stability, retaining about 88% of its initial PCE in the course of a month-long, systematic degradation study.

  2. Entropy stable modeling of non-isothermal multi-component diffuse-interface two-phase flows with realistic equations of state

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2018-02-25

    In this paper, we consider mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of non-isothermal compressible multi-component diffuse-interface two-phase flows with realistic equations of state. A general model with general reference velocity is derived rigorously through thermodynamical laws and Onsager\\'s reciprocal principle, and it is capable of characterizing compressibility and partial miscibility between multiple fluids. We prove a novel relation among the pressure, temperature and chemical potentials, which results in a new formulation of the momentum conservation equation indicating that the gradients of chemical potentials and temperature become the primary driving force of the fluid motion except for the external forces. A key challenge in numerical simulation is to develop entropy stable numerical schemes preserving the laws of thermodynamics. Based on the convex-concave splitting of Helmholtz free energy density with respect to molar densities and temperature, we propose an entropy stable numerical method, which solves the total energy balance equation directly, and thus, naturally satisfies the first law of thermodynamics. Unconditional entropy stability (the second law of thermodynamics) of the proposed method is proved by estimating the variations of Helmholtz free energy and kinetic energy with time steps. Numerical results validate the proposed method.

  3. Hyper production of alkali stable xylanase in lesser duration by Bacillus pumilus SV-85S using wheat bran under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Sushil; Mittal, Anuradha; Kumar, Davender; Kumar, Lalit; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2011-10-01

    High level production of an extracellular cellulase-poor alkali stable xylanase has been conceded from newly isolated Bacillus pumilus SV-85S under solid state fermentation using wheat bran as a substrate. Optimization of the fermentation conditions enhanced the enzyme production to 73,000 ± 1,000 IU/g dry substrate, which was 13.8-fold higher than unoptimized conditions (5,300 IU/g). The enzyme titre was highest after 48 h of incubation at 30°C with 1:3 ratios of substrate to moistening agent using wheat bran as a carbon source. The enzyme could be produced in significant levels by using either tap water or distilled water alone as a moistening agent. An elevated production of xylanase by B. pumilus SV-85S in the presence of wheat bran, a cheap and easily available agro-residue, in shorter duration would apparently reduce the enzyme cost substantially. The enzyme was completely stable over a broad pH (5-11) range and retained 52% of its activity at a temperature of 70°C for 30 min. The desired characteristics of this enzyme together with economic production would be important for its application in paper and pulp industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, E Atlee

    2000-01-01

    Ideal as an elementary introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics, this volume covers both classical and quantum methodology for open and closed systems. Introductory chapters familiarize readers with probability and microscopic models of systems, while additional chapters describe the general derivation of the fundamental statistical mechanics relationships. The final chapter contains 16 sections, each dealing with a different application, ordered according to complexity, from classical through degenerate quantum statistical mechanics. Key features include an elementary introduction t

  5. Dynamics of a mechanical system with multiple degrees of freedom out of thermal equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigel, A

    2017-05-01

    Out of thermal equilibrium, an environment imposes effective mechanical forces on nanofabricated devices as well as on microscopic chemical or biological systems. Here we address the question of how to calculate these forces together with the response of the system from first principles. We show that an ideal gaslike environment, even near thermal equilibrium, can enforce a specific steady state on the system by creating effective potentials in otherwise homogeneous space. An example of stable and unstable rectifications of thermal fluctuations is presented using a modified Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet with two degrees of freedom. Moreover, the stability of a steady configuration depends on its chiral symmetry. The transition rate probabilities and the corresponding kinetic equations are derived for a complex mechanical system with arbitrary degrees of freedom. This work, therefore, extends the applicability of mechanical systems as a toy model playground of statistical physics for active and living matter with multiple degrees of freedom.

  6. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  7. Furosemide Prescription During the Dry State Is a Predictor of Long-Term Survival of Stable, Optimally Medicated Patients With Systolic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargento, Luis; Simões, Andre Vicente; Longo, Susana; Lousada, Nuno; Reis, Roberto Palma Dos

    2017-05-01

    Furosemide is associated with poor prognosis in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). To evaluate the association between daily furosemide dose prescribed during the dry state and long-term survival in stable, optimally medicated outpatients with HFrEF. Two hundred sixty-six consecutive outpatients with left ventricular ejection fraction failure therapy, were followed up for 3 years in a heart failure unit. The end point was all-cause death. There were no changes in New York Heart Association class and therapeutics, including diuretics, and no decompensation or hospitalization during 6 months. Furosemide doses were categorized as low or none (0-40 mg/d), intermediate (41-80 mg/d), and high (>80 mg). Cox regression was adjusted for significant confounders. The 3-year mortality rate was 33.8%. Mean dose of furosemide was 57.3 ± 21.4 mg/d. A total of 47.6% of patients received the low dose, 42.1% the intermediate dose, and 2.3% the high dose. Receiver operating characteristics for death associated with furosemide dose showed an area under the curve of 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-0.79; P 40 mg/d. An increasing daily dose of furosemide was associated with worse prognosis. Those receiving the intermediate dose (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.57-6.64; P 40 mg/d, in a propensity score-matched cohort, had a greater risk of mortality than those receiving a low dose (HR = 4.02; 95% CI: 1.8-8.8; P = .001) and those not receiving furosemide (HR = 3.9; 95% CI: 0.07-14.2; P = .039). Furosemide administration during the dry state in stable, optimally medicated outpatients with HFrEF is unfavorably associated with long-term survival. The threshold dose was 40 mg/d.

  8. Equilibrium thermodynamics - Callen's postulational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide the background for nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we outline the fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics. Equilibrium thermodynamics must not only be obtained as a special case of any acceptable nonequilibrium generalization but, through its shining example, it also elucidates

  9. Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Using Fast, Stable, Glassy Nanocomposite Electrolytes for Good Safety and Long Cycle-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guoqiang; Wu, Feng; Zhan, Chun; Wang, Jing; Mu, Daobin; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-03-09

    The development of safe, stable, and long-life Li-ion batteries is being intensively pursued to enable the electrification of transportation and intelligent grid applications. Here, we report a new solid-state Li-ion battery technology, using a solid nanocomposite electrolyte composed of porous silica matrices with in situ immobilizing Li(+)-conducting ionic liquid, anode material of MCMB, and cathode material of LiCoO2, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, or LiFePO4. An injection printing method is used for the electrode/electrolyte preparation. Solid nanocomposite electrolytes exhibit superior performance to the conventional organic electrolytes with regard to safety and cycle-life. They also have a transparent glassy structure with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical strength. Solid-state full cells tested with the various cathodes exhibited high specific capacities, long cycling stability, and excellent high temperature performance. This solid-state battery technology will provide new avenues for the rational engineering of advanced Li-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices.

  10. The equilibrium of overpressurized polytropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Hersant, F.; Nasello, G.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the impact of an external pressure on the structure of self-gravitating polytropes for axially symmetric ellipsoids and rings. The confinement of the fluid by photons is accounted for through a boundary condition on the enthalpy H. Equilibrium configurations are determined numerically from a generalized `self-consistent-field' method. The new algorithm incorporates an intraloop re-scaling operator R(H), which is essential for both convergence and getting self-normalized solutions. The main control parameter is the external-to-core enthalpy ratio. In the case of uniform rotation rate and uniform surrounding pressure, we compute the mass, the volume, the rotation rate and the maximum enthalpy. This is repeated for a few polytropic indices, n. For a given axial ratio, overpressurization globally increases all output quantities, and this is more pronounced for large n. Density profiles are flatter than in the absence of an external pressure. When the control parameter asymptotically tends to unity, the fluid converges towards the incompressible solution, whatever the index, but becomes geometrically singular. Equilibrium sequences, obtained by varying the axial ratio, are built. States of critical rotation are greatly exceeded or even disappear. The same trends are observed with differential rotation. Finally, the typical response to a photon point source is presented. Strong irradiation favours sharp edges. Applications concern star-forming regions and matter orbiting young stars and black holes.

  11. The Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program with parametric study capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, R.

    1981-01-01

    The program was developed to determine chemical equilibrium in complex systems. Using a free energy minimization technique, the program permits calculations such as: chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states; theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion; incident and reflected shock properties; and Chapman-Jouget detonation properties. It is shown that the same program can handle solid coal in an entrained flow coal gasification problem.

  12. Equilibrium Arrival Times to Queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Jesper; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    a symmetric (mixed) Nash equilibrium, and show that there is at most one symmetric equilibrium. We provide a numerical method to compute this equilibrium and demonstrate by a numerical example that the social effciency can be lower than the effciency induced by a similar queueing system that serves customers...

  13. Electronic states and nature of bonding of the molecule NiGe by all electron ab initio Hartree–Fock (HF) and configuration interaction (CI) calculations and mass spectrometric equilibrium experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Irene; Kingcade, Joseph E.; Gingerich, Karl A.

    1988-01-01

    All electron ab initio Hartree–Fock (HF) and configuration interaction (CI) calculations have been applied to investigate the low-lying electronic states of the NiGe molecule. The ground state of the NiGe molecule is predicted to be 1Sigma+. The chemical bond in the 1Sigma+ ground state is a double...... bond composed of one sigma and one pi bond. The sigma bond is due to a delocalized molecular orbital formed by combining the Ni 4s and the Ge 4psigma orbitals. The pi bond is a partly delocalized valence bond, originating from the coupling of the 3dpi hole on Ni with the 4ppi electron on Ge. The low-lying...... electronic states of the NiGe molecule have all been characterized by the symmetry of the hole in the 3d shell of Ni. The dissociation energy of the NiGe molecule has been determined from our high temperature mass spectrometric equilibrium data in combination with the theoretical results as D [open circle] 0...

  14. Particle Sorting and Motility Out of Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Cato

    The theory of equilibrium statistical physics, formulated over a century ago, provides an excellent description of physical systems which have reached a static, relaxed state. Such systems can be loosely thought of as maximally disordered, in keeping with the Second Law of Thermodynamics which states that a thermal system in equilibrium has reached a state of highest entropy. However, many entities in the world around us maintain themselves in an remarkably ordered and dynamic state, and must pay for this by producing entropy in their surroundings. Organisms, for example, convert chemical energy (food) into heat, which is then dumped into the environment, raising its entropy. Systems which produce entropy through any mechanism must be described by theories of non-equilibrium statistical physics, for which there currently exists no unified framework or ontology. Here we examine two specific cases of non-equilibrium phenomena from a theoretical perspective. First, we explore the behaviour of microscopic particles which continually dissipate energy to propel themselves through their environment. Second, we consider how devices which distinguish between different types of particles can exploit non-equilibrium processes to enhance their performance. For the case of self-propelled particles, we consider a theoretical model where the particle's propulsion force has "memory"--it is a random process whose instantaneous value depends on its past evolution. This introduces a persistence in the particle's motion, and requires the dissipation of energy into its surroundings. These particles are found to exhibit a variety of behaviours forbidden in equilibrium systems: for instance they may cluster around barriers, exert unbalanced forces, and sustain steady flows through space. We develop the understanding of these particles' dynamics through a combination of explicit calculations, approximations and numerical simulation which characterise and quantify their non-equilibrium

  15. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Sybren Ruurds

    1984-01-01

    The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn

  16. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  17. The Global Trends in the Alternative Energetics and Improvement of the State Policy in the Sphere of Fiscal Security: in Search for Equilibrium and Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnedina Kateryna V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative energetics is an important component of the competitiveness and security of the national economy. Its rapid development over the past 10 years is caused by both the attempts of individual countries to maintain and strengthen their competitive advantage in the world markets and the efforts of international organizations (UN, IRENA, IEA to consolidate different stakeholders to achieve energy and fiscal security, protection of environment and improvement of climate conditions. The article is aimed at generalizing global trends in alternative energetics in the context of development of the State policy in the sphere of fiscal security. A brief overview of the latest trends in the alternative energetics development, most of which focus on identifying the basic sectoral trends, has been provided. However, the issues of fiscal security in the energy sector remain poorly researched, especially in terms of formation of the State policy, consolidating interests of different groups of stakeholders. It has been determined that in the developed countries a significant growth of alternative energetics is caused by the consistent State policy on creation of conditions for formation of effective branch markets and the solving of so-called energy trilemma.

  18. First Passage Analysis of the Folding of a β-Sheet Miniprotein: Is it More Realistic Than the Standard Equilibrium Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Simulations of first-passage folding of the antiparallel β-sheet miniprotein beta3s, which has been intensively studied under equilibrium conditions by A. Caflisch and co-workers, show that the kinetics and dynamics are significantly different from those for equilibrium folding. Because the folding of a protein in a living system generally corresponds to the former (i.e., the folded protein is stable and unfolding is a rare event), the difference is of interest. In contrast to equilibrium folding, the Ch-curl conformations become very rare because they contain unfavorable parallel β-strand arrangements, which are difficult to form dynamically due to the distant N- and C-terminal strands. At the same time, the formation of helical conformations becomes much easier (particularly in the early stage of folding) due to short-range contacts. The hydrodynamic descriptions of the folding reaction have also revealed that while the equilibrium flow field presented a collection of local vortices with closed ”streamlines”, the first-passage folding is characterized by a pronounced overall flow from the unfolded states to the native state. The flows through the locally stable structures Cs-or and Ns-or, which are conformationally close to the native state, are negligible due to detailed balance established between these structures and the native state. Although there are significant differences in the general picture of the folding process from the equilibrium and first-passage folding simulations, some aspects of the two are in agreement. The rate of transitions between the clusters of characteristic protein conformations in both cases decreases approximately exponentially with the distance between the clusters in the hydrogen bond distance space of collective variables, and the folding time distribution in the first-passage segments of the equilibrium trajectory is in good agreement with that for the first-passage folding simulations. PMID:24669953

  19. First passage analysis of the folding of a β-sheet miniprotein: is it more realistic than the standard equilibrium approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalgin, Igor V; Chekmarev, Sergei F; Karplus, Martin

    2014-04-24

    Simulations of first-passage folding of the antiparallel β-sheet miniprotein beta3s, which has been intensively studied under equilibrium conditions by A. Caflisch and co-workers, show that the kinetics and dynamics are significantly different from those for equilibrium folding. Because the folding of a protein in a living system generally corresponds to the former (i.e., the folded protein is stable and unfolding is a rare event), the difference is of interest. In contrast to equilibrium folding, the Ch-curl conformations become very rare because they contain unfavorable parallel β-strand arrangements, which are difficult to form dynamically due to the distant N- and C-terminal strands. At the same time, the formation of helical conformations becomes much easier (particularly in the early stage of folding) due to short-range contacts. The hydrodynamic descriptions of the folding reaction have also revealed that while the equilibrium flow field presented a collection of local vortices with closed "streamlines", the first-passage folding is characterized by a pronounced overall flow from the unfolded states to the native state. The flows through the locally stable structures Cs-or and Ns-or, which are conformationally close to the native state, are negligible due to detailed balance established between these structures and the native state. Although there are significant differences in the general picture of the folding process from the equilibrium and first-passage folding simulations, some aspects of the two are in agreement. The rate of transitions between the clusters of characteristic protein conformations in both cases decreases approximately exponentially with the distance between the clusters in the hydrogen bond distance space of collective variables, and the folding time distribution in the first-passage segments of the equilibrium trajectory is in good agreement with that for the first-passage folding simulations.

  20. Chromophore Structure of Photochromic Fluorescent Protein Dronpa: Acid-Base Equilibrium of Two Cis Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Asuka; Mizuno, Misao; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2016-04-07

    Dronpa is a novel photochromic fluorescent protein that exhibits fast response to light. The present article is the first report of the resonance and preresonance Raman spectra of Dronpa. We used the intensity and frequency of Raman bands to determine the structure of the Dronpa chromophore in two thermally stable photochromic states. The acid-base equilibrium in one photochromic state was observed by spectroscopic pH titration. The Raman spectra revealed that the chromophore in this state shows a protonation/deprotonation transition with a pKa of 5.2 ± 0.3 and maintains the cis configuration. The observed resonance Raman bands showed that the other photochromic state of the chromophore is in a trans configuration. The results demonstrate that Raman bands selectively enhanced for the chromophore yield valuable information on the molecular structure of the chromophore in photochromic fluorescent proteins after careful elimination of the fluorescence background.

  1. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on coastal marine ecosystems using stable CNS isotopes: State of the art, knowledge gaps, and community-scale perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, the analysis of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotopes (SIA) has emerged as a powerful, viable methodology for examining food web structure and dynamics, as well as addressing a number of applied issues. Here, we provide a state-of-the-art review of the use of SIA for assessing anthropogenic pressures on natural ecosystems, in order to establish current knowledge gaps and identify promising applications for evaluating the ecological status of marine coastal waters. Specifically, the potential of SIA to provide food web-scale indicators for estimating cumulative anthropogenic pressures is addressed. The review indicates that the methodology has been used for virtually the whole spectrum of human pressures known to influence marine ecosystems. However, only the effects of chemical pollution, release of dissolved and particulate nutrients, and invasive species have been extensively investigated. For the first two pressures, substantial efforts have been made to implement isotopic quantitative approaches and metrics for inter-system comparisons; however, with the exception of nutrient release, the majority of aquatic studies have been carried out in freshwater systems, and only limited information is available on marine environments. In particular, the effects of invasive species on coastal habitats have received scant attention. Trophic position of indicator species emerges as the isotopic metric most ubiquitously adopted for measuring the impact of anthropogenic pressures. Conversely, the application of other recently implemented metrics, proven to be highly effective in integrating information on the spatial-temporal dynamics of aquatic food webs, is to date still limited. The potential of stable isotope analysis to provide a unifying methodological-theoretical framework for effective, inter-ecosystem comparisons of both single and multiple anthropogenic pressures is emphasised. Additionally, a plea for the implementation and intercalibration

  2. Pressure dependence of Tc from chemical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, A.; Hissa, J.; Haeyrynen, T.; Braeysy, V.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical equilibrium theory analogous with dissociation of molecules or ionization of gas of atoms is applied to high-Tc superconductors. The starting point are performed pairs, which exist in the normal state and can be treated as Coulomb bosons with charge 2e. Above Tc the pairs (B ++ ) decay into fermions (h + ) according to the equilibrium reaction B ++ ↔ 2h + . Using an approximate chemical equilibrium constant, proportional to pressure the authors derive a universal two-parameter expression for the pressurized optimum transition temperature Tc MAX (P). The formula shows that Tc MAX (P) develops a maximum and beyond the maximum it starts to come down. The authors also show that in interesting pressure range P > 10 GPa, the expansion in powers of pressure diverges

  3. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the theory of non-equilibrium hydrodynamic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peletminskij, S.V.; Plokhov, S.S.; Prikhod'ko, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Using the method of abbreviated description a microscopic theory of non-equilibrium fluctuations with a great radius of correlations, which permits to study fluctuation kinetics at t>>tausub(r)(tausub(r) is relaxation time) is built. General formula, describing the degree character of approximation to the state of statistical equilibrium of mean values of arbitrary quasilocal operators, are obtained [ru

  5. Template Removal via Boudouard Equilibrium Allows for Synthesis of Mesostructured Molybdenum Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieder, Martin; Bojer, Carina; Vom Stein, Julia; Koch, Sebastian; Martin, Thomas; Schmalz, Holger; Breu, Josef; Lunkenbein, Thomas

    2017-11-06

    Oxidative thermal removal of the polymeric templates is not trivial for molybdenum oxides and hampers mesostructuring of this material. At ambient oxygen fugacity, Mo VI is the thermodynamically stable oxidation state and sublimation of MoO 3 leads to a quick loss of the mesostructure through Oswald ripening. Taking advantage of the Boudouard equilibrium allows to fix the oxygen fugacity at a level where non-volatile MoO 2-x is stable while carbonaceous material may be oxidized by CO 2 . Mesostructured MoO 2-x can be chemically converted into MoO 3 or MoN under retention of the mesostructure. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Template removal via Boudouard equilibrium allows for synthesis of mesostructured molybdenum compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieder, Martin; Bojer, Carina; Koch, Sebastian; Martin, Thomas; Breu, Josef [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany); Stein, Julia vom [Abteilung fuer Heterogene Katalyse, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim a.d. Ruhr (Germany); Schmalz, Holger [Lehrstuhl fuer Makromolekulare Chemie II, Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany); Lunkenbein, Thomas [Abteilung fuer Anorganische Chemie, Fritz-Haber-Institut, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-11-06

    Oxidative thermal removal of the polymeric templates is not trivial for molybdenum oxides and hampers mesostructuring of this material. At ambient oxygen fugacity, Mo{sup VI} is the thermodynamically stable oxidation state and sublimation of MoO{sub 3} leads to a quick loss of the mesostructure through Oswald ripening. Taking advantage of the Boudouard equilibrium allows to fix the oxygen fugacity at a level where non-volatile MoO{sub 2-x} is stable while carbonaceous material may be oxidized by CO{sub 2}. Mesostructured MoO{sub 2-x} can be chemically converted into MoO{sub 3} or MoN under retention of the mesostructure. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Determination of the equilibrium fO2 in bulk samples of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites by solid-state electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchii, Valentin O.; Fedkin, Mark V.; Osadchii, Evgeniy G.

    2017-10-01

    High-temperature solid-state electrochemistry techniques (EMF method) were used to measure the oxygen fugacity (fO2) of the ordinary chondrites Ochansk (H4), Savtschenskoje (LL4), Elenovka (L5), Vengerovo (H5), and Kharkov (L6). The fO2 results are presented in the form of the following equations: logfO2>(Ochansk>)=>(9.39±1.64>)->(3.124∓0.191>)·104·T-1 1070/K(Vengerovo>)=>(6.86±1.73>)->(2.870∓0.196>)·104·T-1 1050/K(Elenovka>)=>(8.37±1.10>)->(3.005∓0.124>)·104·T-1 1050/K(Savtschenskoje>)=>(11.36±0.85>)->(3.289∓0.099>)·104·T-1 1070/K(Kharkov>)=>(7.80±0.44>)->(2.930∓0.050>)·104·T-1 1050/K 1200 K, becomes more reduced than Kharkov (L6) or Elenovka (L5). Measured oxygen fugacity values of meteorites fall within (0.1-1.0)·log fO2 of one another. The possible explanation of discrepancies between measured and calculated values is discussed.

  8. Effective equilibrium states in the colored-noise model for active matter I. Pairwise forces in the Fox and unified colored noise approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, René; Maggi, C.; Sharma, A.; Scacchi, A.; Brader, J. M.; Marini Bettolo Marconi, U.

    2017-11-01

    The equations of motion of active systems can be modeled in terms of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck processes (OUPs) with appropriate correlators. For further theoretical studies, these should be approximated to yield a Markovian picture for the dynamics and a simplified steady-state condition. We perform a comparative study of the unified colored noise approximation (UCNA) and the approximation scheme by Fox recently employed within this context. We review the approximations necessary to define effective interaction potentials in the low-density limit and study the conditions for which these represent the behavior observed in two-body simulations for the OUPs model and active Brownian particles. The demonstrated limitations of the theory for potentials with a negative slope or curvature can be qualitatively corrected by a new empirical modification. In general, we find that in the presence of translational white noise the Fox approach is more accurate. Finally, we examine an alternative way to define a force-balance condition in the limit of small activity.

  9. Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard

    2017-08-01

    A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.

  10. High beta tokamaks. [MHD equilibrium, stability, and transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dory, R.A.; Berger, D.P.; Charlton, L.A.; Hogan, J.T.; Munro, J.K.; Nelson, D.B.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Sigmar, D.J.; Strickler, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    MHD equilibrium, stability, and transport calculations are made to study the accessibility and behavior of ''high beta'' tokamak plasmas in the range ..beta.. approximately 5 to 15 percent. For next generation devices, beta values of at least 8 percent appear to be accessible and stable if there is a conducting surface nearby.

  11. Unconditionally stable methods for simulating multi-component two-phase interface models with Peng-Robinson equation of state and various boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-component dynamic two-phase interface models, which are formulated by the Cahn-Hilliard system with Peng-Robinson equation of state and various boundary conditions. These models can be derived from the minimum problems of Helmholtz free energy or grand potential in the realistic thermodynamic systems. The resulted Cahn-Hilliard systems with various boundary conditions are fully coupled and strongly nonlinear. A linear transformation is introduced to decouple the relations between different components, and as a result, the models are simplified. From this, we further propose a semi-implicit unconditionally stable time discretization scheme, which allows us to solve the Cahn-Hilliard system by a decoupled way, and thus, our method can significantly reduce the computational cost and memory requirements. The mixed finite element methods are employed for the spatial discretization, and the approximate errors are also analyzed for both space and time. Numerical examples are tested to demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed methods. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of organic contaminants in natural environments: a critical review of the state of the art, prospects, and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Torsten C.; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Zwank, Luc; Elsner, Martin; Berg, Michael; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) has developed into a mature analytical method in many application areas over the last decade. This is in particular true for carbon isotope analysis, whereas measurements of the other elements amenable to CSIA (hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen) are much less routine. In environmental sciences, successful applications to date include (i) the allocation of contaminant sources on a local, regional, and global scale, (ii) the identification and quantification of (bio)transformation reactions on scales ranging from batch experiments to contaminated field sites, and (iii) the characterization of elementary reaction mechanisms that govern product formation. These three application areas are discussed in detail. The investigated spectrum of compounds comprises mainly n-alkanes, monoaromatics such as benzene and toluene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as tetrachloromethane, trichloroethylene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Future research directions are primarily set by the state of the art in analytical instrumentation and method development. Approaches to utilize HPLC separation in CSIA, the enhancement of sensitivity of CSIA to allow field investigations in the μg L -1 range, and the development of methods for CSIA of other elements are reviewed. Furthermore, an alternative scheme to evaluate isotope data is outlined that would enable estimates of position-specific kinetic isotope effects and, thus, allow one to extract mechanistic chemical and biochemical information. (orig.)

  13. Mapping Isobaric Aging onto the Equilibrium Phase Diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niss, Kristine

    2017-09-15

    The linear volume relaxation and the nonlinear volume aging of a glass-forming liquid are measured, directly compared, and used to extract the out-of-equilibrium relaxation time. This opens a window to investigate how the relaxation time depends on temperature, structure, and volume in parts of phase space that are not accessed by the equilibrium liquid. It is found that the temperature dependence of relaxation time is non-Arrhenius even in the isostructural case-challenging the Adam-Gibbs entropy model. Based on the presented data and the idea that aging happens through quasiequilibrium states, we suggest a mapping of the out-of-equilibrium states during isobaric aging to the equilibrium phase diagram. This mapping implies the existence of isostructural lines in the equilibrium phase diagram. The relaxation time is found to depend on the bath temperature, density, and a just single structural parameter, referred to as an effective temperature.

  14. The equilibrium alluvial river under variable flow and its channel-forming discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Astrid; Arkesteijn, Liselot; Chavarrías, Víctor; Viparelli, Enrica

    2017-10-01

    When the water discharge, sediment supply, and base level vary around stable values, an alluvial river evolves toward a mean equilibrium or graded state with small fluctuations around this mean state (i.e., a dynamic or statistical equilibrium state). Here we present analytical relations describing the mean equilibrium geometry of an alluvial river under variable flow by linking channel slope, width, and bed surface texture. The solution holds in river normal flow zones (or outside both the hydrograph boundary layer and the backwater zone) and accounts for grain size selective transport and particle abrasion. We consider the variable flow rate as a series of continuously changing yet steady water discharges (here termed an alternating steady discharge). The analysis also provides a solution to the channel-forming water discharge, which is here defined as the steady water discharge that, given the mean sediment supply, provides the same equilibrium channel slope as the natural long-term hydrograph. The channel-forming water discharge for the gravel load is larger than the one associated with the sand load. The analysis illustrates how the load is distributed over the range of water discharge in the river normal flow zone, which we term the "normal flow load distribution". The fact that the distribution of the (imposed) sediment supply spatially adapts to this normal flow load distribution is the origin of the hydrograph boundary layer. The results quantify the findings by Wolman and Miller (1960) regarding the relevance of both magnitude and frequency of the flow rate with respect to channel geometry.

  15. Coexistence between silent and bursting states in a biophysical Hodgkin-Huxley-type of model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankevich, Nataliya; Mosekilde, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Classification of the dynamical mechanisms that support bistability between bursting oscillations and silence has not yet been clarified in detail. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the coexistence of a stable equilibrium point with a state of continuous bursting can occur in a sli......Classification of the dynamical mechanisms that support bistability between bursting oscillations and silence has not yet been clarified in detail. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the coexistence of a stable equilibrium point with a state of continuous bursting can occur...

  16. General equilibrium without utility functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    2010-01-01

    How far can we go in weakening the assumptions of the general equilibrium model? Existence of equilibrium, structural stability and finiteness of equilibria of regular economies, genericity of regular economies and an index formula for the equilibria of regular economies have been known...... and the diffeomorphism of the equilibrium manifold with a Euclidean space; (2) the diffeomorphism of the set of no-trade equilibria with a Euclidean space; (3) the openness and genericity of the set of regular equilibria as a subset of the equilibrium manifold; (4) for small trade vectors, the uniqueness, regularity...

  17. Evolution of equilibrium Pickering emulsions--a matter of time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; Luigjes, Bob; de Folter, Julius W J; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2010-09-30

    A new class of equilibrium solid-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions harbors a competition of two processes on disparate time scales that affect the equilibrium droplet size in opposing ways. The aim of this work is to elucidate the molecular origins of these two time scales and demonstrate their effects on the evolution of the emulsion droplet size. First, spontaneous emulsification into particle-covered droplets occurs through in situ generation of surface-active molecules by hydrolysis of molecules of the oil phase. We show that surface tensions of the oil-water interfaces in the absence of stabilizing colloidal particles are connected to the concentration of these surface-active molecules, and hence also to the equilibrium droplet size in the presence of colloids. As a consequence, the hydrolysis process sets the time scale of formation of these solid-stabilized emulsions. A second time scale is governing the ultimate fate of the solid-stabilized equilibrium emulsions: by condensation of the in situ generated amphiphilic molecules onto the colloidal particles, their wetting properties change, leading to a gradual transfer from the aqueous to the oil phase via growth of the emulsion droplets. This migration is observed macroscopically by a color change of the water and oil phases, as well as by electron microscopy after polymerization of the oil phase in a phase separated sample. Surprisingly, the relative oil volume sets the time scale of particle transfer. Phase separation into an aqueous phase and an oil phase containing colloidal particles is influenced by sedimentation of the emulsion droplets. The two processes of formation of surface-active molecules through hydrolysis and condensation thereof on the colloidal surface have an opposite influence on the droplet size. By their interplay, a dynamic equilibrium is created where the droplet size always adjusts to the thermodynamically stable state.

  18. Mixing times towards demographic equilibrium in insect populations with temperature variable age structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we use entropy related mixing rate modules to measure the effects of temperature on insect population stability and demographic breakdown. The uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn, and how it is moved after a finite act of time steps, is modeled using a stochastic transformation of the Leslie matrix. Age classes are represented as a cycle graph and its transitions towards the stable age distribution are brought forth as an exact Markov chain. The dynamics of divergence, from a non equilibrium state towards equilibrium, are evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Moreover, Kullback-Leibler distance is applied as information-theoretic measure to estimate exact mixing times of age transitions probabilities towards equilibrium. Using empirically data, we show that on the initial conditions and simulated projection's trough time, that population entropy can effectively be applied to detect demographic variability towards equilibrium under different temperature conditions. Changes in entropy are correlated with the fluctuations of the insect population decay rates (i.e. demographic stability towards equilibrium). Moreover, shorter mixing times are directly linked to lower entropy rates and vice versa. This may be linked to the properties of the insect model system, which in contrast to warm blooded animals has the ability to greatly change its metabolic and demographic rates. Moreover, population entropy and the related distance measures that are applied, provide a means to measure these rates. The current results and model projections provide clear biological evidence why dynamic population entropy may be useful to measure population stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analytical Model of Inlet Growth and Equilibrium Cross-Sectional Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-107 April 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Analytical Model of Inlet Growth and Equilibrium Cross...encompass a broader range of theoretical alternatives to investigate inlet stability. The quadratic formula provides quantitative estimates of equilibrium ...rework sediment. Escoffier (1940) theorized that stable inlets form when the maximum flow equals an equilibrium value based on sediment transport

  20. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  1. A novel four-wing non-equilibrium chaotic system and its circuit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with no equilibrium or with only stable equilibrium is bound to have a hidden attractor. Hidden attractors have important engineering applications because they allow unexpected and potentially disastrous responses to perturbations in a structure like a bridge or an airplane wing. Some examples of hidden attractors with only ...

  2. Napoleon Is in Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rob

    2015-03-01

    It has been said that the cell is the test tube of the twenty-first century. If so, the theoretical tools needed to quantitatively and predictively describe what goes on in such test tubes lag sorely behind the stunning experimental advances in biology seen in the decades since the molecular biology revolution began. Perhaps surprisingly, one of the theoretical tools that has been used with great success on problems ranging from how cells communicate with their environment and each other to the nature of the organization of proteins and lipids within the cell membrane is statistical mechanics. A knee-jerk reaction to the use of statistical mechanics in the description of cellular processes is that living organisms are so far from equilibrium that one has no business even thinking about it. But such reactions are probably too hasty given that there are many regimes in which, because of a separation of timescales, for example, such an approach can be a useful first step. In this article, we explore the power of statistical mechanical thinking in the biological setting, with special emphasis on cell signaling and regulation. We show how such models are used to make predictions and describe some recent experiments designed to test them. We also consider the limits of such models based on the relative timescales of the processes of interest.

  3. Thermodynamic chemical energy transfer mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Heui-Seol

    2015-01-01

    Chemical energy transfer mechanisms at finite temperature are explored by a chemical energy transfer theory which is capable of investigating various chemical mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium. Gibbs energy fluxes are obtained as a function of chemical potential, time, and displacement. Diffusion, convection, internal convection, and internal equilibrium chemical energy fluxes are demonstrated. The theory reveals that there are chemical energy flux gaps and broken discrete symmetries at the activation chemical potential, time, and displacement. The statistical, thermodynamic theory is the unification of diffusion and internal convection chemical reactions which reduces to the non-equilibrium generalization beyond the quasi-equilibrium theories of migration and diffusion processes. The relationship between kinetic theories of chemical and electrochemical reactions is also explored. The theory is applied to explore non-equilibrium chemical reactions as an illustration. Three variable separation constants indicate particle number constants and play key roles in describing the distinct chemical reaction mechanisms. The kinetics of chemical energy transfer accounts for the four control mechanisms of chemical reactions such as activation, concentration, transition, and film chemical reactions. - Highlights: • Chemical energy transfer theory is proposed for non-, quasi-, and equilibrium. • Gibbs energy fluxes are expressed by chemical potential, time, and displacement. • Relationship between chemical and electrochemical reactions is discussed. • Theory is applied to explore nonequilibrium energy transfer in chemical reactions. • Kinetics of non-equilibrium chemical reactions shows the four control mechanisms

  4. Spatial distribution of thermal energy in equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2015-06-01

    The equipartition theorem states that in equilibrium, thermal energy is equally distributed among uncoupled degrees of freedom that appear quadratically in the system's Hamiltonian. However, for spatially coupled degrees of freedom, such as interacting particles, one may speculate that the spatial distribution of thermal energy may differ from the value predicted by equipartition, possibly quite substantially in strongly inhomogeneous or disordered systems. Here we show that for systems undergoing simple Gaussian fluctuations around an equilibrium state, the spatial distribution is universally bounded from above by 1/2k(B)T. We further show that in one-dimensional systems with short-range interactions, the thermal energy is equally partitioned even for coupled degrees of freedom in the thermodynamic limit and that in higher dimensions nontrivial spatial distributions emerge. Some implications are discussed.

  5. Emergent supersymmetry in local equilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Many physical processes we observe in nature involve variations of macroscopic quantities over spatial and temporal scales much larger than microscopic molecular collision scales and can be considered as in local thermal equilibrium. In this paper we show that any classical statistical system in local thermal equilibrium has an emergent supersymmetry at low energies. We use the framework of non-equilibrium effective field theory for quantum many-body systems defined on a closed time path contour and consider its classical limit. Unitarity of time evolution requires introducing anti-commuting degrees of freedom and BRST symmetry which survive in the classical limit. The local equilibrium is realized through a Z 2 dynamical KMS symmetry. We show that supersymmetry is equivalent to the combination of BRST and a specific consequence of the dynamical KMS symmetry, to which we refer as the special dynamical KMS condition. In particular, we prove a theorem stating that a system satisfying the special dynamical KMS condition is always supersymmetrizable. We discuss a number of examples explicitly, including model A for dynamical critical phenomena, a hydrodynamic theory of nonlinear diffusion, and fluctuating hydrodynamics for relativistic charged fluids.

  6. Group Contribution Methods for Phase Equilibrium Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehling, Jürgen; Constantinescu, Dana; Schmid, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    The development and design of chemical processes are carried out by solving the balance equations of a mathematical model for sections of or the whole chemical plant with the help of process simulators. For process simulation, besides kinetic data for the chemical reaction, various pure component and mixture properties are required. Because of the great importance of separation processes for a chemical plant in particular, a reliable knowledge of the phase equilibrium behavior is required. The phase equilibrium behavior can be calculated with the help of modern equations of state or g(E)-models using only binary parameters. But unfortunately, only a very small part of the experimental data for fitting the required binary model parameters is available, so very often these models cannot be applied directly. To solve this problem, powerful predictive thermodynamic models have been developed. Group contribution methods allow the prediction of the required phase equilibrium data using only a limited number of group interaction parameters. A prerequisite for fitting the required group interaction parameters is a comprehensive database. That is why for the development of powerful group contribution methods almost all published pure component properties, phase equilibrium data, excess properties, etc., were stored in computerized form in the Dortmund Data Bank. In this review, the present status, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, possible applications, and typical results of the different group contribution methods for the calculation of phase equilibria are presented.

  7. A Multiperiod Equilibrium Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsuk Kwak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an equilibrium pricing model in a dynamic multiperiod stochastic framework with uncertain income. There are one tradable risky asset (stock/commodity, one nontradable underlying (temperature, and also a contingent claim (weather derivative written on the tradable risky asset and the nontradable underlying in the market. The price of the contingent claim is priced in equilibrium by optimal strategies of representative agent and market clearing condition. The risk preferences are of exponential type with a stochastic coefficient of risk aversion. Both subgame perfect strategy and naive strategy are considered and the corresponding equilibrium prices are derived. From the numerical result we examine how the equilibrium prices vary in response to changes in model parameters and highlight the importance of our equilibrium pricing principle.

  8. Steepest-descent technique and stellar equilibrium statistical mechanics. I. Newtonian clusters in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, G.; Katz, J.

    1977-01-01

    A microcanonical statistical mechanics formulation has been developed for nonrotating systems of stars of equal mass. The system, placed in a confining volume and with a cutoff of the interparticle gravitational interaction at short distances, can have thermodynamic equilibrium states. Sequences of equilibrium states are presumed to simulate slowly evolving, near-equilibrium configurations of real star clusters. An exact functional expression for the entropy of such systems is derived which has also a relativistic counterpart. The entropy is evaluated in an approximation which is mean field plus fluctuations. Evaluations beyond this approximation can readily be carried out. We obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions for spherically symmetric clusters to be thermodynamically stable about a mean field solution, with respect to arbitrary fluctuations in the microcanonical ensemble. The stability conditions amount to the following quantities having definite signs: (i) a functional form, quadratic in ''mean field'' fluctuations, (ii) the derivative of the gravito-chemical potential with respect to the number of particles, at fixed temperature, being positive definite, and (iii) the heat capacity C/sub ν/, at fixed number of particles, being positive definite. In a sequence of equilibrium configurations in which the ratio of densities between the center and the boundary of the cluster is progressively increased, conditions (i) and (ii) break down simultaneously when this density contrast is equal to 1.58. Condition (i) remains unsatisfied for higher density contrasts. The limit 1.58 on the density contrast is much more stringent than that given by condition (iii) which breaks down only for a value of 32.1. Our results are in sharp contrast to those of Antonov's criterion according to which instabilities appear when the density contrast is higher than 709. Time scales of evolutions of various unstable configurations are not considered in this work

  9. A model for non-equilibrium, non-homogeneous two-phase critical flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassel, Wageeh Sidrak; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun

    1999-01-01

    Critical two phase flow is a very important phenomena in nuclear reactor technology for the analysis of loss of coolant accident. Several recent papers, Lee and Shrock (1990), Dagan (1993) and Downar (1996) , among others, treat the phenomena using complex models which require heuristic parameters such as relaxation constants or interfacial transfer models. In this paper a mathematical model for one dimensional non equilibrium and non homogeneous two phase flow in constant area duct is developed. The model is constituted of three conservation equations type mass ,momentum and energy. Two important variables are defined in the model: equilibrium constant in the energy equation and the impulse function in the momentum equation. In the energy equation, the enthalpy of the liquid phase is determined by a linear interpolation function between the liquid phase enthalpy at inlet condition and the saturated liquid enthalpy at local pressure. The interpolation coefficient is the equilibrium constant. The momentum equation is expressed in terms of the impulse function. It is considered that there is slip between the liquid and vapor phases, the liquid phase is in metastable state and the vapor phase is in saturated stable state. The model is not heuristic in nature and does not require complex interface transfer models. It is proved numerically that for the critical condition the partial derivative of two phase pressure drop with respect to the local pressure or to phase velocity must be zero.This criteria is demonstrated by numerical examples. The experimental work of Fauske (1962) and Jeandey (1982) were analyzed resulting in estimated numerical values for important parameters like slip ratio, equilibrium constant and two phase frictional drop. (author)

  10. Non-equilibrium dynamics from RPMD and CMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Ralph; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang; Althorpe, Stuart C; Miller, Thomas F

    2016-11-28

    We investigate the calculation of approximate non-equilibrium quantum time correlation functions (TCFs) using two popular path-integral-based molecular dynamics methods, ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). It is shown that for the cases of a sudden vertical excitation and an initial momentum impulse, both RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs for linear operators that are exact for high temperatures, in the t = 0 limit, and for harmonic potentials; the subset of these conditions that are preserved for non-equilibrium TCFs of non-linear operators is also discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that for these non-equilibrium initial conditions, both methods retain the connection to Matsubara dynamics that has previously been established for equilibrium initial conditions. Comparison of non-equilibrium TCFs from RPMD and CMD to Matsubara dynamics at short times reveals the orders in time to which the methods agree. Specifically, for the position-autocorrelation function associated with sudden vertical excitation, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 4 ) and O(t 1 ), respectively; for the position-autocorrelation function associated with an initial momentum impulse, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 5 ) and O(t 2 ), respectively. Numerical tests using model potentials for a wide range of non-equilibrium initial conditions show that RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs with an accuracy that is comparable to that for equilibrium TCFs. RPMD is also used to investigate excited-state proton transfer in a system-bath model, and it is compared to numerically exact calculations performed using a recently developed version of the Liouville space hierarchical equation of motion approach; again, similar accuracy is observed for non-equilibrium and equilibrium initial conditions.

  11. Regional Distribution of Metals and C and N Stable Isotopes in the Epiphytic Ball Moss (Tillandsia Recurvata) at the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Garcia, A.; López-Veneroni, D.; Rojas, A.; Torres, A.; Sosa, G.

    2007-05-01

    As a part of the MILAGRO Field Campaign 2006, the influence of anthropogenic sources to metal air pollution in the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State, was explored by biomonitoring techniques. This valley is a major industrial- agriculture area located in central Mexico. An oil refinery, an electrical power plant, several cement plants with open-pit mines, as well as intensive wastewater-based agricultural areas, all within a 50 km radius, are some of the most important local sources of particulate air pollution. The concentrations of 25 metals and elements were determined by ICP-AES (EPA 610C method) for triplicate composite samples of the "ball moss" (T. recurvata ) collected at 50 sites. In addition, the ratios of two stable isotopes ((13C/12C and 15N/14N) were determined by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in order to assess their potential as tracers for industrial emissions. Preliminary results showed high to very high average contents of several metals in the biomonitor compared to values from similar studies in other world regions, indicating a high degree of local air pollution. In contrast, most samples had Ag, As, Be, Se and Tl contents below detection levels (DL = 0.05 mg/kg of sample dry weight) indicating low levels of pollution by these metals. Metals such as Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, Li, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrated the most at the South portion of the valley, where the Tepeji-Tula-Apaxco industrial corridor is located. A transect parallel to the along-wind direction (N-S) showed a higher concentration of metals farther away from the sources relative to a cross-wind transect, which is consistent with the eolian transport of metal-enriched particles. Regional distribution maps of metals in the biomonitor showed that Al, Ba, Fe, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti and V had higher levels at the industrial sampling sites; whereas K, Na and P were more abundant near to agriculture areas. Vanadium, a common element of crude oil, reflected better the influence from

  12. Equilibrium with arbitrary market structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Birgit; Vind, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Fifty years ago Arrow [1] introduced contingent commodities and Debreu [4] observed that this reinterpretation of a commodity was enough to apply the existing general equilibrium theory to uncertainty and time. This interpretation of general equilibrium theory is the Arrow-Debreu model....... The complete market predicted by this theory is clearly unrealistic, and Radner [10] formulated and proved existence of equilibrium in a multiperiod model with incomplete markets. In this paper the Radner result is extended. Radner assumed a specific structure of markets, independence of preferences...

  13. Exploring Chemical and Thermal Non-equilibrium in Nitrogen Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorui, S; Das, A K

    2012-01-01

    Plasma torches operating with nitrogen are of special importance as they can operate with usual tungsten based refractory electrodes and offer radical rich non-oxidizing high temperature environment for plasma chemistry. Strong gradients in temperature as well as species densities and huge convective fluxes lead to varying degrees of chemical non-equilibrium in associated regions. An axi-symmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model of a nitrogen plasma torch has been developed to understand the effects of thermal and chemical non-equilibrium in arcs. A 2-D finite volume CFD code in association with a non-equilibrium property routine enabled extraction of steady state self-consistent distributions of various plasma quantities inside the torch under various thermal and chemical non-equilibrium conditions. Chemical non-equilibrium has been incorporated through computation of diffusive and convective fluxes in each finite volume cell in every iteration and associating corresponding thermodynamic and transport properties through the scheme of 'chemical non-equilibrium parameter' introduced by Ghorui et. al. Recombination coefficient data from Nahar et. al. and radiation data from Krey and Morris have been used in the simulation. Results are presented for distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity, current density, electric potential, species densities and chemical non-equilibrium effects. Obtained results are compared with similar results under LTE.

  14. Note: local thermal conductivities from boundary driven non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresme, F; Armstrong, J

    2014-01-07

    We report non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of heat transport in models of molecular fluids. We show that the "local" thermal conductivities obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations agree within numerical accuracy with equilibrium Green-Kubo computations. Our results support the local equilibrium hypothesis for transport properties. We show how to use the local dependence of the thermal gradients to quantify the thermal conductivity of molecular fluids for a wide range of thermodynamic states using a single simulation.

  15. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  16. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  17. Thermal Field Theory in Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jens O.

    2000-01-01

    In this talk, I review recent developments in equilibrium thermal field theory. Screened perturbation theory and hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory are discussed. A self-consistent $\\Phi$-derivable approach is also briefly reviewed.

  18. Another return to "Return to Equilibrium"

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, J

    2003-01-01

    The property of ``return to equilibrium'' is established for a class of quantum-mechanical models describing interactions of a (toy) atom with black-body radiation, or of a spin with a heat bath of scalar bosons, under the assumption that the interaction strength is sufficiently weak, but independent of temperature $T$, (with $0equilibrium states of the interacting and the non-interacting system valid for all temperatures $T\\geq 0$, assuming only that the interaction strength is sufficiently weak.

  19. Equilibrium-Based Nonhomogeneous Anisotropic Beam Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Couturier, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The stiffness matrix and the nodal forces associated with distributed loads are obtained for a nonhomogeneous anisotropic elastic beam element by the use of complementary energy. The element flexibility matrix is obtained by integrating the complementary-energy density corresponding to six beam...... equilibrium states, and then inverted and expanded to provide the element-stiffness matrix. Distributed element loads are represented via corresponding internal-force distributions in local equilibrium with the loads. The element formulation does not depend on assumed shape functions and can, in principle......, include any variation of cross-sectional properties and load variation, provided that these are integrated with sufficient accuracy in the process. The ability to represent variable cross-sectional properties, coupling from anisotropic materials, and distributed element loads is illustrated by numerical...

  20. Non-equilibrium effects in the plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.

    1975-01-01

    Radial dependences of non-equilibrium effects of a He plasma were studied in a wall-stabilized short-time discharge. The electron density (nsub(e) = 2.5 x 10 22 m -3 ), the electron temperature and the equilibrium shift were determined by calculations of the continuum beam density and the beam densities of one He-I and one He-II line, respectively. In the discharge axis, the overpopulation factors of the ground state of He-I and He-II are about 75. As the distance to the axis increases, they increase for He-I and decrease for He-II. Except for the usual errors of measurement, the overpopulation factors found here correspond to those calculated from the balance equations (Drawin). (orig./AK) [de

  1. On equilibrium charge distribution above dielectric surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Slyusarenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the equilibrium state of the charged many-particle system above dielectric surface is formulated. We consider the case of the presence of the external attractive pressing field and the case of its absence. The equilibrium distributions of charges and the electric field, which is generated by these charges in the system in the case of ideally plane dielectric surface, are obtained. The solution of electrostatic equations of the system under consideration in case of small spatial heterogeneities caused by the dielectric surface, is also obtained. These spatial inhomogeneities can be caused both by the inhomogeneities of the surface and by the inhomogeneous charge distribution upon it. In particular, the case of the "wavy" spatially periodic surface is considered taking into account the possible presence of the surface charges.

  2. Thermal equilibrium during the electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetradis, N.

    1991-12-01

    The effective potential for the standard model develops a barrier, at temperatures around the electroweak scale, which separates the minimum at zero field and a deeper non-zero minimum. This could create out of equilibrium conditions by inducing the localization of the Higgs field in a metastable state around zero. In this picture vacuum decay would occur through bubble nucleation. I show that there is an upper bound on the Higgs mass for the above scenario to be realized. The barrier must be high enough to prevent thermal fluctuations of the Higgs expectation value from establishing thermal equilibrium between the two minima. The upper bound is estimated to be lower than the experimental lower limit. This is also imposes constraints on extensions of the standard model constructed in order to generate a strongly first order phase transition. (orig.)

  3. Nash Equilibrium of Social-Learning Agents in a Restless Multiarmed Bandit Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kazuaki; Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2017-05-16

    We study a simple model for social-learning agents in a restless multiarmed bandit (rMAB). The bandit has one good arm that changes to a bad one with a certain probability. Each agent stochastically selects one of the two methods, random search (individual learning) or copying information from other agents (social learning), using which he/she seeks the good arm. Fitness of an agent is the probability to know the good arm in the steady state of the agent system. In this model, we explicitly construct the unique Nash equilibrium state and show that the corresponding strategy for each agent is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) in the sense of Thomas. It is shown that the fitness of an agent with ESS is superior to that of an asocial learner when the success probability of social learning is greater than a threshold determined from the probability of success of individual learning, the probability of change of state of the rMAB, and the number of agents. The ESS Nash equilibrium is a solution to Rogers' paradox.

  4. Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xujing [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); Zakharov, Leonid E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, MS-27 P.O. Box 451, New Jersey (United States); Drozdov, Vladimir V. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.

  5. Limiting processes in non-equilibrium classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancel, R.

    1983-01-01

    After a recall of the basic principles of the statistical mechanics, the results of ergodic theory, the transient at the thermodynamic limit and his link with the transport theory near the equilibrium are analyzed. The fundamental problems put by the description of non-equilibrium macroscopic systems are investigated and the kinetic methods are stated. The problems of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics are analyzed: irreversibility and coarse-graining, macroscopic variables and kinetic description, autonomous reduced descriptions, limit processes, BBGKY hierarchy, limit theorems [fr

  6. MHD equilibrium and stability of the spheromak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, M.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1979-08-01

    The MHD stability of spheromak type equilibria from the classical spheromak configuration to the diffuse pinch limit are analyzed numerically. It is found that oblate configurations of ellipticity 0.5 have the optimum stability properties with regard to internal MHD modes and can be stabilized up to an engineering ..beta.. of 15% (defined with respect to the applied external field strength for equilibrium). Stability to global modes requires that a conducting shell surround the plasma. The location of the shell is dependent on geometry and the current profile, but realistic configurations that are stable to all ideal MHD modes have been found with the shell located at approx. 1.2 minor radii.

  7. Shape characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Marc L; Douglas, Jack F

    2013-07-28

    It is often difficult in practice to discriminate between equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoparticle or colloidal-particle clusters that form through aggregation in gas or solution phases. Scattering studies often permit the determination of an apparent fractal dimension, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters in three dimensions frequently have fractal dimensions near 2, so that it is often not possible to discriminate on the basis of this geometrical property. A survey of the anisotropy of a wide variety of polymeric structures (linear and ring random and self-avoiding random walks, percolation clusters, lattice animals, diffusion-limited aggregates, and Eden clusters) based on the principal components of both the radius of gyration and electric polarizability tensor indicates, perhaps counter-intuitively, that self-similar equilibrium clusters tend to be intrinsically anisotropic at all sizes, while non-equilibrium processes such as diffusion-limited aggregation or Eden growth tend to be isotropic in the large-mass limit, providing a potential means of discriminating these clusters experimentally if anisotropy could be determined along with the fractal dimension. Equilibrium polymer structures, such as flexible polymer chains, are normally self-similar due to the existence of only a single relevant length scale, and are thus anisotropic at all length scales, while non-equilibrium polymer structures that grow irreversibly in time eventually become isotropic if there is no difference in the average growth rates in different directions. There is apparently no proof of these general trends and little theoretical insight into what controls the universal anisotropy in equilibrium polymer structures of various kinds. This is an obvious topic of theoretical investigation, as well as a matter of practical interest. To address this general problem, we consider two experimentally accessible ratios, one between the hydrodynamic and gyration radii, the other

  8. Equilibrium between a Droplet and Surrounding Vapor: A Discussion of Finite Size Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröster, Andreas; Schmitz, Fabian; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

    2018-01-10

    In a theoretical description of homogeneous nucleation one frequently assumes an "equilibrium" coexistence of a liquid droplet with surrounding vapor of a density exceeding that of a saturated vapor at bulk vapor-liquid two-phase coexistence. Thereby one ignores the caveat that in the thermodynamic limit, for which the vapor would be called supersaturated, such states will at best be metastable with finite lifetime, and thus not be well-defined within equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast, in a system of finite volume stable equilibrium coexistence of droplet and supersaturated vapor at constant total density is perfectly possible, and numerical analysis of equilibrium free energies of finite systems allows to obtain physically relevant results. In particular, such an analysis can be used to derive the dependence of the droplet surface tension γ(R) on the droplet radius R by computer simulations. Unfortunately, however, the precision of the results produced by this approach turns out to be seriously affected by a hitherto unexplained spurious dependence of γ(R) on the total volume V of the simulation box. These finite size effects are studied here for the standard Ising/lattice gas model in d = 2 dimensions and an Ising model on the face-centered cubic lattice with 3-spin interaction, lacking symmetry between vapor and liquid phases. There also the analogous case of bubbles surrounded by undersaturated liquid is treated. It is argued that (at least a large part of) the finite size effects result from the translation entropy of the droplet or bubble in the system. This effect has been shown earlier to occur also for planar interfaces for simulations in the slab geometry. Consequences for the estimation of the Tolman length are briefly discussed. In particular, we find clear evidence that in d = 2 the leading correction of the curvature-dependent interface tension is a logarithmic term, compatible with theoretical expectations, and we show that then the

  9. Stable isotope estimates of evaporation: inflow and water residence time for lakes across the United States as a tool for national lake water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope ratios of water (delta18O and delta2H) can be very useful in large-scale monitoring programs because water samples are easy to collect and isotope ratios integrate information about basic hydrologic processes such as evaporation as a percentage of inflow (E/I) and ...

  10. Equilibrium econophysics: A unified formalism for neoclassical economics and equilibrium thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Tânia; Domingos, Tiago

    2006-11-01

    We develop a unified conceptual and mathematical structure for equilibrium econophysics, i.e., the use of concepts and tools of equilibrium thermodynamics in neoclassical microeconomics and vice versa. Within this conceptual structure the results obtained in microeconomic theory are: (1) the definition of irreversibility in economic behavior; (2) the clarification that the Engel curve and the offer curve are not descriptions of real processes dictated by the maximization of utility at constant endowment; (3) the derivation of a relation between elasticities proving that economic elasticities are not all independent; (4) the proof that Giffen goods do not exist in a stable equilibrium; (5) the derivation that ‘economic integrability’ is equivalent to the generalized Le Chatelier principle and (6) the definition of a first order phase transition, i.e., a transition between separate points in the utility function. In thermodynamics the results obtained are: (1) a relation between the non-dimensional isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities and the increase or decrease in the thermodynamic potentials; (2) the distinction between mathematical integrability and optimization behavior and (3) the generalization of the Clapeyron equation.

  11. "Non-equilibrium" block copolymer micelles with glassy cores: a predictive approach based on theory of equilibrium micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Ramanathan

    2015-07-01

    Micelles generated in water from most amphiphilic block copolymers are widely recognized to be non-equilibrium structures. Typically, the micelles are prepared by a kinetic process, first allowing molecular scale dissolution of the block copolymer in a common solvent that likes both the blocks and then gradually replacing the common solvent by water to promote the hydrophobic blocks to aggregate and create the micelles. The non-equilibrium nature of the micelle originates from the fact that dynamic exchange between the block copolymer molecules in the micelle and the singly dispersed block copolymer molecules in water is suppressed, because of the glassy nature of the core forming polymer block and/or its very large hydrophobicity. Although most amphiphilic block copolymers generate such non-equilibrium micelles, no theoretical approach to a priori predict the micelle characteristics currently exists. In this work, we propose a predictive approach for non-equilibrium micelles with glassy cores by applying the equilibrium theory of micelles in two steps. In the first, we calculate the properties of micelles formed in the mixed solvent while true equilibrium prevails, until the micelle core becomes glassy. In the second step, we freeze the micelle aggregation number at this glassy state and calculate the corona dimension from the equilibrium theory of micelles. The condition when the micelle core becomes glassy is independently determined from a statistical thermodynamic treatment of diluent effect on polymer glass transition temperature. The predictions based on this "non-equilibrium" model compare reasonably well with experimental data for polystyrene-polyethylene oxide diblock copolymer, which is the most extensively studied system in the literature. In contrast, the application of the equilibrium model to describe such a system significantly overpredicts the micelle core and corona dimensions and the aggregation number. The non-equilibrium model suggests ways to

  12. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2018-01-01

    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  14. Pre-Equilibrium Processes in Nuclear Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Gaynor Mary

    1987-09-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The quantum mechanical statistical multistep compound emission (SMCE) theory of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin is applied to analyse the reactions induced by 14 MeV neutrons on ^{59}Co, ^ {93}Nb and ^{209} Bi. Calculations carried out in the framework of the SMCE model formalism are found to give a fair account of both the neutron and proton emission data above the (n,2n) and (n,np) thresholds. The SMCE theory is then improved by a reformulation of the original model. The revised model is confined explicitly to a description of particle-hole bound states and includes the finite depth of the potential well. Subsequent calculations improve the pre-equilibrium emission predictions compared with the earlier model. Contributions from the multiparticle emission processes are evaluated with the Weisskopf-Ewing theory, using the SMCE results as input for the second state calculations. Considered together with the results of a statistical multistep direct emission (SMDE) calculation of the (n,n^ ') reaction on ^{59 }Co at 14 MeV, the multistep theory is seen to provide a good fit to the emission data at both the forward and backward angles. The revised model is then used to predict the variation of SMCE with excitation energy and compound-state mass number. The energy dependence is seen to reflect the changing proportions of compound nucleus and pre-equilibrium processes. From a consideration of the model formalism the mass dependence of pre-equilibrium SMCE is derived. Values for the effective interaction strength deduced from these calculations are found to be rather constant over the entire energy and mass ranges.

  15. Equilibrium chemistry of boron deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.N.

    1973-01-01

    Machine calculations of the equilibrium chemistry of the H 2 / BCl 3 /Ar system were used to calculate the degree of conversion of BCl 3 to solid B, at several temperatures and one atmosphere total pressure, for constant BCl 3 partial pressure and for constant H 2 /BCl 3 ratio. Combined equilibrium and mass transport calculations were used to deduce diffusion-limited reaction rates for experimental conditions employed in the kinetics study of Carlton, et al. (Second International Vapor Deposition Conference); this analysis confirms that the previous work did measure surface kinetics. Equilibrium calculations for the H 2 /BCl 3 /Cr system indicate that CrCl 2 volatility may be too high for this to be a practical method of forming chromium boride coatings. (U.S.)

  16. The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Approach to Far-From-Local-Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Metghalchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE method for the description of the time-dependent behavior of dynamical systems in non-equilibrium states is a general, effective, physically based method for model order reduction that was originally developed in the framework of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. A generalized mathematical formulation is presented here that allows including nonlinear constraints in non-local equilibrium systems characterized by the existence of a non-increasing Lyapunov functional under the system’s internal dynamics. The generalized formulation of RCCE enables to clarify the essentials of the method and the built-in general feature of thermodynamic consistency in the chemical kinetics context. In this paper, we work out the details of the method in a generalized mathematical-physics framework, but for definiteness we detail its well-known implementation in the traditional chemical kinetics framework. We detail proofs and spell out explicit functional dependences so as to bring out and clarify each underlying assumption of the method. In the standard context of chemical kinetics of ideal gas mixtures, we discuss the relations between the validity of the detailed balance condition off-equilibrium and the thermodynamic consistency of the method. We also discuss two examples of RCCE gas-phase combustion calculations to emphasize the constraint-dependent performance of the RCCE method.

  17. The Approach to Equilibrium: Detailed Balance and the Master Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Millard H.; Hall, Gregory E.; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The approach to the equilibrium (Boltzmann) distribution of populations of internal states of a molecule is governed by inelastic collisions in the gas phase and with surfaces. The set of differential equations governing the time evolution of the internal state populations is commonly called the master equation. An analytic solution to the master…

  18. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  19. The Equilibrium Rule--A Personal Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Examples of equilibrium are evident everywhere and the equilibrium rule provides a reasoned way to view all things, whether in static (balancing rocks, steel beams in building construction) or dynamic (airplanes, bowling balls) equilibrium. Interestingly, the equilibrium rule applies not just to objects at rest but whenever any object or system of…

  20. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarolla, Maria B., E-mail: maria.chiarolla@uniroma1.it [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Metodi e Modelli per l' Economia, il Territorio e la Finanza, Facolta di Economia (Italy); Haussmann, Ulrich G., E-mail: uhaus@math.ubc.ca [University of British Columbia, Department of Mathematics (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  1. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarolla, Maria B.; Haussmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-01-01

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  2. Nash equilibrium with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1998-01-01

    We generalize the concept of Nash equilibrium in mixed strategies for strategic form games to allow for ambiguity in the players' expectations. In contrast to other contributions, we model ambiguity by means of so-called lower probability measures or belief functions, which makes it possible...... to distinguish between a player's assessment of ambiguity and his attitude towards ambiguity. We also generalize the concept of trembling hand perfect equilibrium. Finally, we demonstrate that for certain attitudes towards ambiguity it is possible to explain cooperation in the one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma...

  3. A Tightly Coupled Non-Equilibrium Magneto-Hydrodynamic Model for Inductively Coupled RF Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12 May 2015 – 06 Oct 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Tightly Coupled Non- Equilibrium Magneto-Hydrodynamic...development a tightly coupled magneto-hydrodynamic model for Inductively Coupled Radio- Frequency (RF) Plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE...effects are described based on a hybrid State-to-State (StS) approach. A multi-temperature formulation is used to account for thermal non- equilibrium

  4. Biochemical thermodynamics and rapid-equilibrium enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberty, Robert A

    2010-12-30

    Biochemical thermodynamics is based on the chemical thermodynamics of aqueous solutions, but it is quite different because pH is used as an independent variable. A transformed Gibbs energy G' is used, and that leads to transformed enthalpies H' and transformed entropies S'. Equilibrium constants for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are referred to as apparent equilibrium constants K' to indicate that they are functions of pH in addition to temperature and ionic strength. Despite this, the most useful way to store basic thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions is to give standard Gibbs energies of formation, standard enthalpies of formation, electric charges, and numbers of hydrogen atoms in species of biochemical reactants like ATP. This makes it possible to calculate standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation, standard transformed enthalpies of formation of reactants (sums of species), and apparent equilibrium constants at desired temperatures, pHs, and ionic strengths. These calculations are complicated, and therefore, a mathematical application in a computer is needed. Rapid-equilibrium enzyme kinetics is based on biochemical thermodynamics because all reactions in the mechanism prior to the rate-determining reaction are at equilibrium. The expression for the equilibrium concentration of the enzyme-substrate complex that yields products can be derived by applying Solve in a computer to the expressions for the equilibrium constants in the mechanism and the conservation equation for enzymatic sites. In 1979, Duggleby pointed out that the minimum number of velocities of enzyme-catalyzed reactions required to estimate the values of the kinetic parameters is equal to the number of kinetic parameters. Solve can be used to do this with steady-state rate equations as well as rapid-equilibrium rate equations, provided that the rate equation is a polynomial. Rapid-equilibrium rate equations can be derived for complicated mechanisms that involve several reactants

  5. Thermodynamic versus non-equilibrium stability of palmitic acid monolayers in calcium-enriched sea spray aerosol proxy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen Rudd, Bethany A; Vidalis, Andrew S; Allen, Heather C

    2018-04-16

    Of the major cations in seawater (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+), Ca2+ is found to be the most enriched in fine sea spray aerosols (SSA). In this work, we investigate the binding of Ca2+ to the carboxylic acid headgroup of palmitic acid (PA), a marine-abundant fatty acid, and the impact such binding has on the stability of PA monolayers in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. A range of Ca2+ conditions from 10 μM to 300 mM was utilized to represent the relative concentration of Ca2+ in high and low relative humidity aerosol environments. The CO2- stretching modes of PA detected by surface-sensitive infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) reveal ionic binding motifs of the Ca2+ ion to the carboxylate group with varying degrees of hydration. Surface tensiometry was used to determine the thermodynamic equilibrium spreading pressure (ESP) of PA on the various aqueous CaCl2 subphases. Up to concentrations of 1 mM Ca2+, each system reached equilibrium, and Ca2+:PA surface complexation gave rise to a lower energy state revealed by elevated surface pressures relative to water. We show that PA films are not thermodynamically stable at marine aerosol-relevant Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+] ≥ 10 mM). IRRAS and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface presence of PA on high concentration Ca2+ aqueous subphases. Non-equilibrium relaxation (NER) experiments were also conducted and monitored by Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) to determine the effect of the Ca2+ ions on PA stability. At high surface pressures, the relaxation mechanisms of PA varied among the systems and were dependent on Ca2+ concentration.

  6. New Chaotic Dynamical System with a Conic-Shaped Equilibrium Located on the Plane Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Petrzela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new autonomous deterministic dynamical system with equilibrium degenerated into a plane-oriented hyperbolic geometrical structure. It is demonstrated via numerical analysis and laboratory experiments that the discovered system has both a structurally stable strange attractor and experimentally measurable chaotic behavior. It is shown that the evolution of complex dynamics can be associated with a single parameter of a mathematical model and, due to one-to-one correspondence, to a single circuit parameter. Two-dimensional high resolution plots of the largest Lyapunov exponent and basins of attraction expressed in terms of final state energy are calculated and put into the context of the discovered third-order mathematical model and real chaotic oscillator. Both voltage- and current-mode analog chaotic oscillators are presented and verified by visualization of the typical chaotic attractor in a different fashion.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic theory of plasma equilibrium and stability in stellarators: Survey of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafranov, V.D.

    1983-01-01

    The main advantage of a stellarator is its capability of steady-state operation. It can be exploited as a reactor if stable plasma confinement can be achieved with #betta#approx.10%. Therefore, this limiting pressure value is a key factor in stellarator development. This paper contains a survey of current ideas on the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and stability properties of stellarators with sufficiently high pressure. Here, any system of nested toroidal magnetic surfaces generated by external currents is considered a stellarator. Systems produced by helical or equivalent windings, including torsatrons and heliotrons, will be called ordinary stellarators, in contrast to those with spatial axes. It is shown that adequate confinement can be achieved

  8. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattices, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. This book is divided into three parts. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. In the third part, the multi-electron system is discussed theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for the superconducting state in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and examined in-depth. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States is an introductory treatise and textbook on meso...

  9. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...

  10. Essays in general equilibrium theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konovalov, A.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis focuses on various issues of general equilibrium theory and can approximately be divided into three parts. The first part of the thesis studies generalized equilibria in the Arrow-Debreu model in the situation where the strong survival assumption is not satisfied. Chapter four deals with

  11. An equilibrium and kinetic modeling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models fitted well with the equilibrium data of the process studied. .... dosages. For the determination of adsorption isotherms, 4 g of bio- sorbent was used at five different .... The basic assumption of the Langmuir theory is that ad- sorption takes place at specific sites ...

  12. Game Theory-Nash Equilibrium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. Game Theory - Nash Equilibrium. P G Babu. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 53- ... Author Affiliations. P G Babu1. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research Gen. A K Vaidya Marg Goregaon(East) Mumbai 400 065, India.

  13. Understanding Thermal Equilibrium through Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura; Ladage, Savita; Pradhan, Hemachandra

    2015-01-01

    Thermal equilibrium is a basic concept in thermodynamics. In India, this concept is generally introduced at the first year of undergraduate education in physics and chemistry. In our earlier studies (Pathare and Pradhan 2011 "Proc. episteme-4 Int. Conf. to Review Research on Science Technology and Mathematics Education" pp 169-72) we…

  14. Equilibrium and shot noise in mesoscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, T.

    1994-10-01

    Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of noise in Mesoscopic devices, both experimentally and theoretically. Noise in solid state devices can have different origins: there is 1/f noise, which is believed to arise from fluctuations in the resistance of the sample due to the motion of impurities. On top of this contribution is a frequency independent component associated with the stochastic nature of electron transport, which will be the focus of this paper. If the sample considered is small enough that dephasing and inelastic effects can be neglected, equilibrium (thermal) and excess noise can be completely described in terms of the elastic scattering properties of the sample. As mentioned above, noise arises as a consequence of random processes governing the transport of electrons. Here, there are two sources of randomness: first, electrons incident on the sample occupy a given energy state with a probability given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Secondly, electrons can be transmitted across the sample or reflected in the same reservoir where they came from with a probability given by the quantum mechanical transmission/reflection coefficients. Equilibrium noise refers to the case where no bias voltage is applied between the leads connected to the sample, where thermal agitation alone allows the electrons close to the Fermi level to tunnel through the sample. In general, equilibrium noise is related to the conductance of the sample via the Johnson-Nyquist formula. In the presence of a bias, in the classical regime, one expects to recover the full shot noise < {Delta}{sup 2}I >= 2I{Delta}{mu} as was observed a long time ago in vacuum diodes. In the Mesoscopic regime, however, excess noise is reduced below the shot noise level. The author introduces a more intuitive picture, where the current passing through the device is a superposition of pulses, or electron wave packets, which can be transmitted or reflected.

  15. Relationships between stable fly infestation with some physical facility characteristics and sanitation practices in several dairy farms in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vázquez, C; Ramos-Parra, M; Vitela-Mendoza, I; García-Vázquez, Z; Quintero-Martínez, M T

    2007-11-10

    The possible relationships between stable fly infestation with dairy farm facilities and sanitation practices were studied using path analysis. Twelve dairies located in four counties of Aguascalientes dairy region were selected. The dairies were monitored from May to November 2003. In each occasion, fly infestation, individual physical facility characteristics, and sanitation practices were recorded. In all, 11 independent variables were involved in the study and related variables were grouped together and analyzed in two blocks by path analysis for each one of five population events (begin of fly season, first peak, fluctuation, second peak and decrease). There were significant regression coefficients only in the second peak for two variables, the distance to the silos and the distance to the dung heap (r(2)=0.96 for the full model). Among the 11 variables examined in the study, none had a statistical significant indirect contribution to fly infestation; direct contribution was observed for distance to the silos and for distance to the dung heap variables. However, only the distance to the silos variable was significantly related to stable fly Infestation.

  16. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  17. The equilibrium model of relationship maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sandra L; Holmes, John G; Griffin, Dale W; Derrick, Jaye L

    2015-01-01

    A new equilibrium model of relationship maintenance is proposed. People can protect relationship bonds by practicing 3 threat-mitigation rules: Trying to accommodate when a partner is hurtful, ensuring mutual dependence, and resisting devaluing a partner who impedes one's personal goals. A longitudinal study of newlyweds revealed evidence for the equilibrium model, such that relationship well-being (as indexed by satisfaction and commitment) declining from its usual state predicted increased threat-mitigation; in turn, increasing threat mitigation from its usual state predicted increased relationship well-being. Longitudinal findings further revealed adaptive advantages to uncertain trust. First, the match between trust and partner-risk predicted the trajectory of threat mitigation over time. People who hesitated to trust a high-risk partner became more likely to mitigate threats over 3 years, but people who hesitated to trust a safe partner became less likely to mitigate threats. The match between threat mitigation and partner-risk also predicted when being less trusting eroded later relationship well-being. Namely, when women paired with high-risk partners became more likely to mitigate threats, being less trusting at marriage lost its capacity to erode later relationship well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Accurate equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaison, Jean; Craig, Norman C; Groner, Peter; Écija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J; Lesarri, Alberto; Rudolph, Heinz Dieter

    2015-03-05

    Extended and improved microwave (MW) measurements are reported for the isotopologues of piperidine. New ground state (GS) rotational constants are fitted to MW transitions with quartic centrifugal distortion constants taken from ab initio calculations. Predicate values for the geometric parameters of piperidine and cyclohexane are found from a high level of ab initio theory including adjustments for basis set dependence and for correlation of the core electrons. Equilibrium rotational constants are obtained from GS rotational constants corrected for vibration-rotation interactions and electronic contributions. Equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane are fitted by the mixed estimation method. In this method, structural parameters are fitted concurrently to predicate parameters (with appropriate uncertainties) and moments of inertia (with uncertainties). The new structures are regarded as being accurate to 0.001 Å and 0.2°. Comparisons are made between bond parameters in equatorial piperidine and cyclohexane. Another interesting result of this study is that a structure determination is an effective way to check the accuracy of the ground state experimental rotational constants.

  19. About positive, energy conservative and equilibrium state preserving schemes for the isotropic Fokker-Planck-Landau equation; Sur les schemas positifs, conservant l'energie et les etats d'equilibre pour l'equation de Fokker-Planck-Landau isotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buet, Ch. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. des Sciences de la Simulation et de l' Information, 91 (France); Le Thanh, K.C. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, 91 (France)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the discretization of the Fokker-Planck-Landau (FPL) collision term in the isotropic case which models the self collision for the electrons when they are totally isotropized by heavy particles background such as ions. The discussion focus on schemes which could preserve positivity, mass, energy and Maxwellian equilibrium. First, we analyze in detail the popular Chang and Cooper method for this non-linear collision term: derivation, conservation and positivity properties. We show that some variants of this method, based on the drift-diffusion form of the FPL operator, could not be positive or could not conserve the energy. We present a new variant of the Chang and Cooper method derived from the Landau form that is both positive and conservative. We also propose two new alternatives and simpler schemes for the FPL operator which show that the Chang and Cooper method is not the only way to construct positive, energy conservative and equilibrium state preserving schemes for this operator. For all these schemes, we explain clearly the properties of conservation of the density and the energy, the positivity of the solution and the conservation of the equilibrium states, or their lack. The case of Maxwellian and Coulombian potentials are emphasized. (authors)

  20. On generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Sangho; Kim, Won Kyu

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we will introduce the generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which generalize the operator equilibrium problem due to Kazmi and Raouf [K.R. Kazmi, A. Raouf, A class of operator equilibrium problems, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 308 (2005) 554-564] into multi-valued and quasi-equilibrium problems. Using a Fan-Browder type fixed point theorem in [S. Park, Foundations of the KKM theory via coincidences of composites of upper semicontinuous maps, J. Korean Math. Soc. 31 (1994) 493-519] and an existence theorem of equilibrium for 1-person game in [X.-P. Ding, W.K. Kim, K.-K. Tan, Equilibria of non-compact generalized games with L*-majorized preferences, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 164 (1992) 508-517] as basic tools, we prove new existence theorems on generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which includes operator equilibrium problems.

  1. Long-run real exchange rate determinants : Evidence from eight new EU member states, 1993–2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candelon, B.; Kool, C.J.M.; Raabe, K.; Veen, van A.P. (Tom)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate bilateral equilibrium real exchange rates for a group of eight new EU member states against the euro, using new and sophisticated panel-cointegration techniques. We document a stable significant positive link between productivity levels and the corresponding real exchange

  2. Stochastic thermodynamics of quantum maps with and without equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Felipe; Lledó, Cristóbal

    2017-11-01

    We study stochastic thermodynamics for a quantum system of interest whose dynamics is described by a completely positive trace-preserving (CPTP) map as a result of its interaction with a thermal bath. We define CPTP maps with equilibrium as CPTP maps with an invariant state such that the entropy production due to the action of the map on the invariant state vanishes. Thermal maps are a subgroup of CPTP maps with equilibrium. In general, for CPTP maps, the thermodynamic quantities, such as the entropy production or work performed on the system, depend on the combined state of the system plus its environment. We show that these quantities can be written in terms of system properties for maps with equilibrium. The relations that we obtain are valid for arbitrary coupling strengths between the system and the thermal bath. The fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are considered in the framework of a two-point measurement scheme. We derive the entropy production fluctuation theorem for general maps and a fluctuation relation for the stochastic work on a system that starts in the Gibbs state. Some simplifications for the probability distributions in the case of maps with equilibrium are presented. We illustrate our results by considering spin 1/2 systems under thermal maps, nonthermal maps with equilibrium, maps with nonequilibrium steady states, and concatenations of them. Finally, and as an important application, we consider a particular limit in which the concatenation of maps generates a continuous time evolution in Lindblad form for the system of interest, and we show that the concept of maps with and without equilibrium translates into Lindblad equations with and without quantum detailed balance, respectively. The consequences for the thermodynamic quantities in this limit are discussed.

  3. Closed-Form and Numerically-Stable Solutions to Problems Related to the Optimal Two-Impulse Transfer Between Specified Terminal States of Keplerian Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senent, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents some closed-form solutions to the optimal two-impulse transfer between fixed position and velocity vectors on Keplerian orbits when some constraints are imposed on the magnitude of the initial and final impulses. Additionally, a numerically-stable gradient-free algorithm with guaranteed convergence is presented for the minimum delta-v two-impulse transfer. In the second part of the paper, cooperative bargaining theory is used to solve some two-impulse transfer problems when the initial and final impulses are carried by different vehicles or when the goal is to minimize the delta-v and the time-of-flight at the same time.

  4. SU(2 and SU(1,1 Approaches to Phase Operators and Temporally Stable Phase States: Applications to Mutually Unbiased Bases and Discrete Fourier Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R. Kibler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a group-theoretical approach to the generalized oscillator algebra Aκ recently investigated in J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 2010, 43, 115303. The case κ ≥ 0 corresponds to the noncompact group SU(1,1 (as for the harmonic oscillator and the Pöschl-Teller systems while the case κ < 0 is described by the compact group SU(2 (as for the Morse system. We construct the phase operators and the corresponding temporally stable phase eigenstates for Aκ in this group-theoretical context. The SU(2 case is exploited for deriving families of mutually unbiased bases used in quantum information. Along this vein, we examine some characteristics of a quadratic discrete Fourier transform in connection with generalized quadratic Gauss sums and generalized Hadamard matrices.

  5. Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Condensation Phenomena in Tuneable 3D and 2D Bose Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0009 Equilibrium and non- equilibrium condensation phenomena in tuneable 3D and 2D Bose gases Zoran Hadzibabic THE CHANCELLOR...31-Aug-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Equilibrium and non- equilibrium condensation phenomena in tuneable 3D and 2D Bose gases 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... equilibrium and non- equilibrium many-body phenomena, trapping ultracold atomic gases in different geometries including both 3 and 2 spatial dimensions

  6. On Budyko curve as a consequence of climate-soil-vegetation equilibrium hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S.

    2012-04-01

    A hypothesis that Budyko curve is a consequence of stable equilibriums of climate-soil-vegetation co-evolution is tested at biome scale. We assume that i) distribution of vegetation, soil and climate within a biome is a distribution of equilibriums of similar soil-vegetation dynamics and that this dynamics is different across different biomes and ii) soil and vegetation are in dynamic equilibrium with climate while in static equilibrium with each other. In order to test the hypothesis, a two stage regression is considered using MOPEX/Hydrologic Synthesis Project dataset for basins in eastern United States. In the first stage, multivariate regression (Seemingly Unrelated Regression) is performed for each biome with soil (estimated porosity and slope of soil water retention curve) and vegetation characteristics (5-week NDVI gradient) as dependent variables and aridity index, vegetation and soil characteristics as independent variables for respective dependent variables. The regression residuals of the first stage along with aridity index then serve as second stage independent variables while actual vaporization to precipitation ratio (vapor index) serving as dependent variable. Insignificance, if revealed, of a first stage parameter allows us to reject the role of corresponding soil or vegetation characteristics in the co-evolution hypothesis. Meanwhile the significance of second stage regression parameter corresponding to a first stage residual allow us to reject the hypothesis that Budyko curve is a locus "solely" of climate-soil-vegetation co-evolution equilibrium points. Results suggest lack of evidence for soil-vegetation co-evolution in Prairies and Mixed/SouthEast Forests (unlike in Deciduous Forests) though climate plays a dominant role in explaining within biome soil and vegetation characteristics across all the biomes. Preliminary results indicate absence of effects beyond climate-soil-vegetation co-evolution in explaining the ratio of annual total minimum

  7. Approach to thermal equilibrium of macroscopic quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Lebowitz, Joel L; Mastrodonato, Christian; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino

    2010-01-01

    We consider an isolated macroscopic quantum system. Let H be a microcanonical "energy shell," i.e., a subspace of the system's Hilbert space spanned by the (finitely) many energy eigenstates with energies between E and E+deltaE . The thermal equilibrium macrostate at energy E corresponds to a subspace H(eq) of H such that dim H(eq)/dim H is close to 1. We say that a system with state vector psi is the element of H is in thermal equilibrium if psi is "close" to H(eq). We show that for "typical" Hamiltonians with given eigenvalues, all initial state vectors psi(0) evolve in such a way that psi(t) is in thermal equilibrium for most times t. This result is closely related to von Neumann's quantum ergodic theorem of 1929.

  8. Protonation Equilibrium of Linear Homopolyacids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Požar J.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a short summary of investigations dealing with protonation equilibrium of linear homopolyacids, in particularly those of high charge density. Apart from the review of experimental results which can be found in the literature, a brief description of theoretical models used in processing the dependence of protonation constants on monomer dissociation degree and ionic strength is given (cylindrical model based on Poisson-Boltzmann equation, cylindrical Stern model, the models according to Ising, Högfeldt, Mandel and Katchalsky. The applicability of these models regarding the polyion charge density, electrolyte concentration and counterion type is discussed. The results of Monte Carlo simulations of protonation equilibrium are also briefly mentioned. In addition, frequently encountered errors connected with calibration of of glass electrode and the related unreliability of determined protonation constants are pointed out.

  9. Equilibrium spreading pressure and Langmuir–Blodgett film formation of omega-substituted palmitic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Arthur W., E-mail: arthur.snow@nrl.navy.mil; Jernigan, Glenn G.; Ancona, Mario G.

    2014-04-01

    Langmuir–Blodgett isotherms and equilibrium spreading pressures were measured for compounds of the series X–(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}COOH, X = CH{sub 3}, SH, OH, F, Cl, Br. Only the CH{sub 3} and F terminated compounds formed monolayers with sufficient stability for accurate isotherm measurement, film transfer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The presence of the terminal heteroatom substituents significantly diminished the stability of the L–B film and depressed the equilibrium spreading pressures (20 °C) from 15.4 mN/m for the CH{sub 3} terminated compound to a range of 0.95 to 0.08 mN/m for the other members of the series. These characteristics are attributed to the monolayer film being in a metastable state and the dipole moment of the heteroatom terminal group increasing the monolayer film kinetic instability by facilitating the formation of three-dimensional structures. - Highlights: • Compound series X–(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}COOH, X = CH{sub 3}, SH, OH, F, Cl, Br was analyzed. • Only-CH{sub 3} and-F terminated compounds form stable Langmuir–Blodgett films. • Heteroatom terminal groups promote kinetic instability in Langmuir–Blodgett films. • X-ray photoelectron spectra analyzed for molecular orientation and packing density.

  10. An introduction to equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morrill, Bernard; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics discusses classical thermodynamics and irreversible thermodynamics. It introduces the laws of thermodynamics and the connection between statistical concepts and observable macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system. Chapter 1 discusses the first law of thermodynamics while Chapters 2 through 4 deal with statistical concepts. The succeeding chapters describe the link between entropy and the reversible heat process concept of entropy; the second law of thermodynamics; Legendre transformations and Jacobian algebra. Finally, Chapter 10 provides a

  11. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that firm-managers compete in supply functions. He reverses earlier findings in that owners give managers incentives to act in an accommodating way. That is, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits ...... to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium, the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming either Cournot or Bertrand competition....

  12. Equilibrium unfolding of A. niger RNase: pH dependence of chemical and thermal denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gundampati Ravi; Sharma, Anurag; Kumari, Moni; Jagannadham, Medicherla V; Debnath, Mira

    2011-08-01

    Equilibrium unfolding of A. niger RNase with chemical denaturants, for example GuHCl and urea, and thermal unfolding have been studied as a function of pH using fluorescence, far-UV, near-UV, and absorbance spectroscopy. Because of their ability to affect electrostatic interactions, pH and chemical denaturants have a marked effect on the stability, structure, and function of many globular proteins. ANS binding studies have been conducted to enable understanding of the folding mechanism of the protein in the presence of the denaturants. Spectroscopic studies by absorbance, fluorescence, and circular dichroism and use of K2D software revealed that the enzyme has α + β type secondary structure with approximately 29% α-helix, 24% β-sheet, and 47% random coil. Under neutral conditions the enzyme is stable in urea whereas GuHCl-induced equilibrium unfolding was cooperative. A. niger RNase has little ANS binding even under neutral conditions. Multiple intermediates were populated during the pH-induced unfolding of A. niger RNase. Urea and temperature-induced unfolding of A. niger RNase into the molten globule-like state is non-cooperative, in contrast to the cooperativity seen with the native protein, suggesting the presence of two parts/domains, in the molecular structure of A. niger RNase, with different stability that unfolds in steps. Interestingly, the GuHCl-induced unfolding of the A state (molten globule state) of A. niger RNase is unique, because a low concentration of denaturant not only induces structural change but also facilitates transition from one molten globule like state (A(MG1)) into another (I(MG2)).

  13. 3D equilibrium reconstruction with islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciosa, M.; Hirshman, S. P.; Seal, S. K.; Shafer, M. W.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a 3D equilibrium reconstruction tool and the results of the first-ever reconstruction of an island equilibrium. The SIESTA non-nested equilibrium solver has been coupled to the V3FIT 3D equilibrium reconstruction code. Computed from a coupled VMEC and SIESTA model, synthetic signals are matched to measured signals by finding an optimal set of equilibrium parameters. By using the normalized pressure in place of normalized flux, non-equilibrium quantities needed by diagnostic signals can be efficiently mapped to the equilibrium. The effectiveness of this tool is demonstrated by reconstructing an island equilibrium of a DIII-D inner wall limited L-mode case with an n = 1 error field applied. Flat spots in Thomson and ECE temperature diagnostics show the reconstructed islands have the correct size and phase. ).

  14. The Geometry of Finite Equilibrium Datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...... of equilibrium datasets is pathconnected when the equilibrium condition does impose restrictions on datasets, as for example when total resources are widely non collinear....

  15. Phase Equilibrium Modeling for Shale Production Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Lemus, Diego Rolando

    calculation tools for phase equilibrium in porous media with capillary pressure and adsorption effects. Analysis using these tools have shown that capillary pressure and adsorption have non-negligible effects on phase equilibrium in shale. As general tools, they can be used to calculate phase equilibrium...... in other porous media as well. The compositional simulator with added capillary pressure effects on phase equilibrium can be used for evaluating the effects in dynamic and more complex scenarios....

  16. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-11-21

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed strategy has been further taken into consideration: a belief strategy is proposed in terms of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Furthermore, based on the proposed belief strategy, a belief-based ESS has been developed. The belief strategy and belief-based ESS can reduce to the mixed strategy and mixed ESS, which provide more realistic and powerful tools to describe interactions among agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An equilibrium approach to modelling social interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Ignacio

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to put forward a statistical mechanics theory of social interaction, generalizing econometric discrete choice models. After showing the formal equivalence linking econometric multinomial logit models to equilibrium statical mechanics, a multi-population generalization of the Curie-Weiss model for ferromagnets is considered as a starting point in developing a model capable of describing sudden shifts in aggregate human behaviour. Existence of the thermodynamic limit for the model is shown by an asymptotic sub-additivity method and factorization of correlation functions is proved almost everywhere. The exact solution of the model is provided in the thermodynamical limit by finding converging upper and lower bounds for the system's pressure, and the solution is used to prove an analytic result regarding the number of possible equilibrium states of a two-population system. The work stresses the importance of linking regimes predicted by the model to real phenomena, and to this end it proposes two possible procedures to estimate the model's parameters starting from micro-level data. These are applied to three case studies based on census type data: though these studies are found to be ultimately inconclusive on an empirical level, considerations are drawn that encourage further refinements of the chosen modelling approach.

  18. Equilibrium electrostatics of responsive polyelectrolyte monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Zangmeister, Rebecca A; Levicky, Rastislav

    2009-01-14

    The physical behavior of polyelectrolytes at solid-liquid interfaces presents challenges both in measurement and in interpretation. An informative, yet often overlooked, property that characterizes the equilibrium organization of these systems is their membrane or rest potential. Here a general classification scheme is presented of the relationship between the rest potential and structural response of polyelectrolyte films to salt concentration. A numerical lattice theory, adapted from the polymer community, is used to analyze the rest potential response of end-tethered polyelectrolyte layers in which electrostatics and short-range contact interactions conspire to bring about different structural states. As an experimental quantity the rest potential is a readily accessible, nonperturbing metric of the equilibrium structure of a polyelectrolyte layer. A first set of measurements is reported on monolayers of end-tethered, single-stranded DNA in monovalent (NaCl) and divalent (MgCl(2)) counterion environments. Intriguingly, in NaCl electrolyte at least two different mechanisms appear by which the DNA layers can structurally relax in response to changing salt conditions. In MgCl(2) the layers appear to collapse. The possible molecular mechanisms behind these behaviors are discussed. These studies provide insight into phenomena more generally underlying polyelectrolyte applications in the chemical, environmental, and biotechnological fields.

  19. Influence of temperature fluctuations on equilibrium ice sheet volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgeholm Mikkelsen, Troels; Grinsted, Aslak; Ditlevsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Forecasting the future sea level relies on accurate modeling of the response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to changing temperatures. The surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has a nonlinear response to warming. Cold and warm anomalies of equal size do not cancel out and it is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual fluctuations in temperature. We find that the steady-state volume of an ice sheet is biased toward larger size if interannual temperature fluctuations are not taken into account in numerical modeling of the ice sheet. We illustrate this in a simple ice sheet model and find that the equilibrium ice volume is approximately 1 m SLE (meters sea level equivalent) smaller when the simple model is forced with fluctuating temperatures as opposed to a stable climate. It is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual temperature fluctuations when designing long experiments such as paleo-spin-ups. We show how the magnitude of the potential bias can be quantified statistically. For recent simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet, we estimate the bias to be 30 Gt yr-1 (24-59 Gt yr-1, 95 % credibility) for a warming of 3 °C above preindustrial values, or 13 % (10-25, 95 % credibility) of the present-day rate of ice loss. Models of the Greenland Ice Sheet show a collapse threshold beyond which the ice sheet becomes unsustainable. The proximity of the threshold will be underestimated if temperature fluctuations are not taken into account. We estimate the bias to be 0.12 °C (0.10-0.18 °C, 95 % credibility) for a recent estimate of the threshold. In light of our findings it is important to gauge the extent to which this increased variability will influence the mass balance of the ice sheets.

  20. Open problems in non-equilibrium physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusnezov, D.

    1997-09-22

    The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.

  1. Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium and the Foundations of Evolutionary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium and the Foundations of Evolutionary Genetics - The Inertial State in Population Genetics. Amitabh Joshi. Series Article Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 951-970 ...

  2. Positive equilibrium in USA - China relations: durable or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sutter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated episodes of Chinese public pressure against the United States during 2009 and 2010 on a wide range of issues involving seas near China, Taiwan, Tibet, and economic disputes are subject to different interpretations but on balance they do not seem to seriously upset the prevailing positive equilibrium between the US and Chinese governments.

  3. Statistical equilibrium and symplectic geometry in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, P.

    1981-09-01

    A geometrical construction is given of the statistical equilibrium states of a system of particles in the gravitational field in general relativity. By a method of localization variables, the expression of thermodynamic values is given and the compatibility of this description is shown with a macroscopic model of a relativistic continuous medium for a given value of the free-energy function [fr

  4. Kinetic, Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the biosorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria;. 3Department of Chemical Sciences, Olabisi Olabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the biosorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solution by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera popularly known in ...

  5. Investigations in gasification of biomass mixtures using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781 039, Assam (India)

    2011-07-01

    Biomass gasifiers with power generation capacities exceeding 1 MW have large biomass consumption. Availability of a single biomass in such large quantities is rather difficult, and hence, mixtures of biomasses need to be used as feed-stock for these gasifiers. This study has assessed feasibility of biomass mixtures as fuel in biomass gasifiers for decentralized power generation using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium (with limited carbon conversion) model employing Gibbs energy minimization. Binary mixtures of common biomasses found in northeastern states of India such as rice husk, bamboo dust and saw dust have been taken for analysis. The potential for power generation from gasifier has been evaluated on the basis of net yield (in Nm3) and LHV (in MJ/Nm3) of the producer gas obtained from gasification of 100 g of biomass mixture. The results of simulations have revealed interesting trends in performance of gasifiers with operating parameters such as air ratio, temperature of gasification and composition of the biomass mixture. For all biomass mixtures, the optimum air ratio is {approx} 0.3 with gasification temperature of 800oC. Under total equilibrium conditions, and for engine-generator efficiency of 30%, the least possible fuel consumption is found to be 0.8 kg/kW-h. As revealed in the simulations with semi-equilibrium model, this parameter shows an inverse variation with the extent of carbon conversion. For low carbon conversions ({approx} 60% or so), the specific fuel consumption could be as high as 1.5 kg/kW-h. The results of this study have also been compared with previous literature (theoretical as well as experimental) and good agreement has been found. This study, thus, has demonstrated potential of replacement of a single biomass fuel in the gasifier with mixtures of different biomasses.

  6. Simulations of NMR pulse sequences during equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemical exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgstrand, Magnus; Haerd, Torleif; Allard, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The McConnell equations combine the differential equations for a simple two-state chemical exchange process with the Bloch differential equations for a classical description of the behavior of nuclear spins in a magnetic field. This equation system provides a useful starting point for the analysis of slow, intermediate and fast chemical exchange studied using a variety of NMR experiments. The McConnell equations are in the mathematical form of an inhomogeneous system of first-order differential equations. Here we rewrite the McConnell equations in a homogeneous form in order to facilitate fast and simple numerical calculation of the solution to the equation system. The McConnell equations can only treat equilibrium chemical exchange. We therefore also present a homogeneous equation system that can handle both equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemical processes correctly, as long as the kinetics is of first-order. Finally, the same method of rewriting the inhomogeneous form of the McConnell equations into a homogeneous form is applied to a quantum mechanical treatment of a spin system in chemical exchange. In order to illustrate the homogeneous McConnell equations, we have simulated pulse sequences useful for measuring exchange rates in slow, intermediate and fast chemical exchange processes. A stopped-flow NMR experiment was simulated using the equations for non-equilibrium chemical exchange. The quantum mechanical treatment was tested by the simulation of a sensitivity enhanced 15 N-HSQC with pulsed field gradients during slow chemical exchange and by the simulation of the transfer efficiency of a two-dimensional heteronuclear cross-polarization based experiment as a function of both chemical shift difference and exchange rate constants

  7. Conditions for equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; de Folter, Julius W J; Luigjes, Bob; Castillo, Sonja I R; Sacanna, Stefano; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2010-08-19

    Particular types of solid-stabilized emulsions can be thermodynamically stable as evidenced by their spontaneous formation and monodisperse droplet size, which only depends on system parameters. Here, we investigate the generality of these equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions with respect to the basic constituents: aqueous phase with ions, oil, and stabilizing particles. From systematic variations of these constituents, we identify general conditions for the spontaneous formation of monodisperse solid-stabilized emulsions droplets. We conclude that emulsion stability is achieved by a combination of solid particles as well as amphiphilic ions adsorbed at the droplet surface, and low interfacial tensions of the bare oil-water interface of order 10 mN/m or below. Furthermore, preferential wetting of the colloidal particles by the oil phase is necessary for thermodynamic stability. We demonstrate the sufficiency of these basic requirements by extending the observed thermodynamic stability to emulsions of different compositions. Our findings point to a new class of colloid-stabilized meso-emulsions with a potentially high impact on industrial emulsification processes due to the associated large energy savings.

  8. Heterogeneous equilibrium in mplybdenum-iodine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkova, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Heterogeneous equilibrium in the Mo-J system is studied to reveal regions of existence of molybdenum iodides, is studied. The investigation is performed for atomic ratio I/Mo=0.02-7.5 in the temperature range of 300-1370 K using methods of thermographic, X-ray phase, chemical and optical analyses of phases quenched after isothermal annealing. It is shown that higher molybdenum iodides (Mo1 4 , MoJ 5 , MoJ 6 ) are thermally unstable compounds and exist in the Mo-J system at low temperatures (360-490 K). Above 470 K higher iodides dissociate up to molybdenum triiodide. MoJ 3 under the pressure of iodine vapors is stable up to 970 K. Molybdenum diiodide is the product of triiodide decomposition and forms in the Mo-J system in the 700-1270 K range. At the J/Mo>>3 ratio the product of triiodide decomposition is MoJsub(2.87) which is thermally unstable up to 570 K, while in iodine atmosphere - up to 1170 K

  9. The big contradiction between the perturbation theory and the chaotic state. A detailed mathematical analysis indicates when the plasma is stable or unstable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Xaplanteris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present manuscript enough observations and interpretations of three issues of Plasma Physics are presented. The first issue is linked to the common experimental confirmation of plasma waves which appear to be repeated in a standard way while there are also cases where plasma waves change to an unstable state or even to chaotic state. The second issue is associated with a mathematical analysis of the movement of a charged particle using the perturbation theory; which could be used as a guide for new researchers on similar issues. Finally, the suitability and applicability of the perturbation theory or the chaotic theory is presented. Although this study could be conducted on many plasma phenomena (e.g. plasma diffusion or plasma quantities (e.g. plasma conductivity, here it was decided this study to be conducted on plasma waves and particularly on drift waves. This was because of the significance of waves on the plasmatic state and especially their negative impact on the thermonuclear fusion, but also due to the long-time experience of the plasma laboratory of Demokritos on drift waves.

  10. Parallel application of plasma equilibrium fitting based on inhomogeneous platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Min; Zhang Jinhua; Chen Liaoyuan; Li Yongge; Pan Wei; Pan Li

    2008-01-01

    An online analysis and online display platform EFIT, which is based on the equilibrium-fitting mode, is inducted in this paper. This application can realize large data transportation between inhomogeneous platforms by designing a communication mechanism using sockets. It spends approximately one minute to complete the equilibrium fitting reconstruction by using a finite state machine to describe the management node and several node computers of cluster system to fulfill the parallel computation, this satisfies the online display during the discharge interval. An effective communication model between inhomogeneous platforms is provided, which could transport the computing results from Linux platform to Windows platform for online analysis and display. (authors)

  11. Thermal equilibrium in Einstein's elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Cubero, David

    2013-05-01

    We report fully relativistic molecular-dynamics simulations that verify the appearance of thermal equilibrium of a classical gas inside a uniformly accelerated container. The numerical experiments confirm that the local momentum distribution in this system is very well approximated by the Jüttner function-originally derived for a flat spacetime-via the Tolman-Ehrenfest effect. Moreover, it is shown that when the acceleration or the container size is large enough, the global momentum distribution can be described by the so-called modified Jüttner function, which was initially proposed as an alternative to the Jüttner function.

  12. Risk premia in general equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    solutions of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, including a novel solution with endogenous labor supply, to obtain closed-form expressions for the risk premium in production economies. We find that the curvature of the policy functions affects the risk premium through controlling the individual......This paper shows that non-linearities can generate time-varying and asymmetric risk premia over the business cycle. These (empirical) key features become relevant and asset market implications improve substantially when we allow for non-normalities in the form of rare disasters. We employ explicit......'s effective risk aversion....

  13. Skill Mismatch in Equilibrium Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    We analyse the effect of skill mismatch in a search model of equilibrium unemployment with risk-neutral agents, endogenous job destruction, and two-sided ex-ante heterogeneity. First, we examine the interaction of labour market institu- tions and skill mismatch. We find that skill mismatch changes the results obtained in a model with ex ante homogeneity. Second, we analyse the interaction of skill mismatch and labour market institutions for the di®erence in the labour market experience of con...

  14. Are the Concepts of Dynamic Equilibrium and the Thermodynamic Criteria for Spontaneity, Nonspontaneity, and Equilibrium Compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Lee J.; Raff, Lionel M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic spontaneity-equilibrium criteria require that in a single-reaction system, reactions in either the forward or reverse direction at equilibrium be nonspontaneous. Conversely, the concept of dynamic equilibrium holds that forward and reverse reactions both occur at equal rates at equilibrium to the extent allowed by kinetic…

  15. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  16. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  17. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  18. General-equilibrium approach to energy/environmental economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groncki, P J

    1978-08-01

    This paper presents a brief critique of the use of fixed-coefficient input-output models for use in energy/environmental modeling systems, a shortcoming of input-output models that has been often been noted. Then, given the existence of aggregate, general-equilibrium, variable-coefficient growth models, a methodology is presented for using this information to adjust a recent disaggregated input-output table. This methodology takes into account all of the general-equilibrium aspects of the aggregate model in making the changes in the disaggregate model. The use of various weighting schemes and the implicit technological change biases they embody are examined. The methodology is being tested on historical tables for the United States, and preliminary results are discussed. This methodology's ability to fully capture the general-equilibrium nature of the economy should enhance the usefulness of input-output models in energy/environmental modeling systems.

  19. Spectral Quasi-Equilibrium Manifold for Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshkbaghi, Mahdi; Frouzakis, Christos E; Boulouchos, Konstantinos; Karlin, Iliya V

    2016-05-26

    The Spectral Quasi-Equilibrium Manifold (SQEM) method is a model reduction technique for chemical kinetics based on entropy maximization under constraints built by the slowest eigenvectors at equilibrium. The method is revisited here and discussed and validated through the Michaelis-Menten kinetic scheme, and the quality of the reduction is related to the temporal evolution and the gap between eigenvalues. SQEM is then applied to detailed reaction mechanisms for the homogeneous combustion of hydrogen, syngas, and methane mixtures with air in adiabatic constant pressure reactors. The system states computed using SQEM are compared with those obtained by direct integration of the detailed mechanism, and good agreement between the reduced and the detailed descriptions is demonstrated. The SQEM reduced model of hydrogen/air combustion is also compared with another similar technique, the Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE). For the same number of representative variables, SQEM is found to provide a more accurate description.

  20. Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Henkel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.

  1. Departures from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhirter, R.W.P.

    1968-01-01

    This paper starts with a definition of local thermodynamic equilibrium and points out the relationship between local and complete thermodynamic equilibrium. It is shown that electron collisions are essential for the establishment of LTE and a relationship is derived for the minimum electron density at which collision processes are just sufficiently frequent to cause the plasma to be in LTE in face of the competing radiative processes. This relationship is derived for an optically thin plasma. The effect of radiation trapping is considered and some figures given by which the effect of this can be taken into account in assessing the validity of LTE in such cases. Account is now taken of the finite time required for the atomic collision processes to establish the plasma in LTE. A numerical example is worked out which shows that these considerations can be very important for plasmas of rapidly varying temperature. Mention is also made of departures from LTE caused by inhomogeneities in the plasma and by the positive ions having a different kinetic temperature from the electrons. Finally, it is remarked that even if the criteria for LTE to be valid are not met then the Saha and Boltzmann equations may still be applied to describe the population densities of the upper levels of individual species of atoms or ions. (author)

  2. Thermal equilibrium control by frequent bang-bang modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Xi; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the non-Markovian heat transfer between a weakly damped harmonic oscillator (system) and a thermal bath. When the system is initially in a thermal state and not correlated with the environment, the mean energy of the system always first increases, then oscillates, and finally reaches equilibrium with the bath, no matter what the initial temperature of the system is. Moreover, the heat transfer between the system and the bath can be controlled by fast bang-bang modulation. This modulation does work on the system, and temporarily inverts the direction of heat flow. In this case, the common sense that heat always transfers from hot to cold does not hold any more. At the long time scale, a new dynamic equilibrium is established between the system and the bath. At this equilibrium, the energy of the system can be either higher or lower than its normal equilibrium value. A comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the dynamic equilibrium and the parameters of the modulation as well as the environment is presented.

  3. Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation: A Balancing Act in Two Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    An equilibrium involves a balancing of forces. Just as one maintains upright posture in standing or walking, many self-regulatory and interpersonal behaviors can be framed as a balancing act between an ever changing environment and within-person processes. The emerging balance between person and environment, the equilibria, are dynamic and adaptive in response to development and learning. A distinction is made between equilibrium achieved solely due to a short timescale balancing of forces and a longer timescale preferred equilibrium which we define as a state towards which the system slowly adapts. Together, these are developed into a framework that this article calls Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation (ÆR), which separates a regulatory process into two timescales: a faster regulation that automatically balances forces and a slower timescale adaptation process that reconfigures the fast regulation so as to move the system towards its preferred equilibrium when an environmental force persists over the longer timescale. This way of thinking leads to novel models for the interplay between multiple timescales of behavior, learning, and development. PMID:27066197

  4. Optimal Dispatching of Active Distribution Networks Based on Load Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the optimal intraday scheduling of a distribution system that includes renewable energy (RE generation, energy storage systems (ESSs, and thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs. This system also provides time-of-use pricing to customers. Unlike previous studies, this study attempts to examine how to optimize the allocation of electric energy and to improve the equilibrium of the load curve. Accordingly, we propose a concept of load equilibrium entropy to quantify the overall equilibrium of the load curve and reflect the allocation optimization of electric energy. Based on this entropy, we built a novel multi-objective optimal dispatching model to minimize the operational cost and maximize the load curve equilibrium. To aggregate TCLs into the optimization objective, we introduced the concept of a virtual power plant (VPP and proposed a calculation method for VPP operating characteristics based on the equivalent thermal parameter model and the state-queue control method. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm was employed to solve the optimization problems. The simulation results illustrated that the proposed dispatching model can achieve cost reductions of system operations, peak load curtailment, and efficiency improvements, and also verified that the load equilibrium entropy can be used as a novel index of load characteristics.

  5. Note: Local thermal conductivities from boundary driven non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresme, F.; Armstrong, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of heat transport in models of molecular fluids. We show that the “local” thermal conductivities obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations agree within numerical accuracy with equilibrium Green-Kubo computations. Our results support the local equilibrium hypothesis for transport properties. We show how to use the local dependence of the thermal gradients to quantify the thermal conductivity of molecular fluids for a wide range of thermodynamic states using a single simulation

  6. Equilibrium I: Principles. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the principles of equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. After a treatment of non-mathematical aspects in level one (the idea of a reversible reaction, characteristics of an equilibrium state, the Le Chatelier's principle),…

  7. {sup 14}C dating and stable carbon isotopes of soil organic matter in the Southeastern region of Sao Paulo State; e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofatto, Milene; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Bendassoli, Jose Albertino; Leite, Acacio Zuniga [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mofatto@cena.usp.br; pessenda@cena.usp.br; Oliveira, Paulo de Oliveira [Universidade de Guarulhos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: paulo@bjd.com.br; Garcia, Ricardo Jose Francischetti [Herbario da Prefeitura Municipal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rjfgarcia@estadao.com.br

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research is to characterize the isotopic composition ({sup 13}C, {sup 14}C) of soil organic matter (SOM) in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Nucleo Curucutu, Sao Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil. The isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of SOM will be used as an indicator of vegetation types from the local ecosystems and {sup 14}C dating (humin fraction) used to determine the chronology. The results from SOM indicated vegetation changes in the last 10,000 years, where, a less dense vegetation occurred in the past, with C{sub 3} plant predominant and/or a mixture of C{sub 3} and C{sub 4}. (author)

  8. Co-existence of LiI and KI in filler-free, quasi-solid-state electrolyte for efficient and stable dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, S.; Thummalakunta, L. N. S. A.; Cook, C. A.; Peh, C. K. N.; Wong, A. S. W.; Ke, L.; Ho, G. W.

    A quasi-solid-state electrolyte employing a poly (ethylene oxide)/LiI system without a filler is evaluated. The electrolyte is optimized for various potassium iodide (KI) concentrations. The electrolyte containing 14.5 wt.% KI exhibits the highest conductivity (3.0 × 10 -3 S cm -1). An efficiency of 4.5% is achieved using this composition of the electrolyte. It is shown that the introduction of KI in a conventional PEO/I 2/LiI electrolyte system prevents the crystallization of the polymer matrix and enhances the ionic conductivity. The energy conversion efficiency of the device is further enhanced to 5.8% by incorporating a light-scattering layer.

  9. Theoretical investigation of tautomeric equilibrium in ortho-hydroxy phenyl Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluba, M.; Lipkowski, P.; Filarowski, A.

    2008-10-01

    This Letter presents a study of the tautomeric equilibrium in ortho-hydroxy phenyl Schiff bases. The influence of substitution and solvent (simulated by the self-consistent reaction field model, SCRF) on the energy barrier of the transition state and on proton transfer is investigated. Dependencies of the HOMA and HOSE aromaticity indices on the molecular, transition state, and proton transfer forms were obtained. The state of chelate chain and phenyl ring aromaticity depending on the tautomeric equilibrium is studied.

  10. Thermally induced solid-state transformation of cimetidine. A multi-spectroscopic/chemometrics determination of the kinetics of the process and structural elucidation of one of the products as a stable N{sub 3}-enamino tautomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Natalia L.; Simonetti, Sebastian O.; Maggio, Rubén M.; Kaufman, Teodoro S., E-mail: kaufman@iquir-conicet.gov.ar

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • Thermally stressed cimetidine above its melting point affords a stable N{sub 3} tautomer. • Multi-spectroscopic/chemometric approach developed to monitor tautomerization. • First combined use of NMR, UV and IR spectroscopies with chemometrics. • Solid cimetidine suffers first order degradation upon submission to dry heat. • Theoretical chemistry analysis confirmed the relative stability of cimetidine tautomer. - Abstract: Exposure of cimetidine (CIM) to dry heat (160–180 °C) afforded, upon cooling, a glassy solid containing new and hitherto unknown products. The kinetics of this process was studied by a second order chemometrics-assisted multi-spectroscopic approach. Proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopic data were jointly used, whereas multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was employed as the chemometrics method to extract process information. It was established that drug degradation follows a first order kinetics. One of the products was structurally characterized by mono- and bi-dimensional NMR experiments. It was found to be the N{sub 3}-enamino tautomer (TAU) of CIM, resulting from the thermal isomerization of the double bond of the cyanoguanidine moiety of the drug, from the imine form to its N{sub 3}-enamine state. The thus generated tautomer demonstrated to be stable for months in the glassy solid and in methanolic solutions. A theoretical study of CIM and TAU revealed that the latter is less stable; however, the energy barrier for tautomer interconversion is high enough, precluding the process to proceed rapidly at room temperature.

  11. Phenomenon of Life: Between Equilibrium and Non-Linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimov, E. M.

    2004-12-01

    A model of ordering applicable to biological evolution is presented. It is shown that a steady state (more precisely approaching to a steady state) system of irreversible processes, under conditions of disproportionation of entropy, produces a lower-entropy product, that is, ordering. The ordering is defined as restricting of degrees of freedom: freedom of motion, interactions etc. The model differs from previous ones in that it relates the ordering to processes running not far from equilibrium, described in the linear field of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is shown that a system, which includes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) conversion meets the demands of the physical model: it provides energy maintaining steady state conditions, and hydrolysis of ATP proceeding with consumption of water can be tightly conjugated with the most important reactions of synthesis of organic polymers (peptides, nucleotide chains etc.), which proceed with release of water. For these and other reasons ATP seems to be a key molecule of prebiotic evolution. It is argued that the elementary chemical reaction proceeding under control of an enzyme is not necessarily far from equilibrium. The experimental evidence supporting this idea, is presented. It is based on isotope data. Carbon isotope distribution in biochemical systems reveals regularity, which is inherent to steady state systems of chemical reactions, proceeding not far from equilibrium. In living organisms this feature appears at the statistical level, as many completely irreversible and non-linear processes occur in organisms. However not-far-from-equilibrium reactions are inherent to biochemical systems as a matter of principle. They are reconcilable with biochemical behavior. Extant organisms are highly evolved entities which, however, show in their basis the same features, as the simplest chemical systems must have had been involved in the origin of life. Some consequences following from the

  12. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  13. Stable expression and replication of hepatitis B virus genome in an integrated state in a human hepatoma cell line transfected with the cloned viral DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurimoto, T.; Fujiyama, A.; Matsubara, K.

    1987-01-01

    A human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh6-c15) was transfected with a recombinant DNA molecule that consists of tandemly arranged hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome and a neomycin-resistant gene. One clone resistant to G-418 produces and releases surface antigen and e antigen into medium at a high level and accumulates core particles intracellularly. This clone has a chromosomally integrated set of the original recombinant DNA and produces a 3.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the pregenome RNA as well as HBV DNAs in an extrachromosomal form. Most of these DNAs were in single-stranded or partially double-stranded form and were packaged in the intracellular core particles. In the medium, particles were detected that contained HBV DNA and were morphologically indistinguishable from Dane particles. These results demonstrate that the HBV genome in an integrated state acted as a template for viral gene expression and replication. The cells were maintained for more than 6 months without losing the ability to produce the extrachromosomal HBV DNA and Dane-like particles. Thus, the cells can be used as a model system for analyses of gene expression and DNA replication of HBV in human hepatocytes

  14. Stable expression and replication of hepatitis B virus genome in an integrated state in a human hepatoma cell line transfected with the cloned viral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurimoto, T; Fujiyama, A; Matsubara, K

    1987-01-01

    A human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh6-c15) was transfected with a recombinant DNA molecule that consists of tandemly arranged hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome and a neomycin-resistant gene. One clone resistant to G-418 produces and releases surface antigen and e antigen into medium at a high level and accumulates core particles intracellularly. This clone has a chromosomally integrated set of the original recombinant DNA and produces a 3.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the pregenome RNA as well as HBV DNAs in an extrachromosomal form. Most of these DNAs were in single-stranded or partially double-stranded form and were packaged in the intracellular core particles. In the medium, particles were detected that contained HBV DNA and were morphologically indistinguishable from Dane particles. These results demonstrate that the HBV genome in an integrated state acted as a template for viral gene expression and replication. The cells were maintained for more than 6 months without losing the ability to produce the extrachromosomal HBV DNA and Dane-like particles. Thus, the cells can be used as a model system for analyses of gene expression and DNA replication of HBV in human hepatocytes.

  15. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattice, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. New to this edition is the examination of magnetic crystals, where magnetic symmetry is essential for magnetic phase transitions. The multi-electron system is also discussed  theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for superconductivity in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and studied in-depth. Thermod...

  16. Stellar Equilibrium in Semiclassical Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Rubio, Raúl

    2018-02-01

    The phenomenon of quantum vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational field is well understood and is expected to have a physical reality, but studies of its backreaction on the dynamics of spacetime are practically nonexistent outside of the specific context of homogeneous cosmologies. Building on previous results of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, in this Letter we first derive the semiclassical equations of stellar equilibrium in the s -wave Polyakov approximation. It is highlighted that incorporating the polarization of the quantum vacuum leads to a generalization of the classical Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite the complexity of the resulting field equations, it is possible to find exact solutions. Aside from being the first known exact solutions that describe relativistic stars including the nonperturbative backreaction of semiclassical effects, these are identified as a nontrivial combination of the black star and gravastar proposals.

  17. Equilibrium calculations and mode analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnegger, F.

    1987-01-01

    The STEP asymptotic stellarator expansion procedure was used to study the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of stellarator configurations without longitudinal net-current, which also apply to advanced stellarators. The effects of toroidal curvature and magnetic well, and the Shafranov shift were investigated. A classification of unstable modes in toroidal stellarators is given. For WVII-A coil-field configurations having a β value of 1% and a parabolic pressure profile, no free-boundary modes are found. This agrees with the experimental fact that unstable behavior of the plasma column is not observed for this parameter range. So a theoretical β-limit for stability against ideal MHD modes can be estimated by mode analysis for the WVII-A device

  18. Imploding to equilibrium of helically symmetric theta pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharky, N.N.

    1978-01-01

    The time-dependent, single-fluid, dissipative magnetohydrodynamic equations are solved in helical coordinates (r,phi), where phi = THETA-kz, k = 2..pi../L and L is the periodicity length in the z-direction. The two-dimensional numerical calculations simulate theta pinches which have an l = 1 helical field added to them. Given the applied magnetic fields and the initial state of the plasma, we study the time evolution of the system. The plasma is found to experience two kinds of oscillations, occurring on different time scales. These are the radial compression oscillations, and the slower helical oscillations of the plasma column. The plasma motion is followed until these oscillations disappear and an equilibrium is nearly reached. Hence given the amplitude and the rise time of the applied magnetic fields, the calculations allow one to relate the initial state of a cold, homogeneous plasma to its final equilibrium state where it is heated and compressed.

  19. Convergence to equilibrium in competitive Lotka–Volterra and chemostat systems

    KAUST Repository

    Champagnat, Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    We study a generalized system of ODE\\'s modeling a finite number of biological populations in a competitive interaction. We adapt the techniques in Jabin and Raoul [8] and Champagnat and Jabin (2010) [2] to prove the convergence to a unique stable equilibrium. © 2010 Académie des sciences.

  20. Equilibrium mercury isotope fractionation between dissolved Hg(II) species and thiol-bound Hg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiederhold, Jan G.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Daniel, Kelly; Infante, Ivan; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Stable Hg isotope ratios provide a new tool to trace environmental Hg cycling. Thiols (-SH) are the dominant Hg-binding groups in natural organic matter. Here, we report experimental and computational results on equilibrium Hg isotope fractionation between dissolved Hg(II) species and thiol-bound

  1. Adolescents' Body Image Trajectories: A Further Test of the Self-Equilibrium Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maïano, Christophe; Scalas, L. Francesca; Janosz, Michel; Litalien, David

    2017-01-01

    The self-equilibrium hypothesis underlines the importance of having a strong core self, which is defined as a high and developmentally stable self-concept. This study tested this hypothesis in relation to body image (BI) trajectories in a sample of 1,006 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 12.6, including 541 males and 465 females) across a 4-year…

  2. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  3. Oppositely charged colloids out of equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, T.

    2010-11-01

    Colloids are particles with a size in the range of a few nanometers up to several micrometers. Similar to atomic and molecular systems, they can form gases, liquids, solids, gels and glasses. Colloids can be used as model systems because, unlike molecules, they are sufficiently large to be studied directly with light microscopy and move sufficiently slow to study their dynamics. In this thesis, we study binary systems of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) colloidal particles suspended in low-polar solvent mixtures. Since the ions can still partially dissociate, a surface charge builds up which causes electrostatic interactions between the colloids. By carefully tuning the conditions inside the suspension, we make two kinds of particles oppositely charged. To study our samples, we use Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The positively and negatively charged particles can be distinguished by a different fluorescent dye. Colloids constantly experience a random motion resulting from random kicks of surrounding solvent molecules. When the attractions between the oppositely charged particles are weak, the particles can attach and detach many times and explore a lot of possible configurations and the system can reach thermodynamic equilibrium. For example, colloidal ‘ionic’ crystals consisting of thousands to millions of particles can form under the right conditions. When the attractions are strong, the system can become kinetically trapped inside a gel-like state. We observe that when the interactions change again, crystals can even emerge again from this gel-like phase. By using local order parameters, we quantitatively study the crystallization of colloidal particles and identify growth defects inside the crystals. We also study the effect of gravity on the growth of ionic crystals by using a rotating stage. We find that sedimentation can completely inhibit crystal growth and plays an important role in crystallization from the gel-like state. The surface

  4. Conformal field theory out of equilibrium: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Denis; Doyon, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    We provide a pedagogical review of the main ideas and results in non-equilibrium conformal field theory and connected subjects. These concern the understanding of quantum transport and its statistics at and near critical points. Starting with phenomenological considerations, we explain the general framework, illustrated by the example of the Heisenberg quantum chain. We then introduce the main concepts underlying conformal field theory (CFT), the emergence of critical ballistic transport, and the CFT scattering construction of non-equilibrium steady states. Using this we review the theory for energy transport in homogeneous one-dimensional critical systems, including the complete description of its large deviations and the resulting (extended) fluctuation relations. We generalize some of these ideas to one-dimensional critical charge transport and to the presence of defects, as well as beyond one-dimensional criticality. We describe non-equilibrium transport in free-particle models, where connections are made with generalized Gibbs ensembles, and in higher-dimensional and non-integrable quantum field theories, where the use of the powerful hydrodynamic ideas for non-equilibrium steady states is explained. We finish with a list of open questions. The review does not assume any advanced prior knowledge of conformal field theory, large-deviation theory or hydrodynamics.

  5. Physical Equilibrium Evaluation in Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, Paula da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Parkinson disease can be among the multiple causes of alterations in the physical equilibrium. Accordingly, this study has the objective to evaluate Parkinson patients' physical equilibrium. Method: Potential study in which 12 Parkinson individuals were evaluated by way of tests of static and dynamic equilibrium, dynamic posturography and vectoelectronystagmograph. To compare the dynamic posturography results a group of gauged control was used. Results: Alterations in Romberg-Barré, Unterberger and Walk tests were found. The vestibular exam revealed 06 normal cases, 04 central vestibular syndrome and 02 cases of peripheral vestibular syndrome. In the dynamic posturography, an equilibrium alteration has been verified, when compared to the control group in all Sensorial Organization Tests, in average and in the utilization of vestibular system. Conclusion: Parkinson patients present a physical equilibrium alteration. The dynamic posturography was more sensitive to detect the equilibrium alterations than vectoelectronystagmograph.

  6. Highly-stable and low-state-density Al2O3/GaN interfaces using epitaxial n-GaN layers grown on free-standing GaN substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneki, Shota; Ohira, Joji; Toiya, Shota; Yatabe, Zenji; Asubar, Joel T.; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2016-10-01

    Interface characterization was carried out on Al2O3/GaN structures using epitaxial n-GaN layers grown on free-standing GaN substrates with relatively low dislocation density (capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves at reverse bias, showing high-density interface states in the range of 1012 cm-1 eV-1. On the other hand, excellent C-V characteristics with negligible frequency dispersion were observed from the MOS sample after annealing under a reverse bias at 300 °C in air for 3 h. The reverse-bias-annealed sample showed state densities less than 1 × 1011 cm-1 eV-1 and small shifts of flat-band voltage. In addition, the C-V curve measured at 200 °C remained essentially similar compared with the room-temperature C-V curves. These results indicate that the present process realizes a stable Al2O3/GaN interface with low interface state densities.

  7. A Progression of Static Equilibrium Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Kutzner, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Although simple architectural structures like bridges, catwalks, cantilevers, and Stonehenge have been integral in human societies for millennia, as have levers and other simple tools, modern students of introductory physics continue to grapple with Newton's conditions for static equilibrium. As formulated in typical introductory physics textbooks, these two conditions appear as ΣF=0(1) and Στ=0,(2) where each torque τ is defined as the cross product between the lever arm vector r and the corresponding applied force F, τ =r×F,(3) having magnitude, τ =Frsinθ.(4) The angle θ here is between the two vectors F and r. In Eq. (1), upward (downward) forces are considered positive (negative). In Eq. (2), counterclockwise (clockwise) torques are considered positive (negative). Equation (1) holds that the vector sum of the external forces acting on an object must be zero to prevent linear accelerations; Eq. (2) states that the vector sum of torques due to external forces about any axis must be zero to prevent angular accelerations. In our view these conditions can be problematic for students because a) the equations contain the unfamiliar summation notation Σ, b) students are uncertain of the role of torques in causing rotations, and c) it is not clear why the sum of torques is zero regardless of the choice of axis. Gianino5 describes an experiment using MBL and a force sensor to convey the meaning of torque as applied to a rigid-body lever system without exploring quantitative aspects of the conditions for static equilibrium.

  8. Adiabatic out-of-equilibrium solutions to the Boltzmann equation in warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Ramos, Rudnei O.; Rosa, João G.

    2018-02-01

    We show that, in warm inflation, the nearly constant Hubble rate and temperature lead to an adiabatic evolution of the number density of particles interacting with the thermal bath, even if thermal equilibrium cannot be maintained. In this case, the number density is suppressed compared to the equilibrium value but the associated phase-space distribution retains approximately an equilibrium form, with a smaller amplitude and a slightly smaller effective temperature. As an application, we explicitly construct a baryogenesis mechanism during warm inflation based on the out-of-equilibrium decay of particles in such an adiabatically evolving state. We show that this generically leads to small baryon isocurvature perturbations, within the bounds set by the Planck satellite. These are correlated with the main adiabatic curvature perturbations but exhibit a distinct spectral index, which may constitute a smoking gun for baryogenesis during warm inflation. Finally, we discuss the prospects for other applications of adiabatically evolving out-of-equilibrium states.

  9. Collapse and equilibrium of rotating, adiabatic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical hydrodynamics computer code has been used to follow the collapse and establishment of equilibrium of adiabatic gas clouds restricted to axial symmetry. The clouds are initially uniform in density and rotation, with adiabatic exponents γ=5/3 and 7/5. The numerical technique allows, for the first time, a direct comparison to be made between the dynamic collapse and approach to equilibrium of unconstrained clouds on the one hand, and the results for incompressible, uniformly rotating equilibrium clouds, and the equilibrium structures of differentially rotating polytropes, on the other hand

  10. Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.

  11. Extraction of effective solid-liquid interfacial free energies for full 3D solid crystallites from equilibrium MD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda-Ruiz, L. A.; Sadigh, B.; Chernov, A. A.; Haxhimali, T.; Samanta, A.; Oppelstrup, T.; Hamel, S.; Benedict, L. X.; Belof, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of an embedded atom copper system in the isobaric-isenthalpic ensemble are used to study the effective solid-liquid interfacial free energy of quasi-spherical solid crystals within a liquid. This is within the larger context of molecular dynamics simulations of this system undergoing solidification, where single individually prepared crystallites of different sizes grow until they reach a thermodynamically stable final state. The resulting equilibrium shapes possess the full structural details expected for solids with weakly anisotropic surface free energies (in these cases, ˜5% radial flattening and rounded [111] octahedral faces). The simplifying assumption of sphericity and perfect isotropy leads to an effective interfacial free energy as appearing in the Gibbs-Thomson equation, which we determine to be ˜177 erg/cm2, roughly independent of crystal size for radii in the 50-250 Å range. This quantity may be used in atomistically informed models of solidification kinetics for this system.

  12. First-principles models of equilibrium tellurium isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnegahdar, M. A.; Schauble, E. A.; Fornadel, A. P.; Spry, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, equilibrium mass-dependent isotopic fractionation among representative Te-bearing species is estimated with first-principles thermodynamic calculations. Tellurium is a group 16 element (along with O, S, and Se) with eight stable isotopes ranging in mass from 120Te to 130Te, and six commonly-occurring oxidation states: -II, -I, 0, +II, +IV, and +VI. In its reduced form, Te(-II), tellurium has a unique crystal-chemical role as a bond partner for gold and silver in epithermal and orogenic gold deposits, which likely form when oxidized Te species (e.g., H2TeO3, TeO32-) or perhaps polytellurides (e.g., Te22-) interact with precious metals in hydrothermal solution. Te(IV) is the most common oxidation state at the Earth's surface, including surface outcrops of telluride ore deposits, where tellurite and tellurate minerals form by oxidation. In the ocean, dissolved tellurium tends to be scavenged by particulate matter. Te(VI) is more abundant than Te(IV) in the ocean water (1), even though it is thought to be less stable thermodynamically. This variety of valence states in natural systems and range of isotopic masses suggest that tellurium could exhibit geochemically useful isotope abundance variations. Tellurium isotope fractionations were determined for representative molecules and crystals of varying complexity and chemistry. Gas-phase calculations are combined with supermolecular cluster models of aqueous and solid species. These in turn are compared with plane-wave density functional theory calculations with periodic boundary conditions. In general, heavyTe/lightTe is predicted to be higher for more oxidized species, and lower for reduced species, with 130Te/125Te fractionations as large as 4‰ at 100οC between coexisting Te(IV) and Te(-II) or Te(0) compounds. This is a much larger fractionation than has been observed in naturally occurring redox pairs (i.e., Te (0) vs. Te(IV) species) so far, suggesting that disequilibrium processes may control

  13. Equilibrium coexistence of three amphiboles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P.; Jaffe, H.W.; Klein, C.; Ross, M.

    1969-01-01

    Electron probe and wet chemical analyses of amphibole pairs from the sillimanite zone of central Massachusetts and adjacent New Hampshire indicated that for a particular metamorphic grade there should be a restricted composition range in which three amphiboles can coexist stably. An unequivocal example of such an equilibrium three amphibole rock has been found in the sillimanite-orthoclase zone. It contains a colorless primitive clinoamphibole, space group P21/m, optically and chemically like cummingtonite with blue-green hornblende exsolution lamellae on (100) and (-101) of the host; blue-green hornblende, space group C2/m, with primitive cummingtonite exsolution lamellae on (100) and (-101) of the host; and pale pinkish tan anthophyllite, space group Pnma, that is free of visible exsolution lamellae but is a submicroscopic intergrowth of two orthorhombic amphiboles. Mutual contacts and coarse, oriented intergrowths of two and three host amphiboles indicate the three grew as an equilibrium assemblage prior to exsolution. Electron probe analyses at mutual three-amphibole contacts showed little variation in the composition of each amphibole. Analyses believed to represent most closely the primary amphibole compositions gave atomic proportions on the basis of 23 oxygens per formula unit as follows: for primitive cummingtonite (Na0.02Ca0.21- Mn0.06Fe2+2.28Mg4.12Al0.28) (Al0.17Si7.83), for hornblende (Na0.35Ca1.56Mn0.02Fe1.71Mg2.85Al0.92) (Al1.37Si6.63), and for anthophyllite (Na0.10Ca0.06Mn0.06Fe2.25Mg4.11Al0.47) (Al0.47Si7.53). The reflections violating C-symmetry, on X-ray single crystal photographs of the primitive cummingtonite, are weak and diffuse, and suggest a partial inversion from a C-centered to a primitive clinoamphibole. Single crystal photographs of the anthophyllite show split reflections indicating it is an intergrowth of about 80% anthophyllite and about 20% gedrite which differ in their b crystallographic dimensions. Split reflections are

  14. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Dissolution Theory for Multi-Component Solid/Liquid Surfaces Involving Surface Adsorption and Radiolysis Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R B

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical expression is developed for the dissolution rate response for multi-component radioactive materials that have surface adsorption kinetics and radiolysis kinetics when wetted by a multi-component aqueous solution. An application for this type of dissolution response is the performance evaluation of multi-component spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) for long term interim storage and for geological disposition. Typically, SNF compositions depend on initial composition, uranium oxide and metal alloys being most common, and on reactor burnup which results in a wide range of fission product and actinide concentrations that decay by alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. These compositional/burnup ranges of SNFs, whether placed in interim storage or emplaced in a geologic repository, will potentially be wetted by multi-component aqueous solutions, and these solutions may be further altered by radiolytic aqueous species due to three radiation fields. The solid states of the SNFs are not thermodynamically stable when wetted and will dissolve, with or without radiolysis. The following development of a dissolution theory is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of energy reactions and energy transport across a solid-liquid phase change discontinuity that propagates at a quasi-steady, dissolution velocity. The integral form of the energy balance equation is used for this spatial surface discontinuity analysis. The integral formulation contains internal energy functional of classical thermodynamics for both the SNFs' solid state and surface adsorption species, and the adjacent liquid state, which includes radiolytic chemical species. The steady-state concentrations of radiolytic chemical species are expressed by an approximate analysis of the decay radiation transport equation. For purposes of illustration a modified Temkin adsorption isotherm was assumed for the surface adsorption kinetics on an arbitrary, finite area of the solid-liquid dissolution interface. For

  15. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  16. Neutral and Stable Equilibria of Genetic Systems and The Hardy-Weinberg Principle: Limitations of the Chi-Square Test and Advantages of Auto-Correlation Functions of Allele Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A Bosco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the foundations of Population Genetics the notion of genetic equilibrium (in close analogy to Classical Mechanics has been associated with the Hardy-Weinberg (HW Principle and the identification of equilibrium is currently assumed by stating that the HW axioms are valid if appropriate values of Chi-Square (p<0.05 are observed in experiments. Here we show by numerical experiments with the genetic system of one locus/two alleles that considering large ensembles of populations the Chi-Square test is not decisive and may lead to false negatives in random mating populations and false positives in nonrandom mating populations. This result confirms the logical statement that statistical tests cannot be used to deduce if the genetic population is under the HW conditions. Furthermore, we show that under the HW conditions populations of any size evolve in time according to what can be identified as neutral dynamics to which the very notion of equilibrium is unattainable for any practical purpose. Therefore, under the HW conditions the identification of equilibrium properties needs a different approach and the use of more appropriate concepts. We also show that by relaxing the condition of random mating the dynamics acquires all the characteristics of asymptotic stable equilibrium. As a consequence our results show that the question of equilibrium in genetic systems should be approached in close analogy to non-equilibrium statistical physics and its observability should be focused on dynamical quantities like the typical decay properties of the allelic auto correlation function in time. In this perspective one should abandon the classical notion of genetic equilibrium and its relation to the HW proportions and open investigations in the direction of searching for unifying general principles of population genetic transformations capable to take in consideration these systems in their full complexity.

  17. Initially Approximated Quasi Equilibrium Manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.; Arif, H.; Gulistan, M.; Sajid, M.

    2015-01-01

    Most commonly, kinetics model reduction techniques are based on exploiting time scale separation into fast and slow reaction processes. Then, a researcher approximates the system dynamically with dimension reduction for slow ones eliminating the fast modes. The main idea behind the construction of the lower dimension manifold is based on finding its initial approximation using Quasi Equilibrium Manifold (QEM). Here, we provide an efficient numerical method, which allow us to calculate low dimensional manifolds of chemical reaction systems. This computation technique is not restricted to our specific complex problem, but it can also be applied to other reacting flows or dynamic systems provided with the condition that a large number of extra (decaying) components can be eliminated from the system. Through computational approach, we approximate low dimensional manifold for a mechanism of six chemical species to simplify complex chemical kinetics. A reduced descriptive form of slow invariant manifold is obtained from dissipative system. This method is applicable for higher dimensions and is applied over an oxidation of CO/Pt. (author)

  18. Colin Rowe and ' Dynamic Equilibrium'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López Marín

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn 1944 Gyorgy Kepes published what undoubtless will be his most influential text, "The language of vision". What Kepes tried to do was a guide of grammar and syntax of vision, which allows to face art as purely sensory experience or just visual, devisted of any literary , semantic or sentimental meaning.Among all the concepts that Kepes developes in his essay perhaps the most decisive one is the so called dynamic equilibrium, which is introduced in this work for fi rst time, verbalizing something that was in the air, orbiting around the entire modern plastic but far only explained in an empirical way.Colin Rowe reverberates the recent readed kepesian ideas on his own writings Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal and Neo-'Classicism' and Modern Architecture I and II, when the author tries to highlight the founding principles of the modern movement refusing the plastic  dimension of the discipline . The article will try to expose and explain this influence.

  19. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium conformations of peptides in lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, N; Cheng, Y; Knowles, P F

    1997-04-22

    A synthetic, hydrophobic, 27-amino-acid-residue peptide 'K27', modelled on the trans-membrane domain of the slow voltage-gated potassium channel, IsK, has been incorporated into a lipid bilayer and its conformational properties studied using FT-IR spectroscopy. The conformation following reconstitution is found to be dependent on the nature of the solvent employed. When the reconstitution is conducted by solvent evaporation from a methanol solution, aggregates comprised of beta-strands are stabilised and their concentration is essentially invariant with time. By contrast, when trifluoroethanol is used, the initial conformation of the peptide is alpha-helical. This then relaxes to an equilibrium state between alpha-helices and beta-strands. The alpha-helix-to beta-strand conversion rate is relatively slow, and this allows the kinetics to be studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The reverse process is much slower but again can be demonstrated by FT-IR. Thus, it appears that a true equilibrium structure can only be achieved by starting with peptide in the alpha-helical conformation. We believe this result should be of general validity for hydrophobic peptide reconstitution. The implications for conformational changes in membrane proteins are discussed.

  20. The geometry of finite equilibrium sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...