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Sample records for stable equidistant step

  1. Probabilistic cloning of equidistant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Roa, Luis; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of equidistant states. These states are such that the inner product between them is a complex constant or its conjugate. Thereby, it is possible to study their cloning in a simple way. In particular, we are interested in the behavior of the cloning probability as a function of the phase of the overlap among the involved states. We show that for certain families of equidistant states Duan and Guo's cloning machine leads to cloning probabilities lower than the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability of equidistant states. We propose an alternative cloning machine whose cloning probability is higher than or equal to the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability for any family of equidistant states. Both machines achieve the same probability for equidistant states whose inner product is a positive real number.

  2. Equidistant Intervals in Perspective Photographs and Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is extremely sensitive to equidistance of spatial intervals in the frontal plane. Thresholds for spatial equidistance have been extensively measured in bisecting tasks. Despite the vast number of studies, the informational basis for equidistance perception is unknown. There are three possible sources of information for spatial equidistance in pictures, namely, distances in the picture plane, in physical space, and visual space. For each source, equidistant intervals were computed for perspective photographs of walls and canals. Intervals appear equidistant if equidistance is defined in visual space. Equidistance was further investigated in paintings of perspective scenes. In appraisals of the perspective skill of painters, emphasis has been on accurate use of vanishing points. The current study investigated the skill of painters to depict equidistant intervals. Depicted rows of equidistant columns, tiles, tapestries, or trees were analyzed in 30 paintings and engravings. Computational analysis shows that from the middle ages until now, artists either represented equidistance in physical space or in a visual space of very limited depth. Among the painters and engravers who depict equidistance in a highly nonveridical visual space are renowned experts of linear perspective. PMID:27698983

  3. Quantum tomography via equidistant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva-Sanchez, C.; Burgos-Inostroza, E.; Jimenez, O.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility of performing quantum state tomography via equidistant states. This class of states allows us to propose a nonsymmetric informationally complete Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) based tomographic scheme. The scheme is defined for odd dimensions N and involves the measurement of N 2 transition probabilities and an inversion, which can be analytically carried out by Fourier transform. The scheme can be modified to allow the reconstruction of states in the case of even dimensions at the expense of increasing the number of measurements to 3N 2 /2.

  4. In-induced stable ordering of stepped Si(553) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Amit Kumar Singh [Physics of Energy Harvesting, (CSIR-NPL) , Dr. K.S. KrishnanRoad, New Delhi -110012 (India); Department of Physics, JMI, New Delhi 110025 (India); Niazi, Asad; Nair, Lekha [Department of Physics, JMI, New Delhi 110025 (India); Gupta, Govind, E-mail: govind@nplindia.org [Physics of Energy Harvesting, (CSIR-NPL) , Dr. K.S. KrishnanRoad, New Delhi -110012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Control growth of In on step Si(553) & thermal stability of novel superstructure. • Influence of temperature on growth modes (SK,VB) under different growth conditions. • In-induced superstructure: (8 × 2), (8 × 4), mixed (553)-7 × 1 + (111)√3 × √3R30° phases. - Abstract: The growth mechanism and adsorbate-induced surface morphology of metal atoms on semiconducting surfaces crucially determines the electronic and physicochemical properties of these metal/semiconductor systems. In this study, we investigate the kinetically controlled growth of indium (In) atoms on the high index stepped Si(553)-7 × 7 surface and the thermal stability of various novel In-induced superstructural phases formed during adsorption/desorption process. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis reveals that In adsorption at room temperature (RT) and at 350 °C, with a controlled incident flux of 0.0016 ML/s, proceeds in the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode where two dimensional (2D)/three dimensional (3D) islands are formed on top of two complete monolayers. At higher substrate temperature up to 450 °C, the growth of In atoms occurs in the form of islands on the bare Si(553) surface, and In coverage is limited to the sub-monolayer regime. During the thermal desorption of the RT grown In/Si(553) system, the In clusters rearrange themselves and an unusual “cluster to layer” transformation occurs on top of the stable monolayer. In situ low energy electron diffraction analysis during adsorption and desorption shows the development of various coverage and temperature dependent In-induced superstructural phases on Si(553) surface, such as: (8 × 2) after annealing at 520 °C with coverage 0.5 ML, (8 × 4) after annealing at 580 °C (∼1 ML coverage) and (553)-7 × 1 + (111)-√3 × √3-R30° at 0.3 ML (630 °C). These adsorbate-induced superstructural phases could potentially be utilized as templates for pattern assisted growth of various exotic 1D/2D structures for

  5. In-induced stable ordering of stepped Si(553) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Amit Kumar Singh; Niazi, Asad; Nair, Lekha; Gupta, Govind

    2015-05-01

    The growth mechanism and adsorbate-induced surface morphology of metal atoms on semiconducting surfaces crucially determines the electronic and physicochemical properties of these metal/semiconductor systems. In this study, we investigate the kinetically controlled growth of indium (In) atoms on the high index stepped Si(553)-7 × 7 surface and the thermal stability of various novel In-induced superstructural phases formed during adsorption/desorption process. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis reveals that In adsorption at room temperature (RT) and at 350 °C, with a controlled incident flux of 0.0016 ML/s, proceeds in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode where two dimensional (2D)/three dimensional (3D) islands are formed on top of two complete monolayers. At higher substrate temperature up to 450 °C, the growth of In atoms occurs in the form of islands on the bare Si(553) surface, and In coverage is limited to the sub-monolayer regime. During the thermal desorption of the RT grown In/Si(553) system, the In clusters rearrange themselves and an unusual "cluster to layer" transformation occurs on top of the stable monolayer. In situ low energy electron diffraction analysis during adsorption and desorption shows the development of various coverage and temperature dependent In-induced superstructural phases on Si(553) surface, such as: (8 × 2) after annealing at 520 °C with coverage 0.5 ML, (8 × 4) after annealing at 580 °C (∼1 ML coverage) and (553)-7 × 1 + (111)-√3 × √3-R30° at 0.3 ML (630 °C). These adsorbate-induced superstructural phases could potentially be utilized as templates for pattern assisted growth of various exotic 1D/2D structures for optoelectronics and photovoltaic applications.

  6. Effect of field quantization on Rabi oscillation of equidistant cascade ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have exactly solved a model of equidistant cascade four-level system interacting with a single-mode radiation field both semiclassically and quantum mechanically by exploiting its similarity with Jaynes-Cummings model. For the classical field, it is shown that the Rabi oscillation of the system initially in the first level ...

  7. Finding equidistant nondominated points for biobjective mixed integer programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidd, Martin Philip; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    and uniformity, and that a set of equidistant points closes the gap. The method is easy to implement, and relies only on the availability of a black-box solver. We show on a benchmark set of biobjective mixed integer programming instances that the method outperforms the state of the art with respect to both...

  8. Effect of field quantization on Rabi oscillation of equidistant cascade ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    unitary gates relevant for the quantum computation [41,42]. However, these treat- ments are not ... veloped a dressed atom approach of calculating the probabilities with all possible initial conditions especially in the ..... the Rabi oscillation for the equidistant cascade [44] and also for lambda and vee three-level systems [46].

  9. Gwyscan: a library to support non-equidistant scanning probe microscope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, Petr; Yacoot, Andrew; Grolich, Petr; Valtr, Miroslav; Nečas, David

    2017-03-01

    We present a software library and related methodology for enabling easy integration of adaptive step (non-equidistant) scanning techniques into metrological scanning probe microscopes or scanning probe microscopes where individual x, y position data are recorded during measurements. Scanning with adaptive steps can reduce the amount of data collected in SPM measurements thereby leading to faster data acquisition, a smaller amount of data collection required for a specific analytical task and less sensitivity to mechanical and thermal drift. Implementation of adaptive scanning routines into a custom built microscope is not normally an easy task: regular data are much easier to handle for previewing (e.g. levelling) and storage. We present an environment to make implementation of adaptive scanning easier for an instrument developer, specifically taking into account data acquisition approaches that are used in high accuracy microscopes as those developed by National Metrology Institutes. This includes a library with algorithms written in C and LabVIEW for handling data storage, regular mesh preview generation and planning the scan path on basis of different assumptions. A set of modules for Gwyddion open source software for handling these data and for their further analysis is presented. Using this combination of data acquisition and processing tools one can implement adaptive scanning in a relatively easy way into an instrument that was previously measuring on a regular grid. The performance of the presented approach is shown and general non-equidistant data processing steps are discussed.

  10. Gwyscan: a library to support non-equidistant scanning probe microscope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapetek, Petr; Grolich, Petr; Valtr, Miroslav; Yacoot, Andrew; Nečas, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a software library and related methodology for enabling easy integration of adaptive step (non-equidistant) scanning techniques into metrological scanning probe microscopes or scanning probe microscopes where individual x , y position data are recorded during measurements. Scanning with adaptive steps can reduce the amount of data collected in SPM measurements thereby leading to faster data acquisition, a smaller amount of data collection required for a specific analytical task and less sensitivity to mechanical and thermal drift. Implementation of adaptive scanning routines into a custom built microscope is not normally an easy task: regular data are much easier to handle for previewing (e.g. levelling) and storage. We present an environment to make implementation of adaptive scanning easier for an instrument developer, specifically taking into account data acquisition approaches that are used in high accuracy microscopes as those developed by National Metrology Institutes. This includes a library with algorithms written in C and LabVIEW for handling data storage, regular mesh preview generation and planning the scan path on basis of different assumptions. A set of modules for Gwyddion open source software for handling these data and for their further analysis is presented. Using this combination of data acquisition and processing tools one can implement adaptive scanning in a relatively easy way into an instrument that was previously measuring on a regular grid. The performance of the presented approach is shown and general non-equidistant data processing steps are discussed. (paper)

  11. Equidistant structure and effective nucleon mass in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1981-11-01

    The effective nucleon mass of the Equidistant Multi-Layer Structure (EMULS) is discussed self-consistently. In the density region where the Fermi gas state in nuclear matter is unstable against the density fluctuation, the EMULS gives lower binding energy. It is, however, shown that such a structure with an ordinary nucleon mass collapses due to too strong attraction. We point out that such a collapse can be avoided by taking account of an effective nucleon mass affected by the localization of nucleons. (author)

  12. Coherent lidar modulated with frequency stepped pulse trains for unambiguous high duty cycle range and velocity sensing in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Range unambiguous high duty cycle coherent lidars can be constructed based on frequency stepped pulse train modulation, even continuously emitting systems could be envisioned. Such systems are suitable for velocity sensing of dispersed targets, like the atmosphere, at fast acquisition rates....... The lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper is a suitable generator yielding fast pulse repetition rates and stable equidistant frequency steps. Theoretical range resolution profiles of modulated lidars are presented....

  13. Uniform Order Zero- Stable K-Step Block Methods For Initial Value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... successive steps movement at a time (block steps). Numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the new procedures. Keywords: Zero stability, Hybrid, k–step, Block methods, first order initial value problem. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 20 (March, 2012), pp 65 – 74 ...

  14. Synthesis of Highly Dispersed and Highly Stable Supported Au–Pt Bimetallic Catalysts by a Two-Step Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Haiyan; Wu, Tianpin; Liu, Yuzi; Liang, Xinhua

    2016-11-01

    Highly dispersed and highly stable supported bimetallic catalysts were prepared using a two-step process. Pt nanoparticles (NPs) were first deposited on porous γ-Al2O3 particles by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Au NPs were synthesized by using gold(III) chloride as the Au precursor, and then immobilized on ALD Pt/γ-Al2O3 particles. The Au–Pt bimetallic catalysts were highly active and highly stable in a vigorously stirred liquid phase reaction of glucose oxidation.

  15. Design of a 10 MeV normal conducting CW proton linac based on equidistant multi-gap CH cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Continuous wave (CW) high current proton linacs have wide applications as the front end of high power proton machines. The low energy part of such a linac is the most difficult and there is currently no widely accepted solution. Based on the analysis of the focusing properties of the CW low energy proton linac, a 10 MeV low energy normal conducting proton linac based on equidistant seven-gap Cross-bar H-type (CH) cavities is proposed. The linac is composed of ten 7-gap CH cavities and the transverse focusing is maintained by quadrupole doublets located between the cavities. The total length of the linac is less than 6 meters and the average acceleration gradient is about 1.2 MeV/m. The electromagnetic properties of the cavities are investigated by Microwave Studio. At the nominal acceleration gradient the maximum surface electric field in the cavities is less than 1.3 times the Kilpatrick limit, and the Ohmic loss of each cavity is less than 35 kW. Multi-particle beam dynamics simulations are performed with Tracewin code, and the results show that the beam dynamics of the linac are quite stable, the linac has the capability to accelerate up to 30 mA beam with acceptable dynamics behavior. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375122, 91126003)

  16. Fabrication of extremely thermal-stable GaN template on Mo substrate using double bonding and step annealing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Wang; Yang, Liu; Yongjian, Sun; Yuzhen, Tong; Guoyi, Zhang

    2016-08-01

    A new layer transfer technique which comprised double bonding and a step annealing process was utilized to transfer the GaN epilayer from a sapphire substrate to a Mo substrate. Combined with the application of the thermal-stable bonding medium, the resulting two-inch-diameter GaN template showed extremely good stability under high temperature and low stress state. Moreover, no cracks and winkles were observed. The transferred GaN template was suitable for homogeneous epitaxial, thus could be used for the direct fabrication of vertical LED chips as well as power electron devices. It has been confirmed that the double bonding and step annealing technique together with the thermal-stable bonding layer could significantly improve the bonding strength and stress relief, finally enhancing the thermal stability of the transferred GaN template. Project supported by the Guangdong Innovative Research Team Program (No. 2009010044), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M562233), the National Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong, China (No. 2015A030312011), and the Opened Fund of the State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics (No. IOSKL2014KF17).

  17. Single-step gas phase synthesis of stable iron aluminide nanoparticles with soft magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernieres, Jerome, E-mail: Jerome.vernieres@oist.jp; Benelmekki, Maria; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Diaz, Rosa E. [Nanoparticles by Design Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Bobo, Jean-François [Centre d’Elaboration de Materiaux et d’Etudes Structurales (CEMES), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Sowwan, Mukhles, E-mail: Mukhles@oist.jp [Nanoparticles by Design Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Nanotechnology Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 51000, East Jerusalem, Palestine (Country Unknown)

    2014-11-01

    Soft magnetic alloys at the nanoscale level have long generated a vivid interest as candidate materials for technological and biomedical purposes. Consequently, controlling the structure of bimetallic nanoparticles in order to optimize their magnetic properties, such as high magnetization and low coercivity, can significantly boost their potential for related applications. However, traditional synthesis methods stumble upon the long standing challenge of developing true nanoalloys with effective control over morphology and stability against oxidation. Herein, we report on a single-step approach to the gas phase synthesis of soft magnetic bimetallic iron aluminide nanoparticles, using a versatile co-sputter inert gas condensation technique. This method allowed for precise morphological control of the particles; they consisted of an alloy iron aluminide crystalline core (DO{sub 3} phase) and an alumina shell, which reduced inter-particle interactions and also prevented further oxidation and segregation of the bimetallic core. Remarkably, the as-deposited alloy nanoparticles show interesting soft magnetic properties, in that they combine a high saturation magnetization (170 emu/g) and low coercivity (less than 20 Oe) at room temperature. Additional functionality is tenable by modifying the surface of the particles with a polymer, to ensure their good colloidal dispersion in aqueous environments.

  18. Improving the Accuracy of the Hyperspectral Model for Apple Canopy Water Content Prediction using the Equidistant Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huan-San; Zhu, Xi-Cun; Li, Cheng; Wei, Yu; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Jiang, Yuan-Mao

    2017-09-11

    The influence of the equidistant sampling method was explored in a hyperspectral model for the accurate prediction of the water content of apple tree canopy. The relationship between spectral reflectance and water content was explored using the sample partition methods of equidistant sampling and random sampling, and a stepwise regression model of the apple canopy water content was established. The results showed that the random sampling model was Y = 0.4797 - 721787.3883 × Z 3 - 766567.1103 × Z 5 - 771392.9030 × Z 6 ; the equidistant sampling model was Y = 0.4613 - 480610.4213 × Z 2 - 552189.0450 × Z 5 - 1006181.8358 × Z 6 . After verification, the equidistant sampling method was verified to offer a superior prediction ability. The calibration set coefficient of determination of 0.6599 and validation set coefficient of determination of 0.8221 were higher than that of the random sampling model by 9.20% and 10.90%, respectively. The root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.0365 and relative error (RE) of 0.0626 were lower than that of the random sampling model by 17.23% and 17.09%, respectively. Dividing the calibration set and validation set by the equidistant sampling method can improve the prediction accuracy of the hyperspectral model of apple canopy water content.

  19. Equidistant map projections of a triaxial ellipsoid with the use of reduced coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pędzich Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method of constructing equidistant map projections of a triaxial ellipsoid as a function of reduced coordinates. Equations for x and y coordinates are expressed with the use of the normal elliptic integral of the second kind and Jacobian elliptic functions. This solution allows to use common known and widely described in literature methods of solving such integrals and functions. The main advantage of this method is the fact that the calculations of x and y coordinates are practically based on a single algorithm that is required to solve the elliptic integral of the second kind. Equations are provided for three types of map projections: cylindrical, azimuthal and pseudocylindrical. These types of projections are often used in planetary cartography for presentation of entire and polar regions of extraterrestrial objects. The paper also contains equations for the calculation of the length of a meridian and a parallel of a triaxial ellipsoid in reduced coordinates. Moreover, graticules of three coordinates systems (planetographic, planetocentric and reduced in developed map projections are presented. The basic properties of developed map projections are also described. The obtained map projections may be applied in planetary cartography in order to create maps of extraterrestrial objects.

  20. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in pollen of Atlas cedar: first steps towards a new palaeoecological proxy for Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Benjamin; Fletcher, William; Ryan, Peter; Grant, Helen; Ilmen, Rachid

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide information on climate and the environmental conditions at different growth stages of the plant, both past and present. Carbon isotope discrimination in plant tissue is already well understood, and can be used as a drought stress indicator for semi-arid regions. Stable carbon isotope ratios measured directly on pollen provides the potential for the development of long-term environmental proxies (spanning thousands of years), as pollen is well preserved in the environment. Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica Endl. Manetti ex Carrière), is an ideal test case to develop a pollen stable carbon isotope proxy. The tree grows across a wide altitudinal and climatic range and is extremely sensitive to moisture availability. The pollen is abundant, and easily identifiable to the species level in pollen analysis because different cedar species are geographically confined to different regions of the world. In 2015 we sampled 76 individual cedar trees across latitudinal, altitudinal and environmental gradients, highly focused on the Middle Atlas region of Morocco, with 25 additional samples from botanical gardens across Europe and the US to extend these gradients. Here, we report new stable carbon isotope data from pollen, leaf and stem wood from these samples with a view to assessing and quantifying species-specific fractionation effects associated with pollen production. The isotopic response of individual trees at local and wider geographical scales to altitude and climatic conditions is presented. This research forms part of an ongoing PhD project working to develop and calibrate a modern carbon isotope proxy in Atlas cedar pollen, which can ultimately be applied to fossil sequences and complement existing multi-proxy records (e.g. pollen analysis in lake sediments, tree-rings).

  1. Crystal growth processes : The role of steps and of mass transfer in the fluid phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen-Van Rosmalen, R.

    1977-01-01

    The step model introduced by Burton, Cabrera and Frank is known to give a good description of the surface processes, when growth spirals are available as a consequence of screw dislocations. Their model is based on an infinite sequence of equidistant steps. In the first part of the research

  2. One-step fabrication of copper sulfide nanoparticles decorated on graphene sheets as highly stable and efficient counter electrode for CdS-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessein, Amr; Wang, Feiju; Masai, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Kazunari; Abd El-Moneim, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are thin-film photovoltaics and highly promising as next-generation solar cells owing to their high theoretical efficiency, easy fabrication process, and low production cost. However, the practical photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) of QDSSCs are still far below the theoretically estimated value owing to the lack of an applicable design of the materials and electrodes. In this work, we developed a highly stable and efficient counter electrode (CE) from copper sulfide nanocrystals and reduced graphene oxide (Cu x S@RGO) for QDSSC applications. The Cu x S@RGO electrocatalyst was successfully prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method, then directly applied to a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate by the simple drop-casting technique. Owing to the synergistic effect between Cu x S nanocrystals and conductive RGO sheets, the Cu x S@RGO CE showed high electrocatalytic activity for polysulfide electrolyte reduction. A CdS QDSSC based on the Cu x S@RGO CE yielded a high and reproducible PCE of 2.36%, exceeding those of 1.57 and 1.33% obtained with the commonly used Cu2S/brass and Pt CEs, respectively. Moreover, the QDSSC with the Cu x S@RGO CE showed excellent photostability in a light-soaking test without any obvious decay in the photocurrent, whereas the cell based on the Cu2S/brass CE was severely degraded.

  3. One-step fabrication of thermally stable TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite microspheres by evaporation-induced self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, J; Sen, D; Mazumder, S; Sastry, P U; Paul, B; Bhatt, H; Singh, S G

    2012-08-07

    The evaporation-induced self-assembly of mixed colloids has been employed to synthesize microspheres of TiO(2)/SiO(2) nanocomposites. Small-angle neutron/X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy experiments reveal the hierarchical morphology of the microspheres. Although the internal structure of the microspheres, consisting of solely silica nanoparticles, gets significantly modified with time because of the reduction in the high specific surface area by internal coalescence, the same for the composite microspheres remains stable over an aging time of 1 year. Such temporal stability of the composite microspheres is attributed to the inhibition of coalescence of the silica nanoparticles in the presence of titania nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric results show the improved thermal stability of the composite grains against the anatase-to-rutile phase transition. Such thermal stability is attributed to the suppression of the growth of titania nanoparticles in the presence of silica nanoparticles. The UV-vis results indicate the confinement effect of the TiO(2) nanoparticles in the silica matrix. A plausible mechanism has been elucidated for the formation of microspheres with different morphology during self-assembly.

  4. One-step fabrication of highly stable, superhydrophobic composites from controllable and low-cost PMHS/TEOS sols for efficient oil cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ping; Zhai, Shangru; Xiao, Zuoyi; An, Qingda

    2015-05-15

    Facing the issues of significant increase of industrial oily wastewater and frequent accident of oil spills, the developing of efficient and affordable absorbents for improving oil pollution is of practical significance. Herein, several superhydrophobic and superoleophilic materials, utilizing filter paper, filter cloth and polyester sponge as substrates, through facile coating of hybrid SiO2 colloid particles from controllable PMHS-TEOS sol system were presented. These methyl-modified particles not only provided hierarchical micro/nano-scale structure with distinct roughness, but also largely lowered the surface energy of the coated substances, leading to excellent superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surfaces. The modified filter cloths could be applied for oil/water separation owing to the flexible and foldable property; sponges could efficiently absorb oil or organic solvents in situ on account of its low density and high porosity, and meanwhile the absorbed oil could be easily recollected by simple squeezing. It is worth mentioning that both modified filter cloths and sponges exhibited excellent selectivity, high efficiency, outstanding rapidity and remarkable recyclability. More importantly, after treatment of 100 abrasion cycles with metal scalpel and strongly acidic and basic water droplets, the whole WCA values of resultant filter cloths still maintained superhydrophobic character (>150°), illuminating the charming mechanical and chemical stability of sol-gel processed coating with hierarchical roughness and covalently bonded methyl groups. Combining controllable fabrication process and cheap raw precursors, this method enables scalable manufacturing of stable and superhydrophobic substances, which are promising in practical applications involved in oil/water separation and oil sorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis of Stable and Soluble One-Handed Helical Homopoly(substituted acetylenes without the Coexistence of Any Other Chiral Moieties via Two-Step Polymer Reactions in Membrane State: Molecular Design of the Starting Monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kaneko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A soluble and stable one-handed helical poly(substituted phenylacetylene without the coexistence of any other chiral moieties was successfully synthesized by asymmetric-induced polymerization of a chiral monomer followed by two-step polymer reactions in membrane state: (1 removing the chiral groups (desubstitution; and (2 introduction of achiral long alkyl groups at the same position as the desubstitution to enhance the solubility of the resulting one-handed helical polymer (resubstitution. The starting chiral monomer should have four characteristic substituents: (i a chiral group bonded to an easily hydrolyzed spacer group; (ii two hydroxyl groups; (iii a long rigid hydrophobic spacer between the chiral group and the polymerizing group; (iv a long achiral group near the chiral group. As spacer group a carbonate ester was selected. The two hydroxyl groups formed intramolecular hydrogen bonds stabilizing a one-handed helical structure in solution before and after the two-step polymer reactions in membrane state. The rigid long hydrophobic spacer, a phenylethynylphenyl group, enhanced the solubility of the starting polymer, and realized effective chiral induction from the chiral side groups to the main chain in the asymmetric-induced polymerization. The long alkyl group near the chiral group avoided shrinkage of the membrane and kept the reactivity of resubstitution in membrane state after removing the chiral groups. The g value (g = ([θ]/3,300/ε for the CD signal assigned to the main chain in the obtained final polymer was almost the same as that of the starting polymer in spite of the absence of any other chiral moieties. Moreover, since the one-handed helical structure was maintained by the intramolecular hydrogen bonds in a solution, direct observation of the one-handed helicity of the final homopolymer has been realized in CD for the solution for the first time.

  6. One-step preparation of long-term stable and flexible CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer composite films for white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Lv, Ying; Guo, Ziquan; Dong, Liubing; Zheng, Jianghui; Chai, Chufen; Chen, Nan; Lu, Yijun; Chen, Chao

    2018-04-19

    CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots (PQDs)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) composite films were prepared via a one-step method, based on that both supersaturated recrystallization of CsPbBr3 PQDs and dissolution of EVA were realized in toluene. The prepared films display outstanding green emitting performance with high color purity of 92% and photoluminescence quantum yield of 40.5% at appropriate CsPbBr3 PQD loading. They possess long-term stable luminescent properties in the air and in water, benefiting from the effective protection of CsPbBr3 PQDs by EVA matrix. Besides, the prepared CsPbBr3 PQDs/EVA films are flexible enough to be repeatedly bent for 1000 cycles while keeping unchanged photoluminescence intensity. Optical properties of the CsPbBr3 PQDs/EVA films in white LEDs were also studied by experiments and theoretical simulation. Overall, facile preparation process, good long-term stability and high flexibility allow our green-emitting CsPbBr3 PQDs/EVA films to be applied in lighting applications and flexible displays.

  7. Next Step for STEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Claire [CTSI; Bremner, Brenda [CTSI

    2013-08-09

    The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

  8. Dual Core-Shell Structured Si@SiOx@C Nanocomposite Synthesized via a One-Step Pyrolysis Method as a Highly Stable Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bolun; Zeng, Shi; Wang, Hui; Liu, Daotan; Qian, Jiangfeng; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi; Ai, Xinping

    2016-11-23

    Silicon (Si) has been regarded as a promising high-capacity anode material for developing advanced lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but the practical application of Si anodes is still unsuccessful mainly due to the insufficient cyclability. To deal with this issue, we propose a new route to construct a dual core-shell structured Si@SiO x @C nanocomposite by direct pyrolysis of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer on the surface of Si nanoparticles. Since the PMMA polymers can be chemically bonded on the nano-Si surface through the interaction between ester group and Si surface group, and thermally decomposed in the subsequent pyrolysis process with their alkyl chains converted to carbon and the residue oxygen recombining with Si to form SiO x , the dual core-shell structure can be conveniently formed in a one-step procedure. Benefiting from the strong buffering effect of the SiO x interlayer and the efficient blocking action of dense outer carbon layer in preventing electrolyte permeation, the obtained nanocomposite demonstrates a high capacity of 1972 mA h g -1 , a stable cycling performance with a capacity retention of >1030 mA h g -1 over 500 cycles, and particularly a superiorly high Coulombic efficiency of >99.5% upon extended cycling, exhibiting a great promise for practical uses. More importantly, the synthetic method proposed in this work is facile and low cost, making it more suitable for large-scale production of high capacity anode for advanced LIBs.

  9. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  10. Densidades populacionais de milho em arranjos espaciais convencional e equidistante entre plantas Maize plant densities in conventional and equidistant plant spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeu Luiz Brachtvogel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A otimização da exploração do ambiente é necessária para a maximização do rendimento do milho. O arranjo de plantas (distribuição espacial e área ocupada pela planta interage diretamente na competição intraespecífica por fatores do meio. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar as formas de distribuição espacial equidistante entre plantas de milho e o espaçamento de 0,80 metro na entrelinha, em populações de 30000 a 105000 plantas ha-1. O experimento foi conduzido em área de Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, de textura argilosa, em Botucatu (SP, na safra 2007/08. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, e os tratamentos foram combinados em fatorial 2X6 (quatro repetições, em parcelas de 4,5 x 10m. Foram avaliados os caracteres comprimento e diâmetro de espiga e sabugo, comprimento do grão; número de fileiras, massa e número de grãos por espiga, porcentagem de plantas acamadas; número de grãos e de espigas por hectare, índice de espiga, massa de mil grãos e produtividade. Todos os parâmetros avaliados foram influenciados pelas populações e a porcentagem de plantas acamadas pelos arranjos espaciais, com interação para o diâmetro de espiga e de sabugo. De maneira geral, pode-se concluir que as características avaliadas são influenciadas predominantemente pelas densidades populacionais, independentemente do arranjo espacial.The maximization of environmental resources exploration is necessary to maximize maize grain yield. The plant arrangement (spatial arrangement and occupied area by the plant, acts on the intraspecific competition by environmental factors. Thus, the objective of this work was to compare the equidistant plant spacing and 0.80m row width, in populations of 30000 to 105000 plants ha-1. The essay was located in a clay red alfisol area, in the FCA/UNESP-Botucatu-SP, in 2007/08 growing season. The experimental design was a randomized block in four replications, in 4.5 x 10m

  11. Three steps ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Yuval

    2012-01-01

    We study a variant of the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with uncertain horizon, in which each player chooses his foresight ability: that is, the timing in which he is informed about the realized length of the interaction. In addition, each player has an independent probability to observe the opponent's foresight ability. We show that if this probability is not too close to zero or one, then the game admits an evolutionarily stable strategy, in which agents who look one step ahead and agents who...

  12. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  13. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  14. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  15. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  16. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  17. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  18. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  19. Step styles of pedestrians at different densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayue; Weng, Wenguo; Boltes, Maik; Zhang, Jun; Tordeux, Antoine; Ziemer, Verena

    2018-02-01

    Stepping locomotion is the basis of human movement. The investigation of stepping locomotion and its affecting factors is necessary for a more realistic knowledge of human movement, which is usually referred to as walking with equal step lengths for the right and left leg. To study pedestrians’ stepping locomotion, a set of single-file movement experiments involving 39 participants of the same age walking on a highly curved oval course is conducted. The microscopic characteristics of the pedestrians including 1D Voronoi density, speed, and step length are calculated based on a projected coordinate. The influence of the projection lines with different radii on the measurement of these quantities is investigated. The step lengths from the straight and curved parts are compared using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. During the experiments, six different step styles are observed and the proportions of different step styles change with the density. At low density, the main step style is the stable-large step style and the step lengths of one pedestrian are almost constant. At high density, some pedestrians adjust and decrease their step lengths. Some pedestrians take relatively smaller and larger steps alternately to adapt to limited space.

  20. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  1. Step-Growth Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Following a comparison of chain-growth and step-growth polymerization, focuses on the latter process by describing requirements for high molecular weight, step-growth polymerization kinetics, synthesis and molecular weight distribution of some linear step-growth polymers, and three-dimensional network step-growth polymers. (JN)

  2. Stepping motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, Steven C.; Swansen, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  3. Microsoft Office professional 2010 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce; Frye, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Teach yourself exactly what you need to know about using Office Professional 2010-one step at a time! With STEP BY STEP, you build and practice new skills hands-on, at your own pace. Covering Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Excel, Access, Publisher, and OneNote, this book will help you learn the core features and capabilities needed to: Create attractive documents, publications, and spreadsheetsManage your e-mail, calendar, meetings, and communicationsPut your business data to workDevelop and deliver great presentationsOrganize your ideas and notes in one placeConnect, share, and accom

  4. On Computational Small Steps and Big Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Jacob

    rules in the small-step semantics cause the refocusing step of the syntactic correspondence to be inapplicable. Second, we propose two solutions to overcome this in-applicability: backtracking and rule generalization. Third, we show how these solutions affect the other transformations of the two......We study the relationship between small-step semantics, big-step semantics and abstract machines, for programming languages that employ an outermost reduction strategy, i.e., languages where reductions near the root of the abstract syntax tree are performed before reductions near the leaves....... In particular, we investigate how Biernacka and Danvy’s syntactic correspondence and Reynolds’s functional correspondence can be applied to interderive semantic specifications for such languages. The main contribution of this dissertation is three-fold: First, we identify that backward overlapping reduction...

  5. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  7. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  8. From antidunes to step-pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recking, Alain; Leduc, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Step-pools are bed morphologies that are typical in high-gradient streams , recognizable by a staircase-like longitudinal profile resulting from accumulation of cobbles and boulders that are transverse to the channel and alternating with pools containing finer sediments. Within the last two decades step-pools have been the subject of increased efforts to characterize their nature; however their origin is still in debate. Researchers have very soon suspected step-pools to be the residual form of antidunes produced during flooding, but this hypothesis was continuously contested. Other theories has been proposed, considering, that step-pool profile develops a maximum flow resistance, or that pools geometry is controlled by the energy of a falling jet, or that steps form by boulders accumulation in a channel-spanning manner. All these theories gave very satisfying results when compared with experimental data, but does it mean that the antidune theory should we abandoned? We performed new flume experiments on steep slopes to investigate the antidune origin for step-pools. Our experiments showed that step-pools can have several origins, depending on the flow conditions and sediment mixture used. In some circumstances antidunes were well observed but did not produce stable step-pools morphology. In many occasions, step-pools obtained in the flume were isolated step-pools, with no real apparent periodicity. Only a few flow and sediment conditions allowed us to reproduce trains of antidunes which stabilized at the flow recession to produce stable periodical step-pools. These conditions are presented and discussed.

  9. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  10. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  11. Step by Step Microsoft Office Visio 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Visio 2003, the Microsoft Office business and technical diagramming program. With STEP BY STEP, you can take just the lessons you need, or work from cover to cover. Either way, you drive the instruction-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Produce computer network diagrams, organization charts, floor plans, and moreUse templates to create new diagrams and drawings quicklyAdd text, color, and 1-D and 2-D shapesInsert graphics and pictures, such as company logosConnect shapes to create a basic f

  12. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  13. Diabetes PSA (:30) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  14. Diabetes PSA (:60) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  15. Microsoft Office Word 2007 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create impressive documents with Word 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them!Apply styles and themes to your document for a polished lookAdd graphics and text effects-and see a live previewOrganize information with new SmartArt diagrams and chartsInsert references, footnotes, indexes, a table of contentsSend documents for review and manage revisionsTurn your ideas into blogs, Web pages, and moreYour all-in-one learning experience includes:Files for building sk

  16. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  17. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  18. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  19. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  1. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  2. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  3. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating......In this paper we discuss computational abstraction steps as a way to create class abstractions from concrete objects, and from examples. Computational abstraction steps are regarded as symmetric counterparts to computational concretisation steps, which are well-known in terms of function calls...

  4. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Cristina; Srougi, Victor; da Costa, José Batista; Baghdad, Mohammed; Velilla, Guillermo; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Bergerat, Sebastien; Garcia-Barreras, Silvia; Rozet, François; Ingels, Alexandre; Galiano, Marc; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa). The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipament utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40ºC) to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1-5). Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  5. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Redondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa. The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5. Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment.

  6. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  7. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  8. Air Stable Photovoltaic Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A method of forming a conducting polymer based photovoltaic device comprising the steps of : (a) providing a transparent first electrode; (b) providing the transparent first electrode with a layer of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein the metal oxide is selected from the group consisting of : TiO...

  9. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  10. Learning SQL in Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Garner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning SQL is a common problem for many Computer Science (CS students, the steps involved are quite different to those mastered when learning procedural or object-oriented programming languages. The introduction of commercial products that include shortcuts into the learning environment can initially appear to benefit the student, however, transferring these skills to a textual environment can be difficult for many students. Computer Science students are required to build textual SQL queries because the demands of complex queries can quickly out grow the capabilities of graphical query builders available in many software packages. SQL in Steps (SiS is a graphical user interface centred around the textual translation of a query; this combination of a GUI and a clear representation of its textual meaning has the potential to improve the way in which users gain an understanding of SQL. SiS allows for an incremental and evolutionary development of queries by enabling students to build queries step by step until their goal is reached. A planned evaluation of SiS hopes to quantify the extent to which the introduction of such a user interface into the learning environment can improve the students' understanding of the language.

  11. Queen Mary Two Step

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, Mats H.

    2007-01-01

    n/a Dance devised by Mats Melin in October 2007 whilst teaching Ceilidh dancing on board the cruise ship Queen Mary 2 crossing the Atlantic from Southampton to New York and back with the Ian Muir Sound from Prestwick. The segment of music featured is from Ian Muir Scottish Dance Band's recording of an Eva Three step.

  12. Stepping in the river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kearney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Stepping in the River' is about the cultural misunderstandings and small betrayals that arise when First World tourists visit Third World countries. It is also about the enduring love that people in these countries can inspire, imperfect though that love may be.

  13. Step-Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babah Daouda, Falylath; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Trijp, van H.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    With upcoming middle classes in Africa, micro-entrepreneurs witness new opportunities that can potentially lift them out of poverty. Exploiting these opportunities requires entrepreneurs to make a ‘step-change’ away from the bottom of the pyramid to middle-class markets. This process hosts

  14. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  15. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  16. Stepping Stone Mobility.

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, B.; Nyarko, Y.

    1996-01-01

    People at the top of an occupational ladder earn more partly because they have spent time on lower rungs, where they have learned something. But what precisely do they learn? There are two contrasting views: First, the Bandit model assumes that people are different, that experience reveals their characteristics, and that consequently an occupational switch can result. Second, in our Stepping Stone model, experience raises a worker's productivity on a given task and the acquired skill can in p...

  17. Learning SQL in Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Garner; John Mariani

    2015-01-01

    Learning SQL is a common problem for many Computer Science (CS) students, the steps involved are quite different to those mastered when learning procedural or object-oriented programming languages. The introduction of commercial products that include shortcuts into the learning environment can initially appear to benefit the student, however, transferring these skills to a textual environment can be difficult for many students. Computer Science students are required to build textual SQL queri...

  18. Steps on rutile TiO2(110): Active sites for water and methanol dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Umberto; Vilhelmsen, Lasse; Kristoffersen, Henrik Høgh

    2011-01-01

    for each step edge, more stable, reconstructed structures were found for the step edge, while the bulk truncated structures were recovered for the step edge.We demonstrate how oxygen vacancies along these defects have lower formation energies than on flat terraces and how water and methanol...... molecules adsorb dissociatively on reduced step edges. Our findings are in agreement with earlier experimental results and indicate an important contribution from step edges to the reactivity of the TiO2(110) surface....

  19. Effect of field quantization on Rabi oscillation of equidistant cascade ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [29] S D Badger, I G Hughes and C S Adams, J. Phys. B34, L749 (2001). [30] R G Unanyan, B W Shore and K Bergmann, Phys. Rev. A59, 2910 (1999). [31] Z Kis and F Renzoni, Phys. Rev. A65, 032318 (2002). [32] B S Ham and P R Hemmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4080 (2000). [33] G S Agarwal and W Harshawardhan, Phys.

  20. The continuous wave NQR spectrometer with equidistant frequency scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samila A. P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The phase binding frequency of marginal oscillator to frequency synthesizer which includes a phase detector, are used for linearization of the frequency sweep. For spectrum calibration the circuit is designed which forms «scale rule» of the frequency tags with an interval of 10 and 100 kHz.

  1. SYSTEMATIZATION OF THE BASIC STEPS OF THE STEP-AEROBICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Korovljev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of the powerful sport industry, in front of us appeared a lot of new opportunities for creating of the new programmes of exercising with certain requisites. One of such programmes is certainly step-aerobics. Step-aerobics can be defined as a type of aerobics consisting of the basic aerobic steps (basic steps applied in exercising on stepper (step bench, with a possibility to regulate its height. Step-aerobics itself can be divided into several groups, depending on the following: type of music, working methods and adopted knowledge of the attendants. In this work, the systematization of the basic steps in step-aerobics was made on the basis of the following criteria: steps origin, number of leg motions in stepping and relating the body support at the end of the step. Systematization of the basic steps of the step-aerobics is quite significant for making a concrete review of the existing basic steps, thus making creation of the step-aerobics lesson easier

  2. Stepping Stones through Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lyle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Indo-European mythology is known only through written records but it needs to be understood in terms of the preliterate oral-cultural context in which it was rooted. It is proposed that this world was conceptually organized through a memory-capsule consisting of the current generation and the three before it, and that there was a system of alternate generations with each generation taking a step into the future under the leadership of a white or red king.

  3. Stability study in one step steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, P.

    1990-01-01

    The TWO program is presented developed for the behaviour limit calculation stable in one step steam generators for the case of Density Waves phenomenom. The program is based on a nodal model which, using Laplace transformation equations, allows to study the system's transfer functions and foresee the beginning of the unstable behaviour. This program has been satisfactorily validated against channels data uniformly heated in the range from 4.0 to 6.0 Mpa. Results on the CAREM reactor's steam generator analysis are presented. (Author) [es

  4. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. J. Galyean; A. M. Whaley; D. L. Kelly; R. L. Boring

    2011-05-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  5. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  6. Isolation and characterization of stable mutants of Streptomyces ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Daunorubicin and its derivative doxorubicin are antitumour anthracycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces peucetius. In this study we report isolation of stable mutants of S. peucetius blocked in different steps of the daunorubicin biosynthesis pathway. Mutants were screened on the basis of colony ...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of stable aqueous dispersions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... A stable aqueous dispersion (5 mg ml−1) of graphene was synthesized by a simple protocol based on three-step reduction of graphene oxide (GO) dispersion synthesized using the modified version of Hummers and Offeman method. Reduction of GO was carried out using sodium borohydride, hydrazine ...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of stable aqueous dispersions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A stable aqueous dispersion (5 mg ml−1) of graphene was synthesized by a simple protocol based on three-step reduction of graphene oxide (GO) dispersion synthesized using the modified version of Hummers and Offeman method. Reduction of GO was carried out using sodium borohydride, hydrazine hydrate ...

  9. Some Stiffly Stable Second Derivative Continuous Linear Multistep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Grace Nwachukwu

    Based on Gear's fixed step size backward differentiation methods, Gear (1968), second derivative continuous ... whose solution is stiff, let us consider the family of hybrid second derivative continuous linear multistep methods. ( ) ...... The Numerical Integration of stiff Systems of ODEs using Stiffly Stable Continuous Second.

  10. Hippocampus discovery First steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available The first steps of the discovery, and the main discoverers, of the hippocampus are outlined. Arantius was the first to describe a structure he named "hippocampus" or "white silkworm". Despite numerous controversies and alternate designations, the term hippocampus has prevailed until this day as the most widely used term. Duvernoy provided an illustration of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, considered the first by most authors, which appeared more than one and a half century after Arantius' description. Some authors have identified other drawings and texts which they claim predate Duvernoy's depiction, in studies by Vesalius, Varolio, Willis, and Eustachio, albeit unconvincingly. Considering the definition of the hippocampal formation as comprising the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus and subiculum, Arantius and Duvernoy apparently described the gross anatomy of this complex. The pioneering studies of Arantius and Duvernoy revealed a relatively small hidden formation that would become one of the most valued brain structures.

  11. Astronomical sketching a step-by-step introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Handy, Richard; Perez, Jeremy; Rix, Erika; Robbins, Sol

    2007-01-01

    This book presents the amateur with fine examples of astronomical sketches and step-by-step tutorials in each medium, from pencil to computer graphics programs. This unique book can teach almost anyone to create beautiful sketches of celestial objects.

  12. One-step microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlen, Franz-Josef; Sankaranarayanan, Srikanth; Kar, Aravinda

    1997-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is a one-step rapid machining process to create miniaturized 3D parts, using the original sample material. An experimental setup where metal powder is fed to the laser beam-material interaction region has been built. The powder is melted and forms planar, 2D geometries as the substrate is moved under the laser beam in XY- direction. After completing the geometry in the plane, the substrate is displaced in Z-direction, and a new layer of material is placed on top of the just completed deposit. By continuous repetition of this process, 3D parts wee created. In particular, the impact of the focal spot size of the high power laser beam on the smallest achievable structures was investigated. At a translation speed of 51 mm/s a minimum material thickness of 590 micrometers was achieved. Also, it was shown that a small Z-displacement has a negligible influence on the continuity of the material deposition over this power range. A high power CO2 laser was used as energy source, the material powder under investigation was stainless steel SS304L. Helium was used as shield gas at a flow rate of 15 1/min. The incident CO2 laser beam power was varied between 300 W and 400 W, with the laser beam intensity distribute in a donut mode. The laser beam was focused to a focal diameter of 600 (Mu) m.

  13. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  14. Steps towards silicon optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starovoytov, A

    1999-07-01

    This thesis addresses the issue of a potential future microelectronics technology, namely the possibility of utilising the optical properties of nanocrystalline silicon for optoelectronic circuits. The subject is subdivided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is an introduction. It formulates the oncoming problem for microelectronic development, explains the basics of Integrated Optoelectronics, introduces porous silicon as a new light-emitting material and gives a brief review of other competing light-emitting material systems currently under investigation. Examples of existing porous silicon devices are given. Chapter 2 reviews the basic physics relevant to the subject of this thesis and in-forms on the present situation in this field of research, including both experimental and theoretical knowledge gained up-to-date. The chapter provides the necessary background for correct interpretation of the results reported in Chapter 3 and for a realistic decision on the direction for future work. Chapter 3 describes my own experimental and computational results within the framework of the subject, obtained at De Montfort University. These include: one-step preparation of laterally structured porous silicon with photoluminescence and microscopy characterisation, Raman spectroscopy of porous silicon, a polarisation study of the photoluminescence from porous silicon, computer simulations of the conductivity of two-component media and of laser focused atomic deposition for nanostructure fabrication. Thus, this thesis makes a dual contribution to the chosen field: it summarises the present knowledge on the possibility of utilising optical properties of nanocrystalline silicon in silicon-based electronics, and it reports new results within the framework of the subject. The main conclusion is that due to its promising optoelectronic properties nanocrystalline silicon remains a prospective competitor for the cheapest and fastest microelectronics of the next century. (author)

  15. A semi-Lagrangian method for DNS with large time-stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Dongbin; Karniadakis, George

    2000-11-01

    An efficient time-step discretization based on semi-Lagrangian methods, often used in metereology, is proposed for direct numerical simulations. It is unconditionally stable and retains high-order accuracy comparable to Eulerian schemes. The structure of the total error is analyzed in detail, and shows a non-monotonic trend with the size of the time-step. Numerical experiments for a variety of flows shows that stable and accurate results are obtained with time steps more than fifty times the CFL-bound time step used in current semi-implicit DNS.

  16. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  17. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  18. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  19. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  20. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  1. Nonradiative Step Facets in Semiconductor Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana M; Zhang, Yunyan; Tait, Edward W; Hine, Nicholas D M; Liu, Huiyun; Beanland, Richard

    2017-04-12

    One of the main advantages of nanowires for functional applications is their high perfection, which results from surface image forces that act on line defects such as dislocations, rendering them unstable and driving them out of the crystal. Here we show that there is a class of step facets that are stable in nanowires, with no long-range strain field or dislocation character. In zinc-blende semiconductors, they take the form of Σ3 (112) facets with heights constrained to be a multiple of three {111} monolayers. Density functional theory calculations show that they act as nonradiative recombination centers and have deleterious effects on nanowire properties. We present experimental observations of these defects on twin boundaries and twins that terminate inside GaAsP nanowires and find that they are indeed always multiples of three monolayers in height. Strategies to use the three-monolayer rule during growth to prevent their formation are discussed.

  2. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  3. Optimized multi-step NMR-crystallography approach for structural characterization of a stable quercetin solvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Xenia; Miclaus, Maria; Martin, Flavia; Filip, Claudiu; Grosu, Ioana Georgeta

    2017-05-10

    Herein we report the preparation and solid state structural investigation of the 1,4-dioxane-quercetin solvate. NMR crystallography methods were employed for crystal structure determination of the solvate from microcrystalline powder. The stability of the compound relative to other reported quercetin solvates is discussed and found to be in perfect agreement with the hydrogen bonding networks/supra-molecular architectures formed in each case. It is also clearly shown that NMR crystallography represents an ideal analytical tool in such cases when hydrogen-bonding networks are required to be constrained at a high accuracy level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-similar anomalous diffusion and Levy-stable laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic principles for constructing the process of anomalous diffusion are considered, and corresponding models of random processes are reviewed. The self-similarity and the independent-increments principles are used to extend the notion of diffusion process to the class of Levy-stable processes. Replacing the independent-increments principle with the renewal principle allows us to take the next step in generalizing the notion of diffusion, which results in fractional-order partial space-time differential equations of diffusion. Fundamental solutions to these equations are represented in terms of stable laws, and their relationship to the fractality and memory of the medium is discussed. A new class of distributions, called fractional stable distributions, is introduced. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. Microprocessor controller for stepping motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, B.G.; Thuot, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for digital computer control of multiple stepping motors which operate in a severe electromagnetic pulse environment is presented. The motors position mirrors in the beam-alignment system of a 100-kJ CO 2 laser. An asynchronous communications channel of a computer is used to send coded messages, containing the motor address and stepping-command information, to the stepping-motor controller in a bit serial format over a fiber-optics communications link. The addressed controller responds by transmitting to the computer its address and other motor information, thus confirming the received message. Each controller is capable of controlling three stepping motors. The controller contains the fiber-optics interface, a microprocessor, and the stepping-motor driven circuits. The microprocessor program, which resides in an EPROM, decodes the received messages, transmits responses, performs the stepping-motor sequence logic, maintains motor-position information, and monitors the motor's reference switch. For multiple stepping-motor application, the controllers are connected in a daisy chain providing control of many motors from one asynchronous communications channel of the computer

  6. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  7. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  8. Albumin (BSA) adsorption onto graphite stepped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Vilhena, J. G.; Takeuchi, Noboru; Serena, Pedro A.; Pérez, Rubén

    2017-06-01

    Nanomaterials are good candidates for the design of novel components with biomedical applications. For example, nano-patterned substrates may be used to immobilize protein molecules in order to integrate them in biosensing units. Here, we perform long MD simulations (up to 200 ns) using an explicit solvent and physiological ion concentrations to characterize the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto a nano-patterned graphite substrate. We have studied the effect of the orientation and step size on the protein adsorption and final conformation. Our results show that the protein is stable, with small changes in the protein secondary structure that are confined to the contact area and reveal the influence of nano-structuring on the spontaneous adsorption, protein-surface binding energies, and protein mobility. Although van der Waals (vdW) interactions play a dominant role, our simulations reveal the important role played by the hydrophobic lipid-binding sites of the BSA molecule in the adsorption process. The complex structure of these sites, that incorporate residues with different hydrophobic character, and their flexibility are crucial to understand the influence of the ion concentration and protein orientation in the different steps of the adsorption process. Our study provides useful information for the molecular engineering of components that require the immobilization of biomolecules and the preservation of their biological activity.

  9. Nonlinear stability and time step selection for the MPM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The Material Point Method (MPM) has been developed from the Particle in Cell (PIC) method over the last 25 years and has proved its worth in solving many challenging problems involving large deformations. Nevertheless there are many open questions regarding the theoretical properties of MPM. For example in while Fourier methods, as applied to PIC may provide useful insight, the non-linear nature of MPM makes it necessary to use a full non-linear stability analysis to determine a stable time step for MPM. In order to begin to address this the stability analysis of Spigler and Vianello is adapted to MPM and used to derive a stable time step bound for a model problem. This bound is contrasted against traditional Speed of sound and CFL bounds and shown to be a realistic stability bound for a model problem.

  10. A large number of stepping motor network construction by PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Kai; Hongqiang, Guo

    2017-11-01

    In the flexible automatic line, the equipment is complex, the control mode is flexible, how to realize the large number of step and servo motor information interaction, the orderly control become a difficult control. Based on the existing flexible production line, this paper makes a comparative study of its network strategy. After research, an Ethernet + PROFIBUSE communication configuration based on PROFINET IO and profibus was proposed, which can effectively improve the data interaction efficiency of the equipment and stable data interaction information.

  11. Step 1: Learn about Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 1: Learn About Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of ... fewer problems with your eyesight, feet, and gums. Learn how caring for your diabetes helps you feel ...

  12. Step sites in syngas catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup-Nielsen, J.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative...

  13. NextSTEP-2 Habitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Through the public-private partnerships enabled by the Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships - 2 (NextSTEP-2) Broad Agency Announcement, NASA has...

  14. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  15. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  16. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  17. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  18. Information marketing business entrepreneur's step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2012-01-01

    A six-figure income from information? Yes! It sounds easy because it is. You've got information that millions of others are looking for and now you can learn how to package, price and sell it.The experts at Entrepreneur take you step by step, jumpstarting your thinking about your area of expertise and showing you how to convert it into a high-demand information product. Following the example set by today's most successful information marketers, you learn the ins and outs of running your own information marketing business using proven strategies and effective marketing techniques.

  19. Microsoft Windows Sharepoint Services 3.0 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Londer, Olga; Bleeker, Todd; Coventry, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Windows SharePoint Services to enable effective team collaboration. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build your own SharePoint site with easy-to-use templatesCreate lists and libraries to store informationAdd discussion boards, wikis, and blogsSet up Document and Meeting Workspaces for easy collaborationShare calendars, contacts, and data from Microsoft Office programsCustomize your pages with Web Parts Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Fi

  20. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica

    2015-05-01

    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  1. Microsoft® Office Access™ 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Steve; Lambert, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to build database solutions with Access 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build databases from scratch or from templatesExchange data with other databases and Office documentsCreate forms to simplify data entryUse filters and queries to find and analyze informationDesign rich reports that help make your data meaningfulHelp prevent data corruption and unauthorized access Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Files for building skills and practic

  2. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  3. Marketing dental implants: a step-by-step approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, D P

    1995-03-01

    Introducing dental implants into a practice requires planning and commitment. Part of the planning process is learning new clinical skills, but another essential component is developing a marketing approach. The author offers a seven-step plan for adding dental implants to your repertoire.

  4. Publishing Ethical Research: A Step-by-Step Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    To publish ethical research, one must conduct research responsibly, making ethical choices from the inception of the research idea and throughout the research process. Conducting and publishing ethical research is important because of the impact the results will have on the counseling profession. Steps to consider are discussed.

  5. A Global Step Planning Method for Biped Robot Considering Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Toshiaki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    This paper discusses about step planning of a biped robot in an environment with obstacles. Biped robot has a mechanical advantage to work in human surroundings. This is accomplished by its capability to select the discrete contact point with the ground. Though its foot placement should be discussed to step over obstacles, it is difficult because dynamic biped locomotion is a complex interaction system between upper body motion and stepping point. Applying the idea of virtual supporting point, this complex interaction is solved. The collision detection is easily achieved through modeling the obstacles to an off-limits on the horizontal plane. A stamp area is set in order to avoid the extreme stride alteration. Through these methods, the robot can prepare for the obstacle beforehand and select a series of footsteps that provides stable locomotion. Experimental results are shown to confirm the validity of the proposed methods.

  6. A Two Step Face Alignment Approach Using Statistical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cui

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although face alignment using the Active Appearance Model (AAM is relatively stable, it is known to be sensitive to initial values and not robust under inconstant circumstances. In order to strengthen the ability of AAM performance for face alignment, a two step approach for face alignment combining AAM and Active Shape Model (ASM is proposed. In the first step, AAM is used to locate the inner landmarks of the face. In the second step, the extended ASM is used to locate the outer landmarks of the face under the constraint of the estimated inner landmarks by AAM. The two kinds of landmarks are then combined together to form the whole facial landmarks. The proposed approach is compared with the basic AAM and the progressive AAM methods. Experimental results show that the proposed approach gives a much more effective performance.

  7. Step by step male to female transsexual surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Uliano Moser; Abreu, Fernando Jahn da Silva; da Silva, Gabriel M V; Dos Santos, João Vitor Quadra Vieira; Batezini, Nelson Sivonei da Silva; Silva, Brasil; Rosito, Tiago Elias

    2018-01-01

    After the diagnosis of transsexualism is confirmed therapy commences with psychotherapeutic preparation for the conversion, and after conversion, long-term patient rehabilitation is maintained for at least two years. The indication for surgery is chronic discomfort caused by discord with the patient's natural gender, intense dislike of developing secondary sex characteristics and the onset of puberty. The surgical conversion of transsexuals is the main step in the complex care of these problematic patients (1). This surgery was first described by Benjamin H, using a flap of inverted penile skin (2) and is considered the gold standard since then. Male-to-female transsexual surgical techniques are well defined and give good cosmetic and functional results. Sex reassignment surgery promotes the improvement of psychological aspects and social relationships as shown in the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment applied in the patients submitted to this procedure (3). Techniques include the creation of a normal appearing female introitus, a vaginoplasty allowing sexual intercourse and the capability of clitoral orgasm (4). Various methods for neovaginoplasty have been described and can be classified into five categories, i.e. pedicled intestinal transplants, penile skin grafts, penile skin flaps, non-genital skin flaps and non-genital skin grafts (5). In our Hospital, we use penile and scrotal skin flaps. Until now, 174 procedures have been performed by our team using this technique with high rates of satisfaction (3). We present a step-by-step male to female transsexual surgery. Surgical gender reassignment of male transsexuals resulted in replicas of female genitalia which enabled coitus with orgasm (1). With this video we show step by step that a surgery using penile skin flaps is able to be performed with good cosmetic results. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  8. Needed Computations Shortcutting Needed Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoy, Sergio; Johannsen, Jacob; Libby, Steven

    We define a compilation scheme for a constructor-based strongly-sequential graph rewriting system which shortcuts some needed steps. The result of this compilation is another constructor-based graph rewriting system that is normalizing for the original system when using an innermost strategy. We...... then modify the resulting rewrite sytem in a way that avoids totally or partially the construction of the contracta of some needed steps of a computation. The resulting rewrite system can be easily implemented by eager functions in a variety of programming languages. When computing normal forms in this way...

  9. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  10. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  11. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  12. 26 S proteasomes function as stable entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Tanaka, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    , shuttles between a free state and the 26-S proteasome, bringing substrate to the complex. However, S5a was not found in the free state in HeLa cells. Besides, all subunits in PA700, including S5a, exchanged at similar low rates. It therefore seems that 26-S proteasomes function as stable entities during...... dissociate and reassemble during initiation of protein degradation in a ternary complex with the substrate, as in the dissociation-reassembly cycles found for ribosomes and the chaperonin GroEL/GroES. Here we followed disassembly and assembly of 26-S proteasomes in cell extracts as the exchange of PA700...... subunits between mouse and human 26-S proteasomes. Compared to the rate of proteolysis in the same extract, the disassembly-reassembly cycle was much too slow to present an obligatory step in a degradation cycle. It has been suggested that subunit S5a (Mcb1, Rpn10), which binds poly-ubiquitin substrates...

  13. Friction of atomically stepped surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, R.J.; Thijsse, B.J.; Nicola, L.

    2017-01-01

    The friction behavior of atomically stepped metal surfaces under contact loading is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. While real rough metal surfaces involve roughness at multiple length scales, the focus of this paper is on understanding friction of the smallest scale of roughness:

  14. Step sites in syngas catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup-Nielsen, J.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative explanat...

  15. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  16. Speleothem stable isotope records for east-central Europe: resampling sedimentary proxy records to obtain evenly spaced time series with spectral guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor Hatvani, István; Kern, Zoltán; Leél-Őssy, Szabolcs; Demény, Attila

    2018-01-01

    Uneven spacing is a common feature of sedimentary paleoclimate records, in many cases causing difficulties in the application of classical statistical and time series methods. Although special statistical tools do exist to assess unevenly spaced data directly, the transformation of such data into a temporally equidistant time series which may then be examined using commonly employed statistical tools remains, however, an unachieved goal. The present paper, therefore, introduces an approach to obtain evenly spaced time series (using cubic spline fitting) from unevenly spaced speleothem records with the application of a spectral guidance to avoid the spectral bias caused by interpolation and retain the original spectral characteristics of the data. The methodology was applied to stable carbon and oxygen isotope records derived from two stalagmites from the Baradla Cave (NE Hungary) dating back to the late 18th century. To show the benefit of the equally spaced records to climate studies, their coherence with climate parameters is explored using wavelet transform coherence and discussed. The obtained equally spaced time series are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.875917" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.875917.

  17. Dissecting a complex neurosurgical illustration: step-by-step development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Ian

    2011-12-01

    Modern computer graphics software has enabled the medical illustrator to render very complex anatomy by composing many different layers of drawings simultaneously. This and the author's capacity to take an "editorial" approach to compress several chronological events into a single, comprehensive two-dimensional illustration are analyzed in a step-by-step process. Through a series of images, the article provides a visual synopsis of the development of an illustration for an extensive clinical case: total sacrectomy performed through an all-posterior approach. Originally given as a slide presentation at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons Theodore Kurze Lecture in April 2011, the article provides some detailed notes on the techniques the author used to develop a comprehensive neurosurgical illustration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Compact Unconditionally Stable Method for Time-Domain Maxwell's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher order unconditionally stable methods are effective ways for simulating field behaviors of electromagnetic problems since they are free of Courant-Friedrich-Levy conditions. The development of accurate schemes with less computational expenditure is desirable. A compact fourth-order split-step unconditionally-stable finite-difference time-domain method (C4OSS-FDTD is proposed in this paper. This method is based on a four-step splitting form in time which is constructed by symmetric operator and uniform splitting. The introduction of spatial compact operator can further improve its performance. Analyses of stability and numerical dispersion are carried out. Compared with noncompact counterpart, the proposed method has reduced computational expenditure while keeping the same level of accuracy. Comparisons with other compact unconditionally-stable methods are provided. Numerical dispersion and anisotropy errors are shown to be lower than those of previous compact unconditionally-stable methods.

  19. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  20. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  1. Divergence of stable isotopes in tap water across China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Sihan; Hu, Hongchang; Tian, Fuqiang; Tie, Qiang; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Yaling; Shi, Chunxiang

    2017-03-02

    Stable isotopes in water (e.g., δ2H and δ18O) are important indicators of hydrological and ecological patterns and processes. Tap water can reflect integrated features of regional hydrological processes and human activities. China is a large country with significant meteorological and geographical variations. This report presents the first national-scale survey of Stable Isotopes in Tap Water (SITW) across China. 780 tap water samples have been collected from 95 cities across China from December 2014 to December 2015. (1) Results yielded the Tap Water Line in China is δ2H = 7.72 δ18O + 6.57 (r2 = 0.95). (2) SITW spatial distribution presents typical "continental effect". (3) SITW seasonal variations indicate clearly regional patterns but no trends at the national level. (4) SITW can be correlated in some parts with geographic or meteorological factors. This work presents the first SITW map in China, which sets up a benchmark for further stable isotopes research across China. This is a critical step toward monitoring and investigating water resources in climate-sensitive regions, so the human-hydrological system. These findings could be used in the future to establish water management strategies at a national or regional scale. Title: Divergence of stable isotopes in tap water across China Authors: Zhao, SH; Hu, HC; Tian, FQ; Tie, Q; Wang, LX; Liu, YL; Shi, CX Source: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 7 10.1038/srep43653 MAR 2 2017

  2. Are Vicinal Metal Surfaces Stable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenken, J. W. M.; Stoltze, Per

    1999-01-01

    We use effective medium theory to demonstrate that the energies of many metal surfaces are lowered when these surfaces are replaced by facets with lower-index orientations. This implies that the low-temperature equilibrium shapes of many metal crystals should be heavily faceted. The predicted...... instability of vicinal metal surfaces is at variance with the almost generally observed stability of these surfaces. We argue that the unstable orientations undergo a defaceting transition at relatively low temperatures, driven by the high vibrational entropy of steps....

  3. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  4. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  5. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  6. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  7. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  8. Stable nuclear transformation of Eudorina elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerche Kai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental step in evolution was the transition from unicellular to differentiated, multicellular organisms. Volvocine algae have been used for several decades as a model lineage to investigate the evolutionary aspects of multicellularity and cellular differentiation. There are two well-studied volvocine species, a unicellular alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a multicellular alga with differentiated cell types (Volvox carteri. Species with intermediate characteristics also exist, which blur the boundaries between unicellularity and differentiated multicellularity. These species include the globular alga Eudorina elegans, which is composed of 16–32 cells. However, detailed molecular analyses of E. elegans require genetic manipulation. Unfortunately, genetic engineering has not yet been established for Eudorina, and only limited DNA and/or protein sequence information is available. Results Here, we describe the stable nuclear transformation of E. elegans by particle bombardment using both a chimeric selectable marker and reporter genes from different heterologous sources. Transgenic algae resistant to paromomycin were achieved using the aminoglycoside 3′-phosphotransferase VIII (aphVIII gene of Streptomyces rimosus, an actinobacterium, under the control of an artificial promoter consisting of two V. carteri promoters in tandem. Transformants exhibited an increase in resistance to paromomycin by up to 333-fold. Co-transformation with non-selectable plasmids was achieved with a rate of 50 - 100%. The luciferase (gluc gene from the marine copepod Gaussia princeps, which previously was engineered to match the codon usage of C. reinhardtii, was used as a reporter gene. The expression of gluc was mediated by promoters from C. reinhardtii and V. carteri. Heterologous heat shock promoters induced an increase in luciferase activity (up to 600-fold at elevated temperatures. Long-term stability and both constitutive and

  9. Blogging business step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2014-01-01

    This kit includes: Essential industry and business-specific startup steps with worksheets, calculators, checklists and more. Entrepreneur Editors' Start Your Own Business, a guide to starting any business and surviving the first three years. Downloadable, customizable business letters, sales letters, and other sample documents. Entrepreneur's Small Business Legal Toolkit. Blogs are still one of the internet's fastest-growing phenomena–and one of the best and easiest ways to make money online. Packed with the latest blog tools, tricks, and up-and-coming trends, this fully revised edition teache

  10. An Unconditionally Stable Method for Solving the Acoustic Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Kai Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An unconditionally stable method for solving the time-domain acoustic wave equation using Associated Hermit orthogonal functions is proposed. The second-order time derivatives in acoustic wave equation are expanded by these orthogonal basis functions. By applying Galerkin temporal testing procedure, the time variable can be eliminated from the calculations. The restriction of Courant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL condition in selecting time step for analyzing thin layer can be avoided. Numerical results show the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Acta Clinica Croatica: progress of a journal step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    The journal Acta Clinica Croatica (ACC) was founded in 1962 under the title Anali Bolnice Dr. M. Stojanović. In 1995, the title of the journal was changed into its present form and ever since all papers have been published in English. In 2000, the electronic (online) edition of the ACC was released in addition to the print version. The paper presents development of the journal from 1962 to 2012 based on the analysis of the following SCOPUS citation index parameters: type and number of documents published in the journal; number of citations; and number of domestic and foreign authors. The studied period was analyzed in three time segments: the period from 1995 to 1999, the period from 2000 to 2006 and the period from 2007 to 2012. The same parameters were analyzed in the Web of Science/SCI-Expanded bibliographic and citation index for the 2007-2012 period. The increasing number of documents, authors (both domestic and foreign) and citations demonstrates gradual rise in the quality, visibility and impact of the journal. The fifty years of experience show that a goal, at first very distant and almost unachievable, may be reached by progressing step by step.

  12. Construction of energy-stable Galerkin reduced order models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashnikova, Irina; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf

    2013-05-01

    This report aims to unify several approaches for building stable projection-based reduced order models (ROMs). Attention is focused on linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. The model reduction procedure consists of two steps: the computation of a reduced basis, and the projection of the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) onto this reduced basis. Two kinds of reduced bases are considered: the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) basis and the balanced truncation basis. The projection step of the model reduction can be done in two ways: via continuous projection or via discrete projection. First, an approach for building energy-stable Galerkin ROMs for linear hyperbolic or incompletely parabolic systems of PDEs using continuous projection is proposed. The idea is to apply to the set of PDEs a transformation induced by the Lyapunov function for the system, and to build the ROM in the transformed variables. The resulting ROM will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. It is shown that, for many PDE systems, the desired transformation is induced by a special weighted L2 inner product, termed the %E2%80%9Csymmetry inner product%E2%80%9D. Attention is then turned to building energy-stable ROMs via discrete projection. A discrete counterpart of the continuous symmetry inner product, a weighted L2 inner product termed the %E2%80%9CLyapunov inner product%E2%80%9D, is derived. The weighting matrix that defines the Lyapunov inner product can be computed in a black-box fashion for a stable LTI system arising from the discretization of a system of PDEs in space. It is shown that a ROM constructed via discrete projection using the Lyapunov inner product will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. Connections between the Lyapunov inner product and the inner product induced by the balanced truncation algorithm are made. Comparisons are also made between the symmetry inner product and the Lyapunov inner product. The performance of ROMs constructed

  13. Stable Treemaps via Local Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Max; Speckmann, Bettina; Verbeek, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Treemaps are a popular tool to visualize hierarchical data: items are represented by nested rectangles and the area of each rectangle corresponds to the data being visualized for this item. The visual quality of a treemap is commonly measured via the aspect ratio of the rectangles. If the data changes, then a second important quality criterion is the stability of the treemap: how much does the treemap change as the data changes. We present a novel stable treemapping algorithm that has very high visual quality. Whereas existing treemapping algorithms generally recompute the treemap every time the input changes, our algorithm changes the layout of the treemap using only local modifications. This approach not only gives us direct control over stability, but it also allows us to use a larger set of possible layouts, thus provably resulting in treemaps of higher visual quality compared to existing algorithms. We further prove that we can reach all possible treemap layouts using only our local modifications. Furthermore, we introduce a new measure for stability that better captures the relative positions of rectangles. We finally show via experiments on real-world data that our algorithm outperforms existing treemapping algorithms also in practice on either visual quality and/or stability. Our algorithm scores high on stability regardless of whether we use an existing stability measure or our new measure.

  14. Steps in Researching the Music in Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2007-01-01

    The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy.......The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy....

  15. Hydraulic Design of Stepped Spillways Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepped chutes and spillways are commonly used for routing discharges during flood events. In addition, stepped chutes are used for overtopping protection of earthen embankments. Stepped spillways provide significant energy dissipation due to its stepped feature; as a result, the stilling basin as...

  16. Three-Step priming in lexical decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chwilla, D.J.; Kolk, H.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated mediated two-step priming (e.g., from lion to stripes via tiger) and three-step priming (e.g., from mane to stripes via lion and tiger). Experiment 1 showed robust two-step priming in the double lexical decision task. In Experiment 2, we tested for three-step

  17. Cam Drive Step Mechanism of a Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bionic quadruped robots received considerable worldwide research attention. For a quadruped robot walking with steady paces on a flat terrain, using a cam drive control mechanism instead of servomotors provides theoretical and practical benefits as it reduces the system weight, cost, and control complexities; thus it may be more cost beneficial for some recreational or household applications. This study explores the robot step mechanism including the leg and cam drive control systems based on studying the bone structure and the kinematic step sequences of dog. The design requirements for the cam drive robot legs have been raised, and the mechanical principles of the leg operating mechanism as well as the control parameters have been analyzed. A cam drive control system was constructed using three cams to control each leg. Finally, a four-leg demo robot was manufactured for experiments and it showed stable walking patterns on a flat floor.

  18. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  19. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  20. Stable Lévy motion with inverse Gaussian subordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wyłomańska, A.; Gajda, J.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we study the stable Lévy motion subordinated by the so-called inverse Gaussian process. This process extends the well known normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) process introduced by Barndorff-Nielsen, which arises by subordinating ordinary Brownian motion (with drift) with inverse Gaussian process. The NIG process found many interesting applications, especially in financial data description. We discuss here the main features of the introduced subordinated process, such as distributional properties, existence of fractional order moments and asymptotic tail behavior. We show the connection of the process with continuous time random walk. Further, the governing fractional partial differential equations for the probability density function is also obtained. Moreover, we discuss the asymptotic distribution of sample mean square displacement, the main tool in detection of anomalous diffusion phenomena (Metzler et al., 2014). In order to apply the stable Lévy motion time-changed by inverse Gaussian subordinator we propose a step-by-step procedure of parameters estimation. At the end, we show how the examined process can be useful to model financial time series.

  1. The structure of stepped surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) as far as multiple scattering effects are concerned, is discussed. The ion fractions of lithium, sodium and potassium scattered from a copper (100) surface have been measured as a function of several experimental parameters. The ratio of the intensities of the single and double scattering peaks observed in ion scattering spectroscopy has been determined and ion scattering spectroscopy applied in the multiple scattering mode is used to determine the structure of a stepped Cu(410) surface. The average relaxation of the (100) terraces of this surface appears to be very small. The adsorption of oxygen on this surface has been studied with LEIS and it is indicated that oxygen absorbs dissociatively. (C.F.)

  2. Moral transhumanism: the next step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennison, Michael N

    2012-08-01

    Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely in the realm of the hypothetical. This paper proposes that psilocybin may represent a viable, practical option for moral enhancement and that its further research in the context of moral psychology could comprise the next step in the development of moral transhumanism.

  3. Steps towards an evolutionary physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiezzi, E

    2006-01-01

    If thermodynamics is to physics as logic is to philosophy, recent theoretical advancements lend new coherence to the marvel and dynamism of life on Earth. Enzo Tiezzi's "Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics" is a primer and guide, to those who would to stand on the shoulders of giants to attain this view: Heisenberg, Planck, Bateson, Varela, and Prigogine as well as notable contemporary scientists. The adventure of such a free and enquiring spirit thrives not so much on answers as on new questions. The book offers a new gestalt on the uncertainty principle and concept of probability. A wide range of examples, enigmas, and paradoxes lead one's imagination on an exquisite dance. Among the applications are: songs and shapes of nature, oscillatory reactions, orientors, goal functions and configurations of processes, and "dissipative structures and the city". Ecodynamics is a new science, which proposes a cross-fertilization between Charles Darwin and Ilya Prigogine. As an enigma in thermodynamics, Entropy forms ...

  4. Ruin probability with claims modeled by a stationary ergodic stable process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T; Samorodnitsky, G

    2000-01-01

    For a random walk with negative drift we study the exceedance probability (ruin probability) of a high threshold. The steps of this walk (claim sizes) constitute a stationary ergodic stable process. We study how ruin occurs in this situation and evaluate the asymptotic behavior of the ruin

  5. Preimages for Step-Reduced SHA-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Kazumaro; Guo, Jian; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present preimage attacks on up to 43-step SHA-256 (around 67% of the total 64 steps) and 46-step SHA-512 (around 57.5% of the total 80 steps), which significantly increases the number of attacked steps compared to the best previously published preimage attack working for 24 steps....... The time complexities are 2^251.9, 2^509 for finding pseudo-preimages and 2^254.9, 2^511.5 compression function operations for full preimages. The memory requirements are modest, around 2^6 words for 43-step SHA-256 and 46-step SHA-512. The pseudo-preimage attack also applies to 43-step SHA-224 and SHA-384...

  6. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  7. An Experimental Investigation On The Antidune Origin of Step-pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recking, A.; Leduc, P.

    2013-12-01

    Step-pools are bed morphologies that are typical in high-gradient streams , recognizable by a staircase-like longitudinal profile resulting from accumulation of cobbles and boulders that are transverse to the channel and alternating with pools containing finer sediments. Within the last two decades step-pools have been the subject of increased efforts to characterize their nature; however their origin is still in debate. Researchers have very soon suspected step-pools to be the residual form of antidunes produced during flooding, but this hypothesis was continuously contested. Other theories has been proposed, considering, that step-pool profile develops a maximum flow resistance, or that pools geometry is controlled by the energy of a falling jet, or that steps form by boulders accumulation in a channel-spanning manner. All these theories gave very satisfying results when compared with experimental data, but does it mean that the antidune theory should we abandoned? We performed new flume experiments on steep slopes to investigate the antidune origin for step-pools. Our experiments showed that step-pools can have several origins, depending on the flow conditions and sediment mixture used. In some circumstances antidunes were well observed but did not produce stable step-pools morphology. In many occasions, step-pools obtained in the flume were isolated step-pools, with no real apparent periodicity. Only a few flow and sediment conditions allowed us to reproduce trains of antidunes which stabilized at the flow recession to produce stable periodical step-pools. These conditions are presented and discussed.

  8. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  9. physico-chemical and stable isotopes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details the mineralogical, chemical and stable isotope abundances of calcrete in the Letlhakeng fossil valley. The stable isotope abundances (O and C) of calcretes yielded some values which were tested against the nature of the calcretes – pedogenic or groundwater type. The Kgalagadi (Kalahari) is a vast ...

  10. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  11. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar

  12. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  13. Stable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of the halophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the halophytic Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Yan-Lin Sun, Soon-Kwan Hong. Abstract. In this study, an efficient procedure for stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) was established. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105, harboring a ...

  14. Multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories has been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'; these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relation between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A command framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. 113 refs.; 25 figs.; 9 tabs

  15. Steps to Advanced CANDU 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yongshick; Brooks, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    The CANDU nuclear power system was developed from merging of AECL heavy water reactor technology with Ontario Hydro electrical power station expertise. The original four units of Ontario Hydro's Pickering Generating Station are the first full-scale commercial application of the CANDU system. AECL and Ontario Hydro then moved to the next evolutionary step, a more advanced larger scale design for four units at the Bruce Generating Station. CANDU 600 followed as a single unit nuclear electric power station design derived from an amalgam of features of the multiple unit Pickering and Bruce designs. The design of the CANDU 600 nuclear steam supply system is based on the Pickering design with improvements derived from the Bruce design. For example, most CANDU 600 auxiliary systems are based on Bruce systems, whereas the fuel handling system is based on the Pickering system. Four CANDU 600 units are in operation, and five are under construction in Romania. For the additional four units at Pickering Generating Station 'B', Ontario Hydro selected a replica of the Pickering 'A' design with limited design changes to maintain a high level of standardization across all eight units. Ontario Hydro applied a similar policy for the additional four units at Bruce Generating Station 'B'. For the four unit Darlington station, Ontario Hydro selected a design based on Bruce with improvements derived from operating experience, the CANDU 600 design and development programs

  16. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  17. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  18. On the habitability of universes without stable deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.; Grohs, Evan

    2017-05-01

    In both stars and in the early universe, the production of deuterium is the first step on the way to producing heavier nuclei. If the strong force were slightly weaker, then deuterium would not be stable, and many authors have noted that nuclesynthesis would be compromised so that helium production could not proceed through standard reaction chains. Motivated by the possibility that other regions of space-time could have different values for the fundamental constants, this paper considers stellar evolution in universes without stable deuterium and argues that such universes can remain habitable. Even in universes with no stellar nucleosynthesis, stars can form and will generate energy through gravitational contraction. Using both analytic estimates and a state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, we show that such stars can be sufficiently luminous and long-lived to support life. Stars with initial masses that exceed the Chandrasekhar mass cannot be supported by degeneracy pressure and will explode at the end of their contraction phase. The resulting explosive nucleosynthesis can thus provide the universe with some heavy elements. We also explore the possibility that helium can be produced in stellar cores through a triple-nucleon reaction that is roughly analogous to the triple-alpha reaction that operates in our universe. Stars burning hydrogen through this process are somewhat hotter than those in our universe, but otherwise play the same role. Next we show that with even trace amounts (metallicity Z ∼10-10) of heavy elements - produced through the triple-nucleon process or by explosive nucleosynthesis - the CNO cycle can operate and allow stars to function. Finally, we consider Big Bang Nucleosynthesis without stable deuterium and find that only trace amounts of helium are produced, with even smaller abundances of other nuclei. With stars evolving through gravitational contraction, explosive nucleosynthesis, the triple-nucleon reaction, and the CNO cycle

  19. Significant improvements of electrical discharge machining performance by step-by-step updated adaptive control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wu, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Mu, Xin; Dou, Yunping

    2018-02-01

    In order to obtain improved electrical discharge machining (EDM) performance, we have dedicated more than a decade to correcting one essential EDM defect, the weak stability of the machining, by developing adaptive control systems. The instabilities of machining are mainly caused by complicated disturbances in discharging. To counteract the effects from the disturbances on machining, we theoretically developed three control laws from minimum variance (MV) control law to minimum variance and pole placements coupled (MVPPC) control law and then to a two-step-ahead prediction (TP) control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters and measured ratio of arcing pulses which is also called gap state, electrode discharging cycle was directly and adaptively tuned so that a stable machining could be achieved. To this end, we not only theoretically provide three proved control laws for a developed EDM adaptive control system, but also practically proved the TP control law to be the best in dealing with machining instability and machining efficiency though the MVPPC control law provided much better EDM performance than the MV control law. It was also shown that the TP control law also provided a burn free machining.

  20. Step-Wise Migration : Evidence from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardede, Elda; McCann, Philip; Venhorst, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study multiple internal migration trajectories in Indonesia, with special attention to step-wise migration. Step-wise migration involves moves with smaller steps from village to nearby small town, to larger town, and then to big cities rather than a direct move from

  1. The Complexity of One-Step Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of one-step equations from a cognitive load theory perspective uncovers variation within one-step equations. The complexity of one-step equations arises from the element interactivity across the operational and relational lines. The higher the number of operational and relational lines, the greater the complexity of the equations.…

  2. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  3. Ten Steps to Making Evaluation Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Nakaima, April

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes ten steps to make evaluations matter. The ten steps are a combination of the usual recommended practice such as developing program theory and implementing rigorous evaluation designs with a stronger focus on more unconventional steps including developing learning frameworks, exploring pathways of evaluation influence, and…

  4. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers - up to 10 times that of their parents' generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step...... presents a review of safety effects from step-by-step driving licence schemes. Most of the investigated schemes consist of a step-by-step driving licence with Step 1) various tests and education, Step 2) a period where driving is only allowed together with an experienced driver and Step 3) driving without...... companion is allowed but with various restrictions and, in some cases, additional driving education and tests. In general, a step-by-step driving licence improves traffic safety even though the young people are permitted to drive a car earlier on. The effects from driving with an experienced driver vary...

  5. 48 CFR 52.214-25 - Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step Two of Two-Step... Clauses 52.214-25 Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding. As prescribed in 14.201-6(t), insert the following provision: Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding (APR 1985) (a) This invitation for bids is issued to initiate...

  6. Solar array stepping to minimize array excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P. (Inventor); Liu, Tung Y. (Inventor); Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations of a mechanism containing a stepper motor, such as a solar-array powered spacecraft, are reduced and minimized by the execution of step movements in pairs of steps, the period between steps being equal to one-half of the period of torsional oscillation of the mechanism. Each pair of steps is repeated at needed intervals to maintain desired continuous movement of the portion of elements to be moved, such as the solar array of a spacecraft. In order to account for uncertainty as well as slow change in the period of torsional oscillation, a command unit may be provided for varying the interval between steps in a pair.

  7. Temperature dependence of the step free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zandvliet, H. J. W.; Gurlu, O.; Poelsema, Bene

    2001-01-01

    We have derived an expression for the step free energy that includes the usual thermally induced step meandering term and a vibrational entropy term related to the step edge atoms. The latter term results from the reduced local coordination of the step atoms with respect to the terrace atoms and was introduced recently by Frenken and Stoltze as well as by Bonzel and Emundts. Additionally, we have added third and fourth terms that deal with the vibrational entropy contribution of the thermally generated step and kink atoms. At elevated temperatures the two latter vibrational entropy terms are of the same order of magnitude. Incorporation of these vibrational entropy terms results in a faster decrease of the step free energy with increasing temperature than anticipated previously. This enhanced temperature dependence of the step free energy results in a lower thermal roughening temperature of the facet

  8. Stable Organic Neutral Diradical via Reversible Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenpin; Quanz, Henrik; Burghaus, Olaf; Hofmann, Jonas; Logemann, Christian; Beeck, Sebastian; Schreiner, Peter R; Wegner, Hermann A

    2017-12-27

    We report the formation of a stable neutral diboron diradical simply by coordination of an aromatic dinitrogen compound to an ortho-phenyldiborane. This process is reversible upon addition of pyridine. The diradical species is stable above 200 °C. Computations are consistent with an open-shell triplet diradical with a very small open-shell singlet-triplet energy gap that is indicative of the electronic disjointness of the two radical sites. This opens a new way of generating stable radicals with fascinating electronic properties useful for a large variety of applications.

  9. Is bicarbonate stable in and on the calcite surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M. P.; Rodriguez-Blanco, J. D.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have used density functional theory with the COSMO-RS implicit solvent model to predict the pKa for the deprotonation of bicarbonate to carbonate, i.e. HCO3- CO32- + H+, when HCO3- is included in, and adsorbed on, a calcite surface. We have used cluster models (80-100 atoms) to represent the flat {10.4} surface, acute steps, obtuse steps, two types of kinks on the acute step and two types of kinks on the obtuse steps. Based on the predicted pKa values, which range from -6.0 to 2.4 depending on the surface site, we conclude that bicarbonate deprotonates to carbonate when it is in calcite even when pH in solution is very low. This is true for all surface sites, even for solutions where 2.4 < pH < 6.35, where H2CO30 is the dominant dissolved species. When bicarbonate is adsorbed on calcite, the predicted pKa for deprotonation is 7.5, which is ∼3 pH units lower than in aqueous solution, 10.35. This means that adsorbed carbonate is stable even when the concentration of dissolved CO32- is several orders of magnitude lower. This has a significant effect on surface charge and thus the behaviour of the calcite surface. Our results help explain the potential determining behaviour of the carbonate species in calcite-water systems, particularly in the pH range where the bicarbonate species dominates in water and where the carbonate species dominates at the surface, i.e. when 7.5 < pH < 10.35. Our atomic scale data for the various calcite surface sites provide the needed input to improve and constrain surface complexation modelling and are especially useful for predicting behaviour in systems where experiments are difficult or impossible, such as at high temperature and pressure.

  10. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  11. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  12. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  13. Allan Hills Stable Water Isotopes, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable water isotope values at 10 m resolution along an approximately 5 km transect through the main icefield of the Allan Hills Blue Ice...

  14. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacokinetic profile or mode of action of a drug substance. Secondly, stable isotopes may be used for the assessment of drug products or drug delivery systems by determination of parameters such as the bioavailability or the release profile. Thirdly, patients may be assessed in relation to patient-specific drug treatment; this concept is often called personalized medicine. In this article, the application of stable isotope technology in the aforementioned three areas is reviewed, with emphasis on developments over the past 25 years. The applications are illustrated with examples from clinical studies in humans. PMID:21801197

  15. Tannaka duality and stable infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanari, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of fine tannakian infinity-categories and prove Tannaka duality results for symmetric monoidal stable infinity-categories over a field of characteristic zero. We also discuss several examples.

  16. On Stable Marriages and Greedy Matchings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, Fredrik; Naim, Md; Lerring, Hakon; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-12-11

    Research on stable marriage problems has a long and mathematically rigorous history, while that of exploiting greedy matchings in combinatorial scientific computing is a younger and less developed research field. In this paper we consider the relationships between these two areas. In particular we show that several problems related to computing greedy matchings can be formulated as stable marriage problems and as a consequence several recently proposed algorithms for computing greedy matchings are in fact special cases of well known algorithms for the stable marriage problem. However, in terms of implementations and practical scalable solutions on modern hardware, the greedy matching community has made considerable progress. We show that due to the strong relationship between these two fields many of these results are also applicable for solving stable marriage problems.

  17. The Reactivity of Stable Metallacyclobutenes and Vinylcarbenes

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Ryan Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1. Historical Development of Stable Metallacyclobutenes Fred Tebbe and co-workers synthesized the first stable metallacyclobutene complexes in the late 1970’s by treatment of an intermediate titanium methylene species – later popularized as the “Tebbe reagent” – with acetylenes. Robert Grubbs at Caltech further studied this system, using it to detail a degenerate metathesis reaction and to isolate a metallacyclobutane complex – which was implicated in the emerging field of alkene meta...

  18. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  19. The Value of Step-by-Step Risk Assessment for Unmanned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    The new European legislation expected in 2018 or 2019 will introduce a step-by-step process for conducting risk assessments for unmanned aircraft flight operations. This is a relatively simple approach to a very complex challenge. This work compares this step-by-step process to high fidelity risk...

  20. The spinal control of locomotion and step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry from slow to moderate speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambreville, Charline; Labarre, Audrey; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Frigon, Alain

    2015-08-01

    When speed changes during locomotion, both temporal and spatial parameters of the pattern must adjust. Moreover, at slow speeds the step-to-step pattern becomes increasingly variable. The objectives of the present study were to assess if the spinal locomotor network adjusts both temporal and spatial parameters from slow to moderate stepping speeds and to determine if it contributes to step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry observed at slow speeds. To determine the role of the spinal locomotor network, the spinal cord of 6 adult cats was transected (spinalized) at low thoracic levels and the cats were trained to recover hindlimb locomotion. Cats were implanted with electrodes to chronically record electromyography (EMG) in several hindlimb muscles. Experiments began once a stable hindlimb locomotor pattern emerged. During experiments, EMG and bilateral video recordings were made during treadmill locomotion from 0.1 to 0.4 m/s in 0.05 m/s increments. Cycle and stance durations significantly decreased with increasing speed, whereas swing duration remained unaffected. Extensor burst duration significantly decreased with increasing speed, whereas sartorius burst duration remained unchanged. Stride length, step length, and the relative distance of the paw at stance offset significantly increased with increasing speed, whereas the relative distance at stance onset and both the temporal and spatial phasing between hindlimbs were unaffected. Both temporal and spatial step-to-step left-right asymmetry decreased with increasing speed. Therefore, the spinal cord is capable of adjusting both temporal and spatial parameters during treadmill locomotion, and it is responsible, at least in part, for the step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry observed at slow speeds. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. [Antimicrobial activity of stable silver nanoparticles of a certain size].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukha, Iu P; Eremenko, A M; Smirnova, N P; Mikhienkova, A I; Korchak, G I; Gorchev, V F; Chunikhin, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    Conditions for obtaining stable silver nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm were developed using a binary stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone/sodium dodecylsulphate in optimal ratio. Optical spectra, morphology and dependence of size of the nanoparticles on the amount of reducing agent were studied. Colloidal solutions of nanosilver showed a high bactericidal activity against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans. The mechanism of action of nanosized silver on microbial cell was examined by laser scanning confocal microscope using fluorescent label. First step of antimicrobial effect on microorganisms was membrane damage and penetration of silver nanoparticles into the cell. Prolonged stability of nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity over the past two years were showed.

  2. Active Fault Tolerant Control of Livestock Stable Ventilation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    degraded performance even in the faulty case. In this thesis, we have designed such controllers for climate control systems for livestock buildings in three steps: Deriving a model for the climate control system of a pig-stable. Designing a active fault diagnosis (AFD) algorithm for different kinds...... of the hybrid model are estimated by a recursive estimation algorithm, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), using experimental data which was provided by an equipped laboratory. Two methods for active fault diagnosis are proposed. The AFD methods excite the system by injecting a so-called excitation input. In both...... methods, the input is designed off-line based on a sensitivity analysis in order to improve the precision of estimation of parameters associated with faults. Two different algorithm, the EKF and a new adaptive filter, are used to estimate the parameters of the system. The fault is detected and isolated...

  3. Stable Hemiaminals with a Cyano Group and a Triazole Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Under neutral conditions the reactions between 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole and cyano-substituted benzaldehyde derivatives yield stable hemiaminals. Addition of small amounts of acid catalyst promotes further step of dehydration resulting in formation of Schiff bases. Four new hemiaminals and the corresponding imines have been obtained. The molecular stability of the hemiaminal intermediates results from both the 1,2,4-triazole moiety and electron withdrawing substituents on the phenyl ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess stereogenic centres on carbon and nitrogen atoms. The chirality of these centres is strongly correlated with the conformation of the molecules due to heteroatom hyperconjugation effects.

  4. Dopant designing for thermally stable graded index plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Y.; Kondo, A.; Koike, Y.

    2009-02-01

    The graded index polymer optical fiber (GI POF) has been proposed as a media for very short reach network because of its high flexibility, low laying cost and excellent transmission characteristics. However, the plasticization efficiency which causes by the high refractive dopant decreases the glass transition temperature (Tg) in the center of the core and deteriorates thermal stability of fibers. In this paper, thermally stable PMMA based GI POF was successfully fabricated for the first time by designing dopant molecule which has little plasticizer effect. Tg at the core region was improved to 104 °C while that of conventional GI POF is 86 °C. Stability of attenuation at 85 °C/dry and 75 °C/85 %RH were clarified to be as high as that of non-doped step index POF.

  5. Stable Flocking of Multiple Agents Based on Molecular Potential Field and Distributed Receding Horizon Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yun-Peng; Duan Hai-Bin; Zhang Xiang-Yin

    2011-01-01

    A novel distributed control scheme to generate stable flocking motion for a group of agents is proposed. In this control scheme, a molecular potential field model is applied as the potential field function because of its smoothness and unique shape. The approach of distributed receding horizon control is adopted to drive each agent to find its optimal control input to lower its potential at every step. Experimental results show that this proposed control scheme can ensure that all agents eventually converge to a stable flocking formation with a common velocity and the collisions can also be avoided at the same time. (general)

  6. An Approach to Stable Walking over Uneven Terrain Using a Reflex-Based Adaptive Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Asif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an adaptive gait in a six-legged walking robot that is capable of generating reactive stepping actions with the same underlying control methodology as an insect for stable walking over uneven terrains. The proposed method of gait generation uses feedback data from onboard sensors to generate an adaptive gait in order to surmount obstacles, gaps and perform stable walking. The paper addresses its implementation through simulations in a visual dynamic simulation environment. Finally the paper draws conclusions about the significance and performance of the proposed gait in terms of tracking errors while navigating in difficult terrains.

  7. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  8. The micro-step motor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    The developed micro-step motor controller can handle 4 axes stepping motor drivers simultaneously and provide high power bipolar driving mechanism with constant current mode. It can be easily controlled by manual key functions and the motor driving status is displayed by the front panel VFD. Due to the development of several kinds of communication and driving protocol, PC can operate even several micro-step motor controllers at once by multi-drop connection

  9. Smart Steps to Sustainability 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart Steps to Sustainability provides small business owners and managers with practical advice and tools to implementsustainable and environmentally-preferable business practices that go beyond compliance.

  10. Patterns in Stable Isotope Values of Nitrogen and Carbon in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope measurements of nitrogen and carbon (15N, 13ddC) are often used to characterize estuarine, nearshore, and open ocean ecosystems. Reliable information about the spatial distribution of base-level stable isotope values, often represented by primary producers, is critical to interpreting values in these ecosystems. While base-level isotope data are generally readily available for estuaries, nearshore coastal waters, and the open ocean, the continental shelf is less studied. To address this, and as a first step toward developing a surrogate for base-level isotopic signature in this region, we collected surface and deep water samples from the United States’ eastern continental shelf in the Western Atlantic Ocean, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, periodically between 2000 and 2013. During the study, particulate matter 15dN values ranged from 0.8 to 17.4‰, and 13dC values from −26.4 to −15.6‰over the region. We used spatial autocorrelation analysis and random forest modeling to examine the spatial trends and potential environmental drivers of the stable isotope values. We observed general trends toward lower values for both nitrogen and carbon isotopes at the seaward edge of the shelf. Conversely, higher 15dN and 13dC values were observed on the landward edge of the shelf, in particular in the southern portion of the sampling area. Across all sites, the magnitude of the difference between the 15dN of subsurface and surface particulate m

  11. Sintering uranium oxide using a preheating step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.J.; Nivas, Y.; Packard, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Compacted pellets of uranium oxide or uranium oxide with one or more additives are heated in a kiln in a process having a preheating step, a sintering step, a reduction step, and a cooling step in a controlled atmosphere. The process is practiced to give a range of temperature and atmosphere conditions for obtaining optimum fluoride removal from the compacted pellets along with optimum sintering in a single process. The preheating step of this process is conducted in a temperature range of about 600 0 to about 900 0 C and the pellets are held for at least twenty min, and preferably about 60 min, in an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 10 to about 75 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The sintering step is conducted at a temperature in the range of about 900 0 C to 1500 0 C in the presence of an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 0.5 to about 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The reduction step reduces the oxygen to metal ratio of the pellets to a range of about 1.98 to 2.10:1 and this is accomplished by gradually cooling the pellets for about 30 to about 120 min from the temperature of the sintering step to about 1100 0 C in an atmosphere of about 10 to 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. Thereafter the pellets are cooled to about 100 0 C under a protective atmosphere, and in one preferred practice the same atmosphere used in the reduction step is used in the cooling step. The preheating, sintering and reduction steps may also be conducted with their respective atmospheres having an initial additional component of water vapor and the water vapor can comprise up to about 20 vol %

  12. Step photoionization as a mechanism responsible for the Raether paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossyi, I A; Silakov, V P

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the phenomenon known as a 'Raether paradox' which consists of the abnormally deep penetration of ionization-causing radiation from a localized gas discharge into the surrounding high-pressure gas. Based on a theory worked out (by the example of the interaction of equilibrium radiation with molecular nitrogen), it is shown that a model accounting for the step ionization of metastables offers a plausible explanation of the deep-penetration effect. The model implies that the gas molecules (or atoms) can exist in excited electronic states that are stable against different de-excitation processes (for N 2 this state is A 3 Σ u + ). The long-lived level can be populated primarily through upper levels that are more efficiently excited by radiation in deeper gas layers

  13. Stable chaos in fluctuation driven neural circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo-Garcia, David; Torcini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nonlinear instabilities in fluctuation driven (balanced) neural circuits are studied. • Balanced networks display chaos and stable phases at different post-synaptic widths. • Linear instabilities coexists with nonlinear ones in the chaotic regime. • Erratic motion appears also in linearly stable phase due to stable chaos. - Abstract: We study the dynamical stability of pulse coupled networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons against infinitesimal and finite perturbations. In particular, we compare mean versus fluctuations driven networks, the former (latter) is realized by considering purely excitatory (inhibitory) sparse neural circuits. In the excitatory case the instabilities of the system can be completely captured by an usual linear stability (Lyapunov) analysis, whereas the inhibitory networks can display the coexistence of linear and nonlinear instabilities. The nonlinear effects are associated to finite amplitude instabilities, which have been characterized in terms of suitable indicators. For inhibitory coupling one observes a transition from chaotic to non chaotic dynamics by decreasing the pulse-width. For sufficiently fast synapses the system, despite showing an erratic evolution, is linearly stable, thus representing a prototypical example of stable chaos

  14. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  15. Performance enhancement of a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) by two-step passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, S.-I.; Lai, P.-H.; Tsai, Y.-Y.; Hung, C.-W.; Yen, C.-H.; Cheng, S.-Y.; Liu, W.-C.

    2006-01-01

    An interesting two-step passivation (with ledge structure and sulphide based chemical treatment) on base surface, for the first time, is demonstrated to study the temperature-dependent DC characteristics and noise performance of an InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Improved transistor behaviors on maximum current gain β max , offset voltage ΔV CE , and emitter size effect are obtained by using the two-step passivation. Moreover, the device with the two-step passivation exhibits relatively temperature-independent and improved thermal stable performances as the temperature is increased. Therefore, the two-step passivationed device can be used for high-temperature and low-power electronics applications

  16. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevincli, Haldun; Brandbyge, Mads

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance...

  17. Discovery of microRNAs of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) by High-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckow, Alexander P; Temeyer, Kevin B; Olafson, Pia U; Pérez de Léon, Adalberto A

    2013-07-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), is a serious ectoparasite affecting animal production and health of both animals and humans. Stable fly control relies largely on chemical insecticides; however, the development of insecticide resistance as well as environmental considerations requires continued discovery research to develop novel control technologies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNAs that have been shown to be important regulators of gene expression across a wide variety of organisms, and may provide an innovative approach with regard to development of safer more targeted control technologies. The current study reports discovery ad initial comparative analysis of 88 presumptive miRNA sequences from the stable fly, obtained using high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs. The majority of stable fly miRNAs were 22-23 nt in length. Many miRNAs were arthropod specific, and several mature miRNA sequences showed greater sequence identity to miRNAs from other blood-feeding dipterans such as mosquitoes rather than to Drosophilids. This initial step in characterizing the stable fly microRNAome provides a basis for further analyses of life stage-specific and tissue-specific expression to elucidate their functional roles in stable fly biology.

  18. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...... is controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied....... In the design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature...

  19. On some topological properties of stable measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Krabbe

    1996-01-01

    Summary The paper shows that the set of stable probability measures and the set of Rational Beliefs relative to a given stationary measure are closed in the strong topology, but not closed in the topology of weak convergence. However, subsets of the set of stable probability measures which...... are characterized by uniformity of convergence of the empirical distribution are closed in the topology of weak convergence. It is demonstrated that such subsets exist. In particular, there is an increasing sequence of sets of SIDS measures who's union is the set of all SIDS measures generated by a particular...... system and such that each subset consists of stable measures. The uniformity requirement has a natural interpretation in terms of plausibility of Rational Beliefs...

  20. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  1. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  2. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  3. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  4. Modelling stable water isotopes: Status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of stable water isotopes H2 18O and HDO within various parts of the Earth’s hydrological cycle has clearly improved our understanding of the interplay between climatic variations and related isotope fractionation processes. In this article key principles and major research results of stable water isotope modelling studies are described. Emphasis is put on research work using explicit isotope diagnostics within general circulation models as this highly complex model setup bears many resemblances with studies using simpler isotope modelling approaches.

  5. Stability of one-step methods in transient nonlinear heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to ascertain practical stability conditions for one-step methods commonly used in transient nonlinear heat conduction analyses. The class of problems considered is governed by a temporally continuous, spatially discrete system involving the capacity matrix C, conductivity matrix K, heat supply vector, temperature vector and time differenciation. In the linear case, in which K and C are constant, the stability behavior of one-step methods is well known. But in this paper the concepts of stability, appropriate to the nonlinear problem, are thoroughly discussed. They of course reduce to the usual stability criterion for the linear, constant coefficient case. However, for nonlinear problems there are differences and these ideas are of key importance in obtaining practical stability conditions. Of particular importance is a recent result which indicates that, in a sense, the trapezoidal and midpoint families are quivalent. Thus, stability results for one family may be translated into a result for the other. The main results obtained are summarized as follows. The stability behavior of the explicit Euler method in the nonlinear regime is analogous to that for linear problems. In particular, an a priori step size restriction may be determined for each time step. The precise time step restriction on implicit conditionally stable members of the trapezoidal and midpoint families is shown not to be determinable a priori. Of considerable practical significance, unconditionally stable members of the trapezoidal and midpoint families are identified

  6. Stable adiabatic circuit using advanced series capacitors and time variation of energy dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Shunji; Mutoh, Shin'ichiro; Makino, Hiroshi; Miyama, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the stability of an adiabatic stepwise-charging circuit with advanced series capacitors, which is effective for the reduction of the applied voltage to each capacitor. SPICE simulation shows that this circuit is stable even if the initial voltages are lower than zero. For the analytical discussion, we derive a matrix that connects charge and voltage in the circuit and show that the matrix is a positive-definite symmetric one. Therefore, the step voltage is generated spontaneously. ...

  7. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order basis functions in time to improve the accuracy of the solver. The method is validated by showing convergence in temporal basis function order, time step size, and geometric discretization order. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Modified Pressure-Correction Projection Methods: Open Boundary and Variable Time Stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2014-10-31

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we design and study two modifications of the first order standard pressure increment projection scheme for the Stokes system. The first scheme improves the existing schemes in the case of open boundary condition by modifying the pressure increment boundary condition, thereby minimizing the pressure boundary layer and recovering the optimal first order decay. The second scheme allows for variable time stepping. It turns out that the straightforward modification to variable time stepping leads to unstable schemes. The proposed scheme is not only stable but also exhibits the optimal first order decay. Numerical computations illustrating the theoretical estimates are provided for both new schemes.

  9. Step Length Estimation Using Handheld Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Lachapelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS is presented. It combines the user’s step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor’s signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand’s motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  10. Revisiting "how many steps are enough?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Hatano, Yoshiro; Pangrazi, Robert P; Kang, Minsoo

    2008-07-01

    With continued widespread acceptance of pedometers by both researchers and practitioners, evidence-based steps/day indices are needed to facilitate measurement and motivation applications of physical activity (PA) in public health. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to reprise, update, and extend the current understanding of dose-response relationships in terms of pedometer-determined PA. Any pedometer-based PA guideline presumes an accurate and standardized measure of steps; at this time, industry standards establishing quality control of instrumentation is limited to Japan where public health pedometer applications and the 10,000 steps.d slogan are traceable to the 1960s. Adult public health guidelines promote > or =30 min of at least moderate-intensity daily PA, and this translates to 3000-4000 steps if they are: 1) at least moderate intensity (i.e., > or =100 steps.min); 2) accumulated in at least 10-min bouts; and 3) taken over and above some minimal level of PA (i.e., number of daily steps) below which individuals might be classified as sedentary. A zone-based hierarchy is useful for both measurement and motivation purposes in adults: 1) or =10,000-12,499 steps.d (active); and 5) > or =12,500 steps.d (highly active). Evidence to support youth-specific cutoff points is emerging. Criterion-referenced approaches based on selected health outcomes present the potential for advancing evidence-based steps/day standards in both adults and children from a measurement perspective. A tradeoff that needs to be acknowledged and considered is the impact on motivation when evidence-based cutoff points are interpreted by individuals as unattainable goals.

  11. Color stability of nanocomposites polished with one-step systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergücü, Zeynep; Türkün, L Sebnem; Aladag, Akin

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the color changes of five novel resin composites polished with two one-step polishing systems when exposed to coffee solution. The resin composites tested were Filtek Supreme XT, Grandio, CeramX, Premise and Tetric EvoCeram. A total of 150 discs (30/resin composites, 10 x 2 mm) were fabricated. Ten specimens/resin composites cured under Mylar strips served as the control. The other samples were polished with PoGo and OptraPol discs for 30 seconds using a slow speed handpiece and immersed in coffee (Nescafé) for seven days. Color measurements were made with Vita Easyshade at baseline and after one and seven days. Repeated Measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analyses (pGrandio, there were no significant differences between the Mylar and PoGo groups, while the most stain resistant surfaces were attained with OptraPol. Removing the outermost resin layer by polishing procedures is essential to achieving a stain resistant, more esthetically stable surface. One-step polishing systems can be used successfully for polishing nanocomposites.

  12. One-Step Protein Conjugation to Upconversion Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Chen, Yinghui; Liu, Deming; Ren, Wei; Lu, Yiqing; Shi, Yu; Piper, James; Paulsen, Ian; Jin, Dayong

    2015-10-20

    The emerging upconversion nanoparticles offer a fascinating library of ultrasensitive luminescent probes for a range of biotechnology applications from biomarker discovery to single molecule tracking, early disease diagnosis, deep tissue imaging, and drug delivery and therapies. The effective bioconjugation of inorganic nanoparticles to the molecule-specific proteins, free of agglomeration, nonspecific binding, or biomolecule deactivation, is crucial for molecular recognition of target molecules or cells. The current available protocols require multiple steps which can lead to low probe stability, specificity, and reproducibility. Here we report a simple and rapid protein bioconjugation method based on a one-step ligand exchange using the DNAs as the linker. Our method benefits from the robust DNA-protein conjugates as well as from multiple ions binding capability. Protein can be preconjugated via an amino group at the 3' end of a synthetic DNA molecule, so that the 5' end phosphoric acid group and multiple phosphate oxygen atoms in the phosphodiester bonds are exposed to replace the oleic acid ligands on the surface of upconversion nanoparticles due to their stronger chelating capability to lanthanides. We demonstrated that our method can efficiently pull out the upconversion nanoparticles from organic solvent into an aqueous phase. The upconversion nanoparticles then become hydrophilic, stable, and specific biomolecules recognition. This allows us to successfully functionalize the upconversion nanoparticles with horseradish peroxidise (HRP) for catalytic colorimetric assay and for streptavidin (SA)-biotin immunoassays.

  13. Stepping up, stepping back, stepping forward: Student nurses' experiences as peer mentors in a pre-nursing scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Annetta; Beattie, Michelle; Kyle, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Mentorship is an essential part of the registered nurse's role, yet few opportunities exist for student nurses to mentor others during pre-registration programmes. This paper reports student nurses' experiences of mentoring school pupils during a pre-nursing scholarship. Focus groups were conducted with fifteen final year student nurses (14 female, 1 male) in two university campuses in Scotland. Discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and data analysed thematically. Three interconnected themes emerged: 1) stepping up; 2) stepping back; 3) stepping forward. 'Stepping up' was a process through which student nurses rapidly assumed responsibility for mentoring pupils, facilitated through the attitudes and actions of students' mentors and students' control over pupils' practice experiences. 'Stepping back' encapsulated attitudes and behaviours that enabled student nurses to mentor pupils that involved considerable judgement around how unfolding events in practice could provide learning and development opportunities, and emotional acuity to support pupils through, sometimes challenging, practice situations. 'Stepping forward' described how students' mentoring experience allowed them to appraise and affirm nursing knowledge and skills, and gain greater appreciation of the reality and complexity of mentorship in clinical practice. Peer mentoring may prepare student nurses for future mentoring roles and aid their transition into clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stable isotope analysis of dynamic lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Joost; Bailey, Andrew P; Koster, Grielof; Gould, Alex P; Postle, Anthony D

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic pathway flux is a fundamental element of biological activity, which can be quantified using a variety of mass spectrometric techniques to monitor incorporation of stable isotope-labelled substrates into metabolic products. This article contrasts developments in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the measurement of lipid metabolism with more established gas chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodologies. ESI-MS combined with diagnostic tandem MS/MS scans permits the sensitive and specific analysis of stable isotope-labelled substrates into intact lipid molecular species without the requirement for lipid hydrolysis and derivatisation. Such dynamic lipidomic methodologies using non-toxic stable isotopes can be readily applied to quantify lipid metabolic fluxes in clinical and metabolic studies in vivo. However, a significant current limitation is the absence of appropriate software to generate kinetic models of substrate incorporation into multiple products in the time domain. Finally, we discuss the future potential of stable isotope-mass spectrometry imaging to quantify the location as well as the extent of lipid synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope geochemistry of the Ewekoro formation from Ibese Corehole, eastern Dahomey basin, southwestern Nigeria. ME Nton, MO ... Preserved pore types such as; intercrystaline, moldic and vuggy pores were observed as predominant conduits for fluids. The major ...

  16. petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Subsurface samples of the predominantly carbonate Ewekoro Formation, obtained from Ibese core hole within the Dahomey basin were used in this study. Investigations entail petrographic, elemental composition as well as stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) geochemistry in order to deduce the different microfacies and ...

  17. Substitution of stable isotopes in Chlorella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.; Uphaus, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Replacement of biologically important isotopes in the alga Chlorella by corresponding heavier stable isotopes produces increasingly greater deviations from the normal cell size and changes the quality and distribution of certain cellular components. The usefulness of isotopically altered organisms increases interest in the study of such permuted organisms.

  18. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  19. Stable propagation of 'selfish'genetic elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    viruses such as the Epstein-Barr virus (Harris et al 1985;. Kanda et al 2001) and bovine papilloma virus (Lehman and Botchan 1998; Ilves et al 1999), which exist pre- dominantly as extrachromosomal episomes, have been shown to utilize chromosome tethering as a means for stable segregation. The tethering mechanism ...

  20. Unconditionally stable perfectly matched layer boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.

    2007-01-01

    A brief review is given of a systematic, product-formula based approach to construct unconditionally stable algorithms for solving the time-dependent Maxwell equations. The fundamental difficulties that arise when we want to incorporate uniaxial perfectly matched layer boundary conditions into this

  1. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  2. Connected domination stable graphs upon edge addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set S of vertices in a graph G is a connected dominating set of G if S dominates G and the subgraph induced by S is connected. We study the graphs for which adding any edge does not change the connected domination number. Keywords: Connected domination, connected domination stable, edge addition ...

  3. Stable magnetic remanence in antiferromagnetic goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangway, D W; McMahon, B E; Honea, R M

    1967-11-10

    Goethite, known to be antiferromagnetic, acquires thermoremanent magnetization at its Neel temperature of 120 degrees C. This remanence, extremely stable, is due to the presence of unbalanced spins in the antiferromagnetic structure; the spins may result from grain size, imperfections, or impurities.

  4. Handbook of SAS DATA step programming

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    To write an accomplished program in the DATA step of SAS®, programmers must understand programming logic and know how to implement and even create their own programming algorithm. Handbook of SAS® DATA Step Programming shows readers how best to manage and manipulate data by using the DATA step.The book helps novices avoid common mistakes resulting from a lack of understanding fundamental and unique SAS programming concepts. It explains that learning syntax does not solve all problems; rather, a thorough comprehension of SAS processing is

  5. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  6. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  7. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes means you have glucose ( ...

  8. Planning Educational Volunteer Forums: Steps to Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Ken III

    2000-01-01

    Five steps that can help ensure the success of workshops, conferences, or forums for extension volunteers: constructing the steering/planning committee; contracting facilities; planning the program; arranging for food, meals, and catering; and developing the budget. (SK)

  9. NextSTEP Hybrid Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextSTEP Phase I Hybrid Life Support Systems (HLSS) effort assessed options, performance, and reliability for various mission scenarios using contractor-developed...

  10. Key Steps in the Special Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA uses this process when it has reason to believe that the use of a pesticide may result in unreasonable adverse effects on people or the environment. Steps include comprehensive risk and benefit analyses and multiple Position Documents.

  11. Stepped care: doing more with less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, G C

    2000-08-01

    Several issues concerning stepped care are discussed: the constraints of using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), the importance of basic and process research, the unintended negative effects of exaggerated claims of effectiveness and efficiency, the limits of RCTs in evaluating improvement and deterioration, the self-correcting nature of stepped care, the link between stepped care and empirically supported treatments, clinical judgment in clinical work, the concept of the least restrictive alternative, the costs of using low-intensity but ineffective psychosocial treatments, and the costs of both ineffective and effective psychotropic drug therapy. An analysis of stepped care can lead to an appreciation that the dialectic operating between science and practice affords an opportunity to synthesize the seemingly irreconcilable standards and needs of researchers and clinicians.

  12. European Section of Urotechnology educational video on fluoroscopic-guided puncture in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: all techniques step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, Iason; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Sopilidis, Odysseas; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Skolarikos, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    To describe the most common fluoroscopic-guided access techniques during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in a step-by-step manner and to assist in the standardisation of their technique and terminology. A high-quality animation video was created for each of the respective fluoroscopic techniques, focusing into the parallel projection of external surgical manoeuvres and their effect in the three-dimensional space of the kidney. Four predominant fluoroscopic-guided percutaneous access techniques are available, each with different advantages and limitations. Monoplanar access is used when a stable single-axis fluoroscopic generator is available and is mostly based on surgeons' experience. Biplanar access uses a second fluoroscopy axis to assess puncture depth. The 'bull's eye' technique follows a coaxial to fluoroscopy puncture path and is associated with a shorter learning curve at the cost of increased hand radiation exposure. Hybrid and conventional triangulate techniques use target projection by two fluoroscopic planes to define the exact localisation of the target in space and access it through a third puncture site. Fluoroscopic guidance during PCNL puncture is a very efficient method for access establishment. The percutaneous surgeon should be familiar with all available variations of fluoroscopic approach in order to be prepared to adapt puncture technique for any given scenario. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Step-by-step rotation of a molecule-gear mounted on an atomic-scale axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, C; Soe, W-H; Wong, H S; Ample, F; Gourdon, A; Chandrasekhar, N; Joachim, C

    2009-07-01

    Gears are microfabricated down to diameters of a few micrometres. Natural macromolecular motors, of tens of nanometres in diameter, also show gear effects. At a smaller scale, the random rotation of a single-molecule rotor encaged in a molecular stator has been observed, demonstrating that a single molecule can be rotated with the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). A self-assembled rack-and-pinion molecular machine where the STM tip apex is the rotation axis of the pinion was also tested. Here, we present the mechanics of an intentionally constructed molecule-gear on a Au(111) surface, mounting and centring one hexa-t-butyl-pyrimidopentaphenylbenzene molecule on one atom axis. The combination of molecular design, molecular manipulation and surface atomic structure selection leads to the construction of a fundamental component of a planar single-molecule mechanical machine. The rotation of our molecule-gear is step-by-step and totally under control, demonstrating nine stable stations in both directions.

  14. IT project management 30 steps to success

    CERN Document Server

    Doraiswamy, Premanand

    2011-01-01

    This pocket guide is designed to help IT project managers to succeed, and is based on the author's years of experience in IT project management. The guide's step-by-step approach will enable those new to IT project management, or intending to make a career in this field, to master the essential skills. For seasoned professionals, the pocket guide offers an invaluable concise reference guide.

  15. Ten steps to successful grant writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, D

    1990-01-01

    Major changes in the allocation of health care funds requires that nurse administrators develop excellent grant writing skills. However, many nurse managers indicate they need assistance in developing grant proposals. A step-by-step approach to writing a grant proposal is presented. While it is targeted primarily to the novice grant writer, the seasoned grant writer will particularly benefit from the discussion of the common mistakes.

  16. Multiple Steps Prediction with Nonlinear ARX Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qinghua; Ljung, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    NLARX (NonLinear AutoRegressive with eXogenous inputs) models are frequently used in black-box nonlinear system identication. Though it is easy to make one step ahead prediction with such models, multiple steps prediction is far from trivial. The main difficulty is that in general there is no easy way to compute the mathematical expectation of an output conditioned by past measurements. An optimal solution would require intensive numerical computations related to nonlinear filltering. The pur...

  17. Steps in formulating an environmental monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This section describes the process of establishing a complete equipment environmental monitoring program; the step by step process is also illustrated in Table 3 of the Summary. The following decisions must be made in defining the program: an initial characterization of plant environment, how to integrate with existing programs to realize the maximum benefits, identification of the specific monitoring locations, determining the monitoring techniques, frequency of recording data, monitoring duration, quality assurance requirements, and finally, establishing the recordkeeping requirements

  18. A model for two-step ageing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    While this is true in Al–Zn–Mg alloys, two-step ageing leads to inferior properties in Al–Mg–Si alloys. This controversial behaviour in different alloys can be ... Experiments were done on AA 7010 aluminium alloy by carrying out a two-step ageing treatment and the results fit the new stability criterion. Thus it is found that the ...

  19. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajian Majid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

  1. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  2. Stable microfluidic flow focusing using hydrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyawali, Vaskar; Saremi, Mohammadali; Kolios, Michael C; Tsai, Scott S H

    2017-05-01

    We present a simple technique to generate stable hydrodynamically focused flows by driving the flow with hydrostatic pressure from liquid columns connected to the inlets of a microfluidic device. Importantly, we compare the focused flows generated by hydrostatic pressure and classical syringe pump driven flows and find that the stability of the hydrostatic pressure driven technique is significantly better than the stability achieved via syringe pumps, providing fluctuation-free focused flows that are suitable for sensitive microfluidic flow cytometry applications. We show that the degree of flow focusing with the hydrostatic method can be accurately controlled by the simple tuning of the liquid column heights. We anticipate that this approach to stable flow focusing will find many applications in microfluidic cytometry technologies.

  3. Utilization of stable isotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The ten lectures given at this round table are presented together with a discussion. Five lectures, relating to studies in which deuterium oxide was employed as a tracer of body water, dealt with pulmonary water measurements in man and animals, the total water pool in adipose subjects, and liquid compartments in children undergoing hemodyalisis. The heavy water is analysed by infrared spectrometry and a new double spectrodoser is described. Two studies using 13 C as tracer, described the diagnosis of liver troubles and diabetes respectively. A general review of the perspectives of the application of stable isotopes in clinical medicine is followed by a comparison of the use of stable and radioactive isotopes in France [fr

  4. Dynamics of Nonlinear Excitation of the High-Order Mode in a Single-Mode Step-Index Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdin, V.; Bourdine, A.

    2018-04-01

    This work is concerned with approximate model of higher-order mode nonlinear excitation in a singlemode silica optical fiber. We present some results of simulation for step-index optical fiber under femtosecond optical pulse launching, which confirm ability of relatively stable higher-order mode excitation in such singlemode optical fiber over sufficiently narrow range of launched optical power variation.

  5. Decreased visual attention further from the perceived direction of gaze for equidistant retinal targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Gowen, Emma; Miall, R Chris

    2011-01-01

    The oculomotor and spatial attention systems are interconnected. Whereas a link between motor commands and spatial shifts in visual attention is demonstrated, it is still unknown whether the recently discovered proprioceptive signal in somatosensory cortex impacts on visual attention, too...

  6. Equidistant Linear Network Codes with maximal Error-protection from Veronese Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    2012-01-01

    , vol.54, no.8, pp. 3579-3591,2008) introduced a metric on the set af vector-spaces and showed that a minimal distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the intersection of the transmitted and received vector-space is sufficiently large. From the Veronese varieties we...

  7. Symplectic integrators with adaptive time steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. S.; Finn, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there have been many attempts to construct symplectic integrators with variable time steps, with rather disappointing results. In this paper, we identify the causes for this lack of performance, and find that they fall into two categories. In the first, the time step is considered a function of time alone, Δ = Δ(t). In this case, backward error analysis shows that while the algorithms remain symplectic, parametric instabilities may arise because of resonance between oscillations of Δ(t) and the orbital motion. In the second category the time step is a function of phase space variables Δ = Δ(q, p). In this case, the system of equations to be solved is analyzed by introducing a new time variable τ with dt = Δ(q, p) dτ. The transformed equations are no longer in Hamiltonian form, and thus do not benefit from integration methods which would be symplectic for Hamiltonian systems. We analyze two methods for integrating the transformed equations which do, however, preserve the structure of the original equations. The first is an extended phase space method, which has been successfully used in previous studies of adaptive time step symplectic integrators. The second, novel, method is based on a non-canonical mixed-variable generating function. Numerical trials for both of these methods show good results, without parametric instabilities or spurious growth or damping. It is then shown how to adapt the time step to an error estimate found by backward error analysis, in order to optimize the time-stepping scheme. Numerical results are obtained using this formulation and compared with other time-stepping schemes for the extended phase space symplectic method.

  8. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to i...

  9. The nature of stable insomnia phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Longitudinal. Urban, community-based. Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). None. At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the 'neither criterion' phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With the exception of daytime sleepiness, few clinical differences are apparent across stable phenotypes.

  10. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  11. Stable iodine prophylaxis. Recommendations of the 2nd UK Working Group on Stable Iodine Prophylaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Working Group reviewed the revised Who guidance and the information published since 1991 on the risks of thyroid cancer in children from radioiodine and the risks of side effects from stable iodine. In particular, it reviewed data compiled on the incidence of thyroid cancers in children following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. It considered whether the NRPB Earls were still appropriate, in the light of the new data. It also reviewed a range of other recommendations given by the 1st Working Group, concerning the chemical form of stable iodine tablets and practical issues concerning implementation of stable iodine prophylaxis. Finally, it reviewed the Patient Information Leaflet that is required, by law, to be included in each box of tablets and provided suggestions for information to be included in a separate information leaflet to be handed out to the public when stable iodine tablets are distributed.

  12. Influence of step complexity and presentation style on step performance of computerized emergency operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Song; Li Zhizhong; Song Fei; Luo Wei; Zhao Qianyi; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2009-01-01

    With the development of information technology, computerized emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are taking the place of paper-based ones. However, ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately since the industrial practice is quite limited yet. This study examined the influence of step complexity and presentation style of EOPs on step performance. A simulated computerized EOP system was developed in two presentation styles: Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination. Step complexity was quantified by a complexity measure model based on an entropy concept. Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. The results of data analysis on the experiment data indicate that step complexity and presentation style could significantly influence step performance (both step error rate and operation time). Regression models were also developed. The regression analysis results imply that operation time of a step could be well predicted by step complexity while step error rate could only partly predicted by it. The result of a questionnaire investigation implies that step error rate was influenced not only by the operation task itself but also by other human factors. These findings may be useful for the design and assessment of computerized EOPs

  13. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  14. Comparison one-step procedure with two-step procedure in percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Han; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Chou, Yii-Her; Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Tsai, Chia-Chun; Chueh, Kuang-Shun; Hou, Nien-Ting; Chiu, Siou-Jin; Tu, Hung-Pin; Li, Ching-Chia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of one-step percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by the urologist alone and two-step PCNL by cooperating with the radiologist. We included 168 patients who underwent surgery by the same surgeon, 83 who underwent two-step PCNL, in which percutaneous nephrostomy insertion was performed by the radiologists on the day before endo-surgery, and 85 who underwent one-step PCNL, which involved the creation of a nephrostomy tract and performing the PCNL at the same time in the operating room, by a urologist. We compared the perioperative and postoperative parameters between these two groups. The result revealed that there were no significant differences between one-step and two-step PCNL in the decreases in haemoglobin level and blood transfusion volume, and the hospital stay was shorter in the one-step PCNL group. In addition, the one-step PCNL group was associated with significantly lower visual analogue score (VAS), which were 2.3, 1.1, and 0.4 on the post-operative days 1, 2, and 3, respectively, compared with 3.2, 1.7, and 1.0 in the two-step PCNL group. The number of parenteral analgesic prescriptions was fewer in the one-step PCNL group (0.8 ± 1.1 amps/vials) than in the two-step PCNL group (4.1 ± 2.4 amps/vials). Furthermore, different stone locations barely affected VAS and analgesic administrations. The results indicate that the one-step PCNL by the urologist alone, compared to two-step PCNL with the radiologist, has better wound pain outcome and shorter hospital stay with comparable successful rate and complication grade.

  15. Effects of step length and step frequency on lower-limb muscle function in human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yoong Ping; Lin, Yi-Chung; Pandy, Marcus G

    2017-05-24

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of step length and step frequency on lower-limb muscle function in walking. Three-dimensional gait data were used in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling techniques to evaluate muscle function over a range of walking speeds using prescribed combinations of step length and step frequency. The body was modeled as a 10-segment, 21-degree-of-freedom skeleton actuated by 54 muscle-tendon units. Lower-limb muscle forces were calculated using inverse dynamics and static optimization. We found that five muscles - GMAX, GMED, VAS, GAS, and SOL - dominated vertical support and forward progression independent of changes made to either step length or step frequency, and that, overall, changes in step length had a greater influence on lower-limb joint motion, net joint moments and muscle function than step frequency. Peak forces developed by the uniarticular hip and knee extensors, as well as the normalized fiber lengths at which these muscles developed their peak forces, correlated more closely with changes in step length than step frequency. Increasing step length resulted in larger contributions from the hip and knee extensors and smaller contributions from gravitational forces (limb posture) to vertical support. These results provide insight into why older people with weak hip and knee extensors walk more slowly by reducing step length rather than step frequency and also help to identify the key muscle groups that ought to be targeted in exercise programs designed to improve gait biomechanics in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Two stable steady states in the Hodgkin-Huxley axons

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, K.; Matsumoto, G.

    1983-01-01

    Two stable steady states were found in the numerical solution of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations for the intact squid axon bathed in potassium-rich sea water with an externally applied inward current. Under the conditions the two stable steady-states exist, the Hodgkin-Huxley equations have a complex bifurcation structure including, in addition to the two stable steady-states, a stable limit cycle, two unstable equilibrium points, and one asymptotically stable equilibrium point. It was also conc...

  17. Strength evaluation code STEP for brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi.

    1997-12-01

    In a structural design using brittle materials such as graphite and/or ceramics it is necessary to evaluate the strength of component under complex stress condition. The strength of ceramic materials is said to be influenced by the stress distribution. However, in the structural design criteria simplified stress limits had been adopted without taking account of the strength change with the stress distribution. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the strength of component on the basis of the fracture model for brittle material. Consequently, the strength evaluation program, STEP, on a brittle fracture of ceramic materials based on the competing risk theory had been developed. Two different brittle fracture modes, a surface layer fracture mode dominated by surface flaws and an internal fracture mode by internal flaws, are treated in the STEP code in order to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture. The STEP code uses stress calculation results including complex shape of structures analyzed by the generalized FEM stress analysis code, ABAQUS, so as to be possible to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture for the structures having complicate shapes. This code is, therefore, useful to evaluate the structural integrity of arbitrary shapes of components such as core graphite components in the HTTR, heat exchanger components made of ceramics materials etc. This paper describes the basic equations applying to the STEP code, code system with a combination of the STEP and the ABAQUS codes and the result of the verification analysis. (author)

  18. Stability of one-step methods in transient nonlinear heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to ascertain practical stability conditions for one-step methods commonly used in transient nonlinear heat conduction analyses. In this paper the concepts of stability, appropriate to the nonlinear problem, are thoroughly discussed. They of course reduce to the usual stability critierion for the linear, constant coefficient case. However, for nonlinear problems there are differences and theses ideas are of key importance in obtaining practical stability conditions. Of particular importance is a recent result which indicates that, in a sense, the trapezoidal and midpoint families are equivalent. Thus, stability results for one family may be translated into a result for the other. The main results obtained are: The stability behaviour of the explicit Euler method in the nonlinear regime is analogous to that for linear problems. In particular, an a priori step size restriction may be determined for each time step. The precise time step restriction on implicit conditionally stable members of the trapezoidal and midpoint families is shown not to be determinable a priori. Of considerable practical significance, unconditionally stable members of the trapezoidal and midpoint families are identified. All notions of stability employed are motivated and defined, and their interpretations in practical computing are indicated. (Auth.)

  19. Sub-nanoscale nanoimprint fabrication of atomically stepped glassy substrates of silicate glass and acryl polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2015-11-01

    In the nanoimprint process, the resolution limit of patterning has attracted much attention from both scientific and industrial aspects. In this article, we briefly review the main achievements of our research group on sub-nanoscale nanoimprint fabrication of atomically patterned glassy substrates of oxide glass and polymer. By applying the sapphire (α-Al2O3 single crystal) wafers with self-organized nanopatterns of atomic steps as thermal nanoimprinting molds, we successfully transferred their nanoscale patterns onto the surfaces of glassy substrates such as soda-lime silicate glasses and poly(methyl methacrylate) polymers. The surfaces of nanoimprinted glassy materials exhibited regularly arrayed atomic stairs with 0.2-0.3 nm step height, which were in good agreement with the sub-nanopatterns of sapphire molds. These atomically stepped morphologies on the glassy substrates were found to be stable for about 1 year.

  20. Effect of diatomic islands on step morphological stability of a terrace edge in molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.; Chu, H.-S.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of two-dimensional diatomic-island nucleation on the linear stability of the step morphology during molecular beam epitaxy is investigated numerically via shooting methods. It is found that the effect of diatomic islands on the step morphological stability is significant. The greater the effects of diatomic islands, the more stable the step morphology. Increasing capture efficiency can decrease the critical surface capillary length and shift the critical wave number toward short-wavelength regimes. The unstable region is shrunk with increasing capture efficiency. Further, increasing flux coverage and/or surface coverage can decrease the critical surface capillary length and shift the critical wave number toward short-wavelength regimes. (orig.)

  1. A two-step annealing process for enhancing the ferroelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) devices

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple two-step annealing scheme for the fabrication of stable non-volatile memory devices employing poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer thin-films. The proposed two-step annealing scheme comprises the crystallization of the ferroelectric gamma-phase during the first step and enhancement of the PVDF film dense morphology during the second step. Moreover, when we extended the processing time of the second step, we obtained good hysteresis curves down to 1 Hz, the first such report for ferroelectric PVDF films. The PVDF films also exhibit a coercive field of 113 MV m-1 and a ferroelectric polarization of 5.4 μC cm-2. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  2. Using Aspen plus in thermodynamics instruction a step-by-step guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Stanley I

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for students (and faculty) on the use of Aspen in teaching thermodynamics Used for a wide variety of important engineering tasks, Aspen Plus software is a modeling tool used for conceptual design, optimization, and performance monitoring of chemical processes. After more than twenty years, it remains one of the most popular and powerful chemical engineering simulation programs used both industrially and academically. Using Aspen Plus in Thermodynamics Instruction: A Step by Step Guide introduces the reader to the use of Aspen Plus in courses in thermodynamics. It prov

  3. Crowdsourcing step-by-step information extraction to enhance existing how-to videos

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phu Tran; Weir, Sarah; Guo, Philip J.; Miller, Robert C.; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Kim, Ju Ho

    2014-01-01

    Millions of learners today use how-to videos to master new skills in a variety of domains. But browsing such videos is often tedious and inefficient because video player interfaces are not optimized for the unique step-by-step structure of such videos. This research aims to improve the learning experience of existing how-to videos with step-by-step annotations. We first performed a formative study to verify that annotations are actually useful to learners. We created ToolScape, an interac...

  4. The conditions of ADU two steps precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaoduan; Gong Xingyuan; Tang Anyuan; Duan Dezhi; Zhang Weiye

    1999-11-01

    The two steps precipitation process of ADU powder from UF 6 hydrolyzates to high active and sinterable UO 2 powder is studied. The optimized precipitation is obtained. The results indicate that the prepared ADU powder has such advantages as fine particle and active surface with higher SSA (24-30 m 2 /g) by the first step of pH value 3.0-4.0, temperature 30-40 degree C, PAM concentration 0.05 g/L. The UO 2 powder produced by such ADU has higher activity, sinterability and matrix density (≥ 96.5% T.D.)

  5. One-step lowrank wave extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Sindi, Ghada Atif

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation is at the heart of modeling, imaging, and Full waveform inversion. Spectral methods gained well deserved attention due to their dispersion free solutions and their natural handling of anisotropic media. We propose a scheme a modified one-step lowrank wave extrapolation using Shanks transform in isotropic, and anisotropic media. Specifically, we utilize a velocity gradient term to add to the accuracy of the phase approximation function in the spectral implementation. With the higher accuracy, we can utilize larger time steps and make the extrapolation more efficient. Applications to models with strong inhomogeneity and considerable anisotropy demonstrates the utility of the approach.

  6. Microbiological characterization of stable resuspended dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Kováts

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Air quality in the stables is characterized by elevated level of dust and aeroallergens which are supposed to directly cause or exacerbate several respiratory disorders. The most often recognized problem is recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, previously known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. There is some indication that aeroallergens (among them endotoxins may also cause inflammation in human airways and may exceed safe levels in stables. Monitoring studies have covered mainly the determination of the concentration of respirable particles and of culturable fungi and their toxins. However, these particles do not only directly affect the respiratory system, but might act as a carrier conveying toxic contaminants and biological agents such as bacteria. In a typical, 20-horse Hungarian stable, microbial community of respirable fraction of resuspended dust has been characterized to reveal if these particles convey hazardous pathogenic bacteria, posing risk to either horses or staff. Material and Methods: Resuspended dust was sampled using a mobile instrument. The instrument contains a PARTISOL-FRM model 2000 sampler that was operated at a flow rate of 16.7 l/min and a cyclone separator which collected the particulate matter with an aerodynamic size between 1 μm and 10 μm (PM1–10 fraction. Microbial taxa were identified by culture-independent next generation sequencing (NGS of variable 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA gene regions. Results: In total, 1491 different taxa were identified, of them 384 were identified to species level, 961 to genus level. The sample was dominated by common ubiquitous soil and organic material-dwelling taxa. Conclusions: Pathogens occurred at low abundance, and were represented by mostly facultative human pathogens, with the prevalence of Staphylococcus species.

  7. Stable channel of reclaimed tidal lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifudin, Achmad; Imanuddin, Momon S.; Moerwanto, Arie S.; Suryadi, F. X.

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to develop models of the Operation and Maintenance in the reclaimed tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. The research location is reclaimed tidal delta area Telang I Primary 8 representing land typology A/B and a survey conducted in 13 South Secondary Schemes following existing tertiary Telang I. MIKE - 11 computer models used used to analyze the movement of sediment in the channel in both the Primary channel 8, SPD, SDU and tertiary channels in block 13 South. Calibration model with multiple channels in the field of physical parameters has been performed to obtain results close to the results of measurement modeling sediment movement in the channel. The integration models of MIKE - 11 models with various scenarios are used to model the operation and maintenance of the channel in the tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. According to the scheme P8 - 13S, OM models obtained 75 percent, in which the secondary channel (SPD/SDU) and built flap gate in tertiary channel, get a well prototype model of the stable channel (equilibriums), where the average erosion on P8 at a distance of 3,200 m in the amount of 4,472,049 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SPD of 963,836 m3 and mean of sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,508,213 m3. Similarly, on average erosion P8 by 4,135,649 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SDU of 681,304 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,454,345 m3.

  8. Aggressive Fibromatosis: Evidence for a Stable Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF is an uncommon locally infiltrating benign disease of soft tissue for which treatment comprises complete surgical resection. Radiotherapy can be given postoperatively if the margin is incompletely resected. If the tumour is inoperable radiotherapy provides an alternative treatment. Hormone therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have also been used for unresectable or recurrent disease. All treatment modalities carry an associated morbidity. We believe that the natural history of aggressive fibromatosis may include a period of stable disease without progression, during which time, treatment is not always necessary.

  9. Stable isogeometric analysis of trimmed geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marussig, Benjamin; Zechner, Jürgen; Beer, Gernot; Fries, Thomas-Peter

    2017-04-01

    We explore extended B-splines as a stable basis for isogeometric analysis with trimmed parameter spaces. The stabilization is accomplished by an appropriate substitution of B-splines that may lead to ill-conditioned system matrices. The construction for non-uniform knot vectors is presented. The properties of extended B-splines are examined in the context of interpolation, potential, and linear elasticity problems and excellent results are attained. The analysis is performed by an isogeometric boundary element formulation using collocation. It is argued that extended B-splines provide a flexible and simple stabilization scheme which ideally suits the isogeometric paradigm.

  10. Mechanically stable ternary heterogeneous electrodes for energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Libo; Zhang, Hongti; Surjadi, James Utama; Li, Peifeng; Han, Ying; Sun, Dong; Lu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recently, solid asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) has been deemed as an emerging portable power storage or backup device for harvesting natural resources. Here we rationally engineered a hierarchical, mechanically stable heterostructured FeCo@NiCo layered double hydroxide (LDH) with superior capacitive performance by a simple two-step electrodeposition route for energy storage and conversion. In situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) nanoindentation and electrochemical tests demonstrated the mechanical robustness and good conductivity of FeCo-LDH. This serves as a reliable backbone for supporting the NiCo-LDH nanosheets. When employed as the positive electrode in the solid ASC, the assembly presents high energy density of 36.6 W h kg -1 at a corresponding power density of 783 W kg -1 and durable cycling stability (87.3% after 5000 cycles) as well as robust mechanical stability without obvious capacitance fading when subjected to bending deformation. To demonstrate its promising capability for practical energy storage applications, the ASC has been employed as a portable energy source to power a commercially available digital watch, mini motor car, or household lamp bulb as well as an energy storage reservoir, coupled with a wind energy harvester to power patterned light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  11. Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents ... cholesterol helps remove cholesterol from your blood vessels. Diabetes HealthSense Find tools and programs that can help ...

  12. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  13. Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS): Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, R.; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.; Hancock, R.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.

    The Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS) working group is considering protocols for signaling information about a data flow along its path in the network. The NSIS suite of protocols is envisioned to support various signaling applications that need to install and/or manipulate such state in the network.

  14. STEPPING MOTOR - HYDRAULIC MOTOR SERVO DRIVES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    machine tool systems wherever the existing production batch sizes and frequency of manufacture justifies it in a developing country. This is so mainly because numerically controlled (NC) ... Because the NC machine is an expensive item of equipment it is ... electric stepping motor is a very precise unit with. 10k ohms.

  15. STEP - Product Model Data Sharing and Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri

    1998-01-01

    - Product Data Representation and Exchange", featuring at present some 30 released parts, and growing continuously. Many of the parts are Application Protocols (AP). This article presents an overview of STEP, based upon years of involvement in three ESPRIT projects, which contributed to the development...

  16. Conflict Resolution: Four Steps Worth Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ella M. Glenn

    2000-01-01

    States that teachers should understand their own assumptions about conflict and their approaches to it. Proposes a four-step model for conflict resolution: (1) identify the problem without blame; (2) brainstorm alternatives together; (3) agree on a solution; and (4) evaluate the result. Includes a section of conflict resolution resources by Steven…

  17. The partner selection process : Steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duijsters, G.M.; de Man, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  18. Step growth of two flexible ABf monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Colin; Fawcett, Allan H.; Hetherington, Cecil R.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional lattice model was used to simulate the competition between the growth of hyperbranched structures and cycle formation that occurs when flexible ABf monomers undergo step growth. The monomers in the model are mapped onto several lattice sites. The effect of functionality was st...... was studied by performing studies with f = 2 and 4....

  19. Steps You Can Take to Prevent Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast discusses the main steps people can take to reduce their risk of getting cancer.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  20. 5 Steps to a Greener School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental…

  1. A model for two-step ageing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    matrix are not considered. In the present work, a model is developed which takes into account the coherency strains between cluster and matrix and defines a new stability criterion, inclusive of strain energy term. Experiments were done on AA 7010 aluminium alloy by carrying out a two-step ageing treatment and the.

  2. Remarks on stable and quasi-stable k-strings at large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armoni, A.; Shifman, M.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss k-strings in the large-N Yang-Mills theory and its supersymmetric extension. Whereas the tension of the bona fide (stable) QCD string is expected to depend only on the N-ality of the representation, tensions that depend on specific representation R are often reported in the lattice literature. In particular, adjoint strings are discussed and found in certain simulations. We clarify this issue by systematically exploiting the notion of the quasi-stable strings which becomes well-defined at large N. The quasi-stable strings with representation-dependent tensions decay, but the decay rate (per unit length per unit time) is suppressed as Λ 2 F(N) where F(N) falls off as a function of N. It can be determined on the case-by-case basis. The quasi-stable strings eventually decay into stable strings whose tension indeed depends only on the N-ality. We also briefly review large-N arguments showing why the Casimir formula for the string tension cannot be correct, and present additional arguments in favor of the sine formula. Finally, we comment on the relevance of our estimates to Euclidean lattice measurements

  3. Cyclic steps incised on experimental bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, M.; Kyogoku, A.; Kotera, A.; Izumi, N.

    2013-12-01

    In rivers flowing in mountain areas, a series of steps are often observed on bedrock. They are thought to be cyclic steps formed due to erosion of bedrock, which should be driven by abrasion due to bedload sediment transport. We demonstrated a series of flume experiments of the formation of cyclic steps on bedrock by abrasion due to bedload transportation using weak mortar as the model bedrock. We also compared the shapes of the steps reproduced in the experiments with those obtained in the analysis. The experiments were conducted using a 1.5 m long, 2 cm wide, and 20 cm deep flume made of glass in Osaka Institute of Technology. The flume has 10-cm-high weirs at both ends, so that there is a 10-cm-deep reservoir. We put mortar into the reservoir and hardened it. In order to make a highly erodible mortar, we casted the mortar with extremely low amount of cement. The ratio of cement, sand (0.2 mm in diameter), and water is x:150:50 (x ranges 1-3). The flume is tilted by 10 degrees. The water and colored sand is supplied from a head tank to the upstream end of the flume, flows on 'model bedrock' in the flume, and was dropped from the downstream end. We observed morphological changes of the surface of the bedrock by photos. We also used a laser displacement sensor to measure the surface topography of the 'model bedrock' before and after each run. The configuration of steps largely depends on the hardness of model bedrocks. In the case of the softest model bedrock (cement-sand-water ratio is 1:150:50) with small amount of sand, long-drawn potholes tend to be formed. Clear cyclic steps are formed on harder model bedrocks with large cement-sand-water ratios such as 2:150:50 and 3:150:50. When a series of steps are formed on the bed, typical wavelength and wave height are approximately 20 cm, and 2 - 3 cm, respectively. The general shape of a step is characterized by a relatively long downward-inclined slope just upstream of a short upward-inclined slope. The feature of

  4. Accuracy of Single-Step versus 2-Step Double-Mix Impression Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Herrera, Francyle Simões

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the accuracy of dies obtained from single-step and 2-step double-mix impressions. Material and Methods. Impressions (n = 10) of a stainless steel die simulating a complete crown preparation were performed using a polyether (Impregum Soft Heavy and Light body) and a vinyl...

  5. On the Road towards Child-Centered Education: Step by Step in Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincilei, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the outcome of the implementation of the Step by Step child-centered education model in Moldova. The implementation began with 12 classrooms of four-to five-year-old children in five kindergartens. The positive response from parents and teachers received at the end of the first year exceeded all expectations. As a result, 60…

  6. Two Steps Forward, One Step Backward: Must This Be the Future of Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Johnnella E.

    2013-01-01

    Johnnella Butler writes here that the title of this article "Two Steps Forward, One Step Backward," expresses the "wicked problem" of diversity as a concrete goal in higher education. The concept of the "wicked problem," is a term coined in the late 1960s by social planners. Consulting Wikipedia, as so many of our…

  7. Fostering Autonomy through Syllabus Design: A Step-by-Step Guide for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Espinosa, Alexánder

    2016-01-01

    Promoting learner autonomy is relevant in the field of applied linguistics due to the multiple benefits it brings to the process of learning a new language. However, despite the vast array of research on how to foster autonomy in the language classroom, it is difficult to find step-by-step processes to design syllabi and curricula focused on the…

  8. Step Frequency and Step Length of 200-m Sprint in Able-bodied and Amputee Sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, H; Sano, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Heldoorn, T A; Mochimaru, M

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the difference in the 200-m sprint performance of amputee and able-bodied sprinters is due to a shorter step length rather than a lower step frequency. Men's elite-level 200-m races with a total of 16 able-bodied, 13 unilateral transtibial, 5 bilateral transtibial, and 16 unilateral transfemoral amputee sprinters were analyzed from publicly available internet broadcasts. For each run, the average forward velocity, step frequency, and step length over the entire 200-m distance were analyzed for each sprinter. The average forward velocity of able-bodied sprinters was faster than that of the other 3 groups, but there was no significant difference in average step frequency between able-bodied and transtibial amputee sprinters. However, the average step length of able-bodied sprinters was significantly longer than that of the transtibial amputee sprinters. In contrast, the step frequency and step length of transfemoral amputees were significantly lower and shorter than those of the other 3 groups. These results suggest that the differences in 200-m sprint performance between able-bodied and amputee sprinters are dependent on amputation level. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The energy cost for the step-to-step transition in amputee walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.H.P.; Pollman, E.; Groenewold, M.; Wiggerts, H.; Polomski, W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the increased energy cost of amputee gait could be accounted for by an increase in the mechanical work dissipated during the step-to-step transition in walking. Eleven transtibial amputees (AMP) and 11 age-matched controls (CO) walked at both

  10. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra O'Connell

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities.Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video.All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025. The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P < 0.01 for both. The ActivPAL™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the cycling exercises (P < 0.001 for both.As a number of false positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the authors conclude that non-stepping

  11. Multivariate Max-Stable Spatial Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-06

    Analysis of spatial extremes is currently based on univariate processes. Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and explicitly quantified, they are therefore widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extreme events of real processes, such as environmental phenomena, it may be useful to study several spatial variables simultaneously. To this end, we extend some theoretical results and applications of max-stable processes to the multivariate setting to analyze extreme events of several variables observed across space. In particular, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. Then, we define a Poisson process construction in the multivariate setting and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extremevalue, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the BrownResnick models. Inferential aspects of those models based on composite likelihoods are developed. We present results of various Monte Carlo simulations and of an application to a dataset of summer daily temperature maxima and minima in Oklahoma, U.S.A., highlighting the utility of working with multivariate models in contrast to the univariate case. Based on joint work with Simone Padoan and Huiyan Sang.

  12. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yasuto

    1988-01-01

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13 C and 14 C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO 2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13 C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Stable states in a strong IR field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2015-05-01

    It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.

  14. Color stable manganese-doped phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph [Burnt Hills, NY; Setlur, Anant Achyut [Niskayuna, NY; Deshpande, Anirudha Rajendra [Twinsburg, OH; Grigorov, Ljudmil Slavchev [Sofia, BG

    2012-08-28

    A process for preparing color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphors includes providing a phosphor of formula I; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]:Mn.sup.+4 I and contacting the phosphor in particulate form with a saturated solution of a composition of formula II in aqueous hydrofluoric acid; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]; II wherein A is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, NR.sub.4 or a combination thereof; M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y, La, Nb, Ta, Bi, Gd, or a combination thereof; R is H, lower alkyl, or a combination thereof; x is the absolute value of the charge of the [MF.sub.y] ion; and y is 5, 6 or 7. In particular embodiments, M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, or a combination thereof. A lighting apparatus capable of emitting white light includes a semiconductor light source; and a phosphor composition radiationally coupled to the light source, and which includes a color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphor.

  15. Redo Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass: One-Step or Two-Step Procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Caroline M J; Guelinckx, Nele; Maring, John K; Langenhoff, Barbara S

    2016-11-01

    The adjustable gastric band (AGB) is a bariatric procedure that used to be widely performed. However, AGB failure-signifying band-related complications or unsatisfactory weight loss, resulting in revision surgery (redo operations)-frequently occurs. Often this entails a conversion to a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). This can be performed as a one-step or two-step (separate band removal) procedure. Data were collected from patients operated from 2012 to 2014 in a single bariatric centre. We compared 107 redo LRYGB after AGB failure with 1020 primary LRYGB. An analysis was performed of the one-step vs. two-step redo procedures. All redo procedures were performed by experienced bariatric surgeons. No difference in major complication rate was seen (2.8 vs. 2.3 %, p = 0.73) between redo and primary LRYGB, and overall complication severity for redos was low (mainly Clavien-Dindo 1 or 2). Weight loss results were comparable for primary and redo procedures. The one-step and two-step redos were comparable regarding complication rates and readmissions. The operating time for the one-step redo LRYGB was 136 vs. 107.5 min for the two-step (median, p step procedure is safe when performed by experienced bariatric surgeons. However, when erosion or perforation of the AGB occurs, we advise caution and would perform the redo LRYGB as a two-step procedure. Equal weights can be achieved at 1 year post redo LRYGB as after primary LRYGB procedures.

  16. Estimation of Time-Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the last decade alpha-stable distributions have become a standard model for impulsive data. Especially the linear symmetric alpha-stable processes have found...

  17. Methanobactin-Mediated One-Step Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of gold nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution has enormous importance in nanotechnology. Methanobactin (Mb is a copper-binding small peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and catalytically reduce Au (III to Au (0. In this study, we demonstrate a facile Mb-mediated one-step synthetic route to prepare monodispersed gold nanoparticles. Continuous reduction of Au (III by Mb can be achieved by using hydroquinone as the reducing agent. The gold nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The formation and the surface plasmon resonance properties of the gold nanoparticles are highly dependent on the ratio of Au (III to Mb in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, fluorescence spectra and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectra suggest that Mb molecules catalytically reduce Au (III to Au (0 with the concomitant production of gold nanoparticles, and then, Mb statically adsorbed onto the surface of gold nanoparticles to form an Mb-gold nanoparticles assembly. This avoids secondary nucleation. The formed gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be monodispersed and uniform by transmission electron microscopy (TEM images. Analysis of these particles shows an average size of 14.9 nm with a standard deviation of 1.1 nm. The gold nanoparticles are extremely stable and can resist aggregation, even after several months.

  18. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  19. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  20. Foot clearance strategy for step-over-step stair climbing in transfemoral amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamasaki, Nobuya; Ogata, Toru

    2014-08-01

    Stair ascent is a particularly challenging task for transfemoral amputees. The aim of this clinical note was to describe the kinematic features of foot clearance in transfemoral amputee who can ascend stairs using a step-over-step strategy. The marker trajectories of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (Mt1) and clearance height were measured in two transfemoral amputees who could (TF1) and could not (TF2) climb stairs using a step-over-step strategy. The Mt1 marker trajectories of the TF1 moved backward in the early swing phase, and the trajectory followed an off-centered parabolic arc to achieve a similar clearance height as able-bodied subjects. TF2 could not climb the stairs without tripping in each step. An effective compensatory strategy to avoid tripping during stair climbing may be to use the hip joint for a backward extension and rapid flexion of the prosthetic leg during the early swing phase. The foot clearance strategy in transfemoral amputees who can climb stairs using a step-over-step strategy will help us better understand adaptive prosthetic control and thus develop more effective gait rehabilitation programs. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  1. Chance and stability stable distributions and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    1999-01-01

    An introduction to the theory of stable distributions and their applications. It contains a modern outlook on the mathematical aspects of the theory. The authors explain numerous peculiarities of stable distributions and describe the principle concept of probability theory and function analysis. A significant part of the book is devoted to applications of stable distributions. Another notable feature is the material on the interconnection of stable laws with fractals, chaos and anomalous transport processes.

  2. Two-step solar filament eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B.

    2018-04-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are closely related to eruptive filaments and usually are the continuation of the same eruptive process into the upper corona. There are failed filament eruptions when a filament decelerates and stops at some greater height in the corona. Sometimes the filament after several hours starts to rise again and develops into the successful eruption with a CME formation. We propose a simple model for the interpretation of such two-step eruptions in terms of equilibrium of a flux rope in a two-scale ambient magnetic field. The eruption is caused by a slow decrease of the holding magnetic field. The presence of two critical heights for the initiation of the flux-rope vertical instability allows the flux rope to stay after the first jump some time in a metastable equilibrium near the second critical height. If the decrease of the ambient field continues, the next eruption step follows.

  3. Extra cogeneration step seen boosting output 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, P.

    1984-10-08

    Cogenerators can now buy a prototype 6.5 MW, pre-packaged cogeneration system that incorporates an added step to its cycle to reduce fuel use by 21%. Larger, custom-designed systems will be on the market in 1985. Fayette Manufacturing Co. will offer the Kalina Cycle system at a discount price of $8.2 million (1200/kW) until the systems are competitive with conventional units. The system varies from conventional cogeneration systems by adding a distillation step, which permits the use of two fluids for the turbine steam and operates at a higher thermodynamic efficiency, with boiling occuring at high temperature and low pressure. Although theoretically correct, DOE will withhold judgment on the system's efficiency until the first installation is operating.

  4. The stair-step approach in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakyan, Hayk

    2018-01-01

    This book is intended as a teacher’s manual and as an independent-study handbook for students and mathematical competitors. Based on a traditional teaching philosophy and a non-traditional writing approach (the stair-step method), this book consists of new problems with solutions created by the authors. The main idea of this approach is to start from relatively easy problems and “step-by-step” increase the level of difficulty toward effectively maximizing students' learning potential. In addition to providing solutions, a separate table of answers is also given at the end of the book. A broad view of mathematics is covered, well beyond the typical elementary level, by providing more in depth treatment of Geometry and Trigonometry, Number Theory, Algebra, Calculus, and Combinatorics.

  5. Stable preparations of tyrosine hydroxylase provide the solution structure of the full-length enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezem, Maria T.; Baumann, Anne; Skjærven, Lars; Meyer, Romain; Kursula, Petri; Martinez, Aurora; Flydal, Marte I.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. TH is a highly complex enzyme at mechanistic, structural, and regulatory levels, and the preparation of kinetically and conformationally stable enzyme for structural characterization has been challenging. Here, we report on improved protocols for purification of recombinant human TH isoform 1 (TH1), which provide large amounts of pure, stable, active TH1 with an intact N-terminus. TH1 purified through fusion with a His-tagged maltose-binding protein on amylose resin was representative of the iron-bound functional enzyme, showing high activity and stabilization by the natural feedback inhibitor dopamine. TH1 purified through fusion with a His-tagged ZZ domain on TALON is remarkably stable, as it was partially inhibited by resin-derived cobalt. This more stable enzyme preparation provided high-quality small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data and reliable structural models of full-length tetrameric TH1. The SAXS-derived model reveals an elongated conformation (Dmax = 20 nm) for TH1, different arrangement of the catalytic domains compared with the crystal structure of truncated forms, and an N-terminal region with an unstructured tail that hosts the phosphorylation sites and a separated Ala-rich helical motif that may have a role in regulation of TH by interacting with binding partners. PMID:27462005

  6. Seasat performance evaluation - The first two steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lame, D. B.; Born, G. H.; Dunne, J. A.; Spear, A. J.; Yamarone, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Seasat, the satellite dedicated to the study of the oceans using microwave sensors, collected a data set containing information on sea surface winds, sea surface temperatures, wave heights, wave directions, internal waves, currents, tides, the marine geoid, and atmospheric water content. The first two steps of the performance evaluation of the satellite have been completed: (1) the engineering assessment and (2) the sensor evaluation. The results are encouraging for the performance of the instruments and the first level of data processing algorithms.

  7. Voltage-Step Transient on Circular Electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wein, Ondřej; Tovčigrečko, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2011), s. 1065-1075 ISSN 0021-891X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0428; GA ČR GA104/09/0972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ohmic loss * voltage-step transient * cottrell asymptote Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.745, year: 2011

  8. NEW STEPS IN SKETCHING MACHINE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tocariu Liliana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new and main steps in sketching machine part, by using the Solid Edge program. The traditional method applied in the technical drawing is appreciably altered in the case of the computer-assisted and modern design. These modifications involve others: e.g., use of classic drawing rule in tool sketching. The author deals with them from three points of view, namely: technical drawing, technical education and advantages.

  9. A Note on Interpolation of Stable Processes | Nassiuma | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpolation procedures tailored for gaussian processes may not be applied to infinite variance stable processes. Alternative techniques suitable for a limited set of stable case with index α∈(1,2] were initially studied by Pourahmadi (1984) for harmonizable processes. This was later extended to the ARMA stable process ...

  10. Microsoft® Visual Basic® 2010 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Halvorson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Your hands-on, step-by-step guide to learning Visual Basic® 2010. Teach yourself the essential tools and techniques for Visual Basic® 2010-one step at a time. No matter what your skill level, you'll find the practical guidance and examples you need to start building professional applications for Windows® and the Web. Discover how to: Work in the Microsoft® Visual Studio® 2010 Integrated Development Environment (IDE)Master essential techniques-from managing data and variables to using inheritance and dialog boxesCreate professional-looking UIs; add visual effects and print supportBuild com

  11. Respiratory depression by stable xenon in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies with stable xenon have recently become practical. Xenon pharmacology is thus a more than academic interest. The authors studied the respiratory response of three trained goats to a mixture of 70% xenon, 30% oxygen. The relatively high xenon concentration was used because of the animals' resistance to anesthetic effects. Two other goats were treated with equivalent anesthetic concentration of nitrous oxide and halothane. The xenon-treated animals showed respiratory depression, in contrast to the stimulating effects observed with halothane and nitrous oxide. Elevation of PaCO/sub 2/ was significant and would substantially increase cRBF. Their findings emphasize the need to monitor ventilation and respond appropriately if necessary

  12. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgel, M.; Iglesias, J.; Casas, J.; Saviron, J. M.; Quintanilla, M.

    1965-07-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  13. The uniqueness of stable crack growth data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1981-01-01

    The paper addresses the uniqueness of the stable crack growth relation, with particular reference to creep crack growth and stress corrosion crack growth, where it is the pattern to use laboratory data which relates the stress intensity K to the crack growth rate dc/dt. Simple models are used to define the conditions under which the K versus dc/dt data is unique. Extensive use is made of the Dugdale-Bilby-Cottrell-Swinden (DBCS) model, in which the yield accompanying crack growth is assumed to be confined to an infinitesimal thin strip coplanar with the growing crack. The DBCS model can be modified to give an incremental growth criterion, which is in the form of a differential equation relating the stress intensity to crack length. The conditions under which this equation gives a unique relation between stress intensity and crack length are then investigated. (orig./HP)

  14. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgel, M.; Iglesias, J.; Casas, J.; Saviron, J. M.; Quintanilla, M.

    1965-01-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs

  15. The Search for Stable, Massive, Elementary Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we review the experimental and observational searches for stable, massive, elementary particles other than the electron and proton. The particles may be neutral, may have unit charge or may have fractional charge. They may interact through the strong, electromagnetic, weak or gravitational forces or through some unknown force. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for future searches--what is known, what is not known, and what appear to be the most fruitful areas for new searches. A variety of experimental and observational methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for exotic particles in bulk matter and searches using astrophysical observations is included in this review

  16. Multivariate max-stable spatial processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2015-02-11

    Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and quantified, so they are widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extremes, it may be useful to study several variables simultaneously. To this end, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. We define a Poisson process construction and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extreme-value, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the Brown–Resnick models. We develop inference for the models based on composite likelihoods. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations and an application to daily maximum wind speed and wind gust.

  17. Stable computation of generalized singular values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmac, Z.; Jessup, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study floating-point computation of the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of a general matrix pair (A, B), where A and B are real matrices with the same numbers of columns. The GSVD is a powerful analytical and computational tool. For instance, the GSVD is an implicit way to solve the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem Kx = {lambda}Mx, where K = A{sup {tau}}A and M = B{sup {tau}}B. Our goal is to develop stable numerical algorithms for the GSVD that are capable of computing the singular value approximations with the high relative accuracy that the perturbation theory says is possible. We assume that the singular values are well-determined by the data, i.e., that small relative perturbations {delta}A and {delta}B (pointwise rounding errors, for example) cause in each singular value {sigma} of (A, B) only a small relative perturbation {vert_bar}{delta}{sigma}{vert_bar}/{sigma}.

  18. Stable Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sascha

    The application of stable Oxygen-18 (18O) and Deuterium (2H) isotopes, as a tracer for fluxes between different compartments of the water cycle was subject of the present PhD-thesis. During a three year period, temporal data from a wide range of water cycle constituents was collected from...... the Skjern River catchment, Denmark. The presented applications focused on studying the isotopic 'input signal' to the hydrosphere in the form of precipitation, the isotopic 'output signal' with its related dynamic processes at a coastal saltwater-freshwater interface (groundwater isotopes) and the temporal...... development within a given lowland headwater catchment (stream water isotopes). Based on our investigations on the precipitation isotopic composition a local meteoric water line (LMWL) was constructed and expressed as: δ2H=7.4 δ18O + 5.36‰. Moreover, we showed that under maritime temperature climate influence...

  19. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-11-21

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed strategy has been further taken into consideration: a belief strategy is proposed in terms of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Furthermore, based on the proposed belief strategy, a belief-based ESS has been developed. The belief strategy and belief-based ESS can reduce to the mixed strategy and mixed ESS, which provide more realistic and powerful tools to describe interactions among agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stable orbits for lunar landing assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoleo, Ennio; Cinelli, Marco; Ortore, Emiliano; Circi, Christian

    2017-10-01

    To improve lunar landing performances in terms of mission costs, trajectory determination and visibility the use of a single probe located over an assistance orbit around the Moon has been taken into consideration. To this end, the properties of two quasi-circular orbits characterised by a stable behaviour of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination have been investigated. The analysis has demonstrated the possibility of using an assistance probe, located over one of these orbits, as a relay satellite between lander and Earth, even in the case of landings on the far side of the Moon. A comparison about the accuracy in retrieving the lander's state with respect to the use of a probe located in the Lagrangian point L2 of the Earth-Moon system has also been carried out.

  1. Effect of Different Carbon Substrates on Nitrate Stable Isotope Fractionation During Microbial Denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunderlich, Anja; Meckenstock, Rainer; Einsiedl, Florian

    2012-01-01

    -labeled water and 18O-labeled nitrite were added to the microcosm experiments to study the effect of putative backward reactions of nitrite to nitrate on the stable isotope fractionation. We found no evidence for a reverse reaction. Significant variations of the stable isotope enrichment factor ε were observed......In batch experiments, we studied the isotope fractionation in N and O of dissolved nitrate during dentrification. Denitrifying strains Thauera aromatica and “Aromatoleum aromaticum strain EbN1” were grown under strictly anaerobic conditions with acetate, benzoate, and toluene as carbon sources. 18O...... of nitrate transport across the cell wall compared to the kinetics of the intracellular nitrate reduction step of microbial denitrification....

  2. Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Olivier; Haboucha, Adil; Chanteau, Bruno; Chardonnet, Christian; Amy-Klein, Anne; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2012-10-08

    We report an optical link of 540 km for ultrastable frequency distribution over the Internet fiber network. The stable frequency optical signal is processed enabling uninterrupted propagation on both directions. The robustness and the performance of the link are enhanced by a cost effective fully automated optoelectronic station. This device is able to coherently regenerate the return optical signal with a heterodyne optical phase locking of a low noise laser diode. Moreover the incoming signal polarization variation are tracked and processed in order to maintain beat note amplitudes within the operation range. Stable fibered optical interferometer enables optical detection of the link round trip phase signal. The phase-noise compensated link shows a fractional frequency instability in 10 Hz bandwidth of 5 × 10(-15) at one second measurement time and 2 × 10(-19) at 30,000 s. This work is a significant step towards a sustainable wide area ultrastable optical frequency distribution and comparison network.

  3. Stable glomerular filtration rate in normotensive IDDM patients with stable microalbuminuria. A 5-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hommel, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term course of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in IDDM patients with microalbuminuria in order to identify patients with stable or declining kidney function over a 5-year study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty normotensive (129 +/- 11/80 +/- 8 mmHg) IDDM...

  4. Stable carbides in transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrkowski, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the present work different techniques were employed for the identification of stable carbides in two sets of transition metal alloys of wide technological application: a set of three high alloy M2 type steels in which W and/or Mo were total or partially replaced by Nb, and a Zr-2.5 Nb alloy. The M2 steel is a high speed steel worldwide used and the Zr-2.5 Nb alloy is the base material for the pressure tubes in the CANDU type nuclear reactors. The stability of carbide was studied in the frame of Goldschmidt's theory of interstitial alloys. The identification of stable carbides in steels was performed by determining their metallic composition with an energy analyzer attached to the scanning electron microscope (SEM). By these means typical carbides of the M2 steel, MC and M 6 C, were found. Moreover, the spatial and size distribution of carbide particles were determined after different heat treatments, and both microstructure and microhardness were correlated with the appearance of the secondary hardening phenomenon. In the Zr-Nb alloy a study of the α and β phases present after different heat treatments was performed with optical and SEM metallographic techniques, with the guide of Abriata and Bolcich phase diagram. The α-β interphase boundaries were characterized as short circuits for diffusion with radiotracer techniques and applying Fisher-Bondy-Martin model. The precipitation of carbides was promoted by heat treatments that produced first the C diffusion into the samples at high temperatures (β phase), and then the precipitation of carbide particles at lower temperature (α phase or (α+β)) two phase field. The precipitated carbides were identified as (Zr, Nb)C 1-x with SEM, electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction techniques. (Author) [es

  5. Stable isotopes as tracers for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, A.; Bartolo, D. de; Cantone, M.C.; Zilker, T.; Greim, H.; Roth, P.; Werner, E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of internal dose after incorporation of radionuclides requires as input data the knowledge of the uptake into the systemic circulation, the distribution and retention in selected organs, the excretion pathways. Realistic biokinetic models are needed for reliable estimates, correct interpretation of bioassay measurements, appropriate decision-making in radiological emergencies. For many radionuclides, however, the biokinetic models currently recommended are often generic, with very few specific parameters, due to the lack of experimental human data. The use of stable isotopes as tracers enables to determine important biokinetic parameters such as the fractional uptake, the clearance from the transfer compartment, the excretion patterns under experimentally controlled conditions. The subjects investigated are not exposed to any radiation risk, so this technique enables to obtain biokinetic information also for sensitive groups of the population, such as children or pregnant women, and to determine age- and gender-specific model parameters. Sophisticated analytical method, able to discriminate and quantitate different isotopes of the same element in complex matrices such as biological fluids, have to be purposely developed and optimized. Activation analysis and mass spectrometry are the most proper techniques of choice. Experiments were conducted with molybdenum, tellurium, ruthenium and zirconium. Activation analysis with protons, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled mass spectrometry were employed for the determination of stable isotopes of these elements in blood plasma and urine samples. Several deviations from the predictions of the ICRP models were observed. For example, modifications to the current model for molybdenum have been suggested on the basis of these results. The dose coefficients to the target regions calculated with this proposed model are even of one order of magnitude different than the ICRP estimates

  6. [How to make your own custom cutting guides for both mandibular and fibular stair step osteotomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rem, K; Bosc, R; De Kermadec, H; Hersant, B; Meningaud, J-P

    2017-12-01

    Using tailored cutting guides for osteocutaneous free fibula flap in complex mandibular reconstruction after cancer resection surgery constitutes a substantial improvement. Autonomously conceiving and manufacturing the cutting guides within a plastic surgery department with computer-aided design (CAD) and three-dimensional (3D) printing allows planning more complex osteotomies, such as stair-step osteotomies, in order to achieve more stable internal fixations. For the past three years, we have been producing by ourselves patient-tailored cutting guides using CAD and 3D printing. Osteotomies were virtually planned, making the cutting lines more complex in order to optimize the internal fixation stability. We also printed reconstructed mandible templates and shaped the reconstruction plates on them. We recorded data including manufacturing techniques and surgical outcomes. Eleven consecutive patients were operated on for an oral cavity cancer. For each patient, we planned the fibular and mandibular stair-step osteotomies and we produced tailored cutting guides. In all patients, we achieved to get immediately stable internal fixations and in 10 patients, a complete bone consolidation after 6 months. Autonomously manufacturing surgical cutting guides for mandibular reconstruction by free fibula flap is a significant improvement, regarding ergonomics and precision. Planning stair-step osteotomies to perform complementary internal fixation increases contact surface and congruence between the bone segments, thus improving the reconstructed mandible stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Steps, Choices and Moral Accounting: Observations from a Step-Counting Campaign in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm, Nanna; Shklovski, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary work is a contributing factor to growing obesity levels worldwide. Research shows that step-counters can offer a way to motivate greater physical mobility. We present an in-situ study of a nation-wide workplace step-counting campaign. Our findings show that in the context of the workplace...... steps are a socially negotiated quantity and that participation in the campaign has an impact on those who volunteer to participate and those who opt-out. We highlight that specific health promotion initiatives do not operate in a vacuum, but are experienced as one out of many efforts offered...... to the employees. Using a social ecology lens we illustrate how conceptualizing a step-counting campaign as a health promotion rather than a behavior change effort can have implications for what is construed as success....

  8. Stability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems and evolutionary stable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleria, Iram, E-mail: iram@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Brenig, Leon [Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rocha Filho, Tarcísio M.; Figueiredo, Annibal [Instituto de Física and International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2017-03-18

    Highlights: • We address the problem of equilibrium stability in a general class of non-linear systems. • We link Evolutionary Stable States (ESS) to stable fixed points of square quasi-polynomial (QP) systems. • We show that an interior ES point may be related to stable interior fixed points of QP systems. - Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of stability in a general class of non-linear systems. We establish a link between the concepts of asymptotic stable interior fixed points of square Quasi-Polynomial systems and evolutionary stable states, a property of some payoff matrices arising from evolutionary games.

  9. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to

  10. Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jin; Zhang Zhaozhu; Men Xuehu; Xu Xianghui

    2009-01-01

    Stable, transparent and superhydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite films were fabricated by one-step spray casting process using the polystyrene functionalized CNTs, which were prepared by 'living' free-radical polymerization and analyzed by means of infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The CNT film has a high water contact angle of 160 o and a sliding angle of less than 3 deg. The surface topography of the fabricated film was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The transparency of the CNT film was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The result shows that the CNT film has light transmittance of about 78% in the visible light region.

  11. Stepwise hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis on site scale (Step 0 and Step 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori

    2005-05-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. To achieve this goal, a variety of investigations, analysis, and evaluations have been conducted using an iterative approach. In this study, hydrogeological modeling and ground water flow analyses have been carried out using the data from surface-based investigations at Step 0 and Step 1, in order to synthesize the investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model, and to specify items for further investigation. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) As the investigation progresses Step 0 to Step 1, the understanding of groundwater flow was enhanced from Step 0 to Step 1, and the hydrogeological model could be revised, 2) The importance of faults as major groundwater flow pathways was demonstrated, 3) Geological and hydrogeological characteristics of faults with orientation of NNW and NE were shown to be especially significant. The main item specified for further investigations is summarized as follows: geological and hydrogeological characteristics of NNW and NE trending faults are important. (author)

  12. Stable isotope analysis in primatology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Paul A; Loudon, James E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2012-11-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become an important tool in ecology over the last 25 years. A wealth of ecological information is stored in animal tissues in the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of several elements, particularly carbon and nitrogen, because these isotopes navigate through ecological processes in predictable ways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been measured in most primate taxonomic groups and have yielded information about dietary content, dietary variability, and habitat use. Stable isotopes have recently proven useful for addressing more fine-grained questions about niche dynamics and anthropogenic effects on feeding ecology. Here, we discuss stable carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics and critically review the published stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data for modern primates with a focus on the problems and prospects for future stable isotope applications in primatology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Four Calypogeia Species Revealed Unexpected Change in Evolutionarily-Stable Liverwort Mitogenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ślipiko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Liverwort mitogenomes are considered to be evolutionarily stable. A comparative analysis of four Calypogeia species revealed differences compared to previously sequenced liverwort mitogenomes. Such differences involve unexpected structural changes in the two genes, cox1 and atp1, which have lost three and two introns, respectively. The group I introns in the cox1 gene are proposed to have been lost by two-step localized retroprocessing, whereas one-step retroprocessing could be responsible for the disappearance of the group II introns in the atp1 gene. These cases represent the first identified losses of introns in mitogenomes of leafy liverworts (Jungermanniopsida contrasting the stability of mitochondrial gene order with certain changes in the gene content and intron set in liverworts.

  14. Transfer effects of step training on stepping performance in untrained directions in older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Menant, Jasmine; Udyavar, Manasa; Brodie, Matthew A; Barry, Benjamin K; Lord, Stephen R; L Sturnieks, Daina

    2017-05-01

    Although step training improves the ability of quick stepping, some home-based step training systems train limited stepping directions and may cause harm by reducing stepping performance in untrained directions. This study examines the possible transfer effects of step training on stepping performance in untrained directions in older people. Fifty four older adults were randomized into: forward step training (FT); lateral plus forward step training (FLT); or no training (NT) groups. FT and FLT participants undertook a 15-min training session involving 200 step repetitions. Prior to and post training, choice stepping reaction time and stepping kinematics in untrained, diagonal and lateral directions were assessed. Significant interactions of group and time (pre/post-assessment) were evident for the first step after training indicating negative (delayed response time) and positive (faster peak stepping speed) transfer effects in the diagonal direction in the FT group. However, when the second to the fifth steps after training were included in the analysis, there were no significant interactions of group and time for measures in the diagonal stepping direction. Step training only in the forward direction improved stepping speed but may acutely slow response times in the untrained diagonal direction. However, this acute effect appears to dissipate after a few repeated step trials. Step training in both forward and lateral directions appears to induce no negative transfer effects in diagonal stepping. These findings suggest home-based step training systems present low risk of harm through negative transfer effects in untrained stepping directions. ANZCTR 369066. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Method for cold stable biojet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seames, Wayne S.; Aulich, Ted

    2015-12-08

    Plant or animal oils are processed to produce a fuel that operates at very cold temperatures and is suitable as an aviation turbine fuel, a diesel fuel, a fuel blendstock, or any fuel having a low cloud point, pour point or freeze point. The process is based on the cracking of plant or animal oils or their associated esters, known as biodiesel, to generate lighter chemical compounds that have substantially lower cloud, pour, and/or freeze points than the original oil or biodiesel. Cracked oil is processed using separation steps together with analysis to collect fractions with desired low temperature properties by removing undesirable compounds that do not possess the desired temperature properties.

  16. Tungsten Stable Isotope Compositions of Ferromanganese Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K.; Barling, J.; Hein, J. R.; Schauble, E. A.; Halliday, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    We report the first accurate and precise data for mass-dependent fractionation of tungsten (W) stable isotopes, using a double spike technique and MC-ICPMS. Results are expressed relative to the NIST 3136 W isotope standard as per mil deviations in 186W/184W (δ186W). Although heavy element mass-dependent fractionations are expected to be small, Tl and U both display significant low temperature isotopic fractionations. Theoretical calculations indicate that W nuclear volume isotopic effects should be smaller than mass-dependent fractionations at low temperatures. Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts precipitate directly from seawater and have been used as paleoceanographic recorders of temporal changes in seawater chemistry. Crusts are strongly enriched in W and other metals, and are a promising medium for exploring W isotopic variability. Tungsten has a relatively long residence time in seawater of ~61,000 years, mainly as the tungstate ion (WO42-). Water depth profiles show conservative behaviour. During adsorption on Fe-Mn crusts, W species form inner-sphere complexes in the hexavalent (W6+) state. The major host phase is thought to be Mn oxides and the lighter W isotope is expected to be absorbed preferentially. Surface scrapings of 13 globally distributed hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts display δ186W from -0.08 to -0.22‰ (±0.03‰, 2sd). A trend toward lighter W isotope composition exists with increasing water depth (~1500 to ~5200m) and W concentration. One hydrothermal Mn-oxide sample is anomalously light and Mn nodules are both heavy and light relative to Fe-Mn crusts. Tungsten speciation depends on concentration, pH, and time in solution and is not well understood because of the extremely slow kinetics of the reactions. In addition, speciation of aqueous and/or adsorbed species might be sensitive to pressure, showing similar thermodynamic stability but different effective volumes. Thus, W stable isotopes might be used as a water-depth barometer in

  17. The quality step; La demarche qualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellenoue, K. [Awiplan (France); Noyon, N. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Bourmeau, E. [OVAL, France (FR)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The 25 and 26 may 2000, took place at Lille two discussion days on the quality step concerning the collecting, processing and valorization of the domestic wastes, facing the environmental and energy policy. The organic wastes concerned were the domestic wastes and also the wastes from the gardens. This document presents all the papers discussed during these two days and makes the state of the art in the domain. A special interest is given to the quality insurance management, its objectives and its operating. Many european examples and the QUALORG program are provided and analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  18. RFID in libraries a step toward interoperability

    CERN Document Server

    Ayre, Lori Bowen

    2012-01-01

    The approval by The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) of a new standard for RFID in libraries is a big step toward interoperability among libraries and vendors. By following this set of practices and procedures, libraries can ensure that an RFID tag in one library can be used seamlessly by another, assuming both comply, even if they have different suppliers for tags, hardware, and software. In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Lori Bowen Ayre, an experienced implementer of automated materials handling systems, Provides background on the evolution of the standard

  19. The First Steps into a "Leaky Pipeline"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth; Larsen, Britt Østergaard

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that the higher the level of academic positions at universities the lower the percentage of women among employees also applies at Danish universities. This may be due to a historical backlog or merely to a 'Leaky pipeline', as earlier studies have revealed that an increasing...... proportion of women among university graduates has not resulted in an increasing proportion of women among university academics. This study based on data from Aalborg University documents by the use of longitudinal analyses that the ‘pipeline’ leaks women at the very first steps of the career ladder....

  20. Height of a faceted macrostep for sticky steps in a step-faceting zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2018-02-01

    The driving force dependence of the surface velocity and the average height of faceted merged steps, the terrace-surface slope, and the elementary step velocity are studied using the Monte Carlo method in the nonequilibrium steady state. The Monte Carlo study is based on a lattice model, the restricted solid-on-solid model with point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model). The main focus of this paper is a change of the "kink density" on the vicinal surface. The temperature is selected to be in the step-faceting zone [N. Akutsu, AIP Adv. 6, 035301 (2016), 10.1063/1.4943400] where the vicinal surface is surrounded by the (001) terrace and the (111) faceted step at equilibrium. Long time simulations are performed at this temperature to obtain steady states for the different driving forces that influence the growth/recession of the surface. A Wulff figure of the p-RSOS model is produced through the anomalous surface tension calculated using the density-matrix renormalization group method. The characteristics of the faceted macrostep profile at equilibrium are classified with respect to the connectivity of the surface tension. This surface tension connectivity also leads to a faceting diagram, where the separated areas are, respectively, classified as a Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov zone, step droplet zone, and step-faceting zone. Although the p-RSOS model is a simplified model, the model shows a wide variety of dynamics in the step-faceting zone. There are four characteristic driving forces: Δ μy,Δ μf,Δ μc o , and Δ μR . For the absolute value of the driving force, |Δ μ | is smaller than Max[ Δ μy,Δ μf] , the step attachment-detachments are inhibited, and the vicinal surface consists of (001) terraces and the (111) side surfaces of the faceted macrosteps. For Max[ Δ μy,Δ μf]effects were also determined to be distinctive near equilibrium.

  1. 48 CFR 14.503-2 - Step two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step two. 14.503-2 Section... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Two-Step Sealed Bidding 14.503-2 Step two. (a) Sealed bidding... submitting acceptable technical proposals in step one; (2) Include the provision prescribed in 14.201-6(t...

  2. The Polytopic-k-Step Fibonacci Sequences in Finite Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Deveci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences, the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences modulo m, and the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences in finite groups. Also, we examine the periods of the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences in semidihedral group SD2m.

  3. Influence of ageing on self-etch adhesives: one-step vs. two-step systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Giulio; Frassetto, Andrea; Visintini, Erika; Diolosà, Marina; Turco, Gianluca; Salgarello, Stefano; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentine, interfacial nanoleakage expression, and stability after ageing, of two-step vs. one-step self-etch adhesives. Human molars were cut to expose middle/deep dentine, assigned to groups (n = 15), and treated with the following bonding systems: (i) Optibond XTR (a two-step self-etch adhesive; Kerr), (ii) Clearfil SE Bond (a two-step self-etch adhesive; Kuraray), (iii) Adper Easy Bond (a one-step self-etch adhesive; 3M ESPE), and (iv) Bond Force (a one-step self-etch adhesive; Tokuyama). Specimens were processed for μTBS testing after 24 h, 6 months, or 1 yr of storage in artificial saliva at 37°C. Nanoleakage expression was examined in similarly processed additional specimens. At baseline the μTBS results ranked in the following order: Adper Easy Bond = Optibond XTR ≥Clearfil SE = Bond Force, and interfacial nanoleakage analysis showed Clearfil SE Bond = Adper Easy Bond = Optibond XTR> Bond Force. After 1 yr of storage, Optibond XTR, Clearfil SE Bond, and Adper Easy Bond showed higher μTBS and lower interfacial nanoleakage expression compared with Bond Force. In conclusion, immediate bond strength, nanoleakage expression, and stability over time were not related to the number of steps of the bonding systems, but to their chemical formulations. © 2012 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. ONE-STEP AND TWO-STEP CALIBRATION OF A PORTABLE PANORAMIC IMAGE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-C. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System (PPIMS is proposed for rapid acquisition of three-dimensional spatial information. By considering the convenience of use, cost, weight of equipment, precision, and power supply, the designed PPIMS is equipped with 6 circularly arranged cameras to capture panoramic images and a GPS receiver for positioning. The motivation for this design is to develop a hand-held Mobile Mapping System (MMS for some difficult accessing areas by vehicle MMS, such as rugged terrains, forest areas, heavily damaged disaster areas, and crowed places etc. This PPIMS is in fact a GPS assisted close-range photogrammetric system. Compared with the traditional close-range photogrammetry, PPIMS can reduce the need of ground control points significantly. Under the condition of knowing the relative geometric relationships of the equipped sensors, the elements of exterior orientation of each captured image can be solved. However, the procedure of a system calibration should be done accurately to determine the relative geometric relationships of multi-cameras and the GPS antenna center, before the PPIMS can be applied for geo-referenced mapping. In this paper, both of one-step and two-step calibration procedures for PPIMS are performed to determine the lever-arm offsets and boresight angles among cameras and GPS. The performance of the one-step and two-step calibration is evaluated through the analysis of the experimental results. The comparison between these two calibration procedures was also conducted. The two-step calibration method outperforms the one-step calibration method in terms of calibration accuracy and operation convenience. We expect that the proposed two-step calibration procedure can also be applied to other platform-based MMSs.

  5. Introducing Stable Radicals into Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Frasconi, Marco; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2017-09-27

    Ever since their discovery, stable organic radicals have received considerable attention from chemists because of their unique optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. Currently, one of the most appealing challenges for the chemical community is to develop sophisticated artificial molecular machines that can do work by consuming external energy, after the manner of motor proteins. In this context, radical-pairing interactions are important in addressing the challenge: they not only provide supramolecular assistance in the synthesis of molecular machines but also open the door to developing multifunctional systems relying on the various properties of the radical species. In this Outlook, by taking the radical cationic state of 1,1'-dialkyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (BIPY •+ ) as an example, we highlight our research on the art and science of introducing radical-pairing interactions into functional systems, from prototypical molecular switches to complex molecular machines, followed by a discussion of the (i) limitations of the current systems and (ii) future research directions for designing BIPY •+ -based molecular machines with useful functions.

  6. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Chemically Stable Lipids for Membrane Protein Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishchenko, Andrii; Peng, Lingling; Zinovev, Egor; Vlasov, Alexey; Lee, Sung Chang; Kuklin, Alexander; Mishin, Alexey; Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Zhang, Qinghai; Cherezov, Vadim (MIPT); (USC); (Scripps)

    2017-05-01

    The lipidic cubic phase (LCP) has been widely recognized as a promising membrane-mimicking matrix for biophysical studies of membrane proteins and their crystallization in a lipidic environment. Application of this material to a wide variety of membrane proteins, however, is hindered due to a limited number of available host lipids, mostly monoacylglycerols (MAGs). Here, we designed, synthesized, and characterized a series of chemically stable lipids resistant to hydrolysis, with properties complementary to the widely used MAGs. In order to assess their potential to serve as host lipids for crystallization, we characterized the phase properties and lattice parameters of mesophases made of two most promising lipids at a variety of different conditions by polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Both lipids showed remarkable chemical stability and an extended LCP region in the phase diagram covering a wide range of temperatures down to 4 °C. One of these lipids has been used for crystallization and structure determination of a prototypical membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin at 4 and 20 °C.

  8. Migration, fertility, and aging in stable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Juha M

    2008-08-01

    Fertility is below replacement level in all European countries, and population growth is expected to decline in the coming decades. Increasing life expectancy will accentuate concomitant aging of the population. Migration has been seen as a possible means to decelerate aging. In this article, I introduce a stable, open-population model in which cohort net migration is proportional to births. In this case, the migration-fertility trade-off can be studied with particular ease. I show that although migration can increase the growth rate, which tends to make the age distribution younger, it also has an opposite effect because of its typical age pattern. I capture the effect of the age pattern of net migration in a migration-survivor function. The effect of net migration on growth is quantified with data from 17 European countries. I show that some countries already have a level of migration that will lead to stationarity. For other countries with asymptotically declining population, migration still provides opportunities for slowing down aging of the population as a whole.

  9. Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs

  10. STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY OF MASSIVE ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij K. Vasil’chuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises stable-isotope research on massive ice in the Russian and North American Arctic, and includes the latest understanding of massive-ice formation. A new classification of massive-ice complexes is proposed, encompassing the range and variabilityof massive ice. It distinguishes two new categories of massive-ice complexes: homogeneousmassive-ice complexes have a similar structure, properties and genesis throughout, whereasheterogeneous massive-ice complexes vary spatially (in their structure and properties andgenetically within a locality and consist of two or more homogeneous massive-ice bodies.Analysis of pollen and spores in massive ice from Subarctic regions and from ice and snow cover of Arctic ice caps assists with interpretation of the origin of massive ice. Radiocarbon ages of massive ice and host sediments are considered together with isotope values of heavy oxygen and deuterium from massive ice plotted at a uniform scale in order to assist interpretation and correlation of the ice.

  11. LHC Report: Towards stable beams and collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, the LHC re-commissioning with beam has continued at a brisk pace. The first collisions of 2011 were produced on 2 March, with stable beams and collisions for physics planned for the coming days. Low intensity beams with just a few bunches of particles were used to test the energy ramp to 3.5 TeV and the squeeze. The results were successful and, as a by-product, the first collisions of 2011 were recorded 2 March. One of the main activities carried out by the operation teams has been the careful set-up of the collimation system, and the injection and beam dump protection devices. The collimation system provides essential beam cleaning, preventing stray particles from impacting other elements of the machine, particularly the superconducting magnets. In addition to the collimation system, also the injection and beam dump protection devices perform a vital machine protection role, as they detect any beam that might be mis-directed during rare, but not totally unavoidable, hardware hiccups...

  12. Stable Isotope Group 1984 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    The work of the group in 1984 is described and includes studies in isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation. Geothermal studies have decreased compared to other years, but major data summaries were made for Wairakei and Ngawha. The hydrology of Whakarewarewa and Rotorua is being elucidated using water isotopes. Models of the subsurface flows at Kawerau and Ngawha are being made to relate fluid to mineral isotope compositions. A study of the δ 13 C and δ 34 S compositions of New Zealand oils has been started. Groups of oils of related origin are being defined, and compositions will be compared with those of potential source rocks. A method was developed for isotope analysis of sulphur in rocks. The isotopic composition of water is being used to identify and characterise groundwater aquifers in the Wairarapa and at Poverty Bay. Stable carbon isotopes have been used to identify food sources for invertebrates, and to show biochemical pathways in lactation by cows. The geochronology group is involved in major studies in Antarctica, using U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Rocks from North Victoria Land, Marie Byrd Land and the USARP mountains are being compared with possible correlatives in New Zealand and Argentina. Strontium isotope data is being applied to the origin of magmas in several regions of New Zealand. The K-Ar data is being stored on computer files. Fission track measurements are being applied to unravel uplift histories in Westland and Taranaki

  13. Development of F2 two-step fluorination process for non-aqueous reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    To establish the F 2 two-step fluorination for stable and high recoveries of plutonium, the fluorination process has been studied with the simulated fuel to a FBR containing UO 2 - PuO 2 and non-radioactive fission products in the 2''phi fluid-bed. The process principle was demonstrated and the effect of FPs on fluorination of U and Pu and the possibility of reducing the Pu loss could be clarified. The feasibility of separating PuF 6 from UF 6 onto UO 2 F 2 by adsorption, was also indicated. (auth.)

  14. Adaptive Morse code recognition using variable degree variable step size LMS for persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we applied variable degree, variable step size LMS algorithm to adaptive Morse code recognition for persons with impaired hand coordination and dexterity. The automatic recognition of Morse code by the disabled is difficult because they cannot maintain a stable typing rate. Therefore, a suitable adaptive automatic recognition method is needed. In this adaptive Morse code recognition method, three processes are involved: character separation, character recognition, and adaptive processing. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the proposed method resulted in a better recognition rate compared to alternative methods from the literature.

  15. Ten steps towards healthier and sustainable buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, P. [Concordia Univ., Centre for Building Studies, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented 10 steps to move the building process towards healthy and sustainable buildings in an effort to mitigate some of the health symptoms associated with buildings with poor air quality. Buildings consume large quantities of raw materials and 40 per cent of available energy. The building process is governed by century-old disciplines which tend to work independently and deliver their services in a fragmented way, often failing to meet the basic objectives of providing healthy, comfortable, and productive indoor environments at limited energy cost. The following 10 steps were proposed: reduce failures by better delivery of knowledge to the building process; create awareness that building performance pays; accelerate implementation of new technologies and better design techniques; integrate new technologies in a holistic approach; improve the building process to reduce cost and resources; begin maintenance soon after the building is completed; train professionals to apply new knowledge to the building process; maximize the use of professionals' expertise; increase research and development in building science and building engineering; and exercise obligations to improve building performance. It was concluded that it is important to improve building performance to meet human needs effectively, and to reduce the energy and other resources required to meet these needs. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Dark matter detection in two easy steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospelov, Maxim; Weiner, Neal; Yavin, Itay

    2014-03-01

    Multicomponent dark matter particles may have a more intricate direct detection signal than simple elastic scattering on nuclei. In a broad class of well-motivated models, the inelastic excitation of dark matter particles is followed by de-excitation via γ decay. In experiments with fine energy resolution, such as many 0ν2β decay experiments, this motivates a highly model-independent search for the sidereal daily modulation of an unexpected γ line. Such a signal arises from a two-step weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) interaction: the WIMP is first excited in the lead shielding and subsequently decays back to the ground state via the emission of a monochromatic γ within the detector volume. We explore this idea in detail by considering the model of magnetic inelastic WIMPs and take a sequence of CUORE-type detectors as an example. We find that under reasonable assumptions about detector performance it is possible to efficiently explore mass splittings of up to a few hundred keV for a WIMP of weak-scale mass and transitional magnetic moments. The modulation can be cheaply and easily enhanced by the presence of additional asymmetric lead shielding. We devise a toy simulation to show that a specially designed asymmetric shielding may result in up to 30% diurnal modulations of the two-step WIMP signal, leading to additional strong gains in sensitivity.

  17. Caffeine Citrate Dosing Adjustments to Assure Stable Caffeine Concentrations in Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gilbert; Datta, Alexandre N; Jost, Kerstin; Schulzke, Sven M; van den Anker, John; Pfister, Marc

    2017-12-01

    To identify dosing strategies that will assure stable caffeine concentrations in preterm neonates despite changing caffeine clearance during the first 8 weeks of life. A 3-step simulation approach was used to compute caffeine doses that would achieve stable caffeine concentrations in the first 8 weeks after birth: (1) a mathematical weight change model was developed based on published weight distribution data; (2) a pharmacokinetic model was developed based on published models that accounts for individual body weight, postnatal, and gestational age on caffeine clearance and volume of distribution; and (3) caffeine concentrations were simulated for different dosing regimens. A standard dosing regimen of caffeine citrate (using a 20 mg/kg loading dose and 5 mg/kg/day maintenance dose) is associated with a maximal trough caffeine concentration of 15 mg/L after 1 week of treatment. However, trough concentrations subsequently exhibit a clinically relevant decrease because of increasing clearance. Model-based simulations indicate that an adjusted maintenance dose of 6 mg/kg/day in the second week, 7 mg/kg/day in the third to fourth week and 8 mg/kg/day in the fifth to eighth week assures stable caffeine concentrations with a target trough concentration of 15 mg/L. To assure stable caffeine concentrations during the first 8 weeks of life, the caffeine citrate maintenance dose needs to be increased by 1 mg/kg every 1-2 weeks. These simple adjustments are expected to maintain exposure to stable caffeine concentrations throughout this important developmental period and might enhance both the short- and long-term beneficial effects of caffeine treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Time step length versus efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan; Valtavirta, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Time step length largely affects efficiency of MC burnup calculations. • Efficiency of MC burnup calculations improves with decreasing time step length. • Results were obtained from SIE-based Monte Carlo burnup calculations. - Abstract: We demonstrate that efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations can be largely affected by the selected time step length. This study employs the stochastic implicit Euler based coupling scheme for Monte Carlo burnup calculations that performs a number of inner iteration steps within each time step. In a series of calculations, we vary the time step length and the number of inner iteration steps; the results suggest that Monte Carlo burnup calculations get more efficient as the time step length is reduced. More time steps must be simulated as they get shorter; however, this is more than compensated by the decrease in computing cost per time step needed for achieving a certain accuracy

  19. Embryotoxicity of stable isotopes and use of stable isotopes in studies of teratogenetic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielmann, H.; Nau, H.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on teratogenic effects of stable isotopes from our own and other laboratories are evaluated. In the first series of investigations, the enrichment of the stable isotope 13 C derived from U- 13 C-glucose was studied in mouse embryos at various stages of development, including limb buds in organ culture. Preimplantation mouse embryos incubated in vitro in 13 C-enriched medium for 48 hours showed normal development during subsequent differentiation in vitro and also in vivo after embryo transfer to faster mothers. These embryos were 15% to 20% enriched in 13 C. Administration of U-13-C-glucose to pregnant mice during organogenesis led to an increase of the absolute 13 C content of the embryo for several days after the end of isotope administration, whereas the enrichment in maternal tissue decreased. No alterations of embryonic development were detected due to stable isotope enrichment. Development of cultured mouse limb buds was unaffected by incubation with 82 mol% U- 13 C-glucose as judged from morphologic and biochemical criteria. The second part of the article describes the value of deuterium-labeled drugs as probes into the mechanism of activation of teratogenic metabolites. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics as well as the teratogenicity between cyclophosphamide and some specific deuterium-labeled analogues showed that the isotope effect observed can be related to a particular metabolic pathway crucial for teratogenic activation by this drug

  20. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films.

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jin Young

    2015-07-13

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector.

  1. A Capping Step During Automated Glycan Assembly Enables Access to Complex Glycans in High Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Kononov, Andrew; Delbianco, Martina; Seeberger, Peter H

    2018-04-20

    The products of multi-step automated solid phase syntheses are purified after release from the resin. Capping of unreacted nucleophiles is commonplace in automated oligonucleotide synthesis to minimize accumulation of deletion sequences. To date, capping was not used routinely during automated glycan assembly (AGA) since previous capping protocols suffered from long reaction times and conditions incompatible with some protective groups. Here, a method using methanesulfonic acid and acetic anhydride for the fast and quantitative capping of hydroxyl groups that failed to be glycosylated is reported. Commonly used protective groups in AGA are stable under these capping conditions. The introduction of a capping step into the coupling cycle drastically improved overall yields by decreasing side-products and simplifying purification, while reducing building block consumption. To illustrate the method, the biologically important tetrasaccharide Lc4, as well as a 50-mer polymannoside were prepared. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

  3. [Angle-stable fixation of intramedullary nails using the Angular Stable Locking System® (ASLS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höntzsch, D; Blauth, M; Attal, R

    2011-12-01

    Greater stability in intramedullary osteosynthesis using angle-stable fixation with intramedullary nails and proximal locking screws. A novel screw-and-sleeve system (ASLS®, Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland) is applied using normal cannulated nails. Decisions can be made intraoperatively. This technology widens the range of indications for intramedullary nailing: The smaller and less stable the fragment requiring fixation, the greater the indication for angular stable fixation of the proximal and/or distal fragment. Femoral, tibial and humeral fractures, intramedullary osteosynthesis in osteoporotic bone and ante- and retrograde nailing. Particularly in the case of retrograde nailing, sustained prevention of nail toggling is achieved. None. Drill with the first drill bit, which has the same core diameter as the screw shaft. Drill the cortex to the external diameter of the sleeve. Place the sleeve on the tip of the screw. The screw-sleeve combination is then advanced through the larger near hole until the sleeve-covered screw tip sits in the locking hole of the intramedullary fixation nail. Advance the screw. As the screw diameter becomes larger, the sleeve expands resulting in an angular stable locking effect. The screw is then advanced until the head of the screw sits on the exposed surface of the cortex. The hole is filled with the expanded part of the screw shaft beneath the screw head. The necessary 1-3 turns are cut by the self-tapping flute on the screw. According to experience to date, this form of angle-stable fixation enables earlier and/or greater partial mobilization or earlier full mobilization. In all other respects, the guidelines for aftercare in intramedullary nailing apply. A multi-center pilot study has shown the technique to be reproducible and simple. There have been no complications using this technique to date. Biomechanical laboratory studies have demonstrated that stability with respect to axial and torsional loading is statically and

  4. Step-wise and punctuated genome evolution drive phenotype changes of tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, Aleksei, E-mail: a.a.stepanenko@gmail.com [Department of Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Andreieva, Svitlana; Korets, Kateryna; Mykytenko, Dmytro [Department of Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Huleyuk, Nataliya [Institute of Hereditary Pathology, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv 79008 (Ukraine); Vassetzky, Yegor [CNRS UMR8126, Université Paris-Sud 11, Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy, Villejuif 94805 (France); Kavsan, Vadym [Department of Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • There are the step-wise continuous and punctuated phases of cancer genome evolution. • The system stresses during the different phases may lead to very different responses. • Stable transfection of an empty vector can result in genome and phenotype changes. • Functions of a (trans)gene can be opposite/versatile in cells with different genomes. • Contextually, temozolomide can both promote and suppress tumor cell aggressiveness. - Abstract: The pattern of genome evolution can be divided into two phases: the step-wise continuous phase (step-wise clonal evolution, stable dominant clonal chromosome aberrations (CCAs), and low frequency of non-CCAs, NCCAs) and punctuated phase (marked by elevated NCCAs and transitional CCAs). Depending on the phase, system stresses (the diverse CIN promoting factors) may lead to the very different phenotype responses. To address the contribution of chromosome instability (CIN) to phenotype changes of tumor cells, we characterized CCAs/NCCAs of HeLa and HEK293 cells, and their derivatives after genotoxic stresses (a stable plasmid transfection, ectopic expression of cancer-associated CHI3L1 gene or treatment with temozolomide) by conventional cytogenetics, copy number alterations (CNAs) by array comparative genome hybridization, and phenotype changes by cell viability and soft agar assays. Transfection of either the empty vector pcDNA3.1 or pcDNA3.1-CHI3L1 into 293 cells initiated the punctuated genome changes. In contrast, HeLa-CHI3L1 cells demonstrated the step-wise genome changes. Increased CIN correlated with lower viability of 293-pcDNA3.1 cells but higher colony formation efficiency (CFE). Artificial CHI3L1 production in 293-CHI3L1 cells increased viability and further contributed to CFE. The opposite growth characteristics of 293-CHI3L1 and HeLa-CHI3L1 cells were revealed. The effect and function of a (trans)gene can be opposite and versatile in cells with different genetic network, which is defined by

  5. Unit of stable isotopic N15 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera de Bisbal, Evelin; Paredes U, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The continuous and growing demand of crops and cattle for the domestic inhabitants, forces the search of technical solutions in agriculture. One of the solutions able to be covered in a near future it is the escalation of agricultural production in lands already being cultivated, either by means of an intensification of cultivation and / or increasing the unitary yields. In the intensive cropping systems, the crops extract substantial quantities of nutriments that is recovered by means of the application of fertilizers. Due to the lack of resources and to the increase of commercial inputs prices, it has been necessary to pay attention to the analysis and improvement of low inputs cropping systems and to the effective use of resources. Everything has made to establish a concept of plant nutrition focused system, which integrate the sources of nutriments for plants and the production factors of crops in a productive cropping system, to improve the fertility of soils, the agricultural productivity and profitability. This system includes the biggest efficiency of chemical fertilizers as the maximum profit of alternative sources of nutriments, such as organic fertilizers, citrate-phosphate rocks and biological nitrogen fixation. By means of field experiments under different environmental conditions (soils and climate) it can be determined the best combination of fertilizers practice (dose, placement, opportunity and source) for selected cropping systems. The experimentation with fertilizer, marked with stable and radioactive isotopes, provides a direct and express method to obtain conclusive answers to the questions: where, when and how should be applied. The fertilizers marked with N 1 5 have been used to understand the application of marked fertilizer to the cultivations, and the determination of the proportion of crops nutritious element derived from fertilizer. The isotopic techniques offer a fast and reliable mean to obtain information about the distribution of

  6. Step-by-step manual for planning and performing bifurcation PCI: a resource-tailored approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milasinovic, Dejan; Wijns, William; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Hellig, Farrel; Mohamed, Awad; Stankovic, Goran

    2018-02-02

    As bifurcation PCI can often be resource-demanding due to the use of multiple guidewires, balloons and stents, different technical options are sometimes being explored, in different local settings, to meet the need of optimally treating a patient with a bifurcation lesion, while being confronted with limited material resources. Therefore, it seems important to keep a proper balance between what is recognised as the contemporary state of the art, and what is known to be potentially harmful and to be discouraged. Ultimately, the resource-tailored approach to bifurcation PCI may be characterised by the notion of minimum technical requirements for each step of a successful procedure. Hence, this paper describes the logical sequence of steps when performing bifurcation PCI with provisional SB stenting, starting with basic anatomy assessment and ending with the optimisation of MB stenting and the evaluation of the potential need to stent the SB, suggesting, for each step, the minimum technical requirement for a successful intervention.

  7. The interpretation and inter-derivation of small-step and big-step specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerny, Ian

    and abstract machines from big-step reduction strategies. Second, we show how these correspondences can be used to relate specifications for lazy evaluation, e.g., graph reduction and call-by-need evaluation. Third, we describe an alternative interpretation of specifications as logic programs in a logical......We study the interpretation and inter-derivation of big-step and small-step specifications. In particular, we consider formal specifications of programming languages, e.g., denotational semantics and operational semantics, and investigate how these specifications relate to each other. We carry out...... this investigation by interpreting specifications as programs in a pure functional meta-language and by constructively deriving one program from the other using program transformations. To this end, we use two derivational correspondences: The functional correspondence between compositional higher...

  8. Digital project management the complete step-by-step guide to a successful launch

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Taylor

    2016-01-01

    The digital world is growing and changing at a rate that can seem overwhelming to those project managers who have to keep up with it to build customer-facing solutions and applications. It's rare for project managers working in this field to be provided with much direction or a process by which to carry out a project, and there has been next to nothing available specific to these types of projects in the literary marketplace. Digital Project Management: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide to a Successful Launch was developed to fill this gap by providing the knowledge, best practices and proven steps to consistently managing these types of project successfully from end-to-end now, and in the future with just minor adjustments to adapt to changes in technology.

  9. How structurally stable are global socioeconomic systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Gilarranz, Luis J; Bascompte, Jordi

    2014-11-06

    The stability analysis of socioeconomic systems has been centred on answering whether small perturbations when a system is in a given quantitative state will push the system permanently to a different quantitative state. However, typically the quantitative state of socioeconomic systems is subject to constant change. Therefore, a key stability question that has been under-investigated is how strongly the conditions of a system itself can change before the system moves to a qualitatively different behaviour, i.e. how structurally stable the systems is. Here, we introduce a framework to investigate the structural stability of socioeconomic systems formed by a network of interactions among agents competing for resources. We measure the structural stability of the system as the range of conditions in the distribution and availability of resources compatible with the qualitative behaviour in which all the constituent agents can be self-sustained across time. To illustrate our framework, we study an empirical representation of the global socioeconomic system formed by countries sharing and competing for multinational companies used as proxy for resources. We demonstrate that the structural stability of the system is inversely associated with the level of competition and the level of heterogeneity in the distribution of resources. Importantly, we show that the qualitative behaviour of the observed global socioeconomic system is highly sensitive to changes in the distribution of resources. We believe that this work provides a methodological basis to develop sustainable strategies for socioeconomic systems subject to constantly changing conditions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic-Posilovic, Gordana; Balenovic, Diana; Barisic, Ivan; Strinic, Dean; Stambolija, Vasilije; Udovicic, Mario; Uzun, Sandra; Drmic, Domagoj; Vlainic, Josipa; Bencic, Martina Lovric; Sindic, Aleksandra; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-12-15

    Bupivacaine toxicity following accidental overdose still lacks therapeutic solution. However, there are major arguments for testing BPC 157 against bupivacaine toxicity in vivo in rats, in particular, and then finally, in vitro. These are: the lack of any known BPC 157 toxicity, a lifesaving effect via the mitigation of arrhythmias in rats underwent hyperkalemia or digitalis toxicity, the elimination of hyperkalemia and arrhythmias in rats underwent succinylcholine toxicity and finally, the reduction of potassium-induced depolarization in vitro (in HEK293 cells) in severe hyperkalemia. Most importantly, BPC 157 successfully prevents and counteracts bupivacaine cardiotoxicity; BPC 157 is effective even against the worst outcomes such as a severely prolonged QRS complex. Here, rats injected with bupivacaine (100mg/kg IP) exhibited bradycardia, AV-block, ventricular ectopies, ventricular tachycardia, T-wave elevation and asystole. All of the fatalities had developed T-wave elevation, high-degree AV-block, respiratory arrest and asystole. These were largely counteracted by BPC 157 administration (50µg/kg, 10µg/kg, 10ng/kg, or 10pg/kg IP) given 30min before or 1min after the bupivacaine injection. When BPC 157 was given 6min after bupivacaine administration, and after the development of prolonged QRS intervals (20ms), the fatal outcome was markedly postponed. Additionally, the effect of bupivacaine on cell membrane depolarization was explored by measuring membrane voltages (Vm) in HEK293 cells. Bupivacaine (1mM) alone caused depolarization of the cells, while in combination with BPC 157 (1µm), the bupivacaine-induced depolarization was inhibited. Together, these findings suggest that the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 should be a potential antidote for bupivacaine cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-15

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes1, 2, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other2. Electrostatic stabilization3, 4 of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains2, 5. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  12. Stable configurations of graphene on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy, E-mail: droymahapatra@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Ravikumar, Abhilash [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India); Hegde, G.M. [Center for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Rizwan, M.R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Simulations of epitaxial growth process for silicon–graphene system is performed. • Identified the most favourable orientation of graphene sheet on silicon substrate. • Atomic local strain due to the silicon–carbon bond formation is analyzed. - Abstract: Integration of graphene on silicon-based nanostructures is crucial in advancing graphene based nanoelectronic device technologies. The present paper provides a new insight on the combined effect of graphene structure and silicon (001) substrate on their two-dimensional anisotropic interface. Molecular dynamics simulations involving the sub-nanoscale interface reveal a most favourable set of temperature independent orientations of the monolayer graphene sheet with an angle of ∽15° between its armchair direction and [010] axis of the silicon substrate. While computing the favorable stable orientations, both the translation and the rotational vibrations of graphene are included. The possible interactions between the graphene atoms and the silicon atoms are identified from their coordination. Graphene sheet shows maximum bonding density with bond length 0.195 nm and minimum bond energy when interfaced with silicon substrate at 15° orientation. Local deformation analysis reveals probability distribution with maximum strain levels of 0.134, 0.047 and 0.029 for 900 K, 300 K and 100 K, respectively in silicon surface for 15° oriented graphene whereas the maximum probable strain in graphene is about 0.041 irrespective of temperature. Silicon–silicon dimer formation is changed due to silicon–carbon bonding. These results may help further in band structure engineering of silicon–graphene lattice.

  13. Stable Continental Region Earthquakes in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.

    This paper reviews some remarkable characteristics of earthquakes in a Stable Continental Region (SCR) of the South China Block (SCB). The kernel of the SCB is the Yangtze platform solidified in late Proterozoic time, with continental growth to the southeast by a series of fold belts in Paleozoic time. The facts that the deviatoric stress is low, the orientations of the major tectonic features in the SCB are substantially normal to the maximum horizontal principal stress, and a relatively uniform crust, seem to be the major reasons for lack of significant seismicity in most regions of the SCB. Earthquakes in this region are mainly associated with three seismic zones: (1) the Southeast China Coast seismic zone related to Guangdong-Fujian coastal folding belt (associated with Eurasia-Philippine Sea plate collision); (2) the Southern Yellow Sea seismic zone associated with continental shelf rifts and basins; and (3) the Downstream Yangtze River seismic zone spatially coinciding with Tertiary rifts and basin development. All three seismic zones are close to one or two major economic and population centers in the SCB so that they pose significant seismic hazards. Earthquake focal mechanisms in the SCB are consistent with strike-slip to normal faulting stress regimes. Because of the global and national economic significance of the SCB and its dense population, the seismic hazard of the region is of outstanding importance. Comparing the SCB with another less developed region, a pending earthquake with the same size and tectonic setting would cause substantially more severe social and economic losses in the SCB. This paper also compiles an inventory of historic moderate to great earthquakes in the SCB; most of the data are not widely available in English literature.

  14. Thermally stable dexsil-400 glass capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Olerich, G.

    1980-01-01

    The factors affecting efficiency, thermal stability, and reproducibility of Dexsil-400 glass capillary columns for gas chromatography in general, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular were investigated. Columns were drawn from Kimble KG-6 (soda-lime) glass or Kimox (borosilicate) glass. All silylation was carried out at 200 0 C. Columns were coated according to the static method. Freshly prepared, degassed solutions of Dexsil-400 in pentane or methylene chloride were used. Thermal stability of the Dexsil 400 columns with respect to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were tested. Column-to-column variability is a function of each step in the fabrication of the columns. The degree of etching, extent of silylation, and stationary phase film thickness must be carefully controlled. The variability in two Dexsil-400 capillary column prepared by etching, silylation with solution of hexa methyl disilazone (HMDS), and static coating is shown and also indicates the excellent selectivity of Dexsil-400 for the separation of alkylated aromatic compounds. The wide temperature range of Dexsil-400 and the high efficiency of the capillary columns also allow the analysis of complex mixtures with minimal prefractionation. Direct injection of a coal liquefaction product is given. Analysis by GC/MS indicated the presence of parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs, nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles, and their alkylated derivatives. 4 figures

  15. Tempered stable distributions stochastic models for multiscale processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabchak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This brief is concerned with tempered stable distributions and their associated Levy processes. It is a good text for researchers interested in learning about tempered stable distributions.  A tempered stable distribution is one which takes a stable distribution and modifies its tails to make them lighter. The motivation for this class comes from the fact that infinite variance stable distributions appear to provide a good fit to data in a variety of situations, but the extremely heavy tails of these models are not realistic for most real world applications. The idea of using distributions that modify the tails of stable models to make them lighter seems to have originated in the influential paper of Mantegna and Stanley (1994). Since then, these distributions have been extended and generalized in a variety of ways. They have been applied to a wide variety of areas including mathematical finance, biostatistics,computer science, and physics.

  16. One-step continuous synthesis of functionalized magnetite nanoflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G.; Demoisson, F.; Chassagnon, R.; Popova, E.; Millot, N.

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) that form aggregates with a nanoflower morphology were synthesized using a rapid (11 s) one-step continuous hydrothermal process, which was recently modified, and their application as a T 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was evaluated. The nanoparticles functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (LDOPA) or 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid (DHCA) consisted of small crystallites of approximately 15 nm of diameter that assembled to form flower-shaped aggregate structures. The Fe3O4-LDOPA nanoflowers exhibited a high transverse relaxivity, r 2 of 418 ± 10 l mmolFe -1 s-1 at 3 T owing to magnetic dipolar interactions, which is twice as that of the commercial Feridex®/Endorem®. The prepared nanostructures were compared with bare Fe3O4 NPs and citrated Fe3O4 NPs. DHCA, LDOPA, and citric acid (CA) were found to have an anti-oxidizing effect and to influence the crystallite size and the lattice parameter of the NPs. DHCA and LDOPA increased the crystallite size, whereas CA decreased it. Surface modification increased the colloidal stability of NPs as compared to bare NPs. Nanoflower suspensions of Fe3O4-LDOPA NPs were found to be stable in the phosphate-buffered saline, saline medium, and minimal essential medium and formed aggregates of sizes smaller than 120 nm. All samples were found to be superparamagnetic in nature and the highest saturation magnetization was obtained for the Fe3O4-LDOPA samples. These NPs can bind to polymers such as PEG, and to fluorescent and chelating agents owing to the presence of free -NH2 or -COOH groups on the surface of NPs, allowing their use in dual imaging applications.

  17. Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor frames: First steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    2015-03-01

    Gabor frames can advantageously be redefined using the Heisenberg-Weyl operators familiar from harmonic analysis and quantum mechanics. Not only does this redefinition allow us to recover in a very simple way known results of symplectic covariance, but it immediately leads to the consideration of a general deformation scheme by Hamiltonian isotopies ( i.e. arbitrary paths of non-linear symplectic mappings passing through the identity). We will study in some detail an associated weak notion of Hamiltonian deformation of Gabor frames, using ideas from semiclassical physics involving coherent states and Gaussian approximations. We will thereafter discuss possible applications and extensions of our method, which can be viewed - as the title suggests - as the very first steps towards a general deformation theory for Gabor frames.

  18. Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane

  19. Electron work function of stepped tungsten surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahl-Urban, B.

    1976-03-01

    The electron work function of tungsten (110) vicinal faces was measured with the aid of thermionic emission, and its dependence on the crystallographic orientation and the surface structure was investigated. The thermionic measurements were evaluated with the aid of the Richardson plot. The real temperature of the emitting tungsten faces was determined with an accuracy of +- 0.5% in the range between 2,200 and 2,800 K. The vicinal faces under investigation have been prepared with an orientation exactness of +- 15'. In the tungsten (110) vicinal faces under investigation, a strong dependence of the temperature coefficient d PHI/dT of the work function on the crystallographic orientation was found. A strong influence of the edge structure as well as of the step density on the temperature coefficient was observed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  20. Classical and special relativity in four steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The most fundamental and pedagogically useful path to the space-time transformations of both classical and special relativity is to postulate the principle of relativity, derive the generalised or Ignatowsky transformation which contains both, then apply two different second postulates that give either the Galilean or Lorentz transformation. What is new here is (a) a simple two-step derivation of the Ignatowsky transformation, (b) a second postulate of universal time which yields the Galilean transformation, and (c) a different second postulate of finite universal lightspeed to give the Lorentz transformation using a simple Ignatowsky transformation of a light wave. This method demonstrates that the fundamental difference between Galilean and Lorentz transformations is not that lightspeed is universal (which is true for both) but whether the model requires lightspeed to be infinite or finite (as once mentioned by Einstein).

  1. Experimental results from a stepped frequency GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Signore

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a nationally funded project, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR has been developed by the Italian Consortium for Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems (CO.RI.S.T.A.. The system was described in a previous paper (Alberti et al., 2002. As new aspects, the system is a stepped frequency GPR that can work both in gated and ungated mode, and the antennas can be moved automatically in a controlled fashion. As aspects of geophysical interest, the system is exploitable in situations wherein a high resolution and a shallow penetration in the soil (a few meters are required. Possibly, this is an example of probing a landscape. This paper completes the results of Alberti et al. (2002, wherein laboratory tests where described, by providing the main results obtained during an outdoor experimental campaign, performed fi rst in a controlled site and then in an archaeological site.

  2. KEOPS: Scientific Challenges and Technical Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valat, B.; Gori, P.-M.; Schmider, F.-X.; Lopez, B.; Vakili, F.

    The recent site testing pointed out the potential of DomeC for Next Generation Optical Interferometer. KEOPS (Kilo parsec Explorer Optical Planet Search) is proposed in a context which also considere the post VLTI perspectives. This interferometer will be composed of 36 telescopes with a maximal baseline of 1 km. This instrument will open new horizons: stellar imaging, circumstellar environment studies, extra solar planet detection, Earth like planet search. The possibility of observations in double field mode takes advantage of the large isopistonic angle to give acces to faint object (see Elhalkouj 2006). It allows active galactic nuclei and cosmological observations. The achievement of that project implies different steps. The first one could be MYKERINOS, proposed by LUAN. This prototype interferometer, composed to 3 telescopes of 40 cm, demonstrate technological feasibility, complete the specific site characterisation and contribute to validate the scientific program objectives.

  3. STEP wastewater treatment: a solar thermal electrochemical process for pollutant oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baohui; Wu, Hongjun; Zhang, Guoxue; Licht, Stuart

    2012-10-01

    A solar thermal electrochemical production (STEP) pathway was established to utilize solar energy to drive useful chemical processes. In this paper, we use experimental chemistry for efficient STEP wastewater treatment, and suggest a theory based on the decreasing stability of organic pollutants (hydrocarbon oxidation potentials) with increasing temperature. Exemplified by the solar thermal electrochemical oxidation of phenol, the fundamental model and experimental system components of this process outline a general method for the oxidation of environmentally stable organic pollutants into carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. Using thermodynamic calculations we show a sharply decreasing phenol oxidation potential with increasing temperature. The experimental results demonstrate that this increased temperature can be supplied by solar thermal heating. In combination this drives electrochemical phenol removal with enhanced oxidation efficiency through (i) a thermodynamically driven decrease in the energy needed to fuel the process and (ii) improved kinetics to sustain high rates of phenol oxidation at low electrochemical overpotential. The STEP wastewater treatment process is synergistic in that it is performed with higher efficiency than either electrochemical or photovoltaic conversion process acting alone. STEP is a green, efficient, safe, and sustainable process for organic wastewater treatment driven solely by solar energy. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The effect of double steps heat treatment on the microstructure of nanostructure bainitic medium carbon steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foughani, Milad; Kolahi, Alireza; Palizdar, Yahya

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, Nano structure bainitic steel have attracted attention mostly because of its special mechanical properties such as high tensile strength, hardness, appropriate toughness and low manufacturing cost. The main concern for the mass production of this type of steels is prolong austempering process which increases the production costs as well as time. In this research, in order to accelerate the bainitic transformation and decrease the production time, a medium carbon steel has been prepared and two steps austempering process was employed to prevent the bainite laths thickening. The Samples were austenetized at 1000°C for 15 min and were kept in the salt bath between 1 - 12 hours at 290°C in one step and between 1 - 12 hours at the temperature range of 250°C - 300°C in two steps bainite transformation. The obtained micro structures were studied by the optical and scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the mechanical properties were investigated by using tensile and hardness tests. The results show that the two steps austempering process and lower carbon concentration lead to lower austempering time as well as the formation of more stable retained austenite and nanostructured bainite lath which results in higher mechanical properties.

  5. Enforcing the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition in explicitly conservative local time stepping schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Semenov, Vadim A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2018-04-01

    An optimally efficient explicit numerical scheme for solving fluid dynamics equations, or any other parabolic or hyperbolic system of partial differential equations, should allow local regions to advance in time with their own, locally constrained time steps. However, such a scheme can result in violation of the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition, which is manifestly non-local. Although the violations can be considered to be "weak" in a certain sense and the corresponding numerical solution may be stable, such calculation does not guarantee the correct propagation speed for arbitrary waves. We use an experimental fluid dynamics code that allows cubic "patches" of grid cells to step with independent, locally constrained time steps to demonstrate how the CFL condition can be enforced by imposing a constraint on the time steps of neighboring patches. We perform several numerical tests that illustrate errors introduced in the numerical solutions by weak CFL condition violations and show how strict enforcement of the CFL condition eliminates these errors. In all our tests the strict enforcement of the CFL condition does not impose a significant performance penalty.

  6. Step-to-Step Ankle Inversion/Eversion Torque Modulation Can Reduce Effort Associated with Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myunghee Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Below-knee amputation is associated with higher energy expenditure during walking, partially due to difficulty maintaining balance. We previously found that once-per-step push-off work control can reduce balance-related effort, both in simulation and in experiments with human participants. Simulations also suggested that changing ankle inversion/eversion torque on each step, in response to changes in body state, could assist with balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of ankle inversion/eversion torque modulation on balance-related effort among amputees (N = 5 using a multi-actuated ankle-foot prosthesis emulator. In stabilizing conditions, changes in ankle inversion/eversion torque were applied so as to counteract deviations in side-to-side center-of-mass acceleration at the moment of intact-limb toe off; higher acceleration toward the prosthetic limb resulted in a corrective ankle inversion torque during the ensuing stance phase. Destabilizing controllers had the opposite effect, and a zero gain controller made no changes to the nominal inversion/eversion torque. To separate the balance-related effects of step-to-step control from the potential effects of changes in average mechanics, average ankle inversion/eversion torque and prosthesis work were held constant across conditions. High-gain stabilizing control lowered metabolic cost by 13% compared to the zero gain controller (p = 0.05. We then investigated individual responses to subject-specific stabilizing controllers following an enforced exploration period. Four of five participants experienced reduced metabolic rate compared to the zero gain controller (−15, −14, −11, −6, and +4% an average reduction of 9% (p = 0.05. Average prosthesis mechanics were unchanged across all conditions, suggesting that improvements in energy economy might have come from changes in step-to-step corrections related to balance. Step-to-step modulation of inversion/eversion torque could be

  7. Microsoft® Office Visio® 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create professional-looking business and technical diagrams with Visio 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build organization charts, floor plans, and other diagramsAdd color, text, and other effectsConnect shapes and create effective flowchartsVisualize and analyze data with new PivotDiagramsInsert and modify diagrams in other Microsoft Office documentsCreate your own shapes and templates and build custom diagrams Your all-in-one learning experience in

  8. Large Plunging Ranula Presenting as Isolated Neck Swelling: Steps in Diagnosis and Surgical Steps in Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilesh, Kumar; Malik, Neelima A; Patil, Pankaj; Chapi, Mouneshkumar Devendrappa

    2015-06-01

    Ranula is a salivary gland cyst which typically present as localized superficial swelling over the floor of mouth. Complex or plunging ranulas develop when the mucus extravasation extends through or around the mylohyoid muscle, deeper into the neck, and present with neck lump along with or without swelling over floor of mouth. We report a case of large plunging ranula presenting as an isolated large neck mass in a 38-year-old female patient. The steps in diagnosis and surgical steps in management of the pathology are systematically described.

  9. Microsoft® Office Excel® 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Frye, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to organize, analyze, and present data with Excel 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Create formulas, calculate values, and analyze dataPresent information visually with graphics, charts, and diagramsBuild PivotTable dynamic views-even easier with new data tablesReuse information from databases and other documentsShare spreadsheets for review and manage changesCreate macros to automate repetitive tasks and simplify your work Your all-in-one learning expe

  10. Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T.P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past two decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on campus alcohol programs. Method Participants in the study (N = 598) were college students mandated to attend an alcohol program following a campus-based alcohol citation. All participants received Step 1: a 15-minute Brief Advice session that included the provision of a booklet containing advice to reduce drinking. Participants were assessed six weeks after receiving the Brief Advice, and those who continued to exhibit risky alcohol use (n = 405) were randomized to Step 2, a 60–90 minute brief motivational intervention (BMI) (n = 211) or an assessment-only control (n = 194). Follow-up assessments were conducted 3, 6, and 9 months after Step 2. Results Results indicated that the participants who received a BMI significantly reduced the number of alcohol-related problems compared to those who received assessment-only, despite no significant group differences in alcohol use. In addition, low risk drinkers (n = 102; who reported low alcohol use and related harms at 6-week follow-up and were not randomized to stepped care) showed a stable alcohol use pattern throughout the follow-up period, indicating they required no additional intervention. Conclusion Stepped care is an efficient and cost-effective method to reduce harms associated with alcohol use by mandated students. PMID:22924334

  11. Study of the intermediate steps of reduction and protonation of dinitrogen on the organometallics complexes of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, Francine

    1982-01-01

    This work was concerned with the study of intermediate steps in the activation of dinitrogen by organometallic complexes of titanium and uranium in low states of oxidation. The mechanisms and intermediates proposed here are based on chemical analysis of stable products and E.S.R., U-V visible spectrophotometry, N.M.R. ( 1 H) studies in many cases using deuterated compounds. These labile systems have been studied using apparatus specially designed and constructed for handling them. (author) [fr

  12. Rational design of a host cell protein heat precipitation step simplifies the subsequent purification of recombinant proteins from tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Buyel, J.F.; Gruchow, H.M.; Boes, A.; Fischer, R.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of plants for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins include the ease of scale-up and the low pathogen burden, but the purification of target proteins is often affected by low expression levels and the abundance of host cell proteins in leaf extracts. These factors can significantly diminish the competitiveness of plant-based expression systems. We therefore compared three different heat precipitation steps that remove most host cell proteins while leaving a heat-stable can...

  13. Absolute Continuity of Stable Foliations for Mappings of Banach Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Alex; Young, Lai-Sang

    2017-09-01

    We prove the absolute continuity of stable foliations for mappings of Banach spaces satisfying conditions consistent with time- t maps of certain classes of dissipative PDEs. This property is crucial for passing information from submanifolds transversal to the stable foliation to the rest of the phase space; it is also used in proofs of ergodicity. Absolute continuity of stable foliations is well known in finite dimensional hyperbolic theory. On Banach spaces, the absence of nice geometric properties poses some additional difficulties.

  14. Tukey max-stable processes for spatial extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ganggang

    2016-09-21

    We propose a new type of max-stable process that we call the Tukey max-stable process for spatial extremes. It brings additional flexibility to modeling dependence structures among spatial extremes. The statistical properties of the Tukey max-stable process are demonstrated theoretically and numerically. Simulation studies and an application to Swiss rainfall data indicate the effectiveness of the proposed process. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Stable SU(5) monopoles with higher magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Sato, H.; Tomohiro, S.

    1985-01-01

    Taking into account the electroweak breaking effects, some multiply charged monopoles were shown to be stable by Gardner and Harvey. We give the explicit Ansa$uml: tze for finite-energy, nonsingular solutions of these stable higher-strength monopoles with eg = 1,(3/2),3. We also give the general stability conditions and the detailed behavior of the interaction potentials between two monopoles which produce the stable higher-strength monopoles

  16. Compensatory stepping responses in individuals with stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Bimal; Mansfield, Avril; Inness, Elizabeth L; McIlroy, William E

    2011-05-01

    Impaired postural control and a high incidence of falls are commonly observed following stroke. Compensatory stepping responses are critical to reactive balance control. We hypothesize that, following a stroke, individuals with unilateral limb dyscontrol will be faced with the unique challenge of controlling such rapid stepping reactions that may eventually be linked to the high rate of falling. The objectives of this exploratory pilot study were to investigate compensatory stepping in individuals poststroke with regard to: (1) choice of initial stepping limb (paretic or non-paretic); (2) step characteristics; and (3) differences in step characteristics when the initial step is taken with the paretic vs. the non-paretic limb. Four subjects following stroke (38-165 days post) and 11 healthy young adults were recruited. Anterior and posterior perturbations were delivered by using a weight drop system. Force plates recorded centre-of-pressure excursion prior to the onset of stepping and step timing. Of the four subjects, three only attempted to step with their non-paretic limb and one stepped with either limb. Time to foot-off was generally slow, whereas step onset time and swing time were comparable to healthy controls. Two of the four subjects executed multistep responses in every trial, and attempts to force stepping with the paretic limb were unsuccessful in three of the four subjects. Despite high clinical balance scores, these individuals with stroke demonstrated impaired compensatory stepping responses, suggesting that current clinical evaluations might not accurately reflect reactive balance control in this population.

  17. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  18. Biochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Highly Stable Photosystem II Supercomplexes from Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepin, Aurelie; Santabarbara, Stefano; Caffarri, Stefano

    2016-09-02

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large membrane supercomplex involved in the first step of oxygenic photosynthesis. It is organized as a dimer, with each monomer consisting of more than 20 subunits as well as several cofactors, including chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, lipids, and ions. The isolation of stable and homogeneous PSII supercomplexes from plants has been a hindrance for their deep structural and functional characterization. In recent years, purification of complexes with different antenna sizes was achieved with mild detergent solubilization of photosynthetic membranes and fractionation on a sucrose gradient, but these preparations were only stable in the cold for a few hours. In this work, we present an improved protocol to obtain plant PSII supercomplexes that are stable for several hours/days at a wide range of temperatures and can be concentrated without degradation. Biochemical and spectroscopic properties of the purified PSII are presented, as well as a study of the complex solubility in the presence of salts. We also tested the impact of a large panel of detergents on PSII stability and found that very few are able to maintain the integrity of PSII. Such new PSII preparation opens the possibility of performing experiments that require room temperature conditions and/or high protein concentrations, and thus it will allow more detailed investigations into the structure and molecular mechanisms that underlie plant PSII function. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Ship Detection in SAR Image Based on the Alpha-stable Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changcheng; Liao, Mingsheng; Li, Xiaofeng

    2008-08-22

    This paper describes an improved Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) ship detection algorithm in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image based on Alphastable distribution model. Typically, the CFAR algorithm uses the Gaussian distribution model to describe statistical characteristics of a SAR image background clutter. However, the Gaussian distribution is only valid for multilook SAR images when several radar looks are averaged. As sea clutter in SAR images shows spiky or heavy-tailed characteristics, the Gaussian distribution often fails to describe background sea clutter. In this study, we replace the Gaussian distribution with the Alpha-stable distribution, which is widely used in impulsive or spiky signal processing, to describe the background sea clutter in SAR images. In our proposed algorithm, an initial step for detecting possible ship targets is employed. Then, similar to the typical two-parameter CFAR algorithm, a local process is applied to the pixel identified as possible target. A RADARSAT-1 image is used to validate this Alpha-stable distribution based algorithm. Meanwhile, known ship location data during the time of RADARSAT-1 SAR image acquisition is used to validate ship detection results. Validation results show improvements of the new CFAR algorithm based on the Alpha-stable distribution over the CFAR algorithm based on the Gaussian distribution.

  20. Ship Detection in SAR Image Based on the Alpha-stable Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Li

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an improved Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR ship detection algorithm in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR image based on Alphastable distribution model. Typically, the CFAR algorithm uses the Gaussian distribution model to describe statistical characteristics of a SAR image background clutter. However, the Gaussian distribution is only valid for multilook SAR images when several radar looks are averaged. As sea clutter in SAR images shows spiky or heavy-tailed characteristics, the Gaussian distribution often fails to describe background sea clutter. In this study, we replace the Gaussian distribution with the Alpha-stable distribution, which is widely used in impulsive or spiky signal processing, to describe the background sea clutter in SAR images. In our proposed algorithm, an initial step for detecting possible ship targets is employed. Then, similar to the typical two-parameter CFAR algorithm, a local process is applied to the pixel identified as possible target. A RADARSAT-1 image is used to validate this Alpha-stable distribution based algorithm. Meanwhile, known ship location data during the time of RADARSAT-1 SAR image acquisition is used to validate ship detection results. Validation results show improvements of the new CFAR algorithm based on the Alpha-stable distribution over the CFAR algorithm based on the Gaussian distribution.

  1. Group living in squamate reptiles: a review of evidence for stable aggregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael G; Pearson, Sarah K; Johnston, Gregory R; Schwarz, Michael P

    2016-11-01

    How sociality evolves and is maintained remains a key question in evolutionary biology. Most studies to date have focused on insects, birds, and mammals but data from a wider range of taxonomic groups are essential to identify general patterns and processes. The extent of social behaviour among squamate reptiles is under-appreciated, yet they are a promising group for further studies. Living in aggregations is posited as an important step in the evolution of more complex sociality. We review data on aggregations among squamates and find evidence for some form of aggregations in 94 species across 22 families. Of these, 18 species across 7 families exhibited 'stable' aggregations that entail overlapping home ranges and stable membership in long-term (years) or seasonal aggregations. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that stable aggregations have evolved multiple times in squamates. We: (i) identify significant gaps in our understanding; (ii) outline key traits which should be the focus of future research; and (iii) outline the potential for utilising reproductive skew theory to provide insights into squamate sociality. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Seasonal variation in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of bats reflect environmental baselines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G Popa-Lisseanu

    Full Text Available The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of animal tissues is commonly used to trace wildlife diets and analyze food chains. Changes in an animal's isotopic values over time are generally assumed to indicate diet shifts or, less frequently, physiological changes. Although plant isotopic values are known to correlate with climatic seasonality, only a few studies restricted to aquatic environments have investigated whether temporal isotopic variation in consumers may also reflect environmental baselines through trophic propagation. We modeled the monthly variation in carbon and nitrogen isotope values in whole blood of four insectivorous bat species occupying different foraging niches in southern Spain. We found a common pattern of isotopic variation independent of feeding habits, with an overall change as large as or larger than one trophic step. Physiological changes related to reproduction or to fat deposition prior to hibernation had no effect on isotopic variation, but juvenile bats had higher δ13C and δ15N values than adults. Aridity was the factor that best explained isotopic variation: bat blood became enriched in both 13C and 15N after hotter and/or drier periods. Our study is the first to show that consumers in terrestrial ecosystems reflect seasonal environmental dynamics in their isotope values. We highlight the danger of misinterpreting stable isotope data when not accounting for seasonal isotopic baselines in food web studies. Understanding how environmental seasonality is integrated in animals' isotope values will be crucial for developing reliable methods to use stable isotopes as dietary tracers.

  3. Stable glomerular filtration rate in normotensive IDDM patients with stable microalbuminuria. A 5-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hommel, E

    1997-01-01

    . Out of 40 patients, 14 progressed to diabetic nephropathy (UAE > 300 mg/24 h). These patients had a significant reduction in GFR (mean -2.2 +/- 3.8 ml x min-1 x year-1; P = 0.05), while GFR remained stable in the remaining 26 patients with nonprogressive microalbuminuria (change in GFR 0.5 +/- 2.1 ml...... x min-1 x year-1; NS). The difference in the rate of decline of GFR was significant (mean 2.7 ml x min-1 x year-1; P

  4. A step-by-step guide for countries conducting a Technology Needs Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Narkeviciute, Rasa; Rogat Castillo, Jorge Enrique

    The purpose of this document is to summarise the various steps in the implementation of a TNA, serving as the ‘go-to’ document for national coordinators and consultants. It also points to the various materials that are available to further guide and support project management and methodology. For...

  5. From quality control to quality systems in x-ray radiology. Step by step approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendrutis Morkunas; Julius Ziliukas

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Quality systems in x-ray radiology as in any area of medical exposure is an important tool of optimization of radiation protection. Creation of these systems is related with a number of problems: limited resources, lack of knowledge and experience, negative attitude of hospitals staff and administration, lack of advice from outside. Problems related with transitionary period might be softened by the step by step approach. The following steps might be indicated: providing information on quality systems to hospital staff and administration, simple quality control procedures done by outside experts in hospitals, preparation of quality related procedures by hospital staff, practical implementation of quality control procedures done by hospital staff, preparation of quality manual by hospital staff, its integration into common quality system of hospital (if it is available) and constant development, measurements of performance indicators (e.g., patients' doses) and introduction of corrective measures if necessary, dissemination of experience by expert organizations and more advanced hospitals. These steps are to be discussed in the presentations based on Lithuanian experience since 1998.

  6. Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hayato

    2014-12-16

    Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation.

  7. From Recombinant Expression to Crystals: A Step-by-Step Guide to GPCR Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Arun K; Kumari, Punita; Ghosh, Eshan; Nidhi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the primary targets of drugs prescribed for many human pathophysiological conditions such as hypertension, allergies, schizophrenia, asthma, and various types of cancer. High-resolution structure determination of GPCRs has been a key focus area in GPCR biology to understand the basic mechanism of their activation and signaling and to materialize the long-standing dream of structure-based drug design on these versatile receptors. There has been tremendous effort at this front in the past two decades and it has culminated into crystal structures of 27 different receptors so far. The recent progress in crystallization and structure determination of GPCRs has been driven by innovation and cutting-edge developments at every step involved in the process of crystallization. Here, we present a step-by-step description of various steps involved in GPCR crystallization starting from recombinant expression to obtaining diffracting crystals. We also discuss the next frontiers in GPCR biology that are likely to be a primary focus for crystallography efforts in the next decade or so. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Step-by-Step Guide to Writing a Good History Day Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Martha

    1992-01-01

    Presents an instructive outline for writing a research paper for National History Day. Organizes the process into three steps: (1) select an interesting topic; (2) develop a strong thesis; and (3) write a well-constructed paper. Includes hints on organization, technical matters, editing, and readability. (DK)

  9. One False Step: "Detroit," "Step" and Movies of Rising and Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    "Detroit" and "Step" are two recent movies in the context of urban riots in protest of police brutality. They refer to time periods separated by half a century, but there are common themes in the two that seem appropriate to both times. The movies are not primarily concerned with the riot events, but the riot is a major…

  10. Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hayato

    2014-01-01

    Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation. PMID:25511387

  11. Supporting Linguistic and Cultural Diversity through First Steps. The Highgate Project. First Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Australia Education Dept., Perth.

    This report details the First Steps Developmental Continua project in a West Australian primary school with a highly culturally diverse student population to (1) ascertain whether recently-established early childhood education developmental guidelines and the corresponding curriculum are useful to map the development of…

  12. Response of Step-pool Mountain Channels to Wildfire Under Changing Climate-fire Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A.; O'Dowd, A. P.; Storesund, R.; Parker, A.; Roberts-Niemann, C.

    2013-12-01

    The western U.S. is becoming more susceptible to wildfire, even though wildfires have occurred throughout history and pre-history. Warming climates leading to drier conditions have increased the occurrence of wildfires. Fire suppression policies throughout the twentieth century have also allowed fuel loads to build and increased the potential for larger and more frequent fires. These trends have growing impacts on human society, as evidenced in increasing number of structures destroyed and related costs of firefighting and resulting damages. Besides the first-order effects of wildfire, such as burned vegetation and reduced infiltration capacities, changing climate-fire regimes have significant indirect effects on hydrologic and geomorphologic responses. This contribution explores how these changes affect the stability and functioning of step-pool mountain streams in the context of landscape evolution. Step-pool systems are stable features adjusted to the prevailing flow and channel morphology, serving important functions of energy dissipation in high-energy environments. Steps and pools are also important ecologically, as they provide diverse habitats for sensitive organisms. Whereas step-pool channels are typically restructured by flows with recurrence intervals often exceeding 50 years, these flows are reached more frequently under changing climate-fire regimes. Following the Waldo Canyon Fire of June/July 2012, one of several recent wildfires that spread along the Colorado Front Range, we track the stability, destruction, and re-development of step-pool systems in two basins in Pike National Forest using terrestrial LiDAR scanning and surveys of longitudinal profiles and cross sections. We document how the first geomorphologically significant event on 1 July 2013 obliterated the step-pool structure in Williams Canyon, widened river channels and lowered channel beds by as much as one meter. Changes in ecological character accompanied the conversion of channel

  13. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  14. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-01-01

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  15. Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.

  16. Time to pause before the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Many scientists, who have staunchly supported ITER for years, are coming to realize it is time to further rethink fusion energy's development strategy. Specifically, as was suggested by Grant Logan and Dale Meade, and in keeping with the restructuring of 1996, a theme of better, cheaper, faster fusion would serve the program more effectively than ''demonstrating controlled ignition...and integrated testing of the high-heat-flux and nuclear components required to utilize fusion energy...'' which are the important ingredients of ITER's objectives. The author has personally shifted his view for a mixture of technical and political reasons. On the technical side, he senses that through advanced tokamak research, spherical tokamak research, and advanced stellarator work, scientists are coming to a new understanding that might make a burning-plasma device significantly smaller and less expensive. Thus waiting for a few years, even ten years, seems prudent. Scientifically, there is fascinating physics to be learned through studies of burning plasma on a tokamak. And clearly if one wishes to study burning plasma physics in a sustained plasma, there is no other configuration with an adequate database on which to proceed. But what is the urgency of moving towards an ITER-like step focused on burning plasma? Some of the arguments put forward and the counter arguments are discussed here

  17. Positive steps turning into a process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božičević Goran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of the research conducted in Croatia for QPSW in 2003 is there is no systematic, accountable and structural confrontation with the past in Croatia, but there is growing concern within the civil society about the problems incurred by the lack of such a confrontation. Two different approaches can be discerned: individual work with particular persons or target groups and advocacy that could influence the alteration of the public opinion and decision-making. Both levels are necessary and they should unfold simultaneously. The systematization and regional cooperation of documentation centers, cooperation between victim organizations and peace initiatives, the inclusion of former warriors into peace building processes the cooperation of artists and activists - represent some of the new and promising steps on the civilian scene in Croatia. The constant strengthening of the independent media and the judiciary, coupled with constant efforts on both levels - the personal and the public - raises hopes that the confrontation with the past in Croatia is a process and not a trend.

  18. One step processing for future diesel specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    The trend in diesel fuel specifications is to limit the sulfur level to less than 0.05 wt- per cent. Many regions have also specified that diesel fuels must have lower aromatic levels, higher cetane numbers, and lower distillation end points. These changes will require significant refinery investment to meet the new diesel fuel specifications. The changes may also significantly affect the value of synthetic crude stocks. UOP has developed a new hydroprocessing catalyst which makes it possible to meet the new diesel specifications in one single processing step and at minimal cost. The catalyst saturates aromatics while opening ring structures at the same time. By selectively cracking heavy components into the diesel range with minimal cracking to gas or naphtha, heavier feedstocks can be upgraded to diesel, and refinery diesel yield can be augmented. Synthetic crude distillate is often high in aromatics and low in cetane number. This new UOP hydroprocessing system will allow synthetic crude producers and refiners to produce diesel fuels with higher cetane numbers, high-quality distillate blendstocks and distillate fuels. 26 figs

  19. Nutrition recommendations and science: next parallel steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2016-03-15

    This article examines nutrition recommendations in relation to developments in nutrition science. Combining data on the genome, metabolome and microbiota is likely to open possibilities for personalized nutrition planning, but we are still far from practical applications. However, even these new steps are unlikely to challenge the role and importance of population-based nutrition recommendations as a tool to promote dietary patterns, policies and public health. Developments in science could help in deriving more benefits from nutrition recommendations. For instance, improved accuracy of dietary intake assessment is needed both for surveillance and for understanding the quantitative interplay between diet and health. Applying metabolomics together with food diaries or questionnaires, and also modern technologies such as digital photography, are potentially interesting methods in this respect. Research on consumer behaviour, attitudes and policy interventions, such as taxation of unhealthy foods and nutrition labelling, are needed to gain more insight into how to change eating behaviour for better health at the population level. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Universal Design: A Step toward Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Carr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of aging successfully has become increasingly important as demographics shift towards an aging population. Successful aging has been defined to include (1 a low probability of disease and disease-related disability; (2 a high level of physical and cognitive functioning; and (3 an active engagement in life. The built environment can create opportunities or constraints for seniors to participate in social and productive activities. Universally designed spaces are more easily accessed and used by a spectrum of people without specialized adaptations. Thus, a universally designed environment creates opportunities for older adults to participate in these activities without the stigmatization associated with adapted or accessible designs. Providing older adults with specific universal design options (e.g., lever handle faucets has the potential to increase the ease of completing activities of daily living, which promotes a continual engagement in life. Literature regarding universal design is promising; however, its theory requires further attention from professionals designing the built environment, evidence of the significance of its application from academics, and the embracement of its core principles from society. Overall, universal design has the potential to provide a stepping stone toward successful aging.

  1. Destruction as a Step in Heidegger's Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J Safian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues in Heidegger’s philosophy is his claim that western philosophy tradition has overlooked the issue of Being. Heidegger’s attempt is to reveal the origins of this negligence by means of destruction. However, it seems that through such claim Heidegger aims to destroy and disvalue this tradition. In addition to defining and explaining destruction, our purpose in this article is to show that Heidegger’s goal is not to destroy the tradition of philosophy but the term destruction refers to a process which is a step in Heidegger’s phenomenology by means of which one can conceive and perceive Being better because only through such destruction ontology can fully assure itself in a phenomenological way of the genuine character of its concepts. The necessity of doing destruction in Heidegger’s thought has also been discussed and his persistence on it has been shown in two of his works, one belongs to early and another to later Heidegger.

  2. Small steps to emerge from the tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Vianello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the experience and activities of the National Centre for Town Planning Studies of the National Council of Engineers (CNI, and AUDIS, the Disused Urban Areas Association, the author proposes some suggestions to emerge – with small steps – from the tunnel of the crisis. First of all, do what is necessary. Simplify the planning regulations and procedures. Measures to take in the short term and at no cost: town planning reform, taking up the Lupi-Mantini proposals previously discussed and shared in the last legislation by Commission VIII of the Chamber on the Territory and Environment; a new law on the landholding system, the proposal developed by CNA (National Confederation of Artisans and Small and Medium Enterprises, CNI, ANCE (Italian National Association of Construction Companies and Tecnoborsa. Secondly, do what is useful: quality and innovation in urban redevelopment projects. The AUDIS Charter on urban regeneration; the Quality Protocol for Roma Capitale. Thirdly, something extra: targeted projects for start-ups. Social Housing. The city to be scrapped. The renewal of residential assets. The divestment of state-owned properties. The reuse of obsolete industrial buildings.

  3. Deposition Diagnostics for Next-step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Bader, A.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    The scale-up of deposition in next-step devices such as ITER will pose new diagnostic challenges. Codeposition of hydrogen with carbon needs to be characterized and understood in the initial hydrogen phase in order to mitigate tritium retention and qualify carbon plasma facing components for DT operations. Plasma facing diagnostic mirrors will experience deposition that is expected to rapidly degrade their reflectivity, posing a new challenge to diagnostic design. Some eroded particles will collect as dust on interior surfaces and the quantity of dust will be strictly regulated for safety reasons - however diagnostics of in-vessel dust are lacking. We report results from two diagnostics that relate to these issues. Measurements of deposition on NSTX with 4 Hz time resolution have been made using a quartz microbalance in a configuration that mimics that of a typical diagnostic mirror. Often deposition was observed immediately following the discharge suggesting that diagnostic shutters should be closed as soon as possible after the time period of interest. Material loss was observed following a few discharges. A novel diagnostic to detect surface particles on remote surfaces was commissioned on NSTX

  4. Neuregulin: First Steps Towards a Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, D. S.; Malone, C. C.; Karr, L. J.

    2003-01-01

    Neuregulins are growth factor domain proteins with diverse bioactivities, such as cell proliferation, receptor binding, and differentiation. Neureguh- 1 binds to two members of the ErbB class I tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB3 and ErbB4. A number of human cancers overexpress the ErbB receptors, and neuregulin can modulate the growth of certain cancer types. Neuregulin-1 has been shown to promote the migration of invasive gliomas of the central nervous system. Neuregulin has also been implicated in schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis and abortive cardiac abnormalities. The full function of neuregulin-1 is not known. In this study we are inserting a cDNA clone obtained from American Type Culture Collection into E.coli expression vectors to express neuregulin- 1 protein. Metal chelate affinity chromatography is used for recombinant protein purification. Crystallization screening will proceed for X-ray diffraction studies following expression, optimization, and protein purification. In spite of medical and scholarly interest in the neuregulins, there are currently no high-resolution structures available for these proteins. Here we present the first steps toward attaining a high-resolution structure of neuregulin- 1, which will help enable us to better understand its function

  5. Uncertainty Principles on Two Step Nilpotent Lie Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We extend an uncertainty principle due to Cowling and Price to two step nilpotent Lie groups, which generalizes a classical theorem of Hardy. We also prove an analogue of Heisenberg inequality on two step nilpotent Lie groups.

  6. Uncertainty principles on two step nilpotent Lie groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We extend an uncertainty principle due to Cowling and Price to two step nilpotent Lie groups, which generalizes a classical theorem of Hardy. We also prove an analogue of Heisenberg inequality on two step nilpotent Lie groups.

  7. First Steps in Using REBT in Life Coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2011-01-01

    This step-by-step guide shows the Life Coach how to help coachees deal with any emotional problems that might prevent them from achieving their life goals, using the theory and practice of REBT adapted to a coaching setting.

  8. Stable pair invariants of surfaces and Seiberg-Witten invariants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.

    2016-01-01

    The moduli space of stable pairs on a local surface X = KS is in general non-compact. The action of C ∗ on the fibres of X induces an action on the moduli space and the stable pair invariants of X are defined by the virtual localization formula. We study the contribution to these invariants of

  9. Stable isotope methodology and its application to nutrition and gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; Hachey, D.L.; Wong, W.W.; Abrams, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the Stable Isotope Laboratory in its function as a core resource facility for stable isotope applications in human nutrition research. Three aspects are covered: Training of visitors, assessment of new instrumentation, and development of new methodology. The research achievements of the laboratory are indicated in the publications that appeared during this period. (author). 23 refs

  10. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei J; Zhang, Qing-He; Taylor, David B; Friesen, Kristina A

    2016-09-01

    Stable flies are considered to be one of the major blood-feeding pests in the US livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is expensive. Here, we report on the development of a less expensive and more efficacious trap based upon a white panel with the option to add visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. White panel traps caught twice as many stable flies than Alsynite traps. Baiting the traps with synthetic manure volatiles increased catches 2-3-fold. Electroretinographic recordings of stable flies showed strong peaks of visual sensitivities occurring at 330-360 nm, 460-525 nm and 605-635 nm. A laboratory study indicated that young stable flies are more responsive to white, whereas gravid females prefer blue; in the field, white traps caught more stable flies than patterned or blue-black traps. Stable fly control can be enhanced by developing more efficient trapping systems with added visual and olfactory stimuli. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Stability of Picard Bundle Over Moduli Space of Stable Vector ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.

  12. Stable isotope geochemistry. 3. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefs, J.

    1987-01-01

    Stable Isotope Geochemistry is an authoritative book comprising theoretical and experimental principles; surveying important fractionation mechanisms affecting the most important elements; discussing the natural variations of geologically important reservoirs. This updated 3rd edition, with a completely rewritten and extended main part, contains two new chapters on stable isotope composition of mantle material and on changes of the ocean during the geological past. (orig.)

  13. Exploring Scintillometry in the Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogensis, O.K.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate observation methods of heat and momentum exchange and key variables that characterise turbulence in the atmospheric stable surface layer (SSL), a layer defined as the lower part of the stable boundary layer (SBL) where surface fluxes do not change

  14. DFT computations of the lattice constant, stable atomic structure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the most stable atomic structure and lattice constant of Fullerenes (C60). FHI-aims DFT code was used to predict the stable structure and the computational lattice constant of C60. These were compared with known experimental structures and lattice constants of C60. The results obtained showed that ...

  15. Saturate hydraulic conductivity, water stable aggregates and soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saturate hydraulic conductivity, water stable aggregates and soil organic matter in a sandy-loam soil in Ikwuano lga of Abia state. ... carbon content of the soil. . Keywords: Toposequence, Water stable aggregates, Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Organic carbon, Slope position. Agro-Science Vol. 4 (1) 2005: pp. 34-37.

  16. Optimization for getting stable plasma initiation in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Ryuji; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Abe, T.

    1988-06-01

    This paper analyses the plasma current build-up just after the breakdown, and investigates the method for obtaining more stable plasma initiation with reduced Volt-second consumption. Control of the amount of particles contained in the wall is necessary for getting the optimum plasma density just after the breakdown, and is essential for obtaining the stable current build-up. (author)

  17. Improved Atmospheric Stable Boundary Layer Formulations for Navy Seasonal Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Long-term goals are to develop methods, descriptions and parameterizations that will alleviate long-standing problems in basically all large-scale numerical atmospheric models in dealing with statically stable and/or very stable conditions, and to implement these for Navy extended forecasting

  18. Fitted-Stable Finite Difference Method for Singularly Perturbed Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fitted-stable central difference method is presented for solving singularly perturbed two point boundary value problems with the boundary layer at one end (left or right) of the interval. A fitting factor is introduced in second order stable central difference scheme (SCD Method) and its value is obtained using the theory of ...

  19. Stable isotope methods in biological and ecological studies of arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hood-Nowotny, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This is an eclectic review and analysis of contemporary and promising stable isotope methodologies to study the biology and ecology of arthropods. It is augmented with literature from other disciplines, indicative of the potential for knowledge transfer. It is demonstrated that stable isotopes can

  20. Formulation of stable protein powders by supercritical fluid drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanović, N.

    2007-01-01

    Protein pharmaceuticals are potent drugs for the treatment of several chronic and life-threatening diseases. However, the complex and sensitive nature of protein molecules requires special attention in the development of stable dosage forms. Developing stable aqueous protein formulations is often a

  1. Enhanced trapping of stable flies via olfactory and visual cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult stable flies are highly attracted to the so-called Alsynite cylinder trap; however this trap is expensive. Here we report the development of a cheaper and better white panel trap with options of adding visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. The white panel trap attracte...

  2. Testing sequential extraction methods for the analysis of multiple stable isotope systems from a bone sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlstedt, Elina; Arppe, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotope composition of bones, analysed either from the mineral phase (hydroxyapatite) or from the organic phase (mainly collagen) carry important climatological and ecological information and are therefore widely used in paleontological and archaeological research. For the analysis of the stable isotope compositions, both of the phases, hydroxyapatite and collagen, have their more or less well established separation and analytical techniques. Recent development in IRMS and wet chemical extraction methods have facilitated the analysis of very small bone fractions (500 μg or less starting material) for PO43-O isotope composition. However, the uniqueness and (pre-) historical value of each archaeological and paleontological finding lead to preciously little material available for stable isotope analyses, encouraging further development of microanalytical methods for the use of stable isotope analyses. Here we present the first results in developing extraction methods for combining collagen C- and N-isotope analyses to PO43-O-isotope analyses from a single bone sample fraction. We tested sequential extraction starting with dilute acid demineralization and collection of both collagen and PO43-fractions, followed by further purification step by H2O2 (PO43-fraction). First results show that bone sample separates as small as 2 mg may be analysed for their δ15N, δ13C and δ18OPO4 values. The method may be incorporated in detailed investigation of sequentially developing skeletal material such as teeth, potentially allowing for the investigation of interannual variability in climatological/environmental signals or investigation of the early life history of an individual.

  3. A Four-Step Model for Teaching Selection Interviewing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Lawrence S.; Benek-Rivera, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The topic of selection interviewing lends itself well to experience-based teaching methods. Instructors often teach this topic by using a two-step process. The first step consists of lecturing students on the basic principles of effective interviewing. During the second step, students apply these principles by role-playing mock interviews with…

  4. Modelling Flow over Stepped Spillway with Varying Chute Geometry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has modeled some characteristics of the flows over stepped spillway with varying chute geometry through a laboratory investigation. Using six physically built stepped spillway models, with each having six horizontal plain steps at 4cm constant height, 30 cm width and respective chute slope angles at 310, 320, ...

  5. Diffeomorphic image registration with automatic time-step adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Klein, S.; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated Euler's time-step adjustment scheme for diffeomorphic image registration using stationary velocity fields (SVFs). The proposed variational problem aims at bounding the inverse consistency error by adaptively adjusting the number of Euler's step required to r...... accuracy as a fixed time-step scheme however at a much less computational cost....

  6. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the Regional...

  7. Thermal fatigue in mixing tees: A step by step simplified procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Following the CIVAUX 1 incident of a leak on RHR system, EDF has developed a step by step procedure to screen and analyse similar locations: mixing tees with long duration at high ΔT between the 2 fluids. The paper present the procedure, the background of the methodology and few R and D work that support this procedure. The procedure is based on: screening criteria on maximum DT and minimum duration. screening criteria without any duration consideration, only DT and material. a simplified and conservative estimation of a usage factor. a detailed analysis of usage factor and crack growth rate, based on specific data collection of operating transients. Around that procedure EDF launched an R and D program on fatigue curves and fatigue reduction factors for high cycle fatigue. The procedure is compared with field experience and recent R and D fatigue tests. (author)

  8. A step-by-step plan to manage and measure adding value by FM/CREM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Jensen, Per Anker; Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard

    2016-01-01

    and models including the triplet input-throughput-output, a distinction between output, outcome and added value, the Plan-Do-Act-Check cycle, change management and performance measurement. Design/methodology/approach Literature review and a cross-chapter analysis of a forthcoming book, where authors from...... different European countries present a state of the art of theory and research on 12 value parameters, how to manage and measure each value, and to discuss the costs and benefits of typical FM and CREM interventions to enhance satisfaction, image, culture, health and safety, productivity, adaptability......, innovation, risk, cost, value of assets, sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility. Findings The new Value Adding Management model follows the steps from the well- known Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle. The four steps are supported by various tools that were found in the literature or came to the fore...

  9. Computer aided virtual manufacturing using Creo parametric easy to learn step by step guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kanife, Paul Obiora

    2016-01-01

    Providing a step-by-step guide for the implementation of virtual manufacturing using Creo Parametric software (formerly known as Pro-Engineer), this book creates an engaging and interactive learning experience for manufacturing engineering students. Featuring graphic illustrations of simulation processes and operations, and written in accessible English to promote user-friendliness, the book covers key topics in the field including: the engraving machining process, face milling, profile milling, surface milling, volume rough milling, expert machining, electric discharge machining (EDM), and area turning using the lathe machining process. Maximising reader insights into how to simulate material removal processes, and how to generate cutter location data and G-codes data, this valuable resource equips undergraduate, postgraduate, BTech and HND students in the fields of manufacturing engineering, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) with transferable skills and knowledge. This book is...

  10. Constructing an exposure chart: step by step (based on standard procedures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jocelyn L; Cansino, Percedita T.; Taguibao, Angileo P.

    2000-01-01

    An exposure chart is very important in conducting radiographic inspection of materials. By using an accurate exposure chart, an inspector is able to avoid a trial and error way of determining correct time to expose a specimen, thereby producing a radiograph that has an acceptable density based on a standard. The chart gives the following information: x-ray machine model and brand, distance of the x-ray tube from the film, type and thickness of intensifying screens, film type, radiograph density, and film processing conditions. The methods of preparing an exposure chart are available in existing radiographic testing manuals. These described methods are presented in step by step procedures, covering the actual laboratory set-up, data gathering, computations, and transformation of derived data into Characteristic Curve and Exposure Chart

  11. Relationship education for stepcouples reporting relationship instability--evaluation of the Smart Steps: Embrace the Journey curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Harcourt, Kate Taylor; Gregson, Kimberly D

    2014-10-01

    Smart Steps: Embrace the Journey is a research-based educational curriculum for stepfamily couples ("stepcouples"). The curriculum is designed to build couple strengths while addressing the unique challenges of repartnering with a child or children from a previous relationship. This study evaluated the effectiveness of this curriculum with 151 individuals in relationally less stable stepcouple relationships who either engaged in the Smart Steps curriculum (n = 97) or were part of the comparison group (n = 54). This study represents methodological and conceptual advances in the study of stepfamily programs with the use of a comparison group, a racially and economically diverse sample, and a relationally at-risk population. Results indicated that those who participated in Smart Steps reported significant increases in individual empowerment, couple quality, family harmony, and parenting efficacy while these measures were unchanged for those who did not receive the program. Implications for future research and for practitioners are provided. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. Step-type thermoacoustic system saturated with water vapor: Study for stabilization of low-temperature driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaminami, Sho; Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Fukuda, Seiya; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2017-07-01

    To lower the oscillation temperature of a thermoacoustic system, a method of supplying water vapor into a tube was previously presented. However, this method has a problem, that is, the oscillation becomes unstable. In this study, to resolve the instability of the oscillation due to the use of water vapor, the system supplied with water vapor is replaced with a step-type one. The step-type system using water vapor oscillated at a temperature lower than that of the straight-tube-type system by 170 K in air at atmospheric pressure, and it is expected that the sound wave output of the step-type system can be as much as 6.53 times that of the straight-tube-type system. It was confirmed that, by using this system, a high-power-output thermoacoustic system and a stable low-temperature driving can be realized.

  13. Twin-assisted growth of nominally stable substrates underneath dewetted Au nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; Xie, Dong Yue [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Majdi, Tahereh [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhu, Guo-zhen, E-mail: zhugz@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-03-15

    By applying a simple and inexpensive thermal treatment, we synthesized supported gold-oxide nanostructures, which have potential applications to plasmonic devices and biosensors. The regrowth of nominally stable substrates under gold nanoparticles is associated with the appearance of preferential orientations of dewetted nanoparticles and the formation of atomically sharp interfacial monolayers. Steps present at the interfacial monolayer usually occur at defects including the intersection points of twin planes at the interface. They were related to the nucleation and immigration of the interfacial monolayers, prompting the substrate regrowth. Accordingly, we proposed the twin-assisted growth mechanism, which provides insight on the synthesis of gold-oxide nanostructures. - Highlights: • The twin-assisted growth mechanism is proposed for the abnormal regrowth of substrate underneath Au nanoparticles. • The substrate regrowth is related to the steps and ledges that are present at the Au–MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} interfacial monolayers. • Interfacial steps are detected at defects such as the intersecting points of twin planes at the interface.

  14. Twin-assisted growth of nominally stable substrates underneath dewetted Au nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fang; Xie, Dong Yue; Majdi, Tahereh; Zhu, Guo-zhen

    2016-01-01

    By applying a simple and inexpensive thermal treatment, we synthesized supported gold-oxide nanostructures, which have potential applications to plasmonic devices and biosensors. The regrowth of nominally stable substrates under gold nanoparticles is associated with the appearance of preferential orientations of dewetted nanoparticles and the formation of atomically sharp interfacial monolayers. Steps present at the interfacial monolayer usually occur at defects including the intersection points of twin planes at the interface. They were related to the nucleation and immigration of the interfacial monolayers, prompting the substrate regrowth. Accordingly, we proposed the twin-assisted growth mechanism, which provides insight on the synthesis of gold-oxide nanostructures. - Highlights: • The twin-assisted growth mechanism is proposed for the abnormal regrowth of substrate underneath Au nanoparticles. • The substrate regrowth is related to the steps and ledges that are present at the Au–MgAl 2 O 4 interfacial monolayers. • Interfacial steps are detected at defects such as the intersecting points of twin planes at the interface.

  15. The magnesium chelation step in chlorophyll biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.

    1990-11-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the biogenesis of energy transducing membranes requires the coordinate synthesis of prosthetic groups, proteins, and various lipids. Two of the major prosthetic groups, chlorophyll and heme, share a common biosynthetic pathway that diverges at the point of metal insertion into protoporphyrin IX (Proto). Insertion of iron leads to the formation of hemes, while insertion of magnesium is the first step unique to chlorophyll formation. This project is directed toward identifying the enzyme(s) responsible for magnesium chelation and elucidating the mechanism which regulates the flux of precursors through the branch point enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Using intact chloroplasts from greening cucumber cotyledons, we have confirmed the ATP requirement for Mg-Proto formation. Use of non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs, uncouplers and ionophores has led to the conclusions that ATP hydrolysis is necessary, but that this hydrolysis is not linked to the requirement for membrane intactness by transmembrane ion gradients or electrical potentials. The enzyme(s) are flexible with respect to the porphyrin substrate specificity, accepting porphyrins with -vinyl, -ethyl, or -H substituents at the 2 and 4 positions. The activity increases approximately four-fold during greening. Possible physiological feedback inhibitors such as heme, protochlorophyllide, and chlorophyllide had no specific effect on the activity. The activity has now been assayed in barely, corn and peas, with the system from peas almost ten-fold more active than the cucumber system. Work is continuing in pea chloroplasts with the development of a continuous assay and investigation of the feasibility of characterizing an active, organelle-free preparation. 6 figs.

  16. Interstellar Probe: First Step to the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    a robotic craft can be built, and could be built and launched soon - to enable our first deliberate step to the stars.

  17. Fitting three-level meta-analytic models in R: A step-by-step tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assink, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying a multilevel approach to meta-analysis is a strong method for dealing with dependency of effect sizes. However, this method is relatively unknown among researchers and, to date, has not been widely used in meta-analytic research. Therefore, the purpose of this tutorial was to show how a three-level random effects model can be applied to meta-analytic models in R using the rma.mv function of the metafor package. This application is illustrated by taking the reader through a step-by-step guide to the multilevel analyses comprising the steps of (1 organizing a data file; (2 setting up the R environment; (3 calculating an overall effect; (4 examining heterogeneity of within-study variance and between-study variance; (5 performing categorical and continuous moderator analyses; and (6 examining a multiple moderator model. By example, the authors demonstrate how the multilevel approach can be applied to meta-analytically examining the association between mental health disorders of juveniles and juvenile offender recidivism. In our opinion, the rma.mv function of the metafor package provides an easy and flexible way of applying a multi-level structure to meta-analytic models in R. Further, the multilevel meta-analytic models can be easily extended so that the potential moderating influence of variables can be examined.

  18. A Step-by-Step Framework on Discrete Events Simulation in Emergency Department; A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahsa; Moftian, Nazila; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman; Samad-Soltani, Taha

    2017-04-01

    To systematically review the current literature of simulation in healthcare including the structured steps in the emergency healthcare sector by proposing a framework for simulation in the emergency department. For the purpose of collecting the data, PubMed and ACM databases were used between the years 2003 and 2013. The inclusion criteria were to select English-written articles available in full text with the closest objectives from among a total of 54 articles retrieved from the databases. Subsequently, 11 articles were selected for further analysis. The studies focused on the reduction of waiting time and patient stay, optimization of resources allocation, creation of crisis and maximum demand scenarios, identification of overcrowding bottlenecks, investigation of the impact of other systems on the existing system, and improvement of the system operations and functions. Subsequently, 10 simulation steps were derived from the relevant studies after an expert's evaluation. The 10-steps approach proposed on the basis of the selected studies provides simulation and planning specialists with a structured method for both analyzing problems and choosing best-case scenarios. Moreover, following this framework systematically enables the development of design processes as well as software implementation of simulation problems.

  19. Stable isotopes for improving human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uauy, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    recent FAO review of nutrition programs in 19 Latin American countries found that over 20 percent of the population - approximately 83 million people out of an estimated 414 million in the study countries - receives some level of benefits in nutrition-related programs. The allocation of limited national and international assistance resources for these activities in the region is on the order of several billion dollars annually. Undoubtedly these programs are influencing child growth. Significant reductions in underweight and wasting have occurred; but stunting has been more resistant to change. In this setting providing food supplements may be beneficial for some while it may be detrimental for others. The definition of who should benefit from the programs and what is the right combination of nutrients/foods, education, and lifestyle interventions that is required to optimise nutrition and health at each stage of the life cycle is a truly complex problem. This demands the use of the best scientific tools to define who should benefit, what should done and measured as an outcome, how programs should be evaluated, when programs should be expanded, and when they should be stopped. Isotopic and nuclear techniques are tools, not solutions. This presentation will serve to demonstrate how isotopes can contribute to refining nutrition interventions and their impact on public health. Isotopic methods can shorten the time needed to evaluate impact, because they provide sensitive measurements of biological effects. They are faster than traditional methods such as anthropometry for detecting changes in growth and body composition. Micronutrient malnutrition, and especially the bioavailability of vitamins and minerals from traditional foods, are not well evaluated using routine biochemical methods. Radioisotopes have been used successfully in the past. But recent developments in stable isotope techniques offer unique advantages for the design and evaluation of programmes that address

  20. Single-step digital backpropagation for nonlinearity mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secondini, Marco; Rommel, Simon; Meloni, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinearity mitigation based on the enhanced split-step Fourier method (ESSFM) for the implementation of low-complexity digital backpropagation (DBP) is investigated and experimentally demonstrated. After reviewing the main computational aspects of DBP and of the conventional split-step Fourier...... is experimentally demonstrated by using a single-step DBP based on the ESSFM. The proposed DBP implementation requires only a single step of the ESSFM algorithm to achieve a transmission distance of 3200 km over a dispersion-unmanaged link. In comparison, a conventional DBP implementation requires 20 steps...

  1. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  2. Pelvic step: The contribution of horizontal pelvis rotation to step length in young healthy adults walking on a treadmill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, B.W.; Wu, W.H.; Meijer, O.G.; Lin, J.H.; Lv, G.R.; Lin, X.C.; Prins, M.R.; Hu, H.; van Dieen, J.H.; Bruijn, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Transverse plane pelvis rotations during walking may be regarded as the "first determinant of gait". This would assume that pelvis rotations increase step length, and thereby reduce the vertical movements of the centre of mass-"the pelvic step". We analysed the pelvic step using 20 healthy young

  3. The use of stable isotopes in drug metabolism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, F P

    2001-06-01

    Although there is a long history of stable isotopes use in drug metabolism research, it is appropriate to evaluate them in pregnancy drug studies in which safety takes highest priority. It is well established through a number of human and animal experiments that stable isotopes themselves rarely generate additional toxicities beyond the molecules to which they are attached. For the analysis of stable isotopes involved in metabolism studies, mass spectrometry plays the predominant role. Several mass spectrometry-based techniques now exist that enable the selective quantitative detection of stable isotopes with better sensitivity and better retention of chromatographic resolution than do in-line radioactivity monitors for 14C. Even mass balance studies can be performed by using stable isotopes, a type of experiment that still predominantly uses radioisotopes. Some of the newest developments in the use of stable isotopes involve biopolymers, in which fully isotope-labeled species can be generated from cells grown in isotopically labeled growth media. Having shown safety, sensitivity, specificity, and versatility, stable isotopes should play an important role in drug metabolism studies in pregnancy.

  4. Self Blocking of CO Dissociation on a Stepped Ruthenium Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm; Johansson, Martin; Mowbray, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    reaction only occurs on the steps. Under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions CO dissociates on the step, the oxygen reacts with CO to form CO2 and the residual carbon blocks the step from further CO dissociation. This mechanism competes with the recombination of carbon and oxygen. At high CO pressures, we......The influence of steps on CO reactions has been studied on a Ru(0 1 (1) over bar 5 4) single crystal with a step density of 4%. Based on temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and oxygen titration experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we show that the CO dissociation...... find step blocking no longer dominates the CO dissociation reaction to the same extent and further carbon uptake is observed. This self-poisoning effect is discussed in relation to similar studies of Ni(14 13 13) where such effects were not observed. We find the apparent dissociation energy on the step...

  5. OSIRIS (the first step). A user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engberg, D.

    1999-01-01

    The OSIRIS Project will explore the instrumental horizons available with the cold neutrons from a pulsed source and especially the totally new avenues available to polarised neutrons on these sources. On pulsed sources, polarisation techniques offer great potential for high resolution studies, and only lack of opportunity has left the field unexploited. On OSIRIS, the fundamentally novel methods developed on IRIS will be combined with proven and extended neutron polarising techniques. The high flux available at ISIS, coupled to the advanced design of the OSIRIS guide, will provide the means to take this field to its next evolutionary stage. By exploiting the combination of sharp pulses, white beams and cold neutrons from ISIS, high resolution measurements, both dynamic and structural, can be carried out using both unpolarised and polarised neutrons. The OSIRIS Project is an international collaboration involving India, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The project has three well-defined phases; phase 1: Extraction of a second cold beam guide from the IRIS beam line; phase 2: large d-spacing powder diffraction, incident beam polarised powder diffraction; phase 3: high resolution spectroscopy, spectroscopy polarisation analysis, diffraction polarisation analysis. This is the user manual for the first step of the OSIRIS project, which means that phase 2 is now almost finished, i.e. we have a high resolution large d-spacing diffractometer, but the incident beam polarisation is as of yet only used for tests. You can find more information on the Osiris web-pages at . This document is also available in an html version at that address. This document is divided into five different parts. First, this short introduction, then what you need to think about before your arrive at ISIS, thereafter, the different parts of the instrument are described, together with some examples of sample environments. Fourthly, the actual running of an experiment is dealt

  6. Reaching Constructive Compromise: Steps, Tactics, and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of war and conflicts is as old as human history itself. Along with it always existed attempts to find ways and means to reconcile conflicting parties and reach peace. In today’s world, more than ever, where war and conflicts are everyday occurrence is imperative to find faster and reliable ways how to resolve conflicts. Reaching a constructive compromise is extremely difficult (very often even the implementation phase creates additional hitches as the parties involved pretend or believe that all of their demands for peace deal are rational and thus should be fulfilled. While one party may have expertise in negotiation process itself, the other may be unwittingly unprepared, and believing that honesty and fairness will result in impartial peace deal. This is, unfortunately, not always so. The aim of this paper, besides targeting these types of naïve perceptions, is to inspire others to be fully prepared prior entering negotiation process. The negotiation strategy, along with steps and tactics is the fundament of this research. History of negotiations teaches us that often the strong and more prepared side tends to win more than the weak and unprepared one in a negotiation process. Yet studying and exploring the approach to reach a constructive compromise is essential and conducive even if you happen to find yourself as the weaker party vis-à-vis a stronger opposing rival. The purpose of this study is to analyse the implications of negotiating strategies in the course of reaching the eventual constructive compromise. Throughout, this paper has endeavoured to answer numerous but distinct issues related to the topic and offer a balanced analysis on the arguments explored. The study also delves into some international conflicts (resolved and unresolved examining them in light of potential constructive compromise. Finally the study ends up by concluding that constructive compromise strategy that focuses, above all, on creativity

  7. Interstellar Probe: The Next Step To Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Ralph; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2016-07-01

    Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) has recently established a new Panel on Interstellar Research (PIR) to consider the next steps toward finally making a dedicated Interstellar Probe mission a reality. Crucial tasks are to build consensus amongst the international scientific community for the appropriate scientific campaigns and measurements to be carried out for such a mission, taking into account the new and continuing results from the outer solar system and beyond by VIM, IBEX, New Horizons, and exoplanet observations and studies.

  8. AB039. Pragmatic trial stepping down Flutiform® in patients maintained on high dose ICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppinen, Anu; Gardener, Elizabeth; Thomas, Vicky; Raju, Priyanka; Callan, Christina; McLoughlin, Andrew; Woodhead, Vanessa; Brady, Adam; Juniper, Elizabeth F.; Barnes, Peter; Usmani, Omar S.; Price, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines recommend a gradual step-down of asthma therapy if asthma has been well-controlled for at least 3 months. In real life, however, many well-controlled patients are prescribed high doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), and are therefore unnecessarily at risk of systemic side effects associated with long-term ICS use. To encourage and facilitate step-down in a clinical setting, further pragmatic studies are required to demonstrate that good control of asthma can be maintained with a lower dose of ICS in stable and controlled patients, and to explore potential predictors for response to step-down.To test if good control of asthma can be maintained in adult patients previously stable on Flutiform® 250 (250 mcg fluticasone/10 mcg formoterol) for 12 weeks, after step-down to Flutiform® 125 (250 mcg fluticasone/5 mcg formoterol). Methods This was the second phase of a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial in adult patients with asthma. Patients eligible for this phase had been on Flutiform® 250 for 12 weeks, had had no exacerbations during this period and were considered suitable for step-down by their GP. A total of 116 patients from 23 sites in the UK were randomised 1:1 to continue on Flutiform® 250 or to step down to Flutiform® 125. The primary outcome was asthma control assessed using the 7-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ7). Non-inferiority limit on the ACQ7 was set at 0.3. Patients were eligible for the non-inferiority analysis if they stayed on the randomised treatment for at least 8 weeks and did not change treatment before outcome visit. Secondary outcomes included forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) % predicted, the Mini-Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini-AQLQ), asthma control (according to GINA) and absence of exacerbations during outcome period. Analyses of secondary outcomes included all randomised patients [Full Analysis Set (FAS

  9. Preparation for Compensatory Forward Stepping in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laurie A.; St George, Rebecca J.; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Nutt, John G.; Horak, Fay B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize preparation for compensatory stepping in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared with healthy control subjects, and to determine whether levodopa medication improves preparation or the execution phases of the step. Design Observational study. Setting Outpatient neuroscience laboratory. Participants Nineteen participants with idiopathic PD tested both in the on and off levodopa states and 17 healthy subjects. Intervention Moveable platform with posterior translations of 24cm at 56cm/s. Main Outcome Measures Compensatory steps forward, in response to a backward surface translation (24cm amplitude at 56cm/s), were categorized according to the presence of an anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) before stepping: no APA, single APA, or multiple APAs. The following step parameters were calculated: step latency, step length, center of mass (CoM) average velocity, and CoM displacement at the step initiation. Results Lateral APAs were evident in 57% and 42% of trials for people with PD in the off and on medication states, respectively, compared with only 10% of trials for control subjects. Compared with subjects with PD who did not have APAs, those subjects with PD who did make an APA prior to stepping had significantly later (mean ± SEM, 356 ± 16ms vs 305 ± 8ms) and shorter (mean ± SEM, 251 ± 27mm vs 300 ± 16mm) steps, their CoM was significantly farther forward (185 ± 7mm vs 171 ± 5mm) at foot-off, and they took significantly more steps to regain equilibrium. Levodopa did not affect the preparation or execution phase of compensatory stepping. Poor axial scores and reports of freezing in the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale were associated with use of 1 or more APAs before compensatory stepping. Conclusions Lateral postural preparation prior to compensatory stepping in subjects with PD was associated with inefficient balance recovery from external perturbations. PMID:20801249

  10. Fabrication and characterization of stable superhydrophobic surface with good friction-reducing performance on Al foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peipei [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Chen, Xinhua, E-mail: xuc0374@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Pingyu, E-mail: pingyu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure was successfully created on Al foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method. As-obtained etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface contains interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets that endow the surface with excellent superhydrophobicity (WCA: 164.2°; WSA: below 5°). Besides, the as-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA superhydrophobic surface on Al foil exhibits good friction-reducing ability and stable superhydrophobicity. - Highlights: • A stable superhydrophobic surface was created on aluminum foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method. • A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure consists of interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets has been constructed on the aluminum surface. • The superhydrophobic surfaces on aluminum substrate showing effective friction-reducing performance and self-cleaning ability. - Abstract: A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure with superhydrophobicity was created on Al foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method involving etching in hydrochloric acid solution and immersing in hot water as well as surface-modification by stearic acid (denoted as STA). As-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Moreover, the water contact angles and water sliding angles of as-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface were measured, and the friction-reducing performance and self-cleaning ability of the as-prepared surface were also evaluated. Results indicate that the etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface consists of interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets. Besides, it exhibits stable superhydrophobicity and good friction-reducing ability. Namely, it has a contact angle of water as high as 164.2° and a water sliding

  11. A New Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Exponential Function Adaptive Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Li, Hao-ru

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most recent popular swarm intelligence techniques, artificial bee colony algorithm is poor at exploitation and has some defects such as slow search speed, poor population diversity, the stagnation in the working process, and being trapped into the local optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new modified artificial bee colony algorithm in view of the initial population structure, subpopulation groups, step updating, and population elimination. Further, depending on opposition-based learning theory and the new modified algorithms, an improved S-type grouping method is proposed and the original way of roulette wheel selection is substituted through sensitivity-pheromone way. Then, an adaptive step with exponential functions is designed for replacing the original random step. Finally, based on the new test function versions CEC13, six benchmark functions with the dimensions D = 20 and D = 40 are chosen and applied in the experiments for analyzing and comparing the iteration speed and accuracy of the new modified algorithms. The experimental results show that the new modified algorithm has faster and more stable searching and can quickly increase poor population diversity and bring out the global optimal solutions. PMID:27293426

  12. A New Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Exponential Function Adaptive Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Lan, Heng-You; Li, Hao-Ru

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most recent popular swarm intelligence techniques, artificial bee colony algorithm is poor at exploitation and has some defects such as slow search speed, poor population diversity, the stagnation in the working process, and being trapped into the local optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new modified artificial bee colony algorithm in view of the initial population structure, subpopulation groups, step updating, and population elimination. Further, depending on opposition-based learning theory and the new modified algorithms, an improved S-type grouping method is proposed and the original way of roulette wheel selection is substituted through sensitivity-pheromone way. Then, an adaptive step with exponential functions is designed for replacing the original random step. Finally, based on the new test function versions CEC13, six benchmark functions with the dimensions D = 20 and D = 40 are chosen and applied in the experiments for analyzing and comparing the iteration speed and accuracy of the new modified algorithms. The experimental results show that the new modified algorithm has faster and more stable searching and can quickly increase poor population diversity and bring out the global optimal solutions.

  13. A New Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Exponential Function Adaptive Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most recent popular swarm intelligence techniques, artificial bee colony algorithm is poor at exploitation and has some defects such as slow search speed, poor population diversity, the stagnation in the working process, and being trapped into the local optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new modified artificial bee colony algorithm in view of the initial population structure, subpopulation groups, step updating, and population elimination. Further, depending on opposition-based learning theory and the new modified algorithms, an improved S-type grouping method is proposed and the original way of roulette wheel selection is substituted through sensitivity-pheromone way. Then, an adaptive step with exponential functions is designed for replacing the original random step. Finally, based on the new test function versions CEC13, six benchmark functions with the dimensions D=20 and D=40 are chosen and applied in the experiments for analyzing and comparing the iteration speed and accuracy of the new modified algorithms. The experimental results show that the new modified algorithm has faster and more stable searching and can quickly increase poor population diversity and bring out the global optimal solutions.

  14. A Model Describing Stable Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission

  15. A model describing stable coherent synchrotron radiation in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Byrd, J.M.; Loftsdottir, A.; Venturini, M.; Abo-Bakr, M.; Feikes, J.; Holldack, K.; Kuske, P.; Wuestefeld, G.; Huebers, H.-W.; Warnock, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission

  16. Stable black phosphorus quantum dots for alkali PH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weilan; Song, Haizeng; Yan, Shancheng

    2018-01-01

    Black phosphorus, as a new two-dimensional material has been widely used in sensors, photovoltaic devices, etc. However, thin layered black phosphorus chemically degrades rapidly under ambient and aqueous conditions, which hinders the application of it in the chemical sensors. In this work, stable black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) in solution are successfully synthesized by functionalization with 4-nitrobenzene-diazonium (4-NBD). The stable BPQDs are investigated by TEM, AFM, Raman, and UV-absorption. As a potential application, the stable BPQDs are used as sensors in alkali solution, which exhibit outstanding performance. Our work paves the way towards a new application with BPQDs in solution.

  17. Use of stable isotopes in human nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, the Laboratory of Nutrition of the Department of Animal Biology of the Faculty of Science and Technology of UCAD has been using stable isotopic techniques for nearly twenty years. Stable isotopes were applied to different target populations to measure milk production, exclusive breastfeeding, body composition, micronutrient bioavailability and total energy expenditure.The application of stable isotopic techniques in nutrition has contributed to advocacy for exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6 months in Senegal. It enabled government decision-makers to obtain essential information on the quality of foods needed for optimal effect during pregnancy and for infant growth and the results were reflected in the national policy on micronutrient supplementation.

  18. High-Order Entropy Stable Formulations for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented for developing entropy stable (SS) formulations of any order for the Navier-Stokes equations. These SS formulations discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows provided sufficient dissipation is added at shocks and discontinuities. Entropy stable formulations exist for all diagonal norm, summation-by-parts (SBP) operators, including all centered finite-difference operators, Legendre collocation finite-element operators, and certain finite-volume operators. Examples are presented using various entropy stable formulations that demonstrate the current state-of-the-art of these schemes.

  19. Stable emulsions in extraction systems containing zirconium and silicic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinegribova, O.A.; Chizhevskaya, S.V.; Kotenko, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of zirconium nitrate compound nature and silicic acid on the rate of emulsions stratification in extraction systems depending on the components concentration, solution acidity, its past history, is studied. It is stated that stable multinuclear zirconium compounds have an influence on formation of stable emulsions in systems containing silicic acid. On the basis of results of chemical analysis and properties of interphase precipitates, being part of stable emulsion, suppositions on mechanism of interaction of zirconium nitrate compounds with silicic acid β-form are made

  20. What can Fe stable isotopes tell us about magmas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausberg, Niklas

    The majority of the Earth’s crust is formed by magmas, and understanding their production and differentiation is important to interpret the geologic rock record. A powerful tool to investigate magmatic processes is the distribution of the stable isotopes of the major redox-sensitive element...... the differentiation of magmas from the perspective of Fe stable isotopes, integrated with petrology, by studying igneous rocks and their constituent phases (minerals and glasses) from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, Thingmuli, Iceland, Pantelleria, Italy, and the Bishop Tuff, USA. The findings are interpreted...... and for more quantitative model of the magmatic processes producing enigmatic stable isotope compositions of rhyolitic and granite magmas....