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Sample records for stable equilibrium positions

  1. The application of dichotomy in equilibrium position of journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. K.; Luo, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    The fluid lubricant force in the journal bearing is an important factor for the stability and dynamic characteristics of rotating machine. In order to obtain the dynamic coefficients of journal bearing, the equilibrium position must be known for further calculation. In this paper, the Reynolds equation is solved by finite difference method and the dichotomy is applied to acquire the equilibrium position of journal bearing by means of double loop. The effects of length, radius and clearance of journal bearing on the equilibrium position are also researched. The calculated results show that the dichotomy is an effective method for the equilibrium position of journal bearing and the geometry parameters play an important effect on the equilibrium position.

  2. Identifying apparent local stable isotope equilibrium in a complex non-equilibrium system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuyang; Cao, Xiaobin; Wang, Jianwei; Bao, Huiming

    2018-02-28

    Although being out of equilibrium, biomolecules in organisms have the potential to approach isotope equilibrium locally because enzymatic reactions are intrinsically reversible. A rigorous approach that can describe isotope distribution among biomolecules and their apparent deviation from equilibrium state is lacking, however. Applying the concept of distance matrix in graph theory, we propose that apparent local isotope equilibrium among a subset of biomolecules can be assessed using an apparent fractionation difference (|Δα|) matrix, in which the differences between the observed isotope composition (δ') and the calculated equilibrium fractionation factor (1000lnβ) can be more rigorously evaluated than by using a previous approach for multiple biomolecules. We tested our |Δα| matrix approach by re-analyzing published data of different amino acids (AAs) in potato and in green alga. Our re-analysis shows that biosynthesis pathways could be the reason for an apparently close-to-equilibrium relationship inside AA families in potato leaves. Different biosynthesis/degradation pathways in tubers may have led to the observed isotope distribution difference between potato leaves and tubers. The analysis of data from green algae does not support the conclusion that AAs are further from equilibrium in glucose-cultured green algae than in the autotrophic ones. Application of the |Δα| matrix can help us to locate potential reversible reactions or reaction networks in a complex system such as a metabolic system. The same approach can be broadly applied to all complex systems that have multiple components, e.g. geochemical or atmospheric systems of early Earth or other planets. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Positive equilibrium in USA - China relations: durable or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sutter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated episodes of Chinese public pressure against the United States during 2009 and 2010 on a wide range of issues involving seas near China, Taiwan, Tibet, and economic disputes are subject to different interpretations but on balance they do not seem to seriously upset the prevailing positive equilibrium between the US and Chinese governments.

  4. Comments on deriving the equilibrium height of the stable boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the equilibrium height of the stable boundary layer received much attention in a series of papers by Zilitinkevich and co-workers. In these studies the stable boundary-layer height is derived in terms of inverse interpolation of different boundary-layer height scales, each representing a

  5. Stable hydrostatic equilibrium configurations of the galaxy and implications for its halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemen, J.B.G.M.

    1987-01-01

    Using a variety of observations, it is shown that the gaseous, magnetic field, and cosmic-ray components in the local region of the Galaxy may be in a large-scale hydrostatic equilibrium that is stable against Parker-type instabilities. Lower limits for the density of the halo are derived as a function of its scale height. The temperature of the hot medium in the disk and at large distances from the plane is found to be typically about a million K in a stable equilibrium, whereas around z roughly 1-3 kpc the temperature could be only 200,000-300,000 K. The scale height of the sum of cosmic-ray and magnetic field pressures in a stable hydrostatic equilibrium state is found to be only weakly dependent on the scale height of the gaseous halo. 109 references

  6. A superlinear iteration method for calculation of finite length journal bearing's static equilibrium position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjie; Wei, Xuesong; Wang, Leqin; Wu, Guangkuan

    2017-05-01

    Solving the static equilibrium position is one of the most important parts of dynamic coefficients calculation and further coupled calculation of rotor system. The main contribution of this study is testing the superlinear iteration convergence method-twofold secant method, for the determination of the static equilibrium position of journal bearing with finite length. Essentially, the Reynolds equation for stable motion is solved by the finite difference method and the inner pressure is obtained by the successive over-relaxation iterative method reinforced by the compound Simpson quadrature formula. The accuracy and efficiency of the twofold secant method are higher in comparison with the secant method and dichotomy. The total number of iterative steps required for the twofold secant method are about one-third of the secant method and less than one-eighth of dichotomy for the same equilibrium position. The calculations for equilibrium position and pressure distribution for different bearing length, clearance and rotating speed were done. In the results, the eccentricity presents linear inverse proportional relationship to the attitude angle. The influence of the bearing length, clearance and bearing radius on the load-carrying capacity was also investigated. The results illustrate that larger bearing length, larger radius and smaller clearance are good for the load-carrying capacity of journal bearing. The application of the twofold secant method can greatly reduce the computational time for calculation of the dynamic coefficients and dynamic characteristics of rotor-bearing system with a journal bearing of finite length.

  7. A superlinear iteration method for calculation of finite length journal bearing's static equilibrium position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjie; Wei, Xuesong; Wang, Leqin; Wu, Guangkuan

    2017-05-01

    Solving the static equilibrium position is one of the most important parts of dynamic coefficients calculation and further coupled calculation of rotor system. The main contribution of this study is testing the superlinear iteration convergence method-twofold secant method, for the determination of the static equilibrium position of journal bearing with finite length. Essentially, the Reynolds equation for stable motion is solved by the finite difference method and the inner pressure is obtained by the successive over-relaxation iterative method reinforced by the compound Simpson quadrature formula. The accuracy and efficiency of the twofold secant method are higher in comparison with the secant method and dichotomy. The total number of iterative steps required for the twofold secant method are about one-third of the secant method and less than one-eighth of dichotomy for the same equilibrium position. The calculations for equilibrium position and pressure distribution for different bearing length, clearance and rotating speed were done. In the results, the eccentricity presents linear inverse proportional relationship to the attitude angle. The influence of the bearing length, clearance and bearing radius on the load-carrying capacity was also investigated. The results illustrate that larger bearing length, larger radius and smaller clearance are good for the load-carrying capacity of journal bearing. The application of the twofold secant method can greatly reduce the computational time for calculation of the dynamic coefficients and dynamic characteristics of rotor-bearing system with a journal bearing of finite length.

  8. The nature of fatty acid modifies the equilibrium position in the esterification catalyzed by lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, M.V.; Sewalt, J.J.W.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Padt, van der A.

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium position in lipase mediated esterification of various fatty acids and butanol was studied. The influence of the chain length and the presence of unsaturations in the fatty acids on the equilibrium position was measured and predicted. To predict equilibrium position the program TREP

  9. On Nash Equilibrium and Evolutionarily Stable States That Are Not Characterised by the Folk Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Kendall, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In evolutionary game theory, evolutionarily stable states are characterised by the folk theorem because exact solutions to the replicator equation are difficult to obtain. It is generally assumed that the folk theorem, which is the fundamental theory for non-cooperative games, defines all Nash equilibria in infinitely repeated games. Here, we prove that Nash equilibria that are not characterised by the folk theorem do exist. By adopting specific reactive strategies, a group of players can be better off by coordinating their actions in repeated games. We call it a type-k equilibrium when a group of k players coordinate their actions and they have no incentive to deviate from their strategies simultaneously. The existence and stability of the type-k equilibrium in general games is discussed. This study shows that the sets of Nash equilibria and evolutionarily stable states have greater cardinality than classic game theory has predicted in many repeated games. PMID:26288088

  10. A 3D Fractional-Order Chaotic System with Only One Stable Equilibrium and Controlling Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyun Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One 3D fractional-order chaotic system with only one locally asymptotically stable equilibrium is reported. To verify the chaoticity, the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MAXLE with respect to the fractional-order and chaotic attractors are obtained by numerical calculation for this system. Furthermore, by linear scalar controller consisting of a single state variable, one control scheme for stabilization of the 3D fractional-order chaotic system is suggested. The numerical simulations show the feasibility of the control scheme.

  11. Comparing Fr\\'echet and positive stable laws

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Let ${\\bf L}$ be the unit exponential random variable and ${\\bf Z}_\\alpha$ the standard positive $\\alpha$-stable random variable. We prove that $\\{(1-\\alpha) \\alpha^{\\gamma_\\alpha} {\\bf Z}_\\alpha^{-\\gamma_\\alpha}, 0< \\alpha

  12. Trophic position of coexisting krill species: a stable isotope approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Bode, Antonio; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2014-01-01

    .2) indicating carnivory, while T. inermis (TP = 2.4 ± 0.3) had a more omnivorous diet. In turn, T. longicaudata and T. raschii (TP = 2.2 ± 0.2) were herbivorous. Along the fjord, nutrient and plankton composition affected trophic position. Thysanoessa longicaudata was more omnivorous offshore than inshore where......Four krill species with overlapping functional biology coexist in Greenland waters. Here, we used stable isotopes to investigate and discuss their trophic role and mode of coexistence. Bulk carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope analyses of Thysanoessa longicaudata, T. inermis, T. raschii...... and Meganyctiphanes norvegica sampled in June 2010 in the Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland revealed new insight into their trophic roles and positions. There was a general positive correlation between body length and trophic position. The largest species M. norvegica had the highest trophic position (TP = 2.8 ± 0...

  13. Comparing Fréchet and positive stable laws

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    To appear in Electronic Journal of Probability; Let ${\\bf L}$ be the unit exponential random variable and ${\\bf Z}_\\alpha$ the standard positive $\\alpha$-stable random variable. We prove that $\\{(1-\\alpha) \\alpha^{\\gamma_\\alpha} {\\bf Z}_\\alpha^{-\\gamma_\\alpha}, 0< \\alpha

  14. Calculation of equilibrium stable isotope partition function ratios for aqueous zinc complexes and metallic zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay R.; Kavner, Abby; Schauble, Edwin A.

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study is to determine reduced partition function ratios for a variety of species of zinc, both as a metal and in aqueous solutions in order to calculate equilibrium stable isotope partitioning. We present calculations of the magnitude of Zn stable-isotope fractionation ( 66,67,68Zn/ 64Zn) between aqueous species and metallic zinc using measured vibrational spectra (fit from neutron scattering studies of metallic zinc) and a variety of electronic structure models. The results show that the reduced metal, Zn(0), will be light in equilibrium with oxidized Zn(II) aqueous species, with the best estimates for the Zn(II)-Zn(0) fractionation between hexaquo species and metallic zinc being Δ 66/64Zn aq-metal ˜ 1.6‰ at 25 °C, and Δ 66/64Zn aq-metal ˜ 0.8‰ between the tetrachloro zinc complex and metallic zinc at 25 °C using B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory and basis set. To examine the behavior of zinc in various aqueous solution chemistries, models for Zn(II) complex speciation were used to determine which species are thermodynamically favorable and abundant under a variety of different conditions relevant to natural waters, experimental and industrial solutions. The optimal molecular geometries for [Zn(H 2O) 6] 2+, [Zn(H 2O) 6]·SO 4, [ZnCl 4] 2- and [Zn(H 2O) 3(C 3H 5O(COO) 3)] - complexes in various states of solvation, protonation and coordination were calculated at various levels of electronic structure theory and basis set size. Isotopic reduced partition function ratios were calculated from frequency analyses of these optimized structures. Increasing the basis set size typically led to a decrease in the calculated reduced partition function ratios of ˜0.5‰ with values approaching a plateau using the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set or larger. The widest range of species were studied at the B3LYP/LAN2DZ/6-31G ∗ level of theory and basis-set size for comparison. Aqueous zinc complexes where oxygen is bound to the metal center tended to have the

  15. The nature of fatty acid modifies the equilibrium position in the esterification catalyzed by lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, M V; Sewalt, J J; Janssen, A E; van der Padt, A

    2000-02-05

    The equilibrium position in lipase mediated esterification of various fatty acids and butanol was studied. The influence of the chain length and the presence of unsaturations in the fatty acids on the equilibrium position was measured and predicted. To predict equilibrium position the program TREP extended (TREPEX) based on the UNIFAC group contribution method was used. Using an equilibrium constant of 35, calculated on the basis of thermodynamic activities, the equilibrium position between butanol and saturated and/or unsaturated fatty acids with different chain lengths can be predicted. The ester mole fraction at equilibrium increases with the fatty acid chain length, and for fatty acids with the same carbon number, the highest values are found for unsaturated fatty acids. For reaction systems containing two saturated fatty acids, a slightly higher mole fraction is obtained for the fatty acid with the higher chain length, while for mixtures consisting of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, the mole fractions of the unsaturated esters are lower than those of the saturated ones, regardless the chain length of the fatty acid. These experimental results are in good agreement with the calculations with TREPEX. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. The effect of organic solvents on the equilibrium position of enzymatic acylglycerol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janseen, A E; Van der Padt, A; Van Sonsbeek, H M; Van't Riet, K

    1993-01-05

    The effect of organic solvents on the equilibrium position of lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and decanoic acid has been investigated. The reaction is carried out in an aqueous-organic two-phase system. In polar solvents, high mole fractions of monoacylglycerol and low mole fractions of triacylglycerol and measured, while in nonpolar solvents, the measured differences in the mole fractions of monodi-, and triacylglycerols are less. There is a good correlation between the ester mole fractions at equilibrium and the log P of the solvent (partition coefficient in n-octanolwater), however, only if the group of tertiary alcohols is excluded. In the plot of the easter mole fractions as a function of the logarithm of hte solubility of water in the organic solvent, the tertiary alcohols can be included; however, in this case other deviations appear.For the prediction of the effect of organic solvents on the ester mole fractions at reaction equilibrium in nondilute reaction systems with a water activity below 1, the program TREP (Two-phase Reaction Equilibrium Prediction) is developed, which is based on the UNIFAC group contribution method. With this model the equilibrium data are essentially predicted from basic thermodynamic data. The required equilibrium constants are estimated from experiments without an organic solvent in the reaction medium. The mole fractions calculated by TREP show the same trends as the experimentally measured mole fractions; however, some variation is observed in the absolute values. These deviations may be due to inaccuracies in the UNIFAC group contribution method. TREP is found to be a correct method to predict within some limits the ester mole fractions at equilibrium for all mixtures of solvents, substrates, and products. The production of monoester can be enhanced in reaction system with a sufficient high concentration of a polar solvent. In experiments with a triglymeto-decanoic acid ratio of 5, almost no di-and triesters can be

  17. Solvent selection for biocatalysis in mainly organic systems: predictions of effects on equilibrium position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, P J

    1990-03-25

    Predictions may be made for the influence of solvent choice on the equilibrium position of biocatalyzed reactions, based on data for the liquid-liquid distribution of the reactants. The most reliable predictions are probably for dilute systems, based on partition coefficients or correlations derived from them. The effective equilibrium constant for esterification reactions is predicted to alter by more than four orders of magnitude on changing between different water-immiscible solvents. The equilibrium constant correlates well with the solubility of water in the solvent, and is most favorable for synthesis in the least polar solvents (aliphatic hydrocarbons). Similar effects seem to apply for other reactions, including oxidation of alcohols and hydrolysis of chlorides. Predictions can be made for nondilute systems using the UNIFAC system of group contributions, but the reliability of these is more questionable.

  18. Dendritic mitochondria reach stable positions during circuit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faits, Michelle C; Zhang, Chunmeng; Soto, Florentina; Kerschensteiner, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria move throughout neuronal dendrites and localize to sites of energy demand. The prevailing view of dendritic mitochondria as highly motile organelles whose distribution is continually adjusted by neuronal activity via Ca2+-dependent arrests is based on observations in cultured neurons exposed to artificial stimuli. Here, we analyze the movements of mitochondria in ganglion cell dendrites in the intact retina. We find that whereas during development 30% of mitochondria are motile at any time, as dendrites mature, mitochondria all but stop moving and localize stably to synapses and branch points. Neither spontaneous nor sensory-evoked activity and Ca2+ transients alter motility of dendritic mitochondria; and pathological hyperactivity in a mouse model of retinal degeneration elevates rather than reduces motility. Thus, our findings indicate that dendritic mitochondria reach stable positions during a critical developmental period of high motility, and challenge current views about the role of activity in regulating mitochondrial transport in dendrites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11583.001 PMID:26742087

  19. Stable and metastable equilibrium states of the Zr-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versaci, R.A.; Abriata, J.P.; Garces, J.; Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche

    1987-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the phase diagrams is of fundamental importance for the comprehension of processes like soldering and thermal treatment. The Zr-O diagram has been widely studied, mainly in the zone corresponding to ZrO 2 . A critical analysis of the existing information about this diagram is presented. Furthermore, a lot of information about the phase equilibrium, metastable phase, crystal structure, thermodynamic properties and a possible diagram for pressures higher than one atmosphere is presented. (M.E.L.) [es

  20. MACCEPA, The mechanically adjustable compliance and controllable equilibrium position actuator: A 3DOF joint with two independent compliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ham, R.; Van Damme, M.; Verrelst, B.; Vanderborght, B.; Lefeber, D.

    2007-04-01

    The MACCEPA is a straightforward and easy to construct rotational actuator in which the compliance can be controlled separately from the equilibrium position. A 3DOF joint with adaptable compliance is presented. The generated torque is a linear function of the compliance and of the angle between the equilibrium position and actual position. This makes this actuator perfectly suitable for dynamic walking, human-robotic interfaces, and robotic rehabilitation devices

  1. About positive, energy conservative and equilibrium state preserving schemes for the isotropic Fokker-Planck-Landau equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buet, Ch.; Le Thanh, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the discretization of the Fokker-Planck-Landau (FPL) collision term in the isotropic case which models the self collision for the electrons when they are totally isotropized by heavy particles background such as ions. The discussion focus on schemes which could preserve positivity, mass, energy and Maxwellian equilibrium. First, we analyze in detail the popular Chang and Cooper method for this non-linear collision term: derivation, conservation and positivity properties. We show that some variants of this method, based on the drift-diffusion form of the FPL operator, could not be positive or could not conserve the energy. We present a new variant of the Chang and Cooper method derived from the Landau form that is both positive and conservative. We also propose two new alternatives and simpler schemes for the FPL operator which show that the Chang and Cooper method is not the only way to construct positive, energy conservative and equilibrium state preserving schemes for this operator. For all these schemes, we explain clearly the properties of conservation of the density and the energy, the positivity of the solution and the conservation of the equilibrium states, or their lack. The case of Maxwellian and Coulombian potentials are emphasized. (authors)

  2. Using equilibrium passive dosing to maintain stable exposure concentrations of triclosan in a 6-week toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobek, A.; Ribbenstedt, A.; Mustajärvi, L.

    2015-01-01

    toxicity tests. Yet, the European Commission’s criteria for chemicals’ risk assessments aim at protecting higher levels in the environment. To achieve protection of populations and ecosystems, reliable long-term ecotoxicologial tests are needed. In this study, we used equilibrium passive dosing to maintain...

  3. Estimation in the positive stable shared frailty Cox proportional hazards model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2005-01-01

    model in situations where the correlated survival data show a decreasing association with time. In this paper, we devise a likelihood based estimation procedure for the positive stable shared frailty Cox model, which is expected to obtain high efficiency. The proposed estimator is provided with large...

  4. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, PJ

    2003-01-01

    While non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has become an accepted management approach for patients with acute hypercapnia, it remains unclear whether it can also be beneficial in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with chronic respiratory failure. Randomised

  5. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  6. Assessment of Prone Positioning of Restrained, Seated Crewmembers in a Post Landing Stable 2 Orion Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael; Fogarty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    During the Orion landing and recovery subsystem design review, June 2009, it was noted that the human system and various vehicle systems, the environmental control and life support (ECLSS) and guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) systems for example, are negatively affected by Orion assuming a stable 2 (upside down; Figure A) configuration post landing. The stable 2 configuration is predicted to occur about 50% of the time based on Apollo landing data and modeling of the current capsule. The stable 2 configuration will be countered by an active up-righting system (crew module up-righting system; CMUS). Post landing balloons will deploy and inflate causing the vehicle to assume or maintain the stable 1 (up-right; Figure B) configuration. During the design review it was proposed that the up-righting system could be capable of righting the vehicle within 60 seconds. However, this time limit posed a series of constraints on the design which made it less robust than desired. The landing and recovery subsystem team requested an analysis of Orion vehicle systems as well as the human system with regard to the effect of stable 2 in order to determine if an up-righting response time greater than 60 seconds could be tolerated. The following report focuses on the assessment of the human system in the posture assumed when Orion is in the stable 2 configuration. Stable 2 will place suited, seated, and restrained crewmembers in a prone (facedown), head-up position for a period of time dependent on the functionality of the up-righting systems, ability of the crew to release themselves from the seat and restraints, and/or time to arrival of rescue forces. Given that the Orion seat and restraint system design is not complete and therefore, not available for evaluation, Space Medicine assessed how long a healthy but deconditioned crewmember could stay in this prone, restrained position and the physiological consequences of this posture by researching terrestrial analogs and

  7. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis on the Rain-Wind-Induced Vibration of Cable Considering the Equilibrium Position of Rivulet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamic behavior of rain-wind-induced vibration of inclined cable is investigated with the consideration of the equilibrium position of the moving rivulet. The partial differential governing equations of three-degree-of-freedom on the model of rain-wind-induced cable vibration are established, which are proposed for describing the nonlinear interactions among the in-plane, out-of-plane vibration of the cable and the oscillation of the moving rivulet. The Galerkin method is applied to discretize the partial differential governing equations. The approximately analytic solution is obtained by using the method of averaging. The unique correspondence between the wind and the equilibrium position of the rivulet is ascertained. The presence of rivulet at certain positions on the surface of cable is then proved to be one of the trigger for wind-rain-induced cable vibration. The nonlinear dynamic phenomena of the inclined cable subjected to wind and rain turbulence are then studied by varying the parameters including mean wind velocity, Coulomb damping force, damping ratio, the span length, and the initial tension of the inclined cable on the model. The jump phenomenon is also observed which occurs when there are multiple solutions in the system.

  8. High-Temperature Equilibrium Isotope Fractionation of Non-Traditional Stable Isotopes: Experiments, Theory, and Applications (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E. D.; Lazar, G. C.; Macris, C. A.; Manning, C. E.; Schauble, E. A.; Shahar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Experiments are crucial for validating our understanding of stable isotope fractionation at high temperatures. The three-isotope method has been applied with success in the Si, Mg, Fe, and Ni isotope systems to date. The results of these experiments can be compared with expectations from theory and measurements of natural samples. Qualitative insights into the partitioning of heavy and light isotopes between mineral phases are gained by treating the force constant for relevant bonds, Kf j, as electrostatic in origin. The ionic model, based on the mean bond strength as defined by Pauling, has obvious limitations but is useful for rationalizing structures and site occupancies in silicates and oxide minerals and is equally useful in formulating expectations for isotope fractionation between phases. In some cases, as in Fe isotopes in spinels, the expectations are contrary to predictions based on modeling but similar to observations in natural samples. Experimental verification is required. The force constant for a bond between cation i (Mg, Fe, etc.) and anion j (e.g., O) can be written in terms of mean bond strengths si and sj (as defined by Pauling) as Kf,ij = sisj e2 (1-n)/(4 π ɛο r3ij ) where ɛo is the electric constant (vacuum permittivity for simplicity), e is the charge of an electron, n is the exponent in the Born-Mayer formulation for ion repulsion (Born and Mayer 1932), and rij is the interatomic spacing. This equation shows explicitly that larger values for the force constant Kf correspond to smaller coordination numbers (via si and sj). We therefore expect an inverse relationship between isotope ratios (heavy/light) and coordination of its oxygen bond partners in silicate and oxides minerals and this is verified in mantle minerals. Our work with Fe isotope partitioning in mantle spinels suggests that coordination may be equally important as oxidation state, recognizing that these distinctions are not orthogonal. Recent work on the Mg isotopic

  9. Equilibrium and generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    This work studies the behaviour of radionuclides when it produce a desintegration activity,decay and the isotopes stable creation. It gives definitions about the equilibrium between activity of parent and activity of the daughter, radioactive decay,isotope stable and transient equilibrium and maxim activity time. Some considerations had been given to generators that permit a disgregation of two radioisotopes in equilibrium and its good performance. Tabs

  10. Radionuclide ventriculography (equilibrium gated blood pool scanning) - its present clinical position and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Clausen, M.; Hellwig, D.; Henze, E.; Bitter, F.

    1988-01-01

    Myocardial scanning (MS) and radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) aim in two completely different directions: RNV tries to image heart motion, that is, mechanical (pump) function, and therefore belongs to the group of first-order functional imaging (FI, imaging mechanical function), whereas MS is based on myocardial metabolism, and therefore can be attributed to third-order functional imaging (metabolism). This statement is relevant for the assessment of the clinical position of RNV: Third-order (metabolism) functional imaging is the domain of nuclear medicine (NM), whereas first-order FI has to face the competition of alternative noninvasive procedures such as ultrasound (US), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computer tomography (CT), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The domain of RNV includes stages two (acute infarction) and three (postinfarction period) of coronary arterial disease (CAD). The advantageous combination of quantitative data on global, left ventricular (LV) function and imaging of regional motion ensures the superiority of RNV over US. However, RNV is inferior to MS in physical examinations in the preinfarction stage of CAD, whereas US is clearly inferior to both NM procedures. Recent progress could be attained by gated SPECT (GASPECT). A proposal is presented for simplification of this time-consuming procedure. Technetium-labeled isonitriles offer the chance for the combination of 'perfusion-motion' imaging of the myocardium. However, even standard RNV offers new possibilities. The multitude of parameters produced by quantitation has not yet been exploited completely. This can be done by discriminant analysis. The computer finds out an optimal subset from the whole set of parameters for the solution of a significant clinical problem. The software 'learns' to find the 'label' of a special pathognomonic entity. This computer work is supported by a relational data bank (Oracle) and an optical disk. (orig./MG)

  11. Is going into stable symptomatic remission associated with a more positive development of life satisfaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Romm, Kristin Lie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar

    2017-01-01

    by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group. One-way ANOVA, mixed model analysis, bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Patients going into stable symptomatic remission showed a more positive S-QoL-development over the follow-up period and reported higher life...... satisfaction at 10-year follow-up compared to non-remission. At 10-year follow-up, depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse or dependence explained a significant amount of variance in S-QoL among patients in remission. Among patients in non-remission, PANSS excitative component explained a significant amount...... implications. While patients in remission might need treatment for depressive symptoms to increase S-QoL, in non-remission measures aiming to decrease hostility and uncooperativeness should be part of the treatment approach. Alcohol problems should be treated regardless of remission status....

  12. Positive feedback and alternative stable states in inbreeding, cooperation, sex roles and other evolutionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Kokko, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of studies in systems science focus on processes involving a mixture of positive and negative feedbacks, which are also common themes in evolutionary ecology. Examples of negative feedback are density dependence (population regulation) and frequency-dependent selection (polymorphisms). Positive feedback, in turn, plays a role in Fisherian ‘runaway’ sexual selection, the evolution of cooperation, selfing and inbreeding tolerance under purging of deleterious alleles, and the evolution of sex differences in parental care. All these examples feature self-reinforcing processes where the increase in the value of a trait selects for further increases, sometimes via a coevolutionary feedback loop with another trait. Positive feedback often leads to alternative stable states (evolutionary endpoints), making the interpretation of evolutionary predictions challenging. Here, we discuss conceptual issues such as the relationship between self-reinforcing selection and disruptive selection. We also present an extension of a previous model on parental care, focusing on the relationship between the operational sex ratio and sexual selection, and the influence of this relationship on the evolution of biparental or uniparental care. PMID:22144384

  13. Positive feedback and alternative stable states in inbreeding, cooperation, sex roles and other evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Kokko, Hanna

    2012-01-19

    A large proportion of studies in systems science focus on processes involving a mixture of positive and negative feedbacks, which are also common themes in evolutionary ecology. Examples of negative feedback are density dependence (population regulation) and frequency-dependent selection (polymorphisms). Positive feedback, in turn, plays a role in Fisherian 'runaway' sexual selection, the evolution of cooperation, selfing and inbreeding tolerance under purging of deleterious alleles, and the evolution of sex differences in parental care. All these examples feature self-reinforcing processes where the increase in the value of a trait selects for further increases, sometimes via a coevolutionary feedback loop with another trait. Positive feedback often leads to alternative stable states (evolutionary endpoints), making the interpretation of evolutionary predictions challenging. Here, we discuss conceptual issues such as the relationship between self-reinforcing selection and disruptive selection. We also present an extension of a previous model on parental care, focusing on the relationship between the operational sex ratio and sexual selection, and the influence of this relationship on the evolution of biparental or uniparental care.

  14. Trophic position of soil nematodes in boreal forests as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Alexey; Tsurikov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-developed trophic classification of soil nematodes, their position in soil food webs is still little understood. Observed deviations from the typical feeding strategy indicate that a simplified trophic classification probably does not fully reflect actual trophic interactions. Furthermore, the extent and functional significance of nematodes as prey for other soil animals remains unknown. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is powerful tool for investigating the structure of soil food webs, but its application to the study of soil nematodes has been limited to only a few studies. We used stable isotope analysis to gain a better understanding of trophic links of several groups of soil nematodes in two boreal forests on albeluvisol. We investigated four taxonomic groups of nematodes: Mononchida, Dorylaimida, Plectidae and Tylenchidae (mostly from the genus Filenchus), that according to the conventional trophic classification represent predators, omnivores, bacterivores and root-fungal feeders, respectively. To assess the trophic position of nematodes, we used a comparison against a set of reference species including herbivorous, saprophagous and predatory macro-invertebrates, oribatid and mesostigmatid mites, and collembolans. Our results suggest that trophic position of the investigated groups of soil nematodes generally corresponds to the conventional classification. All nematodes were enriched in 13C relative to Picea abies roots and litter, and mycorrhizal fungal mycelium. Root-fungal feeders Tylenchidae had δ15N values similar to those of earthworms, enchytraeids and Entomobrya collembolans, but slightly lower δ13C values. Bacterivorous Plectidae were either equal or enriched in 15N compared with saprophagous macroinvertebrates and most mesofauna species. Omnivorous Dorylaimida and predatory Mononchida were further enriched in 15N and their isotopic signature was similar to that of predatory arthropods. These data confirm a clear separation of

  15. Highly stable amorphous zinc tin oxynitride thin film transistors under positive bias stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, K. M.; Bayer, B. C.; Meyer, J. C.; Flewitt, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    The stability of amorphous zinc tin oxynitride thin film transistors (a-ZTON TFTs) under positive bias stress (PBS) is investigated. Thin films are deposited by remote plasma reactive sputtering and are annealed at 300 °C in air for 1 h, after which films are confirmed to be highly amorphous by transmission electron microscopy. Typical a-ZTON TFTs exhibit a threshold voltage of 2.5 V, a field effect mobility of 3.3 cm2 V-1 s-1, a sub-threshold slope of 0.55 V dec-1, and a switching ratio over 106. Using a thermalization energy analysis, the threshold voltage shift under PBS is analysed. A maximum energy barrier to defect conversion up to 0.91 eV is found, which is significantly greater than that of the ˜0.75 eV energy barrier for amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide and amorphous zinc tin oxide TFTs previously reported. The improved stability of these oxynitride TFTs over amorphous oxide TFTs is explained by the elimination of less stable oxygen vacancies due to the passivation of oxygen vacancies with nitrogen. The higher attempt-to-escape frequency of 108 to 109 s-1 in a-ZTON TFTs compared with 107 s-1 in amorphous oxide semiconductor TFTs, on the other hand, is attributed to the high homogeneity of the amorphous film leading to strong carrier localization in the band tails.

  16. Feelings of hopelessness in stable HIV-positive patients on antiretrovirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Y H Moosa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The coping skills and styles individuals utilise to deal with the stress of HIV infection greatly influence the psychological impact of this illness and potential consequent feelings of hopelessness. The aim of this study was to describe levels of hopelessness in a group of stable, non-depressed HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, and factors associated with hopelessness. Method. Thirty randomly selected non-depressed patients (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV criteria were included in this study. Demographic and other data were obtained from all subjects, who also completed the Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (BHS. The 20 true-false items of the BHS (29 measured three major aspects of hopelessness, which was interpreted on the total scale score as follows: ≤3 minimal, and >3 significant. Results. The study population comprised 30 patients with a mean age of 37.9 years (standard error (SE 1.18 ( range 28 - 51 years. The mean BHS score was 4.03 (SE 0.55, with a range from 0 to 12. There were no statistically significant correlations between BHS scores of the study population and gender, marital status, employment status, level of education, years since the diagnosis of HIV, or number of children (p>0.05. Eighteen subjects (60% scored 3 or less on the BHS, considered minimal levels of hopelessness. However, 12 (40% scored more than 3, which is considered significant; of these 23% had scores of 7 or more. There was no statistically significant association between BHS scores and gender, employment status, level of education, number of children or number of years since diagnosis (p>0.05. However, patients who were married or living with partners were statistically more likely to score higher on the hopelessness scale compared with those who were single (p

  17. Development of a stable positive control to be used for quality assurance of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Inge; Mens, Petra F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a simple, cheap, and stable positive control for the quality control and quality assurance (QA) of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for the diagnosis of malaria. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro culture of known parasite concentrations was dried on a

  18. THE DESIGN AND OPTIMIZING THE HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT PROVIDING A STABLE POSITION CARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta SAPIETOVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a hydraulic device, which ensures stable contact of the working member with transported material – pile of metal chips formed during machining of oversized bearing rings. Virtual prototype of the conveyor is modeled in the working environment of MSC.ADAMS.

  19. A meta-analysis of nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with stable COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, PJ; Lacasse, Y; Guyatt, GH; Casanova, C; Gay, PC; Jones, JM; Goldstein, RS

    Study objectives: The potential benefits of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) for patients with COPD remains inconclusive, as most studies have included only a small number of patients. We therefore undertook a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared

  20. Position of nuclear power generation in the public and further enhancement of safe and stable operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Yozo

    1996-01-01

    In Japan, the first commercial light water reactor (LWR) started operation in 1970 when the International Exposition was held in Osaka, and now 50 nuclear power plants supply about 30 % of the total electricity and nuclear power plays the important role as a 'major power source'. Meanwhile, with the international transportation of plutonium and return shipment of vitrified HLW reprocessed abroad, nuclear power has closer relationship with the public in these days. We will review the history of nuclear power generation in Japan from the viewpoint of the safety culture and consider the safety culture under the present situation. The team of 'safety Charlotte's fixed its position since the occurrence of Chernobyl accident though the concept existed as expressed in words such as 'safety-first principle' and 'enhancement of morale'. The safety culture is a concept: high level 'safety Culture' cab be expected when 'the management of the organization' and 'individual consciousness concerning safety' are well balanced. The 'safety culture' has experienced various changes along with the development of nuclear power in Japan: at the initial period of the development, the management side invested excellent talents and funds to the nuclear division based on the 'safety-first principle' from the beginning. At the same time, the world of atom filled with dream appealed to those who had enthusiasm as pioneers and they were engaged in the development with enhanced morale

  1. Stability of equilibrium in upright stance and voluntary motion control in athletes-shooters in the process of ready position and target shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pryimakov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: consists in studying the relationships between the system of equilibrium regulation in upright stance and voluntary motion control in athletes-shooters during ready position and target shooting. Material: 19 highly skilled athletes specialized in pistol shooting were studied. Physiological and biomechanical characteristics of posture and voluntary motions were assessed by methods of stabilography, electromyography and tremorometry; besides, accuracy of target shooting was registered. Results: high degree of shooting accuracy dependence on posture somatic parameters has been revealed, of which the greatest impact upon the result is exerted by low-frequency vibrations of the body general centre of mass, subjected to voluntary control. Prognostic models of shooting accuracy dependence upon the character of posture regulation during ready position and the shot have been developed. Conclusions: obtained results reveal the mechanisms of functioning and interacting of two systems of management - posture and voluntary motion. Elaborated regression models permit to model and predict posture stability and shooting accuracy during ready position and the shot.

  2. Head Position Change Is Not Associated with Acute Changes in Bilateral Cerebral Oxygenation in Stable Preterm Infants during the First 3 Days of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Steve Ming-Che; Rao, Rakesh; Mathur, Amit M

    2015-06-01

    Several recent intraventricular hemorrhage prevention bundles include midline head positioning to prevent potential disturbances in cerebral hemodynamics. We aimed to study the impact of head position change on regional cerebral saturations (SctO2) in preterm infants (position change were compared using paired t-test. In relatively stable preterm infants (gestational age 26.5 ± 1.7 weeks, birth weight 930 ± 220 g; n = 20), bilateral SctO2 remained within normal range (71.1-75.3%) when the head was turned from midline position to either side. Stable preterm infants tolerated brief changes in head position from midline without significant alternation in bilateral SctO2; the impact on critically ill infants needs further evaluation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Equilibrium Dialysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    context of antimicrobial therapy in malnutrition. Dialysis has in the past presented technical problems, being complicated and time-consuming. A new dialysis system based on the equilibrium technique has now become available, and it is the principles and practical application of this apparatus (Kontron Diapack; Kontron.

  4. Maximin equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new concept which extends von Neumann and Morgenstern's maximin strategy solution by incorporating `individual rationality' of the players. Maximin equilibrium, extending Nash's value approach, is based on the evaluation of the strategic uncertainty of the whole game. We show that

  5. Strategic Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    An outcome in a noncooperative game is said to be self-enforcing, or a strategic equilibrium, if, whenever it is recommended to the players, no player has an incentive to deviate from it.This paper gives an overview of the concepts that have been proposed as formalizations of this requirement and of

  6. Positional enrichment by proton analysis (PEPA). A one-dimensional {sup 1}H-NMR approach for {sup 13}C stable isotope tracer studies in metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinaixa, Maria; Yanes, Oscar [Department of Electronic Engineering-Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Reus (Spain); Rodriguez, Miguel A.; Capellades, Jordi [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Reus (Spain); Aivio, Suvi; Stracker, Travis H. [Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (Spain); Gomez, Josep; Canyellas, Nicolau [Department of Electronic Engineering-, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain)

    2017-03-20

    A novel metabolomics approach for NMR-based stable isotope tracer studies called PEPA is presented, and its performance validated using human cancer cells. PEPA detects the position of carbon label in isotopically enriched metabolites and quantifies fractional enrichment by indirect determination of {sup 13}C-satellite peaks using 1D-{sup 1}H-NMR spectra. In comparison with {sup 13}C-NMR, TOCSY and HSQC, PEPA improves sensitivity, accelerates the elucidation of {sup 13}C positions in labeled metabolites and the quantification of the percentage of stable isotope enrichment. Altogether, PEPA provides a novel framework for extending the high-throughput of {sup 1}H-NMR metabolic profiling to stable isotope tracing in metabolomics, facilitating and complementing the information derived from 2D-NMR experiments and expanding the range of isotopically enriched metabolites detected in cellular extracts. (copyright 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.)

  7. Sweatshop Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a capability-augmented model of on the job search, in which sweatshop conditions stifle the capability of the working poor to search for a job while on the job. The augmented setting unveils a sweatshop equilibrium in an otherwise archetypal Burdett-Mortensen economy, and reconciles a number of oft noted yet perplexing features of sweatshop economies. We demonstrate existence of multiple rational expectation equilibria, graduation pathways out of sweatshops in complete abs...

  8. Using stable isotopes to trace resource acquisition and trophic position in four Afrotropical birds with different diets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Reif, J.; Hořák, D.; Klvaňa, P.; Lee, R. W.; Yohannes, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 3 (2010), s. 273-275 ISSN 0030-6525 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : stable isotope analysis * diet ary niche * Cameroon Mountains Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.338, year: 2010

  9. Stability Analysis of Equilibrium States of an SEIR Tuberculosis Model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examine the stability and equilibrium states of the extended model with respect to the basic reproduction number R0. We show that the disease-free equilibrium (DFE) is globally asymptotically stable if R0 ≤ 1 and that there exists at least one endemic equilibrium which is globally asymptotically stable if R0 > 1. Finally ...

  10. Mercury biomagnification in a contaminated estuary food web: Effects of age and trophic position using stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, J.P.; Mieiro, C.L.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A.C.; Pardal, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High trophic magnification potential of mercury in a temperate contaminated estuary. ► The use of age adjusted data provided better fitting to linear regression curves. ► Similar TMFs in other studies suggest stable magnification regardless of latitude. -- Abstract: The main aim of this study was to ascertain the biomagnification processes in a mercury-contaminated estuary, by clarifying the trophic web structure through stable isotope ratios. For this purpose, primary producers (seagrasses and macroalgae), invertebrates (detritivores and benthic predators) and fish were analysed for total and organic mercury and for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures. Trophic structure was accurately described by δ 15 N, while δ 13 C reflected the carbon source for each species. An increase of mercury levels was observed with trophic level, particularly for organic mercury. Results confirm mercury biomagnification to occur in this estuarine food web, especially in the organic form, both in absolute concentrations and fraction of total mercury load. Age can be considered an important variable in mercury biomagnification studies, and data adjustments to account for the different exposure periods may be necessary for a correct assessment of trophic magnification rates and ecological risk

  11. Immunity by equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard

    2016-08-01

    The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Some Policy Options to Reduce Rationing in the UK’s NHS: Lessons from a General Equilibrium Model Incorporating Positive Health Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.; Reed, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine the macro-economic impacts of changes in health care provision. The resource allocation issues have been explored in theory, by applying the Rybczynski theorem, and empirically, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK with a detailed health

  13. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Mário J

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions. These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This new edit...

  14. THE STABILITY OF VAPOR CONDENSATION EQUILIBRIUM

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIN ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The system must get across an energy peak of unstable equilibrium during the condensation of pure vapor; as the supersaturated extent of vapor increases and the temperature decreases, the energy peak shortens and vapor condensation becomes easier. The system must get across an energy peak of unstable equilibrium first, and then get into an energy valley of stable equilibrium during the condensation of impure vapor; as the partial pressure of vapor decreases, the energy peak becomes taller, th...

  15. Local Nash equilibrium in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M A; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-08-29

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures.

  16. Spatial variation in the stable isotopes of 13C and 15N and trophic position of Leporinus friderici (Characiformes, Anostomidae) in Corumbá Reservoir, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Alexandre L.; Benedito, Evanilde; Sakuragui, Cássia M.

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) were used to describe sources of energy and trophic position for adult Leporinus friderici in the area of the Corumbá Reservoir, Brazil. Samples were collected from April 1999 to March 2000. Spatial variations were not identified in the isotopic composition. The maximum and minimum contribution of C4 plants calculated integrating the variation of plants and fish were 47.7% and 2.4%, respectively. Among C3 plants, periphyton presente...

  17. Large, Linear, and Tunable Positive Magnetoresistance of Mechanically Stable Graphene Foam-Toward High-Performance Magnetic Field Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Rizwan Ur Rehman; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Wan, Caihua; Shehzad, Khurram; Navale, Sachin T; Anwar, Tauseef; Mane, Rajaram S; Piao, Hong-Guang; Ali, Abid; Stadler, Florian J

    2017-01-18

    Here, we present the first observation of magneto-transport properties of graphene foam (GF) composed of a few layers in a wide temperature range of 2-300 K. Large room-temperature linear positive magnetoresistance (PMR ≈ 171% at B ≈ 9 T) has been detected. The largest PMR (∼213%) has been achieved at 2 K under a magnetic field of 9 T, which can be tuned by the addition of poly(methyl methacrylate) to the porous structure of the foam. This remarkable magnetoresistance may be the result of quadratic magnetoresistance. The excellent magneto-transport properties of GF open a way toward three-dimensional graphene-based magnetoelectronic devices.

  18. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  19. The stable microbubble test for determining continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) success in very preterm infants receiving nasal CPAP from birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Risha; Morley, Colin J; Argus, Brenda; Tingay, David G; Donath, Susan; Davis, Peter G

    2013-01-01

    Very preterm infants can be treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) from birth, but some fail. A rapid test, such as the stable microbubble test (SMT) on gastric aspirate, may identify those who can be managed successfully using CPAP. To determine if SMT can identify soon after birth, very preterm infants who may be successfully managed on CPAP alone. Stable microbubbles (diameter CPAP from birth. Infants failed CPAP if intubated at CPAP in the delivery room at a median (interquartile range) pressure 7 (6-8) cmH2O and FiO2 0.25 (0.21-0.3). Gastric aspirates were taken at a median (interquartile range) age of 0.5 (0.3-0.6) hours. The best cut-off point for predicting CPAP success or failure was a SMT count of 8 microbubbles/mm(2). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9). A SMT count ≥8 microbubbles/mm(2) had a sensitivity of 53%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 60% for predicting CPAP success. Infants treated with CPAP from birth, who had SMT counts ≥8 microbubbles/mm(2) on their gastric aspirate, did not fail CPAP. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Meta-analysis of amino acid stable nitrogen isotope ratios for estimating trophic position in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens M; Popp, Brian N; Winder, Monika

    2015-07-01

    Estimating trophic structures is a common approach used to retrieve information regarding energy pathways, predation, and competition in complex ecosystems. The application of amino acid (AA) compound-specific nitrogen (N) isotope analysis (CSIA) is a relatively new method used to estimate trophic position (TP) and feeding relationships in diverse organisms. Here, we conducted the first meta-analysis of δ(15)N AA values from measurements of 359 marine species covering four trophic levels, and compared TP estimates from AA-CSIA to literature values derived from food items, gut or stomach content analysis. We tested whether the AA trophic enrichment factor (TEF), or the (15)N enrichment among different individual AAs is constant across trophic levels and whether inclusion of δ(15)N values from multiple AAs improves TP estimation. For the TEF of glutamic acid relative to phenylalanine (Phe) we found an average value of 6.6‰ across all taxa, which is significantly lower than the commonly applied 7.6‰. We found that organism feeding ecology influences TEF values of several trophic AAs relative to Phe, with significantly higher TEF values for herbivores compared to omnivores and carnivores, while TEF values were also significantly lower for animals excreting urea compared to ammonium. Based on the comparison of multiple model structures using the metadata of δ(15)N AA values we show that increasing the number of AAs in principle improves precision in TP estimation. This meta-analysis clarifies the advantages and limitations of using individual δ(15)N AA values as tools in trophic ecology and provides a guideline for the future application of AA-CSIA to food web studies.

  1. Stable isotopes in pedogenic calcite: Can the positive linear covariant trends be used to quantify paleo-evaporation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröcke, D.; Ufnar, D.; Beddows, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    Paleoclimatological models suggest enhanced evaporation rates in subtropical regions during greenhouse- world conditions. Laboratory evaporation experiments show that calcites precipitated from variably saturated solutions yield a positive linear covariant trend (PLCT) in δ18O vs δ13C values. This investigation experimentally quantifies calcite PLCT so that δ13C of subtropical paleosol calcretes may be used as a regional proxy of paleo-evaporation rates. A series of powdered CaCO3 samples with δ18O and δ13C values of -19.6‰ and -37.2‰ VPDB respectively were dissolved in deionized water in a pressure sealed container; it also contained separate vials of calcite reacted with HCl to generate a range of pCO2 environments, thus simulating a soil atmosphere. The variable pCO2 conditions simulate expected soil atmosphere pCO2 conditions in a calcrete horizon during alternative phases of calcite dissolution and precipitation. After 24 hrs, the solutions were placed in an open beaker in an incubator at 36°C and allowed to evaporate. Aliquots of 100 μL were removed at 24 hr intervals and the time of calcite crystal nucleation was also noted. Water analyses yielded δ18O enrichments ranging from an initial value of -4.8‰ VSMOW to a range of +10.0‰ to +14.8‰ VSMOW after an evaporation period of 75 hrs. The most enriched water values were attained from the solutions formed under lower pCO2 conditions (more enriched calcite δ18O, δ13C). The array of calcite δ18O vs δ13C values fall upon a PLCT that projects from a theoretical meteoric calcite line (MCL) calculated from the incubation temperature and deionized water δ18O and δ13C values. The precipitated calcite δ18O values range from the MCL value of -8.8‰ VPDB to +0.5‰ VPDB. The higher pCO2 waters precipitated calcite very early during evaporation, and thus the δ18O and δ13C calcite values are slightly enriched relative to the theoretical MCL. The lower pCO2 conditions precipitated calcite late in

  2. Spatial variation in the stable isotopes of 13C and 15N and trophic position of Leporinus friderici (Characiformes, Anostomidae) in Corumbá Reservoir, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexandre L; Benedito, Evanilde; Sakuragui, Cássia M

    2007-03-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) were used to describe sources of energy and trophic position for adult Leporinus friderici in the area of the Corumbá Reservoir, Brazil. Samples were collected from April 1999 to March 2000. Spatial variations were not identified in the isotopic composition. The maximum and minimum contribution of C4 plants calculated integrating the variation of plants and fish were 47.7% and 2.4%, respectively. Among C3 plants, periphyton presented closer isotopic values to those observed for fishes, corresponding to an important carbon source. The proportion of ingested plant item is larger in rivers upstream from the reservoir (42.7%), which justifies the smaller trophic level among there. However, in the reservoir, the ingestion of fish was 81.4%, while ingested plants contributed with 18.6%. Downstream from the dam, participation of plant item was even smaller (14.4%). Although the trophic position calculated with diet data was proportional to the one calculated with delta15N values, the former elevated the trophic level of L. friderici in the food web, because estimated trophic positions were based on fish items belonging to the 2nd (a) and to the 3rd (b) trophic levels.

  3. 46 CFR 42.20-12 - Conditions of equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions of equilibrium. 42.20-12 Section 42.20-12... BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-12 Conditions of equilibrium. The following conditions of equilibrium are... stability. Through an angle of 20 degrees beyond its position of equilibrium, the vessel must meet the...

  4. Internal equilibrium layer growth over forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    the magnitude of the scatter. Different theoretical friction velocity profiles for the Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) are tested against the forest data. The results yield information on the Internal Equilibrium Layer (IEL) growth and an equation for the IEL height fur neutral conditions is derived. For stable...... conditions the results indicate that very long fetches are required in order to measure parameters in equilibrium with the actual surface....

  5. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  6. Does slice thickness affect diagnostic performance of 64-slice CT coronary angiography in stable and unstable angina patients with a positive calcium score?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijs, Matthijs F.L.; Vos, Alexander M. de; Cramer, Maarten J.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Vries, Jan J.J. de; Rutten, Annemarieke; Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Prokop, Mathias (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)), e-mail: m.meijs@umcutrecht.nl; Meijboom, W. Bob; Feyter, Pim J. de (Dept. of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    2010-05-15

    Background: Coronary calcification can lead to over-estimation of the degree of coronary stenosis. Purpose: To evaluate whether thinner reconstruction thickness improves the diagnostic performance of 64-slice CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in angina patients with a positive calcium score. Material and Methods: We selected 20 scans from a clinical study comparing CTCA to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in stable and unstable angina patients based on a low number of motion artifacts and a positive calcium score. All images were acquired at 64 x 0.625 mm and each CTCA scan was reconstructed at slice thickness/increment 0.67 mm/0.33 mm, 0.9 mm/0.45 mm, and 1.4 mm/0.7 mm. Two reviewers blinded for CCA results independently evaluated the scans for the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in three randomly composed series, with =2 weeks in between series. The diagnostic performance of CTCA was compared for the different slice thicknesses using a pooled analysis of both reviewers. Significant CAD was defined as >50% diameter narrowing on quantitative CCA. Image noise (standard deviation of CT numbers) was measured in all scans. Inter-observer variability was assessed with kappa. Results: Significant CAD was present in 8% of 304 available segments. Median total Agatston calcium score was 181.8 (interquartile range 34.9-815.6). Sensitivity at 0.67 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.4 mm slice thickness was 70% (95% confidence interval 57-83%), 74% (62-86%), and 70% (57-83%), respectively. Specificity was 85% (82-88%), 84% (81-87%), and 84% (81-87%), respectively. The positive predictive value was 30 (21-38%), 29 (21-37%), and 28 (20-36%), respectively. The negative predictive value was 97% (95-98%), 97% (96-99%), and 97% (96-99%), respectively. Kappa for inter-observer agreement was 0.56, 0.58, and 0.59. Noise decreased from 32.9 HU at 0.67 mm, to 23.2 HU at 1.4 mm (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diagnostic performance of CTCA in angina patients with a positive calcium score

  7. Quantity Constrained General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenko, R.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In a standard general equilibrium model it is assumed that there are no price restrictions and that prices adjust infinitely fast to their equilibrium values.In case of price restrictions a general equilibrium may not exist and rationing on net demands or supplies is needed to clear the markets.In

  8. Two stable steady states in the Hodgkin-Huxley axons

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, K.; Matsumoto, G.

    1983-01-01

    Two stable steady states were found in the numerical solution of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations for the intact squid axon bathed in potassium-rich sea water with an externally applied inward current. Under the conditions the two stable steady-states exist, the Hodgkin-Huxley equations have a complex bifurcation structure including, in addition to the two stable steady-states, a stable limit cycle, two unstable equilibrium points, and one asymptotically stable equilibrium point. It was also conc...

  9. Equilibrium-torus bifurcation in nonsmooth systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubahyev, Z.T.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Considering a set of two coupled nonautonomous differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides describing the behavior of a DC/DC power converter, we discuss a border-collision bifurcation that can lead to the birth of a two-dimensional invariant torus from a stable node equilibrium...

  10. Phase equilibrium engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, Esteban Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and

  11. Spatial variation in the stable isotopes of 13C and 15N and trophic position of Leporinus friderici (Characiformes, Anostomidae in Corumbá Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre L. Pereira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C and nitrogen (delta15N were used to describe sources of energy and trophic position for adult Leporinus friderici in the area of the Corumbá Reservoir, Brazil. Samples were collected from April 1999 to March 2000. Spatial variations were not identified in the isotopic composition. The maximum and minimum contribution of C4 plants calculated integrating the variation of plants and fish were 47.7% and 2.4%, respectively. Among C3 plants, periphyton presented closer isotopic values to those observed for fishes, corresponding to an important carbon source. The proportion of ingested plant item is larger in rivers upstream from the reservoir (42.7%, which justifies the smaller trophic level among there. However, in the reservoir, the ingestion of fish was 81.4%, while ingested plants contributed with 18.6%. Downstream from the dam, participation of plant item was even smaller (14.4%. Although the trophic position calculated with diet data was proportional to the one calculated with delta15N values, the former elevated the trophic level of L. friderici in the food web, because estimated trophic positions were based on fish items belonging to the 2nd (a and to the 3rd (b trophic levels.Isótopos estáveis de carbono (delta13C e nitrogênio (delta15N foram utilizados para descrever as fontes de energia e a posição trófica de adultos de Leporinus friderici na área do reservatório de Corumbá, Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas entre abril de 1999 e março de 2000. Variações espaciais não foram identificadas quanto à composição isotópica da espécie. As contribuições máximas e mínimas das plantas C4, foram de 47,7% e 2,4%, respectivamente. Entre as plantas C3, o perífiton correspondeu a uma das mais importantes fontes de carbono para a espécie, pois seus valores isotópicos foram os mais próximos àqueles observados para os peixes. A proporção ingerida do item vegetal foi maior em rios localizados

  12. Weinberg equilibrium and association study of insertion/deletion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mostafa Saadat

    2014-08-22

    Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) predicts that in a very large population with random mating, the allelic fre- quencies will remain stable from generation to generation provided there is no mutation, no migration and no natural selection.

  13. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  14. PLASMA EQUILIBRIUM IN TOKAMAKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blank, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This lecture treats the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium of axisymmetric plasmas, as given by the Grad-Shafranov equation. In a brief introduction, equilibrium parameters such as the q-profile, the internal inductance, and the poloidal beta are introduced. The properties of these quantities

  15. Plasma equilibrium in tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blank, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture treats the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium of axisymmetric plasmas, as given by the Grad-Shafranov equation. In a brief introduction, equilibrium parameters such as the q-profile, the internal inductance, and the poloidal beta are introduced. The properties of these quantities

  16. Plasma equilibrium in tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blank, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture treats the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium of axisymmetric plasmas, as given by the Grad-Shafranov equation. In a brief introduction, equilibrium parameters such as the q-profile, the internal inductance, and the poloidal beta are introduced. The properties of these quantities

  17. Fall Back Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Fall back equilibrium is a refinement of the Nash equilibrium concept. In the underly- ing thought experiment each player faces the possibility that, after all players decided on their action, his chosen action turns out to be blocked. Therefore, each player has to decide beforehand on a back-up

  18. Equilibrium and non equilibrium in fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorso, C.O.; Chernomoretz, A.; Lopez, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In this communication we present recent results regarding the interplay of equilibrium and non equilibrium in the process of fragmentation of excited finite Lennard Jones drops. Because the general features of such a potential resemble the ones of the nuclear interaction (fact that is reinforced by the similarity between the EOS of both systems) these studies are not only relevant from a fundamental point of view but also shed light on the problem of nuclear multifragmentation. We focus on the microscopic analysis of the state of the fragmenting system at fragmentation time. We show that the Caloric Curve (i e. the functional relationship between the temperature of the system and the excitation energy) is of the type rise plateau with no vapor branch. The usual rise plateau rise pattern is only recovered when equilibrium is artificially imposed. This result puts a serious question on the validity of the freeze out hypothesis. This feature is independent of the dimensionality or excitation mechanism. Moreover we explore the behavior of magnitudes which can help us determine the degree of the assumed phase transition. It is found that no clear cut criteria is presently available. (Author)

  19. Algorithm For Hypersonic Flow In Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Grant

    1989-01-01

    Implicit, finite-difference, shock-capturing algorithm calculates inviscid, hypersonic flows in chemical equilibrium. Implicit formulation chosen because overcomes limitation on mathematical stability encountered in explicit formulations. For dynamical portion of problem, Euler equations written in conservation-law form in Cartesian coordinate system for two-dimensional or axisymmetric flow. For chemical portion of problem, equilibrium state of gas at each point in computational grid determined by minimizing local Gibbs free energy, subject to local conservation of molecules, atoms, ions, and total enthalpy. Major advantage: resulting algorithm naturally stable and captures strong shocks without help of artificial-dissipation terms to damp out spurious numerical oscillations.

  20. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  1. Non-equilibrium Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.

  2. Binding Energy and Equilibrium of Compact Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of the existence of a limit mass for compact astronomic ob- jects requires the solution of the Einstein’s equations of g eneral relativity together with an appropriate equation of state. Analytical solutions exi st in some special cases like the spherically symmetric static object without energy sou rces that is here considered. Solutions, i.e. the spacetime metrics, can have a singular m athematical form (the so called Schwarzschild metric due to Hilbert or a nonsingula r form (original work of Schwarzschild. The former predicts a limit mass and, conse quently, the existence of black holes above this limit. Here it is shown that, the origi nal Schwarzschild met- ric permits compact objects, without mass limit, having rea sonable values for central density and pressure. The lack of a limit mass is also demonst rated analytically just imposing reasonable conditions on the energy-matter densi ty, of positivity and decreas- ing with radius. Finally the ratio between proper mass and to tal mass tends to 2 for high values of mass so that the binding energy reaches the lim it m (total mass seen by a distant observer. As it is known the negative binding energ y reduces the gravitational mass of the object; the limit of m for the binding energy provides a mechanism for stable equilibrium of any amount of mass to contrast the gravitatio nal collapse.

  3. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  4. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, J E

    1968-01-01

    The International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Volume 1: Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics covers the fundamental principles and the development of theoretical aspects of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanical is the study of the connection between the macroscopic behavior of bulk matter and the microscopic properties of its constituent atoms and molecules. This book contains eight chapters, and begins with a presentation of the master equation used for the calculation of the fundamental thermodynamic functions. The succeeding chapters highlight t

  5. Quantum mechanics gives stability to a Nash equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Toor, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a slightly modified version of the rock-scissors-paper (RSP) game from the point of view of evolutionary stability. In its classical version the game has a mixed Nash equilibrium (NE) not stable against mutants appearing in small numbers. We find a quantized version of the RSP game for which the classical mixed NE becomes stable

  6. About positive, energy conservative and equilibrium state preserving schemes for the isotropic Fokker-Planck-Landau equation; Sur les schemas positifs, conservant l'energie et les etats d'equilibre pour l'equation de Fokker-Planck-Landau isotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buet, Ch. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. des Sciences de la Simulation et de l' Information, 91 (France); Le Thanh, K.C. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, 91 (France)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the discretization of the Fokker-Planck-Landau (FPL) collision term in the isotropic case which models the self collision for the electrons when they are totally isotropized by heavy particles background such as ions. The discussion focus on schemes which could preserve positivity, mass, energy and Maxwellian equilibrium. First, we analyze in detail the popular Chang and Cooper method for this non-linear collision term: derivation, conservation and positivity properties. We show that some variants of this method, based on the drift-diffusion form of the FPL operator, could not be positive or could not conserve the energy. We present a new variant of the Chang and Cooper method derived from the Landau form that is both positive and conservative. We also propose two new alternatives and simpler schemes for the FPL operator which show that the Chang and Cooper method is not the only way to construct positive, energy conservative and equilibrium state preserving schemes for this operator. For all these schemes, we explain clearly the properties of conservation of the density and the energy, the positivity of the solution and the conservation of the equilibrium states, or their lack. The case of Maxwellian and Coulombian potentials are emphasized. (authors)

  7. Dark halos and elliptical galaxies as marginally stable dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Zant, A. A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Sheikh Zayed, 12588 Giza (Egypt); The British University in Egypt, Sherouk City, Cairo 11837 (Egypt)

    2013-12-10

    The origin of equilibrium gravitational configurations is sought in terms of the stability of their trajectories, as described by the curvature of their Lagrangian configuration manifold of particle positions—a context in which subtle spurious effects originating from the singularity in the two-body potential become particularly clear. We focus on the case of spherical systems, which support only regular orbits in the collisionless limit, despite the persistence of local exponential instability of N-body trajectories in the anomalous case of discrete point particle representation even as N → ∞. When the singularity in the potential is removed, this apparent contradiction disappears. In the absence of fluctuations, equilibrium configurations generally correspond to positive scalar curvature and thus support stable trajectories. A null scalar curvature is associated with an effective, averaged equation of state describing dynamically relaxed equilibria with marginally stable trajectories. The associated configurations are quite similar to those of observed elliptical galaxies and simulated cosmological halos and are necessarily different from the systems dominated by isothermal cores, expected from entropy maximization in the context of the standard theory of violent relaxation. It is suggested that this is the case because a system starting far from equilibrium does not reach a 'most probable state' via violent relaxation, but that this process comes to an end as the system finds and (settles in) a configuration where it can most efficiently wash out perturbations. We explicitly test this interpretation by means of direct simulations.

  8. Equilibrium shoreface profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Hughes, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale coastal behaviour models use the shoreface profile of equilibrium as a fundamental morphological unit that is translated in space to simulate coastal response to, for example, sea level oscillations and variability in sediment supply. Despite a longstanding focus on the shoreface...... profile and its relevance to predicting coastal response to changing environmental conditions, the processes and dynamics involved in shoreface equilibrium are still not fully understood. Here, we apply a process-based empirical sediment transport model, combined with morphodynamic principles to provide...... new insight into equilibrium shoreface profile development and shape. The quantitative model is based on field measurements and shows that a balance between onshore sediment transport due to oscillatory wave motion, and offshore sediment transport due to gravity, produces profile shapes...

  9. Equilibrium without Friction of a Particle on a Mobile Surface with Bilateral Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae–Doru Stănescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will study the equilibrium of a particle on a mobile surface in the case characterized by bilateral constraints between the particle and the surface, and the absence of friction. Based on our previous work, the conditions for the equilibrium are obtained. We prove that the positions of equilibrium on a mobile surface are no longer the same with those obtained for a fixed surface, the system could have either other equilibrium positions, completely different, or some more equilibrium positions, or no equilibrium position.

  10. MHD equilibrium and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.

    1978-01-01

    The first part of this lecture discusses the influence of current profiles and noncircular cross-sections on the maximum β obtainable in a Tokamak from the MHD equilibrium point of view. The second part treats limitations on such MHD equilibria resulting from various MHD instabilities like external and internal kinks, localized and nonlocalized modes- and axisymmetric instabilities

  11. Microeconomics : Equilibrium and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2013-01-01

    Microeconomics: Equilibrium and Efficiency teaches how to apply microeconomic theory in an innovative, intuitive and concise way. Using real-world, empirical examples, this book not only covers the building blocks of the subject, but helps gain a broad understanding of microeconomic theory and

  12. Differential Equation of Equilibrium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the ... tedious and more time saving than the classical method in the solution of the aforementioned differential equation. ... silos, pipelines, bridge arches or wind turbine towers [3]. The objective of this ...

  13. Differential Equation of Equilibrium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Civil Engineering. University of Nigeria Nsukka. ABSTRACT. Analysis of underground circular cylindrical shell is carried out in this work. The forth order differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the assumptions of P. L Pasternak.

  14. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast...

  15. Comments on equilibrium, transient equilibrium, and secular equilibrium in serial radioactive decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Equations describing serial radioactive decay are reviewed along with published descriptions or transient and secular equilibrium. It is shown that terms describing equilibrium are not used in the same way by various authors. Specific definitions are proposed; they suggest that secular equilibrium is a subset of transient equilibrium

  16. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  17. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  18. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  19. Instability Versus Equilibrium Propagation of Laser Beam in Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Rose, Harvey A.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain, for the first time, an analytic theory of the forward stimulated Brillouin scattering instability of a spatially and temporally incoherent laser beam, that controls the transition between statistical equilibrium and non-equilibrium (unstable) self-focusing regimes of beam propagation. The stability boundary may be used as a comprehensive guide for inertial confinement fusion designs. Well into the stable regime, an analytic expression for the angular diffusion coefficient is obtain...

  20. Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.

    1985-07-01

    A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations

  1. Gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders Folmer, S.C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the clinical applications of gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy, performed with either a gamma camera or a portable detector system, the nuclear stethoscope. The main goal has been to define the value and limitations of noninvasive measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction as a parameter of cardiac performance in various disease states, both for diagnostic purposes as well as during follow-up after medical or surgical intervention. Secondly, it was attempted to extend the use of the equilibrium bloodpool techniques beyond the calculation of ejection fraction alone by considering the feasibility to determine ventricular volumes and by including the possibility of quantifying valvular regurgitation. In both cases, it has been tried to broaden the perspective of the observations by comparing them with results of other, invasive and non-invasive, procedures, in particular cardiac catheterization, M-mode echocardiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (Auth.)

  2. Problems in equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aliprantis, Charalambos D

    1996-01-01

    In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.

  3. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, E Atlee

    2000-01-01

    Ideal as an elementary introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics, this volume covers both classical and quantum methodology for open and closed systems. Introductory chapters familiarize readers with probability and microscopic models of systems, while additional chapters describe the general derivation of the fundamental statistical mechanics relationships. The final chapter contains 16 sections, each dealing with a different application, ordered according to complexity, from classical through degenerate quantum statistical mechanics. Key features include an elementary introduction t

  4. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  5. Departures from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhirter, R.W.P.

    1968-01-01

    This paper starts with a definition of local thermodynamic equilibrium and points out the relationship between local and complete thermodynamic equilibrium. It is shown that electron collisions are essential for the establishment of LTE and a relationship is derived for the minimum electron density at which collision processes are just sufficiently frequent to cause the plasma to be in LTE in face of the competing radiative processes. This relationship is derived for an optically thin plasma. The effect of radiation trapping is considered and some figures given by which the effect of this can be taken into account in assessing the validity of LTE in such cases. Account is now taken of the finite time required for the atomic collision processes to establish the plasma in LTE. A numerical example is worked out which shows that these considerations can be very important for plasmas of rapidly varying temperature. Mention is also made of departures from LTE caused by inhomogeneities in the plasma and by the positive ions having a different kinetic temperature from the electrons. Finally, it is remarked that even if the criteria for LTE to be valid are not met then the Saha and Boltzmann equations may still be applied to describe the population densities of the upper levels of individual species of atoms or ions. (author)

  6. Equilibrium thermodynamics - Callen's postulational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide the background for nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we outline the fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics. Equilibrium thermodynamics must not only be obtained as a special case of any acceptable nonequilibrium generalization but, through its shining example, it also elucidates

  7. Equilibrium Arrival Times to Queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Jesper; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    a symmetric (mixed) Nash equilibrium, and show that there is at most one symmetric equilibrium. We provide a numerical method to compute this equilibrium and demonstrate by a numerical example that the social effciency can be lower than the effciency induced by a similar queueing system that serves customers...

  8. The Kolmogorov -Sinai entropy for dilute gases in equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijeren, H.; Dorfman, J.R.; Posch, H.A.; Dellago, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the density expansion of the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy per particle for a dilute gas in equilibrium, and use methods from the kinetic theory of gases to compute the leading term. For an equilibrium system, the KS entropy hKS is the sum of all of the positive Lyapunov exponents

  9. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Sybren Ruurds

    1984-01-01

    The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn

  10. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Statistical physics ""Beyond equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The scientific challenges of the 21st century will increasingly involve competing interactions, geometric frustration, spatial and temporal intrinsic inhomogeneity, nanoscale structures, and interactions spanning many scales. We will focus on a broad class of emerging problems that will require new tools in non-equilibrium statistical physics and that will find application in new material functionality, in predicting complex spatial dynamics, and in understanding novel states of matter. Our work will encompass materials under extreme conditions involving elastic/plastic deformation, competing interactions, intrinsic inhomogeneity, frustration in condensed matter systems, scaling phenomena in disordered materials from glasses to granular matter, quantum chemistry applied to nano-scale materials, soft-matter materials, and spatio-temporal properties of both ordinary and complex fluids.

  12. Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard

    2017-08-01

    A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.

  13. High beta tokamaks. [MHD equilibrium, stability, and transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dory, R.A.; Berger, D.P.; Charlton, L.A.; Hogan, J.T.; Munro, J.K.; Nelson, D.B.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Sigmar, D.J.; Strickler, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    MHD equilibrium, stability, and transport calculations are made to study the accessibility and behavior of ''high beta'' tokamak plasmas in the range ..beta.. approximately 5 to 15 percent. For next generation devices, beta values of at least 8 percent appear to be accessible and stable if there is a conducting surface nearby.

  14. Growth and decay of large fluctuations far from equilibrium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    tems which admit of stable dynamical attractors in absence of noise. An interesting 'detailed balance' like condition in the steady state which is manifested in the time reversal symmetry between growth and decay of fluctuation far from equilibrium, similar to what is observed in thermally equilibrated systems, is demonstrated ...

  15. Equilibrium models and variational inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Konnov, Igor

    2007-01-01

    The concept of equilibrium plays a central role in various applied sciences, such as physics (especially, mechanics), economics, engineering, transportation, sociology, chemistry, biology and other fields. If one can formulate the equilibrium problem in the form of a mathematical model, solutions of the corresponding problem can be used for forecasting the future behavior of very complex systems and, also, for correcting the the current state of the system under control. This book presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts in economics, including several models from related sciences.- Presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts and also the present state of investigations in this field- Describes static and dynamic input-output models, Walras, Cassel-Wald, spatial price, auction market, oligopolistic equilibrium models, transportation and migration equilibrium models- Covers the basics of theory and solution methods both for the complementarity and variational inequality probl...

  16. General equilibrium without utility functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    2010-01-01

    How far can we go in weakening the assumptions of the general equilibrium model? Existence of equilibrium, structural stability and finiteness of equilibria of regular economies, genericity of regular economies and an index formula for the equilibria of regular economies have been known...... and the diffeomorphism of the equilibrium manifold with a Euclidean space; (2) the diffeomorphism of the set of no-trade equilibria with a Euclidean space; (3) the openness and genericity of the set of regular equilibria as a subset of the equilibrium manifold; (4) for small trade vectors, the uniqueness, regularity...

  17. Non-equilibrium dynamics from RPMD and CMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Ralph; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang; Althorpe, Stuart C; Miller, Thomas F

    2016-11-28

    We investigate the calculation of approximate non-equilibrium quantum time correlation functions (TCFs) using two popular path-integral-based molecular dynamics methods, ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). It is shown that for the cases of a sudden vertical excitation and an initial momentum impulse, both RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs for linear operators that are exact for high temperatures, in the t = 0 limit, and for harmonic potentials; the subset of these conditions that are preserved for non-equilibrium TCFs of non-linear operators is also discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that for these non-equilibrium initial conditions, both methods retain the connection to Matsubara dynamics that has previously been established for equilibrium initial conditions. Comparison of non-equilibrium TCFs from RPMD and CMD to Matsubara dynamics at short times reveals the orders in time to which the methods agree. Specifically, for the position-autocorrelation function associated with sudden vertical excitation, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 4 ) and O(t 1 ), respectively; for the position-autocorrelation function associated with an initial momentum impulse, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 5 ) and O(t 2 ), respectively. Numerical tests using model potentials for a wide range of non-equilibrium initial conditions show that RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs with an accuracy that is comparable to that for equilibrium TCFs. RPMD is also used to investigate excited-state proton transfer in a system-bath model, and it is compared to numerically exact calculations performed using a recently developed version of the Liouville space hierarchical equation of motion approach; again, similar accuracy is observed for non-equilibrium and equilibrium initial conditions.

  18. Analytical Model of Inlet Growth and Equilibrium Cross-Sectional Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-107 April 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Analytical Model of Inlet Growth and Equilibrium Cross...encompass a broader range of theoretical alternatives to investigate inlet stability. The quadratic formula provides quantitative estimates of equilibrium ...rework sediment. Escoffier (1940) theorized that stable inlets form when the maximum flow equals an equilibrium value based on sediment transport

  19. A novel four-wing non-equilibrium chaotic system and its circuit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with no equilibrium or with only stable equilibrium is bound to have a hidden attractor. Hidden attractors have important engineering applications because they allow unexpected and potentially disastrous responses to perturbations in a structure like a bridge or an airplane wing. Some examples of hidden attractors with only ...

  20. Steepest-descent technique and stellar equilibrium statistical mechanics. I. Newtonian clusters in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, G.; Katz, J.

    1977-01-01

    A microcanonical statistical mechanics formulation has been developed for nonrotating systems of stars of equal mass. The system, placed in a confining volume and with a cutoff of the interparticle gravitational interaction at short distances, can have thermodynamic equilibrium states. Sequences of equilibrium states are presumed to simulate slowly evolving, near-equilibrium configurations of real star clusters. An exact functional expression for the entropy of such systems is derived which has also a relativistic counterpart. The entropy is evaluated in an approximation which is mean field plus fluctuations. Evaluations beyond this approximation can readily be carried out. We obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions for spherically symmetric clusters to be thermodynamically stable about a mean field solution, with respect to arbitrary fluctuations in the microcanonical ensemble. The stability conditions amount to the following quantities having definite signs: (i) a functional form, quadratic in ''mean field'' fluctuations, (ii) the derivative of the gravito-chemical potential with respect to the number of particles, at fixed temperature, being positive definite, and (iii) the heat capacity C/sub ν/, at fixed number of particles, being positive definite. In a sequence of equilibrium configurations in which the ratio of densities between the center and the boundary of the cluster is progressively increased, conditions (i) and (ii) break down simultaneously when this density contrast is equal to 1.58. Condition (i) remains unsatisfied for higher density contrasts. The limit 1.58 on the density contrast is much more stringent than that given by condition (iii) which breaks down only for a value of 32.1. Our results are in sharp contrast to those of Antonov's criterion according to which instabilities appear when the density contrast is higher than 709. Time scales of evolutions of various unstable configurations are not considered in this work

  1. Napoleon Is in Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rob

    2015-03-01

    It has been said that the cell is the test tube of the twenty-first century. If so, the theoretical tools needed to quantitatively and predictively describe what goes on in such test tubes lag sorely behind the stunning experimental advances in biology seen in the decades since the molecular biology revolution began. Perhaps surprisingly, one of the theoretical tools that has been used with great success on problems ranging from how cells communicate with their environment and each other to the nature of the organization of proteins and lipids within the cell membrane is statistical mechanics. A knee-jerk reaction to the use of statistical mechanics in the description of cellular processes is that living organisms are so far from equilibrium that one has no business even thinking about it. But such reactions are probably too hasty given that there are many regimes in which, because of a separation of timescales, for example, such an approach can be a useful first step. In this article, we explore the power of statistical mechanical thinking in the biological setting, with special emphasis on cell signaling and regulation. We show how such models are used to make predictions and describe some recent experiments designed to test them. We also consider the limits of such models based on the relative timescales of the processes of interest.

  2. Thermodynamic chemical energy transfer mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Heui-Seol

    2015-01-01

    Chemical energy transfer mechanisms at finite temperature are explored by a chemical energy transfer theory which is capable of investigating various chemical mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium. Gibbs energy fluxes are obtained as a function of chemical potential, time, and displacement. Diffusion, convection, internal convection, and internal equilibrium chemical energy fluxes are demonstrated. The theory reveals that there are chemical energy flux gaps and broken discrete symmetries at the activation chemical potential, time, and displacement. The statistical, thermodynamic theory is the unification of diffusion and internal convection chemical reactions which reduces to the non-equilibrium generalization beyond the quasi-equilibrium theories of migration and diffusion processes. The relationship between kinetic theories of chemical and electrochemical reactions is also explored. The theory is applied to explore non-equilibrium chemical reactions as an illustration. Three variable separation constants indicate particle number constants and play key roles in describing the distinct chemical reaction mechanisms. The kinetics of chemical energy transfer accounts for the four control mechanisms of chemical reactions such as activation, concentration, transition, and film chemical reactions. - Highlights: • Chemical energy transfer theory is proposed for non-, quasi-, and equilibrium. • Gibbs energy fluxes are expressed by chemical potential, time, and displacement. • Relationship between chemical and electrochemical reactions is discussed. • Theory is applied to explore nonequilibrium energy transfer in chemical reactions. • Kinetics of non-equilibrium chemical reactions shows the four control mechanisms

  3. Random Hamiltonian in thermal equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, Dorje C.; Ellis, David C. P.; Holm, Darryl D.

    2009-01-01

    A framework for the investigation of disordered quantum systems in thermal equilibrium is proposed. The approach is based on a dynamical model--which consists of a combination of a double-bracket gradient flow and a uniform Brownian fluctuation--that `equilibrates' the Hamiltonian into a canonical distribution. The resulting equilibrium state is used to calculate quenched and annealed averages of quantum observables.

  4. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven

    2009-01-01

    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  5. A Multiperiod Equilibrium Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsuk Kwak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an equilibrium pricing model in a dynamic multiperiod stochastic framework with uncertain income. There are one tradable risky asset (stock/commodity, one nontradable underlying (temperature, and also a contingent claim (weather derivative written on the tradable risky asset and the nontradable underlying in the market. The price of the contingent claim is priced in equilibrium by optimal strategies of representative agent and market clearing condition. The risk preferences are of exponential type with a stochastic coefficient of risk aversion. Both subgame perfect strategy and naive strategy are considered and the corresponding equilibrium prices are derived. From the numerical result we examine how the equilibrium prices vary in response to changes in model parameters and highlight the importance of our equilibrium pricing principle.

  6. Assessing Embayed Equilibrium State, Beach Rotation and Environmental Forcing Influences; Tenby Southwest Wales, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphological change of a headland bay beach—Tenby, West Wales, UK—was analysed over a 73-year period (1941–2014. Geo-referenced aerial photographs were used to extract shoreline positions which were subsequently compared with wave models based on storm event data. From the 1941 baseline, results showed shoreline change rates reduced over time with regression models enabling a prediction of shoreline equilibrium circa 2061. Further temporal analyses showed southern and central sector erosion and northern accretion, while models identified long-term plan-form rotation, i.e., a negative phase relationship between beach extremities and a change from negative to positive correlation within the more stable central sector. Models were then used in conjunction with an empirical 2nd order polynomial equation to predict the 2061 longshore equilibrium shoreline position under current environmental conditions. Results agreed with previous regional research which showed that dominant south and southwesterly wave regimes influence south to north longshore drift with counter drift generated by less dominant easterly regimes. The equilibrium shoreline was also used to underpin flood and inundation assessments, identifying areas at risk and strategies to increase resilience. UK shoreline management plans evaluate coastal vulnerability based upon temporal epochs of 20, 50 and 100 years. Therefore, this research evaluating datasets spanning 73 years has demonstrated the effectiveness of linear regression in integrating temporal and spatial consequences of sea level rise and storms. The developed models can be used to predict future shoreline positions aligned with shoreline management plan epochs and inform embayed beach shoreline assessments at local, regional and international scales, by identifying locations of vulnerability and enabling the development of management strategies to improve resilience under scenarios of sea level rise and climate

  7. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M

    2017-09-18

    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  8. Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…

  9. Equilibrium with arbitrary market structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Birgit; Vind, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Fifty years ago Arrow [1] introduced contingent commodities and Debreu [4] observed that this reinterpretation of a commodity was enough to apply the existing general equilibrium theory to uncertainty and time. This interpretation of general equilibrium theory is the Arrow-Debreu model....... The complete market predicted by this theory is clearly unrealistic, and Radner [10] formulated and proved existence of equilibrium in a multiperiod model with incomplete markets. In this paper the Radner result is extended. Radner assumed a specific structure of markets, independence of preferences...

  10. Another return to "Return to Equilibrium"

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, J

    2003-01-01

    The property of ``return to equilibrium'' is established for a class of quantum-mechanical models describing interactions of a (toy) atom with black-body radiation, or of a spin with a heat bath of scalar bosons, under the assumption that the interaction strength is sufficiently weak, but independent of temperature $T$, (with $0positive commutator method combined with a recent virial theorem, and a norm bound on the difference between the equilibrium states of the interacting and the non-interacting system valid for all temperatures $T\\geq 0$, assuming only that the interaction strength is sufficiently weak.

  11. Equilibrium vertical field in the TBR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, A.Y.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study on the influence of the vertical magnetic field of the TBR tokamak on the stability and equilibrium of plasma column, was done. Magnetic pick-up coils were built to measure plasma current and position, together with active networks, necessary fo the electronic processing of signals. Some measurements were on the space configuration of the vertical field, and on the influence due to the toroidal vessel. From the data obtained it was possible to discuss the influence of the currents induced on the vessel surface, on plasma equilibrium. Theoretical and experimental results of the vertica field, as a function of plasma current were compared, and allowed an evaluation of the plasma kinetic pressure and temperature. (Author) [pt

  12. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  13. Stability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems and evolutionary stable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleria, Iram, E-mail: iram@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Brenig, Leon [Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rocha Filho, Tarcísio M.; Figueiredo, Annibal [Instituto de Física and International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2017-03-18

    Highlights: • We address the problem of equilibrium stability in a general class of non-linear systems. • We link Evolutionary Stable States (ESS) to stable fixed points of square quasi-polynomial (QP) systems. • We show that an interior ES point may be related to stable interior fixed points of QP systems. - Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of stability in a general class of non-linear systems. We establish a link between the concepts of asymptotic stable interior fixed points of square Quasi-Polynomial systems and evolutionary stable states, a property of some payoff matrices arising from evolutionary games.

  14. Thermal Field Theory in Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jens O.

    2000-01-01

    In this talk, I review recent developments in equilibrium thermal field theory. Screened perturbation theory and hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory are discussed. A self-consistent $\\Phi$-derivable approach is also briefly reviewed.

  15. On the local equilibrium condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessling, H.

    1994-11-01

    A physical system is in local equilibrium if it cannot be distinguished from a global equilibrium by ''infinitesimally localized measurements''. This should be a natural characterization of local equilibrium, but the problem is to give a precise meaning to the qualitative phrase ''infinitesimally localized measurements''. A solution is suggested in form of a Local Equilibrium Condition (LEC), which can be applied to linear relativistic quantum field theories but not directly to selfinteracting quantum fields. The concept of local temperature resulting from LEC is compared to an old approach to local temperature based on the principle of maximal entropy. It is shown that the principle of maximal entropy does not always lead to physical states if it is applied to relativistic quantum field theories. (orig.)

  16. Numerical Verification Of Equilibrium Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Markus; Lewis, Brent; Thompson, William T.; Simunovic, Srdjan; Besmann, Theodore M.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical tool is in an advanced state of development to compute the equilibrium compositions of phases and their proportions in multi-component systems of importance to the nuclear industry. The resulting software is being conceived for direct integration into large multi-physics fuel performance codes, particularly for providing boundary conditions in heat and mass transport modules. However, any numerical errors produced in equilibrium chemistry computations will be propagated in subsequent heat and mass transport calculations, thus falsely predicting nuclear fuel behaviour. The necessity for a reliable method to numerically verify chemical equilibrium computations is emphasized by the requirement to handle the very large number of elements necessary to capture the entire fission product inventory. A simple, reliable and comprehensive numerical verification method is presented which can be invoked by any equilibrium chemistry solver for quality assurance purposes.

  17. Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xujing [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); Zakharov, Leonid E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, MS-27 P.O. Box 451, New Jersey (United States); Drozdov, Vladimir V. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.

  18. MHD equilibrium and stability of the spheromak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, M.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1979-08-01

    The MHD stability of spheromak type equilibria from the classical spheromak configuration to the diffuse pinch limit are analyzed numerically. It is found that oblate configurations of ellipticity 0.5 have the optimum stability properties with regard to internal MHD modes and can be stabilized up to an engineering ..beta.. of 15% (defined with respect to the applied external field strength for equilibrium). Stability to global modes requires that a conducting shell surround the plasma. The location of the shell is dependent on geometry and the current profile, but realistic configurations that are stable to all ideal MHD modes have been found with the shell located at approx. 1.2 minor radii.

  19. Shape characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Marc L; Douglas, Jack F

    2013-07-28

    It is often difficult in practice to discriminate between equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoparticle or colloidal-particle clusters that form through aggregation in gas or solution phases. Scattering studies often permit the determination of an apparent fractal dimension, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters in three dimensions frequently have fractal dimensions near 2, so that it is often not possible to discriminate on the basis of this geometrical property. A survey of the anisotropy of a wide variety of polymeric structures (linear and ring random and self-avoiding random walks, percolation clusters, lattice animals, diffusion-limited aggregates, and Eden clusters) based on the principal components of both the radius of gyration and electric polarizability tensor indicates, perhaps counter-intuitively, that self-similar equilibrium clusters tend to be intrinsically anisotropic at all sizes, while non-equilibrium processes such as diffusion-limited aggregation or Eden growth tend to be isotropic in the large-mass limit, providing a potential means of discriminating these clusters experimentally if anisotropy could be determined along with the fractal dimension. Equilibrium polymer structures, such as flexible polymer chains, are normally self-similar due to the existence of only a single relevant length scale, and are thus anisotropic at all length scales, while non-equilibrium polymer structures that grow irreversibly in time eventually become isotropic if there is no difference in the average growth rates in different directions. There is apparently no proof of these general trends and little theoretical insight into what controls the universal anisotropy in equilibrium polymer structures of various kinds. This is an obvious topic of theoretical investigation, as well as a matter of practical interest. To address this general problem, we consider two experimentally accessible ratios, one between the hydrodynamic and gyration radii, the other

  20. Equilibrium econophysics: A unified formalism for neoclassical economics and equilibrium thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Tânia; Domingos, Tiago

    2006-11-01

    We develop a unified conceptual and mathematical structure for equilibrium econophysics, i.e., the use of concepts and tools of equilibrium thermodynamics in neoclassical microeconomics and vice versa. Within this conceptual structure the results obtained in microeconomic theory are: (1) the definition of irreversibility in economic behavior; (2) the clarification that the Engel curve and the offer curve are not descriptions of real processes dictated by the maximization of utility at constant endowment; (3) the derivation of a relation between elasticities proving that economic elasticities are not all independent; (4) the proof that Giffen goods do not exist in a stable equilibrium; (5) the derivation that ‘economic integrability’ is equivalent to the generalized Le Chatelier principle and (6) the definition of a first order phase transition, i.e., a transition between separate points in the utility function. In thermodynamics the results obtained are: (1) a relation between the non-dimensional isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities and the increase or decrease in the thermodynamic potentials; (2) the distinction between mathematical integrability and optimization behavior and (3) the generalization of the Clapeyron equation.

  1. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2018-01-01

    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  3. Equilibrium chemistry of boron deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.N.

    1973-01-01

    Machine calculations of the equilibrium chemistry of the H 2 / BCl 3 /Ar system were used to calculate the degree of conversion of BCl 3 to solid B, at several temperatures and one atmosphere total pressure, for constant BCl 3 partial pressure and for constant H 2 /BCl 3 ratio. Combined equilibrium and mass transport calculations were used to deduce diffusion-limited reaction rates for experimental conditions employed in the kinetics study of Carlton, et al. (Second International Vapor Deposition Conference); this analysis confirms that the previous work did measure surface kinetics. Equilibrium calculations for the H 2 /BCl 3 /Cr system indicate that CrCl 2 volatility may be too high for this to be a practical method of forming chromium boride coatings. (U.S.)

  4. Analysis of equilibrium and topology of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligen, B.P. van.

    1991-01-01

    In a tokamak, the plasma is confined by means of a magnetic field. There exists an equilibrium between outward forces due to the pressure gradient in plasma and inward forces due to the interaction between currents flowing inside the plasma and the magnetic field. The equilibrium magnetic field is characterized by helical field lines that lie on nested toroidal surfaces of constant flux. The equilibrium yields values for global and local plasma parameters (e.g. plasma position, total current, local pressure). Thus, precise knowledge of the equilibrium is essential for plasma control, for the understanding of many phenomena occurring in the plasma (in particular departures from the ideal equilibrium involving current filamentation on the flux surfaces that lead to the formation of islands, i.e. nested helical flux surfaces), and for the interpretation of many different types of measurements (e.g. the translation of line integrated electron density measurements made by laser beams probing the plasma into a local electron density on a flux surface). The problem of determining the equilibrium magnetic field from external magnetic field measurements has been studied extensively in literature. The problem is 'ill-posed', which means that the solution is unstable to small changes in the measurement data, and the solution has to be constrained in order to stabilize it. Various techniques for handling this problem have been suggested in literature. Usually ad-hoc restrictions are imposed on the equilibrium solution in order to stabilize it. More equilibrium solvers are not able to handle very dissimilar measurement data which means information on the equilibrium is lost. The generally do not allow a straightforward error estimate of the obtained results to be made, and they require large amounts of computing time. This problems are addressed in this thesis. (author). 104 refs.; 42 figs.; 6 tabs

  5. The Equilibrium Rule--A Personal Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Examples of equilibrium are evident everywhere and the equilibrium rule provides a reasoned way to view all things, whether in static (balancing rocks, steel beams in building construction) or dynamic (airplanes, bowling balls) equilibrium. Interestingly, the equilibrium rule applies not just to objects at rest but whenever any object or system of…

  6. Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G chemistry textbooks and even in some more advanced texts. Similarly, the criteria for equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…

  7. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarolla, Maria B., E-mail: maria.chiarolla@uniroma1.it [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Metodi e Modelli per l' Economia, il Territorio e la Finanza, Facolta di Economia (Italy); Haussmann, Ulrich G., E-mail: uhaus@math.ubc.ca [University of British Columbia, Department of Mathematics (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  8. Stellar atmosphere in statistical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R.I.

    1979-01-01

    A static atmosphere with only Lyman continuum radiation in radiative equilibrium is studied for the effectsof radiative and collisional ionization on deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Large increases and decreases of the kinetic temperature (range in Tapprox. factor 2) and, correspondingly, very large over- and underpopulation of the bound state (range in bapprox. factor 10 6 ) are found, depending on the frequency dependence of the photoionization cross section. Despite these large deviations from LTE, which strongly modify the emergent spectrum, there is almost no effect on the particle densities, the degree of ionization, and the basic structure of the atmosphere

  9. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarolla, Maria B.; Haussmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-01-01

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  10. Nash equilibrium with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1998-01-01

    We generalize the concept of Nash equilibrium in mixed strategies for strategic form games to allow for ambiguity in the players' expectations. In contrast to other contributions, we model ambiguity by means of so-called lower probability measures or belief functions, which makes it possible...... to distinguish between a player's assessment of ambiguity and his attitude towards ambiguity. We also generalize the concept of trembling hand perfect equilibrium. Finally, we demonstrate that for certain attitudes towards ambiguity it is possible to explain cooperation in the one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma...

  11. Reaction Equilibrium of the ω-Transamination of (S)-Phenylethylamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voges, Matthias; Abu, Rohana; Deslauriers, Maria Gundersen

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the thermodynamic equilibrium of the ω-transaminase-catalyzed reaction of (S)-phenylethylamine with cyclohexanone to acetophenone and cyclohexylamine in aqueous solution. For this purpose, the equilibrium concentrations of the reaction were experimentally investigated under...... varying reaction conditions. It was observed that the temperature (30 and 37 °C), the pH (between pH 7 and pH 9), as well as the initial reactant concentrations (between 5 and 50 mmol·kg-1) influenced the equilibrium position of the reaction. The position of the reaction equilibrium was moderately shifted...... toward the product side by either decreasing temperature or decreasing pH. In contrast, the initial ratio of the reactants showed only a marginal influence on the equilibrium position. Further experiments showed that increasing the initial reactant concentrations significantly shifted the equilibrium...

  12. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...

  13. Essays in general equilibrium theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konovalov, A.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis focuses on various issues of general equilibrium theory and can approximately be divided into three parts. The first part of the thesis studies generalized equilibria in the Arrow-Debreu model in the situation where the strong survival assumption is not satisfied. Chapter four deals with

  14. An equilibrium and kinetic modeling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models fitted well with the equilibrium data of the process studied. .... dosages. For the determination of adsorption isotherms, 4 g of bio- sorbent was used at five different .... The basic assumption of the Langmuir theory is that ad- sorption takes place at specific sites ...

  15. Game Theory-Nash Equilibrium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. Game Theory - Nash Equilibrium. P G Babu. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 53- ... Author Affiliations. P G Babu1. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research Gen. A K Vaidya Marg Goregaon(East) Mumbai 400 065, India.

  16. Understanding Thermal Equilibrium through Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura; Ladage, Savita; Pradhan, Hemachandra

    2015-01-01

    Thermal equilibrium is a basic concept in thermodynamics. In India, this concept is generally introduced at the first year of undergraduate education in physics and chemistry. In our earlier studies (Pathare and Pradhan 2011 "Proc. episteme-4 Int. Conf. to Review Research on Science Technology and Mathematics Education" pp 169-72) we…

  17. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  18. On generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Sangho; Kim, Won Kyu

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we will introduce the generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which generalize the operator equilibrium problem due to Kazmi and Raouf [K.R. Kazmi, A. Raouf, A class of operator equilibrium problems, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 308 (2005) 554-564] into multi-valued and quasi-equilibrium problems. Using a Fan-Browder type fixed point theorem in [S. Park, Foundations of the KKM theory via coincidences of composites of upper semicontinuous maps, J. Korean Math. Soc. 31 (1994) 493-519] and an existence theorem of equilibrium for 1-person game in [X.-P. Ding, W.K. Kim, K.-K. Tan, Equilibria of non-compact generalized games with L*-majorized preferences, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 164 (1992) 508-517] as basic tools, we prove new existence theorems on generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which includes operator equilibrium problems.

  19. Non-Equilibrium Properties from Equilibrium Free Energy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Calculating free energy in computer simulations is of central importance in statistical mechanics of condensed media and its applications to chemistry and biology not only because it is the most comprehensive and informative quantity that characterizes the eqUilibrium state, but also because it often provides an efficient route to access dynamic and kinetic properties of a system. Most of applications of equilibrium free energy calculations to non-equilibrium processes rely on a description in which a molecule or an ion diffuses in the potential of mean force. In general case this description is a simplification, but it might be satisfactorily accurate in many instances of practical interest. This hypothesis has been tested in the example of the electrodiffusion equation . Conductance of model ion channels has been calculated directly through counting the number of ion crossing events observed during long molecular dynamics simulations and has been compared with the conductance obtained from solving the generalized Nernst-Plank equation. It has been shown that under relatively modest conditions the agreement between these two approaches is excellent, thus demonstrating the assumptions underlying the diffusion equation are fulfilled. Under these conditions the electrodiffusion equation provides an efficient approach to calculating the full voltage-current dependence routinely measured in electrophysiological experiments.

  20. Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Condensation Phenomena in Tuneable 3D and 2D Bose Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0009 Equilibrium and non- equilibrium condensation phenomena in tuneable 3D and 2D Bose gases Zoran Hadzibabic THE CHANCELLOR...31-Aug-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Equilibrium and non- equilibrium condensation phenomena in tuneable 3D and 2D Bose gases 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... equilibrium and non- equilibrium many-body phenomena, trapping ultracold atomic gases in different geometries including both 3 and 2 spatial dimensions

  1. Protonation Equilibrium of Linear Homopolyacids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Požar J.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a short summary of investigations dealing with protonation equilibrium of linear homopolyacids, in particularly those of high charge density. Apart from the review of experimental results which can be found in the literature, a brief description of theoretical models used in processing the dependence of protonation constants on monomer dissociation degree and ionic strength is given (cylindrical model based on Poisson-Boltzmann equation, cylindrical Stern model, the models according to Ising, Högfeldt, Mandel and Katchalsky. The applicability of these models regarding the polyion charge density, electrolyte concentration and counterion type is discussed. The results of Monte Carlo simulations of protonation equilibrium are also briefly mentioned. In addition, frequently encountered errors connected with calibration of of glass electrode and the related unreliability of determined protonation constants are pointed out.

  2. An introduction to equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morrill, Bernard; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics discusses classical thermodynamics and irreversible thermodynamics. It introduces the laws of thermodynamics and the connection between statistical concepts and observable macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system. Chapter 1 discusses the first law of thermodynamics while Chapters 2 through 4 deal with statistical concepts. The succeeding chapters describe the link between entropy and the reversible heat process concept of entropy; the second law of thermodynamics; Legendre transformations and Jacobian algebra. Finally, Chapter 10 provides a

  3. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that firm-managers compete in supply functions. He reverses earlier findings in that owners give managers incentives to act in an accommodating way. That is, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits ...... to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium, the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming either Cournot or Bertrand competition....

  4. Self consistent description of plasma equilibrium evolution in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.; Le Foll, J.; Leloup, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented which describes in a self-consistent way the evolution of the plasma equilibrium in a Tokamak. Numerical simulations are presented for ohmic heating discharges, neutral beam injection, lower hybrid electron heating and current drive in Tore Supra. The various control systems (plasma current, shape and position, coil current sharing) are tested with the code. (author)

  5. Local equilibrium in bird flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.

  6. 3D equilibrium reconstruction with islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciosa, M.; Hirshman, S. P.; Seal, S. K.; Shafer, M. W.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a 3D equilibrium reconstruction tool and the results of the first-ever reconstruction of an island equilibrium. The SIESTA non-nested equilibrium solver has been coupled to the V3FIT 3D equilibrium reconstruction code. Computed from a coupled VMEC and SIESTA model, synthetic signals are matched to measured signals by finding an optimal set of equilibrium parameters. By using the normalized pressure in place of normalized flux, non-equilibrium quantities needed by diagnostic signals can be efficiently mapped to the equilibrium. The effectiveness of this tool is demonstrated by reconstructing an island equilibrium of a DIII-D inner wall limited L-mode case with an n = 1 error field applied. Flat spots in Thomson and ECE temperature diagnostics show the reconstructed islands have the correct size and phase. ).

  7. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  8. The Geometry of Finite Equilibrium Datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...... of equilibrium datasets is pathconnected when the equilibrium condition does impose restrictions on datasets, as for example when total resources are widely non collinear....

  9. Accelerating Multiagent Reinforcement Learning by Equilibrium Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yujing; Gao, Yang; An, Bo

    2015-07-01

    An important approach in multiagent reinforcement learning (MARL) is equilibrium-based MARL, which adopts equilibrium solution concepts in game theory and requires agents to play equilibrium strategies at each state. However, most existing equilibrium-based MARL algorithms cannot scale due to a large number of computationally expensive equilibrium computations (e.g., computing Nash equilibria is PPAD-hard) during learning. For the first time, this paper finds that during the learning process of equilibrium-based MARL, the one-shot games corresponding to each state's successive visits often have the same or similar equilibria (for some states more than 90% of games corresponding to successive visits have similar equilibria). Inspired by this observation, this paper proposes to use equilibrium transfer to accelerate equilibrium-based MARL. The key idea of equilibrium transfer is to reuse previously computed equilibria when each agent has a small incentive to deviate. By introducing transfer loss and transfer condition, a novel framework called equilibrium transfer-based MARL is proposed. We prove that although equilibrium transfer brings transfer loss, equilibrium-based MARL algorithms can still converge to an equilibrium policy under certain assumptions. Experimental results in widely used benchmarks (e.g., grid world game, soccer game, and wall game) show that the proposed framework: 1) not only significantly accelerates equilibrium-based MARL (up to 96.7% reduction in learning time), but also achieves higher average rewards than algorithms without equilibrium transfer and 2) scales significantly better than algorithms without equilibrium transfer when the state/action space grows and the number of agents increases.

  10. Phase Equilibrium Modeling for Shale Production Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Lemus, Diego Rolando

    calculation tools for phase equilibrium in porous media with capillary pressure and adsorption effects. Analysis using these tools have shown that capillary pressure and adsorption have non-negligible effects on phase equilibrium in shale. As general tools, they can be used to calculate phase equilibrium...... in other porous media as well. The compositional simulator with added capillary pressure effects on phase equilibrium can be used for evaluating the effects in dynamic and more complex scenarios....

  11. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-11-21

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed strategy has been further taken into consideration: a belief strategy is proposed in terms of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Furthermore, based on the proposed belief strategy, a belief-based ESS has been developed. The belief strategy and belief-based ESS can reduce to the mixed strategy and mixed ESS, which provide more realistic and powerful tools to describe interactions among agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The concept of equilibrium in organization theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many organization theories consist of an interpretation frame and an idea about the ideal equilibrium state. This article explains how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or

  13. The concept of equilibrium in organization theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, Henk W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Many organization theories consist of an interpretation frame and an idea about the ideal equilibrium state. This article explains how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or

  14. Open problems in non-equilibrium physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusnezov, D.

    1997-09-22

    The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.

  15. Entropic bounds between two thermal equilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saldívar, Julio A.; Castaños, Octavio; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.

    2018-02-01

    The positivity conditions of the relative entropy between two thermal equilibrium states ρ̂1 and ρ̂2 are used to obtain upper and lower bounds for the subtraction of their entropies, the Helmholtz potential and the Gibbs potential of the two systems. These limits are expressed in terms of the mean values of the Hamiltonians, number operator, and temperature of the different systems. In particular, we discuss these limits for molecules that can be represented in terms of the Franck-Condon coefficients. We emphasize the case where the Hamiltonians belong to the same system at two different times t and t'. Finally, these bounds are obtained for a general qubit system and for the harmonic oscillator with a time-dependent frequency at two different times.

  16. Measured MHD equilibrium in Alcator C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribyl, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    A method of processing data from a set of partial Rogowski loops is developed to study the MHD equilibrium in Alcator C. Time dependent poloidal fields in the vicinity of the plasma are calculated from measured currents, with field penetration effects being accounted for. Fields from eddy currents induced by the plasma in the tokamak structure are estimated as well. Each of the set of twelve B/sub θ/ measurements can then be separated into a component from the plasma current and a component from currents external to the pickup loops. Harmonic solutions to Maxwell's equations in toroidal coordinates are fit to these measurements in order to infer the fields everywhere in the vacuum region surrounding the plasma. Using this diagnostic, plasma current, position, shape, and the Shafranov term Λ = β/sub p/ + l/sub i//2 - 1 may be computed, and systematic studies of these plasma parameters are undertaken for Alcator C plasmas

  17. Conditions for equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; de Folter, Julius W J; Luigjes, Bob; Castillo, Sonja I R; Sacanna, Stefano; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2010-08-19

    Particular types of solid-stabilized emulsions can be thermodynamically stable as evidenced by their spontaneous formation and monodisperse droplet size, which only depends on system parameters. Here, we investigate the generality of these equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions with respect to the basic constituents: aqueous phase with ions, oil, and stabilizing particles. From systematic variations of these constituents, we identify general conditions for the spontaneous formation of monodisperse solid-stabilized emulsions droplets. We conclude that emulsion stability is achieved by a combination of solid particles as well as amphiphilic ions adsorbed at the droplet surface, and low interfacial tensions of the bare oil-water interface of order 10 mN/m or below. Furthermore, preferential wetting of the colloidal particles by the oil phase is necessary for thermodynamic stability. We demonstrate the sufficiency of these basic requirements by extending the observed thermodynamic stability to emulsions of different compositions. Our findings point to a new class of colloid-stabilized meso-emulsions with a potentially high impact on industrial emulsification processes due to the associated large energy savings.

  18. Heterogeneous equilibrium in mplybdenum-iodine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkova, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Heterogeneous equilibrium in the Mo-J system is studied to reveal regions of existence of molybdenum iodides, is studied. The investigation is performed for atomic ratio I/Mo=0.02-7.5 in the temperature range of 300-1370 K using methods of thermographic, X-ray phase, chemical and optical analyses of phases quenched after isothermal annealing. It is shown that higher molybdenum iodides (Mo1 4 , MoJ 5 , MoJ 6 ) are thermally unstable compounds and exist in the Mo-J system at low temperatures (360-490 K). Above 470 K higher iodides dissociate up to molybdenum triiodide. MoJ 3 under the pressure of iodine vapors is stable up to 970 K. Molybdenum diiodide is the product of triiodide decomposition and forms in the Mo-J system in the 700-1270 K range. At the J/Mo>>3 ratio the product of triiodide decomposition is MoJsub(2.87) which is thermally unstable up to 570 K, while in iodine atmosphere - up to 1170 K

  19. Evolutionary Exploration of the Finitely Repeated Prisoners’ Dilemma—The Effect of Out-of-Equilibrium Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Lindgren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The finitely repeated Prisoners’ Dilemma is a good illustration of the discrepancy between the strategic behaviour suggested by a game-theoretic analysis and the behaviour often observed among human players, where cooperation is maintained through most of the game. A game-theoretic reasoning based on backward induction eliminates strategies step by step until defection from the first round is the only remaining choice, reflecting the Nash equilibrium of the game. We investigate the Nash equilibrium solution for two different sets of strategies in an evolutionary context, using replicator-mutation dynamics. The first set consists of conditional cooperators, up to a certain round, while the second set in addition to these contains two strategy types that react differently on the first round action: The ”Convincer” strategies insist with two rounds of initial cooperation, trying to establish more cooperative play in the game, while the ”Follower” strategies, although being first round defectors, have the capability to respond to an invite in the first round. For both of these strategy sets, iterated elimination of strategies shows that the only Nash equilibria are given by defection from the first round. We show that the evolutionary dynamics of the first set is always characterised by a stable fixed point, corresponding to the Nash equilibrium, if the mutation rate is sufficiently small (but still positive. The second strategy set is numerically investigated, and we find that there are regions of parameter space where fixed points become unstable and the dynamics exhibits cycles of different strategy compositions. The results indicate that, even in the limit of very small mutation rate, the replicator-mutation dynamics does not necessarily bring the system with Convincers and Followers to the fixed point corresponding to the Nash equilibrium of the game. We also perform a detailed analysis of how the evolutionary behaviour depends on

  20. A Progression of Static Equilibrium Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Kutzner, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Although simple architectural structures like bridges, catwalks, cantilevers, and Stonehenge have been integral in human societies for millennia, as have levers and other simple tools, modern students of introductory physics continue to grapple with Newton's conditions for static equilibrium. As formulated in typical introductory physics textbooks, these two conditions appear as ΣF=0(1) and Στ=0,(2) where each torque τ is defined as the cross product between the lever arm vector r and the corresponding applied force F, τ =r×F,(3) having magnitude, τ =Frsinθ.(4) The angle θ here is between the two vectors F and r. In Eq. (1), upward (downward) forces are considered positive (negative). In Eq. (2), counterclockwise (clockwise) torques are considered positive (negative). Equation (1) holds that the vector sum of the external forces acting on an object must be zero to prevent linear accelerations; Eq. (2) states that the vector sum of torques due to external forces about any axis must be zero to prevent angular accelerations. In our view these conditions can be problematic for students because a) the equations contain the unfamiliar summation notation Σ, b) students are uncertain of the role of torques in causing rotations, and c) it is not clear why the sum of torques is zero regardless of the choice of axis. Gianino5 describes an experiment using MBL and a force sensor to convey the meaning of torque as applied to a rigid-body lever system without exploring quantitative aspects of the conditions for static equilibrium.

  1. Equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dyes biosorption onto Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Dotto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dye (tartrazine and allura red biosorption onto Spirulina platensis biomass were investigated. The equilibrium curves were obtained at 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, and four isotherm models were fitted the experimental data. Biosorption thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were estimated. The results showed that the biosorption was favored by a temperature decrease. For both dyes, the Sips model was the best to represent the equilibrium experimental data (R²>0.99 and ARE<5.0% and the maximum biosorption capacities were 363.2 and 468.7 mg g-1 for tartrazine and allura red, respectively, obtained at 298 K. The negative values of ΔG and ΔH showed that the biosorption of both dyes was spontaneous, favorable and exothermic. The positive values of ΔS suggested that the system disorder increases during the biosorption process.

  2. Thermal equilibrium in Einstein's elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Cubero, David

    2013-05-01

    We report fully relativistic molecular-dynamics simulations that verify the appearance of thermal equilibrium of a classical gas inside a uniformly accelerated container. The numerical experiments confirm that the local momentum distribution in this system is very well approximated by the Jüttner function-originally derived for a flat spacetime-via the Tolman-Ehrenfest effect. Moreover, it is shown that when the acceleration or the container size is large enough, the global momentum distribution can be described by the so-called modified Jüttner function, which was initially proposed as an alternative to the Jüttner function.

  3. Risk premia in general equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    solutions of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, including a novel solution with endogenous labor supply, to obtain closed-form expressions for the risk premium in production economies. We find that the curvature of the policy functions affects the risk premium through controlling the individual......This paper shows that non-linearities can generate time-varying and asymmetric risk premia over the business cycle. These (empirical) key features become relevant and asset market implications improve substantially when we allow for non-normalities in the form of rare disasters. We employ explicit......'s effective risk aversion....

  4. Skill Mismatch in Equilibrium Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    We analyse the effect of skill mismatch in a search model of equilibrium unemployment with risk-neutral agents, endogenous job destruction, and two-sided ex-ante heterogeneity. First, we examine the interaction of labour market institu- tions and skill mismatch. We find that skill mismatch changes the results obtained in a model with ex ante homogeneity. Second, we analyse the interaction of skill mismatch and labour market institutions for the di®erence in the labour market experience of con...

  5. Are the Concepts of Dynamic Equilibrium and the Thermodynamic Criteria for Spontaneity, Nonspontaneity, and Equilibrium Compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Lee J.; Raff, Lionel M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic spontaneity-equilibrium criteria require that in a single-reaction system, reactions in either the forward or reverse direction at equilibrium be nonspontaneous. Conversely, the concept of dynamic equilibrium holds that forward and reverse reactions both occur at equal rates at equilibrium to the extent allowed by kinetic…

  6. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  7. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  8. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  9. The equilibrium of overpressurized polytropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Hersant, F.; Nasello, G.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the impact of an external pressure on the structure of self-gravitating polytropes for axially symmetric ellipsoids and rings. The confinement of the fluid by photons is accounted for through a boundary condition on the enthalpy H. Equilibrium configurations are determined numerically from a generalized `self-consistent-field' method. The new algorithm incorporates an intraloop re-scaling operator R(H), which is essential for both convergence and getting self-normalized solutions. The main control parameter is the external-to-core enthalpy ratio. In the case of uniform rotation rate and uniform surrounding pressure, we compute the mass, the volume, the rotation rate and the maximum enthalpy. This is repeated for a few polytropic indices, n. For a given axial ratio, overpressurization globally increases all output quantities, and this is more pronounced for large n. Density profiles are flatter than in the absence of an external pressure. When the control parameter asymptotically tends to unity, the fluid converges towards the incompressible solution, whatever the index, but becomes geometrically singular. Equilibrium sequences, obtained by varying the axial ratio, are built. States of critical rotation are greatly exceeded or even disappear. The same trends are observed with differential rotation. Finally, the typical response to a photon point source is presented. Strong irradiation favours sharp edges. Applications concern star-forming regions and matter orbiting young stars and black holes.

  10. On the instability of equilibrium of a mechanical system with nonconservative forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the stability of equilibrium of nonholonomic systems, on which dissipative and nonconservative positional forces act, is considered. We have proved the theorems on the instability of equilibrium under the assumptions that: the kinetic energy, the Rayleigh’s dissipation function and the positional forces are infinitely differentiable functions; the projection of the positional force component which represents the first nontrivial form of Maclaurin’s series of that positional force to the plane, which is normal to the vectors of nonholonomic constraints in the equilibrium position, is central and repulsive (with its centre of action in the equilibrium position. The suggested theorems are generalization of the results from [V.V. Kozlov, Prikl. Math. Mekh. (PMM, T58, V5, (1994, 31-36] and [M.M. Veskovic, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 24, (1998, 139-154]. The result obtained is analogous to the result from [D.R. Merkin, Introduction to theory of the stability of motion, Nauka, Moscow (1987], which refers to the impossibility of equilibrium stabilization in a holonomic conservative system by dissipative and nonconservative positional forces in case when the potential energy in the equilibrium position has the maximum. The proving technique will be similar to that used in the paper [V.V. Kozlov, Prikl. Math. Mekh. (PMM, T58, V5, (1994, 31-36]. .

  11. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  12. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  13. Stellar Equilibrium in Semiclassical Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Rubio, Raúl

    2018-02-01

    The phenomenon of quantum vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational field is well understood and is expected to have a physical reality, but studies of its backreaction on the dynamics of spacetime are practically nonexistent outside of the specific context of homogeneous cosmologies. Building on previous results of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, in this Letter we first derive the semiclassical equations of stellar equilibrium in the s -wave Polyakov approximation. It is highlighted that incorporating the polarization of the quantum vacuum leads to a generalization of the classical Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite the complexity of the resulting field equations, it is possible to find exact solutions. Aside from being the first known exact solutions that describe relativistic stars including the nonperturbative backreaction of semiclassical effects, these are identified as a nontrivial combination of the black star and gravastar proposals.

  14. Equilibrium calculations and mode analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnegger, F.

    1987-01-01

    The STEP asymptotic stellarator expansion procedure was used to study the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of stellarator configurations without longitudinal net-current, which also apply to advanced stellarators. The effects of toroidal curvature and magnetic well, and the Shafranov shift were investigated. A classification of unstable modes in toroidal stellarators is given. For WVII-A coil-field configurations having a β value of 1% and a parabolic pressure profile, no free-boundary modes are found. This agrees with the experimental fact that unstable behavior of the plasma column is not observed for this parameter range. So a theoretical β-limit for stability against ideal MHD modes can be estimated by mode analysis for the WVII-A device

  15. Convergence to equilibrium in competitive Lotka–Volterra and chemostat systems

    KAUST Repository

    Champagnat, Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    We study a generalized system of ODE\\'s modeling a finite number of biological populations in a competitive interaction. We adapt the techniques in Jabin and Raoul [8] and Champagnat and Jabin (2010) [2] to prove the convergence to a unique stable equilibrium. © 2010 Académie des sciences.

  16. Teaching the Concept of Gibbs Energy Minimization through Its Application to Phase-Equilibrium Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privat, Romain; Jaubert, Jean-Noe¨l; Berger, Etienne; Coniglio, Lucie; Lemaitre, Ce´cile; Meimaroglou, Dimitrios; Warth, Vale´rie

    2016-01-01

    Robust and fast methods for chemical or multiphase equilibrium calculation are routinely needed by chemical-process engineers working on sizing or simulation aspects. Yet, while industrial applications essentially require calculation tools capable of discriminating between stable and nonstable states and converging to nontrivial solutions,…

  17. Equilibrium mercury isotope fractionation between dissolved Hg(II) species and thiol-bound Hg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiederhold, Jan G.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Daniel, Kelly; Infante, Ivan; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Stable Hg isotope ratios provide a new tool to trace environmental Hg cycling. Thiols (-SH) are the dominant Hg-binding groups in natural organic matter. Here, we report experimental and computational results on equilibrium Hg isotope fractionation between dissolved Hg(II) species and thiol-bound

  18. Adolescents' Body Image Trajectories: A Further Test of the Self-Equilibrium Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maïano, Christophe; Scalas, L. Francesca; Janosz, Michel; Litalien, David

    2017-01-01

    The self-equilibrium hypothesis underlines the importance of having a strong core self, which is defined as a high and developmentally stable self-concept. This study tested this hypothesis in relation to body image (BI) trajectories in a sample of 1,006 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 12.6, including 541 males and 465 females) across a 4-year…

  19. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  20. Relationship between radiocesium and stable cesium in plants and mushrooms collected from forest ecosystems with different contamination levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.; Muramatsu, Y.; Steiner, M.

    2000-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination of forest products is still high in contrast to agricultural products, even more than 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Since the removal of radiocesium from a contaminated forest is not feasible on a large scale, studies on the distribution and transfer of radiocesium in forest ecosystems are important from radiation protection viewpoint. However, the long-term fate of radiocesium in forest ecosystems is still difficult to predict because of the changes in vertical profiles and availability with time of radiocesium in soil, and particularly because of varying stand characteristics. As the chemical behavior of radiocesium is expected to be almost identical to that of stable Cs, analysis of stable Cs should be useful to understand the long-term behavior of radiocesium and its equilibrium distribution. In this study, the concentrations of stable Cs and related alkali and alkaline earth elements in mushrooms, plants and soils were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples were collected in forests with different contamination levels in Japan, Germany, Finland, Italy, Ireland and Belarus. Data of stable elements were summarized together with those of radiocesium. A good correlation between Cs-137 and stable Cs in mushrooms was observed for each site independently, suggesting that mushrooms take up Cs-137 together with stable Cs. The Cs-137/Cs ratios were almost constant for samples collected at the same site except a German forest. A detailed study on the transfer of Cs-134 from organic soil horizons to fungal fruit bodies in a German forest showed that the Cs-134/Cs ratio reflected the ratios of those soil layers, from which the corresponding mushroom species takes up Cs-134. Different Cs-137/Cs ratios at different sites might be attributable to different depositions of Cs-137 and different forest (soil and vegetation) types. Positive

  1. Physical Equilibrium Evaluation in Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, Paula da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Parkinson disease can be among the multiple causes of alterations in the physical equilibrium. Accordingly, this study has the objective to evaluate Parkinson patients' physical equilibrium. Method: Potential study in which 12 Parkinson individuals were evaluated by way of tests of static and dynamic equilibrium, dynamic posturography and vectoelectronystagmograph. To compare the dynamic posturography results a group of gauged control was used. Results: Alterations in Romberg-Barré, Unterberger and Walk tests were found. The vestibular exam revealed 06 normal cases, 04 central vestibular syndrome and 02 cases of peripheral vestibular syndrome. In the dynamic posturography, an equilibrium alteration has been verified, when compared to the control group in all Sensorial Organization Tests, in average and in the utilization of vestibular system. Conclusion: Parkinson patients present a physical equilibrium alteration. The dynamic posturography was more sensitive to detect the equilibrium alterations than vectoelectronystagmograph.

  2. Stochastic thermodynamics of quantum maps with and without equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Felipe; Lledó, Cristóbal

    2017-11-01

    We study stochastic thermodynamics for a quantum system of interest whose dynamics is described by a completely positive trace-preserving (CPTP) map as a result of its interaction with a thermal bath. We define CPTP maps with equilibrium as CPTP maps with an invariant state such that the entropy production due to the action of the map on the invariant state vanishes. Thermal maps are a subgroup of CPTP maps with equilibrium. In general, for CPTP maps, the thermodynamic quantities, such as the entropy production or work performed on the system, depend on the combined state of the system plus its environment. We show that these quantities can be written in terms of system properties for maps with equilibrium. The relations that we obtain are valid for arbitrary coupling strengths between the system and the thermal bath. The fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are considered in the framework of a two-point measurement scheme. We derive the entropy production fluctuation theorem for general maps and a fluctuation relation for the stochastic work on a system that starts in the Gibbs state. Some simplifications for the probability distributions in the case of maps with equilibrium are presented. We illustrate our results by considering spin 1/2 systems under thermal maps, nonthermal maps with equilibrium, maps with nonequilibrium steady states, and concatenations of them. Finally, and as an important application, we consider a particular limit in which the concatenation of maps generates a continuous time evolution in Lindblad form for the system of interest, and we show that the concept of maps with and without equilibrium translates into Lindblad equations with and without quantum detailed balance, respectively. The consequences for the thermodynamic quantities in this limit are discussed.

  3. Mathematical models and equilibrium in irreversible microeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly M. Tsirlin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of equilibrium states in a system consisting of economic agents, economic reservoirs, and firms is considered. Methods of irreversible microeconomics are used. We show that direct sale/purchase leads to an equilibrium state which depends upon the coefficients of supply/demand functions. To reach the unique equilibrium state it is necessary to add either monetary exchange or an intermediate firm.

  4. Thermalization and Return to Equilibrium on Finite Quantum Lattice Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Terry; Brandão, Fernando G S L; Cramer, Marcus

    2017-04-07

    Thermal states are the bedrock of statistical physics. Nevertheless, when and how they actually arise in closed quantum systems is not fully understood. We consider this question for systems with local Hamiltonians on finite quantum lattices. In a first step, we show that states with exponentially decaying correlations equilibrate after a quantum quench. Then, we show that the equilibrium state is locally equivalent to a thermal state, provided that the free energy of the equilibrium state is sufficiently small and the thermal state has exponentially decaying correlations. As an application, we look at a related important question: When are thermal states stable against noise? In other words, if we locally disturb a closed quantum system in a thermal state, will it return to thermal equilibrium? We rigorously show that this occurs when the correlations in the thermal state are exponentially decaying. All our results come with finite-size bounds, which are crucial for the growing field of quantum thermodynamics and other physical applications.

  5. Collapse and equilibrium of rotating, adiabatic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical hydrodynamics computer code has been used to follow the collapse and establishment of equilibrium of adiabatic gas clouds restricted to axial symmetry. The clouds are initially uniform in density and rotation, with adiabatic exponents γ=5/3 and 7/5. The numerical technique allows, for the first time, a direct comparison to be made between the dynamic collapse and approach to equilibrium of unconstrained clouds on the one hand, and the results for incompressible, uniformly rotating equilibrium clouds, and the equilibrium structures of differentially rotating polytropes, on the other hand

  6. Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.

  7. Neutral and Stable Equilibria of Genetic Systems and The Hardy-Weinberg Principle: Limitations of the Chi-Square Test and Advantages of Auto-Correlation Functions of Allele Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A Bosco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the foundations of Population Genetics the notion of genetic equilibrium (in close analogy to Classical Mechanics has been associated with the Hardy-Weinberg (HW Principle and the identification of equilibrium is currently assumed by stating that the HW axioms are valid if appropriate values of Chi-Square (p<0.05 are observed in experiments. Here we show by numerical experiments with the genetic system of one locus/two alleles that considering large ensembles of populations the Chi-Square test is not decisive and may lead to false negatives in random mating populations and false positives in nonrandom mating populations. This result confirms the logical statement that statistical tests cannot be used to deduce if the genetic population is under the HW conditions. Furthermore, we show that under the HW conditions populations of any size evolve in time according to what can be identified as neutral dynamics to which the very notion of equilibrium is unattainable for any practical purpose. Therefore, under the HW conditions the identification of equilibrium properties needs a different approach and the use of more appropriate concepts. We also show that by relaxing the condition of random mating the dynamics acquires all the characteristics of asymptotic stable equilibrium. As a consequence our results show that the question of equilibrium in genetic systems should be approached in close analogy to non-equilibrium statistical physics and its observability should be focused on dynamical quantities like the typical decay properties of the allelic auto correlation function in time. In this perspective one should abandon the classical notion of genetic equilibrium and its relation to the HW proportions and open investigations in the direction of searching for unifying general principles of population genetic transformations capable to take in consideration these systems in their full complexity.

  8. Oppositely charged colloids out of equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, T.

    2010-11-01

    Colloids are particles with a size in the range of a few nanometers up to several micrometers. Similar to atomic and molecular systems, they can form gases, liquids, solids, gels and glasses. Colloids can be used as model systems because, unlike molecules, they are sufficiently large to be studied directly with light microscopy and move sufficiently slow to study their dynamics. In this thesis, we study binary systems of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) colloidal particles suspended in low-polar solvent mixtures. Since the ions can still partially dissociate, a surface charge builds up which causes electrostatic interactions between the colloids. By carefully tuning the conditions inside the suspension, we make two kinds of particles oppositely charged. To study our samples, we use Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The positively and negatively charged particles can be distinguished by a different fluorescent dye. Colloids constantly experience a random motion resulting from random kicks of surrounding solvent molecules. When the attractions between the oppositely charged particles are weak, the particles can attach and detach many times and explore a lot of possible configurations and the system can reach thermodynamic equilibrium. For example, colloidal ‘ionic’ crystals consisting of thousands to millions of particles can form under the right conditions. When the attractions are strong, the system can become kinetically trapped inside a gel-like state. We observe that when the interactions change again, crystals can even emerge again from this gel-like phase. By using local order parameters, we quantitatively study the crystallization of colloidal particles and identify growth defects inside the crystals. We also study the effect of gravity on the growth of ionic crystals by using a rotating stage. We find that sedimentation can completely inhibit crystal growth and plays an important role in crystallization from the gel-like state. The surface

  9. Equilibrium coexistence of three amphiboles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P.; Jaffe, H.W.; Klein, C.; Ross, M.

    1969-01-01

    Electron probe and wet chemical analyses of amphibole pairs from the sillimanite zone of central Massachusetts and adjacent New Hampshire indicated that for a particular metamorphic grade there should be a restricted composition range in which three amphiboles can coexist stably. An unequivocal example of such an equilibrium three amphibole rock has been found in the sillimanite-orthoclase zone. It contains a colorless primitive clinoamphibole, space group P21/m, optically and chemically like cummingtonite with blue-green hornblende exsolution lamellae on (100) and (-101) of the host; blue-green hornblende, space group C2/m, with primitive cummingtonite exsolution lamellae on (100) and (-101) of the host; and pale pinkish tan anthophyllite, space group Pnma, that is free of visible exsolution lamellae but is a submicroscopic intergrowth of two orthorhombic amphiboles. Mutual contacts and coarse, oriented intergrowths of two and three host amphiboles indicate the three grew as an equilibrium assemblage prior to exsolution. Electron probe analyses at mutual three-amphibole contacts showed little variation in the composition of each amphibole. Analyses believed to represent most closely the primary amphibole compositions gave atomic proportions on the basis of 23 oxygens per formula unit as follows: for primitive cummingtonite (Na0.02Ca0.21- Mn0.06Fe2+2.28Mg4.12Al0.28) (Al0.17Si7.83), for hornblende (Na0.35Ca1.56Mn0.02Fe1.71Mg2.85Al0.92) (Al1.37Si6.63), and for anthophyllite (Na0.10Ca0.06Mn0.06Fe2.25Mg4.11Al0.47) (Al0.47Si7.53). The reflections violating C-symmetry, on X-ray single crystal photographs of the primitive cummingtonite, are weak and diffuse, and suggest a partial inversion from a C-centered to a primitive clinoamphibole. Single crystal photographs of the anthophyllite show split reflections indicating it is an intergrowth of about 80% anthophyllite and about 20% gedrite which differ in their b crystallographic dimensions. Split reflections are

  10. Nanoscale Correlated Disorder in Out-of-Equilibrium Myelin Ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, Gaetano; Di Gioacchino, Michael; Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Burghammer, Manfred; Ciasca, Gabriele; Bianconi, Antonio

    2018-01-23

    Ultrastructural fluctuations at nanoscale are fundamental to assess properties and functionalities of advanced out-of-equilibrium materials. We have taken myelin as a model of supramolecular assembly in out-of-equilibrium living matter. Myelin sheath is a simple stable multilamellar structure of high relevance and impact in biomedicine. Although it is known that myelin has a quasi-crystalline ultrastructure, there is no information on its fluctuations at nanoscale in different states due to limitations of the available standard techniques. To overcome these limitations, we have used scanning micro X-ray diffraction, which is a unique non-invasive probe of both reciprocal and real space to visualize statistical fluctuations of myelin order of the sciatic nerve of Xenopus laevis. The results show that the ultrastructure period of the myelin is stabilized by large anticorrelated fluctuations at nanoscale, between hydrophobic and hydrophilic layers. The ratio between the total thickness of hydrophilic and hydrophobic layers defines the conformational parameter, which describes the different states of myelin. Our key result is that myelin in its out-of-equilibrium functional state fluctuates point-to-point between different conformations showing a correlated disorder described by a Levy distribution. As the system approaches the thermodynamic equilibrium in an aged state, the disorder loses its correlation degree and the structural fluctuation distribution changes to Gaussian. In a denatured state at low pH, it changes to a completely disordered stage. Our results aim to clarify the degradation mechanism in biological systems by associating these states with ultrastructural dynamic fluctuations at nanoscale.

  11. Initially Approximated Quasi Equilibrium Manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.; Arif, H.; Gulistan, M.; Sajid, M.

    2015-01-01

    Most commonly, kinetics model reduction techniques are based on exploiting time scale separation into fast and slow reaction processes. Then, a researcher approximates the system dynamically with dimension reduction for slow ones eliminating the fast modes. The main idea behind the construction of the lower dimension manifold is based on finding its initial approximation using Quasi Equilibrium Manifold (QEM). Here, we provide an efficient numerical method, which allow us to calculate low dimensional manifolds of chemical reaction systems. This computation technique is not restricted to our specific complex problem, but it can also be applied to other reacting flows or dynamic systems provided with the condition that a large number of extra (decaying) components can be eliminated from the system. Through computational approach, we approximate low dimensional manifold for a mechanism of six chemical species to simplify complex chemical kinetics. A reduced descriptive form of slow invariant manifold is obtained from dissipative system. This method is applicable for higher dimensions and is applied over an oxidation of CO/Pt. (author)

  12. Colin Rowe and ' Dynamic Equilibrium'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López Marín

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn 1944 Gyorgy Kepes published what undoubtless will be his most influential text, "The language of vision". What Kepes tried to do was a guide of grammar and syntax of vision, which allows to face art as purely sensory experience or just visual, devisted of any literary , semantic or sentimental meaning.Among all the concepts that Kepes developes in his essay perhaps the most decisive one is the so called dynamic equilibrium, which is introduced in this work for fi rst time, verbalizing something that was in the air, orbiting around the entire modern plastic but far only explained in an empirical way.Colin Rowe reverberates the recent readed kepesian ideas on his own writings Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal and Neo-'Classicism' and Modern Architecture I and II, when the author tries to highlight the founding principles of the modern movement refusing the plastic  dimension of the discipline . The article will try to expose and explain this influence.

  13. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  14. Do intertidal flats ever reach equilibrium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, D.C.; van Prooijen, B.C.; Wang, Z.B.; de Vriend, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have identified a strong relation between the hydrodynamic forces and the equilibrium profile for intertidal flats. A thorough understanding of the interplay between the hydrodynamic forces and the morphology, however, concerns more than the equilibrium state alone. We study the

  15. The geometry of finite equilibrium sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...

  16. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R

    1997-01-01

    There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase

  17. Effect of Equilibrium Current Profiles on External Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Liu Yue; Ma Zhaoshuai

    2014-01-01

    Based on a linearized MHD model, the effect of equilibrium current profiles on external kink modes in tokamaks is studied by MARS code. Three types of equilibrium current profiles are adopted in this work. Firstly, a set of parabolic equilibrium current profiles are chosen. In these profiles the maximum current values in the center of the plasma are fixed, and the currents have different gradient and jump at the plasma boundary. The effects of the current gradient and jump on the growth rate of external kink mode are investigated. It is found that the current jump which causes the q profiles to change plays an important role in the external kink modes in tokamaks. Secondly, a set of step equilibrium current profiles with different jump positions are chosen. The effect of jump position on external kink modes is discussed. Thirdly, a set of parabolic equilibrium current profiles with current bumps are chosen for the case of off-axis heating. The effects of height, width and position of the current bumps on external kink modes are analyzed. The flat equilibrium current profiles are disadvantageous for the MHD stabilities of tokamaks, because of the large current jump at the plasma edge. The peaked equilibrium current profiles and a large and localized current bump near the plasma edge benefit the MHD stabilities of tokamaks

  18. Equilibrium and pre-equilibrium calculations of cross-sections of (p ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium calculations of cross-sections of 89Y(, ), 90Zr ( p , x n ) and 94Mo(, ) reactions, which were used for the production of 89Zr, 90Nb and 94Tc positron-emitting radioisotopes, have been investigated. Pre-equilibrium calculations have been performed at different proton ...

  19. On the definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Akimoto, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    We propose a definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems on the basis of the time average. We show numerically that there exists a non-equilibrium non-stationary state in the coupled modified Bernoulli map lattice.

  20. Implementing an Equilibrium Law Teaching Sequence for Secondary School Students to Learn Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Regis, Alberto; Roletto, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    A didactic sequence is proposed for the teaching of chemical equilibrium law. In this approach, we have avoided the kinetic derivation and the thermodynamic justification of the equilibrium constant. The equilibrium constant expression is established empirically by a trial-and-error approach. Additionally, students learn to use the criterion of…

  1. Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzà, F; Vedral, V

    2017-03-07

    A crucial point in statistical mechanics is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which can be given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy, under the validity of some constraints. Arguing that such a notion can never be experimentally probed, in this paper we propose a new notion of thermal equilibrium, focused on observables rather than on the full state of the quantum system. We characterise such notion of thermal equilibrium for an arbitrary observable via the maximisation of its Shannon entropy and we bring to light the thermal properties that it heralds. The relation with Gibbs ensembles is studied and understood. We apply such a notion of equilibrium to a closed quantum system and show that there is always a class of observables which exhibits thermal equilibrium properties and we give a recipe to explicitly construct them. Eventually, an intimate connection with the Eigenstate Thermalisation Hypothesis is brought to light.

  2. Fluorescence lifetime components reveal kinetic intermediate states upon equilibrium denaturation of carbonic anhydrase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtseva, Elena V; Lashchuk, Olesya O; Gerasimova, Marina A; Melnik, Tatiana N; Nagibina, Galina S; Melnik, Bogdan S

    2017-12-21

    In most cases, intermediate states of multistage folding proteins are not 'visible' under equilibrium conditions but are revealed in kinetic experiments. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used in equilibrium denaturation studies. The technique allows for detecting changes in the conformation and environment of tryptophan residues in different structural elements of carbonic anhydrase II which in its turn has made it possible to study the intermediate states of carbonic anhydrase II under equilibrium conditions. The results of equilibrium and kinetic experiments using wild-type bovine carbonic anhydrase II and its mutant form with the substitution of leucine for alanine at position 139 (L139A) were compared. The obtained lifetime components of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence allowed for revealing that, the same as in kinetic experiments, under equilibrium conditions the unfolding of carbonic anhydrase II ensues through formation of intermediate states.

  3. Non-equilibrium thermodynamical description of rhythmic motion patterns of active systems: a canonical-dissipative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotov, D G; Kim, S; Frank, T D

    2015-02-01

    We derive explicit expressions for the non-equilibrium thermodynamical variables of a canonical-dissipative limit cycle oscillator describing rhythmic motion patterns of active systems. These variables are statistical entropy, non-equilibrium internal energy, and non-equilibrium free energy. In particular, the expression for the non-equilibrium free energy is derived as a function of a suitable control parameter. The control parameter determines the Hopf bifurcation point of the deterministic active system and describes the effective pumping of the oscillator. In analogy to the equilibrium free energy of the Landau theory, it is shown that the non-equilibrium free energy decays as a function of the control parameter. In doing so, a similarity between certain equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase transitions is pointed out. Data from an experiment on human rhythmic movements is presented. Estimates for pumping intensity as well as the thermodynamical variables are reported. It is shown that in the experiment the non-equilibrium free energy decayed when pumping intensity was increased, which is consistent with the theory. Moreover, pumping intensities close to zero could be observed at relatively slow intended rhythmic movements. In view of the Hopf bifurcation underlying the limit cycle oscillator model, this observation suggests that the intended limit cycle movements were actually more similar to trajectories of a randomly perturbed stable focus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  5. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  6. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  7. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  8. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  9. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  10. The Conceptual Change Approach to Teaching Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canpolat, Nurtac; Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Bayrakceken, Samih; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts (e.g. dynamic nature of equilibrium, definition of equilibrium constant, heterogeneous equilibrium, qualitative interpreting of equilibrium constant, changing the reaction conditions). This…

  11. Nonideal plasmas as non-equilibrium media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E; Valuev, A A; Valuev, I A

    2003-01-01

    Various aspects of the collective behaviour of non-equilibrium nonideal plasmas are studied. The relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method for two-component non-degenerate strongly non-equilibrium plasmas. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration and the subsequent exponential stage of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of ion charge, nonideality parameter and ion mass. A simulation model of the nonideal plasma excited by an electron beam is proposed. An approach is developed to calculate the dynamic structure factor in non-stationary conditions. Instability increment is obtained from MD simulations

  12. Adaptive Topographies and Equilibrium Selection in an Evolutionary Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga, Hinke M.; Marshall, James A. R.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known in the field of population genetics that adaptive topographies, in which population equilibria maximise mean population fitness for a trait regardless of its genetic bases, do not exist. Whether one chooses to model selection acting on a single locus or multiple loci does matter. In evolutionary game theory, analysis of a simple and general game involving distinct roles for the two players has shown that whether strategies are modelled using a single ‘locus’ or one ‘locus’ for each role, the stable population equilibria are unchanged and correspond to the fitness-maximising evolutionary stable strategies of the game. This is curious given the aforementioned population genetical results on the importance of the genetic bases of traits. Here we present a dynamical systems analysis of the game with roles detailing how, while the stable equilibria in this game are unchanged by the number of ‘loci’ modelled, equilibrium selection may differ under the two modelling approaches. PMID:25706762

  13. Fluctuations in Mass-Action Equilibrium of Protein Binding Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Koon-Kiu; Walker, Dylan; Maslov, Sergei

    2008-12-01

    We consider two types of fluctuations in the mass-action equilibrium in protein binding networks. The first type is driven by slow changes in total concentrations of interacting proteins. The second type (spontaneous) is caused by quickly decaying thermodynamic deviations away from equilibrium. We investigate the effects of network connectivity on fluctuations by comparing them to scenarios in which the interacting pair is isolated from the network and analytically derives bounds on fluctuations. Collective effects are shown to sometimes lead to large amplification of spontaneous fluctuations. The strength of both types of fluctuations is positively correlated with the complex connectivity and negatively correlated with complex concentration. Our general findings are illustrated using a curated network of protein interactions and multiprotein complexes in baker’s yeast, with empirical protein concentrations.

  14. Preliminary analysis of advanced equilibrium configuration for the fusion-driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Delin; Wu Bin; Wu Yican

    2003-01-01

    The Fusion-Driven Subcritical System (FDS) is a subcritical nuclear energy system driven by fusion neutron source. In this paper, an advanced plasma configuration for FDS system has been proposed, which aims at high beta, high bootstrap current and good confinement. A fixed-boundary equilibrium code has been used to obtain ideal equilibrium configuration. In order to determine the feasibility of FDS operation, a two-dimensional time-dependent free boundary simulation code has been adopted to simulate time-scale evolution of plasma current profile and boundary position. By analyses, the Reversed Shear mode as the most attractive one has been recommended for the FDS equilibrium configuration design

  15. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  16. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  17. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F.; Kort, Peter M.; Novak, Andreas J.; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure’s actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader. PMID:23565027

  18. Leading bureaucracies to the tipping point: An alternative model of multiple stable equilibrium levels of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F; Kort, Peter M; Novak, Andreas J; Seidl, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure's actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader.

  19. Law, Coercion and Socioeconomic Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimos T. SOLDATOS

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic conditions under which the performance of a Judiciary does not impede non-coercive fair socioeconomic allocations under “Strotz-myopia” regarding the law variable, i.e. under a static view of it in an otherwise dynamic context. The law, here, is the positive factor by which consumption volume is multiplied as a result of law introduction in an otherwise fully private social economy. Lexicographic preferences regarding the law is the keyword in establishing...

  20. Referesher Course on Contemporary Non-Equilibrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Referesher Course on Contemporary Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. Information and Announcements Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 678-678 ...

  1. Quantum mechanical evolution towards thermal equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J; Winter, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    The circumstances under which a system reaches thermal equilibrium, and how to derive this from basic dynamical laws, has been a major question from the very beginning of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Despite considerable progress, it remains an open problem. Motivated by this issue, we address the more general question of equilibration. We prove, with virtually full generality, that reaching equilibrium is a universal property of quantum systems: almost any subsystem in interaction with a large enough bath will reach an equilibrium state and remain close to it for almost all times. We also prove several general results about other aspects of thermalization besides equilibration, for example, that the equilibrium state does not depend on the detailed microstate of the bath.

  2. Intermittent many-body dynamics at equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, C.; Campbell, D. K.; Flach, S.

    2017-06-01

    The equilibrium value of an observable defines a manifold in the phase space of an ergodic and equipartitioned many-body system. A typical trajectory pierces that manifold infinitely often as time goes to infinity. We use these piercings to measure both the relaxation time of the lowest frequency eigenmode of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain, as well as the fluctuations of the subsequent dynamics in equilibrium. The dynamics in equilibrium is characterized by a power-law distribution of excursion times far off equilibrium, with diverging variance. Long excursions arise from sticky dynamics close to q -breathers localized in normal mode space. Measuring the exponent allows one to predict the transition into nonergodic dynamics. We generalize our method to Klein-Gordon lattices where the sticky dynamics is due to discrete breathers localized in real space.

  3. Equilibrium Molecular Interactions in Pure Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium molecular interactions in pure real gases are investigated based on the chemical thermodynamics principles. The parallels between clusters in real gases and chemical compounds in equilibrium media have been used to improve understanding of the real gas structure. A new approach to the equilibrium constants for the cluster fractions and new methods to compute them and their significant parameters from the experimental thermophysical data are developed. These methods have been applied to some real gases, such as Argon and Water vapors and gaseous Alkanes. It is shown that the four-particle clusters make a noticeable contribution in the thermophysical properties of the equilibrium Water vapor. It is shown also that the effective bond energy for dimers in Alkanes linearly grows with the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

  4. Equilibrium Crystal Shapes by Virtual Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reivinen, M.; Salonen, E.-M.; Todoshchenko, I.; Vaskelainen, V. P.

    2013-01-01

    A formulation on equilibrium crystal shape determination based on the principle of virtual work is presented. The treatment is restricted to two dimensions. A corresponding discrete solution method is given. Some example cases are presented.

  5. "Secrets" of High Pressure Phase Equilibrium Experiment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wichterle, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 11 (2005), s. 477-479 ISSN 0022-9830 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : vapour-liquid equilibrium * experimental work Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  6. Plasma equilibrium and instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I.L.; Vannucci, A.

    1985-01-01

    A phenomenological introduction of some of the main theoretical and experimental features on equilibrium and instabilities in tokamaks is presented. In general only macroscopic effects are considered, being the plasma described as a fluid. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Computation of Phase Equilibrium and Phase Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    In this technical report, we describe the computation of phase equilibrium and phase envelopes based on expressions for the fugacity coefficients. We derive those expressions from the residual Gibbs energy. We consider 1) ideal gases and liquids modeled with correlations from the DIPPR database...... and 2) nonideal gases and liquids modeled with cubic equations of state. Next, we derive the equilibrium conditions for an isothermal-isobaric (constant temperature, constant pressure) vapor-liquid equilibrium process (PT flash), and we present a method for the computation of phase envelopes. We...... formulate the involved equations in terms of the fugacity coefficients. We present expressions for the first-order derivatives. Such derivatives are necessary in computationally efficient gradient-based methods for solving the vapor-liquid equilibrium equations and for computing phase envelopes. Finally, we...

  8. Non-equilibrium effects in chaperone-assisted translocation of a stiff polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Abdolvahab, Rouhollah

    2018-01-01

    Chaperone-assisted biopolymer translocation is the main model proposed for translocation in vivo. A dynamical Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the translocation of a stiff homopolymer through a nanopore driven by chaperones. Chaperones are proteins that bind to the polymer near the wall and prevent its backsliding through Cis side. The important parameters include binding energy, size and the local concentration of the chaperones. The profile of these local concentrations, build up the chaperones distribution. Here we investigate the effects of binding energy, size and the exponential distribution of chaperones in their equilibration in each step of the polymer translocation needed for stable translocation time. The simulation results show that in case of chaperones with the size of a monomer (λ = 1) and/or positive effective binding energy and/or uniform distribution, the chaperones binding equilibration rate/frequency is less than 5 times per monomer. However, in some special cases in the exponential distribution of chaperones with size λ > 1 and negative effective binding energy the equilibration rate will diverge to more than 20 times per monomer. We show that this non-equilibrium effect results in supper diffusion, seen before. Moreover, we confirm the equilibration process theoretically.

  9. Equilibrium p-T Phase Diagram of Boron: Experimental Study and Thermodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solozhenko, Vladimir L.; Kurakevych, Oleksandr O.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state phase transformations and melting of high-purity crystalline boron have been in situ and ex situ studied at pressures to 20 GPa in the 1500–2500 K temperature range where diffusion processes become fast and lead to formation of thermodynamically stable phases. The equilibrium phase diagram of boron has been constructed based on thermodynamic analysis of experimental and literature data. The high-temperature part of the diagram contains p-T domains of thermodynamic stability of rhombohedral β-B106, orthorhombic γ-B28, pseudo-cubic (tetragonal) t'-B52, and liquid boron (L). The positions of two triple points have been experimentally estimated, i.e. β–t'–L at ~ 8.0 GPa and ~ 2490 K; and β–γ–t' at ~ 9.6 GPa and ~ 2230 K. Finally, the proposed phase diagram explains all thermodynamic aspects of boron allotropy and significantly improves our understanding of the fifth element. PMID:23912523

  10. Non-equilibrium dog-flea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2017-11-01

    We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.

  11. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium...... correspondence. Finally, we prove that when intermediation costs approach zero, unbounded volume of asset trades is a necessary and sufficient condition, provided that, there is no financial equilibrium without intermediation costs....

  12. Edge Equilibrium Code (EEC) For Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xujling

    2014-02-24

    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids

  13. Quasi-equilibrium interpretation of aging dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, S.; Virasoro, M.A.

    2000-04-01

    We develop an interpretation of the off-equilibrium dynamical solution of mean-field glassy models in terms of quasi-equilibrium concepts. We show that the relaxation of the 'thermoremanent magnetization' follows a generalized version of the Onsager regression postulate of induced fluctuations. We then find the rationale for the equality between the fluctuation-dissipation ratio and the rate of growth of the configurational entropy close to the asymptotic state, found empirically in mean-field solutions. (author)

  14. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium behaviour of surfactant systems

    OpenAIRE

    Reissig, Louisa

    2010-01-01

    In binary systems, surfactant molecules can self-assemble into a large variety of structures depending on their chemical structure, concentration and temperature. The properties and stability of the phases, their coexistence regions and the formation of metastable structures is of great importance not only for fundamental understanding, but also for applications in many fields including industry and medicine. This thesis presents studies of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium b...

  15. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Non-equilibrium due to coupling between applied energy and free electrons can be responsible for the exponential relaxation from non-equilibrium to equilibrium. Keywords. Band tailing; organic conductors; IR spectra; electrical resistivity.

  16. Position Analysis of Planar Tensegrity Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    and 2 non-compliant members. Finding a simple solution approach for a closed form solution to the other two dimensional tensegrity structures...dimensional tensegrity structures, struts still do not touch. A tensegrity structure stands by itself in its equilibrium position and maintains its form ...equilibrium position when no external force or torque is applied. A closed- form solution of a two-spring, three-spring, and four- spring planar tensegrity

  17. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  18. LP Well-Posedness for Bilevel Vector Equilibrium and Optimization Problems with Equilibrium Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Khanh, Phan Quoc; Plubtieng, Somyot; Sombut, Kamonrat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is introduce several types of Levitin-Polyak well-posedness for bilevel vector equilibrium and optimization problems with equilibrium constraints. Base on criterion and characterizations for these types of Levitin-Polyak well-posedness we argue on diameters and Kuratowski’s, Hausdorff’s, or Istrǎtescus measures of noncompactness of approximate solution sets under suitable conditions, and we prove the Levitin-Polyak well-posedness for bilevel vector equilibrium and op...

  19. The Equilibrium Between Titanium Ions and Titanium Metal in NaCl-KCl Equimolar Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyu; Song, Jianxun; Hu, Guojing; Zhu, Xiaobo; Hou, Jungang; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2013-08-01

    The equilibrium between metallic titanium and titanium ions, 3Ti2+ ⇌ 2Ti3+ + Ti, in NaCl-KCl equimolar molten salt was reevaluated. At a fixed temperature and an initial concentration of titanium chloride, the equilibrium was achieved by adding an excess amount of sponge titanium in assistant with bubbling of argon into the molten salt. The significance of this work is that the accurate concentrations of titanium ions have been obtained based on a reliable approach for taking samples. Furthermore, the equilibrium constant {{K}}_{{C}} = (x_{{{{Ti}}^{{ 3 { + }}} }}^{{eql}} )3 /(x_{{{{Ti}}^{{ 2 { + }}} }}^{{eql}} )2 was calculated through the best-fitting method under the consideration of the TiOCl dissolution. Indeed, the final results have disclosed that the stable value of KC could be achieved based on all modifications.

  20. Titanium stable isotope investigation of magmatic processes on the Earth and Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Marc-Alban; Dauphas, Nicolas; Greber, Nicolas D.; Burton, Kevin W.; Dale, Chris W.; Debret, Baptiste; Macpherson, Colin G.; Nowell, Geoffrey M.; Williams, Helen M.

    2016-09-01

    We present titanium stable isotope measurements of terrestrial magmatic samples and lunar mare basalts with the aims of constraining the composition of the lunar and terrestrial mantles and evaluating the potential of Ti stable isotopes for understanding magmatic processes. Relative to the OL-Ti isotope standard, the δ49Ti values of terrestrial samples vary from -0.05 to +0.55‰, whereas those of lunar mare basalts vary from -0.01 to +0.03‰ (the precisions of the double spike Ti isotope measurements are ca. ±0.02‰ at 95% confidence). The Ti stable isotope compositions of differentiated terrestrial magmas define a well-defined positive correlation with SiO2 content, which appears to result from the fractional crystallisation of Ti-bearing oxides with an inferred isotope fractionation factor of ΔTi49oxide-melt = - 0.23 ‰ ×106 /T2. Primitive terrestrial basalts show no resolvable Ti isotope variations and display similar values to mantle-derived samples (peridotite and serpentinites), indicating that partial melting does not fractionate Ti stable isotopes and that the Earth's mantle has a homogeneous δ49Ti composition of +0.005 ± 0.005 (95% c.i., n = 29). Eclogites also display similar Ti stable isotope compositions, suggesting that Ti is immobile during dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere. Lunar basalts have variable δ49Ti values; low-Ti mare basalts have δ49Ti values similar to that of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) while high-Ti lunar basalts display small enrichment in the heavy Ti isotopes. This is best interpreted in terms of source heterogeneity resulting from Ti stable isotope fractionation associated with ilmenite-melt equilibrium during the generation of the mantle source of high-Ti lunar mare basalts. The similarity in δ49Ti between terrestrial samples and low-Ti lunar basalts provides strong evidence that the Earth and Moon have identical stable Ti isotope compositions.

  1. Substances labelled in metabolically stable positions. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeding, P.; Steinbach, J.; Kasper, H.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis of 11 C-ring-labelled substances such as phenylalanine is the reduction of [1- 11 C]-nitrobenzene to 11 C-ring-labelled aniline. The appropriate diazonium salt is chosen to be the labelled synthone for further reactions. (orig./EF)

  2. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  3. To the theory of fluctuations in a non-equilibrium plasma with taking into account the particle collisional interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchkov, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    A method for calculation of non-equilibrium fluctuations in a totally ionized stable plasma with taking into account the particle collisions is proposed. The spectrum of high-frequency fluctuations of the electric field is calculated by the developed method. The formula obtained for the spectrum takes into consideration both the Coulomb collisions and influence of collective effects on the collisions and is applicable for stable arbitrary distributions of electrons and ions

  4. Comparing DINA code simulations with TCV experimental plasma equilibrium responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Lister, J.B.; Lukash, V.E.; Wainwright, J.P.

    2000-08-01

    The DINA non-linear time dependent simulation code has been validated against an extensive set of plasma equilibrium response experiments carried out on the TCV tokamak. Limited and diverted plasmas are found to be well modelled during the plasma current flat top. In some simulations the application of the PF coil voltage stimulation pulse sufficiently changed the plasma equilibrium that the vertical position feedback control loop became unstable. This behaviour was also found in the experimental work, and cannot be reproduced using linear time-independent models. A single null diverted plasma discharge was also simulated from start-up to shut-down and the results were found to accurately reproduce their experimental equivalents. The most significant difference noted was the penetration time of the poloidal flux, leading to a delayed onset of sawtoothing in the DINA simulation. The complete set of frequency stimulation experiments used to measure the open loop tokamak plasma equilibrium response was also simulated using DINA and the results were analysed in an identical fashion to the experimental data. The frequency response of the DINA simulations agrees with the experimental results. Comparisons with linear models are also discussed to identify areas of good and only occasionally less good agreement. (author)

  5. Spatial distributions at equilibrium under heterogeneous transient subdiffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Hugues; Soula, Hédi A

    2014-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the mobility of macromolecules, especially proteins, in cells and their membranes consistently report transient subdiffusion with possibly position-dependent-non-homogeneous-properties. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of protein mobility when transient subdiffusion is restricted to a subregion of space is still unclear. Here, we investigated the spatial distribution at equilibrium of proteins undergoing transient subdiffusion due to continuous-time random walks (CTRW) in a restricted subregion of a two-dimensional space. Our Monte-Carlo simulations suggest that this process leads to a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of the proteins at equilibrium, where proteins increasingly accumulate in the CTRW subregion as its anomalous properties are increasingly marked. In the case of transient CTRW, we show that this accumulation is dictated by the asymptotic Brownian regime and not by the initial anomalous transient dynamics. Moreover, our results also show that this dominance of the asymptotic Brownian regime cannot be simply generalized to other scenarios of transient subdiffusion. In particular, non-homogeneous transient subdiffusion due to hindrance by randomly-located immobile obstacles does not lead to such a strong local accumulation. These results suggest that, even though they exhibit the same time-dependence of the mean-squared displacement, the different scenarios proposed to account for subdiffusion in the cell lead to different protein distribution in space, even at equilibrium and without coupling with reaction.

  6. Spatial distributions at equilibrium under heterogeneous transient subdiffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues eBerry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental measurements of the mobility of macromolecules, especially proteins, in cells and their membranes consistently report transient subdiffusion with possibly position-dependent -- nonhomogeneous -- properties. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of protein mobility when transient subdiffusion is restricted to a subregion of space is still unclear. Here, we investigated the spatial distribution at equilibrium of proteins undergoing transient subdiffusion due to continuous-time random walks (CTRW in a restricted subregion of a two-dimensional space. Our Monte-Carlo simulations suggest that this process leads to a nonhomogeneous spatial distribution of the proteins at equilibrium, where proteins increasingly accumulate in the CTRW subregion as its anomalous properties are increasingly marked. In the case of transient CTRW, we show that this accumulation is dictated by the asymptotic Brownian regime and not by the initial anomalous transient dynamics. Moreover, our results also show that this dominance of the asymptotic Brownian regime cannot be simply generalized to other scenarios of transient subdiffusion. In particular, nonhomogeneous transient subdiffusion due to hindrance by randomly-located immobile obstacles does not lead to such a strong local accumulation. These results suggest that, even though they exhibit the same time-dependence of the mean-squared displacement, the different scenarios proposed to account for subdiffusion in the cell lead to different protein distribution in space, even at equilibrium and without coupling with reaction.

  7. Equilibrium reconstruction in the TCA/Br tokamak; Reconstrucao do equilibrio no tokamak TCA/BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Wanderley Pires de

    1996-12-31

    The accurate and rapid determination of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium configuration in tokamaks is a subject for the magnetic confinement of the plasma. With the knowledge of characteristic plasma MHD equilibrium parameters it is possible to control the plasma position during its formation using feed-back techniques. It is also necessary an on-line analysis between successive discharges to program external parameters for the subsequent discharges. In this work it is investigated the MHD equilibrium configuration reconstruction of the TCA/BR tokamak from external magnetic measurements, using a method that is able to fast determine the main parameters of discharge. The thesis has two parts. Firstly it is presented the development of an equilibrium code that solves de Grad-Shafranov equation for the TCA/BR tokamak geometry. Secondly it is presented the MHD equilibrium reconstruction process from external magnetic field and flux measurements using the Function Parametrization FP method. this method. This method is based on the statistical analysis of a database of simulated equilibrium configurations, with the goal of obtaining a simple relationship between the parameters that characterize the equilibrium and the measurements. The results from FP are compared with conventional methods. (author) 68 refs., 31 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. A comparative study of transfer coefficient of Iodine from grass to cow milk under equilibrium and postulated accidental scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geetha, P.V.; Karunakara, N.; Prabhu, Ujwal; Yashodhara, I.; Ravi, P.M.; Dileep, B.N.; Karpe, Rupali

    2014-01-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of 131 I through grass-cow-milk pathway after the Chernobyl accident were reported. But, under nor mal operational conditions of a power reactor, 131 I is not present in measurable concentration in environmental matrices around a nuclear power generating station. Hence, database on 131 I transfer coefficients for grass-cow-milk pathway in equilibrium conditions in the environment of a nuclear power plant are sparse. One of method to estimate the equilibrium transfer coefficient is to use stable iodine, which is present naturally in very low levels in the environmental matrices. By measuring the concentration of stable iodine concentration in grass and cow milk, the grass-to-milk transfer coefficient of iodine can be estimated. Since the metabolism of stable and radioiodine is same, the data obtained for transfer coefficient of stable iodine could be used for predicting the transfer for radioiodine to cow milk. The measurement of stable iodine in the environmental sample is very challenging because of its extremely low concentration. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) can be used to estimate stable iodine in the environment matrices after suitably optimizing the condition to minimize interferences. This paper presents the results of a systematic study on the transfer coefficients for grass-cow milk pathway of iodine in normal (equilibrium) situations as well as for a postulated (simulated) emergency condition in Kaiga region

  9. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  10. Equilibrium 𝛽-limits in classical stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizu, J.; Hudson, S. R.; Nührenberg, C.; Geiger, J.; Helander, P.

    2017-12-01

    A numerical investigation is carried out to understand the equilibrium -limit in a classical stellarator. The stepped-pressure equilibrium code (Hudson et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 19 (11), 2012) is used in order to assess whether or not magnetic islands and stochastic field-lines can emerge at high . Two modes of operation are considered: a zero-net-current stellarator and a fixed-iota stellarator. Despite the fact that relaxation is allowed (Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 58 (3), 1986, pp. 741-763), the former is shown to maintain good flux surfaces up to the equilibrium -limit predicted by ideal-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), above which a separatrix forms. The latter, which has no ideal equilibrium -limit, is shown to develop regions of magnetic islands and chaos at sufficiently high , thereby providing a `non-ideal -limit'. Perhaps surprisingly, however, the value of at which the Shafranov shift of the axis reaches a fraction of the minor radius follows in all cases the scaling laws predicted by ideal-MHD. We compare our results to the High-Beta-Stellarator theory of Freidberg (Ideal MHD, 2014, Cambridge University Press) and derive a new prediction for the non-ideal equilibrium -limit above which chaos emerges.

  11. Partial chemical equilibrium in fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is given for the flow of a multicomponent fluid in which an arbitrary number of chemical reactions may occur, some of which are in equilibrium while the others proceed kinetically. The primitive equations describing this situation are inconvenient to use because the progress rates omega-dot/sub s/ for the equilibrium reactions are determined implicitly by the associated equilibrium constraint conditions. Two alternative equivalent equation systems that are more pleasant to deal with are derived. In the first system, the omega-dot/sub s/ are eliminated by replacing the transport equations for the chemical species involved in the equilibrium reactions with transport equations for the basic components of which these species are composed. The second system retains the usual species transport equations, but eliminates the nonlinear algebraic equilibrium constraint conditions by deriving an explicit expression for the omega-dot/sub s/. Both systems are specialized to the case of an ideal gas mixture. Considerations involved in solving these equation systems numerically are discussed briefly

  12. Development of a Thermal Equilibrium Prediction Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviles-Ramos, Cuauhtemoc

    2002-01-01

    A thermal equilibrium prediction algorithm is developed and tested using a heat conduction model and data sets from calorimetric measurements. The physical model used in this study is the exact solution of a system of two partial differential equations that govern the heat conduction in the calorimeter. A multi-parameter estimation technique is developed and implemented to estimate the effective volumetric heat generation and thermal diffusivity in the calorimeter measurement chamber, and the effective thermal diffusivity of the heat flux sensor. These effective properties and the exact solution are used to predict the heat flux sensor voltage readings at thermal equilibrium. Thermal equilibrium predictions are carried out considering only 20% of the total measurement time required for thermal equilibrium. A comparison of the predicted and experimental thermal equilibrium voltages shows that the average percentage error from 330 data sets is only 0.1%. The data sets used in this study come from calorimeters of different sizes that use different kinds of heat flux sensors. Furthermore, different nuclear material matrices were assayed in the process of generating these data sets. This study shows that the integration of this algorithm into the calorimeter data acquisition software will result in an 80% reduction of measurement time. This reduction results in a significant cutback in operational costs for the calorimetric assay of nuclear materials. (authors)

  13. Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).

  14. On the conditional total stability of equilibrium for mechanical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Salvadori

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the problem of observability, properties of total stability restricted to classes of perturbations of the governing equations are discussed for the equilibrium of holonomic mechanical systems. These systems are subject to positional conservative and dissipative forces. The particular case of a null dissipation is included. The perturbations to which the total stability is restricted are those obtained by modifying the kinetic energy, the potential of the conservative force, and the dissipative terms, without altering the Lagrangian form of the equations of the motion.

  15. Determination of toroidal equilibrium parameters from magnetic probe measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynolf, J.; Eriksson, H.G.; Persson, H.; Hellblom, G.

    1992-12-01

    A method has been developed by which the poloidal flux function in the vacuum region between the plasma and the external conductors (and the iron core) can be deduced from external magnetic field measurements. The plasma is in equilibrium and the solution is restricted to plasmas without irregularities. The poloidal field components Bθ and B r are measured at different poloidal positions outside the liner and modelled by truncated Fourier series. The Grad-Shafranov equation in the vacuum region is then solved with these modelled values of Bθ and B r as boundary conditions. (authors)

  16. Glutamate Induced Thermal Equilibrium Intermediate and Counteracting Effect on Chemical Denaturation of Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumalla, Bramhini; Prabhu, N Prakash

    2018-01-25

    When organisms are subjected to stress conditions, one of their adaptive responses is accumulation of small organic molecules called osmolytes. These osmolytes affect the structure and stability of the biological macromolecules including proteins. The present study examines the effect of a negatively charged amino acid osmolyte, glutamate (Glu), on two model proteins, ribonuclease A (RNase A) and α-lactalbumin (α-LA), which have positive and negative surface charges at pH 7, respectively. These proteins follow two-state unfolding transitions during both heat and chemical induced denaturation processes. The addition of Glu stabilizes the proteins against temperature and induces an early equilibrium intermediate during unfolding. The stability is found to be enthalpy-driven, and the free energy of stabilization is more for α-LA compared to RNase A. The decrease in the partial molar volume and compressibility of both of the proteins in the presence of Glu suggests that the proteins attain a more compact state through surface hydration which could provide a more stable conformation. This is also supported by molecule dynamic simulation studies which demonstrate that the water density around the proteins is increased upon the addition of Glu. Further, the intermediates could be completely destabilized by lower concentrations (∼0.5 M) of guanidinium chloride and salt. However, urea subverts the Glu-induced intermediate formed by α-LA, whereas it only slightly destabilizes in the case of RNase A which has a positive surface charge and could possess charge-charge interactions with Glu. This suggests that, apart from hydration, columbic interactions might also contribute to the stability of the intermediate. Gdm-induced denaturation of RNase A and α-LA in the absence and the presence of Glu at different temperatures was carried out. These results also show the Glu-induced stabilization of both of the proteins; however, all of the unfolding transitions followed two

  17. Local equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics for irreversible systems with thermodynamic inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavatskiy, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Validity of local equilibrium has been questioned for non-equilibrium systems which are characterized by delayed response. In particular, for systems with non-zero thermodynamic inertia, the assumption of local equilibrium leads to negative values of the entropy production, which is in contradiction with the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we address this question by suggesting a variational formulation of irreversible evolution of a system with non-zero thermodynamic inertia. We introduce the Lagrangian, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called “mirror-image” systems. We show that the standard evolution equations, in particular, the Maxwell-Cattaneo-Vernotte equation, can be derived from the variational procedure without going beyond the assumption of local equilibrium. We also argue that the second law of thermodynamics in non-equilibrium should be understood as a consequence of the variational procedure and the property of local equilibrium. For systems with instantaneous response this leads to the standard requirement of the local instantaneous entropy production being always positive. However, if a system is characterized by delayed response, the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics should be altered. In particular, the quantity, which is always positive, is not the instantaneous entropy production, but the entropy production averaged over a proper time interval

  18. Local equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics for irreversible systems with thermodynamic inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiy, K S

    2015-10-28

    Validity of local equilibrium has been questioned for non-equilibrium systems which are characterized by delayed response. In particular, for systems with non-zero thermodynamic inertia, the assumption of local equilibrium leads to negative values of the entropy production, which is in contradiction with the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we address this question by suggesting a variational formulation of irreversible evolution of a system with non-zero thermodynamic inertia. We introduce the Lagrangian, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called "mirror-image" systems. We show that the standard evolution equations, in particular, the Maxwell-Cattaneo-Vernotte equation, can be derived from the variational procedure without going beyond the assumption of local equilibrium. We also argue that the second law of thermodynamics in non-equilibrium should be understood as a consequence of the variational procedure and the property of local equilibrium. For systems with instantaneous response this leads to the standard requirement of the local instantaneous entropy production being always positive. However, if a system is characterized by delayed response, the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics should be altered. In particular, the quantity, which is always positive, is not the instantaneous entropy production, but the entropy production averaged over a proper time interval.

  19. Do planetary seasons play a role in attaining stable climates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2018-02-01

    A simple phenomenological account for planetary climate instabilities is presented. The description is based on the standard model where the balance of incoming stellar radiation and outward thermal radiation is described by the effective planet temperature. Often, it is found to have three different points, or temperatures, where the influx of radiation is balanced with the out-flux, even with conserved boundary conditions. Two of these points are relatively long-term stable, namely the point corresponding to a cold climate and the point corresponding to a hot climate. In a classical sense these points are equilibrium balance points. The hypothesis promoted in this paper is the possibility that the intermediate third point can become long-term stable by being driven dynamically. The initially unstable point is made relatively stable over a long period by the presence of seasonal climate variations.

  20. Influence of collective excitations on pre-equilibrium and equilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.; Lunev, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of the collective states excitations on equilibrium and preequilibrium processes in reaction is discussed. It is shown that for a consistent description of the contribution of preequilibrium and equilibrium compound processes collective states should be taken into account in the level density calculations. The microscopic and phenomenological approaches for the level density calculations are discussed. 13 refs.; 8 figs

  1. A note on existence of mixed solutions to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 24 (2007), s. 27-44 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints * variational analysis * mixed strategy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Regret Theory and Equilibrium Asset Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regret theory is a behavioral approach to decision making under uncertainty. In this paper we assume that there are two representative investors in a frictionless market, a representative active investor who selects his optimal portfolio based on regret theory and a representative passive investor who invests only in the benchmark portfolio. In a partial equilibrium setting, the objective of the representative active investor is modeled as minimization of the regret about final wealth relative to the benchmark portfolio. In equilibrium this optimal strategy gives rise to a behavioral asset priciting model. We show that the market beta and the benchmark beta that is related to the investor’s regret are the determinants of equilibrium asset prices. We also extend our model to a market with multibenchmark portfolios. Empirical tests using stock price data from Shanghai Stock Exchange show strong support to the asset pricing model based on regret theory.

  3. The theory of dynamic equilibrium in geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Matos Fierz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain and better understanding, in all its complexity, the theory of dynamic equilibrium, which has been used in geography long time. Many derivations are found, many associations are made, however, the real intent for which it was created is not mentioned, much less explained clearly and objectively even by the author himself quotes the theory of dynamic equilibrium Hack (1960. What lies are usually subjectivities on the conditions of dynamic equilibrium related to changes of elements on the surface, but little about the object for which it was designed, ie relief. However, it isn’t intended here to exhaust the subject nor assess whether the terms are correct or not, but return to a theory so important to the development of science geomorphology.

  4. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very re...

  5. Relativistic Fluid Dynamics Far From Local Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romatschke, Paul

    2018-01-05

    Fluid dynamics is traditionally thought to apply only to systems near local equilibrium. In this case, the effective theory of fluid dynamics can be constructed as a gradient series. Recent applications of resurgence suggest that this gradient series diverges, but can be Borel resummed, giving rise to a hydrodynamic attractor solution which is well defined even for large gradients. Arbitrary initial data quickly approaches this attractor via nonhydrodynamic mode decay. This suggests the existence of a new theory of far-from-equilibrium fluid dynamics. In this Letter, the framework of fluid dynamics far from local equilibrium for a conformal system is introduced, and the hydrodynamic attractor solutions for resummed Baier-Romatschke-Son-Starinets-Stephanov theory, kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation, and strongly coupled N=4 super Yang-Mills theory are identified for a system undergoing Bjorken flow.

  6. Relativistic Fluid Dynamics Far From Local Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romatschke, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Fluid dynamics is traditionally thought to apply only to systems near local equilibrium. In this case, the effective theory of fluid dynamics can be constructed as a gradient series. Recent applications of resurgence suggest that this gradient series diverges, but can be Borel resummed, giving rise to a hydrodynamic attractor solution which is well defined even for large gradients. Arbitrary initial data quickly approaches this attractor via nonhydrodynamic mode decay. This suggests the existence of a new theory of far-from-equilibrium fluid dynamics. In this Letter, the framework of fluid dynamics far from local equilibrium for a conformal system is introduced, and the hydrodynamic attractor solutions for resummed Baier-Romatschke-Son-Starinets-Stephanov theory, kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation, and strongly coupled N =4 super Yang-Mills theory are identified for a system undergoing Bjorken flow.

  7. Approach to chemical equilibrium in thermal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The experimentally measured (μ - , charged particle)/(μ - ,n) and (p,n/p,p') ratios for the emission of energetic nucleons are used to estimate the time evolution of a system of secondary nucleons produced in a direct interaction of a projectile or captured muon. The values of these ratios indicate that chemical equilibrium is not achieved among the secondary nucleons in noncomposite induced reactions, and this restricts the time scale for the emission of energetic nucleons to be about 0.7 x 10 -23 sec. It is shown that the reason why thermal equilibrium can be reached so rapidly for a particular nucleon species is that the sum of the particle spectra produced in multiple direct reactions looks surprisingly thermal. The rate equations used to estimate the reaction times for muon and nucleon induced reactions are then applied to heavy ion collisions, and it is shown that chemical equilibrium can be reached more rapidly, as one would expect

  8. Pressure dependence of Tc from chemical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, A.; Hissa, J.; Haeyrynen, T.; Braeysy, V.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical equilibrium theory analogous with dissociation of molecules or ionization of gas of atoms is applied to high-Tc superconductors. The starting point are performed pairs, which exist in the normal state and can be treated as Coulomb bosons with charge 2e. Above Tc the pairs (B ++ ) decay into fermions (h + ) according to the equilibrium reaction B ++ ↔ 2h + . Using an approximate chemical equilibrium constant, proportional to pressure the authors derive a universal two-parameter expression for the pressurized optimum transition temperature Tc MAX (P). The formula shows that Tc MAX (P) develops a maximum and beyond the maximum it starts to come down. The authors also show that in interesting pressure range P > 10 GPa, the expansion in powers of pressure diverges

  9. Computational studies in tokamak equilibrium and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with some problems arising in the magnetic confinement approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. The work address the numerical modelling of equilibrium and transport properties of a confined plasma and the interpretation of experimental data. The thesis is divided in two parts. Part 1 is devoted to some aspects of the MHD equilibrium problem, both in the 'direct' formulation (given an equation for the plasma current, the corresponding equilibrium is to be determined) and in the 'inverse' formulation (the interpretation of measurements at the plasma edge). Part 2 is devoted to numerical studies of the edge plasma. The appropriate Navier-Stokes system of fluid equations is solved in a two-dimensional geometry. The main interest of this work is to develop an understanding of particle and energy transport in the scrape-off layer and onto material boundaries, and also to contribute to the conceptual design of the NET/INTOR tokamak reactor experiment. (Auth.)

  10. Absence of MHS-equilibrium in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, P.C.H.

    1986-01-01

    If there cannot be MHS-equilibrium (magnetohydrostatic) in a certain situation this means that the Lorentz force cannot be balanced everywhere in the plasma and hence the plasma acceleration must take place and will lead to the formation of current sheets. The resulting dissipation rate of the currents and consequently also the heating rate of the plasma will be much higher than the rate expected with classical ohmic dissipation. The question worked was: can one calculate such parameters as effective resistivity, viscosity, heating rate and plasma velocity in the regions where there is no MHS equilibrium. After an analogy with hamiltonian mechanics, the importance of boundary conditions is presented and two types of non equilibrium are discussed

  11. Entropy production in a fluid-solid system far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bong Jae; Ortega, Blas; Vaidya, Ashwin

    2017-11-24

    The terminal orientation of a rigid body in a moving fluid is an example of a dissipative system, out of thermodynamic equilibrium and therefore a perfect testing ground for the validity of the maximum entropy production principle (MaxEP). Thus far, dynamical equations alone have been employed in studying the equilibrium states in fluid-solid interactions, but these are far too complex and become analytically intractable when inertial effects come into play. At that stage, our only recourse is to rely on numerical techniques which can be computationally expensive. In our past work, we have shown that the MaxEP is a reliable tool to help predict orientational equilibrium states of highly symmetric bodies such as cylinders, spheroids and toroidal bodies. The MaxEP correctly helps choose the stable equilibrium in these cases when the system is slightly out of thermodynamic equilibrium. In the current paper, we expand our analysis to examine i) bodies with fewer symmetries than previously reported, for instance, a half-ellipse and ii) when the system is far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Using two-dimensional numerical studies at Reynolds numbers ranging between 0 and 14, we examine the validity of the MaxEP. Our analysis of flow past a half-ellipse shows that overall the MaxEP is a good predictor of the equilibrium states but, in the special case of the half-ellipse with aspect ratio much greater than unity, the MaxEP is replaced by the Min-MaxEP, at higher Reynolds numbers when inertial effects come into play. Experiments in sedimentation tanks and with hinged bodies in a flow tank confirm these calculations.

  12. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  13. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  14. Statistical equilibrium equations for trace elements in stellar atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Kubat, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    The conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and statistical equilibrium are discussed in detail. The equations of statistical equilibrium and the supplementary equations are shown together with the expressions for radiative and collisional rates with the emphasize on the solution for trace elements.

  15. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  16. Current control necessary for toroidal plasma equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, S.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a significant amount of dipole current is necessary for the plasma equilibrium of toroidal configurations in general. Through the vector product with the poloidal field, this dipole current force has to balance with the hoop force of plasma pressure itself of the annular shape. The measurement of such a current of dipole type may be interesting for the confirmation of the plasma equilibrium in the toroidal system. Moreover it is certained that there is a new mode of a tokamak operation with such a dipole current component and with smaller vertical field than that based on the classical tokamak theory. (author) [pt

  17. Thermodynamic equilibrium in relativistic rotating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, W.M.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO; Young, K.

    1988-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium configurations of relativistic rotating stars are studied using the maximum entropy principle. It is shown that the heuristic arguments for the equilibrium conditions can be developed into a maximum entropy principle in which the variations are carried out in a fixed background spacetime. This maximum principle with the fixed background assumption is technically simpler than, but has to be justified by, a maximum entropy principle without the assumption. Such a maximum entropy principle is formulated in this paper, showing that the general relativistic system can be treated on the same footing as other long-range force systems. (author)

  18. Particle Sorting and Motility Out of Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Cato

    The theory of equilibrium statistical physics, formulated over a century ago, provides an excellent description of physical systems which have reached a static, relaxed state. Such systems can be loosely thought of as maximally disordered, in keeping with the Second Law of Thermodynamics which states that a thermal system in equilibrium has reached a state of highest entropy. However, many entities in the world around us maintain themselves in an remarkably ordered and dynamic state, and must pay for this by producing entropy in their surroundings. Organisms, for example, convert chemical energy (food) into heat, which is then dumped into the environment, raising its entropy. Systems which produce entropy through any mechanism must be described by theories of non-equilibrium statistical physics, for which there currently exists no unified framework or ontology. Here we examine two specific cases of non-equilibrium phenomena from a theoretical perspective. First, we explore the behaviour of microscopic particles which continually dissipate energy to propel themselves through their environment. Second, we consider how devices which distinguish between different types of particles can exploit non-equilibrium processes to enhance their performance. For the case of self-propelled particles, we consider a theoretical model where the particle's propulsion force has "memory"--it is a random process whose instantaneous value depends on its past evolution. This introduces a persistence in the particle's motion, and requires the dissipation of energy into its surroundings. These particles are found to exhibit a variety of behaviours forbidden in equilibrium systems: for instance they may cluster around barriers, exert unbalanced forces, and sustain steady flows through space. We develop the understanding of these particles' dynamics through a combination of explicit calculations, approximations and numerical simulation which characterise and quantify their non-equilibrium

  19. Computing Properties Of Chemical Mixtures At Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, B. J.; Gordon, S.

    1995-01-01

    Scientists and engineers need data on chemical equilibrium compositions to calculate theoretical thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93 is general program that calculates chemical equilibrium compositions and properties of mixtures for any chemical system for which thermodynamic data are available. Includes thermodynamic data for more than 1,300 gaseous and condensed species and thermal-transport data for 151 gases. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  20. Micro Data and General Equilibrium Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Peter; Heckman, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic general equilibrium models are required to evaluate policies applied at the national level. To use these models to make quantitative forecasts requires knowledge of an extensive array of parameter values for the economy at large. This essay describes the parameters required for different...... economic models, assesses the discordance between the macromodels used in policy evaluation and the microeconomic models used to generate the empirical evidence. For concreteness, we focus on two general equilibrium models: the stochastic growth model extended to include some forms of heterogeneity...

  1. General Equilibrium Pricing with Information Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhong eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a general equilibrium model for asset pricing that incorporates asymmetric information as the key element determining security prices. In our setting, the concepts of completeness, arbitrage, state price and equivalent martingale measure are extended to the case of asymmetric information. Our model shows that in a so-called quasi-complete market, the agents with differential information can reach an agreement on an universal equilibrium price. The corresponding state price and martingale measure are determined. The key intuition is that agents evaluate consumption choices conditioned on their private information and the public information generated by price. As a consequence, information asymmetry can lead to mispricing as well.

  2. The empirical equilibrium structure of diacetylene

    OpenAIRE

    Thorwirth, S.; Harding, M. E.; Muders, D.; Gauss, J.

    2008-01-01

    High-level quantum-chemical calculations are reported at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory for the equilibrium structure and the harmonic and anharmonic force fields of diacetylene, HCCCCH. The calculations were performed employing Dunning's hierarchy of correlation-consistent basis sets cc-pVXZ, cc-pCVXZ, and cc-pwCVXZ, as well as the ANO2 basis set of Almloef and Taylor. An empirical equilibrium structure based on experimental rotational constants for thirteen isotopic species of diacety...

  3. Quantum gambling based on Nash-equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Wang, Yun-Long; Liu, Bi-Heng; Shadbolt, Pete; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Gao, Hong; Li, Fu-Li; O'Brien, Jeremy L.

    2017-06-01

    The problem of establishing a fair bet between spatially separated gambler and casino can only be solved in the classical regime by relying on a trusted third party. By combining Nash-equilibrium theory with quantum game theory, we show that a secure, remote, two-party game can be played using a quantum gambling machine which has no classical counterpart. Specifically, by modifying the Nash-equilibrium point we can construct games with arbitrary amount of bias, including a game that is demonstrably fair to both parties. We also report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration using linear optics.

  4. Saturate hydraulic conductivity, water stable aggregates and soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saturate hydraulic conductivity, water stable aggregates and soil organic matter in a sandy-loam soil in Ikwuano lga of Abia state. ... carbon content of the soil. . Keywords: Toposequence, Water stable aggregates, Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Organic carbon, Slope position. Agro-Science Vol. 4 (1) 2005: pp. 34-37.

  5. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  6. Stable channel of reclaimed tidal lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifudin, Achmad; Imanuddin, Momon S.; Moerwanto, Arie S.; Suryadi, F. X.

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to develop models of the Operation and Maintenance in the reclaimed tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. The research location is reclaimed tidal delta area Telang I Primary 8 representing land typology A/B and a survey conducted in 13 South Secondary Schemes following existing tertiary Telang I. MIKE - 11 computer models used used to analyze the movement of sediment in the channel in both the Primary channel 8, SPD, SDU and tertiary channels in block 13 South. Calibration model with multiple channels in the field of physical parameters has been performed to obtain results close to the results of measurement modeling sediment movement in the channel. The integration models of MIKE - 11 models with various scenarios are used to model the operation and maintenance of the channel in the tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. According to the scheme P8 - 13S, OM models obtained 75 percent, in which the secondary channel (SPD/SDU) and built flap gate in tertiary channel, get a well prototype model of the stable channel (equilibriums), where the average erosion on P8 at a distance of 3,200 m in the amount of 4,472,049 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SPD of 963,836 m3 and mean of sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,508,213 m3. Similarly, on average erosion P8 by 4,135,649 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SDU of 681,304 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,454,345 m3.

  7. Equilibrium Temperature of a Satellite in LowEarth Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Hegab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of artificial satellite equipment, essentially, depends on its temperature condition, which in the case of low-Earth orbit varies quite widely. The satellite temperature changes because of the fact that along with a portion of the orbit where the satellite perceives heat flows, caused by solar radiation directly incident on its surface and solar radiation, reflected from the Earth's surface; in general cases of the low earth orbit there is its shaded portion where the satellite receives only a relatively low intensive self-radiation of the Earth. The level of possible values of satellite temperature at different portions of low earth orbit can be estimated by the equilibrium temperature determined from the balance equation of heat flows, perceived and radiated by its surface.The analysis of heat flows, which act on the surface of an artificial satellite of conditional spherical shape, allows us to obtain the dependences, in order to find a satellite equilibrium temperature at different heights of its position above Earth's surface and an angle between the directions from the center of the Earth towards the Sun, and the satellite as it moves out of the shadow of the Earth and at different height of its position at the shaded portion of the orbit as well. These dependencies are used for graphing to show the changes of the equilibrium temperature of the low-Earth orbiting satellite.The presented technique allows us to evaluate the possible range of temperature change of the low-Earth orbiting satellite.

  8. Nonsequential search equilibrium with search cost heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga-Gonzalez, Jose Luis; Sandor, Zsolt; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    We generalize the model of Burdett and Judd (1983) to the case where an arbitrary finite number of firms sells a homogeneous good to buyers who have heterogeneous search costs. We show that a price dispersed symmetric Nash equilibrium always exists. Numerical results show that the behavior of prices

  9. Landing of REB ring on equilibrium orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, Akihiro; Ikuta, Kazunari; Masuzaki, Masaru.

    1976-10-01

    It is analytically shown that the decrease of the return current of plasma forces an injected relativistic electron beam to land on an equilibrium orbit inside a conductive toroidal chamber. The mechanism is similar to the adiabatic trapping of electrons in betatron. (auth.)

  10. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bikkin, Halid

    2014-01-01

    This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field.

  11. Emergent supersymmetry in local equilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Many physical processes we observe in nature involve variations of macroscopic quantities over spatial and temporal scales much larger than microscopic molecular collision scales and can be considered as in local thermal equilibrium. In this paper we show that any classical statistical system in local thermal equilibrium has an emergent supersymmetry at low energies. We use the framework of non-equilibrium effective field theory for quantum many-body systems defined on a closed time path contour and consider its classical limit. Unitarity of time evolution requires introducing anti-commuting degrees of freedom and BRST symmetry which survive in the classical limit. The local equilibrium is realized through a Z 2 dynamical KMS symmetry. We show that supersymmetry is equivalent to the combination of BRST and a specific consequence of the dynamical KMS symmetry, to which we refer as the special dynamical KMS condition. In particular, we prove a theorem stating that a system satisfying the special dynamical KMS condition is always supersymmetrizable. We discuss a number of examples explicitly, including model A for dynamical critical phenomena, a hydrodynamic theory of nonlinear diffusion, and fluctuating hydrodynamics for relativistic charged fluids.

  12. Rumor Propagation Model: An Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto C. Piqueira

    2010-01-01

    information is analogous phenomena. Here, in an analogy with the SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed epidemiological model, the ISS (Ignorant-Spreader-Stifler rumor spreading model is studied. By using concepts from the Dynamical Systems Theory, stability of equilibrium points is established, according to propagation parameters and initial conditions. Some numerical experiments are conducted in order to validate the model.

  13. Cyclic causal discovery from continuous equilibrium data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, J.M.; Heskes, T.; Nicholson, A.; Smyth, P.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method for learning cycliccausal models from a combination of observational and interventional equilibrium data. Novel aspects of the proposed method are its ability to work with continuous data (without assuming linearity) and to deal with feedback loops. Within the context of

  14. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When charged particles are placed on an uncharged metallic body, the charged particles redistribute themselves along the surface of the body until they reach a point or a configuration that no net tangential force is experienced on each particle. That point is referred to as electrostatic equilibrium configuration or simply as ...

  15. A Bioeconomic Foundation of the Malthusian Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    equilibrium in a two-dimensional state space characterized by population density and body size (metabolic rate) of the representative adult. As a result, the analysis allows us to examine the link between human biology, economic productivity, body size, and population size. Off the steady-state we investigate...

  16. On the Existence of Evolutionary Learning Equilibriums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masudul Alam Choudhury

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The usual kinds of Fixed-Point Theorems formalized on the existence of competitive equilibrium that explain much of economic theory at the core of economics can operate only on bounded and closed sets with convex mappings. But these conditions are hardly true of the real world of economic and financial complexities and perturbations. The category of learning sets explained by continuous fields of interactive, integrative and evolutionary behaviour caused by dynamic preferences at the individual and institutional and social levels cannot maintain the assumption of closed, bounded and convex sets. Thus learning sets and multi-system inter-temporal relations explained by pervasive complementarities and  participation between variables and entities, and evolution by learning, have evolutionary equilibriums. Such a study requires a new methodological approach. This paper formalizes such a methodology for evolutionary equilibriums in learning spaces. It briefly points out the universality of learning equilibriums in all mathematical structures. For a particular case though, the inter-systemic interdependence between sustainable development and ethics and economics in the specific understanding of learning domain is pointed out.

  17. equilibrium approach in thederivation of differential equations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    theory [4], Reissner plate theory [11, 12], Reddy plate theory[8], Levinson plate theory [13]. In this paper, the Mindlin plate theory for isotropic plates is formulated and derived using the equilibrium method, and presented as a problem of the theory of elasticity. 2. RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. The general aim and ...

  18. Measuring productivity differences in equilibrium search models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanot, Gauthier; Neumann, George R.

    1996-01-01

    Equilibrium search models require unobserved heterogeneity in productivity to fit observed wage distribution data, but provide no guidance about the location parameter of the heterogeneity. In this paper we show that the location of the productivity heterogeneity implies a mode in a kernel density...

  19. Calculating Shocks In Flows At Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Scott; Palmer, Grant

    1988-01-01

    Boundary conditions prove critical. Conference paper describes algorithm for calculation of shocks in hypersonic flows of gases at chemical equilibrium. Although algorithm represents intermediate stage in development of reliable, accurate computer code for two-dimensional flow, research leading up to it contributes to understanding of what is needed to complete task.

  20. Teaching Chemical Equilibrium with the Jigsaw Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymus, Kemal

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of cooperative learning (jigsaw) versus individual learning methods on students' understanding of chemical equilibrium in a first-year general chemistry course. This study was carried out in two different classes in the department of primary science education during the 2005-2006 academic year. One of the classes…

  1. An equilibrium closure result for discontinuous games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    For games with discontinuous payoffs Simon and Zame (1990) introduced payoff indeterminacy, in the form of endogenous sharing rules, which are measurable selections of a certain payoff correspondence. Their main result concerns the existence of a mixed Nash equilibrium and an associated sharing

  2. General Equilibrium Models: Improving the Microeconomics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Walter; Westhoff, Frank

    2009-01-01

    General equilibrium models now play important roles in many fields of economics including tax policy, environmental regulation, international trade, and economic development. The intermediate microeconomics classroom has not kept pace with these trends, however. Microeconomics textbooks primarily focus on the insights that can be drawn from the…

  3. Group Contribution Methods for Phase Equilibrium Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehling, Jürgen; Constantinescu, Dana; Schmid, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    The development and design of chemical processes are carried out by solving the balance equations of a mathematical model for sections of or the whole chemical plant with the help of process simulators. For process simulation, besides kinetic data for the chemical reaction, various pure component and mixture properties are required. Because of the great importance of separation processes for a chemical plant in particular, a reliable knowledge of the phase equilibrium behavior is required. The phase equilibrium behavior can be calculated with the help of modern equations of state or g(E)-models using only binary parameters. But unfortunately, only a very small part of the experimental data for fitting the required binary model parameters is available, so very often these models cannot be applied directly. To solve this problem, powerful predictive thermodynamic models have been developed. Group contribution methods allow the prediction of the required phase equilibrium data using only a limited number of group interaction parameters. A prerequisite for fitting the required group interaction parameters is a comprehensive database. That is why for the development of powerful group contribution methods almost all published pure component properties, phase equilibrium data, excess properties, etc., were stored in computerized form in the Dortmund Data Bank. In this review, the present status, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, possible applications, and typical results of the different group contribution methods for the calculation of phase equilibria are presented.

  4. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  5. Monetary Policy Frameworks and Real Equilibrium Determinacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In a simple "prototype" model of monetary policymaking, I examine the issue of real equilibrium determinacy under targeting and instrument rules. The former framework involves minimization of a loss function (under discretion or commitment), whereas the latter involves commitment to an interest...

  6. Climate change as (dis)equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejsner, Pelle; Veldhuis, Djuke

    2018-01-01

    Despite the evident challenges posed by arctic environments past and present, and despite the widespread acknowledgement that human population histories in the Arctic have historically been quite dynamic, it is often assumed that traditional pre-colonial populations were in perfect equilibrium wi...

  7. Evolution and non-equilibrium physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Nikolaj; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the stochastic dynamics of interacting agents which replicate, mutate and die constitutes a non-equilibrium physical process akin to aging in complex materials. Specifically, our study uses extensive computer simulations of the Tangled Nature Model (TNM) of biological evolution...

  8. Equilibrium reaction of human methemoglobin A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9, no. 2 (2007). EQUILIBRIUM REACTION OF HUMAN METHEMOGLOBINA. G.B.OGUNMOLA, J.T. BAMGBOSE?", and A.A. DEMEHIN. 1. Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2. Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. (Received: July, 2006; Accepted: October, 2007).

  9. Equilibrium-constant expressions for aqueous plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium-constant expressions for Pu disproportionation reactions traditionally contain three or four terms representing the concentrations or fractions of the oxidation states. The expressions can be rewritten so that one of the oxidation states is replaced by a term containing the oxidation number of the plutonium. Experimental estimations of the numerical values of the constants can then be checked in several ways. (author)

  10. Standardization of 125 Sb in equilibrium non-equilibrium situations with 125m Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Jimenez de Mingo, A.; Grau Carles, A.

    1997-10-01

    We study the stability of ''125 Sb in the following scintillators: HiSafeIII''TM, Insta- Gel reg s ign Plus and '' Ultima-Gold'' TM. Since ''125 m Te requires more than one year to reach the secular equilibrium with ''125 Sb, we cannot be sure, for a given sample, whether equilibrium is reached or not. In this report we present a new procedure that permits one calibrate mixtures of ''125 Sb+''125 m Te out of the equilibrium. The steps required for the radiochemical separation of the components are indicated. Finally, we study the evolution of counting rate when column yields are less than 100%. (Author)

  11. Equilibrium Bird Species Diversity in Atlantic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Luis; Illera, Juan Carlos; Havenstein, Katja; Pallien, Tamara; Etienne, Rampal S; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2017-06-05

    Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]. We estimate the times at which birds colonized and speciated in the four archipelagos, including many previously unsampled endemic and non-endemic taxa and their closest continental relatives. We develop and fit a new multi-archipelago dynamic stochastic model to these data, explicitly incorporating information from 91 taxa, both extant and extinct. Remarkably, we find that all four archipelagos have independently achieved and maintained a dynamic equilibrium over millions of years. Biogeographical rates are homogeneous across archipelagos, except for the Canary Islands, which exhibit higher speciation and colonization. Our finding that the avian communities of the four Macaronesian archipelagos display an equilibrium diversity pattern indicates that a diversity plateau may be rapidly achieved on islands where rates of in situ radiation are low and extinction is high. This study reveals that equilibrium processes may be more prevalent than recently proposed, supporting MacArthur and Wilson's 50-year-old theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stable Treemaps via Local Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Max; Speckmann, Bettina; Verbeek, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Treemaps are a popular tool to visualize hierarchical data: items are represented by nested rectangles and the area of each rectangle corresponds to the data being visualized for this item. The visual quality of a treemap is commonly measured via the aspect ratio of the rectangles. If the data changes, then a second important quality criterion is the stability of the treemap: how much does the treemap change as the data changes. We present a novel stable treemapping algorithm that has very high visual quality. Whereas existing treemapping algorithms generally recompute the treemap every time the input changes, our algorithm changes the layout of the treemap using only local modifications. This approach not only gives us direct control over stability, but it also allows us to use a larger set of possible layouts, thus provably resulting in treemaps of higher visual quality compared to existing algorithms. We further prove that we can reach all possible treemap layouts using only our local modifications. Furthermore, we introduce a new measure for stability that better captures the relative positions of rectangles. We finally show via experiments on real-world data that our algorithm outperforms existing treemapping algorithms also in practice on either visual quality and/or stability. Our algorithm scores high on stability regardless of whether we use an existing stability measure or our new measure.

  13. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  14. Non-Equilibrium Heavy Flavored Hadron Yields from Chemical Equilibrium Strangeness-Rich QGP

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, Inga; Rafelski, Johann

    2008-01-01

    The yields of heavy flavored hadrons emitted from strangeness-rich QGP are evaluated within chemical non-equilibrium statistical hadronization model, conserving strangeness, charm, and entropy yields at hadronization.

  15. Non-equilibrium versus equilibrium emission of complex fragments from hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Yennello, S.; Fields, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The relative contributions of equilibrium and non-equilibrium mechanisms for intermediate-mass fragment emission have been deduced for Z=3-14 fragments formed in 3 He- and 14 N-induced reactions on Ag and Au targets. Complete inclusive excitation function measurements have been performed for 3 He projectiles from E/A=67 to 1,200 MeV and for 14 N from E/A=20 to 50 MeV. The data are consistent with a picture in which equilibrated emission is important at the lowest energies, but with increasing bombarding energy the cross sections are increasingly dominated by non-equilibrium processes. Non-equilibrium emission is also shown to be favored for light fragments relative to heavy fragments. These results are supported by coincidence studies of intermediate-mass fragments tagged by linear momentum transfer measurements

  16. Thermal equilibrium responses in Guzerat cattle raised under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerro, Leandro Zuccherato; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, Marcos Chiquitelli; Costa, Cintia Carol de Melo; Castro, Patric André

    2016-08-01

    The literature is very sparse regarding research on the thermal equilibrium in Guzerat cattle (Bos indicus) under field conditions. Some factors can modify the physiological response of Guzerat cattle, such as the reactivity of these animals to handling. Thus, the development of a methodology to condition and select Guzerat cattle to acclimate them to the routine collection of data without altering their physiological response was the objective of the preliminary experiment. Furthermore, the animals selected were used in the main experiment to determine their thermal equilibrium according to the thermal environment. For this proposal, the metabolic heat production and heat exchange between the animal and the environment were measured simultaneously in the field with an indirect calorimetry system coupled to a facial mask. The results of the preliminary experiment showed that the respiratory rate could demonstrate that conditioning efficiently reduced the reactivity of the animals to experimental handling. Furthermore, the respiratory rate can be used to select animals with less reactivity. The results of the main experiment demonstrate that the skin, hair-coat surface and expired air temperature depend on the air temperature, whereas the rectal temperature depends on the time of day; consequently, the sensible heat flow was substantially reduced from 70 to 20Wm(-2) when the air temperature increased from 24 to 34°C. However, the respiratory latent heat flow increased from 10 to 15Wm(-2) with the same temperature increase. Furthermore, the metabolic heat production remained stable, independent of the variation of the air temperature; however, it was higher in males than in females (by approximately 25%). This fact can be explained by the variation of the ventilation rate, which had a mean value of 1.6 and 2.2Ls(-1) for females and males, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. From rationality to cooperativeness: The totally mixed Nash equilibrium in Markov strategies in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan S Menshikov

    Full Text Available In this research, the social behavior of the participants in a Prisoner's Dilemma laboratory game is explained on the basis of the quantal response equilibrium concept and the representation of the game in Markov strategies. In previous research, we demonstrated that social interaction during the experiment has a positive influence on cooperation, trust, and gratefulness. This research shows that the quantal response equilibrium concept agrees only with the results of experiments on cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemma prior to social interaction. However, quantal response equilibrium does not explain of participants' behavior after social interaction. As an alternative theoretical approach, an examination was conducted of iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game in Markov strategies. We built a totally mixed Nash equilibrium in this game; the equilibrium agrees with the results of the experiments both before and after social interaction.

  18. Computation of thermodynamic equilibrium in systems under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

    2016-04-01

    pressure. To compute a case of high and low pressure around a stressed inclusion we first did a Finite Element Method calculation of a rigid inclusion in a viscous matrix under simple shear. From the computed stress distribution we took the local pressure (mean stress) in each grid point of the FEM calculation. This was used as input thermodynamic pressure in the Gibbs minimization and the result showed it is possible to have an equilibrium situation in which chlorite-amphibole is stable in the low pressure domain and kyanite in the high pressure domain of the stress field around the inclusion. Interestingly, the calculation predicts the redistribution of fluid from an average content of fluid in the system. The fluid in equilibrium tends to accumulate in the low pressure areas whereas it leaves the high pressure areas dry. Transport of fluid components occurs not necessarily by fluid flow, but may happen for example by diffusion. We conclude that an apparent disequilibrium texture may be explained by equilibrium under pressure variations, and apparent fluid addition by redistribution of fluid controlled by the local stress distribution. [1] Mukai et al. (2014), Journal of Petrology, 55 (8), p. 1457-1477. [2] Holland and Powell (1998), Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 16, p. 309-343 [3] Johnson et al. (1992), Computers & Geosciences, 18 (7), p. 899-947 [4] Connolly (2005), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 236, p. 524-541

  19. Line radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamp Inga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic and molecular line emission from protoplanetary disks contains key information of their detailed physical and chemical structures. To unravel those structures, we need to understand line radiative transfer in dusty media and the statistical equilibrium, especially of molecules. I describe here the basic principles of statistical equilibrium and illustrate them through the two-level atom. In a second part, the fundamentals of line radiative transfer are introduced along with the various broadening mechanisms. I explain general solution methods with their drawbacks and also specific difficulties encountered in solving the line radiative transfer equation in disks (e.g. velocity gradients. I am closing with a few special cases of line emission from disks: Radiative pumping, masers and resonance scattering.

  20. Spatial distribution of thermal energy in equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2015-06-01

    The equipartition theorem states that in equilibrium, thermal energy is equally distributed among uncoupled degrees of freedom that appear quadratically in the system's Hamiltonian. However, for spatially coupled degrees of freedom, such as interacting particles, one may speculate that the spatial distribution of thermal energy may differ from the value predicted by equipartition, possibly quite substantially in strongly inhomogeneous or disordered systems. Here we show that for systems undergoing simple Gaussian fluctuations around an equilibrium state, the spatial distribution is universally bounded from above by 1/2k(B)T. We further show that in one-dimensional systems with short-range interactions, the thermal energy is equally partitioned even for coupled degrees of freedom in the thermodynamic limit and that in higher dimensions nontrivial spatial distributions emerge. Some implications are discussed.

  1. Equilibrium-Based Nonhomogeneous Anisotropic Beam Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Couturier, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The stiffness matrix and the nodal forces associated with distributed loads are obtained for a nonhomogeneous anisotropic elastic beam element by the use of complementary energy. The element flexibility matrix is obtained by integrating the complementary-energy density corresponding to six beam...... equilibrium states, and then inverted and expanded to provide the element-stiffness matrix. Distributed element loads are represented via corresponding internal-force distributions in local equilibrium with the loads. The element formulation does not depend on assumed shape functions and can, in principle......, include any variation of cross-sectional properties and load variation, provided that these are integrated with sufficient accuracy in the process. The ability to represent variable cross-sectional properties, coupling from anisotropic materials, and distributed element loads is illustrated by numerical...

  2. Non-equilibrium effects in the plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.

    1975-01-01

    Radial dependences of non-equilibrium effects of a He plasma were studied in a wall-stabilized short-time discharge. The electron density (nsub(e) = 2.5 x 10 22 m -3 ), the electron temperature and the equilibrium shift were determined by calculations of the continuum beam density and the beam densities of one He-I and one He-II line, respectively. In the discharge axis, the overpopulation factors of the ground state of He-I and He-II are about 75. As the distance to the axis increases, they increase for He-I and decrease for He-II. Except for the usual errors of measurement, the overpopulation factors found here correspond to those calculated from the balance equations (Drawin). (orig./AK) [de

  3. On equilibrium charge distribution above dielectric surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Slyusarenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the equilibrium state of the charged many-particle system above dielectric surface is formulated. We consider the case of the presence of the external attractive pressing field and the case of its absence. The equilibrium distributions of charges and the electric field, which is generated by these charges in the system in the case of ideally plane dielectric surface, are obtained. The solution of electrostatic equations of the system under consideration in case of small spatial heterogeneities caused by the dielectric surface, is also obtained. These spatial inhomogeneities can be caused both by the inhomogeneities of the surface and by the inhomogeneous charge distribution upon it. In particular, the case of the "wavy" spatially periodic surface is considered taking into account the possible presence of the surface charges.

  4. Cosmic curvature from de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    2011-10-07

    I show that the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology generically predicts observable levels of curvature in the Universe today. The predicted value of the curvature, Ω(k), depends only on the ratio of the density of nonrelativistic matter to cosmological constant density ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and the value of the curvature from the initial bubble that starts the inflation, Ω(k)(B). The result is independent of the scale of inflation, the shape of the potential during inflation, and many other details of the cosmology. Future cosmological measurements of ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and Ω(k) will open up a window on the very beginning of our Universe and offer an opportunity to support or falsify the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.

  5. Equilibrium shapes of tubular lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelerčič, Urška

    2017-04-19

    Tubular vesicles represent abundant structural motifs which are observed both in experiments and in nature. We analyse them within the theory of bending elasticity and determine the equilibrium solutions at fixed volume, surface area, and segment length without imposing any specific symmetry or periodicity. We identify four different non-periodic equilibrium shapes. Depending on the precise value of the constraints or the corresponding Lagrange multipliers, these four shapes include: (i) snake-like and (ii) helical structures, (iii) tubes with a spherical body, and (iv) tubes with a discoidal body. However different in the details, all of the shapes have the same general cylindrical morphology which is either globally modulated or is a superposition of an additional structural motif and the cylinder. These results point to a great significance of the circular cylindrical shape and offer a comprehensive and general analysis of the shape of tubular vesicles.

  6. Thermal equilibrium during the electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetradis, N.

    1991-12-01

    The effective potential for the standard model develops a barrier, at temperatures around the electroweak scale, which separates the minimum at zero field and a deeper non-zero minimum. This could create out of equilibrium conditions by inducing the localization of the Higgs field in a metastable state around zero. In this picture vacuum decay would occur through bubble nucleation. I show that there is an upper bound on the Higgs mass for the above scenario to be realized. The barrier must be high enough to prevent thermal fluctuations of the Higgs expectation value from establishing thermal equilibrium between the two minima. The upper bound is estimated to be lower than the experimental lower limit. This is also imposes constraints on extensions of the standard model constructed in order to generate a strongly first order phase transition. (orig.)

  7. Gyrokinetic Magnetohydrodynamics and the Associated Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. W.; Hudson, S. R.; Ma, C. H.

    2017-10-01

    A proposed scheme for the calculations of gyrokinetic MHD and its associated equilibrium is discussed related a recent paper on the subject. The scheme is based on the time-dependent gyrokinetic vorticity equation and parallel Ohm's law, as well as the associated gyrokinetic Ampere's law. This set of equations, in terms of the electrostatic potential, ϕ, and the vector potential, ϕ , supports both spatially varying perpendicular and parallel pressure gradients and their associated currents. The MHD equilibrium can be reached when ϕ -> 0 and A becomes constant in time, which, in turn, gives ∇ . (J|| +J⊥) = 0 and the associated magnetic islands. Examples in simple cylindrical geometry will be given. The present work is partially supported by US DoE Grant DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Theory of chemical equilibrium in a lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, K.; Dufour, M.; Balazs, N.L.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical equilibrium is studied for the reaction A+B↔C, assuming that, initially, the particles B form a lattice and the particles A are statistically distributed on interstices. A mass action law is derived which defines the numbers n A , n B , n C of particles A, B, C in the chemical equilibrium assuming the initial distribution to be known. It predicts a considerably larger number n C of fused particles C compared to the mass action law for the gaseous phase. The result holds for an ordinary as well as for a nuclear lattice. Its possible relevance for the production of proton-rich isotopes in the universe is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Equilibrium and stability of a rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, P.A.E.M.

    1979-01-01

    The author considers the equilibrium and stability of a rotating plasma. The kinetic equations for ions and electrons supplemented with the Maxwell equations and the appropriate boundary conditions are used. Two different models for the rotating plasma are considered: the equilibrium of a 'fast' rotating plasma (Magneto Hydrodynamic ordering) and the stability of a slowly rotating, 'weakly' unstable plasma (Finite Larmor Radius ordering). A striking difference between these orderings is the fact that, regarding the stability of the plasma, for a F.L.R. plasma viscosity effects due to the finite Larmor radius are important, whereas in a M.H.D. plasma they are negligible (at least to the required order). (Auth.)

  10. Mixed quasi-equilibrium-like problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the auxiliary principle technique in conjunction with the Bregman function to suggest and analyze a three-step predictor-corrector method for solving mixed quasi-equilibrium-like problems. We also study the convergence criteria of this new method under some mild conditions. As special cases, we obtain various new and known methods for solving variational-like inequalities and related optimization problems.

  11. Computational methods for reversed-field equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.; Auerbach, S.P.; Willmann, P.A.; Berk, H.L.; McNamara, B.

    1980-01-01

    Investigating the temporal evolution of reversed-field equilibrium caused by transport processes requires the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation and computation of field-line-averaged quantities. The technique for field-line averaging and the computation of the Grad-Shafranov equation are presented. Application of Green's function to specify the Grad-Shafranov equation boundary condition is discussed. Hill's vortex formulas used to verify certain computations are detailed. Use of computer software to implement computational methods is described

  12. Structural Stability of Tokamak Equilibrium: Transport Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, E. R.

    2001-07-01

    A generalised theory of structural stability of differential equations is introduced and applied to the Grad-Shafranov equation. It is discussed how the formation and loss of transport barrier could be associated with the appearance/disappearance of equilibria. The equilibrium conjecture is presented: transport barriers are associated with locally diamagnetic regions in the plasma, and affected by the paramagnetism of the bootstrap current. (Author) 18 refs.

  13. Nanostructured energy devices equilibrium concepts and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bisquert, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the pressing needs of society, low cost materials for energy devices have experienced an outstanding development in recent times. In this highly multidisciplinary area, chemistry, material science, physics, and electrochemistry meet to develop new materials and devices that perform required energy conversion and storage processes with high efficiency, adequate capabilities for required applications, and low production cost. Nanostructured Energy Devices: Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics introduces the main physicochemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices. It inclu

  14. Survey Propagation as local equilibrium equations

    OpenAIRE

    Braunstein, A.; Zecchina, R.

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown experimentally that a decimation algorithm based on Survey Propagation (SP) equations allows to solve efficiently some combinatorial problems over random graphs. We show that these equations can be derived as sum-product equations for the computation of marginals in an extended space where the variables are allowed to take an additional value -- $*$ -- when they are not forced by the combinatorial constraints. An appropriate ``local equilibrium condition'' cost/energy functi...

  15. Equilibrium points of random generalized games

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tarafdar; Xian-Zhi Yuan

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the concepts of random maximal elements, random equilibria and random generalized games are described. Secondly by measurable selection theorem, some existence theorems of random maximal elements for Lc-majorized correspondences are obtained. Then we prove existence theorems of random equilibria for non-compact one-person random games. Finally, a random equilibrium existence theorem for non-compact random generalized games (resp., random abstract economics) i...

  16. A More Practical Method for Explaining Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Jang Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to suggest a more practical method for explaining market equilibrium in a two-dimensional risk-return world. Its main difference from textbook contents is to define, in both qualitative and quantitative ways, the environment or the system factor and treat it as an endogenous variable. Once the two-dimensional framework that is capable of managing uncertainty and environmental relationship can be reasonably established, a greater number of economic issues can be effect...

  17. General Equilibrium and The New Neoclassical Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Herings P. Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    We present a general equilibrium model of the new neoclassical synthesis that has the same levelof generality as the Arrow-Debreu model. This involves a stochastic multi-period economy with amonetary sector and sticky commodity prices. We formulate the notion of a sticky price equilibriumwhere all agents form rational expectations on prices for commodities and assets, interest rates,and rationing. We present a general result showing that monetary policy imposes no restrictionswhatsoever on no...

  18. The equilibrium structure of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraban, Joshua H.; Changala, P. Bryan; Stanton, John F.

    2018-01-01

    The equilibrium structure of hydrogen peroxide is completely determined for the first time. Recent isotopically substituted data is combined with the results of rovibrational variational calculations to yield a complete semi-experimental structure, which is in excellent agreement with high level ab initio calculated structures. In addition to numerically exact variational calculations, we also investigate the accuracy of approximate rovibrational predictions based on second order vibrational Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with curvilinear coordinates.

  19. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  20. Hamiltonian approach to the magnetostatic equilibrium problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessarotto, M.; Zheng, Lin Jin; Johnson, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the classical scalar-pressure magnetostatic equilibrium problem for non-symmetric configurations in the framework of a Hamiltonian approach. Requiring that the equilibrium admits locally, in a suitable subdomain, a family of nested toroidal magnetic surfaces, the Hamiltonian equations describing the magnetic flux lines in such a subdomain are obtained for general curvilinear coordinate systems. The properties of such Hamiltonian system are investigated. A representation of the magnetic field in terms of arbitrary general curvilinear coordinates is thus obtained. Its basic feature is that the magnetic field must fulfill suitable periodicity constraints to be imposed on arbitrary rational magnetic surfaces for general non-symmetric toroidal equilibria, i.e., it is quasi-symmetric. Implications for the existence of magnetostatic equilibria are pointed out. In particular, it is proven that a generalized equilibrium equation exists for such quasi-symmetric equilibria, which extends the Grad-Shafranov equation to fully three-dimensional configurations. As an application, the case is considered of quasi-helical equilibria, i.e., displaying a magnetic field magnitude depending on the poloidal (χ) and toroidal (var-theta) angles only in terms of α=χ-Nθ with N an arbitrary integer

  1. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  2. 3D equilibrium codes for mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    The codes developed for cumputing three-dimensional guiding center equilibria for quadrupole tandem mirrors are discussed. TEBASCO (Tandem equilibrium and ballooning stability code) is a code developed at LLNL that uses a further expansion of the paraxial equilibrium equation in powers of β (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure). It has been used to guide the design of the TMX-U and MFTF-B experiments at Livermore. Its principal weakness is its perturbative nature, which renders its validity for high-β calculation open to question. In order to compute high-β equilibria, the reduced MHD technique that has been proven useful for determining toroidal equilibria was adapted to the tandem mirror geometry. In this approach, the paraxial expansion of the MHD equations yields a set of coupled nonlinear equations of motion valid for arbitrary β, that are solved as an initial-value problem. Two particular formulations have been implemented in computer codes developed at NYU/Kyoto U and LLNL. They differ primarily in the type of grid, the location of the lateral boundary and the damping techniques employed, and in the method of calculating pressure-balance equilibrium. Discussions on these codes are presented in this paper. (Kato, T.)

  3. Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it accounts for the varying bioavailability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms.  This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document was prepared by scientists from the Atlantic Ecology Division, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, and Western Ecology Division, the Office of Water, and private consultants. The document describes procedures to determine the interstitial water concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in contaminated sediments. Based on these concentrations, guidance is provided on the derivation of toxic units to assess whether the sediments are likely to cause adverse effects to benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it is based on the concentrations of chemical(s) that are known to be harmful and bioavailable in the environment.  This document, and five others published over the last nine years, will be useful for the Program Offices, including Superfund, a

  4. Temperature and voltage measurement in quantum systems far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Abhay; Stafford, Charles A.

    2016-10-01

    We show that a local measurement of temperature and voltage for a quantum system in steady state, arbitrarily far from equilibrium, with arbitrary interactions within the system, is unique when it exists. This is interpreted as a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. We further derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a solution. In this regard, we find that a positive temperature solution exists whenever there is no net population inversion. However, when there is a net population inversion, we may characterize the system with a unique negative temperature. Voltage and temperature measurements are treated on an equal footing: They are simultaneously measured in a noninvasive manner, via a weakly coupled thermoelectric probe, defined by requiring vanishing charge and heat dissipation into the probe. Our results strongly suggest that a local temperature measurement without a simultaneous local voltage measurement, or vice versa, is a misleading characterization of the state of a nonequilibrium quantum electron system. These results provide a firm mathematical foundation for voltage and temperature measurements far from equilibrium.

  5. Effects of centrifugal modification of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium on resistive wall mode stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, J.; Aiba, N.; Miyato, N.; Yagi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Toroidal rotation effects are self-consistently taken into account not only in the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis but also in the equilibrium calculation. The MHD equilibrium computation is affected by centrifugal force due to the toroidal rotation. To study the toroidal rotation effects on resistive wall modes (RWMs), a new code has been developed. The RWMaC modules, which solve the electromagnetic dynamics in vacuum and the resistive wall, have been implemented in the MINERVA code, which solves the Frieman–Rotenberg equation that describes the linear ideal MHD dynamics in a rotating plasma. It is shown that modification of MHD equilibrium by the centrifugal force significantly reduces growth rates of RWMs with fast rotation in the order of M 2  = 0.1 where M is the Mach number. Moreover, it can open a stable window which does not exist under the assumption that the rotation affects only the linear dynamics. The rotation modifies the equilibrium pressure gradient and current density profiles, which results in the change of potential energy including rotational effects. (paper)

  6. On the Equilibrium States of Interconnected Bubbles or Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhaus, F.; Barker, W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the equilibrium states of a system composed of two interconnected, air-filled spherical membranes of different sizes. The equilibrium configurations are determined by the method of minimization of the availability of the system at constant temperature. (GA)

  7. On the Concept "Chemical Equilibrium": The Associative Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussarsky, Esther; Gorodetsky, Malka

    1990-01-01

    Word associations were used to map high school students' concepts of "chemical equilibrium" and "equilibrium." It was found that the preconception of the two concepts was differentiated on noncritical dimensions. (Author/CW)

  8. Equilibrium Constant as Solution to the Open Chemical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zilbergleyt, B.

    2008-01-01

    According to contemporary views, equilibrium constant is relevant only to true thermodynamic equilibria in isolated systems with one chemical reaction. The paper presents a novel formula that ties-up equilibrium constant and chemical system composition at any state, isolated or open as well. Extending the logarithmic logistic map of the Discrete Thermodynamics of Chemical Equilibria, this formula maps the system population at isolated equilibrium into the population at any open equilibrium at...

  9. Experimental determination of thermodynamic equilibrium in biocatalytic transamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Jensen, Jacob Skibsted; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The equilibrium constant is a critical parameter for making rational design choices in biocatalytic transamination for the synthesis of chiral amines. However, very few reports are available in the scientific literature determining the equilibrium constant (K) for the transamination of ketones....... Various methods for determining (or estimating) equilibrium have previously been suggested, both experimental as well as computational (based on group contribution methods). However, none of these were found suitable for determining the equilibrium constant for the transamination of ketones. Therefore...

  10. Fractionation of Stable Isotopes in Atmospheric Aerosol Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meusinger, Carl

    reactions and undergo complex chemical and physical changes during their lifetimes. In order to assess processes that form and alter aerosols, information provided by stable isotopes can be used to help constrain estimates on the strength of aerosol sources and sinks. This thesis studies (mass......-independent) fractionation processes of stable isotopes of C, N, O and S in order to investigate three different systems related to aerosols: 1. Post-depositional processes of nitrate in snow that obscure nitrate ice core records 2. Formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol generated by ozonolysis of X...... as required. The kndings provide important results for the studies' respective felds, including a description of the isotopic fractionation and quantum yield of nitrate photolysis in snow, equilibrium fractionation in secondary organic aerosol and fractionation constants of different oxidation pathways of SO2....

  11. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  12. Towards breaking temperature equilibrium in multi-component Eulerian schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Masser, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effects ofthermal equilibrium on hydrodynamic flows and describe models for breaking the assumption ofa single temperature for a mixture of components in a cell. A computational study comparing pressure-temperature equilibrium simulations of two dimensional implosions with explicit front tracking is described as well as implementation and J-D calculations for non-equilibrium temperature methods.

  13. Hanging an Airplane: A Case Study in Static Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Debora M.

    2009-01-01

    Our classrooms are filled with engineering majors who take a semester-long course in static equilibrium. Many students find this class too challenging and drop their engineering major. In our introductory physics class, we often breeze through static equilibrium; to physicists equilibrium is just a special case of Newton's second law. While it is…

  14. An analysis of the concept of equilibrium in organization theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.; Simons, John L.

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or requisite variety. Equilibrium is related to observables dependent on the definition of organization as work

  15. Equilibrium Price Dispersion in a Matching Model with Divisible Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamiya, K.; Sato, T.

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to show that, for any given parameter values, an equilibrium with dispersed prices (two-price equilibrium) exists in a simple matching model with divisible money presented by Green and Zhou (1998).We also show that our two-price equilibrium is unique in certain

  16. Investigating High School Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Treagust, David F.; Mocerino, Mauro; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the year 12 students' (N = 56) understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts after instruction using two conceptual tests, the "Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 1" ("CECT-1") consisting of nine two-tier multiple-choice items and the "Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 2"…

  17. Dynamics of a mechanical system with multiple degrees of freedom out of thermal equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigel, A

    2017-05-01

    Out of thermal equilibrium, an environment imposes effective mechanical forces on nanofabricated devices as well as on microscopic chemical or biological systems. Here we address the question of how to calculate these forces together with the response of the system from first principles. We show that an ideal gaslike environment, even near thermal equilibrium, can enforce a specific steady state on the system by creating effective potentials in otherwise homogeneous space. An example of stable and unstable rectifications of thermal fluctuations is presented using a modified Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet with two degrees of freedom. Moreover, the stability of a steady configuration depends on its chiral symmetry. The transition rate probabilities and the corresponding kinetic equations are derived for a complex mechanical system with arbitrary degrees of freedom. This work, therefore, extends the applicability of mechanical systems as a toy model playground of statistical physics for active and living matter with multiple degrees of freedom.

  18. Strontium isotope fractionation during strontianite (SrCO3) dissolution, precipitation and at equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatis, Vasileios; Harrison, Anna L.; Eisenhauer, Anton; Dietzel, Martin

    2017-12-01

    In this study we examine the behavior of stable Sr isotopes between strontianite [SrCO3] and reactive fluid during mineral dissolution, precipitation, and at chemical equilibrium. Experiments were performed in batch reactors at 25 °C in 0.01 M NaCl solutions wherein the pH was adjusted by bubbling of a water saturated gas phase of pure CO2 or atmospheric air. The equilibrium Sr isotope fractionation between strontianite and fluid after dissolution of the solid under 1 atm CO2 atmosphere was estimated as Δ88/86SrSrCO3-fluid = δ88/86Sr SrCO3 - δ88/86Srfluid = -0.05 ± 0.01‰. On the other hand, during strontianite precipitation, an enrichment of the fluid phase in 88Sr, the heavy isotopomer, was observed. The evolution of the δ88/86Srfluid during strontianite precipitation can be modeled using a Rayleigh distillation approach and the estimated, kinetically driven, fractionation factor αSrCO3-fluid between solid and fluid is calculated to be 0.99985 ± 0.00003 corresponding to Δ88/86SrSrCO3-fluid = -0.15‰. The obtained results further support that under chemical equilibrium conditions between solid and fluid a continuous exchange of isotopes occurs until the system approaches isotopic equilibrium. This isotopic exchange is not limited to the outer surface layer of the strontianite crystal, but extends to ∼7-8 unit cells below the crystal surface. The behavior of Sr isotopes in this study is in excellent agreement with the concept of dynamic equilibrium and it suggests that the time needed for achievement of chemical equilibrium is generally shorter compared to that for isotopic equilibrium. Thus it is suggested that in natural Sr-bearing carbonates an isotopic change may still occur close to thermodynamic equilibrium, despite no observable change in aqueous elemental concentrations. As such, a secondary and ongoing change of Sr isotope signals in carbonate minerals caused by isotopic re-equilibration with fluids has to be considered in order to use Sr

  19. Path integral Liouville dynamics for thermal equilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian

    2014-06-14

    We show a new imaginary time path integral based method--path integral Liouville dynamics (PILD), which can be derived from the equilibrium Liouville dynamics [J. Liu and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 104101 (2011)] in the Wigner phase space. Numerical tests of PILD with the simple (white noise) Langevin thermostat have been made for two strongly anharmonic model problems. Since implementation of PILD does not request any specific form of the potential energy surface, the results suggest that PILD offers a potentially useful approach for general condensed phase molecular systems to have the two important properties: conserves the quantum canonical distribution and recovers exact thermal correlation functions (of even nonlinear operators, i.e., nonlinear functions of position or momentum operators) in the classical, high temperature, and harmonic limits.

  20. Non-equilibrium Casimir force between vibrating plates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hanke

    Full Text Available We study the fluctuation-induced, time-dependent force between two plates confining a correlated fluid which is driven out of equilibrium mechanically by harmonic vibrations of one of the plates. For a purely relaxational dynamics of the fluid we calculate the fluctuation-induced force generated by the vibrating plate on the plate at rest. The time-dependence of this force is characterized by a positive lag time with respect to the driving. We obtain two distinctive contributions to the force, one generated by diffusion of stress in the fluid and another related to resonant dissipation in the cavity. The relation to the dynamic Casimir effect of the electromagnetic field and possible experiments to measure the time-dependent Casimir force are discussed.

  1. Evolution of discrimination in populations at equilibrium between selfishness and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, Richard M; Curnow, Robert N

    2012-11-21

    Where there is genetically based variation in selfishness and altruism, as in man, altruists with an innate ability to recognise and thereby only help their altruistic relatives may evolve. Here we use diploid population genetic models to chart the evolution of genetically-based discrimination in populations initially in stable equilibrium between altruism and selfishness. The initial stable equilibria occur because help is assumed subject to diminishing returns. Similar results were obtained whether we used a model with two independently inherited loci, one controlling altruism the other discrimination, or a one locus model with three alleles. The latter is the opposite extreme to the first model, and can be thought of as involving complete linkage between two loci on the same chromosome. The introduction of discrimination reduced the benefits obtained by selfish individuals, more so as the number of discriminators increased, and selfishness was eventually eliminated in some cases. In others selfishness persisted and the evolutionary outcome was a stable equilibrium involving selfish individuals and both discriminating and non-discriminating altruists. Heritable variation in selfishness, altruism and discrimination is predicted to be particularly evident among full sibs. The suggested coexistence of these three genetic dispositions could explain widespread interest within human social groups as to who will and who will not help others. These predictions merit experimental and observational investigation by primatologists, anthropologists and psychologists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Somatic constitution and the ability to maintain dynamic body equilibrium in girls practicing rhythmic gymnastics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliszczuk, Tatiana; Broda, Daria

    2010-01-01

    The greatest similarities in body constitution were noted in competitors practising the same discipline. The similarities increase with the training level. A typical body constitution for a given discipline not only favourably affects athletic performance, but is also the factor preventing sportsrelated contusions. The ability to maintain body equilibrium, together with somatic constitution, are the basic selective criteria in rhythmic gymnastics. The objective of this paper was to determine somatotypes, to evaluate the ability to maintain dynamic body equilibrium in girls practicing rhythmic gymnastics and to develop model characteristics enabling early diagnosis of the disorders equilibrium system function. The sample comprised 19 girls aged 8-11 years, practising rhythmic gymnastics. For the evaluation of the competitors' somatotypes, the Heath-Carter method was used, based on the classic concept of Sheldon's body constitution components. Body equilibrium level was evaluated by means of posturography. The mean values of the endomorphic component I, mesomorphic component II and ectomorphic component III in the gymnasts were 2.65+/-1.29, 2.45+/-0.37 and 3.95+/-0.64 respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) value for this cohort was 15.32, which means advanced slimness. The level of dynamic equilibrium is determined by the following mean values: the time of reaching the equilibrium, the way of reaching it and the duration of stay at the defined point. The model of above mentioned indicates was developed based on the analysis of it's best results. Body constitution type in the qualified gymnasts is characterised by the prevalence of the ectomorphic component. The study results indicate that female gymnasts are generally slim and lean. It is necessary to monitor BMI in order to exclude weight-related disorders and to observe the changes with age. The poorest result was found when the gymnasts bent in the backward direction as this body position is most difficult

  3. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  4. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  5. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...

  6. Equilibrium and shot noise in mesoscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, T.

    1994-10-01

    Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of noise in Mesoscopic devices, both experimentally and theoretically. Noise in solid state devices can have different origins: there is 1/f noise, which is believed to arise from fluctuations in the resistance of the sample due to the motion of impurities. On top of this contribution is a frequency independent component associated with the stochastic nature of electron transport, which will be the focus of this paper. If the sample considered is small enough that dephasing and inelastic effects can be neglected, equilibrium (thermal) and excess noise can be completely described in terms of the elastic scattering properties of the sample. As mentioned above, noise arises as a consequence of random processes governing the transport of electrons. Here, there are two sources of randomness: first, electrons incident on the sample occupy a given energy state with a probability given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Secondly, electrons can be transmitted across the sample or reflected in the same reservoir where they came from with a probability given by the quantum mechanical transmission/reflection coefficients. Equilibrium noise refers to the case where no bias voltage is applied between the leads connected to the sample, where thermal agitation alone allows the electrons close to the Fermi level to tunnel through the sample. In general, equilibrium noise is related to the conductance of the sample via the Johnson-Nyquist formula. In the presence of a bias, in the classical regime, one expects to recover the full shot noise < {Delta}{sup 2}I >= 2I{Delta}{mu} as was observed a long time ago in vacuum diodes. In the Mesoscopic regime, however, excess noise is reduced below the shot noise level. The author introduces a more intuitive picture, where the current passing through the device is a superposition of pulses, or electron wave packets, which can be transmitted or reflected.

  7. Pre-Equilibrium Processes in Nuclear Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Gaynor Mary

    1987-09-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The quantum mechanical statistical multistep compound emission (SMCE) theory of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin is applied to analyse the reactions induced by 14 MeV neutrons on ^{59}Co, ^ {93}Nb and ^{209} Bi. Calculations carried out in the framework of the SMCE model formalism are found to give a fair account of both the neutron and proton emission data above the (n,2n) and (n,np) thresholds. The SMCE theory is then improved by a reformulation of the original model. The revised model is confined explicitly to a description of particle-hole bound states and includes the finite depth of the potential well. Subsequent calculations improve the pre-equilibrium emission predictions compared with the earlier model. Contributions from the multiparticle emission processes are evaluated with the Weisskopf-Ewing theory, using the SMCE results as input for the second state calculations. Considered together with the results of a statistical multistep direct emission (SMDE) calculation of the (n,n^ ') reaction on ^{59 }Co at 14 MeV, the multistep theory is seen to provide a good fit to the emission data at both the forward and backward angles. The revised model is then used to predict the variation of SMCE with excitation energy and compound-state mass number. The energy dependence is seen to reflect the changing proportions of compound nucleus and pre-equilibrium processes. From a consideration of the model formalism the mass dependence of pre-equilibrium SMCE is derived. Values for the effective interaction strength deduced from these calculations are found to be rather constant over the entire energy and mass ranges.

  8. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  9. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  10. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  11. A Kinetics Of The Non-Equilibrium Universe. II. A Kinetics Of The Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium's Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatyev, Yu. G.; Ignatyev, D. Yu.

    2011-01-01

    It has been researched the kinetics of the thermal equilibrium's establishment in an early Universe under the assumption of the recovery of interaction scaling of elementary particles in range of superhigh energies. The case of the thermal equilibrium's weak initial violation and basic cosmological consequences of the thermal equilibrium's violation have been researched.

  12. Equilibrium double layers in extended Pierce diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu-Jassy, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    The extended Pierce diode is similar to the standard (or classical) Pierce diode, but has passive circuit elements in place of the short circuit between the electrodes. This device is important as an approximation to real bounded plasma systems. It consists of two parallel plane electrodes (an emitter located at x=0 and a collector located at x=l) and a collisionless cold electron beam travelling between them. The electrons are neutralized by a background of comoving massive ions. This situation is analysed in this paper and new equilibrium double layer (DL) plasma structures are obtained. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  13. Equilibrium stochastic dynamics of Poisson cluster ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Bogachev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution μ of a Poisson cluster process in Χ=Rd (with n-point clusters is studied via the projection of an auxiliary Poisson measure in the space of configurations in Χn, with the intensity measure being the convolution of the background intensity (of cluster centres with the probability distribution of a generic cluster. We show that μ is quasi-invariant with respect to the group of compactly supported diffeomorphisms of Χ, and prove an integration by parts formula for μ. The corresponding equilibrium stochastic dynamics is then constructed using the method of Dirichlet forms.

  14. Thermal equilibrium in strongly damped collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaddar, S.K.; De, J.N.; Krishan, K.

    1985-01-01

    Energy division between colliding nuclei in damped collisions is studied in the statistical nucleon exchange model. The reactions 56 Fe+ 165 Ho and 56 Fe+ 238 U at incident energy of 465 MeV are considered for this purpose. It is found that the excitation energy is approximately equally shared between the nuclei for the peripheral collisions and the systems slowly approach equilibrium for more central collisions. This is in conformity with the recent experimental observations. The calculated variances of the charge distributions are found to depend appreciably on the temperature and are in very good agreement with the experimental data

  15. Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 in Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium solubility of CO2 were measured in aqueous solutions of Monoethanolamine (MEA) and N,N-diethylethanolamine(DEEA). Equilibrium cells are generally used for these measurements. In this study, the equilibrium data were measured from the calorimetry. For this purpose a reaction calorimeter...... different temperatures 40, 80 and 120 ºC. The measured 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA data were compared with the literature data obtained from different equilibrium cells which validated the use of calorimeters for equilibrium solubility measurements....

  16. TRAINING STRATEGIES SPECIFIC TO THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION USED IN ORDER TO DEVELOP THE COORDINATIVE CAPACITIES - EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FINICHIU Marin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Coordinative capacities express themselves in the gesticulation sphere and help the motor learning being connected to the organization, control and movement adjustment processes; a good coordination represents the condition necessary to an execution as much as possible close to the established motor program.The equilibrium capacity is defined as being the maintaining capacity of the body in a certain established position and its re-equilibration after high amplitude shifting and solicitations; in maintaining the equilibrium the vestibular analyser’s role is determined.Methods: Proper investigation methods have been used among which - the observation method, the measurements and recording methods (The Bass test, the Flamingo test, the Matorin test, the experimentalmethod and the obtained data processing and interpretation methods – the statistic-mathematical method and the graphic one.Results: The use in a higher percentage the means specific to the coordinative capacities – equilibrium, had as effect a significant increase, from one measurement to another, by applying the three tests, both for the female students pattern and for the male students, fact emphasized also by presenting the three graphics.Conclusions: The use, in a higher percentage, the means specific to the development of the coordinative capacities – equilibrium, also the variety of working conditions during the physical education class, has contributed to the improvement of the calculated arithmetic means for the coordination tests – equilibrium. Onthis ground we can make a methodical line, in the analytical program, for the development of the students’ coordinative capacities.

  17. Blade bowing effects on radial equilibrium of inlet flow in axial compressor cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han XU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The circumferentially averaged equation of the inlet flow radial equilibrium in axial compressor was deduced. It indicates that the blade inlet radial pressure gradient is closely related to the radial component of the circumferential fluctuation (CF source item. Several simplified cascades with/without aerodynamic loading were numerically studied to investigate the effects of blade bowing on the inlet flow radial equilibrium. A data reduction program was conducted to obtain the CF source from three-dimensional (3D simulation results. Flow parameters at the passage inlet were focused on and each term in the radial equilibrium equation was discussed quantitatively. Results indicate that the inviscid blade force is the inducement of the inlet CF due to geometrical asymmetry. Blade bowing induces variation of the inlet CF, thus changes the radial pressure gradient and leads to flow migration before leading edge (LE in the cascades. Positive bowing drives the inlet flow to migrate from end walls to mid-span and negative bowing turns it to the reverse direction to build a new equilibrium. In addition, comparative studies indicate that the inlet Mach number and blade loading can efficiently impact the effectiveness of blade bowing on radial equilibrium in compressor design.

  18. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  19. Oxygen equilibrium studies on hemoglobin from the bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Saito, M; Yonetani, T; Gibson, Q H

    1983-08-15

    Oxygen equilibrium curves of the purified hemoglobin component I from the Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) have been determined between pH 6.5 and 8.75 at 25 degrees C, and for five temperatures between 10 and 30 degrees C at pH 7.0 and 7.5. From the equilibrium data oxygen equilibrium constants for four oxygenation steps, Ki (i = 1 to 4) were estimated. The number of the Bohr protons released on the ith oxygenation (delta Hi+), and the enthalpy and entropy changes at each oxygenation step (delta Hi and delta Si) were calculated. The Hill plot for oxygenation below neutral pH is biphasic; the top asymptote lies to the right of the bottom one and the linking limb between them exhibits a slope less than unity, exhibiting apparent negative co-operativity. The values of K1 and K2 exhibit little pH dependence, while those of K3 and K4 increase by two orders of magnitudes as the pH is changed from 6.5 to 8.75. In consequence, oxygen equilibrium above neutral pH exhibits a normal positive co-operativity. The oxygen equilibrium at lower temperature is biphasic as is that below neutral pH. The shape of the Hill plot is temperature-dependent. The affinity at low saturation decreases, and that at high saturation increases upon raising the temperature from 10 to 30 degrees C, resulting in crossing of the middle portion of the equilibrium curves at different temperatures. The delta H1 and delta H2 values are negative as are those of most other hemoglobins, but the delta H3 and delta H4 values are positive. Consideration of these results in a framework of the allosteric model extended to take account of differences between subunits has indicated that the deoxy quaternary structure is stabilized at low pH or low temperature, and that subunit heterogeneity gives rise to the biphasic oxygen equilibrium curve. An analysis of delta Hi+ suggests that the large number of the Bohr groups is responsible for the biased allosteric equilibrium towards the deoxy quaternary structure

  20. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...

  1. Evolution of equilibrium Pickering emulsions--a matter of time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; Luigjes, Bob; de Folter, Julius W J; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2010-09-30

    A new class of equilibrium solid-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions harbors a competition of two processes on disparate time scales that affect the equilibrium droplet size in opposing ways. The aim of this work is to elucidate the molecular origins of these two time scales and demonstrate their effects on the evolution of the emulsion droplet size. First, spontaneous emulsification into particle-covered droplets occurs through in situ generation of surface-active molecules by hydrolysis of molecules of the oil phase. We show that surface tensions of the oil-water interfaces in the absence of stabilizing colloidal particles are connected to the concentration of these surface-active molecules, and hence also to the equilibrium droplet size in the presence of colloids. As a consequence, the hydrolysis process sets the time scale of formation of these solid-stabilized emulsions. A second time scale is governing the ultimate fate of the solid-stabilized equilibrium emulsions: by condensation of the in situ generated amphiphilic molecules onto the colloidal particles, their wetting properties change, leading to a gradual transfer from the aqueous to the oil phase via growth of the emulsion droplets. This migration is observed macroscopically by a color change of the water and oil phases, as well as by electron microscopy after polymerization of the oil phase in a phase separated sample. Surprisingly, the relative oil volume sets the time scale of particle transfer. Phase separation into an aqueous phase and an oil phase containing colloidal particles is influenced by sedimentation of the emulsion droplets. The two processes of formation of surface-active molecules through hydrolysis and condensation thereof on the colloidal surface have an opposite influence on the droplet size. By their interplay, a dynamic equilibrium is created where the droplet size always adjusts to the thermodynamically stable state.

  2. Mixing times towards demographic equilibrium in insect populations with temperature variable age structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we use entropy related mixing rate modules to measure the effects of temperature on insect population stability and demographic breakdown. The uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn, and how it is moved after a finite act of time steps, is modeled using a stochastic transformation of the Leslie matrix. Age classes are represented as a cycle graph and its transitions towards the stable age distribution are brought forth as an exact Markov chain. The dynamics of divergence, from a non equilibrium state towards equilibrium, are evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Moreover, Kullback-Leibler distance is applied as information-theoretic measure to estimate exact mixing times of age transitions probabilities towards equilibrium. Using empirically data, we show that on the initial conditions and simulated projection's trough time, that population entropy can effectively be applied to detect demographic variability towards equilibrium under different temperature conditions. Changes in entropy are correlated with the fluctuations of the insect population decay rates (i.e. demographic stability towards equilibrium). Moreover, shorter mixing times are directly linked to lower entropy rates and vice versa. This may be linked to the properties of the insect model system, which in contrast to warm blooded animals has the ability to greatly change its metabolic and demographic rates. Moreover, population entropy and the related distance measures that are applied, provide a means to measure these rates. The current results and model projections provide clear biological evidence why dynamic population entropy may be useful to measure population stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. On statistical equilibrium in helical fluid flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kurgansky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical mechanics of 3-D helical flows is re-examined for a continuum truncated at a top wavenumber. Based on the principle of equipartition of the flow enstrophy between helical modes, the emerging (i energy spectrum law '–2' and (ii formal mathematical analogy between the helicity and the thermodynamic entropy are discussed. It is noted that the '–2' scaling law is consistent with both spectral equilibrium and spectral cascade paradigms. In an attempt to apply the obtained results to a turbulent flow regime within the Earth's outer liquid core, where the net helicity of a turbulent flow component is presumably explained by Earth's rotation, it has been noticed that it is the energy spectral law '–1', but not '–2', which is likely realized there and within the logarithmic accuracy corresponds to the case of the velocity structure function [u(l]2 independency on the spatial scale l, the latter is consistent with observations. It is argued that the '–1' scaling law can also be interpreted in terms of the spectral equilibrium and it is emphasized that the causes of the likely dominance of the spectral law '–1' over the spectral law '–2' in this geophysical application deserve further investigation and clarification.

  4. An equilibrium approach to modelling social interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Ignacio

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to put forward a statistical mechanics theory of social interaction, generalizing econometric discrete choice models. After showing the formal equivalence linking econometric multinomial logit models to equilibrium statical mechanics, a multi-population generalization of the Curie-Weiss model for ferromagnets is considered as a starting point in developing a model capable of describing sudden shifts in aggregate human behaviour. Existence of the thermodynamic limit for the model is shown by an asymptotic sub-additivity method and factorization of correlation functions is proved almost everywhere. The exact solution of the model is provided in the thermodynamical limit by finding converging upper and lower bounds for the system's pressure, and the solution is used to prove an analytic result regarding the number of possible equilibrium states of a two-population system. The work stresses the importance of linking regimes predicted by the model to real phenomena, and to this end it proposes two possible procedures to estimate the model's parameters starting from micro-level data. These are applied to three case studies based on census type data: though these studies are found to be ultimately inconclusive on an empirical level, considerations are drawn that encourage further refinements of the chosen modelling approach.

  5. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  6. PROCEDURES FOR THE DERIVATION OF EQUILIBRIUM ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document describes procedures to derive concentrations for 32 nonionic organic chemicals in sediment which are protective of the presence of freshwater and marine benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it accounts for the varying biological availability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms. EqP can be used to calculate ESBs for any toxicity endpoint for which there are water-only toxicity data; it is not limited to any single effect endpoint. For the purposes of this document, ESBs for 32 nonionic organic chemicals, including several low molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic compounds, pesticides, and phthalates, were derived using Final Chronic Values (FCV) from Water Quality Criteria (WQC) or Secondary Chronic Values (SCV) derived from existing toxicological data using the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative (GLI) or narcosis theory approaches. These values are intended to be the concentration of each chemical in water that is protective of the presence of aquatic life. For nonionic organic chemicals demonstrating a narcotic mode of action, ESBs derived using the GLI approach specifically for fres

  7. The equilibrium model of relationship maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sandra L; Holmes, John G; Griffin, Dale W; Derrick, Jaye L

    2015-01-01

    A new equilibrium model of relationship maintenance is proposed. People can protect relationship bonds by practicing 3 threat-mitigation rules: Trying to accommodate when a partner is hurtful, ensuring mutual dependence, and resisting devaluing a partner who impedes one's personal goals. A longitudinal study of newlyweds revealed evidence for the equilibrium model, such that relationship well-being (as indexed by satisfaction and commitment) declining from its usual state predicted increased threat-mitigation; in turn, increasing threat mitigation from its usual state predicted increased relationship well-being. Longitudinal findings further revealed adaptive advantages to uncertain trust. First, the match between trust and partner-risk predicted the trajectory of threat mitigation over time. People who hesitated to trust a high-risk partner became more likely to mitigate threats over 3 years, but people who hesitated to trust a safe partner became less likely to mitigate threats. The match between threat mitigation and partner-risk also predicted when being less trusting eroded later relationship well-being. Namely, when women paired with high-risk partners became more likely to mitigate threats, being less trusting at marriage lost its capacity to erode later relationship well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The empirical equilibrium structure of diacetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorwirth, Sven; Harding, Michael E.; Muders, Dirk; Gauss, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    High-level quantum-chemical calculations are reported at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory for the equilibrium structure and the harmonic and anharmonic force fields of diacetylene, H sbnd C tbnd C sbnd C tbnd C sbnd H. The calculations were performed employing Dunning's hierarchy of correlation-consistent basis sets cc-pV XZ, cc-pCV XZ, and cc-pwCV XZ, as well as the ANO2 basis set of Almlöf and Taylor. An empirical equilibrium structure based on experimental rotational constants for 13 isotopic species of diacetylene and computed zero-point vibrational corrections is determined (reemp:r=1.0615 Å,r=1.2085 Å,r=1.3727 Å) and in good agreement with the best theoretical structure (CCSD(T)/cc-pCV5Z: r=1.0617 Å, r=1.2083 Å, r=1.3737 Å). In addition, the computed fundamental vibrational frequencies are compared with the available experimental data and found in satisfactory agreement.

  9. Accurate equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaison, Jean; Craig, Norman C; Groner, Peter; Écija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J; Lesarri, Alberto; Rudolph, Heinz Dieter

    2015-03-05

    Extended and improved microwave (MW) measurements are reported for the isotopologues of piperidine. New ground state (GS) rotational constants are fitted to MW transitions with quartic centrifugal distortion constants taken from ab initio calculations. Predicate values for the geometric parameters of piperidine and cyclohexane are found from a high level of ab initio theory including adjustments for basis set dependence and for correlation of the core electrons. Equilibrium rotational constants are obtained from GS rotational constants corrected for vibration-rotation interactions and electronic contributions. Equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane are fitted by the mixed estimation method. In this method, structural parameters are fitted concurrently to predicate parameters (with appropriate uncertainties) and moments of inertia (with uncertainties). The new structures are regarded as being accurate to 0.001 Å and 0.2°. Comparisons are made between bond parameters in equatorial piperidine and cyclohexane. Another interesting result of this study is that a structure determination is an effective way to check the accuracy of the ground state experimental rotational constants.

  10. Equilibrium electrostatics of responsive polyelectrolyte monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Zangmeister, Rebecca A; Levicky, Rastislav

    2009-01-14

    The physical behavior of polyelectrolytes at solid-liquid interfaces presents challenges both in measurement and in interpretation. An informative, yet often overlooked, property that characterizes the equilibrium organization of these systems is their membrane or rest potential. Here a general classification scheme is presented of the relationship between the rest potential and structural response of polyelectrolyte films to salt concentration. A numerical lattice theory, adapted from the polymer community, is used to analyze the rest potential response of end-tethered polyelectrolyte layers in which electrostatics and short-range contact interactions conspire to bring about different structural states. As an experimental quantity the rest potential is a readily accessible, nonperturbing metric of the equilibrium structure of a polyelectrolyte layer. A first set of measurements is reported on monolayers of end-tethered, single-stranded DNA in monovalent (NaCl) and divalent (MgCl(2)) counterion environments. Intriguingly, in NaCl electrolyte at least two different mechanisms appear by which the DNA layers can structurally relax in response to changing salt conditions. In MgCl(2) the layers appear to collapse. The possible molecular mechanisms behind these behaviors are discussed. These studies provide insight into phenomena more generally underlying polyelectrolyte applications in the chemical, environmental, and biotechnological fields.

  11. Non-equilibrium many body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1997-09-22

    This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.

  12. Non-equilibrium many body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1997-01-01

    This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop

  13. Equilibrium & Nonequilibrium Fluctuation Effects in Biopolymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachan, Devin Michael

    Fluctuation-induced interactions are an important organizing principle in a variety of soft matter systems. In this dissertation, I explore the role of both thermal and active fluctuations within cross-linked polymer networks. The systems I study are in large part inspired by the amazing physics found within the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. I first predict and verify the existence of a thermal Casimir force between cross-linkers bound to a semi-flexible polymer. The calculation is complicated by the appearance of second order derivatives in the bending Hamiltonian for such polymers, which requires a careful evaluation of the the path integral formulation of the partition function in order to arrive at the physically correct continuum limit and properly address ultraviolet divergences. I find that cross linkers interact along a filament with an attractive logarithmic potential proportional to thermal energy. The proportionality constant depends on whether and how the cross linkers constrain the relative angle between the two filaments to which they are bound. The interaction has important implications for the synthesis of biopolymer bundles within cells. I model the cross-linkers as existing in two phases: bound to the bundle and free in solution. When the cross-linkers are bound, they behave as a one-dimensional gas of particles interacting with the Casimir force, while the free phase is a simple ideal gas. Demanding equilibrium between the two phases, I find a discontinuous transition between a sparsely and a densely bound bundle. This discontinuous condensation transition induced by the long-ranged nature of the Casimir interaction allows for a similarly abrupt structural transition in semiflexible filament networks between a low cross linker density isotropic phase and a higher cross link density bundle network. This work is supported by the results of finite element Brownian dynamics simulations of semiflexible filaments and transient cross-linkers. I

  14. Developing industries in cooperative interaction: equilibrium and stability in processes with lag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Kirjanen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of dynamic interaction between mining and processing industries is formalized and studied in the paper. The process of interaction is described by a system of two delay dierential equations. The criterion for asymptotic stability of nontrivial equilibrium point is obtained when both industries co-work steadily. The problem is reduced to nding stability criterion for quasi-polynomial of second order. Time intervals between deliveries of raw materials which make it possible to preserve stable interaction between the two industries are found.

  15. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  16. A numerical approach to weak Pareto solutions to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 7 (2006), s. 14-17 ISSN 1335-3632. [ISCAM 2006. International Conference in Applied Mathematics for undergraduate and graduate students. Bratislava, 07.04.2006-08.04.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : equilibrium problems with complementarity constraints * multiobjective optimization * variational analysis Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  17. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics simultaneously operate in the Galápagos islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente, Luis M.; Phillimore, Albert B.; Etienne, Rampal S.

    Island biotas emerge from the interplay between colonisation, speciation and extinction and are often the scene of spectacular adaptive radiations. A common assumption is that insular diversity is at a dynamic equilibrium, but for remote islands, such as Hawaii or Galapagos, this idea remains

  18. The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Approach to Far-From-Local-Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Metghalchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE method for the description of the time-dependent behavior of dynamical systems in non-equilibrium states is a general, effective, physically based method for model order reduction that was originally developed in the framework of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. A generalized mathematical formulation is presented here that allows including nonlinear constraints in non-local equilibrium systems characterized by the existence of a non-increasing Lyapunov functional under the system’s internal dynamics. The generalized formulation of RCCE enables to clarify the essentials of the method and the built-in general feature of thermodynamic consistency in the chemical kinetics context. In this paper, we work out the details of the method in a generalized mathematical-physics framework, but for definiteness we detail its well-known implementation in the traditional chemical kinetics framework. We detail proofs and spell out explicit functional dependences so as to bring out and clarify each underlying assumption of the method. In the standard context of chemical kinetics of ideal gas mixtures, we discuss the relations between the validity of the detailed balance condition off-equilibrium and the thermodynamic consistency of the method. We also discuss two examples of RCCE gas-phase combustion calculations to emphasize the constraint-dependent performance of the RCCE method.

  19. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics simultaneously operate in the Galápagos islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Luis M; Phillimore, Albert B; Etienne, Rampal S

    2015-08-01

    Island biotas emerge from the interplay between colonisation, speciation and extinction and are often the scene of spectacular adaptive radiations. A common assumption is that insular diversity is at a dynamic equilibrium, but for remote islands, such as Hawaii or Galápagos, this idea remains untested. Here, we reconstruct the temporal accumulation of terrestrial bird species of the Galápagos using a novel phylogenetic method that estimates rates of biota assembly for an entire community. We show that species richness on the archipelago is in an ascending phase and does not tend towards equilibrium. The majority of the avifauna diversifies at a slow rate, without detectable ecological limits. However, Darwin's finches form an exception: they rapidly reach a carrying capacity and subsequently follow a coalescent-like diversification process. Together, these results suggest that avian diversity of remote islands is rising, and challenge the mutual exclusivity of the non-equilibrium and equilibrium ecological paradigms. © 2015 The Authors Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  20. Comparative evaluation of kinetic, equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models for biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Chakma, Sankar; Kumar, Peeush [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Mahanta, Pinakeswar [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of biomass gasification has been an active area of research for past two decades. In the published literature, three approaches have been adopted for the modeling of this process, viz. thermodynamic equilibrium, semi-equilibrium and kinetic. In this paper, we have attempted to present a comparative assessment of these three types of models for predicting outcome of the gasification process in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier. Two model biomass, viz. rice husk and wood particles, have been chosen for analysis, with gasification medium being air. Although the trends in molar composition, net yield and LHV of the producer gas predicted by three models are in concurrence, significant quantitative difference is seen in the results. Due to rather slow kinetics of char gasification and tar oxidation, carbon conversion achieved in single pass of biomass through the gasifier, calculated using kinetic model, is quite low, which adversely affects the yield and LHV of the producer gas. Although equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models reveal relative insensitivity of producer gas characteristics towards temperature, the kinetic model shows significant effect of temperature on LHV of the gas at low air ratios. Kinetic models also reveal volume of the gasifier to be an insignificant parameter, as the net yield and LHV of the gas resulting from 6 m and 10 m riser is same. On a whole, the analysis presented in this paper indicates that thermodynamic models are useful tools for quantitative assessment of the gasification process, while kinetic models provide physically more realistic picture.

  1. The feeling of "face" in Confucian society: From a perspective of psychosocial Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Hsiang Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on the feeling of face has long described face as a complicated phenomenon in Confucian societies. Indeed, the feeling of face is highly context dependent. One may have very different (having or losing face perception if the same face event occurs in a different context. To better capture the features of how face is felt, effects on possible responses need to be considered. Therefore, this article adopts a perspective of psychosocial equilibrium to elaborate people’s feeling of face in Taiwan, a Confucian society. The first section illustrates the concept of psychosocial equilibrium and its psychodynamic effects on people’s feeling of face. Then, the second section of this article takes positive social situations (having face events as backdrop to exhibit how people balance their psychosocial equilibrium with different relationships. Following the positive social situations, the third section of this article then focuses on the negative situations (losing face events to explain how losing face is felt due to unbalance of psychosocial equilibrium with one’s relation in that specific context.

  2. Far-from-equilibrium sheared colloidal liquids: Disentangling relaxation, advection, and shear-induced diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Neil Y. C.

    2013-12-01

    Using high-speed confocal microscopy, we measure the particle positions in a colloidal suspension under large-amplitude oscillatory shear. Using the particle positions, we quantify the in situ anisotropy of the pair-correlation function, a measure of the Brownian stress. From these data we find two distinct types of responses as the system crosses over from equilibrium to far-from-equilibrium states. The first is a nonlinear amplitude saturation that arises from shear-induced advection, while the second is a linear frequency saturation due to competition between suspension relaxation and shear rate. In spite of their different underlying mechanisms, we show that all the data can be scaled onto a master curve that spans the equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium regimes, linking small-amplitude oscillatory to continuous shear. This observation illustrates a colloidal analog of the Cox-Merz rule and its microscopic underpinning. Brownian dynamics simulations show that interparticle interactions are sufficient for generating both experimentally observed saturations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  3. The Feeling of "Face" in Confucian Society: From a Perspective of Psychosocial Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kuei-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on the feeling of "face" has long described "face" as a complicated phenomenon in Confucian societies. Indeed, the feeling of face is highly context dependent. One may have very different (having or losing) face perception if the same face event occurs in a different context. To better capture the features of how face is felt, effects on possible responses need to be considered. Therefore, this article adopts a perspective of psychosocial equilibrium to elaborate people's feeling of face in Taiwan, a Confucian society. The first section illustrates the concept of psychosocial equilibrium and its psychodynamic effects on people's feeling of face. Then, the second section of this article takes positive social situations (having face events) as backdrop to exhibit how people balance their psychosocial equilibrium with different relationships. Following the positive social situations, the third section of this article then focuses on the negative situations (losing face events) to explain how losing face is felt due to unbalance of psychosocial equilibrium with one's relation in that specific context.

  4. Achieving Radiation Tolerance through Non-Equilibrium Grain Boundary Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterick, Gregory A; Gruber, Jacob; Suri, Pranav K; Baldwin, Jon K; Kirk, Marquis A; Baldo, Pete; Wang, Yong Q; Misra, Amit; Tucker, Garritt J; Taheri, Mitra L

    2017-09-25

    Many methods used to produce nanocrystalline (NC) materials leave behind non-equilibrium grain boundaries (GBs) containing excess free volume and higher energy than their equilibrium counterparts with identical 5 degrees of freedom. Since non-equilibrium GBs have increased amounts of both strain and free volume, these boundaries may act as more efficient sinks for the excess interstitials and vacancies produced in a material under irradiation as compared to equilibrium GBs. The relative sink strengths of equilibrium and non-equilibrium GBs were explored by comparing the behavior of annealed (equilibrium) and as-deposited (non-equilibrium) NC iron films on irradiation. These results were coupled with atomistic simulations to better reveal the underlying processes occurring on timescales too short to capture using in situ TEM. After irradiation, NC iron with non-equilibrium GBs contains both a smaller number density of defect clusters and a smaller average defect cluster size. Simulations showed that excess free volume contribute to a decreased survival rate of point defects in cascades occurring adjacent to the GB and that these boundaries undergo less dramatic changes in structure upon irradiation. These results suggest that non-equilibrium GBs act as more efficient sinks for defects and could be utilized to create more radiation tolerant materials in future.

  5. Template Removal via Boudouard Equilibrium Allows for Synthesis of Mesostructured Molybdenum Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieder, Martin; Bojer, Carina; Vom Stein, Julia; Koch, Sebastian; Martin, Thomas; Schmalz, Holger; Breu, Josef; Lunkenbein, Thomas

    2017-11-06

    Oxidative thermal removal of the polymeric templates is not trivial for molybdenum oxides and hampers mesostructuring of this material. At ambient oxygen fugacity, Mo VI is the thermodynamically stable oxidation state and sublimation of MoO 3 leads to a quick loss of the mesostructure through Oswald ripening. Taking advantage of the Boudouard equilibrium allows to fix the oxygen fugacity at a level where non-volatile MoO 2-x is stable while carbonaceous material may be oxidized by CO 2 . Mesostructured MoO 2-x can be chemically converted into MoO 3 or MoN under retention of the mesostructure. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Template removal via Boudouard equilibrium allows for synthesis of mesostructured molybdenum compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieder, Martin; Bojer, Carina; Koch, Sebastian; Martin, Thomas; Breu, Josef [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany); Stein, Julia vom [Abteilung fuer Heterogene Katalyse, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim a.d. Ruhr (Germany); Schmalz, Holger [Lehrstuhl fuer Makromolekulare Chemie II, Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany); Lunkenbein, Thomas [Abteilung fuer Anorganische Chemie, Fritz-Haber-Institut, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-11-06

    Oxidative thermal removal of the polymeric templates is not trivial for molybdenum oxides and hampers mesostructuring of this material. At ambient oxygen fugacity, Mo{sup VI} is the thermodynamically stable oxidation state and sublimation of MoO{sub 3} leads to a quick loss of the mesostructure through Oswald ripening. Taking advantage of the Boudouard equilibrium allows to fix the oxygen fugacity at a level where non-volatile MoO{sub 2-x} is stable while carbonaceous material may be oxidized by CO{sub 2}. Mesostructured MoO{sub 2-x} can be chemically converted into MoO{sub 3} or MoN under retention of the mesostructure. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Are Vicinal Metal Surfaces Stable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenken, J. W. M.; Stoltze, Per

    1999-01-01

    We use effective medium theory to demonstrate that the energies of many metal surfaces are lowered when these surfaces are replaced by facets with lower-index orientations. This implies that the low-temperature equilibrium shapes of many metal crystals should be heavily faceted. The predicted...... instability of vicinal metal surfaces is at variance with the almost generally observed stability of these surfaces. We argue that the unstable orientations undergo a defaceting transition at relatively low temperatures, driven by the high vibrational entropy of steps....

  8. Fluctuations in Hertz chains at equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedborski, Michelle; Sen, Surajit; Harroun, Thad A

    2017-03-01

    We examine the long-term behavior of nonintegrable, energy-conserved, one-dimensional systems of macroscopic grains interacting via a contact-only generalized Hertz potential and held between stationary walls. Such systems can be set up to have no phononic background excitation and represent examples of a sonic vacuum. Existing dynamical studies showed the absence of energy equipartitioning in such systems, hence their long-term dynamics was described as quasiequilibrium. Here we show that these systems do in fact reach thermal equilibrium at sufficiently long times, as indicated by the calculated heat capacity. As a by-product, we show how fluctuations of system quantities, and thus the distribution functions, are influenced by the Hertz potential. In particular, the variance of the system's kinetic energy probability density function is reduced by a factor related to the contact potential.

  9. The Fisher Market Game: Equilibrium and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Chen, Yiling; Deng, Xiaotie

    2014-01-01

    The Fisher market model is one of the most fundamental resource allocation models in economics. In a Fisher market, the prices and allocations of goods are determined according to the preferences and budgets of buyers to clear the market. In a Fisher market game, however, buyers are strategic...... and report their preferences over goods; the market-clearing prices and allocations are then determined based on their reported preferences rather than their real preferences. We show that the Fisher market game always has a pure Nash equilibrium, for buyers with linear, Leontief, and Cobb-Douglas utility...... functions, which are three representative classes of utility functions in the important Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) family. Furthermore, to quantify the social efficiency, we prove Price of Anarchy bounds for the game when the utility functions of buyers fall into these three classes...

  10. Nash equilibrium and multi criterion aerodynamic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhili; Zhang, Lianhe

    2016-06-01

    Game theory and its particular Nash Equilibrium (NE) are gaining importance in solving Multi Criterion Optimization (MCO) in engineering problems over the past decade. The solution of a MCO problem can be viewed as a NE under the concept of competitive games. This paper surveyed/proposed four efficient algorithms for calculating a NE of a MCO problem. Existence and equivalence of the solution are analyzed and proved in the paper based on fixed point theorem. Specific virtual symmetric Nash game is also presented to set up an optimization strategy for single objective optimization problems. Two numerical examples are presented to verify proposed algorithms. One is mathematical functions' optimization to illustrate detailed numerical procedures of algorithms, the other is aerodynamic drag reduction of civil transport wing fuselage configuration by using virtual game. The successful application validates efficiency of algorithms in solving complex aerodynamic optimization problem.

  11. Equilibrium statistical mechanics of lattice models

    CERN Document Server

    Lavis, David A

    2015-01-01

    Most interesting and difficult problems in equilibrium statistical mechanics concern models which exhibit phase transitions. For graduate students and more experienced researchers this book provides an invaluable reference source of approximate and exact solutions for a comprehensive range of such models. Part I contains background material on classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, together with a classification and survey of lattice models. The geometry of phase transitions is described and scaling theory is used to introduce critical exponents and scaling laws. An introduction is given to finite-size scaling, conformal invariance and Schramm—Loewner evolution. Part II contains accounts of classical mean-field methods. The parallels between Landau expansions and catastrophe theory are discussed and Ginzburg—Landau theory is introduced. The extension of mean-field theory to higher-orders is explored using the Kikuchi—Hijmans—De Boer hierarchy of approximations. In Part III the use of alge...

  12. Non-equilibrium in flowing atmospheric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.C.M. de.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aspects of two different plasmas applied in technological processes. The first one is the cesium seeded argon plasma in a closed cycle Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, the second is the thermal argon plasma in a cascade arc with an imposed flow. In Chapter 2 the influence of non-equilibrium on the mass and energy balances of a plasma is worked out. The general theory presented there can be applied to both the plasma in an MHD generator and to the cascade arc with imposed flow. Introductions to these plasmas are given in the Chapters 3 and 6 respectively. These chapters are both followed by two chapters which treat the theoretical and the experimental investigations. The results are summarized in Chapter 9. (Auth.)

  13. Gas phase equilibrium structure of histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis S; Rykov, Anatolii N; Grikina, Olga E; Khaikin, Leonid S

    2016-02-17

    The first gas electron diffraction (GED) experiment for histamine was carried out. The equilibrium structure of histamine in the gas phase was determined on the basis of the data obtained. The refinement was also supported by the rotational constants obtained in previous studies [B. Vogelsanger, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 7864-7869; P. Godfrey, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 10724-10732] and quantum chemical calculations. The proposed mechanism of tautomerization by simultaneous intermolecular transfer of hydrogens in a histamine dimer helps to explain the distribution of tautomers in different experiments. The estimations of the conformational interconversion times provided the explanation for the absence of some conformers in the rotational spectroscopy experiments.

  14. Survey propagation as local equilibrium equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Alfredo; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2004-06-01

    It has been shown experimentally that a decimation algorithm based on survey propagation (SP) equations allows one to solve efficiently some combinatorial problems over random graphs. We show that these equations can be derived as sum-product equations for the computation of marginals in an extended space where the variables are allowed to take an additional value—*—when they are not forced by the combinatorial constraints. An appropriate 'local equilibrium condition' cost/energy function is introduced and its entropy is shown to coincide with the expected logarithm of the number of clusters of solutions as computed by SP. These results may help to clarify the geometrical notion of clusters assumed by SP for random K-SAT or random graph colouring (where it is conjectured to be exact) and help to explain which kind of clustering operation or approximation is enforced in general/small sized models in which it is known to be inexact.

  15. Modelling of an homogeneous equilibrium mixture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Champmartin, A.; Poujade, O.; Mathiaud, J.; Mathiaud, J.; Ghidaglia, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a model for two phase flows which is simpler than the 6-equations models (with two densities, two velocities, two temperatures) but more accurate than the standard mixture models with 4 equations (with two densities, one velocity and one temperature). We are interested in the case when the two-phases have been interacting long enough for the drag force to be small but still not negligible. The so-called Homogeneous Equilibrium Mixture Model (HEM) that we present is dealing with both mixture and relative quantities, allowing in particular to follow both a mixture velocity and a relative velocity. This relative velocity is not tracked by a conservation law but by a closure law (drift relation), whose expression is related to the drag force terms of the two-phase flow. After the derivation of the model, a stability analysis and numerical experiments are presented. (authors)

  16. Financial markets theory equilibrium, efficiency and information

    CERN Document Server

    Barucci, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    This work, now in a thoroughly revised second edition, presents the economic foundations of financial markets theory from a mathematically rigorous standpoint and offers a self-contained critical discussion based on empirical results. It is the only textbook on the subject to include more than two hundred exercises, with detailed solutions to selected exercises. Financial Markets Theory covers classical asset pricing theory in great detail, including utility theory, equilibrium theory, portfolio selection, mean-variance portfolio theory, CAPM, CCAPM, APT, and the Modigliani-Miller theorem. Starting from an analysis of the empirical evidence on the theory, the authors provide a discussion of the relevant literature, pointing out the main advances in classical asset pricing theory and the new approaches designed to address asset pricing puzzles and open problems (e.g., behavioral finance). Later chapters in the book contain more advanced material, including on the role of information in financial markets, non-c...

  17. Effect of impurity radiation on tokamak equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.; Green, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to the radiation from impurities is of great importance in the overall energy balance. Taking the temperature dependence of this loss for two impurities characteristic of those present in existing tokamak plasmas, the condition for radial power balance is derived. For the impurities considered (oxygen and iron) it is found that the radiation losses are concentrated in a thin outer layer of the plasma and the equilibrium condition places an upper limit on the plasma paraticle number density in this region. This limiting density scales with mean current density in the same manner as is experimentally observed for the peak number density of tokamak plasmas. The stability of such equilibria is also discussed. (author)

  18. Adiabatic equilibrium models for direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, M.; Allen, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies are being extended to include a wider spectrum of reactor plants than was considered in NUREG-1150. There is a need for simple direct containment heating (DCH) models that can be used for screening studies aimed at identifying potentially significant contributors to overall risk in individual nuclear power plants. This paper presents two adiabatic equilibrium models suitable for the task. The first, a single-cell model, places a true upper bound on DCH loads. This upper bound, however, often far exceeds reasonable expectations of containment loads based on CONTAIN calculations and experiment observations. In this paper, a two cell model is developed that captures the major mitigating feature of containment compartmentalization, thus providing more reasonable estimates of the containment load

  19. Tensor pressure tokamak equilibrium and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.A.

    1981-03-01

    We investigate the equilibrium and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of tokamaks with tensor pressure and examine, in particular, the effects of anisotropies induced by neutral beam injection. Perpendicular and parallel beam pressure components are evaluated by taking moments of a distribution function obtained from the solution of a Fokker-Planck equation that models the injection of high-energy neutral beams into a tokamak. We numerically generate D-shaped beam-induced tensor pressure equilibria. A double adiabatic energy principle is derived from a modified version of the guiding center plasma energy principle. Finally, we apply the tensor pressure ballooning mode equation to computed equilibria that model experimentally determined ISX-B discharge profiles with high-power neutral beam injection. We predict that the plasma is unstable to flutelike modes in the central core of the discharge as a result of the pressure profile peakedness induced by the beams.

  20. Conformational equilibrium in supramolecular chemistry: Dibutyltriuret case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczyńska, Karina; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Grubecki, Ireneusz; Pietrzak, Marek; Ośmiałowski, Borys

    2015-01-01

    The association of substituted benzoates and naphthyridine dianions was used to study the complexation of dibutyltriuret. The title molecule is the simplest molecule able to form two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The naphthyridine salt was used to break two intramolecular hydrogen bonds at a time while with the use of substituted benzoates the systematic approach to study association was achieved. Both, titrations and variable temperature measurements shed the light on the importance of conformational equilibrium and its influence on association in solution. Moreover, the associates were observed by mass spectrometry. The DFT-based computations for complexes and single bond rotational barriers supports experimental data and helps understanding the properties of multiply hydrogen bonded complexes.

  1. Experimental studies in non-equilibrium physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, John Robert, Jr.

    This work is a collection of three experiments aimed at studying different facets of non-equilibrium dynamics. Chapter I concerns strongly compressible turbulence, which turns out to be very different from incompressible turbulence. The focus is on the dispersion of contaminants in such a flow. This type of turbulence can be studied, at very low mach number, by measuring the velocity fields of particles that float on a turbulently stirred body of water. It turns out that in the absence of incompressibility, the turbulence causes particles to cluster rather than to disperse. The implications of the observations are far reaching and include the transport of pollutants on the oceans surface, phytoplankton growth, as well as industrial applications. Chapter II deals with the effects of polymer additives on drag reduction and turbulent suppression, a well-known phenomenon that is not yet understood. In an attempt to simplify the problem, the effects of a polymer additive were investigated in a vortex street formed in a flowing soap film. Measurements suggest that an increase in elongational viscosity is responsible for a substantial reduction in periodic velocity fluctuations. This study also helps to illuminate the mechanism responsible for vortex separation in the wake of a bluff body. Chapter III describes an experiment designed to test a theoretical approach aimed at generalizing the classical fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT). This theorem applies to systems driven only slightly away from thermal equilibrium, whereas ours, a liquid crystal under-going electroconvection, is so strongly driven, that the FDT does not apply. Both theory and experiment focus on the flux in global power fluctuations. Physical limitations did not permit a direct test of the theory, however it was possible to establish several interesting characteristics of the system: the source of the fluctuations is the transient defect structures that are generated when the system is driven hard

  2. The market equilibrium of OPEC's pricing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1990-01-01

    At least twice a year, oil ministers of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) meet in Vienna or Geneva to adjust the group's output ceiling to eliminate discrepancies between the market price and the target price. If the market imbalances are persistent, then the target price is also adjusted. Often, OPEC's members differ in their assessment of future market demand for their oil and, thus, present different views on the need to adjust the output celing and the target price. During periods of downward pressures on oil prices, the high absorbers of capital (i.e., oil revenues) prefer a speedy downward adjustment to the celing, while the low absorbers are slow to react. However, in the event of tightening markets, the low absorbers usually respond by exceeding their quotas before agreeing on a ceiling adjustment. Therefore, OPEC nations have different desirable speeds of adjustment. This paper specifies and examines the stability of OPEC's pricing mechanism. It presents a strategy which would enable the organization to achieve a target price-based market equilibrium with increased rapidity through the appropriate manipulation of the speed of output ceiling adjustment. This strategy is applied using data on market and target prices, actual output, and output ceilings for the first quarter of 1991. The main finding is that, given the target price, OPEC's equilibrium market demand is significantly lower than the assigned output ceiling. Production should have been reduced by at least 3 million barrels a day for OPEC to realize the $21 per barrel target price in the first quarter of 1991. Seasonal factors can cause slight variations in this output but would not bring out compatibility between the target price and the output ceiling within a reasonable period of time unless OPEC follows an activist policy of output adjustment. 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Hopf Bifurcation, Positively Invariant Set, and Physical Realization of a New Four-Dimensional Hyperchaotic Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new four-dimensional hyperchaotic financial system on the basis of an established three-dimensional nonlinear financial system and a dynamic model by adding a controller term to consider the effect of control on the system. In terms of the proposed financial system, the sufficient conditions for nonexistence of chaotic and hyperchaotic behaviors are derived theoretically. Then, the solutions of equilibria are obtained. For each equilibrium, its stability and existence of Hopf bifurcation are validated. Based on corresponding first Lyapunov coefficient of each equilibrium, the analytical proof of the existence of periodic solutions is given. The ultimate bound and positively invariant set for the financial system are obtained and estimated. There exists a stable periodic solution obtained near the unstable equilibrium point. Finally, the dynamic behaviors of the new system are explored from theoretical analysis by using the bifurcation diagrams and phase portraits. Moreover, the hyperchaotic financial system has been simulated using a specially designed electronic circuit and viewed on an oscilloscope, thereby confirming the results of the numerical integrations and its real contribution to engineering.

  4. Nuclear Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Gregg G.; Worman, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The nucleus is the largest organelle and is commonly depicted in the center of the cell. Yet during cell division, migration and differentiation, it frequently moves to an asymmetric position aligned with cell function. We consider the toolbox of proteins that move and anchor the nucleus within the cell and how forces generated by the cytoskeleton are coupled to the nucleus to move it. The significance of proper nuclear positioning is underscored by numerous diseases resulting from genetic alterations in the toolbox proteins. Finally, we discuss how nuclear position may influence cellular organization and signaling pathways. PMID:23498944

  5. A stable algorithm for calculating phase equilibria with capillarity at specified moles, volume and temperature using a dynamic model

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2017-09-30

    Capillary pressure can significantly affect the phase properties and flow of liquid-gas fluids in porous media, and thus, the phase equilibrium calculation incorporating capillary pressure is crucial to simulate such problems accurately. Recently, the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature (NVT-flash) becomes an attractive issue. In this paper, capillarity is incorporated into the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature. A dynamical model for such problem is developed for the first time by using the laws of thermodynamics and Onsager\\'s reciprocal principle. This model consists of the evolutionary equations for moles and volume, and it can characterize the evolutionary process from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium state in the presence of capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. The phase equilibrium equations are naturally derived. To simulate the proposed dynamical model efficiently, we adopt the convex-concave splitting of the total Helmholtz energy, and propose a thermodynamically stable numerical algorithm, which is proved to preserve the second law of thermodynamics at the discrete level. Using the thermodynamical relations, we derive a phase stability condition with capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. Moreover, we propose a stable numerical algorithm for the phase stability testing, which can provide the feasible initial conditions. The performance of the proposed methods in predicting phase properties under capillarity effect is demonstrated on various cases of pure substance and mixture systems.

  6. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  7. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  8. Drift-free equilibrium reconstruction using magnetic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Moreau, Ph.; Lukash, V.E.

    2004-01-01

    Tore Supra has recently demonstrated the existence of a new effect, causing magnetic diagnostic drift and not previously taken into consideration, which is slight rotation of the magnetic probes by thermo-mechanical distortion during 300 second pulses absorbing more than 1 GJ into the plasma, resulting in time-dependent pick-up of the toroidal magnetic field. The Tore Supra control system tracks these offsets and displaces the last closed flux surface from its reference location. This new effect of long high-power pulses has the properties of a drift, generating a slowly evolving unmeasured offset to the integrated magnetic signals. For this reason, we have decided to take another look at methods of reconstructing an offset-free equilibrium from magnetic diagnostics, whereas most proposed approaches to drift compensation rely on non-magnetic, non-integrated measurements of plasma emission or reflectometry. We note that a similar approach was tested on HT-7 using the induction in the poloidal field coils as the sole measurement of the radial position, modulating in a similar way. Although this present work uses magnetic diagnostics, we are extending this idea to include the vertical position and the deformation of highly shaped plasmas

  9. Extraproximal approach to calculating equilibriums in pure exchange models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, A. S.

    2006-10-01

    Models of economic equilibrium are a powerful tool of mathematical modeling of various markets. However, according to many publications, there are as yet no universal techniques for finding equilibrium prices that are solutions to such models. A technique of this kind that is a natural implementation of the Walras idea of tatonnements (i.e., groping for equilibrium prices) is proposed, and its convergence is proved.

  10. Equilibrium Implications of Fiscal Policy with Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Rey, Guido M.

    This paper studies equilibrium effects of fiscal policy disturbances within a dynamic general equilibrium model where tax evasion and underground activities are explicitly incorporated. There are three mainresults. (i) The underground sector mitigates the distortionary impact of fiscal policies......, while lesseningthe drop (and the rise) of aggregate production after restrictive (expansionary) tax shocks. (ii) Taxevasion and underground economy can rationalize expansionary response to contractionary fiscal policies;(iii) A dynamic general equilibrium with tax evasion gives a rational justification...

  11. The Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program with parametric study capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, R.

    1981-01-01

    The program was developed to determine chemical equilibrium in complex systems. Using a free energy minimization technique, the program permits calculations such as: chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states; theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion; incident and reflected shock properties; and Chapman-Jouget detonation properties. It is shown that the same program can handle solid coal in an entrained flow coal gasification problem.

  12. The Estimation of the Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate for Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Andrei Dumitrescu; Vasile Dedu

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the equilibrium real exchange rate for Romania, respectively the real exchange rate consistent with the macroeconomic balance, which is achieved when the economy is operating at full employment and low inflation (internal balance) and has a current account that is sustainable (external balance). This equilibrium real exchange rate is very important for an economy because deviations of the real exchange rate from its equilibrium value can affect the competitiveness ...

  13. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  14. [Positive psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2016-02-08

    Positive psychiatry (PP) is a field within psychiatry with a particular focus on promoting well-being in people who already have or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illness. PP should be considered a supplement to trad-tional psychiatry and a call for therapists in psychiatry to focus on the person as a whole rather than just as a patient. PP is in line with current national and international health policy focus on promoting positive mental health.

  15. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  16. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  17. The Stability of Tidal Equilibrium for Hierarchical Star-Planet-Moon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by the current search for exomoons, this talk considers the stability of tidal equilibrium for hierarchical three-body systems containing a star, a planet, and a moon. In this treatment, the energy and angular momentum budgets include contributions from the planetary orbit, lunar orbit, stellar spin, planetary spin, and lunar spin. The goal is to determine the optimized energy state of the system subject to the constraint of constant angular momentum. Due to the lack of a closed form solution for the full three-body problem, however, we must use use an approximate description of the orbits. We first consider the Keplerian limit and find that the critical energy states are saddle points, rather than minima, so that these hierarchical systems have no stable tidal equilibrium states. We then generalize the calculation so that the lunar orbit is described by a time-averaged version of the circular restricted three-body problem. In this latter case, the critical energy state is a shallow minimum, so that a tidal equilibrium state exists. In both cases, however, the lunar orbit for the critical point lies outside the boundary (roughly half the Hill radius) where (previous) numerical simulations indicate dynamical instability.

  18. Teaching Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamics in Undergraduate General Chemistry Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anil C.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses some of the conceptual difficulties encountered by undergraduate students in learning certain aspects of chemical equilibrium and thermodynamics. Discusses teaching strategies for dealing with these difficulties. (JRH)

  19. Applicability of Donnan equilibrium theory at nanochannel-reservoir interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huanhuan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Moran

    2015-08-15

    Understanding ionic transport in nanochannels has attracted broad attention from various areas in energy and environmental fields. In most pervious research, Donnan equilibrium has been applied widely to nanofluidic systems to obtain ionic concentration and electrical potential at channel-reservoir interfaces; however, as well known that Donnan equilibrium is derived from classical thermodynamic theories with equilibrium assumptions. Therefore the applicability of the Donnan equilibrium may be questionable when the transport at nanochannel-reservoir interface is strongly non-equilibrium. In this work, the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model for ion transport is numerically solved to obtain the exact distributions of ionic concentration and electrical potential. The numerical results are quantitatively compared with the Donnan equilibrium predictions. The applicability of Donnan equilibrium is therefore justified by changing channel length, reservoir ionic concentration, surface charge density and channel height. The results indicate that the Donnan equilibrium is not applicable for short nanochannels, large concentration difference and wide openings. A non-dimensional parameter, Q factor, is proposed to measure the non-equilibrium extent and the relation between Q and the working conditions is studied in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-equilibrium synergistic effects in atmospheric pressure plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian; Li, He-Ping; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2018-03-19

    Non-equilibrium is one of the important features of an atmospheric gas discharge plasma. It involves complicated physical-chemical processes and plays a key role in various actual plasma processing. In this report, a novel complete non-equilibrium model is developed to reveal the non-equilibrium synergistic effects for the atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasmas (AP-LTPs). It combines a thermal-chemical non-equilibrium fluid model for the quasi-neutral plasma region and a simplified sheath model for the electrode sheath region. The free-burning argon arc is selected as a model system because both the electrical-thermal-chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium regions are involved simultaneously in this arc plasma system. The modeling results indicate for the first time that it is the strong and synergistic interactions among the mass, momentum and energy transfer processes that determine the self-consistent non-equilibrium characteristics of the AP-LTPs. An energy transfer process related to the non-uniform spatial distributions of the electron-to-heavy-particle temperature ratio has also been discovered for the first time. It has a significant influence for self-consistently predicting the transition region between the "hot" and "cold" equilibrium regions of an AP-LTP system. The modeling results would provide an instructive guidance for predicting and possibly controlling the non-equilibrium particle-energy transportation process in various AP-LTPs in future.

  1. General Equilibrium without Utility Functions: How far to go?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    and the diffeomorphism of the equilibrium manifold with a Euclidean space; 2) the diffeomorphism of the set of no-trade equilibria with a Euclidean space; 3) the openness and genericity of the set of regular equilibria as a subset of the equilibrium manifold; 4) for small trade vectors, the uniqueness, regularity......How far can we go in weakening the assumptions of the general equilibrium model? Existence of equilibrium, structural stability and finiteness of equilibria of regular economies, genericity of regular economies and an index formula for the equilibria of regular economies have been known...

  2. Tokamak plasma position dynamics and feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenko, L.; Bailey, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The perturbation equations of a tokamak plasma equilibrium position are developed. Solution of the approximated perturbation equations is carried out. A unique, simple, and useful plasma displacement dynamics transfer function of a tokamak is developed. The dominant time constants of the dynamics transfer function are determined in a symbolic form

  3. Critical dynamics a field theory approach to equilibrium and non-equilibrium scaling behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Täuber, Uwe C

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a unified framework for describing and understanding complex interacting systems common in physics, chemistry, biology, ecology, and the social sciences, this comprehensive overview of dynamic critical phenomena covers the description of systems at thermal equilibrium, quantum systems, and non-equilibrium systems. Powerful mathematical techniques for dealing with complex dynamic systems are carefully introduced, including field-theoretic tools and the perturbative dynamical renormalization group approach, rapidly building up a mathematical toolbox of relevant skills. Heuristic and qualitative arguments outlining the essential theory behind each type of system are introduced at the start of each chapter, alongside real-world numerical and experimental data, firmly linking new mathematical techniques to their practical applications. Each chapter is supported by carefully tailored problems for solution, and comprehensive suggestions for further reading, making this an excellent introduction to critic...

  4. Correlation lengths of thermal electromagnetic fields in equilibrium and out of equilibrium conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeyev, Illarion

    2014-11-01

    Spatial coherence of thermal fields in far- and near-field zones generated by heated half-space into a vacuum is studied at essentially different thermodynamical conditions. It is shown that correlation lengths of fields in any field zone are different in equilibrium and out of equilibrium systems. In a wide range of distances from a sample surface, the correlation functions should be calculated using a total sum of evanescent and propagating contributions due to their mutual compensation at some conditions because of anticorrelations. It is demonstrated that correlation lengths as calculated with a proposed formula are in agreement with the behavior of correlation functions of thermal fields in the spectral range of surface excitations.

  5. Computation of the effect of Donnan equilibrium on pH in equilibrium dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapleson, W W

    1987-05-01

    In equilibrium dialysis, with a nondiffusible, charged protein on one side of the membrane, Donnan equilibrium leads to a pH difference across the membrane. Therefore, with an ionizable drug, the concentration dissolved in water will be different on the two sides of the membrane to an extent dependent on the pH difference and the pKa of the drug. This must be allowed for in calculating the concentration bound to protein. This paper develops, with certain restrictions, a method of calculating the pH difference when the solutions contain electrolytes, acids, including CO2, and proteins. The method is applicable to pH differences across passive cell membranes.

  6. A survey of upwind methods for flows with equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemistry and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, B.; Garrett, J.; Cinnella, P.

    1989-01-01

    Several versions of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms were compared with regard to general applicability and complexity. Test computations were performed using curve-fit equilibrium air chemistry for an M = 5 high-temperature inviscid flow over a wedge, and an M = 24.5 inviscid flow over a blunt cylinder for test computations; for these cases, little difference in accuracy was found among the versions of the same flux-split algorithm. For flows with nonequilibrium chemistry, the effects of the thermodynamic model on the development of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms were investigated using an equilibrium model, a general nonequilibrium model, and a simplified model based on vibrational relaxation. Several numerical examples are presented, including nonequilibrium air chemistry in a high-temperature shock tube and nonequilibrium hydrogen-air chemistry in a supersonic diffuser.

  7. Influence of temperature fluctuations on equilibrium ice sheet volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgeholm Mikkelsen, Troels; Grinsted, Aslak; Ditlevsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Forecasting the future sea level relies on accurate modeling of the response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to changing temperatures. The surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has a nonlinear response to warming. Cold and warm anomalies of equal size do not cancel out and it is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual fluctuations in temperature. We find that the steady-state volume of an ice sheet is biased toward larger size if interannual temperature fluctuations are not taken into account in numerical modeling of the ice sheet. We illustrate this in a simple ice sheet model and find that the equilibrium ice volume is approximately 1 m SLE (meters sea level equivalent) smaller when the simple model is forced with fluctuating temperatures as opposed to a stable climate. It is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual temperature fluctuations when designing long experiments such as paleo-spin-ups. We show how the magnitude of the potential bias can be quantified statistically. For recent simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet, we estimate the bias to be 30 Gt yr-1 (24-59 Gt yr-1, 95 % credibility) for a warming of 3 °C above preindustrial values, or 13 % (10-25, 95 % credibility) of the present-day rate of ice loss. Models of the Greenland Ice Sheet show a collapse threshold beyond which the ice sheet becomes unsustainable. The proximity of the threshold will be underestimated if temperature fluctuations are not taken into account. We estimate the bias to be 0.12 °C (0.10-0.18 °C, 95 % credibility) for a recent estimate of the threshold. In light of our findings it is important to gauge the extent to which this increased variability will influence the mass balance of the ice sheets.

  8. Investigations in gasification of biomass mixtures using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781 039, Assam (India)

    2011-07-01

    Biomass gasifiers with power generation capacities exceeding 1 MW have large biomass consumption. Availability of a single biomass in such large quantities is rather difficult, and hence, mixtures of biomasses need to be used as feed-stock for these gasifiers. This study has assessed feasibility of biomass mixtures as fuel in biomass gasifiers for decentralized power generation using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium (with limited carbon conversion) model employing Gibbs energy minimization. Binary mixtures of common biomasses found in northeastern states of India such as rice husk, bamboo dust and saw dust have been taken for analysis. The potential for power generation from gasifier has been evaluated on the basis of net yield (in Nm3) and LHV (in MJ/Nm3) of the producer gas obtained from gasification of 100 g of biomass mixture. The results of simulations have revealed interesting trends in performance of gasifiers with operating parameters such as air ratio, temperature of gasification and composition of the biomass mixture. For all biomass mixtures, the optimum air ratio is {approx} 0.3 with gasification temperature of 800oC. Under total equilibrium conditions, and for engine-generator efficiency of 30%, the least possible fuel consumption is found to be 0.8 kg/kW-h. As revealed in the simulations with semi-equilibrium model, this parameter shows an inverse variation with the extent of carbon conversion. For low carbon conversions ({approx} 60% or so), the specific fuel consumption could be as high as 1.5 kg/kW-h. The results of this study have also been compared with previous literature (theoretical as well as experimental) and good agreement has been found. This study, thus, has demonstrated potential of replacement of a single biomass fuel in the gasifier with mixtures of different biomasses.

  9. Simulations of NMR pulse sequences during equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemical exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgstrand, Magnus; Haerd, Torleif; Allard, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The McConnell equations combine the differential equations for a simple two-state chemical exchange process with the Bloch differential equations for a classical description of the behavior of nuclear spins in a magnetic field. This equation system provides a useful starting point for the analysis of slow, intermediate and fast chemical exchange studied using a variety of NMR experiments. The McConnell equations are in the mathematical form of an inhomogeneous system of first-order differential equations. Here we rewrite the McConnell equations in a homogeneous form in order to facilitate fast and simple numerical calculation of the solution to the equation system. The McConnell equations can only treat equilibrium chemical exchange. We therefore also present a homogeneous equation system that can handle both equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemical processes correctly, as long as the kinetics is of first-order. Finally, the same method of rewriting the inhomogeneous form of the McConnell equations into a homogeneous form is applied to a quantum mechanical treatment of a spin system in chemical exchange. In order to illustrate the homogeneous McConnell equations, we have simulated pulse sequences useful for measuring exchange rates in slow, intermediate and fast chemical exchange processes. A stopped-flow NMR experiment was simulated using the equations for non-equilibrium chemical exchange. The quantum mechanical treatment was tested by the simulation of a sensitivity enhanced 15 N-HSQC with pulsed field gradients during slow chemical exchange and by the simulation of the transfer efficiency of a two-dimensional heteronuclear cross-polarization based experiment as a function of both chemical shift difference and exchange rate constants

  10. Using nonequilibrium capillary electrophoresis of equilibrium mixtures (NECEEM) for simultaneous determination of concentration and equilibrium constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoatov, Mirzo; Galievsky, Victor A; Krylova, Svetlana M; Cherney, Leonid T; Jankowski, Hanna K; Krylov, Sergey N

    2015-03-03

    Nonequilibrium capillary electrophoresis of equilibrium mixtures (NECEEM) is a versatile tool for studying affinity binding. Here we describe a NECEEM-based approach for simultaneous determination of both the equilibrium constant, K(d), and the unknown concentration of a binder that we call a target, T. In essence, NECEEM is used to measure the unbound equilibrium fraction, R, for the binder with a known concentration that we call a ligand, L. The first set of experiments is performed at varying concentrations of T, prepared by serial dilution of the stock solution, but at a constant concentration of L, which is as low as its reliable quantitation allows. The value of R is plotted as a function of the dilution coefficient, and dilution corresponding to R = 0.5 is determined. This dilution of T is used in the second set of experiments in which the concentration of T is fixed but the concentration of L is varied. The experimental dependence of R on the concentration of L is fitted with a function describing their theoretical dependence. Both K(d) and the concentration of T are used as fitting parameters, and their sought values are determined as the ones that generate the best fit. We have fully validated this approach in silico by using computer-simulated NECEEM electropherograms and then applied it to experimental determination of the unknown concentration of MutS protein and K(d) of its interactions with a DNA aptamer. The general approach described here is applicable not only to NECEEM but also to any other method that can determine a fraction of unbound molecules at equilibrium.

  11. The potential and flux landscape, Lyapunov function and non-equilibrium thermodynamics for dynamic systems and networks with an application to signal-induced Ca2+ oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarize our recent efforts in exploring the non-equilibrium potential and flux landscape for dynamical systems and networks. The driving force of non-equilibrium dynamics can be decomposed into the gradient of the non-equilibrium potential and the divergent free probability flux divided by the steady-state probability distribution. The potential landscape is linked to the probability distribution of the steady state. We found that the intrinsic potential landscape in the zero noise limit is a Lyapunov function. We have defined and quantified the entropy, energy and free energy of the non-equilibrium systems. These can be used for formulating the first law of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The free energy of the non-equilibrium system is also a Lyapunov function. Therefore, we can use both the intrinsic potential landscape and the free energy to quantify the robustness and global stability of the system. The Lyapunov property provides the formulation for the second law of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The non-zero probability flux breaks the detailed balance. The two driving forces from the gradient of intrinsic potential landscape and the probability flux are perpendicular to each other under the zero noise limit. We investigate the dynamics of a new biological example of signal-induced Ca 2+ oscillation. We explored the underlying potential landscape which shows a Mexican hat shape attracting the system down to the oscillation ring and the flux which provides the driving force on the ring for coherent and stable oscillation. We explored how the landscape and flux topography change with respect to the system parameters and the relationship to the period of oscillations and how the non-equilibrium free energy changes with respect to different dynamic phases and phase transitions when the system parameters vary. These explain how the system becomes robust and stable under different conditions and can help guide the experiment. (invited article)

  12. Concentrations of radiocesium and stable elements in different parts of pine tree collected in Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masumi; Suzuki, Akira; Linkov, Igor; Dvornik, Alexander; Zhuchenko, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Radial distributions of 137 Cs and related stable elements in a pine tree collected in Chernobyl contaminated area in Belarus were determined, in order to get basic information for dose estimation of pine tree. The concentration of 137 Cs in annual tree rings was the highest in cambium, and decreased sharply toward inside. The highest concentration of 137 Cs in cambium suggests the highest radiation dose to growing part of wood. Distribution of stable Cs was similar as that of 137 Cs, and the 137 Cs/stable Cs ratio was almost constant, indicating the equilibrium of Chernobyl 137 Cs with stable Cs in the pine wood. The similar distributions as Cs were observed for K and Rb. (author)

  13. Fluctuations around equilibrium laws in ergodic continuous-time random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Johannes H P; Barkai, Eli

    2015-06-01

    We study occupation time statistics in ergodic continuous-time random walks. Under thermal detailed balance conditions, the average occupation time is given by the Boltzmann-Gibbs canonical law. But close to the nonergodic phase, the finite-time fluctuations around this mean are large and nontrivial. They exhibit dual time scaling and distribution laws: the infinite density of large fluctuations complements the Lévy-stable density of bulk fluctuations. Neither of the two should be interpreted as a stand-alone limiting law, as each has its own deficiency: the infinite density has an infinite norm (despite particle conservation), while the stable distribution has an infinite variance (although occupation times are bounded). These unphysical divergences are remedied by consistent use and interpretation of both formulas. Interestingly, while the system's canonical equilibrium laws naturally determine the mean occupation time of the ergodic motion, they also control the infinite and Lévy-stable densities of fluctuations. The duality of stable and infinite densities is in fact ubiquitous for these dynamics, as it concerns the time averages of general physical observables.

  14. Equilibrium shapes and surface selection of nanostructures in 6H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Sosuke; Parish, Chad M.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai

    2017-04-01

    The equilibrium shape of 6H-SiC nanostructures and their surfaces were studied by analyzing nano-void (˜10 nm) shapes, which were introduced in monocrystalline 6H-SiC by high-temperature neutron irradiation, using transmission electron microscopy. The nano-voids were determined to be irregular icosahedrons truncated with six { 1 ¯ 100 }, twelve { 1 ¯ 103 }, one smaller top-basal, and one larger bottom-basal planes, which suggests that { 1 ¯ 100 } and { 1 ¯ 103 } are the next stable surface class after the basal planes. The relatively frequent absence of the { 1 ¯ 100 } surface in the nano-voids indicated that the ( 1 ¯ 10 3 ¯ ) surface type is energetically rather stable. These non-basal surfaces were found not to be atomically flat due to the creation of nanofacets with half unit-cell height in the c-axis. The { 1 ¯ 100 } and { 1 ¯ 103 } surfaces were classified as two and four face types according to their possible nanofacets and surface termination, respectively. We also discuss the surface energy difference between the ( 1 ¯ 10 3 ¯ ) and ( 1 ¯ 103 ) face types in relation to the energy balance within the equilibrium, but irregular, polyhedron, in which the ( 1 ¯ 103 ) surface had double the surface energy of the ( 1 ¯ 10 3 ¯ ) surface (˜3900 erg/cm2).

  15. Revealing patterns of cultural transmission from frequency data: equilibrium and non-equilibrium assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Enrico R.; Kandler, Anne; Shennan, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    A long tradition of cultural evolutionary studies has developed a rich repertoire of mathematical models of social learning. Early studies have laid the foundation of more recent endeavours to infer patterns of cultural transmission from observed frequencies of a variety of cultural data, from decorative motifs on potsherds to baby names and musical preferences. While this wide range of applications provides an opportunity for the development of generalisable analytical workflows, archaeological data present new questions and challenges that require further methodological and theoretical discussion. Here we examine the decorative motifs of Neolithic pottery from an archaeological assemblage in Western Germany, and argue that the widely used (and relatively undiscussed) assumption that observed frequencies are the result of a system in equilibrium conditions is unwarranted, and can lead to incorrect conclusions. We analyse our data with a simulation-based inferential framework that can overcome some of the intrinsic limitations in archaeological data, as well as handle both equilibrium conditions and instances where the mode of cultural transmission is time-variant. Results suggest that none of the models examined can produce the observed pattern under equilibrium conditions, and suggest. instead temporal shifts in the patterns of cultural transmission.

  16. Using stable isotopes to determine seabird trophic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Keith A.; Piatt, John F.; Pitocchelli, Jay

    1994-01-01

    1. The stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) were analysed in 22 species of marine birds from coastal waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Analyses confirm that stable nitrogen isotopes can predict seabird trophic positions.2. Based on δ15N analyses, seabird trophic-level inferences generally agree with those of conventional dietary studies, but suggest that lower trophic-level organisms are more important to several seabirds than was recognized previously.3. Stable-carbon isotope analysis may be a good indicator of inshore vs. offshore feeding preference.4. In general, stable-isotope analysis to determine trophic level offers many advantages over conventional dietary approaches since trophic inferences are based on time-integrated estimates of assimilated and not just ingested foods, and isotopic abundance represents a continuous variable that is amenable to statistical analysis.

  17. Modeling rocky coastline evolution and equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limber, P. W.; Murray, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    Many of the world’s rocky coastlines exhibit planform roughness in the form of alternating headlands and embayments. Along cliffed coasts, it is often assumed that headlands consist of rock that is more resistant to wave attack than in neighboring bays, because of either structural or lithologic variations. Bays would then retreat landward faster than headlands, creating the undulating planform profiles characteristic of a rocky coastal landscape. While the interplay between alongshore rock strength and nearshore wave energy is, in some circumstances, a fundamental control on coastline shape, beach sediment is also important. Laboratory experiments and field observations have shown that beach sediment, in small volumes, can act as an abrasive tool to encourage sea cliff retreat. In large volumes, though, sediment discourages wave attack on the cliff face, acting as a protective barrier. This nonlinearity suggests a means for headland persistence, even without alongshore variations in rock strength: bare-rock headlands could retreat more slowly than, or at the same rate as, neighboring sediment-filled embayments because of alongshore variations in the availability of beach sediment. Accordingly, nearshore sediment dynamics (i.e. sediment production from sea cliff retreat and alongshore sediment transport) could promote the development of autogenic planform geometry. To explore these ideas, we present numerical and analytical modeling of large-scale (> one kilometer) and long-term (millennial-scale) planform rocky coastline evolution, in which sediment is supplied by both sea cliff erosion and coastal rivers and is distributed by alongshore sediment transport. We also compare model predictions with real landscapes. Previously, our modeling exercises focused on a basic rocky coastline configuration where lithologically-homogeneous sea cliffs supplied all beach sediment and maintained a constant alongshore height. Results showed that 1) an equilibrium alongshore

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  19. Multiple stable isotope fronts during non-isothermal fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Scott, Samuel; Driesner, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Stable isotope signatures of oxygen, hydrogen and other elements in minerals from hydrothermal veins and metasomatized host rocks are widely used to investigate fluid sources and paths. Previous theoretical studies mostly focused on analyzing stable isotope fronts developing during single-phase, isothermal fluid flow. In this study, numerical simulations were performed to assess how temperature changes, transport phenomena, kinetic vs. equilibrium isotope exchange, and isotopic source signals determine mineral oxygen isotopic compositions during fluid-rock interaction. The simulations focus on one-dimensional scenarios, with non-isothermal single- and two-phase fluid flow, and include the effects of quartz precipitation and dissolution. If isotope exchange between fluid and mineral is fast, a previously unrecognized, significant enrichment in heavy oxygen isotopes of fluids and minerals occurs at the thermal front. The maximum enrichment depends on the initial isotopic composition of fluid and mineral, the fluid-rock ratio and the maximum change in temperature, but is independent of the isotopic composition of the incoming fluid. This thermally induced isotope front propagates faster than the signal related to the initial isotopic composition of the incoming fluid, which forms a trailing front behind the zone of transient heavy oxygen isotope enrichment. Temperature-dependent kinetic rates of isotope exchange between fluid and rock strongly influence the degree of enrichment at the thermal front. In systems where initial isotope values of fluids and rocks are far from equilibrium and isotope fractionation is controlled by kinetics, the temperature increase accelerates the approach of the fluid to equilibrium conditions with the host rock. Consequently, the increase at the thermal front can be less dominant and can even generate fluid values below the initial isotopic composition of the input fluid. As kinetics limit the degree of isotope exchange, a third front may

  20. Continuum model of non-equilibrium solvation and solvent effect on ultra-fast processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangyuan; Fu Kexiang; Zhu Quan

    2006-01-01

    In the past 50 years, non-equilibrium solvation theory for ultra-fast processes such as electron transfer and light absorption/emission has attracted particular interest. A great deal of research efforts was made in this area and various models which give reasonable qualitative descriptions for such as solvent reorganization energy in electron transfer and spectral shift in solution, were developed within the framework of continuous medium theory. In a series of publications by the authors, we clarified that the expression of the non-equilibrium electrostatic free energy that is at the dominant position of non-equilibrium solvation and serves as the basis of various models, however, was incorrectly formulated. In this work, the authors argue that reversible charging work integration was inappropriately applied in the past to an irreversible path linking the equilibrium or the non-equilibrium state. Because the step from the equilibrium state to the nonequilibrium state is factually thermodynamically irreversible, the conventional expression for non-equilibrium free energy that was deduced in different ways is unreasonable. Here the authors derive the non-equilibrium free energy to a quite different form according to Jackson integral formula. Such a difference throws doubts to the models including the famous Marcus two-sphere model for solvent reorganization energy of electron transfer and the Lippert-Mataga equation for spectral shift. By introducing the concept of 'spring energy' arising from medium polarizations, the energy constitution of the non-equilibrium state is highlighted. For a solute-solvent system, the authors separate the total electrostatic energy into different components: the self-energies of solute charge and polarized charge, the interaction energy between them and the 'spring energy' of the solvent polarization. With detailed reasoning and derivation, our formula for non-equilibrium free energy can be reached through different ways. Based on the

  1. Dissipative Time Evolution of Observables in Non-equilibrium Statistical Quantum Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nachbagauer, Herbert

    1998-01-01

    We discuss differential-- versus integral--equation based methods describing out--of thermal equilibrium systems and emphasize the importance of a well defined reduction to statistical observables. Applying the projection operator approach, we investigate on the time evolution of expectation values of linear and quadratic polynomials in position and momentum for a statistical anharmonic oscillator with quartic potential. Based on the exact integro-differential equations of motion, we study th...

  2. Non-factorizable joint probabilities and evolutionarily stable strategies in the quantum prisoner's dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The well-known refinement of the Nash Equilibrium (NE) called an Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS) is investigated in the quantum Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game that is played using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type setting. Earlier results report that in this scheme the classical NE remains intact as the unique solution of the quantum PD game. In contrast, we show here that interestingly in this scheme a non-classical solution for the ESS emerges for the quantum PD.

  3. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... backgrounds, of membership in a minoritised[i] or majoritised group, and the influence of different theoretical and methodological outlooks on our common goal of trying to transcend existing othering and objectifying representations of Muslims in Western societies. This process sometimes entails a direct...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  4. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  5. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  6. The equilibrium alluvial river under variable flow and its channel-forming discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Astrid; Arkesteijn, Liselot; Chavarrías, Víctor; Viparelli, Enrica

    2017-10-01

    When the water discharge, sediment supply, and base level vary around stable values, an alluvial river evolves toward a mean equilibrium or graded state with small fluctuations around this mean state (i.e., a dynamic or statistical equilibrium state). Here we present analytical relations describing the mean equilibrium geometry of an alluvial river under variable flow by linking channel slope, width, and bed surface texture. The solution holds in river normal flow zones (or outside both the hydrograph boundary layer and the backwater zone) and accounts for grain size selective transport and particle abrasion. We consider the variable flow rate as a series of continuously changing yet steady water discharges (here termed an alternating steady discharge). The analysis also provides a solution to the channel-forming water discharge, which is here defined as the steady water discharge that, given the mean sediment supply, provides the same equilibrium channel slope as the natural long-term hydrograph. The channel-forming water discharge for the gravel load is larger than the one associated with the sand load. The analysis illustrates how the load is distributed over the range of water discharge in the river normal flow zone, which we term the "normal flow load distribution". The fact that the distribution of the (imposed) sediment supply spatially adapts to this normal flow load distribution is the origin of the hydrograph boundary layer. The results quantify the findings by Wolman and Miller (1960) regarding the relevance of both magnitude and frequency of the flow rate with respect to channel geometry.

  7. A model for non-equilibrium, non-homogeneous two-phase critical flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassel, Wageeh Sidrak; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun

    1999-01-01

    Critical two phase flow is a very important phenomena in nuclear reactor technology for the analysis of loss of coolant accident. Several recent papers, Lee and Shrock (1990), Dagan (1993) and Downar (1996) , among others, treat the phenomena using complex models which require heuristic parameters such as relaxation constants or interfacial transfer models. In this paper a mathematical model for one dimensional non equilibrium and non homogeneous two phase flow in constant area duct is developed. The model is constituted of three conservation equations type mass ,momentum and energy. Two important variables are defined in the model: equilibrium constant in the energy equation and the impulse function in the momentum equation. In the energy equation, the enthalpy of the liquid phase is determined by a linear interpolation function between the liquid phase enthalpy at inlet condition and the saturated liquid enthalpy at local pressure. The interpolation coefficient is the equilibrium constant. The momentum equation is expressed in terms of the impulse function. It is considered that there is slip between the liquid and vapor phases, the liquid phase is in metastable state and the vapor phase is in saturated stable state. The model is not heuristic in nature and does not require complex interface transfer models. It is proved numerically that for the critical condition the partial derivative of two phase pressure drop with respect to the local pressure or to phase velocity must be zero.This criteria is demonstrated by numerical examples. The experimental work of Fauske (1962) and Jeandey (1982) were analyzed resulting in estimated numerical values for important parameters like slip ratio, equilibrium constant and two phase frictional drop. (author)

  8. Equilibrium between a Droplet and Surrounding Vapor: A Discussion of Finite Size Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröster, Andreas; Schmitz, Fabian; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

    2018-01-10

    In a theoretical description of homogeneous nucleation one frequently assumes an "equilibrium" coexistence of a liquid droplet with surrounding vapor of a density exceeding that of a saturated vapor at bulk vapor-liquid two-phase coexistence. Thereby one ignores the caveat that in the thermodynamic limit, for which the vapor would be called supersaturated, such states will at best be metastable with finite lifetime, and thus not be well-defined within equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast, in a system of finite volume stable equilibrium coexistence of droplet and supersaturated vapor at constant total density is perfectly possible, and numerical analysis of equilibrium free energies of finite systems allows to obtain physically relevant results. In particular, such an analysis can be used to derive the dependence of the droplet surface tension γ(R) on the droplet radius R by computer simulations. Unfortunately, however, the precision of the results produced by this approach turns out to be seriously affected by a hitherto unexplained spurious dependence of γ(R) on the total volume V of the simulation box. These finite size effects are studied here for the standard Ising/lattice gas model in d = 2 dimensions and an Ising model on the face-centered cubic lattice with 3-spin interaction, lacking symmetry between vapor and liquid phases. There also the analogous case of bubbles surrounded by undersaturated liquid is treated. It is argued that (at least a large part of) the finite size effects result from the translation entropy of the droplet or bubble in the system. This effect has been shown earlier to occur also for planar interfaces for simulations in the slab geometry. Consequences for the estimation of the Tolman length are briefly discussed. In particular, we find clear evidence that in d = 2 the leading correction of the curvature-dependent interface tension is a logarithmic term, compatible with theoretical expectations, and we show that then the

  9. Multimodal Network Equilibrium with Stochastic Travel Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The private car, unlike public traffic modes (e.g., subway, trolley running along dedicated track-ways, is invariably subject to various uncertainties resulting in travel time variation. A multimodal network equilibrium model is formulated that explicitly considers stochastic link capacity variability in the road network. The travel time of combined-mode trips is accumulated based on the concept of the mean excess travel time (METT which is a summation of estimated buffer time and tardy time. The problem is characterized by an equivalent VI (variational inequality formulation where the mode choice is expressed in a hierarchical logit structure. Specifically, the supernetwork theory and expansion technique are used herein to represent the multimodal transportation network, which completely represents the combined-mode trips as constituting multiple modes within a trip. The method of successive weighted average is adopted for problem solutions. The model and solution method are further applied to study the trip distribution and METT variations caused by the different levels of the road conditions. Results of numerical examples show that travelers prefer to choose the combined travel mode as road capacity decreases. Travelers with different attitudes towards risk are shown to exhibit significant differences when making travel choice decisions.

  10. Gibbsian Stationary Non-equilibrium States

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlo, Leonardo; Gabrielli, Davide

    2017-09-01

    We study the structure of stationary non-equilibrium states for interacting particle systems from a microscopic viewpoint. In particular we discuss two different discrete geometric constructions. We apply both of them to determine non reversible transition rates corresponding to a fixed invariant measure. The first one uses the equivalence of this problem with the construction of divergence free flows on the transition graph. Since divergence free flows are characterized by cyclic decompositions we can generate families of models from elementary cycles on the configuration space. The second construction is a functional discrete Hodge decomposition for translational covariant discrete vector fields. According to this, for example, the instantaneous current of any interacting particle system on a finite torus can be canonically decomposed in a gradient part, a circulation term and an harmonic component. All the three components are associated with functions on the configuration space. This decomposition is unique and constructive. The stationary condition can be interpreted as an orthogonality condition with respect to an harmonic discrete vector field and we use this decomposition to construct models having a fixed invariant measure.

  11. Classical or equilibrium thermodynamics: basic conceptual aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Calvo Tiritan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Classical or Equilibrium Thermodynamics is one of the most consolidated fields of Physics. It is synthesized by a well-known and self coherent knowledge structure. The essence of the Classical Thermodynamics theoretical structure consists of a set of natural laws that rule the macroscopic physical systems behavior. These laws were formulated based on observations generalizations and are mostly independent of any hypotheses concerning the microscopic nature of the matter. In general, the approaches established for the Classical Thermodynamics follow one of the following alternatives: the historical approach that describes chronologically the evolution of ideas, concepts and facts, and the postulational approach in which postulates are formulated but are not demonstrated a priori but can be confirmed a posteriori. In this work, a brief review of the pre-classical historical approach conceptual evolution is elaborated, from the beginning of the seventeenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century. As for this, the following themes are dealt with in an evolutionary and phenomenological way: heat nature, thermometry, calorimetry, Carnot’s heat engine, heat mechanical equivalent and the first and second laws. The Zeroth law that was formulated afterwards is included in the discussion.

  12. Radiative-convective equilibrium model intercomparison project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Allison A.; Reed, Kevin A.; Satoh, Masaki; Stevens, Bjorn; Bony, Sandrine; Ohno, Tomoki

    2018-03-01

    RCEMIP, an intercomparison of multiple types of models configured in radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE), is proposed. RCE is an idealization of the climate system in which there is a balance between radiative cooling of the atmosphere and heating by convection. The scientific objectives of RCEMIP are three-fold. First, clouds and climate sensitivity will be investigated in the RCE setting. This includes determining how cloud fraction changes with warming and the role of self-aggregation of convection in climate sensitivity. Second, RCEMIP will quantify the dependence of the degree of convective aggregation and tropical circulation regimes on temperature. Finally, by providing a common baseline, RCEMIP will allow the robustness of the RCE state across the spectrum of models to be assessed, which is essential for interpreting the results found regarding clouds, climate sensitivity, and aggregation, and more generally, determining which features of tropical climate a RCE framework is useful for. A novel aspect and major advantage of RCEMIP is the accessibility of the RCE framework to a variety of models, including cloud-resolving models, general circulation models, global cloud-resolving models, single-column models, and large-eddy simulation models.

  13. A theoretical analysis of vertical flow equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    The assumption of Vertical Flow Equilibrium (VFE) and of parallel flow conditions, in general, is often applied to the modeling of flow and displacement in natural porous media. However, the methodology for the development of the various models is rather intuitive, and no rigorous method is currently available. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic theory using as parameter the variable R{sub L} = (L/H){radical}(k{sub V})/(k{sub H}). It is rigorously shown that present models represent the leading order term of an asymptotic expansion with respect to 1/R{sub L}{sup 2}. Although this was numerically suspected, it is the first time that is is theoretically proved. Based on the general formulation, a series of models are subsequently obtained. In the absence of strong gravity effects, they generalize previous works by Zapata and Lake (1981), Yokoyama and Lake (1981) and Lake and Hirasaki (1981), on immiscible and miscible displacements. In the limit of gravity-segregated flow, we prove conditions for the fluids to be segregated and derive the Dupuit and Dietz (1953) approximations. Finally, we also discuss effects of capillarity and transverse dispersion.

  14. Shear viscosity and out of equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    El, Andrej; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Using the Grad's method we calculate the entropy production and derive a formula for the second order shear viscosity coefficient in a one-dimensionally expanding particle system, which can also be considered out of chemical equilibrium. For a one-dimensional expansion of gluon matter with Bjorken boost invariance the shear tensor and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio $\\eta/s$ are numerically calculated by an iterative and self-consistent prescription within the second order Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics and by a microscopic parton cascade transport theory. Compared with $\\eta/s$ obtained using the Navier-Stokes approximation, the present result is about 20% larger at a QCD coupling $\\alpha_s \\sim 0.3$(with $\\eta/s\\approx 0.18$) and is a factor of 2-3 larger at a small coupling $\\alpha_s \\sim 0.01$. We demonstrate an agreement between the viscous hydrodynamic calculations and the microscopic transport results on $\\eta/s$, except when employing a small $\\alpha_s$. On the other hand, we demonstrate th...

  15. Shear viscosity and out of equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    El, Andrej; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Using Grad’s method, we calculate the entropy production and derive a formula for the second-order shear viscosity coefficient in a one-dimensionally expanding particle system, which can also be considered out of chemical equilibrium. For a one-dimensional expansion of gluon matter with Bjorken boost invariance, the shear tensor and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s are numerically calculated by an iterative and self-consistent prescription within the second-order Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics and by a microscopic parton cascade transport theory. Compared with η/s obtained using the Navier-Stokes approximation, the present result is about 20% larger at a QCD coupling αs ∼ 0.3 (with η/s ≈ 0.18) and is a factor of 2–3 larger at a small coupling αs ∼ 0.01. We demonstrate an agreement between the viscous hydrodynamic calculations and the microscopic transport results on η/s, except when employing a small αs . On the other hand, we demonstrate that for such small αs , the gluon syst...

  16. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  17. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  18. Strong Duality and Optimality Conditions for Generalized Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a generalized equilibrium problem involving DC functions. By using the properties of the epigraph of the conjugate functions, some sufficient and/or necessary conditions for the weak and strong duality results and optimality conditions for generalized equilibrium problems are provided.

  19. Collinear Equilibrium Solutions of Four-body Problem Muhammad ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - eters in the four-body problems, very little analytical work has been carried out for greater than three bodies. In this paper we discuss collinear equilibrium configurations of four-body prob- lem. An equilibrium configuration of four-bodies is a ...

  20. Social security as Markov equilibrium in OLG models: A note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin

    2011-01-01

    I refine and extend the Markov perfect equilibrium of the social security policy game in Forni (2005) for the special case of logarithmic utility. Under the restriction that the policy function be continuous, instead of differentiable, the equilibrium is globally well defined and its dynamics alw...