WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable electrical behavior

  1. The role of nuclear power in securing stable electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. K.; Mun, K. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Market liberalization has an influence on the investment environment. According to the option value analysis, uncertainty in investment decision tends to make small sized power plant more favourable because of its short lead time in construction and of low capital investment. These small sized power plants are largely using fossil fuel under current generation technology. If Korean electric system becomes dependent heavily on fossil fuel fired power plant, stable supply of fossil fuel will be very essential to secure stable electricity supply. Taking into consideration these circumstances, the introduction of additional nuclear power plant is needed, because its fuel cost is small comparing other power options. Therefore, it is required that nuclear sector remain public company as reflected in the current liberalization plan of Korean Electric Power Corporation

  2. Electricity curtailment behaviors in Greek households: Different behaviors, different predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; Malesios, Chrisovaladis; Poulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the self-reported energy (electricity) curtailment behaviors of Greek households (N=285). • We find that the curtailment behaviors are distinct and should be studied/analyzed separately. • ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ are statistically significant predictors of most behaviors. • The demographic/structural and the psychological predictors contribute significantly explain the variance of the behaviors. • The cluster of moral predictors does not contribute statistically significantly to the explained variance. - Abstract: This paper argues that electricity ‘curtailment’ behaviors (i.e. frequent and/or low cost or free energy saving behaviors) in households are distinct from one another and they thus should be analyzed and promoted. We test this claim with data from telephone interviews with Greek households in the capital city of Athens (N=285), analyzing the impact of a number of demographical/structural, psychological (based on the Theory of Planned Behavior) and moral (based on norms’ activation) predictors though hierarchical binary logistic regression modeling. We find that that each electricity curtailment behavior depends on a different mix of predictors with ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ being statistically significant for most behaviors. Overall, the psychological and the demographical/structural clusters of variables substantially contribute to the explained variance of electricity curtailment behaviors. The moral cluster's contribution is not statistically significant since moral concerns are largely interwoven in the psychological constructs

  3. Copper stable isotopes to trace copper behavior in wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Granet, Mathieu; Chabaux, François

    2014-05-20

    Wetlands are reactive zones of the landscape that can sequester metals released by industrial and agricultural activities. Copper (Cu) stable isotope ratios (δ(65)Cu) have recently been used as tracers of transport and transformation processes in polluted environments. Here, we used Cu stable isotopes to trace the behavior of Cu in a stormwater wetland receiving runoff from a vineyard catchment (Alsace, France). The Cu loads and stable isotope ratios were determined in the dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter (SPM), wetland sediments, and vegetation. The wetland retained >68% of the dissolved Cu and >92% of the SPM-bound Cu, which represented 84.4% of the total Cu in the runoff. The dissolved Cu became depleted in (65)Cu when passing through the wetland (Δ(65)Cuinlet-outlet from 0.03‰ to 0.77‰), which reflects Cu adsorption to aluminum minerals and organic matter. The δ(65)Cu values varied little in the wetland sediments (0.04 ± 0.10‰), which stored >96% of the total Cu mass within the wetland. During high-flow conditions, the Cu flowing out of the wetland became isotopically lighter, indicating the mobilization of reduced Cu(I) species from the sediments and Cu reduction within the sediments. Our results demonstrate that the Cu stable isotope ratios may help trace Cu behavior in redox-dynamic environments such as wetlands.

  4. Stable energy: the road ahead for electric cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Valogianni (Konstantina)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe adoption of electrically powered modes of transport continues apace. However, even in countries such as the Netherlands where a boom in the use of electric cars has been perceptible over the past four years, the problem remains the same – the high frequency of recharging is

  5. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  6. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in the Stable Nickel Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, Lee John

    A series of measurements of stable nickel isotopes were performed at the Australian National University in Canberra. Excited states in 58,60,62Ni were populated via inelastic scattering of proton beams delivered by the 14UD Pelletron accelerator. Multiple setups were used in order to determine the structure of low-lying states. The CAESAR array of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used to measure the (E2/M1) mixing ratio of transitions from angular distributions of gamma rays. The Super-e spectrometer was used to measure conversion coefficients for a number of J to J transitions. The data obtained from both devices was combined with previously measured parent lifetimes and branching ratios to determine E0 transition strengths between J-pi transitions. The E0 transition strength for the second 0+ to first 0+ transitions in 60,62Ni have been measured for the first time through internal conversion electron detection. The experimental value of 132(+59,-70) for 62Ni agrees within 2 sigma of the previous result obtained from internal pair formation. However it is likely that the previous experimental results used an outdated theoretical model for internal pair formation emission. This work also represents the first measurements of E0 transition strengths between 2+ states in Ni isotopes. There is generally large E0 strength between the 2+ states, particularly in the second 2+ to first 2+ transition, however there is also a large uncertainty in the measurements owing to the difficulties involved in measuring conversion coefficients. In 62Ni, the E0 transition strength of 172(+62,-77) for the second 2+ to first 2+ transition gives further weight to the argument against the spherical vibrator model, as an E0 transition is forbidden if there is a change of only one phonon. The large measurement also indicates the presence of shape coexistence, complementing the recent experimental work carried out in the neutron-rich Ni isotopes.

  7. Electrical failure behaviors of semiconductor oxide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Anmin; Liu, Jiabin; Dong, Cezhou; Wang, Hongtao

    2011-10-07

    Electrical failure studies on semiconductor oxide nanowires (NWs) were performed in situ inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). A high driven current leads to a sudden fracture of the SnO(2) NW and creates ultra-sharp and high aspect ratio tips at the broken ends, which provides a simple and reliable way for in situ nanoprobe fabrication. As a comparison, the TiO(2) NW fails due to Joule-heating-induced melting and retracts back into a nanosphere. The distinct behaviors are rooted in the different bonding nature. The strong ionic bonding between titanium and oxygen ions preserves the stoichiometry, while the covalently bonded SnO(2) NW decomposes before melting. The decomposition process is observed by resistively heating an SnO(2)/TiO(2) core-shell structure. It has been demonstrated that the needle-like geometry greatly enhanced field emission properties of SnO(2) NWs.

  8. Graphene/phase change material nanocomposites: light-driven, reversible electrical resistivity regulation via form-stable phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunming; Mi, Hongyi; Zheng, Qifeng; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-02-04

    Innovative photoresponsive materials are needed to address the complexity of optical control systems. Here, we report a new type of photoresponsive nanomaterial composed of graphene and a form-stable phase change material (PCM) that exhibited a 3 orders of magnitude change in electrical resistivity upon light illumination while retaining its overall original solid form at the macroscopic level. This dramatic change in electrical resistivity also occurred reversibly through the on/off control of light illumination. This was attributed to the reversible phase transition (i.e., melting/recrystallization) behavior of the microscopic crystalline domains present in the form-stable PCM. The reversible phase transition observed in the graphene/PCM nanocomposite was induced by a reversible temperature change through the on/off control of light illumination because graphene can effectively absorb light energy and convert it to thermal energy. In addition, this graphene/PCM nanocomposite also possessed excellent mechanical properties. Such photoresponsive materials have many potential applications, including flexible electronics.

  9. Hydrogen-incorporated ZnO nanowire films: stable and high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Ajay; Aslam, M.

    2013-12-01

    Post-growth hydrogen annealing treatment of highly oriented ZnO nanowire (NW) films (ZnO : H) results in high electrical conductivity (3.7 × 103 S m-1) and fully suppressed defect emission at room temperature. The formation of hydrogen-related vacancy complexes is responsible for the suppression of vacancies ( V_{o}^{+} and V_{o}^{2+} ), leading to a reduction in defect-based emission. ZnO : H NW films show five orders larger stable electrical conductance with a four-fold increment in carrier mobility (7-28 cm2 V-1 s-1). As compared with pristine NWs, the carrier concentration in ZnO : H NW films increases from 1015 to 1019 cm-3, which is in the range of commercial transparent conducting oxides. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses reveal stable OH bond formation, which strongly supports the prediction of H doping. These films offer a promising conducting oxide platform for photovoltaic applications.

  10. Switching behavior and novel stable states of magnetic hexagonal nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasir Rafique, M., E-mail: myasir.rafique@ciitlahore.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Pan, Liqing; Guo, Zhengang [College of Science and Research Institute for New Energy, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Micromagnetic simulations for Cobalt hexagonal shape nanorings show onion (O) and vortex state (V) along with new state named “tri-domain state”. The tri-domain state is observed in sufficiently large width of ring. The magnetic reversible mechanism and transition of states are explained with help of vector field display. The transitions from one state to other occur by propagation of domain wall. The vertical parts of hexagonal rings play important role in developing the new “tri-domain” state. The behaviors of switching fields from onion to tri-domain (HO-Tr), tri-domain to vortex state (HTr-V) and vortex to onion state and “states size” are discussed in term of geometrical parameter of ring.

  11. Numerical and experimental investigation on static electric charge model at stable cone-jet region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ali Reza; Pishevar, Ahmad Reza; Valipouri, Afsaneh; Pǎrǎu, Emilian I.

    2018-03-01

    In a typical electro-spinning process, the steady stretching process of the jet beyond the Taylor cone has a significant effect on the dimensions of resulting nanofibers. Also, it sets up the conditions for the onset of the bending instability. The focus of this work is the modeling and simulation of the initial stable jet phase seen during the electro-spinning process. The perturbation method was applied to solve hydrodynamic equations, and the electrostatic equation was solved by a boundary integral method. These equations were coupled with the stress boundary conditions derived appropriate at the fluid-fluid interface. Perturbation equations were discretized by the second-order finite difference method, and the Newton method was implemented to solve the discretized nonlinear system. Also, the boundary element method was utilized to solve the electrostatic equation. In the theoretical study, the fluid is described as a leaky dielectric with charges only on the jet surface in dielectric air. In this study, electric charges were modeled as static. Comparison of numerical and experimental results shows that at low flow rates and high electric field, good agreement was achieved because of the superior importance of the charge transport by conduction rather than convection and charge concentration. In addition, the effect of unevenness of the electric field around the nozzle tip was experimentally studied through plate-plate geometry as well as point-plate geometry.

  12. Galvanotactic behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis under electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dal Hyung; Kim, Paul Seung Soo; Kim, Min Jun; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Kim, JinSeok

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahymena pyriformis, a eukaryotic ciliate, swims toward a cathode in straight or cross-shaped microchannels under an applied electric field, a behavioral response called cathodal galvanotaxis. In straight channel experiments, a one-dimensional electric field was applied, and the galvanotactic swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis was observed and described in detail while the polarity of this field is switched. In most individual cases, the cell would immediately switch its direction toward the cathode; however, exceptional cases have been observed where cells exhibit a turning delay or do not turn after a polarity switch. In cross-channel experiments, feedback control using vision-based tracking was used to steer a cell in the microchannel intersection using a two-dimensional electric field generated by four electrodes placed at four ends of the cross channel. The motivation for this work is to study the swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis as a microrobot under the control of electric fields. (paper)

  13. Rheology behaviors of stable electrohydrodynamic direct-write jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Gaofeng; Xu, Lei; Wang, Han; Li, Wenwang

    2016-10-01

    Electrohydrodynamic direct-write (EDW) is a novel direct-write technology to fabricate micro/nano-structures from viscoelastic solution, which had displayed great application potential in organic electronic device. Due to the shorter spinneret to substrate distance, the rheology behaviors of EDW charged jet played an important role in defining the line width or diameter of the direct-written micro/nano-structures. High speed camera is utilized to observe the rheology process of EDW charged jet, and solidified jets are measured by SEM that offers a quantitative method to investigate the diameter evolution of jet. The diameter of charged jet and nanofiber injected from solid probe increase with the increasing of polymer solution concentration. Attribute to the larger diameter and higher solvent content, charged jet injected from hollow nozzle displayed greater fluid viscoelasticity, and then stretched into micro structure of flat film under the gravitation on the substrate. The diameter of charged jet and line width of thin film injected from nozzle decrease with the increasing of polymer concentration.

  14. Behavior and Convergence of Wasserstein Metric in the Framework of Stable Distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omelchenko, Vadym

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 30 (2012), s. 124-138 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Wasserstein Metric * Stable Distributions * Empirical Distribution Function Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/omelchenko-behavior and convergence of wasserstein metric in the framework of stable distributions.pdf

  15. Prospective Analysis of Behavioral Economic Predictors of Stable Moderation Drinking Among Problem Drinkers Attempting Natural Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Cheong, JeeWon; Chandler, Susan D; Lambert, Brice H; Pietrzak, Brittney; Kwok, Heather; Davies, Susan L

    2016-12-01

    As interventions have expanded beyond clinical treatment to include brief interventions for persons with less severe alcohol problems, predicting who can achieve stable moderation drinking has gained importance. Recent behavioral economic (BE) research on natural recovery has shown that active problem drinkers who allocate their monetary expenditures on alcohol and saving for the future over longer time horizons tend to have better subsequent recovery outcomes, including maintenance of stable moderation drinking. This study compared the predictive utility of this money-based "Alcohol-Savings Discretionary Expenditure" (ASDE) index with multiple BE analogue measures of behavioral impulsivity and self-control, which have seldom been investigated together, to predict outcomes of natural recovery attempts. Community-dwelling problem drinkers, enrolled shortly after stopping abusive drinking without treatment, were followed prospectively for up to a year (N = 175 [75.4% male], M age = 50.65 years). They completed baseline assessments of preresolution drinking practices and problems, analogue behavioral choice tasks (Delay Discounting, Melioration-Maximization, and Alcohol Purchase Tasks), and a Timeline Followback interview including expenditures on alcohol compared to voluntary savings (ASDE index) during the preresolution year. Multinomial logistic regression models showed that, among the BE measures, only the ASDE index predicted stable moderation drinking compared to stable abstinence or unstable resolutions involving relapse. As hypothesized, stable moderation was associated with more balanced preresolution allocations to drinking and savings (odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 3.08, p behavior regulation processes than abstinence. The ASDE's unique predictive utility may rest on its comprehensive representation of contextual elements to support this patterning of behavioral allocation. Stable low-risk drinking, but not abstinence

  16. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  17. A behavioral and cognitive profile of clinically stable HIV-infected children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozyce, ML; Lee, SS; Wiznia, A; Nachman, S; Mofenson, LM; Smith, ME; Yogev, R; McIntosh, K; Stanley, K; Pelton, S

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this research was to characterize behavioral and cognitive profiles of clinically and immunologically stable antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected children. METHODS. Two hundred seventy-four previously treated HIV-infected children aged 2 to 17 years were assessed for

  18. Comparative biogeochemical behaviors of iron-55 and stable iron in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Langford, J.C.; Jenkins, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of atmospheric aerosols have demonstrated that much of the 55 Fe associated with the aerosol input to the oceans is present as either an amorphous or hydrous iron oxide or as very small particulate species attached to the surfaces of the large aerosol particles. By comparison, nearly all of the stable iron is bound in the mineral phase of aerosol particles. This difference in the chemical and physical forms of the radioactive and stable iron isotopes results in the 55 Fe being more biologically available than is the stable iron. This difference in availability is responsible for the transfer of a much higher specific activity 55 Fe to certain ocean organisms and man relative to the specific activity of the total aerosol or of sea water. This differential biological uptake of the radioactive element and its stable element counterpart points out that natural levels of stable elements in the marine environment may not effectively dilute radioelements or other stable elements of anthropogenic sources. The effectiveness of dilution by natural sources depends on the chemical and physical forms of the materials in both the source terms and the receiving environments. The large difference in specific activities of 55 Fe in aerosols and sea water relative to ocean organisms reflects the independent behaviors of 55 Fe and stable iron

  19. Modeling electric bicycle's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, electric bicycle (EB) has been one important traffic tool due to its own merits. However, EB's motion behaviors (especially at a signalized/non-signalized intersection) are more complex than those of vehicle since it always has lane-changing and retrograde behaviors. In this paper, we propose a model to explore EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors on a road with a signalized intersection. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can qualitatively describe each EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors near a signalized intersection, and that lane-changing and retrograde behaviors have prominent impacts on the signalized intersection (i.e., prominent jams and congestions occur). The above results show that EB should be controlled as a vehicle, i.e., lane-changing and retrograde behaviors at a signalized intersection should strictly be prohibited to improve the operational efficiency and traffic safety at the signalized intersection.

  20. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Goncalves, Simone; Kelecom, Alphonse; Morais, Gustavo Ferrari de; Campelo, Emanuele Lazzaretti Cordova; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser

    2011-01-01

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  1. The Correlation of Electrical Fields and Detonator Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Zakary; Francois, Elizabeth; Gibson, John; Lodes, Rylie; Nakamoto, Teagan; Parrack, Kristina; Smith, Dalton; Tasker, Douglas; Trujillo, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    It is well established that behavior of the shock is affected by the microstructure of the explosive. Diagnostics are being developed to utilize Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) gauges for shock wave detection and observing transient electric fields generated by shocked Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN), which is a piezoelectric explosive. This study has the goal of determining whether PVDF gauges can detect the electrical signature generated by the shock compression of PETN crystals and correlate it with the explosive material microstructure and shock to detonation transition (SDT) process in slapper detonators. Slapper detonators function by inputting current to an exploding foil initiator. The metal foil converts to a plasma causing a thin polymer layer to separate at high velocity and impact the explosive resulting in the SDT. Experiments will observe correlations between changes in the electrical signals and explosive microstructure. LA-UR-17-20883.

  2. High-Resolution Modeling of Flow Partitioning: Tracer Comparison Between Water Stable Isotopes and Electrical Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, C.; Mosquera, G.; Crespo, P.

    2017-12-01

    The identification of water sources contributing to runoff is critical to understand the relation between water and biogeochemical cycles. During rainstorm events runoff can be composed of fractions of event and pre-event water. Tracers in two-component end member mixing analysis are commonly used to investigate these relative contributions to total runoff. However, tracer data are often only available at low temporal resolution, leading to high uncertainties in the estimation of flow components. Here, we present TraSPAN a new numerical tracer based streamflow-partitioning model that simulates both the tracer mass balance and the water flux response at the event scale. TraSPAN has four different structures representing different internal catchment hydrologic characteristics. We used high-resolution (0.25-5 hours) hydrometric and tracer (water stable isotopes (WSI) and electrical conductivity (EC)) data to simulate flow partitioning and compare the results between tracers for a storm in a forest headwater catchment at the western Oregon Cascades. Our results show that flow partitioning and transit time functions (TTFs) of event and pre-event water are well defined using either EC or WSI. The same model structure provided the best fit in both cases (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency > 0.9). This structure includes 2 reservoirs in parallel to route the event and pre-event water fractions following independent TTFs and allows a time-variant fraction of precipitation routed as event water over the course of the storm. The level of agreement between the results attained with EC and WSI is remarkable in terms of parameter values and TTFs. Given the high cost and effort associated to the collection and analysis of WSI at high temporal resolution, our results provide great promise for the use of EC as a tracer in high-resolution flow partitioning modeling. The use of such an inexpensive tracer could allow for detailed investigation of the relative importance of internal (e

  3. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang, E-mail: liuylxn@sohu.com; Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui, E-mail: caoshaokui@zzu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  4. A moisture and electric coupling stimulated ionic polymer-metal composite actuator with controllable deformation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Jie; Zhu, Zicai; Wang, Yanjie; Chen, Hualing; Bian, Changsheng; Luo, Bin; Li, Dichen

    2018-02-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuator can generate large and rapid deformation based on ion migration under a relatively low driving voltage. Under full hydrated conditions, the deformation is always prone to relaxation. At room humidity conditions, the deformation increases substantially at the early stage of actuation, and then decreases gradually. Generally, most researchers considered that the change of water content or relative humidity mainly leads to the deformation instabilities, which severely limits the practical applications of IPMC. In this Letter, a novel actuation mode is proposed to control the deformation behavior of IPMC by employing moisture as an independent or collaborative incentive source together with the electric field. The deformation response is continuously measured under electric field, electric field-moisture coupling stimulus and moisture stimulus. The result shows that moisture can be a favorable driving factor for IPMC actuation. Such an electric field-moisture coupling stimulus can avoid the occurrence of deformation instabilities and guarantee a superior controllable deformation in IPMC actuation. This research provides a new method to obtain stable and large deformation of IPMC, which is of great significance for the guidance of material design and application for IPMC and IPMC-type iEAP materials.

  5. Stable classical orbits for atomic hydrogen in magnetic and rotating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskij, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    A hydrogen atom, being in a magnetic field and in a field of circulation-polarized electromagnetic wave propagating along the magnetic field is considered. Classical orbits in the hydrogen atom, being in various external fields, were investigated to find stable orbits. Determination of a stationary region for considering conditions is the result of invesigation

  6. Antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations: An empirical study based on norm activation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yixiang; Wang, Zhaohua; Zhou, Guanghui

    2013-01-01

    China is one of the major energy-consuming countries, and is under great pressure to promote energy saving and reduce domestic energy consumption. Employees constitute an important target group for energy saving. However, only a few research efforts have been paid to study what drives employee energy saving behavior in organizations. To fill this gap, drawing on norm activation model (NAM), we built a research model to study antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations. The model was empirically tested using survey data collected from office workers in Beijing, China. Results show that personal norm positively influences employee electricity saving behavior. Organizational electricity saving climate negatively moderates the effect of personal norm on electricity saving behavior. Awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, and organizational electricity saving climate positively influence personal norm. Furthermore, awareness of consequences positively influences ascription of responsibility. This paper contributes to the energy saving behavior literature by building a theoretical model of employee electricity saving behavior which is understudied in the current literature. Based on the empirical results, implications on how to promote employee electricity saving are discussed. - Highlights: • We studied employee electricity saving behavior based on norm activation model. • The model was tested using survey data collected from office workers in China. • Personal norm positively influences employee′s electricity saving behavior. • Electricity saving climate negatively moderates personal norm′s effect. • This research enhances our understanding of employee electricity saving behavior

  7. Simple and stable transendothelial electrical resistance measurement in organs-on-chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Marieke Willemijn; Odijk, Mathieu; Frimat, Jean-Philippe; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2015-01-01

    Measuring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) is a popular way to monitor cellular barrier tightness in organs-on-chips. However, in these devices integrated electrodes often block sight on the cells and the measured part often includes fluid-filled channels with variable resistance.

  8. Distribution and behavior of radionuclides and stable elements in Lake Obuchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    Distribution and behavior of radionuclides and related stable elements in the lake water of brackish Lake Obuchi were investigated by field observations. Concentrations of 238 U and stable elements were measured at various points in the lake, and compiled to obtain the elemental distributions and variation characteristics. The concentrations of 238 U in the lake water were higher in areas nearer to the Pacific Ocean, and correlated well with those of Na, K, Ca, Mg and Sr (r = 0.86 to 0.92). These observations implied that 238 U in the lake originated from seawater. The bottom layer water was reductive during July and September (stratified period) in deep areas (> 3 m). In this condition, concentrations of PO 4 3- -P, NH 4 + -N, Fe and Mn in the water increased. Concentration ratios of 238 U to those of Na strongly suggested the following conclusions. The concentrations of 238 U in the turn-over period were represented by a simple mixture of seawater and fresh water. However, in the stratified period, part of the 238 U was lost from the seawater near the bottom of the lake due to the reductive condition. (author)

  9. Functional chemically modified graphene film: microstructure and electrical transport behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junsheng; Hou, Xueyan; Yu, Mingpeng; Hua, Jingzheng; Ren, Xinyu; Qiu, Hong; Wang, Rongming

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets were synthesized via a modified Hummers method. GO dispersion with a high concentration of 6 mg ml-1 was chosen to form GO hydrogel, followed by chemical reduction to derive a free-standing reduced GO (rGO) film. According to the x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, it has a [0 0 1] crystalline orientation in the film thickness direction. The rGO film has a densely stacked laminated structure and highly anisotropic characteristic of electrical conductivities. The light-weight rGO wire also demonstrates its excellent flexible and fire-retardant characteristics. Stress-strain measurements revealed the mechanical properties of the GO film can got further improved after chemical reduction. Electrical transport measurement indicates that rGO film exhibit semiconducting behavior with negative temperature coefficient characteristic. A temperature dependence of the conductivity from 20 to 297 K reveals that the carrier transport mechanism is thermally activated band conduction above 200 K and three-dimensional (3D) Mott’s variable range hopping below 100 K. The parameters such as a density of the localized electron states and a localization length of the wave function have been determined from the plot of conductivity versus (versus) temperature.

  10. Electric Shocks Resulting in Seismic Animal Anomalous Behaviors (SAABs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Motoji; Takaki, Shunji; Takashimizu, Dan

    1996-03-01

    Electric field effects on fish and worms have been studied assuming that the seismic animal anomalous behaviors (SAABs) witnessed prior to the Hansin Earthquake were caused by seismic electric current. Japanese minnows, guppies and loaches responded to the current and aligned perpendicular to the field direction and earthworms swarmed, which are forms of SAABs, at a current density of J=0.1˜1 A/m2 presumably to reduce the effects of the field, F. A mathematical model of a fault was used to express the seismic stress, σ(t) corresponding to a fault displacement, D(t). An electromagnetic model of a fault, where a bound charge density, q which compensate the piezoelectric polarization, appears due to the release of seismic stress is used to derive dq/dt=-α(dσ/dt)-q/ɛρ, F=q/ɛ and J=F/ρ'. Using the piezoelectric coefficient, α, dielectric constant, ɛ and the resistivity, ρ of bedrock granite and ρ' of water gives J=1 A/m2 in concordance with the experiments.

  11. Behavior of radionuclides and stable elements in the ecosystem in brackish Lake Obuchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kunio; Ueda, Shinji; Kawabata, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Hidenao

    1998-01-01

    The behaviors and movements of radionuclides in a brackish environment, Lake Obuchi and its ecosystem were investigated with an aim to evaluate the safety of radioactive materials discharged into the lake. the organic materials in the sediment samples taken from Lake Obuchi were mainly composed of plant planktons and contained various radionuclides; 0.12-1.08 μg/g of 232 Th, 1.69-2.44 μg/g of 238 U, 0.0112-0.0176 Bq/g dry weight. The concentration of stable element was 145.6-357.3 μg/g for Mn, 82.5-128.2 μg/g for Sr, 0.81-1.65 μg/g for Cs and 11.2-16.5 μg/g dry weight for Pb. Plant planktons were found to mediate the accumulation of elements into lake sediments. Therefore, the species composition, distribution and ecological positioning of those planktons were important factors for the behaviors and movements of such elements. Then, the relationship between the concentrations of 137 Cs and Cs was studied with phytoplankton and a positive correlation (r=0.95) was found at both concentrations, suggesting that the adsorptions of the two elements onto the lake sediments were similar. (M.N.)

  12. On the direct current electric conductivity and conduction mechanism of some stable disubstituted 4-(4-pyridyl)pyridinium ylides in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danac, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Leontie, L., E-mail: lleontie@uaic.ro [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire LPhiA, Angers University, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Prelipceanu, M.; Graur, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Str.Universitatii, Nr.13, RO-720229 Suceava (Romania); Carlescu, A.; Rusu, G.I. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

    2014-04-01

    Temperature-dependent d.c. electric conductivity of some recently synthesized organic compounds, stable disubstituted 4-(4-pyridyl)pyridinium ylides, is studied. Thin-film samples (d = 0.100.80 μm) spin-coated from dimethylformamide solutions onto glass substrates have been used. Organic films with reproducible electron transport properties can be obtained if, after deposition, they are submitted to a heat treatment within temperature range of 297 − 527 K. The studied polycrystalline compounds exhibit typical n-type semiconductor behavior. The activation energy of the electric conduction ranges between 0.59 and 0.94 eV. Some correlations between semiconducting parameters and molecular structure of the organic compounds have been discussed. In the higher temperature range (T > 400 K), the electron transport in examined compounds can be interpreted in terms of the band gap representation model, while in the lower temperature range, the Mott's variable-range hopping conduction model was found to be appropriate. Some of the investigated compounds hold promise for thermistor applications. - Highlights: • 4-(4-Pyridyl)pyridinium ylides in thin films behave as n-type semiconductors. • The electron transfer is favored by extended conjugation and packing capacity. • The band gap representation is suitable in the higher temperature range. • The Mott's variable-range hopping model may be used in the lower temperature range.

  13. Stable and low contact resistance electrical contacts for high temperature SiGe thermoelectric generators

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2018-04-14

    The thermal stability and contact resistance of TaAlN thin films as electrical contacts to SiGe thermoelectric elements are reported. We demonstrate that a sharp interface is maintained after the device annealed at 800°C for over 100h, indicating that no interdiffusion takes place between TaAlN and SiGe. A specific contact resistivity of (2.1±1.3)×10−6Ω-cm2 for p-type SiGe and (2.8±1.6)×10−5 Ω-cm2 for n-type SiGe is demonstrated after the high temperature annealing. These results show that TaAlN is a promising contact material for high temperature thermoelectrics such as SiGe.

  14. Long-term Behavioral Tracking of Freely Swimming Weakly Electric Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, James J.; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Long-term behavioral tracking can capture and quantify natural animal behaviors, including those occurring infrequently. Behaviors such as exploration and social interactions can be best studied by observing unrestrained, freely behaving animals. Weakly electric fish (WEF) display readily observable exploratory and social behaviors by emitting electric organ discharge (EOD). Here, we describe three effective techniques to synchronously measure the EOD, body position, and posture of a free-swi...

  15. Secondary recrystallization behavior in a twin-roll cast grain-oriented electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn; Wang, Yin-Ping; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2017-04-15

    The microstructure and texture evolution along the processing was investigated with a particular focus on the secondary recrystallization behavior in a 0.23 mm-thick twin-roll cast grain-oriented electrical steel. A striking feature is that Goss orientation originated during twin-roll casting as a result of shear deformation and it was further enhanced during hot rolling and normalizing. After primary recrystallization annealing, a homogeneous microstructure associated with a sharp γ-fiber texture was produced. During secondary recrystallization annealing, the γ-fiber texture was first strengthened and weakened with increasing temperature prior to the onset of secondary recrystallization. Goss grains always exhibited more 20–45° misoriented boundaries than the matrix. The matrix was quite stable during secondary recrystallization with the aid of dense inhibitors. Finally, a complete secondary recrystallization microstructure consisting of large Goss grains was produced. The grain boundary characteristics distribution indicated that the high energy model was responsible for the abnormal growth of Goss grains under the present conditions. - Highlights: • A 0.23 mm twin-roll cast grain-oriented silicon steel sheet was produced. • Goss orientation originated during twin-roll casting. • Secondary recrystallization behavior was briefly investigated. • γ-fiber texture was enhanced prior to the onset of secondary recrystallization. • A complete secondary recrystallization microstructure was produced.

  16. Behavioral aspects of regulation: A discussion on switching and demand response in Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirin, Selahattin Murat; Gonul, Mustafa Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Electricity sector has been transformed from state-owned monopolistic utilities to competitive markets with an aim to promote incentives for improving efficiency, reducing costs and increasing service quality to customers. One of the cardinal assumptions of the liberalized and competitive electricity markets is the rational actor, and decision-makers are assumed to make the best decisions that maximize their utility. However, a vast literature on behavioral economics has shown the weakness of economic theory in explaining and predicting individuals’ decision-making behavior. This issue is quite important for competition in electricity markets in which consumers’ preferences have a significant role. Despite its importance, this issue has almost been neglected in Turkey, which has taken major steps in electricity sector restructuring. Therefore, this paper aims to examine switching and demand response behavior in Turkish electricity market by using multiple correspondence and panel data analysis, and findings are discussed in light of the neoclassical and behavioral economics literature. Analyses’ results show that consumers’ switching and demand response behavior is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent; however, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions. Furthermore, there are systemic problems that hinder effective functioning of the electricity market and restrict competition. - Highlights: • Behavioral economics can provide insights for consumer’ decisions. • Switching and demand response behavior is examined by econometric methods. • Results is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent • However, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions.

  17. Electrical Percolation Effect on Electromechanical Behavior of CNT Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Ngabonziza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistance responses of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT reinforced polypropylene (PP nanocomposites under mechanical tensile loading are studied in this paper. A standard tensile test was conducted while the electrical resistance was measured using 2-probe method. From our previous works on the CNT/PP nanocomposites, the percolation threshold of electrical conductivity is around 3.8 wt% of CNT. The influence of this percolation threshold on the electrical resistance upon mechanical loading was investigated. The results will be discussed and compared.

  18. Electric Conductivity and Dielectric-Breakdown Behavior for Polyurethane Magnetic Elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shuhei; Tsujiei, Yuri; Kawai, Mika; Mitsumata, Tetsu

    2017-02-23

    The electric-voltage dependence of the electric conductivity for cross-linked and un-cross-linked magnetic elastomers was measured at various magnetic fields, and the effect of cross-linking on the electric conductivity and the dielectric-breakdown behavior was investigated. The electric conductivity for un-cross-linked elastomers at low voltages was independent of magnetic fields and the volume fraction of magnetic particles, indicating the electric conduction in the polyurethane matrix. At high voltages, the electric conductivity increased with the magnetic field, showing the electric conduction via chains of magnetic particles. On the other hand, the electric conductivity at low voltages for cross-linked elastomers with volume fractions below 0.06 was independent of the magnetic field, suggesting the electric conduction in the polyurethane matrix. At volume fractions above 0.14, the electric conductivity increased with the magnetic field, suggesting the electric conduction via chains of magnetic particles. At high voltages, the electric conductivity for cross-linked elastomers with a volume fraction of 0.02 was independent of the magnetic field, indicating the electric conduction through the polyurethane matrix. At volume fractions above 0.06, the electric conductivity suddenly increased at a critical voltage, exhibiting the dielectric breakdown at the bound layer of magnetic particles and/or the discontinuous part between chains.

  19. Statistic analysis of grouping in evaluation of the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in effluent from uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.

    2013-01-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a uranium mine off. The statistical analysis of clustering was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physico-chemical variables in their effluents. The use of cluster analysis proved effective in the evaluation, allowing to identify groups of chemical elements in physico-chemical variables and group analyzes (element and variables ). As a result, we can say, based on the analysis of the data, a strong link between Ca and Mg and between Al and TR 2 O 3 (rare earth oxides) in the UTM effluents. The SO 4 was also identified as strongly linked to total solids and dissolved and these linked to electrical conductivity. Other associations existed, but were not as strongly linked. Additional collections for seasonal evaluation are required so that assessments can be confirmed. Additional statistics analysis (ordination techniques) should be used to help identify the origins of the groups identified in this analysis. (author)

  20. Electrical and Mechanical Behavior of Silver-Coated Polymeric Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bosselman, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    .... Environmental effects on electrical resistance were also studied including immersion in aqueous solutions of various pH levels, as well as exposure to elevated temperatures and thermal cycling...

  1. Understanding household switching behavior in the retail electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yingkui

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of the Danish retail electricity market nearly a decade ago has produced little consumer switching among suppliers or renegotiation of supplier service contracts. From an energy policy perspective, a certain amount of supplier switching is an important indicator of the success of market deregulation. This argues that poor relationship management and a lack of economic benefits are two critical barriers to consumer switching. Latent class analysis indicates that only 11.4% of consumers are non-switchers, whereas 41.1% can be considered potential switchers and approximately one-half (47.5%) can be considered apathetic consumers. We also discuss the managerial implications for both electricity suppliers and policy makers. - Highlights: • This paper investigates the barriers for electricity supplier switching in Denmark. • Four switching barriers were identified. • Relationship management and economic benefits are critical for consumer switching. • Three consumer segments for electricity supplier switching were identified

  2. European electric vehicle fleet: driving and charging behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Corchero García, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of vehicles would be a reality in the coming decades. Statistical results on real electric vehicle usage data is a key point in the development of the electro mobility. A large collection of electric vehicles and charging points have been monitored during three years and the results about the driving and charging patterns are shown in this work. These results may help to develop future policies on, for instance, charging infrastructure location, end-users incentives, or to...

  3. The development of patterns of stable, transient, and school-age onset aggressive behavior in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, L; Prior, M

    1995-03-01

    To examine the development of patterns of aggressive behavior in children from the age of 2 to 8 years. Children with early histories of aggressive behavior were selected from a community sample of 2,400 infants participating in a longitudinal study. The sample was divided into four groups: children with stable aggressive behavior, those with transient aggression, those with aggression only after age 5 years (late onset), and a comparison group of nonaggressive children. Children with stable aggressive behavior were characterized by a difficult temperament, hostile sibling interactions, maternal perception of the child as difficult, and harsher child-rearing practices. Children whose early aggression decreased over time and those who became aggressive only after entering school could not be reliably classified with the selected family variables. Teacher ratings of temperament factors of task orientation and reactivity and ability ratings correctly classified 74% of children whose aggression began at school-age. Children with persistent aggressive behavior differed from those who improved, predominantly in terms of symptom severity. Problems with aggression can be identified early in development, and a significant proportion of aggressive children are at risk for continuing social and scholastic difficulties. Knowledge of associated factors may play an important role in prevention.

  4. Behavior of Rubber Materials under Exposure to High Electric Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, M,

    2013-01-01

    The effect of high electrical stress on rubber materials is investigated by performing breakdown tests and tracking resistance tests on selected samples. The study is focused on the relationship between the dielectric strength and the thickness of the samples, as well as the influence of the inte......The effect of high electrical stress on rubber materials is investigated by performing breakdown tests and tracking resistance tests on selected samples. The study is focused on the relationship between the dielectric strength and the thickness of the samples, as well as the influence...

  5. Efficient Use of Behavioral Tools to Reduce Electricity Demand of Domestic Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbaz Shimon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study investigated the main literature on the subject of methods and policies for reducing the electricity demand of domestic consumers, in order to identify the place of behavioral tools. Methodology: We used secondary sources, performing a literature review, together with analysis and synthesis. Findings: Policy makers prefer to use tools offered by neoclassical economics, such as various forms of taxation, fines and financial incentives in order to make domestic electricity consumers save electricity, on the assumption that consumers will make rational decisions while maximizing their personal benefit. However, studies conducted in recent years in the field of behavioral economics, which are based on the assumption that consumers’ decisions are not rational and are affected by cognitive biases, showed that the use of behavioral tools, such as detailed online information (feedback,social comparison information, information on varying rates (dynamic pricing and general information (advertising campaign, are tools that are not less appropriate than the ones the neoclassical economics offers, mainly because electricity is an invisible product and consumers are unable to assess it by normal cognitive measures. Using an interdisciplinary combination of behavioral tools that come from a variety of approaches taken from a wide variety of different academic fields, it is possible to receive efficient results in the endeavor of reducing electricity demand. Implications: Although the neoclassical economics still remains the fundamental theory used by policymakers, it is recommended to consider behavioral economics as a complementary approach to the neoclassical economics, and combine behavioral tools in the policymakers’ toolbox, especially when those tools do not require a significant financial investment, thus efficiently maximizing the reduction of electricity demand among domestic consumers. These theoretical results will be

  6. Does energy consumption by the US electric power sector exhibit long memory behavior?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Alana, Luis A.; Loomis, David; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes energy consumption by the US electric power by various energy sources through fractional integration. In doing so, we are able to determine the level of persistence of the shocks affecting each energy source. The results indicate long memory behavior as each energy source is highly persistent, displaying long memory along with autoregressive behavior and strong seasonal patterns.

  7. Electricity Market Manipulation: How Behavioral Modeling Can Help Market Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Giulia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-18

    The question of how to best design electricity markets to integrate variable and uncertain renewable energy resources is becoming increasingly important as more renewable energy is added to electric power systems. Current markets were designed based on a set of assumptions that are not always valid in scenarios of high penetrations of renewables. In a future where renewables might have a larger impact on market mechanisms as well as financial outcomes, there is a need for modeling tools and power system modeling software that can provide policy makers and industry actors with more realistic representations of wholesale markets. One option includes using agent-based modeling frameworks. This paper discusses how key elements of current and future wholesale power markets can be modeled using an agent-based approach and how this approach may become a useful paradigm that researchers can employ when studying and planning for power systems of the future.

  8. Electricity Generation, Electricity Consumption, and Energy Efficiency in the United States: A Dual Climatic-Behavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Christopher Alan

    Much of the United States (US) has seen an increase in warm days, decrease in cool days, and increase in extreme weather events. These trends are projected to continue across much of the US and in turn increase the demand for electricity and subsequent greenhouse gas emissions. Ambitious energy efficiency (EE) programs are used across the US by energy utility organizations to reduce electricity demand and emissions. This study examined the impact of climatic variability on electricity consumption, as well as how pro-conservation interventions such as EE programs and experiential learning can be utilized to mitigate residential electricity consumption and emissions. Chapter 2 of this study examined the impact of EE programs on residential electricity consumption taking into account climatic indicators across the contiguous US. A state-by-state analysis suggested that climatic indicators were more explanatory of residential consumption than energy utility organization EE efforts at the state-level. Chapter 3 examined residential electricity consumption for heating and cooling applications explained by energy utility organization EE efforts and climatic indicators in the Southeast US. Indirect spending on EE programs was significantly related to heating and cooling applications and heating degree days, a climatic indicator for number of days over a certain temperature, were significantly related to cooling equipment applications. A survey of 2,450 residential electricity consumers was analyzed. Residents who were aware of EE programs and participated in EE programs were significantly more likely than those who were not to support energy utility organization use of clean energy and government subsidies for EE programs. Chapter 4 provided case study in a Southeast US state where a pro-conservation behavioral intervention was deployed in an elementary school. This chapter utilized a longitudinal design and mixed methodology to assess the effect of curriculum

  9. Analysis and Design of a Permanent Magnet Bi-Stable Electro-Magnetic Clutch Unit for In-Wheel Electric Vehicle Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Wanli Cai; Chenglin Gu; Xiaodong Hu

    2015-01-01

    Clutches have been used in internal combustion vehicles and concentrated electric vehicles (EVs) to smoothen impulsion while starting and shifting. This paper proposes a permanent magnet bi-stable electromagnetic clutch unit (PMBECU) which is specially introduced into in-wheel EVs to make the rigid connection between hub and wheel more flexible. Firstly, the operation principle of the PMBECU is illustrated. Then, the basic magnetic circuit model is presented and analyzed, followed by optimal ...

  10. Irreversibility in transformation behavior of equiatomic nickel-titanium alloy by electrical resistivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical resistivity were precisely performed on shape memory Ni 50 Ti 50 alloy in order to reveal the irreversible behavior of the thermoelastic martensitic transformation with thermal cycling. The hump in the electrical resistivity during cooling is enhanced with increasing the number of complete thermal cycles to result in a peak, although no peak in the electrical resistivity is observed on the reverse transformation during heating. The electrical resistivity in the low-temperature phase, of which the temperature dependence is linear, increases with increasing the number of complete thermal cycles. The temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity in the temperature region of the high-temperature phase increases with elevating the temperature. The transformation is strongly influenced by incomplete thermal cycles to result in a peak in the resistivity even on the reverse transformation after incomplete thermal cycling. It is thought that the anomalous behavior such as enhancement of a resistivity-peak, the increase in the electrical resistivity of the low-temperature phase, and the nonlinear relation between the resistivity and the temperature in the high-temperature phase are attributable to the appearance of an intermediate phase stabilized by transformation-induced defects, the accumulation of the transformation-induced defects, and the electron scattering due to the softening of a phonon mode in the high-temperature phase, respectively. It proved useful to make more accurate measurements of the electrical resistivity in order to investigate the intrinsic behavior of the transformation in NiTi

  11. Understanding the Electrical Behavior of the Action Potential in Terms of Elementary Electrical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A concept of major importance in human electrophysiology studies is the process by which activation of an excitable cell results in a rapid rise and fall of the electrical membrane potential, the so-called action potential. Hodgkin and Huxley proposed a model to explain the ionic mechanisms underlying the formation of action potentials. However,…

  12. An electric vehicle driving behavior model in the traffic system with a wireless charging lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Huang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Hai; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is proposed to study each EV's (electric vehicle) motion behavior near the WCL (wireless charging lane) and a lane-changing rule is designed to describe the EV's lane-changing behavior. Then, the car-following model and lane-changing rule are used to explore each EV's micro driving behavior in a two-lane system with a WCL. Finally, the impacts of the WCL on each EV's motion behavior are investigated. The numerical results show that each EV should run slowly on the WCL if it needs charge of electricity, that the EV's lane-changing behavior has great effects on the whole system, that the delay time caused by the WCL turns more prominent when the traffic turns heavy, and that lane-changing frequently occurs near the WCL (especially at the downstream of the WCL).

  13. Stable isotopes reveal rail-associated behavior in a threatened carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B; Whittington, Jesse; Clevenger, Anthony P; Sawaya, Michael A; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2014-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a leading cause of adult mortality for large carnivores worldwide. Train collision is the primary cause of mortality for threatened grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Banff National Park. We investigated the use of stable isotope analysis as a tool for identifying bears that use the railway in Banff. Rail-associated bears had higher δ(15)N and δ(34)S values than bears sampled away from the rail, but similar δ(13)C values. Because elevated δ(15)N values are indicative of higher animal protein consumption, rail-associated bears likely preyed on ungulates that foraged along the rail or scavenged on train-killed animals. The higher δ(34)S values in bear hair could have resulted from bears consuming sulfur pellets spilled on the rail or through the uptake of sulfur in the plants bears or animals consumed. Similar δ(13)C values suggest that the two types of bears had generally similar plant-based diets. Results from this study suggest that stable isotopes analysis could be used as a non-invasive, affordable, and efficient technique to identify and monitor bears that forage on the railway in Banff and potentially other transportation corridors worldwide.

  14. Behavioral ecology, endocrinology and signal reliability of electric communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavassa, Sat; Goldina, Anna; Silva, Ana C.; Stoddard, Philip K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The balance between the costs and benefits of conspicuous animal communication signals ensures that signal expression relates to the quality of the bearer. Signal plasticity enables males to enhance conspicuous signals to impress mates and competitors and to reduce signal expression to lower energetic and predation-related signaling costs when competition is low. While signal plasticity may benefit the signaler, it can compromise the reliability of the information conveyed by the signals. In this paper we review the effect of signal plasticity on the reliability of the electrocommunication signal of the gymnotiform fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio. We (1) summarize the endocrine regulation of signal plasticity, (2) explore the regulation of signal plasticity in females, (3) examine the information conveyed by the signal, (4) show how that information changes when the signal changes, and (5) consider the energetic strategies used to sustain expensive signaling. The electric organ discharge (EOD) of B. gauderio changes in response to social environment on two time scales. Two hormone classes, melanocortins and androgens, underlie the short-term and long-term modulation of signal amplitude and duration observed during social interaction. Population density drives signal amplitude enhancement, unexpectedly improving the reliability with which the signal predicts the signaler's size. The signal's second phase elongation predicts androgen levels and male reproductive condition. Males sustain signal enhancement with dietary intake, but when food is limited, they ‘go for broke’ and put extra energy into electric signals. Cortisol diminishes EOD parameters, but energy-limited males offset cortisol effects by boosting androgen levels. While physiological constraints are sufficient to maintain signal amplitude reliability, phenotypic integration and signaling costs maintain reliability of signal duration, consistent with theory of honest signaling. PMID:23761465

  15. Electrical resistance behavior with gamma radiation dose in bulk carbon nanostrutured samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, J.; Leyva, A.; Pinnera, I.; Desdin, L. F.; Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Leyva, D.; Toledo, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effects of 60 Co gamma radiation on the electrical resistance and V-I characteristic of bulk carbon nano structured samples obtained by electric arc discharge in water method. Images of pristine samples obtained with scanning electron, and the results in graphical form of the electrical characterization of irradiated samples are presented in the text. It was observed that the electrical resistance vs. dose behavior shows an initial increment reaching the maximum at approximately 135 kGy, followed by a drop of the resistance values. These behaviors are associated with the progressive generation of radiation induced defects in the sample, whose number increases to reach saturation at 135 kGy. From this dose, defects could lead to cross-links between different nano structures present in the sample conducting to a gradually drop in electrical resistance. The measured V-I curves show that, increasing exposure to the 60 Co gamma radiation, the electrical properties of the studied samples transit from a semiconductor towards a predominantly metallic behavior. These results were compared with those obtained for a sample of graphite powder irradiated under the same conditions. (Author)

  16. Short-Term Load Forecasting Based on the Analysis of User Electricity Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancheng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The smart meter is an important part of the smart grid, and in order to take full advantage of smart meter data, this paper mines the electricity behaviors of smart meter users to improve the accuracy of load forecasting. First, the typical day loads of users are calculated separately according to different date types (ordinary workdays, day before holidays, holidays. Second, the similarity between user electricity behaviors is mined and the user electricity loads are clustered to classify the users with similar behaviors into the same cluster. Finally, the load forecasting model based on the Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM is applied to different clusters to conduct load forecasting and the load forecast is summed to obtain the system load. In order to prove the validity of the proposed method, we performed simulation experiments on the MATLAB platform using smart meter data from the Ireland electric power cooperation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is able to mine the user electricity behaviors deeply, improve the accuracy of load forecasting by the reasonable clustering of users, and reveal the relationship between forecasting accuracy and cluster numbers.

  17. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperer, A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Aloise-Young, P. A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Suryanarayanan, S. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Zimmerle, D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Roche, R. [Univ. of Technology, Belfort-Montebeliard (France); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bauleo, P. [Fort Collins Utilities, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and trans-forming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electricity grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  18. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperer, Adam; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Roche, Robin; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Dane; Bauleo, Pablo; Zimmerle, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and transforming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electric grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  19. Analysis on the phase transition behavior of Cu base bulk metallic glass by electrical resistivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Young Su; Chung, Sung Jae; Ok, Myoung-Ryul; Hong, Kyung Tae; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Byeon, Jai Won; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Lee, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Kyung Sub

    2007-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of Cu 43 Zr 43 Al 7 Ag 7 (numbers indicate at.%) bulk metallic glass was investigated using the isothermal electrical resistivity measurements at 450 deg. C in the supercooled liquid region. The crystallization process is a single step phase transformation. To analyze the electrical resistivity reduction, microstructure evolutions were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. The Avrami parameter of the electrical resistivity reduction step was 1.73, indicating that the crystallization process is a diffusion-controlled growth of intermetallic compounds with decreasing nucleation rate

  20. Influence of Direct Current Electric Field on Corrosion Behavior of Tin Under a Thin Electrolyte Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. L.; Bu, F. R.; Tian, J.; Liu, D.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of a direct current electric field (DCEF) on corrosion behavior of tin under a thin electrolyte layer was investigated based on an array electrode technology by polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and surface analysis. The experimental results indicate that the corrosion rate of tin near the positive plate of DCEF increases with increased electric field intensity, which could be attributed to the acceleration of the migration of ions, the removal of corrosion products under DCEF and the damage of tin surface oxide film. Furthermore, tin at different positions in a DCEF exhibits different corrosion behavior, which could be ascribed to the difference of the local corrosion environment caused by the DCEF.

  1. Chameleon's behavior of modulable nonlinear electrical transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togueu Motcheyo, A. B.; Tchinang Tchameu, J. D.; Fewo, S. I.; Tchawoua, C.; Kofane, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    We show that modulable discrete nonlinear transmission line can adopt Chameleon's behavior due to the fact that, without changing its appearance structure, it can become alternatively purely right or left handed line which is different to the composite one. Using a quasidiscrete approximation, we derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, that predicts accurately the carrier frequency threshold from the linear analysis. It appears that the increasing of the linear capacitor in parallel in the series branch induced the selectivity of the filter in the right-handed region while it increases band pass filter in the left-handed region. Numerical simulations of the nonlinear model confirm the forward wave in the right handed line and the backward wave in the left handed one.

  2. A Dedicated Mixture Model for Clustering Smart Meter Data: Identification and Analysis of Electricity Consumption Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateh Nassim Melzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amount of data collected by smart meters is a valuable resource that can be used to better understand consumer behavior and optimize electricity consumption in cities. This paper presents an unsupervised classification approach for extracting typical consumption patterns from data generated by smart electric meters. The proposed approach is based on a constrained Gaussian mixture model whose parameters vary according to the day type (weekday, Saturday or Sunday. The proposed methodology is applied to a real dataset of Irish households collected by smart meters over one year. For each cluster, the model provides three consumption profiles that depend on the day type. In the first instance, the model is applied on the electricity consumption of users during one month to extract groups of consumers who exhibit similar consumption behaviors. The clustering results are then crossed with contextual variables available for the households to show the close links between electricity consumption and household socio-economic characteristics. At the second instance, the evolution of the consumer behavior from one month to another is assessed through variations of cluster sizes over time. The results show that the consumer behavior evolves over time depending on the contextual variables such as temperature fluctuations and calendar events.

  3. Peripheral electrical stimulation in Alzheimer's disease - A randomized controlled trial on cognition and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Koene R.A.; Scheltens, Philip; Luijpen, Marijn W.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Scherder, Erik J.A.

    2005-01-01

    In a number of studies, peripheral electrical nerve stimulation has been applied to Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients who lived in a nursing home. Improvements were observed in memory, verbal fluency, affective behavior, activities of daily living and on the rest-activity rhythm and pupillary light

  4. Construction of a stable and homogeneous magnetic field at 10 milligauss for neutron electric dipole moment measurements: preparatory phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravador, E.; Yoshiki, Hajime; Feizeng, H. [Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A superthermal UCN edm measuring machine is currently under construction at KEK. It utilizes a magnetically shielded superconducting solenoid at liquid helium temperature to generate a stable and homogeneous magnetic field at 10 milligauss. The design of the magnetic shield and solenoid and preliminary evaluation of shielding effectiveness is presented. (author)

  5. Construction of a stable and homogeneous magnetic field at 10 milligauss for neutron electric dipole moment measurements: preparatory phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravador, E.; Yoshiki, Hajime; Feizeng, H.

    1996-01-01

    A superthermal UCN edm measuring machine is currently under construction at KEK. It utilizes a magnetically shielded superconducting solenoid at liquid helium temperature to generate a stable and homogeneous magnetic field at 10 milligauss. The design of the magnetic shield and solenoid and preliminary evaluation of shielding effectiveness is presented. (author)

  6. Behavior of radon, chemical compounds and stable elements in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Pena, P.; Armienta, M.A.; Godinez, L.; Seidel, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The radon behavior, chemical compounds, major and trace elements in water samples of four springs and three wells of urban and agricultural zones around the Jocotitlan volcano and El Oro region was determined, both of them located in the medium part of the Mexican neo-volcanic axis. The 222 Rn was measured by the liquid scintillation method, the analysis of major components was realized with conventional chemical techniques, while the trace elements were quantified using an Icp-Ms. The average values of the radon concentrations obtained during one year were constant relatively, in an interval from 0.97 to 4.99 Bq/lt indicating a fast transport from the reload area toward the sampling points. the compounds, major and trace elements showed differences which indicate distinct origins of water from the site studies. (Author)

  7. Thermo-electrical equivalents for simulating the electro-mechanical behavior of biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, I; Duffy, M; McHugh, P E

    2015-01-01

    Equivalence is one of most popular techniques to simulate the behavior of systems governed by the same type of differential equation. In this case, a thermo-electrical equivalence is considered as a method for modelling the inter-dependence of electrical and mechanical phenomena in biological tissue. We seek to assess this approach for multi-scale models (from micro-structure to tissue scale) of biological media, such as nerve cells and cardiac tissue, in which the electrical charge distribution is modelled as a heat distribution in an equivalent thermal system. This procedure allows for the reduction in problem complexity and it facilitates the coupling of electrical and mechanical phenomena in an efficient and practical way. Although the findings of this analysis are mainly addressed towards the electro-mechanics of tissue within the biomedical domain, the same approach could be used in other studies in which a coupled finite element analysis is required.

  8. A Comparative Study on the Bidding Behavior of Pay as Bid and Uniform Price Electricity Market Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Khazraj, Hesam; Bak, Claus Leth

    2018-01-01

    in the literature. The overall producers’ bidding behaviors participating in Iran Electricity Market (IEM) as the low wind penetrated case and the Danish Electricity Market (DEM) as a high wind penetrated case are studied in this paper. An index is introduced to describe the overall market players’ behaviors...

  9. Encapsulation of Metallic Na in an Electrically Conductive Host with Porous Channels as a Highly Stable Na Metal Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Shaomao; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Emily; Li, Yiju; Yang, Chunpeng; Chen, Chaoji; Liu, Boyang; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-06-14

    Room-temperature Na ion batteries (NIBs) have attracted great attention because of the widely available, abundant sodium resources and potentially low cost. Currently, the challenge of the NIB development is due primarily to the lack of a high-performance anode, while the Na metal anode holds great promise considering its highest specific capacity of 1165 mA h/g and lowest anodic potential. However, an uneven deposit, relatively infinite volume change, and dendritic growth upon plating/stripping cycles cause a low Coulombic efficiency, poor cycling performance, and severe safety concerns. Here, a stable Na carbonized wood (Na-wood) composite anode was fabricated via a rapid melt infusion (about 5 s) into channels of carbonized wood by capillary action. The channels function as a high-surface-area, conductive, mechanically stable skeleton, which lowers the effective current density, ensures a uniform Na nucleation, and restricts the volume change over cycles. As a result, the Na-wood composite anode exhibited flat plating/stripping profiles with smaller overpotentials and stable cycling performance over 500 h at 1.0 mA/cm 2 in a common carbonate electrolyte system. In sharp comparison, the planar Na metal electrode showed a much shorter cycle life of 100 h under the same test conditions.

  10. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-10-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The first project evaluated the potentially aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity that produces escape or avoidance responses. The second project estimated the threshold intensity for detection threshold was 12 kV/m; the range of means was 6 to 16 kV/m. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. 131 refs., 87 figs., 123 tabs.

  11. Long-term behavioral tracking of freely swimming weakly electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, James J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2014-03-06

    Long-term behavioral tracking can capture and quantify natural animal behaviors, including those occurring infrequently. Behaviors such as exploration and social interactions can be best studied by observing unrestrained, freely behaving animals. Weakly electric fish (WEF) display readily observable exploratory and social behaviors by emitting electric organ discharge (EOD). Here, we describe three effective techniques to synchronously measure the EOD, body position, and posture of a free-swimming WEF for an extended period of time. First, we describe the construction of an experimental tank inside of an isolation chamber designed to block external sources of sensory stimuli such as light, sound, and vibration. The aquarium was partitioned to accommodate four test specimens, and automated gates remotely control the animals' access to the central arena. Second, we describe a precise and reliable real-time EOD timing measurement method from freely swimming WEF. Signal distortions caused by the animal's body movements are corrected by spatial averaging and temporal processing stages. Third, we describe an underwater near-infrared imaging setup to observe unperturbed nocturnal animal behaviors. Infrared light pulses were used to synchronize the timing between the video and the physiological signal over a long recording duration. Our automated tracking software measures the animal's body position and posture reliably in an aquatic scene. In combination, these techniques enable long term observation of spontaneous behavior of freely swimming weakly electric fish in a reliable and precise manner. We believe our method can be similarly applied to the study of other aquatic animals by relating their physiological signals with exploratory or social behaviors.

  12. An analysis of electricity price behavior when the market in California was dysfunctional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo-Soo

    The electricity market in California worked well for the first two years after restructuring, but in the summer of 2000 there were frequent high price spikes and then persistently high prices during the winter and the spring of 2001. This research develops econometric models to explain the behavior of the spot and forward prices for electricity and the relationship between them when the market in California was dysfunctional. The first results demonstrate that the high spot prices in the day-ahead market during the summer of 2000 were caused by changes in the bid behavior of buyers as well as by the offer behavior of sellers. After the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) declared that these high spot prices were "unjust and unreasonable", the FERC approved the payment of refunds to customers in California but not in other areas within the Western Inter-Connection (WECC). However, the results of a Vector Auto-Regressive model (VAR) show that the high spot prices in California were transferred immediately to other states in the WECC and the spot prices at different trading hubs belong to a single market. After the intervention by FERC in December 2000, spot prices and forward prices of electricity were unusually high. Estimated distributed lag models, using both monthly and daily data, show that there were strong positive relationships between the price shocks for electricity and natural gas in the spot markets and the forward prices for electricity. Risk premiums in the forward prices for electricity were estimated and the results show that the price shocks for electricity after FERC's intervention were the primary cause of the high forward prices. The main conclusions for regulatory policy are (1) it is virtually impossible to contain the effects of a dysfunctional electricity market to a single region because other regions are linked through the electrical grid, and (2) it is essential to intervene immediately and effectively when the spot prices have been

  13. Driving-behavior-aware stochastic model predictive control for plug-in hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Song, Jian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel approximated global optimal energy management strategy has been proposed for hybrid powertrains. • Eight typical driving behaviors have been classified with K-means to deal with the multiplicative traffic conditions. • The stochastic driver models of different driving behaviors were established based on the Markov chains. • ECMS was used to modify the SMPC-based energy management strategy to improve its fuel economy. • The approximated global optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric buses has been verified and analyzed. - Abstract: Driving cycles of a city bus is statistically characterized by some repetitive features, which makes the predictive energy management strategy very desirable to obtain approximate optimal fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric bus. But dealing with the complicated traffic conditions and finding an approximated global optimal strategy which is applicable to the plug-in hybrid electric bus still remains a challenging technique. To solve this problem, a novel driving-behavior-aware modified stochastic model predictive control method is proposed for the plug-in hybrid electric bus. Firstly, the K-means is employed to classify driving behaviors, and the driver models based on Markov chains is obtained under different kinds of driving behaviors. While the obtained driver behaviors are regarded as stochastic disturbance inputs, the local minimum fuel consumption might be obtained with a traditional stochastic model predictive control at each step, taking tracking the reference battery state of charge trajectory into consideration in the finite predictive horizons. However, this technique is still accompanied by some working points with reduced/worsened fuel economy. Thus, the stochastic model predictive control is modified with the equivalent consumption minimization strategy to eliminate these undesirable working points. The results in real-world city bus routines show that the

  14. Stable Operation and Electricity Generating Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Free Piston Engine Linear Generator: Simulation and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel design of a single-cylinder free piston engine linear generator (FPELG incorporating a linear motor as a rebound device. A systematic simulation model of this FPELG system was built containing a kinematic and dynamic model of the piston and mover, a magneto-electric model of the linear generator, a thermodynamic model of the single-cylinder engine, and a friction model between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simulations were performed to understand the relationships between pre-set motor parameters and the running performance of the FPELG. From the simulation results, it was found that a motor rebound force with a parabolic profile had clear advantages over a force with a triangular profile, such as a higher running frequency and peak cylinder pressure, faster piston motion, etc. The rebound position and the amplitude of rebound force were also determined by simulations. The energy conversion characteristics of the generator were obtained from our FPELG test rig. The parameters of intake pressure, motor frequency, and load resistance were varied over certain ranges, and relationships among these three parameters were obtained. The electricity-generating characteristic parameters include output power and system efficiency, which can measure the quality of matching the controllable parameters. The output power can reach 25.9 W and the system efficiency can reach 13.7%. The results in terms of matching parameters and electricity-generating characteristics should be useful to future research in adapting these engines to various operating modes.

  15. Weakly electric fish display behavioral responses to envelopes naturally occurring during movement: implications for neural processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, Michael G; Chacron, Maurice J

    2014-04-15

    How the brain processes natural sensory input remains an important and poorly understood problem in neuroscience. The efficient coding hypothesis asserts that the brain's coding strategies are adapted to the statistics of natural stimuli in order to efficiently process them, thereby optimizing their perception by the organism. Here we examined whether gymnotiform weakly electric fish displayed behavioral responses that are adapted to the statistics of the natural electrosensory envelopes. Previous studies have shown that the envelopes resulting from movement tend to consist of low (Hz) temporal frequencies and are behaviorally relevant whereas those resulting from social interactions consist of higher (>1 Hz) temporal frequencies that can thus mask more behaviorally relevant signals. We found that the self-generated electric organ discharge frequency follows the detailed time course of the envelope around a mean value that is positively offset with respect to its baseline value for temporal frequencies between 0.001 Hz and 1 Hz. The frequency-following component of this behavioral response decreased in magnitude as a power law as a function of the envelope frequency and was negligible for envelope frequencies above 1 Hz. In contrast, the offset component was relatively constant and somewhat increased for envelope frequencies above 1 Hz. Thus, our results show that weakly electric fish display behavioral responses that track the detailed time course of low but not high frequency envelope stimuli. Furthermore, we found that the magnitude of the frequency-following behavioral response matches, in a one-to-one fashion, the spectral power of natural second-order stimulus attributes observed during movement. Indeed, both decayed as a power law with the same exponent for temporal frequencies spanning three orders of magnitude. Thus, our findings suggest that the neural coding strategies used by weakly electric fish perceive the detailed time course of movement envelopes

  16. Annealing effects on electrical behavior of gold nanoparticle film: Conversion of ohmic to non-ohmic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimpour, Zeinab; Mansour, Nastaran

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports on the electrical behavior of self-assembled gold nanoparticle films before and after high-temperature annealing in ambient environment. These films are made by depositing gold nanoparticles from a colloidal solution on glass substrates using centrifuge deposition technique. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of these films exhibits ohmic and non-ohmic properties for un-annealed and annealed films respectively. As the annealing time duration increases, the onset of non-ohmic behavior occurs at higher voltages. To understand the underlying mechanisms for the observed electrical conduction behavior in these films and how electrical conduction is effected by film morphology and structural properties before and after annealing, systematic comparative studies based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been performed. The morphology of the films shows that the assembled gold nanoparticles are distributed on the substrate in a random way before annealing. After 2 h annealing gold nanoparticles exhibit a higher filling fraction when examined by SEM, which means that they coalesce, upon annealing, with respect to un-annealed films. The UV-vis absorption spectra of the films show that there is a red-shift and broadening in the absorption band for the annealed films. The observed phenomenon is related to the plasmon near-field coupling effect and suggests that the nanoparticle ensembles interspacing has decreased. The structural and crystallinity of the films exhibit amorphous structure before annealing and pure crystalline phases with a preferential growth direction along the (111) plane after annealing. The XPS analysis further suggests the existence of the stable thin oxide layer in the phase of Au2O3 in the annealed films. The I-V characteristics have been described by Simmons' model for tunnel transport through metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junctions. The Fowler

  17. Using different ELECTRE methods in strategic planning in the presence of human behavioral resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Milani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the multicriteria strategic planning of an organization, management should often be aware of employees' resistance to change before making new decisions; otherwise, a chosen strategy, though technologically acceptable, may not be efficient in the long term. This paper, using a sample case study within an organization, shows how different versions of ELECTRE methods can be used in choosing efficient strategies that account for both human behavioral resistance and technical elements. The effect of resistance from each subsystem of the organization is studied to ensure the reliability of the chosen strategy. The comparison of results from a select number of compensatory and noncompensatory models (ELECTRE I, III, IV, IS; TOPSIS; SAW; MaxMin suggests that when employee resistance is a decision factor in the multicriteria strategic planning problem, the models can yield low-resistance strategies; however, ELECTRE seems to show more reasonable sensitivity.

  18. Optimal pricing of default customers in electrical distribution systems: Effect behavior performance of demand response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusta, J.M.; Khodr, H.M.; Urdaneta, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The response of a non-linear mathematical model is analyzed for the calculation of the optimal prices for electricity assuming default customers under different scenarios and using five different mathematical functions for the consumer response: linear, hyperbolic, potential, logarithmic and exponential. The mathematical functions are defined to simulate the hourly changes in the consumer response according to the load level, the price of electricity, and also depending on the elasticity at every hour. The behavior of the optimization model is evaluated separately under two different objective functions: the profit of the electric utility and the social welfare. The optimal prices as well as the served load are calculated for two different operation schemes: in an hourly basis and also assuming a single constant price for the 24 h of the day. Results obtained by the optimization model are presented and compared for the five different consumer load functions. (author)

  19. Electrical stimulation as a biomimicry tool for regulating muscle cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadian, Samad; Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand muscle cell behaviors and to engineer muscle tissues to replace defective tissues in the body. Despite a long history of the clinical use of electric fields for muscle tissues in vivo, electrical stimulation (ES) has recently gained significant attention as a powerful tool for regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro. ES aims to mimic the electrical environment of electroactive muscle cells (e.g., cardiac or skeletal muscle cells) by helping to regulate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. As a result, it can be used to enhance the alignment and differentiation of skeletal or cardiac muscle cells and to aid in engineering of functional muscle tissues. Additionally, ES can be used to control and monitor force generation and electrophysiological activity of muscle tissues for bio-actuation and drug-screening applications in a simple, high-throughput, and reproducible manner. In this review paper, we briefly describe the importance of ES in regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro, as well as the major challenges and prospective potential associated with ES in the context of muscle tissue engineering.

  20. Light- and Electric-Field-Controlled Wetting Behavior in Nanochannels for Regulating Nanoconfined Mass Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ganhua; Li, Pei; Zhao, Zhiju; Zhu, Zhongpeng; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Xiao, Kai; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2018-03-21

    Water wetting behavior in nanoconfined environments plays an important role in mass transport and signal transmission of organisms. It is valuable and challenging to investigate how water behaves in such a nanometer-scale with external stimuli, in particular with electric field and light. Unfortunately, the mechanism of hydrophobic reaction inside the nanospaces is still obscure and lacks experimental support for the current electric-field- or photoresponsive nanochannels which suffer from fragility or monofunctionality. Here, we design functionalized hydrophobic nanopores to regulate ion transport by light and electric field using azobenzene-derivatives-modified polymer nanochannels. With these addressable features, we can control the pore surface wetting behavior to switch the nanochannels between nonconducting and conducting states. Furthermore, we found these hydrophobic nanochannels are rough with a contact angle of 67.3°, making them extremely different from the familiar ones with a smooth pore surface and larger contact angles (>90°). These findings point to new opportunities for studying and manipulating water behavior in nanoconfined environments.

  1. Consumer behavior in renewable electricity: Can branding in accordance with identity signaling increase demand for renewable electricity and strengthen supplier brands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanimann, Raphael; Vinterbäck, Johan; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    A higher percentage of energy from renewable resources is an important goal on many environmental policy agendas. Yet, the demand for renewable electricity in liberalized markets has developed much more slowly than the demand for other green products. To date, research has mainly examined the willingness to pay for renewable electricity, but limited research has been conducted on the motivations behind it. The concept of identity signaling has proven to play a significant role in consumer behavior for green products. However, (renewable) electricity in the Swedish residential market typically lacks two important drivers for identity signaling: visibility and product involvement. A consumer choice simulation among 434 Swedish households compared consumer choices for renewable electricity contracts. The results show a positive effect of identity signaling on the demand for renewable electricity and yield suggestions for increasing the share of renewable electricity without market distorting measures. This leads to implications for policymakers, electricity suppliers and researchers. - Highlights: • Low demand for renewable electricity contracts falls short of high market potential. • For this study a consumer choice simulation for electricity contracts was processed. • Higher visibility and involvement increases demand for green electricity contracts. • Branding that enables identity signaling contributes to green energy policy goals

  2. Thermally Stable and Electrically Conductive, Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Silicon Infiltrated Composite Structures for High-Temperature Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qi Ming; Deng, Lei Min; Li, Da Wei; Zhou, Yun Shen; Golgir, Hossein Rabiee; Keramatnejad, Kamran; Fan, Li Sha; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-Francois; Lu, Yong Feng

    2017-10-25

    Traditional ceramic-based, high-temperature electrode materials (e.g., lanthanum chromate) are severely limited due to their conditional electrical conductivity and poor stability under harsh circumstances. Advanced composite structures based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) and high-temperature ceramics are expected to address this grand challenge, in which ceramic serves as a shielding layer protecting the VACNTs from the oxidation and erosive environment, while the VACNTs work as a conductor. However, it is still a great challenge to fabricate VACNT/ceramic composite structures due to the limited diffusion of ceramics inside the VACNT arrays. In this work, we report on the controllable fabrication of infiltrated (and noninfiltrated) VACNT/silicon composite structures via thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [and laser-assisted CVD]. In laser-assisted CVD, low-crystalline silicon (Si) was quickly deposited at the VACNT subsurfaces/surfaces followed by the formation of high-crystalline Si layers, thus resulting in noninfiltrated composite structures. Unlike laser-assisted CVD, thermal CVD activated the precursors inside and outside the VACNTs simultaneously, which realized uniform infiltrated VACNT/Si composite structures. The growth mechanisms for infiltrated and noninfiltrated VACNT/ceramic composites, which we attributed to the different temperature distributions and gas diffusion mechanism in VACNTs, were investigated. More importantly, the as-farbicated composite structures exhibited excellent multifunctional properties, such as excellent antioxidative ability (up to 1100 °C), high thermal stability (up to 1400 °C), good high velocity hot gas erosion resistance, and good electrical conductivity (∼8.95 Sm -1 at 823 K). The work presented here brings a simple, new approach to the fabrication of advanced composite structures for hot electrode applications.

  3. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AC power generation, its transmission and distribution. The well known observations made by Oersted that an electric current produces a magnetic field led a number of researchers to investigate whether the converse was true i.e. whether electric current can be produced from a magnetic field. Michael Faraday of England ...

  4. Carbon nanofiber/polyethylene nanocomposite: Processing behavior, microstructure and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.; Gelves, Genaro A.; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrically conductive CNF/HDPE nanocomposite were prepared by melt compounding. • The effect of processing on the nanocomposites macro and micro structures was analyzed. • 1.4 vol% CNF were required to construct a conductive network within the HDPE matrix. • An EMI SE of 42 dB was reported for 15 vol% CNF/HDPE nanocomposite. • An empirical model was developed to estimate the EMI SE. - Abstract: Electrically conductive polymer nanocomposite of high density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by melt compounding in a batch mixer. The nanocomposite processing behavior was studied by monitoring the mixing torque vs. time as function of filler content. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy were used to investigate the nanocomposite dispersion of nanofiller and the adhesion between the nanofiller and polymer matrix. The electrical and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding behaviors of the nanocomposite were reported as function of nanofibers concentration, and an empirical correlation related the EMI SE to the nanocomposite’s electrical resistivity was developed. Good level of CNF dispersion was evident despite the poor adhesion exhibited between the nanofibers and the HDPE matrix. At 1.5 vol% CNF loading, the nanocomposite exhibited an electrical volume resistivity of 10 5 Ω·cm. EMI shielding effectiveness was found to increase with increase in nanofiller concentration. In the 0.1–1.5 GHz frequency range, 2 mm thick plate made of 5 vol% CNF/HDPE nanocomposite exhibits an EMI shielding effectiveness of 20 dB

  5. Analysis and Design of a Permanent Magnet Bi-Stable Electro-Magnetic Clutch Unit for In-Wheel Electric Vehicle Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Cai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Clutches have been used in internal combustion vehicles and concentrated electric vehicles (EVs to smoothen impulsion while starting and shifting. This paper proposes a permanent magnet bi-stable electromagnetic clutch unit (PMBECU which is specially introduced into in-wheel EVs to make the rigid connection between hub and wheel more flexible. Firstly, the operation principle of the PMBECU is illustrated. Then, the basic magnetic circuit model is presented and analyzed, followed by optimal design of the main structural parameters by investigating the PM leakage flux coefficient. Further, according to the basic electromagnetic characteristics of the PMBECU, the current pulse supply is put forward, and the minimum pulse width which enables the operation of the PMBECU and its dynamic characteristics are analyzed by an improved finite element method. Finally, a prototype machine is manufactured and tested to validate all the analysis results.

  6. Electrical permeability and domain switching effect on fracture behavior of piezoelectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanam, Sureshkumar

    The crystal structure and domain microstructure within each grain of a piezoelectric material and 90°, 180° polarization switch observed experimentally are discussed. The work and internal energy density domain switching criteria are used to predict domain switch zones near crack tip of CT fracture specimen. Constitutive relations are modified to reflect changes in material properties and strains arising from domain switch. An incremental finite element solution procedure using UNIX program was developed to use ABAQUS piezoelectric FEA software along with FORTRAN codes for prediction and modeling of domain switching in piezoelectric material. Insulating materials like silicone oil are used by researchers to prevent electric arcing between crack faces during fracture tests with piezoelectric material. A finite element (UEL) was developed to model dielectric medium filling crack cavity of piezoelectric fracture test specimens. An iterative procedure was adopted to solve geometrically nonlinear crack opening using an UNIX program. The effect of permeability of crack cavity medium on near tip electric fields in CT fracture specimen was investigated. A CT fracture specimen was modeled using incremental domain switch finite element solution procedure. Domain switch zones in the vicinity of the crack tip were obtained for various electrical and mechanical fracture loads applied. The effect of actual crack profile on near tip domain switch zones, opening stress, stress intensity is discussed. A gradual polarization switch model which considers the gradual change in the average polarization direction from the original poling direction was developed. Fracture load predictions using stress intensity factor obtained from assuming linear material behavior, nonlinear behavior using the instantaneous and gradual polarization switch model are compared. Gradual polarization switch model was used to model a SENB fracture specimen to obtain the near tip strain field and compare it

  7. Physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes in an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongmei; Zuo, Chuncheng; Cao, Qianqian; Chen, Hongli

    2017-08-01

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes (APEs) in an external electric field. The effects of chain stiffness, the charge distribution of a hydrophilic block, and electric field strength are investigated. Amphiphilic multilayers, which consist of a monolayer of adsorbed hydrophilic monomers (HLMs), a hydrophobic layer, and another hydrophilic layer, are formed in a selective solvent. All cases exhibit locally ordered hydrophilic monolayers. Two kinds of hydrophobic micelles are distinguished based on local structures. Stripe and network hydrophobic patterns are formed in individual cases. Increasing the chain stiffness decreases the thickness of the deposited layer, the lateral size of the hydrophobic micelles, and the amount of deposition. Increasing the number of positively charged HLMs in a single chain has the same effect as increasing chain stiffness. Moreover, when applied normally to the substrate, the electric field compresses the deposited structures and increases the amount of deposition by pulling more PEs toward the substrate. A stronger electric field also facilitates the formation of a thinner and more ordered hydrophilic adsorption layer. These estimates help us explore how to tailor patterned nano-surfaces, nano-interfaces, or amphiphilic nanostructures by physically depositing semi-flexible APEs which is of crucial importance in physical sciences, life sciences and nanotechnology.

  8. Thermo-structural analysis and electrical conductivity behavior of epoxy/metals composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumedienne, N.; Faska, Y.; Maaroufi, A.; Pinto, G.; Vicente, L.; Benavente, R.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports on the elaboration and characterization of epoxy resin filled with metallic particles powder (aluminum, tin and zinc) composites. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures, density measurements and x-ray diffraction analysis (DRX) showed a homogeneous phase of obtained composites. The differential scanning calorimetry revealed a good adherence at matrix-filler interfaces, confirming the SEM observations. The measured glass transition temperatures depend on composites fillers' nature. Afterwards, the electrical conductivity of composites versus their fillers' contents has been investigated. The obtained results depict a nonlinear behavior, indicating an insulator to conductor phase transition at a conduction threshold; with high contrast of ten decades. Hence, the elaborated materials give a possibility to obtain dielectric or electrically conducting phases, which can to be interesting in the choice of desired applications. Finally, the obtained results have been successfully simulated on the basis of different percolation models approach combined with structural characterization inferences.

  9. Thermalhydraulic behavior of electrically heated rod during a critical heat flux transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rita de Cassia Fernandes de; Carajilescov, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    In nuclear reactors, the occurrence of critical heat flux leads to fuel rod overheating with clad fusion and radioactive products leakage. To predict the effects of such phenomenon, experiments are performed using electrically heated rods to simulate operational and accidental conditions of nuclear fuel rods. In the present work, a theoretical analysis of the drying and rewetting front propagation is performed during a critical heat flux experiment, starting with the application of slope of electrical power from steady state condition. After the occurrence of critical heat flux, the drying front propagation is predicted. After a few seconds, a power cut is considered and the rewetting front behavior is analytically observed. Studies done with several values of coolant mass flow rate show that this variable has more influence on the drying front velocity than on the rewetting one. (author)

  10. Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia on Sleep-Related Cognitions Among Patients With Stable Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redeker, Nancy S; Jeon, Sangchoon; Andrews, Laura; Cline, John; Mohsenin, Vahid; Jacoby, Daniel

    2017-07-26

    Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) improves insomnia and fatigue among chronic heart failure (HF) patients, but the extent to which sleep-related cognitions explain CBT-I outcomes in these patients is unknown. We examined the effects of CBT-I on sleep-related cognitions, associations between changes in sleep-related cognitions and changes in sleep and symptoms after CBT-I, and the extent to which cognitions mediated the effects of CBT-I. Stable New York Heart Association Class II-III HF patients (total n = 51; n = 26 or 51.0% women; M age = 59.1 ± 15.1 years). HF patients were randomized in groups to group CBT-I (n = 30) or attention control (HF self-management education, n = 21) and completed actigraphy, the Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (DBAS) and Sleep Disturbance Questionnaires (SDQ), and self-reported fatigue, depression, anxiety, and sleepiness (baseline, immediately after treatment, six months). We used mixed-effects modeling, mediation analysis with a bootstrapping approach, and Pearson correlations. There was a statistically significant group × mult time effect on DBAS. DBAS mediated the effects of CBT-I on insomnia severity and partially mediated CBT-I effects on fatigue. Improvements in dysfunctional cognitions were associated with improved sleep quality, insomnia severity, sleep latency and decreased fatigue, depression, and anxiety, with sustained effects at six months. Improvement in dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions is an important mechanism for CBT-I effects among HF patients who are especially vulnerable to poor sleep and high symptom burden.

  11. Forecasting household consumer electricity load profiles with a combined physical and behavioral approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandels, C.; Widén, J.; Nordström, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A model is developed that can forecast electricity profiles for detached houses. • The model is validated on consumption data for a neighborhood of houses in Sweden. • It is shown that the model can produce realistic electricity profiles. • Larger deviations appear for some periods in the heating season. • The deviations arise due to not having enough background data for the neighborhood. - Abstract: In this paper, a simulation model that forecasts electricity load profiles for a population of Swedish households living in detached houses is presented. The model is constructed of three separate modules, namely appliance usage, Domestic Hot Water (DHW) consumption and space heating. The appliance and DHW modules are based on non-homogenous Markov chains, where household members move between different states with certain probabilities over the days. The behavior of individuals is linked to various energy demanding activities at home. The space heating module is built on thermodynamical aspects of the buildings, weather dynamics, and the heat loss output from the aforementioned modules. Subsequently, a use case for a neighborhood of detached houses in Sweden is simulated using a Monte Carlo approach. For the use case, a number of justified assumptions and parameter estimations are made. The simulations results for the Swedish use case show that the model can produce realistic power demand profiles. The simulated profile coincides especially well with the measured consumption during the summer time, which confirms that the appliance and DHW modules are reliable. The deviations increase for some periods in the winter period due to, e.g. unforeseen end-user behavior during occasions of extreme electricity prices

  12. Complex behavior of internal collapse due to self-generated radial electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Taro; Tokuda, Shinji; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Takizuka, Tomonori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Naitou, Hiroshi [Department of Electical and Electronic Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The density gradient effect is taken into account in the gyro-kinetic nonlinear simulation of the kinetic m=1 internal kink mode to clarify the nonlinear behavior of the internal collapse. Even when the density gradient is not so large enough to change the process of the full reconnection, the later process is changed considerably due to the self-generated radial electric field. The nonlinear growth of the 0/0 mode after the internal collapse violates the symmetrical flow of the parallel current, restricting the secondary reconnection. (author)

  13. Average Behavior of Battery - Electric Vehicles for Distributed Energy System Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    use conditions cannot be neglected for a proper estimation of available fleet energy. In this paper we describe an average behavior of battery-EVs. Main points of this concept include the definition of the energy window and lifetime of the batteries, in relation to existing models and battery use......The increase of focus on electric vehicles (EVs) as distributed energy resources calls for new concepts of aggregated models of batteries. Despite the developed battery models for EVs applications, when looking at energy storage scenarios using EVs, both geographical-temporal aspects and battery...

  14. Floating liquid bridge tensile behavior: Electric-field-induced Young's modulus measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Mendez Soares, David; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2013-12-01

    A floating bridge is formed spontaneously when high voltage is applied to polar fluids in two capillary tubes that were in contact and then separated. This bridge bends under its own weight, and its bending profile was used to calculate its Young's modulus. For electric field intensities of ˜106 V/m, water bridges exhibit viscoelastic behavior, with Young's moduli of ˜24 MPa; dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) bridges exhibited Young's moduli of ˜60 kPa. The scheme devised to measure the voltage drop across the water bridge for high voltages applied between the electrodes shows that the bulk water resistance decreases with increasing voltage.

  15. Electrical behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotube network embedded in amorphous silicon nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buiculescu Raluca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The electrical behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotube network embedded in amorphous silicon nitride is studied by measuring the voltage and temperature dependences of the current. The microstructure of the network is investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The multi-walled carbon nanotube network has an uniform spatial extension in the silicon nitride matrix. The current-voltage and resistance-temperature characteristics are both linear, proving the metallic behavior of the network. The I-V curves present oscillations that are further analyzed by computing the conductance-voltage characteristics. The conductance presents minima and maxima that appear at the same voltage for both bias polarities, at both 20 and 298 K, and that are not periodic. These oscillations are interpreted as due to percolation processes. The voltage percolation thresholds are identified with the conductance minima.

  16. Evaluation of the ability of electrical rods to simulate nuclear rod behavior during a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, E.L.; Gottula, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to assess the adequacy of electrical rods to simulate nuclear rod behavior during loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) conditions, and (2) to identify ongoing tests specifically designed to directly compare electric and nuclear rod response during a LOCA. The capability and limitations of electric rods to simulate LOCA fuel rod response are reviewed. Two tests, the Halden IFA-511 test and the German PNS 4237 test, are being conducted to directly compare electric rod and nuclear rod response under LOCA conditions. The objectives and usefulness of these tests are reviewed

  17. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which removes the heat produced In the core and the colis. I represents an Isolator which is a kind of. 'switch' used to isolate the station from the grid. Note the huge Insulators (marked I) that are used. The steel structures marked S support the conductors through insulators (courtesy: Kirloskar Electric Company, Bangalore).

  18. Predictive Scheduling for Electric Vehicles Considering Uncertainty of Load and User Behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin; Huang, Rui; Wang, Yubo; Nazaripouya, Hamidreza; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2016-05-02

    Un-coordinated Electric Vehicle (EV) charging can create unexpected load in local distribution grid, which may degrade the power quality and system reliability. The uncertainty of EV load, user behaviors and other baseload in distribution grid, is one of challenges that impedes optimal control for EV charging problem. Previous researches did not fully solve this problem due to lack of real-world EV charging data and proper stochastic model to describe these behaviors. In this paper, we propose a new predictive EV scheduling algorithm (PESA) inspired by Model Predictive Control (MPC), which includes a dynamic load estimation module and a predictive optimization module. The user-related EV load and base load are dynamically estimated based on the historical data. At each time interval, the predictive optimization program will be computed for optimal schedules given the estimated parameters. Only the first element from the algorithm outputs will be implemented according to MPC paradigm. Current-multiplexing function in each Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) is considered and accordingly a virtual load is modeled to handle the uncertainties of future EV energy demands. This system is validated by the real-world EV charging data collected on UCLA campus and the experimental results indicate that our proposed model not only reduces load variation up to 40% but also maintains a high level of robustness. Finally, IEC 61850 standard is utilized to standardize the data models involved, which brings significance to more reliable and large-scale implementation.

  19. Studies of structural, thermal and electrical behavior of polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Structural, thermal and electrical behavior of polymer-clay nanocomposite electrolytes consisting of polymer (polyethylene oxide (PEO and NaI as salt with different concentrations of organically modified Na+ montmorillonite (DMMT filler have been investigated. The formation of nanocomposites and changes in the structural properties of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Complex impedance analysis shows the existence of bulk and material-electrode interface properties of the composites. The relative dielectric constant (εr decreases with increase in frequency in the low frequency region whereas frequency independent behavior is observed in the high frequency region. The electrical modulus representation shows a loss feature in the imaginary component. The relaxation associated with this feature shows a stretched exponential decay. Studies of frequency dependence of dielectric and modulus formalism suggest that the ionic and polymer segmental motion are strongly coupled manifeasting as peak in the modulus (M″ spectra with no corresponding feature in dielectric spectra. The frequency dependence of ac (alternating current conductivity obeys Jonscher power law feature in the high frequency region, where as the low frequency dispersion indicating the presence of electrode polarization effect in the materials.

  20. Impact of electrical stunning on fish behavior and meat quality of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Campagnoli de Oliveira Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical stunning is considered one of less stressful fish stunning method. However, for its efficiency, it is important to determine the best way of application of the electrical variables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different voltages (100, 150, and 200 V of alternating current (AC or direct current (DC, frequency of 50 Hz, for 180 s exposure, concerning the aspects of behavior and meat quality of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. Fish subjected to AC remained unconscious longer, evaluated by behavior analysis, when compared to DC. The pacu subjected to 100 AC, 200 AC and 100 DC showed less bleeding in the fillets. The lightness (L* of the fillets were higher in 150 AC, 150 DC and 100 DC, followed by 200 and 100 AC. The redness (a* in pacu fillets were moderate in treatments 200 and 150 AC and less intense in treatments 100 DC and 100 AC. The yellowness (b* was higher in fish fillets treatment 150 DC and lower in 100 AC. Therefore, the 200 V alternating current (AC used in water stunning caused apparent unconsciousness of up to 4 min. after exposure and less bleeding in fillets, thus it is a suitable stunning method to be recommended for the pacu processing industry.

  1. Vasotocin Actions on Electric Behavior: Interspecific, Seasonal, and Social Context-Dependent Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Rossana; Batista, Gervasio; Lorenzo, Daniel; Macadar, Omar; Silva, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Social behavior diversity is correlated with distinctively distributed patterns of a conserved brain network, which depend on the action of neuroendocrine messengers that integrate extrinsic and intrinsic cues. Arginine vasotocin (AVT) is a key integrator underlying differences in behavior across vertebrate taxa. Weakly electric fish use their electric organ discharges (EODs) as social behavioral displays. We examined the effect of AVT on EOD rate in two species of Gymnotiformes with different social strategies: Gymnotus omarorum, territorial and highly aggressive, and Brachyhypopomus gauderio, gregarious and aggressive only between breeding males. AVT induced a long-lasting and progressive increase of EOD rate in isolated B. gauderio, partially blocked by the V1a AVT receptor antagonist (Manning compound, MC), and had no effects in G. omarorum. AVT also induced a long-lasting increase in the firing rate (prevented by MC) of the isolated medullary pacemaker nucleus (PN) of B. gauderio when tested in an in vitro preparation, indicating that the PN is the direct effector of AVT actions. AVT is involved in the seasonal, social context-dependent nocturnal increase of EOD rate that has been recently described in B. gauderio to play a role in mate selection. AVT produced the additional nocturnal increase of EOD rate in non-breeding males, whereas MC blocked it in breeding males. Also, AVT induced a larger EOD rate increase in reproductive dyads than in agonistic encounters. We demonstrated interspecific, seasonal, and context-dependent actions of AVT on the PN that contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms the brain uses to shape sociality. PMID:20802858

  2. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  3. Vasotocin actions on electric behavior: interspecific, seasonal, and social context-dependent differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Perrone

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Social behavior diversity is correlated with distinctively distributed patterns of a conserved brain network, which depend on the action of neuroendocrine messengers that integrate extrinsic and intrinsic cues. Arginine-vasotocin (AVT is a key integrator underlying differences in behavior across vertebrate taxa. Weakly electric fish use their electric organ discharges (EODs as social behavioral displays. We examined the effect of AVT on EOD rate in two species of Gymnotiformes with different social strategies: Gymnotus omarorum, territorial and highly aggressive, and Brachyhypopomus gauderio, gregarious and aggressive only between breeding males. AVT induced a long-lasting and progressive increase of EOD rate in isolated B. gauderio, partially blocked by the V1a AVT receptor antagonist (Manning compound, MC, and had no effects in G. omarorum. AVT also induced a long-lasting increase in the firing rate (prevented by MC of the isolated medullary pacemaker nucleus (PN of B. gauderio when tested in an in vitro preparation, indicating that the PN is the direct effector of AVT actions. AVT is involved in the seasonal, social context-dependent nocturnal increase of EOD rate that has been recently described in B. gauderio to play a role in mate selection. AVT produced the additional nocturnal increase of EOD rate in non-breeding males, whereas MC blocked it in breeding males. Also, AVT induced a larger EOD rate increase in reproductive dyads than in agonistic encounters. We demonstrated interspecific, seasonal, and context-dependent actions of AVT on the PN that contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms the brain uses to shape sociality.

  4. Search for magnetic monopoles and stable particles with high electric charges in 8 TeV $pp$ collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Mora, Jennifer; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Noordeh, Emil; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-03-18

    A search for highly ionizing particles produced in proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV center-of-mass energy is performed by the ATLAS collaboration at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The dataset used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 7.0 fb$^{-1}$. A customized trigger significantly increases the sensitivity, permitting a search for such particles with charges and energies beyond what was previously accessible. No event is found in the signal region, leading to production cross-section upper limits in the mass range 200--2500 GeV for magnetic monopoles with magnetic charge in the range $0.5g_{D}<|g|<2.0g_{D}$, where $g_{D}$ is the Dirac charge, and for stable particles with electric charge in the range $10<|z|<60$. Model-dependent limits are presented in given pair-production scenarios, and model-independent limits are presented in fiducial regions of particle energy and pseudorapidity.

  5. Electrical properties and degradation behavior of hydrogenated amorphous Si alloys for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krühler, W.; Kusian, W.; Karg, F.; Pfleiderer, H.

    1986-12-01

    The electrical properties and the degradation behavior of hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys (a-Si1- x A x : H, with A=C, Ge, B, P) in designs of pin, pip, nin, and MOS structures are investigated by measuring the dark and light I(V) characteristics and the spectral response as well as the space-charge-limited current (SCLC), the time of flight (TOF) of carriers and the field effect (FE). These investigations give an overview of our recent work combined with new results emphasizing the physics of the a-Si:H pin solar cells. We discuss the stabilizing influence on the degradation behavior achieved by profiling the i layers of the pin solar cells with P and B. Two kinds of pin solar cells, namely glass/SnO2/p(C)in/metal and glass/metal/pin/ITO, are investigated and an explanation of their different spectral response behavior is given. SCLC measurements lead to the conclusion that trapping is also involved in the degradation mechanism, as is recombination. TOF experiments on a-Si1- x Ge x : H pin diodes indicate that the incorporation of Ge widens the tail-state distribution below the conduction band. FE measurements showed densities of gap states of about 5×l016cm-3eV-1.

  6. Analysis of electricity industry liberalization in Great Britain: how did the bidding behavior of electricity producers change?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tashpulatov, Sherzod N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, October (2015), s. 24-34 ISSN 0957-1787 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : electricity markets * market power * uniform price auction Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.110, year: 2015

  7. Nickel vacancy behavior in the electrical conductance of nonstoichiometric nickel oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo Kim, Dong; Chul Lee, Hee

    2012-08-01

    Nickel vacancy behavior in electrical conductance is systematically investigated using various analysis methods on nickel oxide films deposited at different oxygen partial pressures. The results of Rutherford backscattering, x-ray diffraction, and Auger electron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate that the sputtered nickel oxide films are nickel-deficient. Through the deconvolution of Ni2p and O1s spectra in the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, the number of Ni3+ ions is found to increase with the O2 ratio during the deposition. According to the vacancy model, nickel vacancies created from the non-stoichiometry are concluded to produce Ni3+ ions which lead to an increment of the conductivity of the nickel oxide films due to the increase of the hole concentration.

  8. Consumer Behavior and the Plug-In Electric Vehicle Purchase Decision Process: A Research Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impact Dept.; Fujita, K. Sydney [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impact Dept.

    2018-01-31

    This report synthesizes consumer behavior research as it pertains to the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) purchase decision process. The purpose is to clarify what is known about the vital role consumers play in the U.S. PEV market as it matures to become less policy-reliant and more representative of the U.S., both spatially and demographically. A more representative PEV market will: help OEMs recoup more of their R&D investments in PEVs; help American consumers access the economic and performance benefits of PEVs; and help the U.S. become more energy independent while improving air quality-related public health and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Capacitor model to interpret the electric behavior of fluidized beds. Influence of apparatus geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, V.; Guardiola, J.; Vian, A.

    1986-01-01

    This work provides a model to know the degree of electrification in fluidized beds on the basis of voltage measurements between an electric probe and a metallic distributor. The model is based on the similarity of behavior between the probe-bed-distributor system and a capacitor. The influence of three variables related to apparatus geometry - height of probe, column diameter and height of bed - has been studied in an air fluidized bed of glass beads. The results show that the degree of bed electrification is not influenced by the column diameter; the effect of bed height depends on the quality of fluidization: with a bubbling bed the degree of electrification increases with bed height whereas the opposite effect is observed with a slugging bed. Additional fixed bed experiments make clear that the rate of charge dissipation grows for increasing values of bed height and column diameter, and for decreasing values of probe height.

  10. Generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a statistical and econometric model to analyze the generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market. The generator level bidding data show very strong persistence in generators' grouping choices over time. Using dynamic random effect ordered probit model, we find that persistence is characterized by positive state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity and state dependence is more important than unobserved heterogeneity. The finding of true state dependence suggests a scope for economic policy intervention. If NYISO can implement an effective policy to switch generators from higher price groups to lower price groups, the effect is likely to be lasting. As a result, the market price can be lowered in the long-run. Generators' offered capacity is estimated by a two-stage sample selection model. The estimated results show that generators in higher-priced groups tend to withhold their capacity strategically to push up market prices. It further confirms the importance of an effective policy to turn generators into lower price groups in order to mitigate unexpected price spikes. The simulated market prices based on our estimated aggregate supply curve can replicate most volatility of actual DA market prices. Applying our models to different demand assumptions, we find that demand conditions can affect market prices significantly. It validates the importance of introducing demand side management during the restructure of electricity industry. (author)

  11. Risk Assessment of Distribution Networks Considering the Charging-Discharging Behaviors of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs have received wide attention due to their higher energy efficiency and lower emissions. However, the random charging and discharging behaviors of substantial numbers of EVs may lead to safety risk problems in a distribution network. Reasonable price incentives can guide EVs through orderly charging and discharging, and further provide a feasible solution to reduce the operational risk of the distribution network. Considering three typical electricity prices, EV charging/discharging load models are built. Then, a Probabilistic Load Flow (PLF method using cumulants and Gram-Charlier series is proposed to obtain the power flow of the distribution network including massive numbers of EVs. In terms of the risk indexes of node voltage and line flow, the operational risk of the distribution network can be estimated in detail. From the simulations of an IEEE-33 bus system and an IEEE 69-bus system, the demonstrated results show that reasonable charging and discharging prices are conducive to reducing the peak-valley difference, and consequently the risks of the distribution network can be decreased to a certain extent.

  12. Thermalhydraulic behavior of electrically heated rods during critical heat flux transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rita de Cassia Fernandes de

    1997-01-01

    In nuclear reactors, the occurrence of critical heat flux leads to fuel rod overheating with clad fusion and radioactive products leakage. To predict the effects of such phenomenon, experiments are performed utilizing heated rods to simulate operational and accidental conditions of nuclear fuel rods, with special attention to the phenomenon of boiling crisis. The use of mechanisms which detect the abrupt temperature rise allows the electric power switch off. These facts prevent the test section from damage. During the critical heat flux phenomenon the axial heat conduction becomes very important. The study of the dryout and rewetting fronts yields the analysis, planning and following of critical heat flux experiments. These facts are important during the reflooding of nuclear cores at severe accidents. In the present work it is performed a theoretical analysis of the drying and rewetting front propagation during a critical heat flux experiment, starting with the application of an electrical power step or power slope from steady state condition. After the occurrence of critical heat flux, it is predicted the drying front propagation. After a few seconds, a power cut is considered and the rewetting front behavior is analytically observed. In all these transients the coolant pressure is 13,5 MPa. For one of them, comparisons are done with a pressure of 8,00 MPa. Mass flow and enthalpy influences on the fronts velocities are also analysed. These results show that mass flow has more importance on the drying front velocities whereas the pressure alters strongly the rewetting ones. (author)

  13. Ferroelectric, dielectric and electrical behavior of two-dimensional lead sulphide nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, M. F.; Jamil, Arifa; Rafiq, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional pure cubic phase lead sulphide (PbS) nanosheets were synthesized using solid state reaction method at ambient pressure and low temperature ~190 °C. From 210 K-300 K, small polaron hopping conduction mechanism was found to be dominant in PbS nanosheets at frequencies 20 Hz-2 MHz. High values of dielectric constant (~200) and electrical conductivity (of the order of 10-3 S m-1 at 300 K) of PbS nanosheets were extracted suggesting that it is a proficient material for capacitive storage devices. A high value of density of states of the order of 1032 eV-1 cm-3 was obtained for PbS nanosheets. The capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements of PbS nanosheets resulted in a stable butterfly loop due to switching of ferroelectric polarization at 300 K. The permittivity calculated at 0 V capacitance was ~150 and the dielectric loss remained below ~0.50. The polarization-voltage (QV) measurements showed a remnant polarization 23 µC cm-2 in PbS nanosheets. The leakage current density was below 0.5 mA cm-2 in the range  ±5 V.

  14. The Effect of Short Duration Electric Current on the Quasi-Static Tensile Behavior of Magnesium AZ31 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Thien Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a single pulse of electric current with short duration on the quasi-static tensile behavior of a magnesium AZ31 alloy is experimentally investigated. A single pulse of electric current with duration less than 1 second is applied to the specimen, while the specimen is being deformed in the plastic region under quasi-static tensile loads. After a nearly instant decrease of flow stress at the pulse of electric current, the flow stress shows strain hardening until the failure of the specimen. The experimental result shows that the strain-hardening parameters (the strength coefficient and the strain-hardening exponent of the hardening curve after the electric current strongly depend on the applied electric energy density (electric energy per unit volume. Empirical expressions are suggested to describe the hardening behavior after the pulse as a function of the electric energy density and are compared with the empirical expressions suggested for advanced high-strength steels.

  15. Memory-like behavior as a feature of electrical signal transmission in melanin-like bio-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrico, M.; Ambrico, P. F.; Ligonzo, T.; Cardone, A.; Cicco, S. R.; Lavizzera, A.; Augelli, V.; Farinola, G. M.

    2012-06-01

    The memory-like behavior of melanin biopolymer under electrical stimuli is shown through electrical transport characterization performed on melanin based metal insulator semiconductor structures on silicon. The presence of a memory window and retention behavior is verified by capacitance-voltage read outs before and after the application of voltage pulses. Interestingly, these phenomena occur without the presence of metallic nanoclusters enclosed in the melanin matrix. Charge trapping is considered the main mechanism responsible for the melanin memory-like character. The inability to erase the memory window has been ascribed to the permanent polarization effect during the application of the voltage pulse.

  16. Thermal and electrical conductivity enhancement of graphite nanoplatelets on form-stable polyethylene glycol/polymethyl methacrylate composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GnPs), obtained by sonicating the expanded graphite, were employed to simultaneously enhance the thermal (k) and electrical (σ) conductivity of organic form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs). Using the method of in situ polymerization upon ultrasonic irradiation, GnPs serving as the conductive fillers and polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as the phase change material (PCM) were uniformly dispersed and embedded inside the network structure of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), which contributed to the well package and self-supporting properties of composite FSPCMs. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated that the GnPs were physically combined with PEG/PMMA matrix and did not participate in the polymerization. The GnPs additives were able to effectively enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCM. When the mass ratio of GnP was 8%, the k and σ of FSPCM changed up to 9 times and 8 orders of magnitude over that of PEG/PMMA matrix, respectively. The improvements in both k and σ were mainly attributed to the well dispersion and large aspect ratio of GnPs, which were endowed with benefit of forming conducting network in polymer matrix. It was also confirmed that all the prepared specimens possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability. -- Highlights: ► GnPs were employed to simultaneously enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCMs. ► PEG/PMMA/GnPs composite FSPCMs were prepared by in situ polymerization method. ► The composite FSPCMs exhibited well package and self-supporting properties. ► GnPs additives effectively enhanced the k and σ of composite FSPCMs. ► All the composites possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability.

  17. The dynamic and steady state behavior of a PEM fuel cell as an electric energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, R.A. [Fundacao Educacional de Barretos (FEB), School of Electrical Engineering, Av. Prof. Roberto Frade Monte, 389 Aeroporto, 14783.226, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Camacho, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, School of Electrical Engineering, Rural Electricity and Alternative Energy Sources Lab., Av. Joao N. de Avila, 2121, 38400.902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2006-10-27

    The main objective of this work is to extract information on the internal behavior of three small polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells under static and dynamic load conditions. A computational model was developed using Scilab [SCILAB 4, Scilab-a free scientific software package, http://www.scilab.org/, INRIA, France, December, 2005] to simulate the static and dynamic performance [J.M. Correa, A.F. Farret, L.N. Canha, An analysis of the dynamic performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells using an electrochemical model, in: 27th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2001, pp. 141-146] of this particular type of fuel cell. This dynamic model is based on electrochemical equations and takes into consideration most of the chemical and physical characteristics of the device in order to generate electric power. The model takes into consideration the operating, design parameters and physical material properties. The results show the internal losses and concentration effects behavior, which are of interest for power engineers and researchers. (author)

  18. Characterization of applied tensile stress using domain wall dynamic behavior of grain-oriented electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fasheng; Ren, Wenwei; Tian, Gui Yun; Gao, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Stress measurement that provides early indication of stress status has become increasingly demanding in the field of Non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E). Bridging the correlation between micro magnetic properties and the applied tensile stress is the first conceptual step to come up with a new method of non-destructive testing. This study investigates the characterization of applied tensile stress with in-situ magnetic domain imaging and their dynamic behaviors by using magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy assisted with magneto-optical indicator film (MOIF). Threshold magnetic field (TMF) feature to reflect 180 ° domain wall (DW) characteristics behaviors in different grains is proposed for stress detection. It is verified that TMF is a threshold feature with better sensitivity and brings linear correlation for stress characterization in comparison to classical coercive field, remanent magnetization, hysteresis loss and permeability parameters. The results indicate that 180 ° DWs dynamic in the inner grain is highly correlated with stress. The DW dynamics of turn over (TO) tests for different grains is studied to illustrate the repeatability of TMF. Experimental tests of high permeability grain oriented (HGO) electrical steels under stress loading have been conducted to verify this study.

  19. Manganite based memristors: Influence of the electroforming polarity on the electrical behavior and radiation hardness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubi, D., E-mail: diego.rubi@gmail.com [GIyA and INN, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, UNSAM, Campus Miguelete, (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kalstein, A.; Román, W.S.; Ghenzi, N.; Quinteros, C. [GIyA and INN, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Mangano, E.; Granell, P. [INTI, CMNB, Av. Gral Paz 5445 (B1650KNA), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Golmar, F. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, UNSAM, Campus Miguelete, (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); INTI, CMNB, Av. Gral Paz 5445 (B1650KNA), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marlasca, F.G. [GIyA and INN, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Suarez, S.; Bernardi, G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche (CNEA), Av. E. Bustillo km 9500 (8400), S. C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Albornoz, C. [GIyA and INN, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-05-29

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} manganite-based memristive devices. Polycrystalline manganite thin films were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition, while metallic electrodes were deposited by sputtering. We show that, depending on the polarity of the initial electroforming, both clockwise and anti-clockwise current-voltage curves can be obtained. We attribute this behavior to the coexistence of different resistive switching mechanisms. We finally evaluate the electrical behavior of our devices after irradiation with high energy oxygen ions. We find no significant difference in the dielectric breakdown voltages between irradiated and non-irradiated devices, indicating that they may present radiation hardness and could be therefore appropriate for space or nuclear applications. - Highlights: • n-Si/LCMO/metal memristive devices were fabricated and characterized. • Electroforming polarity controls the activation of different switching mechanisms. • The soft breakdown voltages are not modified after irradiation with oxygen ions.

  20. Internal and external influences on pro-environmental behavior: participation in a green electricity program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.F.; Moore, M.R.; Kotchen, M.J.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI

    2003-01-01

    This paper integrates themes from psychology and economics to analyze pro-environmental behavior. Increasingly, both disciplines share an interest in understanding internal and external influences on behavior. In this study, we analyze data from a mail survey of participants and non-participants in a premium-priced, green electricity program. Internal variables consist of a newly developed scale for altruistic attitudes based on the Schwartz norm-activation model, and a modified version of the New Ecological Paradigm scale to measure environmental attitudes. External variables consist of household income and standard socio-demographic characteristics. The two internal variables and two external variables are significant in a logit model of the decision to participate in the program. We then focus on participants in the program and analyze their specific motives for participating. These include motives relating to several concerns: ecosystem health, personal health, environmental quality for residents in southeastern Michigan, global warming, and warm-glow (or intrinsic) satisfaction. In a statistical ranking of the importance of each motive, a biocentric motive ranks first, an altruistic motive ranks second, and an egoistic motive ranks third. (author)

  1. Natural gas in the Asian Pacific region: market behavior and the Japanese electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Bo

    2001-04-01

    This dissertation consists of four main chapters, all related to the Asian Pacific natural gas market, and the role of the Japanese electricity sector. The natural gas market in Asia Pacific is heavily dependent on the demand from Japan, which imports around 75% of the gas traded as LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the region. The demand for natural gas in Japan is, in turn, almost exclusively driven by the electricity industry that consumes around 70 % of the imported natural gas. On the supply side we find seller concentrations with only six countries exporting LNG in the region. The first main chapter analyzes the market structure of the Asian Pacific natural gas market, the next two relate to the usage of natural gas in the Japanese fossil-fueled electricity production, and the final study investigates the demand for electricity in the residential sector in Japan. The first chapter argues that the buyers in Japan, through cooperation, have the potential to exert the market power that their large market share provides them with. This could be offset by the monopoly power that the six present sellers have. In the chapter four, the solutions for the four imperfect competition cases of, monoposony, monopoly, bilateral monopoly, and the Cournot model are simulated. Neither of the model solutions comes close to both the actual market price, and the actual gas volumes. The model that best mimics the actual price is the bilateral monopoly model, while the monoposony model comes closest to the actual volumes. Giving some mixed evidence of how the Asian LNG market works. Given the indication of market power, the second study analyzes the fossil-fuel mix efficiency in the power sector in Japan. If the power sector is able to exert the alleged market power, it may be the case that they minimize costs according to shadow prices instead of actual market prices. Such behavior could cause the fossil-fuel mix used for power generation to be inefficient. The analysis is based on a

  2. Radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation in the treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannu P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Piero Mannu1, Salvatore Rinaldi1,2, Vania Fontani1, Alessandro Castagna11Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Department of Neuro Psycho Physio Pathology, Florence, Italy; 2Medical School of Occupational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, ItalyPurpose: Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD and disrupt the effective management of AD patients. The present study explores the use of radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation (REAC in patients who have had a poor response to pharmacological treatment.Patients and methods: Eight patients (five females and three males; mean [±standard deviation] age at study baseline: 69.9 ± 3.0 years diagnosed with AD according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria (mean onset age of AD: 65.4 ± 3.5 years were cognitively and psychometrically assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Activity of Daily Living (ADL, the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, prior to and after each of 2 REAC treatment cycles.Results: Scores on the MMSE and all subscales of the NPI (frequency, severity, and distress, the ADL, and the IADL were significantly improved following the initial REAC treatment. There was further significant improvement in all measurements (with a tendency for improvement in the IADL after the second REAC treatment cycle.Conclusion: The improvement of cognitive and behavioral/psychiatric functioning following REAC treatment suggests that this innovative approach may be an effective, safe, and tolerable alternative to pharmacological treatment of AD patients, especially in the area of BPSD. Elderly patients suffering from other types of dementia may also benefit from REAC treatment.Keywords: anxiety, depression, insomnia, behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD

  3. Analysis of electricity industry liberalization in Great Britain: how did the bidding behavior of electricity producers change?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tashpulatov, Sherzod N.

    -, č. 415 (2010), s. 1-55 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) SVV-2010-261801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : liberalization * electricity markets * uniform price auction * market power Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp415.pdf

  4. POPs, Fatty acids, lipid and Stable Isotopes data - The behavioral ecology of deep-diving odontocetes in the Bahamas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will use a unique set of individual-based data to quantify and model the behavioral ecology of six Department of Defense priority cetacean species in...

  5. Are tutor behaviors in problem-based learning stable?: a generalizability study of social congruence, expertise and cognitive congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Judith C; Alwis, W A M; Rotgans, Jerome I

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of three distinct tutor behaviors (1) use of subject-matter expertise, (2) social congruence and (3) cognitive congruence, in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. The data comprised the input from 16,047 different students to a survey of 762 tutors administered in three consecutive semesters. Over the three semesters each tutor taught two of the same course and one different course. A generalizability study was conducted to determine whether the tutor behaviors were generalizable across the three measurement occasions. The results indicate that three semesters are sufficient to make generalizations about all three tutor behaviors. In addition the results show that individual differences between tutors account for the greatest differences in levels of expertise, social congruence and cognitive congruence. The study concludes that tutor behaviors are fairly consistent in PBL and somewhat impervious to change. Implications of these findings for tutor training are discussed.

  6. A Stable Marching on-in-time Scheme for Solving the Time Domain Electric Field Volume Integral Equation on High-contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2015-05-05

    A time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) solver is proposed for characterizing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast dielectric scatterers. The TD-EFVIE is discretized using the Schaubert- Wilton-Glisson (SWG) and approximate prolate spherical wave (APSW) functions in space and time, respectively. The resulting system of equations can not be solved by a straightforward application of the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme since the two-sided APSW interpolation functions require the knowledge of unknown “future” field samples during time marching. Causality of the MOT scheme is restored using an extrapolation technique that predicts the future samples from known “past” ones. Unlike the extrapolation techniques developed for MOT schemes that are used in solving time domain surface integral equations, this scheme trains the extrapolation coefficients using samples of exponentials with exponents on the complex frequency plane. This increases the stability of the MOT-TD-EFVIE solver significantly, since the temporal behavior of decaying and oscillating electromagnetic modes induced inside the scatterers is very accurately taken into account by this new extrapolation scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed MOT solver maintains its stability even when applied to analyzing wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers.

  7. Bidding behavior when one bidder and the auctioneer are vertically integrated: implications for the partial deregulation of EU electricity markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Koten, Silvester

    -, č. 313 (2006), s. 1-35 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : asymmetric auctions * bid ding behavior * electricity markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp313.pdf

  8. Influence of pymetrozine on feeding behaviors of three rice planthoppers and a rice leafhopper using electrical penetration graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pymetrozine reportedly inhibited feeding of plant sap-sucking insects, such as aphids and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. By using electrical penetration graph (EPG), this study was conducted to investigate any differential effects of pymetrozine on the feeding behaviors of four major r...

  9. Numerical modeling of electrical-mechanical-acoustical behavior of a lumped acoustic source driven by a piezoelectric stack actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajdari, F.; Berkhoff, A.P.; Boer, A. de

    2016-01-01

    The present work describes the electrical, mechanical and acoustical behavior of a thin honey-comb structure as an acoustic source. The acoustic source has to operate in the low frequency, quasi-static regime and is driven by a piezoelectric stack actuator. In addition, a two-way energy flow between

  10. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  11. Study of the electrical behavior of various magnetohydrodynamic generators using explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.; Jouys, J.

    1969-01-01

    This report studies the electric behaviour of several types of pulse generators which use the M. H.D. conversion of explosives chemical energy to supply experiments of plasma physics. We study and compare their electric parameters and behaviour on ohmic and inductive loads. The electrical energy which appears on the load is studied in respect of the load and generator characteristics. We point out the way to amplify the initial electric energy. (author) [fr

  12. Size effects in electrical behavior of high-Tc thin-film bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasyev, A.S.; Gubankov, V.N.; Divin, Y.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the size effects in electrical characteristics of polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin-film bridges studied in the temperature range 4-300K. It is shown, that at T > T c the decrease of bridge widths w from 200 to 10 μm leads to the increase of resistance R in several times and to the change in R □ (T) behavior □ from metallic type to activation type. At □ T approx-lt T c the R □ (w) values exponentially increased when the width w was decreased under some definite size L. At T c the index I c (T) ∼ (T - T) α changed from 3 to 1 if bridge width was decreased. Experimental data are discussed within the model, which takes into account large-scale percolation processes in the system of different intergrain Josephson junctions, where characteristic length L 0 of critical subnetwork is much larger than the grain size

  13. Electrical and mechanical behavior of PMN-PT/CNT based polymer composite film for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Satyabati; Biswal, Asutya Kumar; Parida, Kalpana; Choudhary, R. N. P.; Roy, Amritendu

    2018-01-01

    The pyrochlore-free 30-PMN-PT/CNT/PVDF based piezoelectric flexible composite film has been synthesized for potential application in piezoelectric energy harvesting. Electrical characterization reveals that the maximum output voltage and current generated by the 30 vol.% PMN-PT/CNT/PVDF composite is ∼4 V and 30 nA respectively, comparable with the available literature. Further, impedance analysis has revealed a significant improvement in permittivity at low frequency and high temperature with a minimal dielectric loss. AC conductivity behavior fits well with Johnscher's universal power law that predicts the motion of the charge carriers is translational with sudden hopping. The Nyquist plots indicate the contributions of both grain and grain boundaries at lower temperature (25-100 °C) and additional electrode effect of higher temperature (100-150 °C) on the capacitive and resistive properties of the composite. Mechanical characterization of the composite shows an increase in Young's modulus of 705 MPa compared to 597 MPa in pure PVDF.

  14. Behaviors of Deformation, Recrystallization and Textures Evolution of Columnar Grains in 3%Si Electrical Steel Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yuan-yuan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of deformation and recrystallization and textures evolution of 3% (mass fraction Si columnar-grained electrical steel slabs were investigated by electron backscatter diffractometer technique and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the three columnar-grained samples have different initial textures with the long axes arranged along rolling, transverse and normal directions. Three shear orientations can be obtained in surface layer after hot rolling, of which Goss orientation is formed easily. The α and γ fibre rolling orientations are obtained in RD sample, while strong γ fibre orientations in TD sample and sharp {100} orientations in ND sample are developed respectively. In addition, cube orientation can be found in all the three samples. The characteristics of hot rolled orientations in center region reveal distinct dependence on initial columnar-grained orientations. Strong {111}〈112〉 orientation in RD and TD samples separately comes from Goss orientation of hot rolled sheets, and sharp rotated cube orientation in ND sample originates from the initial {100} orientation of hot rolled sheets after cold rolling. Influenced by initial deviated orientations and coarse grain size, large orientation gradient of rotated cube oriented grain can be observed in ND sample. The coarse {100} orientated grains of center region in the annealed sheets show the heredity of the initial columnar-grained orientations.

  15. Effect of Zinc Oxide Doping on Electroluminescence and Electrical Behavior of Metalloporphyrins-Doped Samarium Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghouri, Mohammad; Amini, Mostafa M.

    2018-02-01

    Samarium complex [(Sm(III)] as a new host material was used for preparation of red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with configurations of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):(poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/polyvinyl carbazole (PVK):[zinc oxide (ZnO)] (50 nm)/[(Sm(III)]:[zinc(II) 2,3-tetrakis(dihydroxyphenyl)-porphyrin and Pt(II) 2,3-dimethoxyporphyrin] (60 nm)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) (15 nm)/Al (150 nm) have been fabricated and investigated. An electroplex occurring at the (PVK/Sm: Pt(II) 2,3-dimethoxyporphyrin) interface has been suggested when ZnO nanoparticles were doped in PVK. OLED studies have revealed that the photophysical characteristics and electrical behavior of devices with ZnO nanoparticles are much better than those of devices with pure PVK. The efficiency of devices based on [(Sm(III)] was superior than that of known aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) and also our earlier reports on red OLEDs under the same conditions.

  16. AC and DC electrical behavior of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite near percolation threshold: Equivalent circuits and percolation limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Sahraei, Abolfazl; Ayati, Moosa; Baniassadi, Majid; Rodrigue, Denis; Baghani, Mostafa; Abdi, Yaser

    2018-03-01

    This study attempts to comprehensively investigate the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the AC and DC electrical conductivity of epoxy nanocomposites. The samples (0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 wt. % MWCNT) were produced using a combination of ultrason and shear mixing methods. DC measurements were performed by continuous measurement of the current-voltage response and the results were analyzed via a numerical percolation approach, while for the AC behavior, the frequency response was studied by analyzing phase difference and impedance in the 10 Hz to 0.2 MHz frequency range. The results showed that the dielectric parameters, including relative permittivity, impedance phase, and magnitude, present completely different behaviors for the frequency range and MWCNT weight fractions studied. To better understand the nanocomposites electrical behavior, equivalent electric circuits were also built for both DC and AC modes. The DC equivalent networks were developed based on the current-voltage curves, while the AC equivalent circuits were proposed by using an optimization problem according to the impedance magnitude and phase at different frequencies. The obtained equivalent electrical circuits were found to be highly useful tools to understand the physical mechanisms involved in MWCNT filled polymer nanocomposites.

  17. Kinetic and hysteretic behavior of ATP hydrolysis of the highly stable dimeric ATP synthase of Polytomella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio-Queijeiro, Alexa; Pardo, Juan Pablo; González-Halphen, Diego

    2015-06-01

    The F1FO-ATP synthase of the colorless alga Polytomella sp. exhibits a robust peripheral arm constituted by nine atypical subunits only present in chlorophycean algae. The isolated dimeric enzyme exhibits a latent ATP hydrolytic activity which can be activated by some detergents. To date, the kinetic behavior of the algal ATPase has not been studied. Here we show that while the soluble F1 sector exhibits Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the dimer exhibits a more complex behavior. The kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) were obtained for both the F1 sector and the dimeric enzyme as isolated or activated by detergent, and this activation was also seen on the enzyme reconstituted in liposomes. Unlike other ATP synthases, the algal dimer hydrolyzes ATP on a wide range of pH and temperature. The enzyme was inhibited by oligomycin, DCCD and Mg-ADP, although oligomycin induced a peculiar inhibition pattern that can be attributed to structural differences in the algal subunit-c. The hydrolytic activity was temperature-dependent and exhibited activation energy of 4 kcal/mol. The enzyme also exhibited a hysteretic behavior with a lag phase strongly dependent on temperature but not on pH, that may be related to a possible regulatory role in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Theoretical prediction of electrocaloric effect based on non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrocaloric (EC effect has been paid great attentions recently for applications on cooling or electricity generation. However, the directly commercial measurement equipment for the effect is still unavailable. Here we report a novel method to predict EC effect by non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields. According to the method, the analytical equations of EC temperature change ΔT are directly given for normal ferroelectrics and relaxor. The calculations have been performed on several materials and it is shown that the method is suitable for both inorganic and organic ferroelectrics, and relaxor.

  19. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  20. A hazard-based duration model for analyzing crossing behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobao; Huan, Mei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hazard-based duration approach to investigate riders' waiting times, violation hazards, associated risk factors, and their differences between cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections. A total of 2322 two-wheeled riders approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. The data were classified into censored and uncensored data to distinguish between safe crossing and red-light running behavior. The results indicated that the red-light crossing behavior of most riders was dependent on waiting time. They were inclined to terminate waiting behavior and run against the traffic light with the increase of waiting duration. Over half of the observed riders cannot endure 49s or longer. 25% of the riders can endure 97s or longer. Rider type, gender, waiting position, conformity tendency and crossing traffic volume were identified to have significant effects on riders' waiting times and violation hazards. Electric bike riders were found to be more sensitive to the external risk factors such as other riders' crossing behavior and crossing traffic volume than cyclists. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity was examined in the proposed models. The finding of this paper can explain when and why cyclists and electric bike riders run against the red light at intersections. The results of this paper are useful for traffic design and management agencies to implement strategies to enhance the safety of riders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the structural and electrical behavior of Bi(Mg,TiO3 modified (Ba,CaTiO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kashif Shamim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of BaTiO3 to form solid solutions with different dopants (both iso- and aliovalent makes it versatile for various applications. In the present study, (Ba,CaTiO3 (BCT is modified with Bi(MgTiO3 (BMT in search for new lead-free ferroelectric material and improve their properties. For this purpose, BCT acts as a main base material and BMT acts as a modifier to fabricate a multifunctional material. In this study, we report the structural and electrical properties of lead free piezo-ceramics (1−x(Ba0.8Ca0.2TiO3–xBi(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3 with x=0.2, 0.4, 0.5 prepared by solid-state sintering technique. Single perovskite phase with tetragonal structure is obtained for all the compositions, which is reconfirmed by the Raman Spectroscopic study. Dielectric study confirm the temperature stable behavior of the dielectric permittivity values above 300∘C. The dielectric constant value decreases with increase in BMT doping content. Impedance Spectroscopic study confirms non-Debye type dielectric relaxation in the specimen. The Nyquist plot and conductivity studies show the negative temperature coefficient of resistance behavior (NTCR of the samples.

  2. The efficiency of direct torque control for electric vehicle behavior improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasbaoui Brahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the electric vehicle motorization control takes a great interest of industrials for commercialized electric vehicles. This paper is one example of the proposed control methods that ensure both safety and stability the electric vehicle by the means of Direct Torque Control (DTC. For motion of the vehicle the electric drive consists of four wheels: two front ones for steering and two rear ones for propulsion equipped with two induction motors, due to their lightweight simplicity and high performance. Acceleration and steering are ensured by the electronic differential, permitting safe and reliable steering at any curve. The direct torque control ensures efficiently controlled vehicle. Electric vehicle direct torque control is simulated in MATLAB SIMULINK environment. Electric vehicle (EV demonstrated satisfactory results in all type of roads constraints: straight, ramp, downhill and bends.

  3. Effect of process parameters on the dynamic behavior of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells for electric vehicle applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Abd El Monem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane “PEM” fuel cell systems to be used for electric vehicle applications. The performance of the fuel cell, depending on the developed model and taking the double layer charging effect into account, is investigated with different process parameters to evaluate their effect on the unit behavior. Thus, it will be easy to develop suitable controllers to regulate the unit operation, which encourages the use of fuel cells especially with electric vehicles applications. The steady-state performance of the fuel cell is verified using a comparison with datasheet data and curves provided by the manufacturer. The results and conclusions introduced in this paper provide a base for further investigation of fuel cells-driven dc motors for electric vehicle.

  4. Simulation of thermal behavior of nuclear fuel rod by electrically heated pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carajilescov, P.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of electrically heated rods for the simulation of nuclear fuel rods represents an universally adopted method by the nuclear industry to study thermalhydraulic problems. The present work represents the development of a method to obtain the time variation of the electric linear power necessary to simulate a given nuclear power transient in order to yield the same temperature and heat flux conditions in the surface of the electrical heater that would be obtained by the nuclear fuel rod. (Author) [pt

  5. The influence of transition metal oxides type M+/M++ on the vanadium-tellurite glasses electrical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Prátula, Pablo E.; Terny, Soledad; Cardillo, Evangelina C.; Frechero, Marisa A.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the electrical behavior and structural features of the system xCu2O (1 - x) (0.5V2O5·0.5MoO3) 2TeO2 compared to xAg2O (1 - x) (0.5V2O5·0.5MoO3) 2TeO2 (which was already studied) are explored. The main goal is to determine whether the electronic configuration of Cu+ and Ag+ ions is the key to understand the interactions of these ions with vanadium ions in the glassy matrix studied and to establish the nature of the particular electrical conductivity response. It is shown that despite the fact that both ions (Cu+ and Ag+) have similar electronic configurations but different sizes they have similar electrical behaviors contrary to what is commonly accepted (i.e. silver modified glasses are completely ionic systems, while copper modified glasses are purely electronic -polaronic- semiconductors). It is expected that both behave as mixed electrical conductors, neither pure polaronic nor pure ionic. It has been found that the minimum observed in the isotherm of conductivity can be explained by the structural features of this glassy matrix and not by a change in its mechanism of conduction.

  6. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihe Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs, has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (PHEV fuel efficiency, battery system lifetime, and the environment. This paper presents a detailed investigation of battery system modeling and real-world user-specific driving behavior analysis for emerging electric-drive vehicles. The proposed model is fast to compute and accurate for analyzing battery system run-time and long-term cycle life with a focus on temperature dependent battery system capacity fading and variation. The proposed solution is validated against physical measurement using real-world user driving studies, and has been adopted to facilitate battery system design and optimization. Using the collected real-world hybrid vehicle and run-time driving data, we have also conducted detailed analytical studies of users’ specific driving patterns and their impacts on hybrid vehicle electric energy and fuel efficiency. This work provides a solid foundation for future energy control with emerging electric-drive applications.

  7. Strategic Behavior in Liberalized Electricity Sectors : Game Theoretical Formal Modeling in Policy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oruç, S.

    2014-01-01

    The electricity infrastructure, like many other networked infrastructures, is an indispensable and integral part of developed economies. The economic growth, quality of life and general well-being of modern societies all depend on the smooth, reliable and efficient operation of electricity system.

  8. Adsorption Behavior of High Stable Zr-Based MOFs for the Removal of Acid Organic Dye from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Deng Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium based metal organic frameworks (Zr-MOFs have become popular in engineering studies due to their high mechanical stability, thermostability and chemical stability. In our work, by using a theoretical kinetic adsorption isotherm, we can exert MOFs to an acid dye adsorption process, experimentally exploring the adsorption of MOFs, their external behavior and internal mechanism. The results indicate their spontaneous and endothermic nature, and the maximum adsorption capacity of this material for acid orange 7 (AO7 could be up to 358 mg·g−1 at 318 K, estimated by the Langmuir isotherm model. This is ascribed to the presence of an open active metal site that significantly intensified the adsorption, by majorly increasing the interaction strength with the adsorbates. Additionally, the enhanced π delocalization and suitable pore size of UiO-66 gave rise to the highest host–guest interaction, which further improves both the adsorption capacity and separation selectivity at low concentrations. Furthermore, the stability of UiO-66 was actually verified for the first time, through comparing the structure of the samples before and after adsorption mainly by Powder X-ray diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis.

  9. Scenario generation for electric vehicles' uncertain behavior in a smart city environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, João; Borges, Nuno; Fotouhi Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali; Vale, Zita; Moura Oliveira, P.B. de

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a framework and methods to estimate electric vehicles' possible states, regarding their demand, location and grid connection periods. The proposed methods use the Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the probability of occurrence for each state and a fuzzy logic probabilistic approach to characterize the uncertainty of electric vehicles' demand. Day-ahead and hour-ahead methodologies are proposed to support the smart grids' operational decisions. A numerical example is presented using an electric vehicles fleet in a smart city environment to obtain each electric vehicle possible states regarding their grid location. - Highlights: • New concept/framework in smart cities context to estimate the states of electric vehicles and energy demand. • Monte Carlo Simulation and fuzzy logic probabilistic approach to support the envisaged concept. • A day-ahead and an hour-ahead stochastic scenarios generation to support the smart grid's operational decisions.

  10. Dynamics and stimulus-dependence of pacemaker control during behavioral modulations in the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, J

    1987-08-01

    1. Weakly electric fish generate around their bodies low-amplitude, AC electric fields which are used both for the detection of objects and intraspecific communication. The types of modulation in this signal of which the high-frequency wave-type gymnotiform, Apteronotus, is capable are relatively few and stereotyped. Chief among these is the chirp, a signal used in courtship and agonistic displays. Chirps are brief and rapid accelerations in the normally highly regular electric organ discharge (EOD) frequency. 2. Chirping can be elicited artificially in these animals by the use of a stimulus regime identical to that typically used to elicit another behavior, the jamming avoidance response (JAR). The neuronal basis for the JAR, a much slower and lesser alteration in EOD frequency, is well understood. Examination of the stimulus features which induce chirping show that, like the JAR, there is a region of frequency differences between the fish's EOD and the interfering signal that maximally elicits the response. Moreover, the response is sex-specific with regard to the sign of the frequency difference, with females chirping preferentially on the positive and most males on the negative Df. These features imply that the sensory mechanisms involved in the triggering of these communicatory behaviors are fundamentally similar to those explicated for the JAR. 3. Additionally, two other modulatory behaviors of unknown significance are described. The first is a non-selective rise in EOD frequency associated with a JAR stimulus, occurring regardless of the sign of the Df. This modulation shares many characteristics with the JAR. The second behavior, which we have termed a 'yodel', is distinct from and kinetically intermediate to chirping and the JAR. Moreover, unlike the other studied electromotor behaviors it is generally produced only after the termination of the eliciting stimulus.

  11. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  12. Improved capture of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) by placement of knight stick sticky fly traps protected by electric fence inside animal exhibit yards at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Ose, Gregory A

    2017-12-01

    Stable flies are noxious blood-feeding pests of exotic animals at zoological parks, inflicting painful bites, and causing discomfort to animals. Stable fly management is difficult because of the flies' tendency to remain on the host animals only when feeding. Non-toxic traps can be efficient but traps placed around exhibit perimeters captured fewer-than-expected numbers of flies. By surrounding traps with square electric fence enclosures, traps could be placed in the exhibits with the host animals and compared with an equal number of traps placed along perimeter fences. During a 21-week study, traps inside exhibits captured 5× more stable flies than traps placed along exhibit perimeters. Traps inside exhibits tended to show more fluctuations in fly populations than traps along perimeters. The increased numbers of flies captured using this technique should provide relief from this pestiferous fly and greatly improve animal health and welfare. We believe this to be the first study where traps were used to capture stable flies in exhibit yards at a zoological park. © 2017 The Authors. Zoo Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Modeling plug-in electric vehicle charging demand with BEAM: the framework for behavior energy autonomy mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Colin; Waraich, Rashid; Campbell, Andrew; Pozdnukov, Alexei; Gopal, Anand R.

    2017-05-01

    This report summarizes the BEAM modeling framework (Behavior, Energy, Mobility, and Autonomy) and its application to simulating plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) mobility, energy consumption, and spatiotemporal charging demand. BEAM is an agent-based model of PEV mobility and charging behavior designed as an extension to MATSim (the Multi-Agent Transportation Simulation model). We apply BEAM to the San Francisco Bay Area and conduct a preliminary calibration and validation of its prediction of charging load based on observed charging infrastructure utilization for the region in 2016. We then explore the impact of a variety of common modeling assumptions in the literature regarding charging infrastructure availability and driver behavior. We find that accurately reproducing observed charging patterns requires an explicit representation of spatially disaggregated charging infrastructure as well as a more nuanced model of the decision to charge that balances tradeoffs people make with regards to time, cost, convenience, and range anxiety.

  14. Combination of optical spectroscopy and electrical impedancemetry for nutrition behavior characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchik, Alexey; Pavlov, Konstantin; Vilenskii, Maksim; Popov, Mikhail

    2017-07-01

    Unhealthy nutrition trends determination technique is described. Combination of optical spectroscopy and electrical impedancemetry will lead to development of a healthcare device that will predict unhealthy eating habits and decrease risk factors of diseases development.

  15. Electric Vehicle Ownership Factors, Preferred Safety Technologies and Commuting Behavior in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to reduce climate-changing greenhouse gas emissions, potentially reduce the ground-level ozone experienced during summers over the Mid-Atlantic's I-95 Corridor, and possibly reduce dependence on fossil fuels. EVs ...

  16. Behavioral recovery induced by applied electric fields after spinal cord hemisection in guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgens, R.B.; Blight, A.R.; McGinnis, M.E.

    1987-10-16

    Applied electric fields were used to promote axonal regeneration in spinal cords of adult guinea pigs. A propriospinal intersegmental reflex (the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex) was used to test lateral tract function after hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord. An electrical field (200 microvolts per millimeter, cathode rostral) applied across the lesion led to functional recovery of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex in 25 percent of experimental animals, whereas the functional deficit remained in control animals, which were implanted with inactive stimulators.

  17. Enhanced Absorption Performance of Carbon Nanostructure Based Metamaterials and Tuning Impedance Matching Behavior by an External AC Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipur, Reza; Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali

    2017-04-12

    Metamaterials have surprisingly broadened the range of available practical applications in new devices such as shielding, microwave absorbing, and novel antennas. More research has been conducted related to tuning DNG frequency bands of ordered or disordered metamaterials, and far less research has focused on the importance of impedance matching behavior, with little effort and attention given to adjusting the magnitude of negative permittivity values. This is particularly important if devices deal with low-amplitude signals such as radio or TV antennas. The carbon/hafnium nickel oxide (C/Hf 0.9 Ni 0.1 O y ) nanocomposites with simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability, excellent metamaterial performance, and good impedance matching could become an efficient alternative for the ordered metamaterials in wave-transparent, microwave absorbing, and solar energy harvesting fields. In this study, we prepared C/Hf 0.9 Ni 0.1 O y nanocomposites by the solvothermal method, and we clarified how the impedance matching and double-negative (DNG) behaviors of C/Hf 0.9 Ni 0.1 O y can be tuned by an external AC electric field created by an electric quadrupole system. An external electric field allows for the alignment of the well-dispersed nanoparticles of carbon with long-range orientations order. We believe that this finding broadens our understanding of moderate conductive material-based random metamaterials (MCMRMs) and provides a novel strategy for replacing high-loss ordered or disordered metamaterials with MCMRMs.

  18. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  19. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Projects 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible hehavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. This volume contains only appendices for projects 3 and 4. 81 figs., 67 tabs.

  20. Cardiomyocyte behavior on biodegradable polyurethane/gold nanocomposite scaffolds under electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganji, Yasaman; Li, Qian; Quabius, Elgar Susanne; Böttner, Martina; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Kasra, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Following a myocardial infarction (MI), cardiomyocytes are replaced by scar tissue, which decreases ventricular contractile function. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to regenerate such damaged cardiomyocyte tissue. Engineered cardiac patches can be fabricated by seeding a high density of cardiac cells onto a synthetic or natural porous polymer. In this study, nanocomposite scaffolds made of gold nanotubes/nanowires incorporated into biodegradable castor oil-based polyurethane were employed to make micro-porous scaffolds. H9C2 cardiomyocyte cells were cultured on the scaffolds for one day, and electrical stimulation was applied to improve cell communication and interaction in neighboring pores. Cells on scaffolds were examined by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, revealing that the combination of scaffold design and electrical stimulation significantly increased cell confluency of H9C2 cells on the scaffolds. Furthermore, we showed that the gene expression levels of Nkx2.5, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANF) and natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB), which are functional genes of the myocardium, were up-regulated by the incorporation of gold nanotubes/nanowires into the polyurethane scaffolds, in particular after electrical stimulation. - Highlights: • Biodegradable polyurethane/gold nanocomposites for cardiomyocyte adhesion are proposed. • The nanocomposite scaffolds are porous and electrical stimulation enhances cell adhesion. • Expression levels of functional myocardium genes were upregulated after electrical stimulation.

  1. Cardiomyocyte behavior on biodegradable polyurethane/gold nanocomposite scaffolds under electrical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganji, Yasaman [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Materials Science, Dept. Biocompatible Nanomaterials, University of Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Li, Qian [Institute for Materials Science, Dept. Biocompatible Nanomaterials, University of Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Quabius, Elgar Susanne [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3, Building 27, D-24105 Kiel (Germany); Institute of Immunology, University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3, Building 17, D-24105 Kiel (Germany); Böttner, Martina [Department of Anatomy, University of Kiel, Otto-Hahn-Platz 8, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Selhuber-Unkel, Christine, E-mail: cse@tf.uni-kiel.de [Institute for Materials Science, Dept. Biocompatible Nanomaterials, University of Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Kasra, Mehran [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    Following a myocardial infarction (MI), cardiomyocytes are replaced by scar tissue, which decreases ventricular contractile function. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to regenerate such damaged cardiomyocyte tissue. Engineered cardiac patches can be fabricated by seeding a high density of cardiac cells onto a synthetic or natural porous polymer. In this study, nanocomposite scaffolds made of gold nanotubes/nanowires incorporated into biodegradable castor oil-based polyurethane were employed to make micro-porous scaffolds. H9C2 cardiomyocyte cells were cultured on the scaffolds for one day, and electrical stimulation was applied to improve cell communication and interaction in neighboring pores. Cells on scaffolds were examined by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, revealing that the combination of scaffold design and electrical stimulation significantly increased cell confluency of H9C2 cells on the scaffolds. Furthermore, we showed that the gene expression levels of Nkx2.5, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANF) and natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB), which are functional genes of the myocardium, were up-regulated by the incorporation of gold nanotubes/nanowires into the polyurethane scaffolds, in particular after electrical stimulation. - Highlights: • Biodegradable polyurethane/gold nanocomposites for cardiomyocyte adhesion are proposed. • The nanocomposite scaffolds are porous and electrical stimulation enhances cell adhesion. • Expression levels of functional myocardium genes were upregulated after electrical stimulation.

  2. Specific features in the behavior of electrical resistivity of the pine biocarbon preform/copper composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, A. T.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.

    2010-11-01

    The electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the novel type of composites prepared by infiltrating melted copper in vacuum in empty sap channels of white pine high-porosity biocarbon preforms has been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. Biocarbon preforms have been prepared by pyrolysis of tree wood in an argon flow at two carbonization temperatures, 1000 and 2400°C. The electrical resistivity of the composites has been found to vary relatively weakly with temperature and to pass through a characteristic minimum near 40-50 K, which can be ascribed to iron and manganese impurities penetrating into copper from the carbon preform when liquid copper is infiltrated into it. It has been shown that the electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the composites is governed primarily by the specific microstructure of the preform, which is made up of parallel channels with an average diameter of about 50 μm interrupted by systems of thin capillaries. The small cross section of the copper-filled capillaries accounts for these regions providing the major contribution to the electrical resistivity of the composites. An increase in the wood carbonization temperature brings about a noticeable increase in the effective capillary cross section and a decrease in the electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the composite.

  3. An agent-based simulation of power generation company behavior in electricity markets under different market-clearing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliabadi, Danial Esmaeili; Kaya, Murat; Şahin, Güvenç

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated electricity markets are expected to provide affordable electricity for consumers through promoting competition. Yet, the results do not always fulfill the expectations. The regulator's market-clearing mechanism is a strategic choice that may affect the level of competition in the market. We conceive of the market-clearing mechanism as composed of two components: pricing rules and rationing policies. We investigate the strategic behavior of power generation companies under different market-clearing mechanisms using an agent-based simulation model which integrates a game-theoretical understanding of the auction mechanism in the electricity market and generation companies' learning mechanism. Results of our simulation experiments are presented using various case studies representing different market settings. The market in simulations is observed to converge to a Nash equilibrium of the stage game or to a similar state under most parameter combinations. Compared to pay-as-bid pricing, bid prices are closer to marginal costs on average under uniform pricing while GenCos' total profit is also higher. The random rationing policy of the ISO turns out to be more successful in achieving lower bid prices and lower GenCo profits. In minimizing GenCos' total profit, a combination of pay-as-bid pricing rule and random rationing policy is observed to be the most promising. - Highlights: • An agent-based simulation of generation company behavior in electricity markets is developed. • Learning dynamics of companies is modeled with an extended Q-learning algorithm. • Different market clearing mechanisms of the regulator are compared. • Convergence to Nash equilibria is analyzed under different cases. • The level of competition in the market is studied.

  4. A search for stable massive particles carrying electric charges in the range of 2e to 6e in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Simone

    2013-08-15

    This dissertation presents a search for long-lived, multi-charged particles using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Motivation for this search arose from an unexploited search regime at ATLAS of stable massive particles with electric charges of vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 5e. Additional motivation can be found in several beyond the Standard Model physics theories. Proton-proton collisions recorded during the 2011 LHC running at {radical}(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb{sup -1}, are examined in a signature-based analysis. The search seeks out charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with electric charges in the range from vertical stroke q vertical stroke =2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke =6e. For this search, new variables of specific energy loss per path length dE/dx are used in the candidate selection. One of these variables, the TRT dE/dx, is developed in the course of this thesis and is described in detail. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model processes. The 95% C.L. upper cross section limits are also interpreted as mass exclusion limits for a simplified Drell-Yan production model.

  5. Electrical behavior of laminated composites with intralaminar degradation: A comprehensive micro-meso homogenization procedure

    KAUST Repository

    Selvakumaran, Lakshmi

    2014-03-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) is a promising health monitoring technique to assess damage in laminated composites. Yet, the missing link between the various complex degradation mechanisms within the laminate and its global change in resistivity prevents ERT from being used as a quantitative technique. We propose an electrical mesomodel that can establish this link between the various microscale degradations and the resistivity changes in the measurements. The mesoscale homogenization of transverse cracks with local delamination of the ply is first described for in-plane electrical loading for both the outer and the inner plies. The mesoscale model is then extended to include the out-of-plane loading. The relationship between the mesoscale damage indicators and the degradation morphology is identified. These damage indicators are found to be intrinsic to the ply. As such, this defines the first step towards the interpretation of resistivity measurement in terms of micromechanical damage. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Dynamic behaviors of ferroelectric liquid crystal molecules under an applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masato; Takei, Misaki; Yamashita, Masafumi

    2009-03-01

    The dynamic changes in ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) molecular alignments under an applied electric field are examined by observing the formation of conoscopic figures with a time resolution of 0.1 ms. Close agreements between observed and simulated conoscopic figures under low voltage (30 V) were obtained. Under high voltage (120 V), however, the observed conoscopic figures became blurred between 0.8 ms and 1.1 ms after reversal of the electric field. The light scattering producing the blurriness occurred due to the development of fast transient molecular alignments during the switching transition above the applied voltage 70 V.

  7. A comparative study of transcutaneous interferential electrical stimulation plus behavioral therapy and behavioral therapy alone on constipation in postoperative Hirschsprung disease children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladi-Seyedian, Seyedeh-Sanam; Sharifi-Rad, Lida; Manouchehri, Navid; Ashjaei, Bahar

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of transcutaneous interferential (IF) electrical stimulation on constipation in postoperative Hirschsprung's disease (HD) patients. Thirty HD children (18 boys and 12 girls) with constipation who had no surgical complication were enrolled and then randomly divided into two treatment groups. The control group underwent only behavioral therapy comprising high fiber diet, hydration, toilet training and pelvic floor muscles exercises while; the IF group underwent behavioral therapy plus IF electrical stimulation. Patients underwent anorectal manometry before and 6months after the treatment. In addition, a complete bowel diary with data on the frequency of defecation per week, stool form and the number of fecal soiling episodes, a constipation score and a visual pain score were obtained from all patients before, after treatment and 6months later. Constipation symptoms were improved in 10 (66%) and 4 (26.6%) patients in IF and control groups, respectively at 6months of follow up (Pconstipation in postoperative HD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Critical behavior of electrical resistivity in amorphous Fe–Zr alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical resistivity (ρ) of the amorphous (a-)Fe100-Zr ( = 8.5, 9.5 and 10) alloys has been measured in the temperature range 77 to 300 K, which embraces the second-order magnetic phase transition at the Curie temperature point . Analysis of the resistivity data particularly in the critical region reveals that these ...

  9. Electrical conductivity and thermal behavior of solid electrolytes based on alkali carbonates and sulfates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosda, S.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Guth, U.

    1997-01-01

    Both thermal stability and electrical conductivity of alkali ion conducting Na2CO3 and Na2SO4, were improved by adding alkaline earth carbonates and sulfates, respectively, as well as insulating materials like ¿-Al2O3. The admixing of divalent compounds causes two effects. First a more or less

  10. Low energy gamma induced radiation damage in YBCO: electrical resistivity and the induced metal - insulator transition behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Carlos M.; Pinnera, Ibrahin; Leyva, Antonio; Abreu, Yamiel; Sirgado, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In the present contribution the superconducting YBCO ρ(T) dependence behavior on the irradiation dose and accumulative time are studied for gamma quanta of E γ = 132 keV ( 57 Co) and 1,25 MeV ( 60 Co) at room temperature. In both cases, possible radiation effects on grain boundary and intragrain zones are evaluated by means of different gamma ray microscopic interaction models. It was conclude that 57 Co gamma quanta (E γ = 132 keV) modules YBCO ρ(T) dependence behavior through enhanced oxygen vacancy diffusion motions which collapse the electron percolative conduction paths in the grain boundary zones, effects which are not observed by irradiation with 60 Co gamma quanta (E γ = 1,25 MeV), in which case main irradiation effects on the electrical conduction mechanisms are limited to the intragrain zones. (Author)

  11. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  12. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  13. Microstructure and wear behaviors of WC–12%Co coating deposited on ductile iron by electric contact surface strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xiaoben; Zhu, Shigen; Ding, Hao; Zhu, Zhengkun; Han, Zhibing

    2013-01-01

    WC–12%Co powders deposited on ductile iron by electric contact strengthening were studied. This technology was based on the application of the contact resistance heating between the electrode and work piece to form a wear resistant layer on ductile iron. The microstructure, microhardness distribution, phase transformation and wear behaviors of the coating were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, Vickers hardness (HV 0.5 ), X-ray diffraction, rolling contact wear tests. The results showed that the WC–12%Co coating by electric contact strengthening was metallurgically bonded to the ductile iron. Additionally, the effect of experimental parameters on microhardness and wear resistance of coatings were studied using orthogonal experiment. The results showed that compared with (A) electric current and (B) rotating speed, (C) contact force displays the most significant effect on microhardness and wear resistance of coatings. The coatings produced at A = 19 kA, B = 0.3 r/min and C = 700 N possessed highest microhardness of 1073 HV 0.5 and wear resistance.

  14. Electric and dielectric behavior of copper-chromium layered double hydroxide intercalated with dodecyl sulfate anions using impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatimi, Wafaa; Bouragba, Fatima Zahra; Lahkale, Radouane; Sadik, Rachid; Lebbar, Nacira; Siniti, Mustapha; Sabbar, Elmouloudi

    2018-05-01

    The Cu2Cr-DS-LDH hybrid was successfully prepared by the anion exchange method at room temperature. The structure, the chemical composition and the physico-chemical properties of the sample were determined using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In this work, the electrical and dielectric properties investigated are determined using impedance spectroscopy (IS) in a frequency range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Indeed, the Nyquist diagram modelized by an electrical equivalent circuit showed three contributions attributed respectively to the polarization of grains, grains boundaries and interface electrode-sample. This modelization allowed us to determine the intrinsic electrical parameters of the hybrid (resistance, pseudo-capacitance and relaxation time). The presence of the non-Debye relaxation phenomena was confirmed by the frequency analysis of impedance. Moreover, the evolution of the alternating current conductivity (σac) studied obeys the double power law of Jonscher. The ionic conduction of this material was generated through a jump movement by translation of the charge carriers. As for the dielectric behavior of the material, the evolution of dielectric constant as a function of frequency shows relatively high values in a frequency range between 10 Hz and 1 KHz. The low values of the loss tangent obtained in this frequency zone can valorize this LDH hybrid.

  15. Evaluation of Fatigue Behavior and Surface Characteristics of Aluminum Alloy 2024 T6 After Electric Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Shahid; Shah, Masood; Pasha, Riffat Asim; Sultan, Amir

    2017-10-01

    The effect of electric discharge machining (EDM) on surface quality and consequently on the fatigue performance of Al 2024 T6 is investigated. Five levels of discharge current are analyzed, while all other electrical and nonelectrical parameters are kept constant. At each discharge current level, dog-bone specimens are machined by generating a peripheral notch at the center. The fatigue tests are performed on four-point rotating bending machine at room temperature. For comparison purposes, fatigue tests are also performed on the conventionally machined specimens. Linearized SN curves for 95% failure probability and with four different confidence levels (75, 90, 95 and 99%) are plotted for each discharge current level as well as for conventionally machined specimens. These plots show that the electric discharge machined (EDMed) specimens give inferior fatigue behavior as compared to conventionally machined specimen. Moreover, discharge current inversely affects the fatigue life, and this influence is highly pronounced at lower stresses. The EDMed surfaces are characterized by surface properties that could be responsible for change in fatigue life such as surface morphology, surface roughness, white layer thickness, microhardness and residual stresses. It is found that all these surface properties are affected by changing discharge current level. However, change in fatigue life by discharge current could not be associated independently to any single surface property.

  16. Determining the Interruptible Load with Strategic Behavior in a Competitive Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyun Yoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a deregulated market, independent system operators meet power balance based on supply and demand bids to maximize social welfare. Since electricity markets are typically oligopolies, players with market power may withhold capacity to maximize profit. Such exercise of market power can lead to various problems, including increased electricity prices, and hence lower social welfare. Here we propose an approach to maximize social welfare and prevent the exercising of market power by means of interruptible loads in a competitive market environment. Our approach enables management of the market power by analyzing the benefit to the companies of capacity withdrawal and scheduling resources with interruptible loads. Our formulation shows that we can prevent power companies and demand-resource owners from exercising market powers. The oligopolistic conditions are described using the Cournot model to reflect the capacity withdrawal in electricity markets. The numerical results confirm the effectiveness of proposed method, via a comparison of perfect competition and oligopoly scenarios. Our approach provides reductions in market-clearing prices, increases in social welfare, and more equal distribution of surpluses between players.

  17. Probing dynamic behavior of electric fields and band diagrams in complex semiconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkulets, Yury; Shalish, Ilan

    2018-01-01

    Modern bandgap engineered electronic devices are typically made of multi-semiconductor multi-layer heterostructures that pose a major challenge to silicon-era characterization methods. As a result, contemporary bandgap engineering relies mostly on simulated band structures that are hardly ever verified experimentally. Here, we present a method that experimentally evaluates bandgap, band offsets, and electric fields, in complex multi-semiconductor layered structures, and it does so simultaneously in all the layers. The method uses a modest optical photocurrent spectroscopy setup at ambient conditions. The results are analyzed using a simple model for electro-absorption. As an example, we apply the method to a typical GaN high electron mobility transistor structure. Measurements under various external electric fields allow us to experimentally construct band diagrams, not only at equilibrium but also under any other working conditions of the device. The electric fields are then used to obtain the charge carrier density and mobility in the quantum well as a function of the gate voltage over the entire range of operating conditions of the device. The principles exemplified here may serve as guidelines for the development of methods for simultaneous characterization of all the layers in complex, multi-semiconductor structures.

  18. Electrical Resistance and Acoustic Emission Measurements for Monitoring the Structural Behavior of CFRP Laminate

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Wei

    2015-07-12

    Electrical resistance and acoustic emission (AE) measurement are jointly used to monitor the degradation in CFRP laminates subjected to tensile tests. The objective of this thesis is to perform a synergertic analysis between a passive and an active methods to better access how these perform when used for Structural Health Moni- toring (SHM). Laminates with three different stacking sequences: [0]4, [02/902]s and [+45/ − 45]2s are subjected to monotonic and cyclic tensile tests. In each laminate, we carefully investigate which mechanisms of degradation can or cannot be detect- ed by each technique. It is shown that most often, that acoustic emission signals start before any electrical detection is possible. This is is explained based on the redundance of the electrical network that makes it less sensitive to localized damages. Based on in depth study of AE signals clustering, a new classification is proposed to recognize the different damage mechanims based on only two parameters: the RA (rise time/amplitude) and the duration of the signal.

  19. Effect of Electric Field on the Wetting Behavior of Eutectic Gallium-Indium Alloys in Aqueous Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; He, Zhi-Zhu; Liu, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Room-temperature liquid metals have many intriguing properties that have not previously been fully understood. Among them, surface tension behaviors of such metals are especially critical in a group of newly emerging areas such as printed electronics, functional materials and soft machines, etc. This study is dedicated to clarifying the wettability of liquid metals on various substrate surfaces with varied roughness immersed in solutions when subject to an electric field. The contact angles of Ga75.5In24.5 in several typical liquids were comprehensively measured and interpreted, and were revealed to be affected by the components and concentration of the environmental solution. Meanwhile, the roughness of the substrates is also revealed to be an important parameter dominating the process. The dynamic wetting behaviors of liquid metal in aqueous environment under an electric field were quantified. The contact angle values of eutectic gallium-indium alloys (eGaIn) on titanium substrates with different roughness would lead to better electrowetting performances on rougher surfaces. In particular, using an electrical field to control the wetting status of liquid metal with the matching substrate have been illustrated, which would offer a practical way to flexibly control liquid metal-based functional devices working in an aqueous environment. Furthermore, Lippmann-Young's equation reveals the relationship between contact angle and applied voltage, explaining the excellent electrowetting property of eGaIn. The power law, R = αt β , was adopted to characterize the two-stage wetting process of eGaIn under different voltages. In the initial process, β ≈ 1/2 represents the complete wetting law, while the later one, β ≈ 1/10, meets with Tanner's law of a drop spontaneously spreading on a smooth surface.

  20. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behavior of nonhuman primates. Quarterly technical progress report No. 20, September 28-December 20, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.

    1986-01-03

    This research program will evaluate the aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity which produces avoidance or escape responses, will estimate the threshold intensity for detection of 60 Hz electric fields, will assess effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio and differential reinforcement of low rate responding, will investigate, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. In all experiments, the electric fields will be described, characterized, and controlled to account for recognized artifacts associated with high intensity 60 Hz electric fields and the health of all subjects will be described using the methods of primate veterinary medicine.

  1. Electrical and optical behavior of ZnO nanowires irradiated by ion beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisevski, Caroline I.; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Franzen, Paulo L

    2015-01-01

    doses. The results strongly indicates the existence of an enhanced dynamic annealing effect during the low fluence irradiations allowing it to heal low migration barrier point-defects such as oxygen interstitials (OI), zinc interstitials (ZnI), zinc antisites (ZnO) and oxygen antisites (OZn......). On the other hand, highly stable defects such as oxygen vacancies (VO), which present higher migration barrier energy, seems to be more pronounced giving rise to short-infrared emission at 1.7 eV....

  2. An overview of a highly versatile forward and stable inverse algorithm for airborne, ground-based and borehole electromagnetic and electric data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Kirkegaard, Casper

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a mature, robust and general algorithm providing a single framework for the inversion of most electromagnetic and electrical data types and instrument geometries. The implementation mainly uses a 1D earth formulation for electromagnetics and magnetic resonance sounding...... (MRS) responses, while the geoelectric responses are both 1D and 2D and the sheet's response models a 3D conductive sheet in a conductive host with an overburden of varying thickness and resistivity. In all cases, the focus is placed on delivering full system forward modelling across all supported...... illustrating the versatility of the algorithm. The first example is a laterally constrained joint inversion (LCI) of surface time domain induced polarisation (TDIP) data and borehole TDIP data. The second example shows a spatially constrained inversion (SCI) of airborne transient electromagnetic (AEM) data...

  3. An investigation of the static and dynamic behavior of electrically actuated rectangular microplates

    KAUST Repository

    Saghir, S.

    2016-06-16

    We present an investigation of the static and dynamic behavior of the nonlinear von-Karman plates when actuated by the nonlinear electrostatic forces. The investigation is based on a reduced order model developed using the Galerkin method, which rely on modeshapes and in-plane shape functions extracted using a finite element method. In this study, a fully clamped microplate is considered. We investigate the static behavior and the effect of different non-dimensional design parameters. The static results are validated by comparison with the results calculated by a finite element model. The forced-vibration response of the plate is then investigated when the plate is excited by a harmonic AC load superimposed to a DC load. The dynamic behavior is examined near the primary and secondary (superharmonic and subharmonic) resonances. The microplate shows a strong hardening behavior due to the cubic nonlinearity of mid-plane stretching. However, the behavior switches to softening as the DC load is increased. Finally, near-square plates are studied to understand the effect of geometric imperfections of microplates.

  4. Social interactions between live and artificial weakly electric fish: Electrocommunication and locomotor behavior of Mormyrus rume proboscirostris towards a mobile dummy fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Worm

    Full Text Available Mormyrid weakly electric fish produce short, pulse-type electric organ discharges for actively probing their environment and to communicate with conspecifics. Animals emit sequences of pulse-trains that vary in overall frequency and temporal patterning and can lead to time-locked interactions with the discharge activity of other individuals. Both active electrolocation and electrocommunication are additionally accompanied by stereotypical locomotor patterns. However, the concrete roles of electrical and locomotor patterns during social interactions in mormyrids are not well understood. Here we used a mobile fish dummy that was emitting different types of electrical playback sequences to study following behavior and interaction patterns (electrical and locomotor between individuals of weakly electric fish. We confronted single individuals of Mormyrus rume proboscirostris with a mobile dummy fish designed to attract fish from a shelter and recruit them into an open area by emitting electrical playbacks of natural discharge sequences. We found that fish were reliably recruited by the mobile dummy if it emitted electrical signals and followed it largely independently of the presented playback patterns. While following the dummy, fish interacted with it spatially by displaying stereotypical motor patterns, as well as electrically, e.g. through discharge regularizations and by synchronizing their own discharge activity to the playback. However, the overall emission frequencies of the dummy were not adopted by the following fish. Instead, social signals based on different temporal patterns were emitted depending on the type of playback. In particular, double pulses were displayed in response to electrical signaling of the dummy and their expression was positively correlated with an animals' rank in the dominance hierarchy. Based on additional analysis of swimming trajectories and stereotypical locomotor behavior patterns, we conclude that the reception

  5. Electric and magnetic behaviors observed in NiO-based thin films under light-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yi-Dong; Song, Kenan; Shun, Li; Gao, Junqi; Xu, Ben, E-mail: xuben@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: linyh@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Lin, Yuan-Hua, E-mail: xuben@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: linyh@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Nan, Ce-Wen; Liu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-09-07

    We report the room-temperature ferromagnetic properties that can be tuned by light irradiation in the Li and Mn co-doped NiO films (LMNO) grown by the spinning coating. The optical tunable magnetic behavior is enhanced by the increase of the Li doping concentration. First-principle calculations reveal that the Li doping plays key roles in the optical tuned magnetic behavior, which brings a 3d-like impurity state to enhance a significant hybridization between the Mn{sup 3+} 3d state and the impurity band, thus strengthening the ferromagnetic coupling effects. Additionally, it can tune the band gap of the LMNO films and produce more holes under the light irradiation, enhancing the optical tuned magnetic behavior.

  6. Automatic realistic real time stimulation/recording in weakly electric fish: long time behavior characterization in freely swimming fish and stimuli discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline G Forlim

    Full Text Available Weakly electric fish are unique model systems in neuroethology, that allow experimentalists to non-invasively, access, central nervous system generated spatio-temporal electric patterns of pulses with roles in at least 2 complex and incompletely understood abilities: electrocommunication and electrolocation. Pulse-type electric fish alter their inter pulse intervals (IPIs according to different behavioral contexts as aggression, hiding and mating. Nevertheless, only a few behavioral studies comparing the influence of different stimuli IPIs in the fish electric response have been conducted. We developed an apparatus that allows real time automatic realistic stimulation and simultaneous recording of electric pulses in freely moving Gymnotus carapo for several days. We detected and recorded pulse timestamps independently of the fish's position for days. A stimulus fish was mimicked by a dipole electrode that reproduced the voltage time series of real conspecific according to previously recorded timestamp sequences. We characterized fish behavior and the eletrocommunication in 2 conditions: stimulated by IPIs pre-recorded from other fish and random IPI ones. All stimuli pulses had the exact Gymontus carapo waveform. All fish presented a surprisingly long transient exploratory behavior (more than 8 h when exposed to a new environment in the absence of electrical stimuli. Further, we also show that fish are able to discriminate between real and random stimuli distributions by changing several characteristics of their IPI distribution.

  7. Non-uniform electric field-induced yeast cell electrokinetic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Humberto Fernández Morales

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Common dielectrophoresis (c-DEP, i.e. neutral matter motion induced by non-uniform electric fields has become a basic pheno-menon of biochips intended for medical, biological and chemical assays, especially when they imply bioparticle handling. This paper deals with modelling and experimental verification of a castellated, c-DEP-based, microelectrode array intended to handle biological objects. The proposed microsystem was developed employing platinum electrodes patterned by lift-off, silicon micro-machining and photoresin patterning techniques. Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as test bioparticles for experimental verifi-cation. Yeast cells were repelled toward electrode bays and toward interelectrodic gaps tor frequencies around 20 MHz where there is minimum electric field strength, corresponding to a negative dielectrophoretic phenomenon. Yeast cell agglomerations were observed around electrode edges for frequencies of around 2 MHz where there is maximum electric field strength, thereby verifying the positive dielectrophoretic phenomenon. Bioparticles were separated from the electrode edges when the working fre-quency was reduced and they were dragged towards the electrode centre, remaining there while the frequency was low enough. Such atypical pattern may be explained due to the occurrence of positive dielectrophoresis overlap with electrohydrodynamic effects (i.e. the viscous drag force acting on the particles was greater than the dielectrophoretic force at frequencies where positi-ve dielectrophoresis should occur. The experiments illustrated microsystem convenience in microhandling biological objects, the-reby providing these microarrays’ possible use with other cells. Liquid motion resulting from electrohydrodynamic effects must also be taken into account when designing bioparticle micromanipulators, and could be used as a mechanism for cleaning electrode surfaces.

  8. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Critical behavior of electrical resistivity in amorphous Fe–Zr alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heisenberg like ferromagnet behavior in asymptotic critical region or not. A complete understanding of the critical phenomena in amorphous systems, therefore demands a systematic experimental study on materials having varying degrees and types of quenched disorder. The specific heat measurement is the most ...

  10. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  11. Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is a relative movement between electrical contacts with surfaces of ignoble metal. Avoiding fretting corrosion is therefore extremely challenging in electronic devices with pluggable electrical connections. Gold is one of the most commonly used noble plating materials for high performance electrical contacts because of its high corrosion resistance and its good and stable electrical behavior. The authors have investigated different ways to minimize the consumption of gold for electrical contacts and to improve the performance of gold plating. Other plating materials often used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces are tin, nickel, silver and palladium. This paper will deal with properties and new research results of different plating materials in addition to other means used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces and the testing of corrosion resistance of electrically conductive surfaces.

  12. Fogging Control on LDPE/EVA Coextruded Films: Wettability Behavior and Its Correlation with Electric Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Waldo-Mendoza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of fog at a non-visible water layer on a membrane of low-density polyethylene (LDPE and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA was evaluated. Nonionic surfactants of major demand in the polyolefin industry were studied. A kinetic study using a hot fog chamber showed that condensation is controlled by both the diffusion and permanency of the surfactant more than by the change of the surface energy developed by the wetting agents. The greatest permanency of the anti-fog effect of the LDPE/EVA surface was close to 3000 h. The contact angle results demonstrated the ability of the wetting agent to spread out to the surface. Complementarily, the migration of nonionic surfactants from the inside of the polymeric matrix to the surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microscopy. Additionally, electrical measurement on the anti-fogging membrane at alternating currents and at a sweep frequency was proposed to test the conductivity and wetting ability of nonionic surfactants. We proved that the amphiphilic molecules had the ability to increase the conductivity in the polyolefin membrane. A correlation between the bulk electrical conductivity and the permanency of the fogging control on the LDPE/EVA coextruded film was found.

  13. Effect of Ce-doping on the electrical and electrocatalytical behavior of La/Sr chromo-manganite perovskite as new SOFC anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, E. [CEA, LITEN, Laboratoire d' Innovation Technologique et des Energies Nouvelles, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); LEPMI, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, UMR 5279, CNRS - Grenoble INP - Universite de Savoie - Universite Joseph Fourier, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Benamira, M.; Pirovano, C. [Universite Lille Nord de France, UMR CNRS 8181, Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, ENSCL, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Gauthier, G. [CEA, LITEN, Laboratoire d' Innovation Technologique et des Energies Nouvelles, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Dessemond, L. [LEPMI, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, UMR 5279, CNRS - Grenoble INP - Universite de Savoie - Universite Joseph Fourier, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2012-04-15

    The effect of cerium substitution on the electrical and electrochemical characteristics of a new anode material La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}Cr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (LSCM) was examined by synthesizing Ce{sub x}La{sub 0.75-x}Sr{sub 0.25}Cr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} for x = (0-0.375). From x = 0-0.25, the structure is rhombohedral (S.G. R-3c), and with a higher cerium content (x = 0.375) it becomes cubic (S.G. Pm-3m). These materials are stable in the operating conditions of an SOFC anode. Ce{sub x}La{sub 0.75-x}Sr{sub 0.25}Cr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} and LSCM materials are p-type semi-conductors. Cerium substitution improves the conductivity in neutral atmosphere from 18.3 to 35.4 S cm{sup -1} for x = 0 and 0.375, respectively, at 1,173 K. In reducing conditions, the conductivity is not influenced by cerium substitution, and it is about 1 S cm{sup -1} at 1,173 K. High temperature XRD shows that structure becomes cubic at 1,073 K in operating (reducing) conditions. Cerium substitution positively enhances the electrochemical behavior, as proved by studying the properties of dense cone-shaped electrodes. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Independent operation by subsystems: Strategic behavior for the Brazilian electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido Tapia Carpio, Lucio; Olimpio Pereira, Amaro

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the competitive strategies of the subsystems in the Brazilian electricity sector. The objective is to present a model in which the operation of each subsystem is managed independently. As the subsystems correspond to the country's geographic regions, the adoption of this model creates conditions for each region to develop according to its own peculiarities. The decision-making process is described based Game Theory. As such, the players or operators of each subsystem carry out their strategies based on the quantities produced, which results in Nash-Cournot equilibrium. In this model, the importance of the proper transmission line dimensioning is highlighted. It determines the competition level among subsystems and allows for optimization of the whole system without requiring arrangements for managing the congestion of the energy transportation grid. The model was programmed in FORTRAN, using IBM's optimization subroutine library (OSL) package

  15. Electric and dielectric behaviors of (Ca, Ta)-doped TiO2 thick film varistor obtained by screen printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendi, Rabab Khalid

    2018-03-01

    In the current study, TiO2-based thick film varistors (TFVs) doped with 2.5 mol% Ta and various concentrations of Ca were prepared by using screen-printing technique. The effects of the different Ca concentrations (0.5-3.0 mol%) on microstructure enhancement, nonlinear behavior, and dielectric properties of TiO2-based TFVs were investigated at 2.0 mol% doping concentration. Results showed a Vb value of 513 V, a resistivity value of 157.2 kΩ.cm and an α value of 62. Furthermore, high εr value and low tan δ value at low-frequency range detected that the grain boundaries formed in 2.0 mol% doping concentration samples are good. Therefore, the doping amounts can be used to control the grain size and different properties of (Ca, Ta)-doped TiO2 TFVs with improved structural, electric, and dielectric properties.

  16. Assessing the Electrode-Neuron Interface with the Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential, Electrode Position, and Behavioral Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Lindsay; Scheperle, Rachel; Bierer, Julie Arenberg

    2016-06-01

    Variability in speech perception scores among cochlear implant listeners may largely reflect the variable efficacy of implant electrodes to convey stimulus information to the auditory nerve. In the present study, three metrics were applied to assess the quality of the electrode-neuron interface of individual cochlear implant channels: the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP), the estimation of electrode position using computerized tomography (CT), and behavioral thresholds using focused stimulation. The primary motivation of this approach is to evaluate the ECAP as a site-specific measure of the electrode-neuron interface in the context of two peripheral factors that likely contribute to degraded perception: large electrode-to-modiolus distance and reduced neural density. Ten unilaterally implanted adults with Advanced Bionics HiRes90k devices participated. ECAPs were elicited with monopolar stimulation within a forward-masking paradigm to construct channel interaction functions (CIF), behavioral thresholds were obtained with quadrupolar (sQP) stimulation, and data from imaging provided estimates of electrode-to-modiolus distance and scalar location (scala tympani (ST), intermediate, or scala vestibuli (SV)) for each electrode. The width of the ECAP CIF was positively correlated with electrode-to-modiolus distance; both of these measures were also influenced by scalar position. The ECAP peak amplitude was negatively correlated with behavioral thresholds. Moreover, subjects with low behavioral thresholds and large ECAP amplitudes, averaged across electrodes, tended to have higher speech perception scores. These results suggest a potential clinical role for the ECAP in the objective assessment of individual cochlear implant channels, with the potential to improve speech perception outcomes.

  17. Neuromodulation of the agonistic behavior in two species of weakly electric fish that display different types of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana C; Perrone, Rossana; Zubizarreta, Lucía; Batista, Gervasio; Stoddard, Philip K

    2013-07-01

    Agonistic behavior has shaped sociality across evolution. Though extremely diverse in types of displays and timing, agonistic encounters always follow the same conserved phases (evaluation, contest and post-resolution) and depend on homologous neural circuits modulated by the same neuroendocrine mediators across vertebrates. Among neuromodulators, serotonin (5-HT) is the main inhibitor of aggression, and arginine vasotocin (AVT) underlies sexual, individual and social context differences in behavior across vertebrate taxa. We aim to demonstrate that a distinct spatio-temporal pattern of activation of the social behavior network characterizes each type of aggression by exploring its modulation by both the 5-HT and AVT systems. We analyze the neuromodulation of aggression between the intermale reproduction-related aggression displayed by the gregarious Brachyhypopomus gauderio and the non-breeding intrasexual and intersexual territorial aggression displayed by the solitary Gymnotus omarorum. Differences in the telencephalic activity of 5-HT between species were paralleled by a differential serotonergic modulation through 1A receptors that inhibited aggression in the territorial aggression of G. omarorum but not in the reproduction-related aggression of B. gauderio. AVT injection increased the motivation towards aggression in the territorial aggression of G. omarorum but not in the reproduction-related aggression of B. gauderio, whereas the electric submission and dominance observed in G. omarorum and B. gauderio, respectively, were both AVT-dependent in a distinctive way. The advantages of our model species allowed us to identify precise target areas and mechanisms of the neuromodulation of two types of aggression that may represent more general and conserved strategies of the control of social behavior among vertebrates.

  18. Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Dal Mo

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

  19. The effects of sunshields on red light running behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Changxu

    2013-03-01

    Bicycles held an important position in transportation of China and other developing countries. As accidents rate involving electronic and regular bicycles is increasing, the severity of the bicycle safety problem should be paid more attention to. The current research explored the effect of sunshields (a kind of affordable traffic facility built on stop line of non-motor vehicle lanes (According to National Standard in China, e-bikes share the non-motor vehicle lane with regular bikes.) which was undertaken to avoid riders suffering from sunlight and high temperature) on diminishing red light running behavior of cyclists and e-bike riders. An observational study of 2477 riders was conducted to record and analyze their crossing behaviors at two sites across the city of Hangzhou, China. Results from logistic regression and analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of sunshield on reducing red light infringement rate both on sunny and cloudy days, while this effect of sunshield was larger on sunny days than on cloudy days based on further analysis. The effect of intersection type in logistic regression showed that riders were 1.376 times more likely to run through a red light upon approaching the intersection without sunshields compared to with sunshields in general. The results of MANCOVA further confirmed that rates of running behaviors against red lights were significantly lower at the intersections with a sunshield than at intersections without sunshields when other factors including traffic flow were statistically controlled. To sum up, it is concluded that sunshields installed at intersections can reduce the likelihood of red light infringement of cyclists and e-bike riders on both sunny and cloudy days. For those areas or countries with a torrid climate, sunshield might be a recommended facility which offers an affordable way to improve the safety of cyclists and e-bike riders at intersections. Limitations of the current sunshield design and current

  20. Effects of a Thin Ru-Doped PVP Interface Layer on Electrical Behavior of Ag/n-Si Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, Yosef; Nikravan, Afsoun; Altındal, Şemsettin; Uslu, İbrahim

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the electrical property of Ag/n-Si metal-semiconductor (MS) structure by growing an Ru-doped PVP interlayer between Ag and n-Si using electrospinning technique. To illustrate the utility of the Ru-doped PVP interface layer, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Ag/n-Si (MS) and Ag/Ru-doped PVP/n-Si metal-polymer-semiconductor (MPS) structures was carried out. In addition, the main electrical parameters of the fabricated Ag/Ru-doped PVP/n-Si structures were investigated as a function of frequency and electric field using impedance spectroscopy method (ISM). The capacitance-voltage (C-V) plot showed an anomalous peak in the depletion region due to the special density distribution of interface traps/states (D it /N ss) and interlayer. Both the values of series resistance (R s) and N ss were drawn as a function of voltage and frequency between 0.5 kHz and 5 MHz at room temperature and they had a peak behavior in the depletion region. Some important parameters of the sample such as the donor concentration atoms (N D), Fermi energy (E F ), thickness of the depletion region (W D), barrier height (Φ B0 ) and R s were determined from the C -2 versus V plot for each frequency. The values of N D , W D , Φ B0 and R s were changed from 1 × 1015 cm-3, 9.61 × 10-5 cm, 0.94 eV and 19,055 Ω (at 0.5 kHz) to 0.13 × 1015 cm-3, 27.4 × 10-4 cm, 1.04 eV and 70 Ω (at 5 MHz), respectively. As a result of the experiments, it is observed that the change in electrical parameters becomes more effective at lower frequencies due to the N ss and their relaxation time (τ), dipole and surface polarizations.

  1. Annealing dependent oxygen vacancies in SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles: Structural, electrical and their ferromagnetic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehraj, Sumaira, E-mail: sumairamehraj07@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Ansari, M. Shahnawaze, E-mail: shah.csengg@gmail.com [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alimuddin [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2016-03-01

    The effect of annealing on structural, electrical and d0 ferromagnetism in SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method is investigated. The as synthesized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were annealed at 500 °C–1300 °C for 2 h in ambient conditions. The crystallinity, grain size and morphology of the samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscope, Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic studies. The annealing temperature resulted in grain growth as well as reduction in oxygen vacancies as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Resistivity measurement of all the samples showed the typical behavior of semiconductors. Dielectric spectroscopy showed that there is an improvement in electric properties of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles as the annealing temperature is increased. The samples exhibited ferromagnetism at room temperature as well as at 5 K. However, the saturation magnetization at room temperature is decreasing from 0.019 emu/g to 0.001 emu/g whereas at 5 K, it is decreasing from 0.75 emu/g to 0.05 emu/g with increasing annealing temperature. The observed difference between ferromagnetism at 300 K and 5 K clearly indicates that oxygen vacancies become more active at 5 K and induce ferromagnetism with almost 40 times higher magnitude of saturation magnetization than that at 300 K in as synthesized and annealed SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. In the light of this study electrical and magnetization values can be tuned by changing the relative concentration of oxygen vacancies which can be achieved by varying annealing temperature thus projecting their technological applications in spintronics. - Highlights: • Preparation of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles using solution combustion method. • Effect of annealing temperature on oxygen vacancies. • Role of grains and grain boundaries in electrical properties. • Complex impedance analysis with respect to the average particle

  2. Cerebellar Fastigial Nucleus Electrical Stimulation Alleviates Depressive-Like Behaviors in Post-Stroke Depression Rat Model and Potential Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the molecular mechanism of post-stroke depression (PSD, and observe the therapeutic effects of cerebellar fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation (FNS on the behaviors and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in a PSD rat model. Methods: Healthy SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (sham, stroke, post-stroke depress and FNS group. Sham group (n = 6 underwent sham operation. The other three groups (n = 6*3 underwent MCAO. Rats were examined twice a week in open filed test. Moreover, neuroprotective effect on cerebellar Purkinje cells and expression of cytokines in hippocampal tissue were examined. Results: The PSD group showed a significant weight loss, decreased consumption of sucrose water, reduced rearing and locomotor activities. The FNS significantly alleviates the body weight loss and sucrose preference, locomotor and rearing activities. The bilateral rCBF was also restored after FNS treatment. Moreover, FNS improved the neuroprotection via suppressing apoptosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells. And the inflammatory cytokines mRNA level in hippocampus was significantly decreased. Conclusion: FNS treatment alleviates depressive-like behaviors and rCBF in PSD rats model, which could be attributed to its ability to protect cerebellar Purkinje cells and decrease the mRNA level of inflammatory cytokines.

  3. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Behavior of Phosphorus in DRI/HBI During Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard J. Frueham; Christopher P. Manning cmanning@bu.edu

    2001-10-05

    Many common scrap substitutes such as direct reduced iron pellets (DRI), hot briquetted iron (HBI), iron carbide, etc., contain significantly higher levels of phosphorus steelmaking for the production of higher quality steels, control of phosphorus levels in the metal will become a concern. This study has developed a more complete understanding of the behavior of phosphorus in DRI during EAF steelmaking, through a thorough investigation of the kinetics and thermodynamics of phosphorus transfer in the EAF based upon laboratory and plant experiments and trials. Laboratory experiments have shown that phosphorus mass transfer between oxide and metallic phases within commercial direct reduced iron pellets occurs rapidly upon melting according to the local equilibrium for these phases. Laboratory kinetic experiments indicate that under certain conditions, phosphorus mass transfer between slag and metal is influenced by dynamic phenomena, which affect the mass transfer coefficient for the reaction and/or the slag metal interfacial area. Plant trials were conducted to directly evaluate the conditions of mass transfer in the electric furnace and to determine the effects of different scrap substitute materials upon the slag chemistry, the behavior of phosphorus in the steel, and upon furnace yield. The data from these trials were also used to develop empirical models for the slag chemistry and furnace temperature as functions of time during a single heat. The laboratory and plant data were used to develop a numerical process model to describe phosphorus transfer in the EAF

  4. Effect of grain size on electric transport and magnetic behavior of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Priyanka; Tripathy, Satya Narayan; Pattanayak, Ranjit; Muduli, Rakesh; Panigrahi, Simanchala; Mohapatra, Niharika

    2017-01-01

    Polycrystalline M-type hexagonal strontium hexaferrite (SrFe 12 O 19 ) was prepared by conventional ceramic route (LG SrM) and auto combustion (SG SrM) method. The single-phase pattern and well grain growth was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average crystalline size is found to be 41.35 nm in LG SrM, while that of SG SrM is 36.87 nm. In this report, the electric transport behavior of LG SrM and SG SrM (SrFe 12 O 19 ) was successfully investigated and the analysis is done in the frequency range 100 Hz to 1 MHz at temperature 30-200 C. The relaxation behavior was examined by considering the impedance and modulus formalism in order to investigate the grain and grain boundary and surface polarization conduction process. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization, remanence, coercivity and anisotropy field are calculated from the hysteresis loop measurement. It was found that the saturation magnetization gets increased in LG SrM as compared to SG SrM system while the coercivity of SG SrM is greater than that of LG SrM. (orig.)

  5. Behavior of high efficiency electric motors; Comportamiento de motores electricos de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Austin H. [IEEE, (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The energy efficiency is one of the main parameters in the design of the industrial motors of general purpose; nevertheless, it is avoided that it is at the cost of the reliability or to the global performance of the motor. Exist user groups of this equipment that consider that, in the search of a greater efficiency, the useful life period is diminished and the characteristics of operation of the motor are affected. During the past last years, the author has studied the aspects of quality and reliability, as well as the operative advantages of the high efficiency motors and written down the increasing interest for these aspects. Also he has detected that a great number of users has realized that, additionally to the obvious energy saving, the efficient motor offers a greater reliability and a longer useful life in most of the industrial applications. The objective of this article is to present the differences in the quality levels, reliability and operation parameters of high efficiency squirrel cage type electrical motors with those of the motors of standard manufacture. [Spanish] La eficiencia energetica es uno de los principales parametros en el diseno de los motores industriales de proposito general; sin embargo, se evita que sea a costa de la confiabilidad o del desempeno global del motor. Existen grupos de usuarios de estos equipos que consideran que, en la busqueda de una mayor eficiencia, se disminuye el periodo de vida util y se afectan las caracteristicas de operacion del motor. Durante los ultimos anos, el autor ha estudiado los aspectos de calidad y confiabilidad, asi como las ventajas operativas de los motores de alta eficiencia y anotado el incremento del interes por estos aspectos. Tambien ha detectado que un gran numero de usuarios se ha dado cuenta que, adicionalmente a los obvios ahorros de energia, el motor eficiente ofrece una mayor confiabilidad y una vida util mas larga en la mayoria de las aplicaciones industriales. El objetivo de este

  6. Behavior of pulsed electric field injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in apple juice amended with pyruvate and catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulse Electric Field (PEF) treatment has been used to inactivate bacteria in liquid foods. However, information on the behavior of PEF injured Escherichia coli bacteria in media during storage at 5 and 23C are limited. In this study, we investigated the fate of E. coli O157:H7 cells at 6.8 log CFU/m...

  7. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S; Bouma, A; Sergeant, JA; Scherder, EJA; Bouma, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT). Methods. Twenty-two children diagnosed with

  8. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on cognition, behavior, and rest-activity rhythm in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, combined type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S.; Bouma, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT). Methods. Twenty-two children diagnosed with

  9. Electricity and Water Conservation on College and University Campuses in Response to National Competitions among Dormitories: Quantifying Relationships between Behavior, Conservation Strategies and Psychological Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John E; Frantz, Cynthia M; Shammin, Md Rumi; Yanisch, Tess M; Tincknell, Evan; Myers, Noel

    2015-01-01

    "Campus Conservation Nationals" (CCN) is a recurring, nation-wide electricity and water-use reduction competition among dormitories on college campuses. We conducted a two year empirical study of the competition's effects on resource consumption and the relationship between conservation, use of web technology and various psychological measures. Significant reductions in electricity and water use occurred during the two CCN competitions examined (n = 105,000 and 197,000 participating dorm residents respectively). In 2010, overall reductions during the competition were 4% for electricity and 6% for water. The top 10% of dorms achieved 28% and 36% reductions in electricity and water respectively. Participation was larger in 2012 and reductions were slightly smaller (i.e. 3% electricity). The fact that no seasonal pattern in electricity use was evident during non-competition periods suggests that results are attributable to the competition. Post competition resource use data collected in 2012 indicates that conservation behavior was sustained beyond the competition. Surveys were used to assess psychological and behavioral responses (n = 2,900 and 2,600 in 2010 and 2012 respectively). Electricity reductions were significantly correlated with: web visitation, specific conservation behaviors, awareness of the competition, motivation and sense of empowerment. However, participants were significantly more motivated than empowered. Perceived benefits of conservation were skewed towards global and future concerns while perceived barriers tended to be local. Results also suggest that competitions may be useful for "preaching beyond the choir"-engaging those who might lack prior intrinsic or political motivation. Although college life is distinct, certain conclusions related to competitions, self-efficacy, and motivation and social norms likely extend to other residential settings.

  10. Determinants of residential electricity consumption: Using smart meter data to examine the effect of climate, building characteristics, appliance stock, and occupants' behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousian, Amir; Rajagopal, Ram; Fischer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to examine structural and behavioral determinants of residential electricity consumption, by developing separate models for daily maximum (peak) and minimum (idle) consumption. We apply our method on a data set of 1628 households' electricity consumption. The results show that weather, location and floor area are among the most important determinants of residential electricity consumption. In addition to these variables, number of refrigerators and entertainment devices (e.g., VCRs) are among the most important determinants of daily minimum consumption, while number of occupants and high-consumption appliances such as electric water heaters are the most significant determinants of daily maximum consumption. Installing double-pane windows and energy-efficient lights helped to reduce consumption, as did the energy-conscious use of electric heater. Acknowledging climate change as a motivation to save energy showed correlation with lower electricity consumption. Households with individuals over 55 or between 19 and 35 years old recorded lower electricity consumption, while pet owners showed higher consumption. Contrary to some previous studies, we observed no significant correlation between electricity consumption and income level, home ownership, or building age. Some otherwise energy-efficient features such as energy-efficient appliances, programmable thermostats, and insulation were correlated with slight increase in electricity consumption. - Highlights: • Weather, location and floor area are the most important determinants of residential electricity use. • Daily minimum and maximum are explained by different factors. • Number of refrigerators and entertainment devices explain daily minimum the best. • Number of occupants and high-consumption appliances explain daily maximum the best. • Other factors such as energy efficient features and household's socioeconomic status are examined

  11. Influence of a Weak Field of Pulsed DC Electricity on the Behavior and Incidence of Injury in Adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa, Matthew

    2009-02-13

    Predation by pinnipeds, such as California sea lions Zalophus californianus, Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina, and Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus on adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp in the lower Columbia River has become a serious concern for fishery managers trying to conserve and restore runs of threatened and endangered fish. As a result, Smith-Root, Incorporated (SRI; Vancouver, Washington), manufacturers of electrofishing and closely-related equipment, proposed a project to evaluate the potential of an electrical barrier to deter marine mammals and reduce the amount of predation on adult salmonids (SRI 2007). The objectives of their work were to develop, deploy, and evaluate a passive, integrated sonar and electric barrier that would selectively inhibit the upstream movements of marine mammals and reduce predation, but would not injure pinnipeds or impact anadromous fish migrations. However, before such a device could be deployed in the field, concerns by regional fishery managers about the potential effects of such a device on the migratory behavior of Pacific salmon, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lampreys Entoshpenus tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, needed to be addressed. In this report, we describe the results of laboratory research designed to evaluate the effects of prototype electric barriers on adult steelhead and Pacific lampreys. The effects of electricity on fish have been widely studied and include injury or death (e.g., Sharber and Carothers 1988; Dwyer et al. 2001; Snyder 2003), physiological dysfunction (e.g., Schreck et al. 1976; Mesa and Schreck 1989), and altered behavior (Mesa and Schreck 1989). Much of this work was done to investigate the effects of electrofishing on fish in the wild. Because electrofishing operations would always use more severe electrical settings than those proposed for the pinniped barrier, results from these studies are probably not relevant to the work proposed by SRI. Field

  12. Efficacy of functional electrical stimulation-biofeedback with sexual cognitive-behavioral therapy as treatment of vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ju Tae; Choe, Jin Ho; Lee, Won Sik; Kim, Kyung Hee

    2005-07-01

    To report 12 cases of vaginismus that were successfully treated with functional electrical stimulation (FES)-biofeedback with sexual cognitive-behavioral therapy (SCBT) to determine the efficacy of FES-biofeedback with SCBT as a standard therapy for vaginismus. Vaginismus is an involuntary spasm of the musculature of the outer third of the vagina that leads to impossible vaginal penetration, causing personal distress. Various therapeutic approaches, both physiologic and psychological, have been considered. Twelve women with vaginismus referred from a checkup outpatient clinic participated in this study. The patients enrolled in this study had vaginismus according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The patients were assessed before and after treatment with gynecologic examinations and structured interviews pertaining to sexual function and psychological adjustment. After the diagnosis of vaginismus, we conducted weekly pelvic floor muscle relaxation using FES-biofeedback. Once the patients became tolerable to vaginal manipulation, the eight-stage SCBT (eight-stage gradual desensitization described by Kaplan using vaginal self-dilation with fingers and vaginal probe insertion) was added for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of treatment, all 12 couples had completed the program, had become tolerable to vaginal insertion of larger size probes, and could achieve satisfactory vaginal intercourse. FES-biofeedback with SCBT is an effective aid for patients with vaginismus to learn muscle control. Therefore, it may increase the success rate of treatment of vaginismus.

  13. Effect of Gd3+ Ions on the Thermal Behavior, Optical, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of PbS Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, S.; Balu, A. R.; Nagarethinam, V. S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the effect of Gd doping concentration on the thermal behavior, structural, morphological, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of PbS thin films. Gd doping concentration in PbS was varied as 0 wt.%, 1 wt.%, 2 wt.%, 3 wt.% and 4 wt.%, respectively. Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis curves confirm that both the undoped and doped films become well crystallized above 354°C and 342°C, respectively. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that all the films exhibit face-centered cubic crystal structure with a strong (2 0 0) preferential growth. Undoped films exhibit triangular-shaped grains which modify to small cuboids with Gd doping. Energy dispersive x-ray spectra confirm the presence of Gd in the doped films. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm the presence of nanosized grains for both the undoped and doped films. The doped films showed increased transparency and improved magnetic behaviour. The results obtained confirm that Gd3+, a rare earth ion, strongly influences the physical properties of PbS thin films to a large extent.

  14. Study of REE behaviors, fluid inclusions, and O, S stable Isotopes in Zafar-abad iron skarn deposit, NW Divandarreh, Kordestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Zafar-abad iron ore deposit, situated in the NW part of Divandarreh (lat. 36°01'14" and long. 46°58'22". The ore body is located on the northern margin of the Sanandaj-Sirjan igneous metamorphic zone. The Zafar-abad Fe-skarn deposit is one of the important, medium- size mineral deposits in western Iran. REE patterns of skarn magnetite were among others studied in Skarn deposit by (Taylor, 1979 Hydrothermal alteration and fluid-rock interaction significantly affect total contents of REE and their patterns in fluids. Moreover, fractionation of REE by chemical complication, adsorption effects and redox reactions are characteristic processes determining REE behavior during crystallization. Stable isotope data for oxygen and sulfur have been widely used with great success to trace the origin and evolution history of paleo-hydrothermal fluids of meteoric, magmatic, and metamorphic. Materials and methods The present study investigates REE and stable Isotope geochemistry of magnetite and pyrite in Zafar-abad deposit and temperature of trapped fluid inclusions based on geothermometry analysis. In order to study the major, trace and REE compositions of Zafar-abad magnetite, twelve samples were collected from surface of ore exposures. The emphasis during sampling was on ores with primary textures. Discussion The Zafar-abad district is situated in Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary, meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks in Sanandaj-Sirjan igneous metamorphic zone. Sedimentary sequences dominantly composed of calcareous and conglomerate rocks. Various meta-sedimentary rocks are intercalated with the sedimentary rocks, and comprise biotite and muscovite-rich schist, calc-schist, calc-silicate rock. Several distinct ductile tectonic fabrics have been identified around the Zafar-abad deposit. The main ore body at Zafar-abad is in the form of a roughly horizontal, discordant, lens to tabular-shaped body plunging 10° NW, where it appears to

  15. Electrical characterization of strontium titanate borosilicate glass ceramics system with bismuth oxide addition using impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, O.P.; Kumar, Devendra; Parkash, Om; Pandey, Lakshman

    2003-01-01

    The ac electrical data, measured in the frequency range 0.1 kHz-1 MHz, were used to study the electrical response of strontium titanate borosilicate glass ceramic system with bismuth oxide addition. Complex plane plots from these electrical data for various glass ceramic samples reveal contributions from simultaneously operating polarization mechanisms to overall dielectric behavior. The complex modulus (M * ) representation of electrical data for various glass ceramic samples were found to be more informative. Equivalent circuit models, which represent the electrical behavior of glass ceramic samples, were determined using complex non-linear least square (CNLS) fitting. An attempt has been made to understand the dielectric behavior of various glass ceramics in terms of contributions arising from different polarization processes occurring at glassy matrix, crystalline phases, glass to crystal interface region and blocking electrodes. Glass ceramics containing SrTiO 3 and TiO 2 (rutile) phases show thermally stable dielectric behavior

  16. The corrosion behavior of steel exposed to a DC electric field in the simulated wet-dry cyclic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Nianwei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Qimeng [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Zhang, Junxi, E-mail: zhangjunxi@shiep.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Zhang, Xin; Ni, Qingzhao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Jiang, Yiming; Li, Jin [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The corrosion of steel exposed under a direct current (DC) electric field during simulated wet-dry cycles was investigated using weight gain, electrochemical tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that the steel exposed to a DC electric field exhibits a higher corrosion rate than those exposed under no DC electric field. The higher the DC electric field intensity, the higher the corrosion rate of steel. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate that more γ-FeOOH and cracks appear in the rust formed on steel exposed to the DC electric field. The porous γ-FeOOH, formation and expansion of cracks enhance the transfer of oxygen and corrosion products, thereby accelerating corrosion of steel exposed to DC electric field. - Highlights: • Effect of DC electric field on the corrosion of steel in wet/dry cycles was studied. • DC electric field accelerates the steel corrosion in wet/dry cyclic processes. • More γ-FeOOH is generated on the surface of steel exposed under a DC electric field. • More cracks appear in the rust formed on the steel exposed under a DC electric filed.

  17. The corrosion behavior of steel exposed to a DC electric field in the simulated wet-dry cyclic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Nianwei; Chen, Qimeng; Zhang, Junxi; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Qingzhao; Jiang, Yiming; Li, Jin

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion of steel exposed under a direct current (DC) electric field during simulated wet-dry cycles was investigated using weight gain, electrochemical tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that the steel exposed to a DC electric field exhibits a higher corrosion rate than those exposed under no DC electric field. The higher the DC electric field intensity, the higher the corrosion rate of steel. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate that more γ-FeOOH and cracks appear in the rust formed on steel exposed to the DC electric field. The porous γ-FeOOH, formation and expansion of cracks enhance the transfer of oxygen and corrosion products, thereby accelerating corrosion of steel exposed to DC electric field. - Highlights: • Effect of DC electric field on the corrosion of steel in wet/dry cycles was studied. • DC electric field accelerates the steel corrosion in wet/dry cyclic processes. • More γ-FeOOH is generated on the surface of steel exposed under a DC electric field. • More cracks appear in the rust formed on the steel exposed under a DC electric filed.

  18. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dianshu; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Khuong Minh Vu

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  19. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  20. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  1. Behavior of urban residents toward the discarding of waste electrical and electronic equipment: a case study in Baoding, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Liu, Lili; Ren, Junshu; Duan, Huabo; Zheng, Lixia

    2012-11-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is growing rapidly worldwide, making its management difficult; therefore, this should be improved as a matter of urgency. WEEE includes both essential household appliances [including televisions, refrigerators, and washing machines; but not air conditioners, where the consumption mode is more like information, communication and technology (ICT)] ICT equipment (also called high-tech household appliances). In the present study, Baoding, a medium-sized, prefecture-level city in north central China with a population of 11 million, including 1.1 million urban residents, was selected as a representative city for an investigation of recycling behaviors. A valid sample size of 346 households in Baoding was investigated, and categorized into various income and educational levels. The results showed that the major reason for discarding WEEE was malfunction of the appliance, accounting for 52% of disposals. Surveyed households with either high income or good education were more likely to consume high-tech household appliances, attracted by advanced technology, versatile functions or flexibility of use. Personal computer ownership rates were highest in households with a high income and good education-1.2 and 0.9 per home respectively. WEEE was most often sold to peddlers or hawkers from where the WEEE flowed into the second-hand market to be refurbished or repaired, and then re-sold. However, 56.3% of residents in the college community were in support of charging consumers for disposal and 61.7% were in support of including a disposal surcharge in the purchase price of new products-a percentage approximately three times that for high-income residents. Thus, high educational level appears to be currently the most important factor in raising the potential of a household's willingness to pay for WEEE treatment cost. The findings of this study can be used to develop sound recycling systems for WEEE in mainland China.

  2. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  3. Variation in the large-scale organization of gene expression levels in the hippocampus relates to stable epigenetic variability in behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite sharing the same genes, identical twins demonstrate substantial variability in behavioral traits and in their risk for disease. Epigenetic factors-DNA and chromatin modifications that affect levels of gene expression without affecting the DNA sequence-are thought to be important in establishing this variability. Epigenetically-mediated differences in the levels of gene expression that are associated with individual variability traditionally are thought to occur only in a gene-specific manner. We challenge this idea by exploring the large-scale organizational patterns of gene expression in an epigenetic model of behavioral variability.To study the effects of epigenetic influences on behavioral variability, we examine gene expression in genetically identical mice. Using a novel approach to microarray analysis, we show that variability in the large-scale organization of gene expression levels, rather than differences in the expression levels of specific genes, is associated with individual differences in behavior. Specifically, increased activity in the open field is associated with increased variance of log-transformed measures of gene expression in the hippocampus, a brain region involved in open field activity. Early life experience that increases adult activity in the open field also similarly modifies the variance of gene expression levels. The same association of the variance of gene expression levels with behavioral variability is found with levels of gene expression in the hippocampus of genetically heterogeneous outbred populations of mice, suggesting that variation in the large-scale organization of gene expression levels may also be relevant to phenotypic differences in outbred populations such as humans. We find that the increased variance in gene expression levels is attributable to an increasing separation of several large, log-normally distributed families of gene expression levels. We also show that the presence of these

  4. Factors of electric vehicle adoption: A comparison of conventional and electric car users based on an extended theory of planned behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2018-01-01

    and norms than CV users. The different profiles of these user groups suggest a separate analysis of potential factors of BEV adoption in both groups. In regression analyses, CV and BEV users' intention to use/purchase a BEV is modeled based on factors of the Theory of Planned Behavior extended by personal...... distance seems of particular relevance. In multiple car households, we found the percentage of actual BEV usage related to the type of other cars in the household, perceived functional barriers of BEVs as well as (successful) behavioral adaption to longer trips by BEVs. Based on the results, we discuss...

  5. Short communication: Relationship between serum cortisol concentration and defensive behavioral responses of dairy cows exposed to natural infestation by stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitela-Mendoza, I; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Solano-Vergara, J; Orihuela-Trujillo, A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of natural infestation by Stomoxys calcitrans on the behavioral and adrenocortical responses of dairy cattle. Twenty Holstein cows randomly selected were individually sprayed with insecticide once every 7d, whereas no insecticide was applied to the other 20 animals. The average number of flies per cow was estimated daily, and the frequency of fly-avoidance behaviors was measured daily; plasma cortisol concentration was measured each morning. No flies were ever counted on the treated cows at any time during the experiment, whereas an average of 17.13±1.14 (±standard error) flies/d were recorded on untreated cows. Tail movement was the most frequent behavior displayed, with stamps or kicks showing the highest increment rate (41.2×) when fly population increased from zero to greater than 51 flies/cow. Cortisol concentration increased to a maximum of 56.81±39.53ng/mL with 26 to 30 flies/cow per day. Coefficients of determination between the number of flies, cortisol concentration, tail movements, and stamps or kicks were 0.73, 0.78, and 0.81, respectively. The multiple correlation coefficient was 0.90, with 81% of the variation in cortisol concentration explainable by variation in the number of flies per cow and the frequency of fly-avoidance behaviors. It was concluded that plasma cortisol concentration is linearly related to a combination of the number of flies and the frequency of fly-dislodging behaviors, producing a maximum response before reaching maximum fly loads. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrical Characteristics, Electrode Sheath and Contamination Layer Behavior of a Meso-Scale Premixed Methane-Air Flame Under AC/DC Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Guoxiu

    2016-05-01

    Electrical characteristics of a nozzle-attached meso-scale premixed methane-air flame under low-frequency AC (0-4300 V, 0-500 Hz) and DC (0-3300 V) electric fields were studied. I-V curves were measured under different experimental conditions to estimate the magnitude of the total current 100-102 μA, the electron density 1015-1016 m-3 and further the power dissipation ≤ 0.7 W in the reaction zone. At the same time, the meso-scale premixed flame conductivity 10-4-10-3 Ω-1·m-1 as a function of voltage and frequency was experimentally obtained and was believed to represent a useful order-of magnitude estimate. Moreover, the influence of the collision sheath relating to Debye length (31-98 μm) and the contamination layer of an active electrode on measurements was discussed, based on the combination of simulation and theoretical analysis. As a result, the electrode sheath dimension was evaluated to less than 0.5 mm, which indicated a complex effect of the collision sheath on the current measurements. The surface contamination effect of an active electrode was further analyzed using the SEM imaging method, which showed elements immigration during the contamination layer formation process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51376021), and the Fundamental Research Fund for Major Universities (No. 2013JBM079)

  7. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  8. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  9. Deformation and disintegration behavior for water drops falling through an oil phase in a DC electric field; Yuso chokuryu denbachu wo kokasuru suiteki no henkei to bunretsu kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Tachibana, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1997-03-10

    To prevent the malfunction of an interelectrode short-circuit, the deformation, disintegration, and grid formation for water drops through an oil phase in an electric field were examined. The behavior for drops through an oil phase in an electric field is important to electrostatic liquid extraction, electrolytic emulsification, and electric desalting of crude oil. The container having a vertical equilibrium electrode plate was filled with silicone oil to form and fall water drops by a nozzle. The disintegrated pattern of drops depends on the size of a drop. Two types of disintegration for falling drops were observed. A small drop was disintegrated by ejecting small drops from both ends of the large deformed drop (a), while a large drop was elongated and immediately disintegrated into several drops (b). Sherwood says; the deformation and disintegration of drops correspond to (a) when the dielectric constant of drop phase / dielectric constant of continuous phase is higher than ``1`` They correspond to (b) when the conductivity of drop phase / conductivity of continuous phase is higher than``1.`` For the electric short-circuit, the disintegrated drop is bridged through orientation and grid formation or the elongated drop is bridged immediately. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  11. Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2014-01-01

    Health behaviors are people’s actions, some purposefully deployed to promote or protect health; some thoughtlessly undertaken without concern for their potential risk to health; some consciously, even defiantly, deployed regardless of consequences to health. Risk behaviors are specific forms of

  12. Behavior of radon, chemical compounds and stable elements in underground water; Comportamiento de radon, compuestos quimicos y elementos estables en agua subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Pena, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Godinez, L. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L. [ISTEEM, M.S.E. Montpellier (France)

    2001-07-01

    The radon behavior, chemical compounds, major and trace elements in water samples of four springs and three wells of urban and agricultural zones around the Jocotitlan volcano and El Oro region was determined, both of them located in the medium part of the Mexican neo-volcanic axis. The {sup 222} Rn was measured by the liquid scintillation method, the analysis of major components was realized with conventional chemical techniques, while the trace elements were quantified using an Icp-Ms. The average values of the radon concentrations obtained during one year were constant relatively, in an interval from 0.97 to 4.99 Bq/lt indicating a fast transport from the reload area toward the sampling points. the compounds, major and trace elements showed differences which indicate distinct origins of water from the site studies. (Author)

  13. Opposite change trend of electrical behavior curves near the threshold between GaAs- and GaN-multi-quantum-well laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liefeng; Wang, Shupeng; Li, Yang; Yang, Xiufang; Li, Ding; Wang, Cunda

    2018-03-01

    The opposite and abrupt change trends of the electrical behavior between narrow and wide bang-gap multi-quantum-well (MQW) laser diodes (LDs) in the `threshold region', which corresponds to the current region between two kinks in the Id V/d I- I curves, were confirmed from the apparent properties measured directly and junction properties extracted by our ac-IV method, as well as simulation calculations. In the threshold region, negative capacitance and series resistance curves in narrow bandgap LDs (wavelengths are 780 and 650 nm) drop down, while in wide-bandgap LDs (wavelengths are 450 and 405 nm), they jump up; the junction voltage curves in narrow bandgap LDs jump up, while in wide-bandgap LDs, they drop down. We qualitatively interpreted the opposite change trend of these electrical parameters, and concluded that different stimulated emission mechanisms caused this opposite change trend of LDs with these two types of materials.

  14. Is the HIV epidemic stable among MSM in Mexico? HIV prevalence and risk behavior results from a nationally representative survey among men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence points to the apparent increase of HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM in different settings with concentrated epidemics, including the Latin American region. In 2011, Mexico implemented an ambitious HIV prevention program in all major cities, funded by the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The program was intended to strengthen the prevention response for the most at risk populations: MSM and injecting drug users. This paper presents the HIV prevalence results of a nationally representative baseline survey in 24 Mexican cities throughout the 5 regions in the country and reports the socio-demographic and sexual risk behaviors that predict the probability of infection. METHODS: The survey was implemented in two phases. We first identified and characterized places where MSM gather in each city and then conducted in a second phase, a seroprevalence survey that included rapid HIV testing and a self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was estimated by adjusting for positive predicted value. We applied a probit model to estimate the probability of having a positive result from the HIV test as a function of socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported sexual risk behaviors. RESULTS: We found an overall HIV prevalence among MSM gathering in meeting points of 16.9% [95% CI: 15.6-18.3], significantly higher than previously reported estimates. Our regression results suggest that the risk of infection increases with age, with the number of sexual partners, and among those who play a receptive sexual role, and the risk decreases with higher education. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest a higher HIV prevalence among MSM than previously acknowledged and that a significant regional variability exist throughout the country. These two findings combined, signal an important dynamic in the epidemic that should be better understood and promptly addressed with strong prevention efforts

  15. Comparison of two protic ionic liquid behaviors in the presence of an electric field using molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil A.; Levin, Deborah A.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of an external electric field on two ionic liquids (ILs) are investigated using molecular dynamics electrospray simulations of ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and ethanolammonium nitrate (EOAN). In the absence of an external electric field, long alkyl chains were observed in EAN but not in EOAN. When the electric field was applied, the anions of both ILs formed a barrier along the applied field, but only in EAN did this barrier result in a static bilayer composed of two parallel layers of cations and anions. The primary hydrogen bonds (HBs) connecting the EAN cations and anions were formed between the ammonium and the nitrate groups. In contrast, they were formed between the ammonium as well as the hydroxyl groups and the nitrate groups in EOAN. The applied electric field was found effective in reducing the number of O1-HO⋯O type HBs but was less effective against the N-HN⋯O type HBs. It was observed that the N-C1-CM backbone angles of EAN allowed for greater storage of the energy supplied by the electric field in the form of torsional degree of freedom compared to the N-C1-CM angles of EOAN. The combination of stronger HBs and higher energy storage in the N-C1-CM covalent angle in EAN results in a stronger resistance of ion emission from the bulk compared to EOAN.

  16. Subsecond Sensory Modulation of Serotonin Levels in a Primary Sensory Area and Its Relation to Ongoing Communication Behavior in a Weakly Electric Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotowat, Haleh; Harvey-Girard, Erik; Cheer, Joseph F; Krahe, Rüdiger; Maler, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of vertebrates project to most regions of the brain and are known to significantly affect sensory processing. The subsecond dynamics of sensory modulation of serotonin levels and its relation to behavior, however, remain unknown. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure serotonin release in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus . These fish use an electric organ to generate a quasi-sinusoidal electric field for communicating with conspecifics. In response to conspecific signals, they frequently produce signal modulations called chirps. We measured changes in serotonin concentration in the hindbrain electrosensory lobe (ELL) with a resolution of 0.1 s concurrently with chirping behavior evoked by mimics of conspecific electric signals. We show that serotonin release can occur phase locked to stimulus onset as well as spontaneously in the ELL region responsible for processing these signals. Intense auditory stimuli, on the other hand, do not modulate serotonin levels in this region, suggesting modality specificity. We found no significant correlation between serotonin release and chirp production on a trial-by-trial basis. However, on average, in the trials where the fish chirped, there was a reduction in serotonin release in response to stimuli mimicking similar-sized same-sex conspecifics. We hypothesize that the serotonergic system is part of an intricate sensory-motor loop: serotonin release in a sensory area is triggered by sensory input, giving rise to motor output, which can in turn affect serotonin release at the timescale of the ongoing sensory experience and in a context-dependent manner.

  17. Electrical Removal Behavior of Carbon Nanotube and Carbon Nanofiber Film in CuCl2 Solution: Kinetics and Thermodynamics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankun Zhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics, thermodynamics, and isotherms during electrical removal of Cu2+ by carbon nanotube and carbon nanofiber (CNT-CNF electrodes in CuCl2 solution were studied under different solution temperatures, initial Cu2+ concentrations, and applied voltages. The result shows that Langmuir isotherm can describe experimental data well, indicating monolayer adsorption, and higher Cu2+ removal and rate constant are achieved at higher voltage, lower initial Cu2+ concentration, and higher solution temperature. Meanwhile, the thermodynamics analyses indicate that the electrical removal of Cu2+ onto CNT-CNF electrodes is mainly driven by a physisorption process.

  18. Can Protection Motivation Theory predict pro-environmental behavior? Explaining the adoption of electric vehicles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bockarjova, M.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have proposed that the Protection Motivation Theory provides a valuable framework to explain pro-environmental choices, by employing a wide set of predictors, such as the costs and benefits of current (maladaptive) behavior as well as prospective adaptive behavior. However, no comprehensive

  19. Parental Rearing Behavior Prospectively Predicts Adolescents' Risky Decision-Making and Feedback-Related Electrical Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an…

  20. Can Protection Motivation Theory predict pro-environmental behavior? Explaining the adoption of electric vehicles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bockarjova, M.; Steg, L.

    Scholars have proposed that the Protection Motivation Theory provides a valuable framework to explain pro-environmental choices, by employing a wide set of predictors, such as the costs and benefits of current (maladaptive) behavior as well as prospective adaptive behavior. However, no comprehensive

  1. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  2. Asymptotic behavior of correlation functions for electric potential and field fluctuations in a classical one-component plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    The correlations of the electric potential fluctuations in a classical one-component plasma are studied for large distances between the observation points. The two-point correlation function for these fluctuations is known to decay slowly for large distances, even if exponential clustering holds for

  3. Electrical Behavior on N-Type Dopants in AlGaAs Alloys: Shallow Levels and DX Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH GRANT AFOSR-88-0316 EOSRD-LONDON DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRONICA E.T.S. INGENIEROS DE TELECOMUNICACION ...INGENIEROS DE TELECOMUNICACION . MADRID OCTOBER 1990 2 ABSTRACT The electrical properties of n- type AlxGaixAs, for x > 0.2, are governed by deep donor

  4. Structural versus behavioral remedies in the deregulation of electricity markets: an experimental investigation motivated by policy concerns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Koten, Silvester; Ortmann, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 64, November (2013), s. 256-265 ISSN 0014-2921 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542; GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0364 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : European electricity markets * economics experiments * forward markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.364, year: 2013

  5. Effect of the synthesis conditions on the magnetic and electrical properties of the BaFeO3-x oxide: A metamagnetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil de Muro, Izaskun; Insausti, Maite; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teofilo

    2005-01-01

    The BaFeO 2.95 oxide has been obtained from thermal decomposition of the [BaFe(C 3 H 2 O 4 ) 2 (H 2 O) 4 ] metallo-organic precursor at 800 deg. C under atmospheric oxygen pressure as small and homogeneous particles. From electronic paramagnetic resonance data, a metallic behavior in the 230-130K temperature range has been observed. Magnetic measurements confirm the existence of a ferro-antiferromagnetic transition at 178K. The magnetic properties of the BaFeO 2.95 oxide are strongly dependent on both temperature and magnetic field with a metamagnetic behavior. The synthesis conditions play an important role on the morphology and the electrical and magnetic properties. The syntherization of the sample produces a dramatic change in the transport properties and the existence of conductivity disappears

  6. Direct probing of charge carrier behavior in multilayered organic light-emitting diode devices by time-resolved electric-field-induced sum-frequency generation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, Takayuki; Takada, Noriyuki; Ohata, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2017-10-01

    Time-resolved electric-field-induced sum-frequency generation (EFI-SFG) spectroscopy was employed to study the charge behavior of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Through application of the square wave pulse bias to the OLEDs, compensation for the polarization charges in the electron transport layer and the generation of 4,4‧-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-N-phenylamino)-biphenyl] (α-NPD) cations were observed. When the pulse voltage was turned off, the α-NPD cations immediately disappeared, confirming that charge recombination occurs at the interfaces. We therefore concluded that time-resolved EFI-SFG is useful for directly probing the carrier behavior in OLEDs in addition to identifying the origin of the charge carriers present in OLEDs.

  7. Effects of thermal and electrical histories on structure and dielectric behaviors of (Li0.5Nd0.52+-modified (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwen Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal and electrical histories on structure and dielectric behaviors is studied using 0.95(Bi0.5Na0.50.97(Li0.5Nd0.50.03TiO3-0.05BaTiO3 (abbreviated as BNTLN0.03-BT5 ceramic as a selected system. Subtle structure change caused by annealing treatment, and pronounced phase transition and domain switching by electrical poling, are observed to occur, respectively. The dielectric constant and its strong frequency dispersion in unpoled samples decrease evidently by electrical poling due to electric field-induced ordered domain. The high temperature Maxwell-Wagner relaxor behavior vanishes by annealing treatment due to the loss of electrical inhomogeneity with interface charging effects. Piezoelectric properties are improved evidently by annealing treatment at 900 °C, implying a new appropriate method to improve piezoelectric properties.

  8. Influence of a weak field of pulsed DC electricity on the behavior and incidence of injury in adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Predation by pinnipeds, such as California sea lions Zalophus californianus, Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina, and Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus on adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp in the lower Columbia River has become a serious concern for fishery managers trying to conserve and restore runs of threatened and endangered fish. As a result, Smith-Root, Incorporated (SRI; Vancouver, Washington), manufacturers of electrofishing and closely-related equipment, proposed a project to evaluate the potential of an electrical barrier to deter marine mammals and reduce the amount of predation on adult salmonids (SRI 2007). The objectives of their work were to develop, deploy, and evaluate a passive, integrated sonar and electric barrier that would selectively inhibit the upstream movements of marine mammals and reduce predation, but would not injure pinnipeds or impact anadromous fish migrations. However, before such a device could be deployed in the field, concerns by regional fishery managers about the potential effects of such a device on the migratory behavior of Pacific salmon, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lampreys Entoshpenus tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, needed to be addressed. In this report, we describe the results of laboratory research designed to evaluate the effects of prototype electric barriers on adult steelhead and Pacific lampreys.

  9. Plasma Nitriding of AISI 304 Stainless Steel in Cathodic and Floating Electric Potential: Influence on Morphology, Chemical Characteristics and Tribological Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Yongyong; Wang, Wei; Mao, Junyuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Yijie; Ye, Qianwen

    2018-03-01

    In direct current plasma nitriding (DCPN), the treated components are subjected to a high cathodic potential, which brings several inherent shortcomings, e.g., damage by arcing and the edging effect. In active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes, the cathodic potential is applied to a metal screen that surrounds the workload, and the component to be treated is placed in a floating potential. Such an electrical configuration allows plasma to be formed on the metal screen surface rather than on the component surface; thus, the shortcomings of the DCPN are eliminated. In this work, the nitrided experiments were performed using a plasma nitriding unit. Two groups of samples were placed on the table in the cathodic and the floating potential, corresponding to the DCPN and ASPN, respectively. The floating samples and table were surrounded by a steel screen. The DCPN and ASPN of the AISI 304 stainless steels are investigated as a function of the electric potential. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscope. Dry sliding ball-on-disk wear tests were conducted on the untreated substrate, DCPN and ASPN samples. The results reveal that all nitrided samples successfully produced similar nitrogen-supersaturated S phase layers on their surfaces. This finding also shows the strong impact of the electric potential of the nitriding process on the morphology, chemical characteristics, hardness and tribological behavior of the DCPN and ASPN samples.

  10. Plasma Nitriding of AISI 304 Stainless Steel in Cathodic and Floating Electric Potential: Influence on Morphology, Chemical Characteristics and Tribological Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Yongyong; Wang, Wei; Mao, Junyuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Yijie; Ye, Qianwen

    2018-01-01

    In direct current plasma nitriding (DCPN), the treated components are subjected to a high cathodic potential, which brings several inherent shortcomings, e.g., damage by arcing and the edging effect. In active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes, the cathodic potential is applied to a metal screen that surrounds the workload, and the component to be treated is placed in a floating potential. Such an electrical configuration allows plasma to be formed on the metal screen surface rather than on the component surface; thus, the shortcomings of the DCPN are eliminated. In this work, the nitrided experiments were performed using a plasma nitriding unit. Two groups of samples were placed on the table in the cathodic and the floating potential, corresponding to the DCPN and ASPN, respectively. The floating samples and table were surrounded by a steel screen. The DCPN and ASPN of the AISI 304 stainless steels are investigated as a function of the electric potential. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscope. Dry sliding ball-on-disk wear tests were conducted on the untreated substrate, DCPN and ASPN samples. The results reveal that all nitrided samples successfully produced similar nitrogen-supersaturated S phase layers on their surfaces. This finding also shows the strong impact of the electric potential of the nitriding process on the morphology, chemical characteristics, hardness and tribological behavior of the DCPN and ASPN samples.

  11. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  12. Effects of Basicity and MgO in Slag on the Behaviors of Smelting Vanadium Titanomagnetite in the Direct Reduction-Electric Furnace Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of basicity and MgO content on reduction behavior and separation of iron and slag during smelting vanadium titanomagnetite by electric furnace were investigated. The reduction behaviors affect the separation of iron and slag in the direct reduction-electric furnace process. The recovery rates of Fe, V, and Ti grades in iron were analyzed to determine the effects of basicity and MgO content on the reduction of iron oxides, vanadium oxides, and titanium oxides. The chemical compositions of vanadium-bearing iron and main phases of titanium slag were detected by XRF and XRD, respectively. The results show that the higher level of basicity is beneficial to the reduction ofiron oxides and vanadium oxides, and titanium content dropped in molten iron with the increasing basicity. As the content of MgO increased, the recovery rate of Fe increased slightly but the recovery rate of V increased considerably. The grades of Ti in molten iron were at a low level without significant change when MgO content was below 11%, but increased as MgO content increased to 12.75%. The optimum conditions for smelting vanadium titanomagnetite were about 11.38% content of MgO and quaternary basicity was about 1.10. The product, vanadium-bearing iron, can be applied in the converter steelmaking process, and titanium slag containing 50.34% TiO2 can be used by the acid leaching method.

  13. Construction, study and mathematical modelling of the electrical behavior of CZTiS photovoltaic material as function of time and synthesis temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patarroyo, M.; Pérez, H.; Gómez, J.; Vera, E.

    2017-12-01

    This work reports the obtaining, study and mathematical modeling of a photovoltaic material type CZTiS (Cu2ZnTiS4), in function of two thermodynamic variables such as temperature and hydrothermal synthesis time. The obtention the materials had to be validated through the implementation of characterization techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and solid state Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). The results of the characterization, allowed to confirm in all cases the obtention of the materials, with a crystalline structure concordant with a tetragonal geometry space group of I-42m, a preferential crystalline orientation in the plane (1 1 2), with crystal sizes in the nanometric order (5-6nm). The electrical characterization, showed a semiconductor behavior of the solids concordant with values of conductivity that can be modeled by the analysis of variance and verified through the Kramers-kronig transform. The information obtained confirms that the temperature variable is the most strong influence in the electrical behavior of the CZTiS material, which is in agreement with similar works evaluated with alternative techniques [1].

  14. Dynamic Neuron-Glia Interactions in an Oscillatory Network Controlling Behavioral Plasticity in the Weakly Electric Fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Günther K H

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of glial cells in the regulation of physiological functions is being increasingly recognized, yet their role in plasticity of neural oscillators has remained largely elusive. An excellent model system to address the latter function is the pacemaker nucleus of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus . This brainstem oscillator drives the fish's electric organ discharge in a one-to-one fashion, with median frequencies of 880 Hz in males and 740 Hz in females. Morphometric analysis of the pacemaker nucleus has shown that astrocytes outnumber mature neurons seven-fold, and oscillator neurons even 200-fold. A similar dominance of astrocytes occurs among the adult-born cells that differentiate into glia and neurons. The astrocytes form a dense meshwork of cells interconnected by gap junctions. The degree of association of astrocytic fibers with the neural oscillator cells, and the gap-junction coupling between individual astrocytes, exhibit a sexual dimorphism, which parallels the sexual dimorphisms in the output frequency of the pacemaker nucleus, and ultimately in the electric organ discharge of the fish. It is hypothesized that the dynamics in astroglial structure mediate differences in the capacity to buffer potassium, which increases during the generation of action potentials. These differences, in turn, affect the excitability of the neural oscillator cells, and thus the output frequency of the pacemaker nucleus. Comparison of the pacemaker nucleus with other brain oscillators suggests that modulation of the output activity is one of the chief functions of the interaction of glia with the neural oscillator cells.

  15. Effect of the GO Reduction Method on the Dielectric Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Crystalline Behavior of PEO/rGO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asish Malas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the reduction method to prepare reduced graphene oxide (rGO on the melt linear viscoelastic properties, electrical conductivity, polymer matrix crystalline behavior and dielectric properties of PEO-rGO nanocomposites was investigated. Reduction was performed chemically with either sodium borohydride (NaBH4 or hydrazine monohydrate (N2H4·H2O or both reduction agents consecutively as well as thermally at 1000 °C. The different reduction methods resulted in exfoliated rGO sheets with different types and amounts of remaining functional groups, as indicated by FT-IR, Raman, TGA and XRD characterization. Moreover, their electrical conductivity ranged between 10−4 and 10−1 S/cm, with the consecutive use of both chemical reduction agents being far superior. PEO nanocomposites with filler loadings of 0.5 wt %, 1 wt % and 2 wt % were prepared by solvent mixing. The rGO fillers affected the melt linear viscoelastic and crystalline behavior of the PEO matrix and resulted in nanocomposites with a substantially increased electrical conductivity. Despite the wide variability in filler conductivity, the effects on the polymer nanocomposite properties were less distinctive. A correlation was obtained between the reduction of the mobility of the polymer chains (evaluated by the glass transition temperature and the dielectric strength of the interfacial polarisation originating from the effective entrapment of GO/rGO filler charges at the interface with the less conductive PEO. Thus, favorable interactions of the polar PEO with the filler led to reduced mobility of the PEO chains and thereby a more effective entrapment of the filler charges at the PEO interface.

  16. About the relevance of waviness, agglomeration, and strain on the electrical behavior of polymer composites filled with carbon nanotubes evaluated by a Monte-Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Sebastián; Lund, Fernando; Bustos, Javier; Palza, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    In several technological applications, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are added to a polymer matrix in order to develop electrically conductive composite materials upon percolation of the CNT network. This percolation state depends on several parameters such as particle characteristics, degree of dispersion, and filler orientation. For instance, CNT aggregation is currently avoided because it is thought that it will have a negative effect on the electrical behavior despite some experimental evidence showing the contrary. In this study, the effect of CNT waviness, degree of agglomeration, and external strain, on the electrical percolation of polymer composites is studied by a three dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation. The simulation shows that the percolation threshold of CNT depends on the particle waviness, with rigid particles displaying the lowest values. Regarding the effect of CNT dispersion, our numerical results confirm that low levels of agglomeration reduce the percolation threshold of the composite. However, the threshold is shifted to larger values at high agglomeration states because of the appearance of isolated areas of high CNT concentrations. These results imply, therefore, an optimum of agglomeration that further depends on the waviness and concentration of CNT. Significantly, CNT agglomeration can further explain the broad percolation transition found in these systems. When an external strain is applied to the composites, the percolation concentration shifts to higher values because CNT alignment increases the inter-particle distances. The strain sensitivity of the composites is affected by the percolation state of CNT showing a maximum value at certain filler concentration. These results open up the discussion about the relevance in polymer composites of the dispersion state of CNT and filler flexibility towards electrically conductive composites.

  17. Behavior of temperature dependent electrical properties of Pd/Au Schottky contact to GaN grown on Si substrate by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Nirwal, Varun; Rao Peta, Koteswara

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature on the behavior of electrical properties of Pd/Au Schottky contact to GaN/Si (111) in the temperature range of 125-325 K in steps of 25 K using current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) analysis. The Schottky barrier height (ϕ I-V ) and ideality factor is calculated using standard thermionic emission theory. The value of ϕ I-V was found to increase from 0.41 ± 0.002 eV to 0.79 ± 0.008 eV when temperature varied from 125 to 325 K. The ideality factor of diodes also decreased from 5.91 ± 0.01 to 1.03 ± 0.05 with increase in temperature. The series resistance (R s) is calculated using Cheung’s method and it is observed that the value of R s decreased from 74.40 ± 0.32 Ω to 58.59 ± 0.11 Ω when the temperature increased from 125 to 325 K. Barrier height (ϕ C-V ) and effective carrier concentration (Nd ) is also reported from C-V characteristics as a function of temperature and the value of ϕ C-V was found to decrease with increase in temperature. The behavior of barrier heights obtained from I-V and C-V characteristics is different due to difference in the nature of measurement techniques. The deviation of conventional Richardson’s constant from theoretical value of GaN is due to unusual behavior of temperature dependent electrical properties and barrier inhomogeneity. This is successfully explained by assuming the double Gaussian distribution of inhomogeneous barrier heights of Au/Pd/GaN/Si Schottky diode.

  18. Cation distribution controlled dielectric, electrical and magnetic behavior of In{sup 3+} substituted cobalt ferrites synthesized via solid-state reaction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, Rabia, E-mail: rabiabest@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P 177 005 (India); Sharma, K.K., E-mail: kk.gautam@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P 177 005 (India); Kaur, Pawanpreet [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P 177 005 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P 177 005 (India)

    2014-12-15

    We report the structural, cation distribution, dielectric, electrical and magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2−x}In{sub x}O{sub 4} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) ferrites. Rietveld fitted X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirm the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure with Fd3m space group for all the samples. The comprehensive analysis of XRD based cation distribution has been performed to see the effect of In{sup 3+} ions substitution on various structural parameters such as site ionic radii, edge and bond lengths, interionic distances etc. The dielectric constant and tangent loss have been studied as a function of temperature and frequency. The dielectric data presented in electric modulus form reveals the presence of non-Debye relaxation behavior in considered ferrites. Both the AC and DC conductivities as a function of temperature are found to decrease with increasing In{sup 3+} content. The power law behavior of AC-conductivity indicates a strong correlation among electrons in these systems. The isothermal magnetization versus applied field curves with high field slope and significant coercivity suggest that studied materials are highly anisotropic with canted spin structures and exhibit ferrimagnetic behavior at 300 K. Magnetization gets enhanced up to 40% of In{sup 3+} substitution. The observed low dielectric losses and high resistivity can find their application in power transformers at high frequencies. - Highlights: • Rietveld refinement of CoIn{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} samples shows single phase cubic spinel structure. • Cation distribution matches well with experimental integrated intensity ratios. • Strength of magnetic interactions is found to increase with increasing In{sup 3+} substitution. • The present systems are highly correlated. • These material are promising candidate for power transformers at high frequencies.

  19. Dynamic Neuron-Glia Interactions in an Oscillatory Network Controlling Behavioral Plasticity in the Weakly Electric Fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther K. H. Zupanc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of glial cells in the regulation of physiological functions is being increasingly recognized, yet their role in plasticity of neural oscillators has remained largely elusive. An excellent model system to address the latter function is the pacemaker nucleus of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. This brainstem oscillator drives the fish's electric organ discharge in a one-to-one fashion, with median frequencies of 880 Hz in males and 740 Hz in females. Morphometric analysis of the pacemaker nucleus has shown that astrocytes outnumber mature neurons seven-fold, and oscillator neurons even 200-fold. A similar dominance of astrocytes occurs among the adult-born cells that differentiate into glia and neurons. The astrocytes form a dense meshwork of cells interconnected by gap junctions. The degree of association of astrocytic fibers with the neural oscillator cells, and the gap-junction coupling between individual astrocytes, exhibit a sexual dimorphism, which parallels the sexual dimorphisms in the output frequency of the pacemaker nucleus, and ultimately in the electric organ discharge of the fish. It is hypothesized that the dynamics in astroglial structure mediate differences in the capacity to buffer potassium, which increases during the generation of action potentials. These differences, in turn, affect the excitability of the neural oscillator cells, and thus the output frequency of the pacemaker nucleus. Comparison of the pacemaker nucleus with other brain oscillators suggests that modulation of the output activity is one of the chief functions of the interaction of glia with the neural oscillator cells.

  20. Dynamics of Electricity Demand in Lesotho: A Kalman Filter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamae Retselisitsoe Isaiah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an empirical analysis of the time-varying price and income elasticities of electricity demand in Lesotho for the period 1995-2012 using the Kalman filter approach. The results reveal that economic growth has been one of the main drivers of electricity consumption in Lesotho while electricity prices are found to play a less significant role since they are monopoly-driven and relatively low when compared to international standards. These findings imply that increases in electricity prices in Lesotho might not have a significant impact on consumption in the short-run. However, if the real electricity prices become too high over time, consumers might change their behavior and sensitivity to price and hence, energy policymakers will need to reconsider their impact in the long-run. Furthermore, several exogenous shocks seem to have affected the sensitivity of electricity demand during the period prior to regulation, which made individuals, businesses and agencies to be more sensitive to electricity costs. On the other hand, the period after regulation has been characterized by more stable and declining sensitivity of electricity demand. Therefore, factors such as regulation and changes in the country’s economic activities appear to have affected both price and income elasticities of electricity demand in Lesotho.

  1. Comportamento da impedância elétrica dos tecidos biológicos durante estimulação elétrica transcutânea Electrical impedance behavior of biological tissues during transcutaneous electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VJ Bolfe

    2007-04-01

    electrical voltage picked up by a system consisting of a digital oscilloscope (TDS 210, Tektronix® and a direct current generator (Dualpex 961, Quark®. For statistical analysis, Anova-F and Kruskal-Wallis were applied, with post hoc (SNK, Friedman test and Spearman correlation coefficient, taking p< 0.05. RESULTS: Despite similar electrical impedance behavior with increasing distance between electrodes for the two currents, there was a reduction in impedance under MF stimulation. In the limbs, approximately 50% of the impedance variance was explained by the increase in electrode separation, although this relationship was not observed on the posterior surface of the trunk. Independent of the current type, the trunk presented the lowest electrical impedance, followed by the lower limbs. CONCLUSION: The electrical impedance of the tissues was influenced by current frequency and the positioning and distance between electrodes, thus presenting a non-uniform pattern in the different segments.

  2. Accounting for response behavior heterogeneity in the measurement of attitudes: an application to demand for electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Glerum, Aurélie; Bierlaire, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid choice models have proved to be a powerful framework that integrates attitudinal and perceptional data into discrete choice models. However the measurement component of such a framework often fails to exploit individual-specific information that might affect the way subjects answer to indicators of opinion. In this paper we propose an HCM with a measurement model that takes into account heterogeneity in the response behavior. Precisely, we capture effects of exaggeration in answers to ...

  3. Effects of electrical discharge surface modification of superalloy Haynes 230 with aluminum and molybdenum on oxidation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, C.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the electrical discharge alloying (EDA) process on improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of the Ni-based superalloy Haynes 230 have been investigated. The 85 at.% Al and 15 at.% Mo composite electrode provided the surface alloying materials. An Al-rich layer is produced on the surface of the EDA specimen alloyed with positive electrode polarity, whereas, many discontinuous piled layers are attached to the surface of the EDA superalloy when negative electrode polarity is selected. The oxidation resistance of the specimen alloyed with positive electrode polarity is better than that of the unalloyed superalloy, and the effective temperature of oxidation resistance of the alloyed layer can be achieved to 1100 o C. Conversely, the oxidation resistance of the other EDA specimen alloyed with negative electrode polarity is even worse than that of the unalloyed superalloy

  4. The asymmetric band structure and electrical behavior of the GdScO3/GaN system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopetti, S.; Shekhter, P.; Winter, R.; Tromm, T. C. U.; Schubert, J.; Eizenberg, M.

    2017-05-01

    III-V nitrides are interesting materials for a very wide variety of electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, their interaction with GdScO3 (GSO), a ternary rare earth oxide, is investigated for MOS applications. We compare pulsed laser deposited amorphous and crystalline epitaxial GdScO3 in terms of their band alignment with the underlying GaN substrate and the resulting electrical characteristics of the MOS stack. The crystal structure of GdScO3 and GaN is investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, showing that crystalline oxide is growing epitaxially on GaN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows a staggered band alignment with a GdScO3-GaN valence band offset of 3.6-3.7 eV, which is reflected in a very asymmetric current-voltage behaviour of the MOS capacitors: breakdown at positive bias, significantly earlier for the crystalline oxide (around 5 MV/cm) compared to the amorphous oxide (around 8 MV/cm), and no breakdown up to a field of -14 MV/cm at negative bias. Transmission electron microscopy images show a crystalline, two-atom thick interface layer between GaN and both crystalline and amorphous GdScO3, which is thought to be an electron barrier between GSO and GaN and a possible source of the staggered band alignment. The electrical behaviour can be exploited for asymmetric nano-electronic devices.

  5. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  7. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  8. Development and application of an empirical formula for the high temperature behavior of ferroelectric ceramics switched by electric field at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Won Ji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The strain changes during temperature rise of a poled lead titanate zirconate rectangular parallelepiped switched by electric field at room temperature are obtained by integrating thermal expansion coefficients that are measured using an invar-specimen. By estimating and analyzing pyroelectric and thermal expansion coefficients, first-order differential equations are constructed for polarization and strain changes during temperature increase. The solutions to the differential equations are found and used to calculate the high temperature behavior of the materials. It is shown that the predictions are well compared with measured responses. Finally, the developed formulae are applied to calculate strain butterfly loops from a polarization hysteresis loop at a high temperature.

  9. Effect of ZrO2 on the sintering behavior, strength and high-frequency dielectric properties of electrical ceramic porcelain insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Mehta, Niraj; Sahu, Praveen Kumar; Ershad, Md; Saxena, Vipul; Pyare, Ram; Ranjan Majhi, Manas

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of ZrO2 on the sintering, strength and dielectric behavior of electrical ceramic porcelain insulator with substituting alumina content by zirconia (in weight percentage from 0% to 30%) is investigated. The different composition of samples containing different zirconia (ZrO2) contents of 0, 10, 20, and 30 wt% are prepared using the uniaxial pressure technique applying 160 MPa pressure. Further, the prepared samples are also analyzed for sintering temperatures (1350 °C), and effects are observed on mechanical and electric properties of porcelain insulator. Different characterizations such as Dilatometer, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis/thermo gravimetric analysis were used to evaluate the thermal, phase detection, micro structural and weight loss changes by increasing concentration of ZrO2 on base porcelain composition. At 1350 °C, for the composition having 20 wt% ZrO2 with 10 wt% alumina, the maximum density was observed 2.81 g cm-3 with a porosity of 2.23%. The highest tensile strength of 41 ± 3 MPa is observed for the same sample composition. The minimum value of thermal expansion coefficient is found to be in the range of 10-6 for the sample with 30 wt% ZrO2 content sintered at 1350 °C compared to other prepared samples. Similarly, the highest dielectric value (5.1-4.4) having dielectric loss (0.08-0.12) is achieved for the sample with 30 wt% ZrO2 content sintered at 1350 °C in the frequency range of 4-20 GHz at room temperature. According to the mechanical properties, the composition having 20 wt% ZrO2 on base ceramic porcelain composition has enormous potential to serve as a high strength refractory material. For dielectric properties, the composition having 30 wt% ZrO2 is more suitable for the electrical application.

  10. Intercalation and electrical behavior of Ta{sub x}Mo{sub 1-x}S{sub 2} (x > 0.5) layered mixed disulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Nelson, E-mail: nlarah@uta.cl [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile); Aranda, Pilar; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, Ana I. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Manriquez, Victor [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-03-15

    This work reports a systematic study of the structural and electrical behavior of three ternary phases of the Ta{sub x}Mo{sub 1-x}S{sub 2} system (x = 0.55, 0.75 and 0.90) and their intercalation compounds resulting from both chemical and electrochemical lithium insertions, as well as from pyridine and poly(ethylene oxide) intercalations. The three ternary phases were prepared by direct reaction of their constituting elements, without any other additive, at 900 deg C in inert atmosphere. The resulting compounds were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal (TGA/DTA) analyses, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDX) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The electrical conductivity of the different products was measured in the 1.5-300 K temperature range using the conventional four probe van der Pauw method in the presence of a 9 T magnetic field in order to verify the occurrence of magneto resistivity phenomena. (author)

  11. A contribution to the study of the thermal behavior and of the electric performance of squirrel-cage induction motors; Uma contribuicao ao estudo do comportamento termico e do desempenho eletrico de motores de inducao com rotor em gaiola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avolio, Edwin

    1992-03-01

    A thermal-electric mathematical model for a squirrel cage induction motors which permits to specify the best motor for specific drive, under thermal and electric aspects based, only on manufacturer technical bulletins and technical information is presented. Changes of rotor parameters due Skin Effect and changes of winding resistances (both stator and rotor) with the temperature are considered. The accuracy of this model is appraised using experimental results. The thermal behavior and electric performance for some motors are obtained for continuos and intermittent duties with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal voltages. (author)

  12. Synthesis and electrical behavior of Ni-Ti substituted Y-type hexaferrites for high frequency application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Mumtaz, Saleem; Ali, Irshad; Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhmmad; Sadiq, Imran

    2018-04-01

    This article reports the fabrication of Ni-Ti doped derivatives of Sr2Co2Fe12-2xO22 by economical Sol-gel method. At room temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of powder was obtained after sintering at 1050 °C. The XRD analysis revealed the formation of pure Sr-Y hexaferrite phase. It was found that the observed values of dielectric parameters decreased with increasing Ni-Ti substitution. The higher values of dielectric constants and dielectric loss factor at lower frequency were owing to surface charge polarization. In all the samples the resonance peaks were also observed. The observed room temperature DC electrical resistivity found to increase from 1.8x106 to 4.9x109 ohm cm. The observed activation energies values of the fabricated materials are found in 0.52-0.82 eV range. The decrease in dielectric parameters and increase in resistivity of the fabricated samples with substituents suggest these materials have worth application in micro-wave devices as such devices required highly resistive materials.

  13. Effect of grain size on electric transport and magnetic behavior of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Priyanka; Tripathy, Satya Narayan; Pattanayak, Ranjit; Muduli, Rakesh; Panigrahi, Simanchala [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rourkela (India); Mohapatra, Niharika [Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)

    2017-01-15

    Polycrystalline M-type hexagonal strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) was prepared by conventional ceramic route (LG SrM) and auto combustion (SG SrM) method. The single-phase pattern and well grain growth was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average crystalline size is found to be 41.35 nm in LG SrM, while that of SG SrM is 36.87 nm. In this report, the electric transport behavior of LG SrM and SG SrM (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) was successfully investigated and the analysis is done in the frequency range 100 Hz to 1 MHz at temperature 30-200 C. The relaxation behavior was examined by considering the impedance and modulus formalism in order to investigate the grain and grain boundary and surface polarization conduction process. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization, remanence, coercivity and anisotropy field are calculated from the hysteresis loop measurement. It was found that the saturation magnetization gets increased in LG SrM as compared to SG SrM system while the coercivity of SG SrM is greater than that of LG SrM. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of the electric conductivity and pH behaviors in recycled drainage solution of rose cv. Charlotte plants grown in substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Yepes V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In open soilless cropping systems contamination from nutrient lixiviation is generated making it necessary to design closed or semi-closed systems, which require the determination of the maximum saline levels in recycling solutions. In this study, the electric conductivity (EC and pH behaviors were analyzed in drainage solution intended for recycling in the crop; in addition, parameters were used to estimate nutrient availability for the plants in a substrate based cropping system. This research project was carried out under greenhouse conditions in the municipality of Mosquera (Colombia. Rose cv. Charlotte grafted on "Natal briar" stocks were used, sown in pots arranged on elevated beds, 15 m in length. This project was carried out using a split-plot design with sub-plots (with the substrate as the main plot and the recycling as the sub-plot, three kinds of substrate and three recycling percentages (0, 50, and 100%, for a total of 27 experimental units. Substrate mixtures based on burned rice husk and coconut fiber were used. Recycling during one harvest cycle of the roses did not show EC and pH values above those that are considered to have a negative impact on production; however, an increasing behavior in the EC and pH values was observed. Likewise, no significant differences between the 50 and 100% recycling were observed, which means 100% recycling can be used, optimizing nutrient use and water conservation

  15. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  16. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  17. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  18. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  19. Development of Operational Protocols for Electric Barrier Systems on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal: Induction of Passage-Preventing Behaviors in Small Sizes of Silver Carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Barrier Systems incorporate environmental water into an electrical circuit composed of conductors (the submersed electrodes) and a source of...arrays and flow of electric current in the system’s conductors and electrodes creating a waterborne electric field. The quantity of electric current...aquaculture systems housing silver carp prior to testing. Estimates of the voltage, pulse duration, and pulse frequency output capabilities of Electric Barrier

  20. Investigation of the Storage Behavior of Shredded Lithium-Ion Batteries from Electric Vehicles for Recycling Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützke, Martin; Krüger, Steffen; Kraft, Vadim; Vortmann, Britta; Rothermel, Sergej; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-10-26

    Shredding of the cells is often the first step in lithium-ion battery (LIB) recycling. Thus, LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC)/graphite lithium-ion cells from a field-tested electric vehicle were shredded and transferred to tinplate or plastic storage containers. The formation of hazardous compounds within, and being released from, these containers was monitored over 20 months. The tinplate cans underwent fast corrosion as a result of either residual charge in the active battery material, which could not fully be discharged because of contact loss to the current collector, or redox reactions between the tinplate surface and metal parts of the shredded material. The headspace compositions of the containers were investigated at room temperature and 150 °C using headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Samples of the waste material were also collected using microwave-assisted extraction and the extracts were analyzed over a period of 20 months using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS). LiPF6 was identified as a conducting salt, whereas dimethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, and ethylene carbonate were the main solvent components. Cyclohexylbenzene was also detected, which is an additive for overcharge protection. Diethyl carbonate, fluoride, difluorophosphate and several ionic and non-ionic alkyl (fluoro)phosphates were also identified. Importantly, dimethyl fluorophosphate (DMFP) and diethyl fluorophosphate (DEFP) were quantified using HS-GC-MS through the use of an internal standard. DMFP, DEFP, and related compounds are known as chemical warfare agents, and the presence of these materials is of great interest. In the case of this study, these hazardous materials are present but in manageable low concentrations. Nonetheless, the presence of such compounds and their potential release during an accident that may occur during shredding or recycling of large amounts of LIB waste should be considered. © 2015

  1. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  2. Stable Ferroelectric Behavior of Nb-Modified Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 Lead-Free Relaxor Ferroelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Arif; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, Ali; Ahmed, Tanveer; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Myong-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Crystal structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and electric field-induced strain properties of lead-free Nb-modified 0.96Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-0.04Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 (BKT-BMT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated. Crystal structure analysis showed a gradual phase transition from tetragonal to pseudocubic phase with increasing Nb content. The optimal piezoelectric property of small-signal d 33 was enhanced up to ˜ 68 pC/N with a lower coercive field ( E c) of ˜ 22 kV/cm and an improved remnant polarization ( P r) of ˜ 13 μC/cm2 for x = 0.020. A relaxor-like behavior with a frequency-dependent Curie temperature T m was observed, and a high T m around 320°C was obtained in the investigated system. This study suggests that the ferroelectric properties of BKT-BMT was significantly improved by means of Nb substitution. The possible shift of depolarization temperature T d toward high temperature T m may have triggered the spontaneous relaxor to ferroelectric phase transition with long-range ferroelectric order without any traces of a nonergodic relaxor state in contradiction with Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based systems. The possible enhancement in ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties near the critical composition x = 0.020 may be attributed to the increased anharmonicity of lattice vibrations which may facilitate the observed phase transition from a low-symmetry tetragonal to a high-symmetry cubic phase with a decrease in the lattice anisotropy of an undoped sample. This highly flexible (at a unit cell level) narrow compositional range triggers the enhancement of d 33 and P r values.

  3. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  4. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Ti-48Al and Ti-48Al-2Cr Intermetallic Alloys Produced by Electric Current Activated Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Y.; Ozdemir, O.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, Ti-48Al and Ti-48Al-2Cr (at. pct) intermetallic alloys were produced by electric current activated sintering (ECAS). In order to characterize the phase formation and microstructures of these alloys, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used. The XRD result shows that the intermetallic alloys are composed of γ-TiAl and α 2-Ti3Al phases. The microstructure is dense with a low amount of porosity. The hot corrosion behavior of intermetallic alloys was carried out in a salt mixture of 25 wt pct K2SO4 and 75 wt pct Na2SO4 at 700 °C for 180 hours. The morphology of corroded surfaces was observed by SEM-EDS and XRD. Corrosion phases were identified as TiO2 and Al2O3. Well-adhering oxide scale was detected on the corroded sample surface at the end of 180 hours, and no spallation was observed. In addition, a parabolic curve was obtained at the weight change rate vs time.

  5. Electrical penetration graph studies to investigate the effects of cyantraniliprole on feeding behavior of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Alana L; Kennedy, George G

    2014-05-01

    The anthranilic diamide insecticide cyantraniliprole has been shown to suppress aphid and whitefly populations as well as reduce transmission of plant viruses by thrips and whiteflies when taken up systemically by the plant. In this study, electrical penetration graphing (EPG) was used to compare effects of cyantraniliprole on feeding behavior of Myzus persicae with those of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid applied as a soil drench to pepper plants two-, six-, and ten-days post-treatment. Significant reductions in the total amount of time spent probing, mean number of phloem feeding events, and mean number of intracellular punctures were observed on both cyantraniliprole- and imidacloprid-treated plants, compared to aphids that fed on plants treated only with water. Imidacloprid treatment also caused a significant reduction in the total number of probes relative to the water treated control. The effects of cyantraniliprole were statistically significant only in assays conducted at ten-days post-treatment, whereas the effects of imidacloprid on aphid feeding were significant in assays conducted at two-, six-, and ten-days post-treatment. These findings document significant effects of cyantraniliprole on feeding by Myzus persicae. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. A robust behavior of Feed Forward Back propagation algorithm of Artificial Neural Networks in the application of vertical electrical sounding data inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Srinivas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The applications of intelligent techniques have increased exponentially in recent days to study most of the non-linear parameters. In particular, the behavior of earth resembles the non-linearity applications. An efficient tool is needed for the interpretation of geophysical parameters to study the subsurface of the earth. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN perform certain tasks if the structure of the network is modified accordingly for the purpose it has been used. The three most robust networks were taken and comparatively analyzed for their performance to choose the appropriate network. The single-layer feed-forward neural network with the back propagation algorithm is chosen as one of the well-suited networks after comparing the results. Initially, certain synthetic data sets of all three-layer curves have been taken for training the network, and the network is validated by the field datasets collected from Tuticorin Coastal Region (78°7′30"E and 8°48′45"N, Tamil Nadu, India. The interpretation has been done successfully using the corresponding learning algorithm in the present study. With proper training of back propagation networks, it tends to give the resistivity and thickness of the subsurface layer model of the field resistivity data concerning the synthetic data trained earlier in the appropriate network. The network is trained with more Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES data, and this trained network is demonstrated by the field data. Groundwater table depth also has been modeled.

  7. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  8. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  10. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  11. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  12. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  13. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  14. Stable SU(5) monopoles with higher magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Sato, H.; Tomohiro, S.

    1985-01-01

    Taking into account the electroweak breaking effects, some multiply charged monopoles were shown to be stable by Gardner and Harvey. We give the explicit Ansa$uml: tze for finite-energy, nonsingular solutions of these stable higher-strength monopoles with eg = 1,(3/2),3. We also give the general stability conditions and the detailed behavior of the interaction potentials between two monopoles which produce the stable higher-strength monopoles

  15. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  16. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how quickly you get treatment. Causes of electrical injuries include Lightning strikes Faulty electrical appliances Work-related exposures Contact with household wiring or power lines Accidents in small children, when they bite or suck on electrical cords, ...

  17. Electricity consumption and electricity saving in the Swedish households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstroem, B.M.; Eklund, Y.; Sjoeberg, L.

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine which factors influence electricity consumption behavior of Swedish households, the level of knowledge about electricity use and the willingness to pay for the use of electricity. In Sweden, as in many other developed countries, the need for electric power is constantly increasing. The major reason for this increase in electricity consumption is the lifestyle of a modern society. A feature in the nuclear power discussion is that the government in Sweden is having a hard time to establish how to phase-out all nuclear power plants by 2010. An additional major change in Swedish energy policy is the deregulation of the electricity market, which started in the beginning of 1996. There is an increased demand for strategies to save electricity among households. The results of this study stress the difficulties in reducing electricity consumption and to develop new electricity saving strategies in Sweden 125 refs, 6 figs, 21 tabs

  18. A veracity preserving model for synthesizing scalable electricity load profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yunyou; Zhan, Jianfeng; Luo, Chunjie; Wang, Lei; Wang, Nana; Zheng, Daoyi; Fan, Fanda; Ren, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Electricity users are the major players of the electric systems, and electricity consumption is growing at an extraordinary rate. The research on electricity consumption behaviors is becoming increasingly important to design and deployment of the electric systems. Unfortunately, electricity load profiles are difficult to acquire. Data synthesis is one of the best approaches to solving the lack of data, and the key is the model that preserves the real electricity consumption behaviors. In this...

  19. Designing Electricity Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Fabra; Nils-Henrik von der Fehr; David Harbord

    2002-01-01

    Motivated by the new auction format introduced in the England and Wales electricity market, as well as the recent debate in California, we characterize bidding behavior and market outcomes in uniform and discriminatory electricity auctions. We find that uniform auctions result in higher average prices than discriminatory auctions, but the ranking in terms of productive efficiency is ambiguous. The comparative effects of other market design features, such as the number of steps in suppliers' b...

  20. A light incident angle switchable ZnO nanorod memristor: reversible switching behavior between two non-volatile memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinjoo; Lee, Seunghyup; Lee, Junghan; Yong, Kijung

    2013-11-26

    A light incident angle selectivity of a memory device is demonstrated. As a model system, the ZnO resistive switching device has been selected. Electrical signal is reversibly switched between memristor and resistor behaviors by modulating the light incident angle on the device. Moreover, a liquid passivation layer is introduced to achieve stable and reversible exchange between the memristor and WORM behaviors. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to i...

  2. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  3. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  4. Electric field measurements in high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitko, S.V.; Ochkin, V.N.; Serdyuchenko, A.Yu.; Tskhai, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Electric fields define a wide range of interactions and phenomena at different phases of matter both on micro- and macro-level. Investigation of electric fields behavior provides a key for understanding of these phenomena and their application

  5. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  6. ELECTRICITY DEMAND AND ELECTRICITY VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Lim; Glenn Jenkins

    2000-01-01

    The estimation of the demand for electricity is important in the appraisal of power projects because it often affects the benefits of the projects. For projects that involve a decision about the timing of investment- when to install new capacity to meet the demand- the precision of the electricity demand forecast can be critical. For others, when electric tariff policy is involved, it is essential to relate the demand for electricity with tariffs through the use of an electricity demand model...

  7. Advanced device for testing the electrical behavior of conductive coatings on flexible polymer substrates under oscillatory bending: comparison of coatings of sputtered indium-tin oxide and poly3,4ethylenedioxythiophene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Königer, Tobias; Münstedt, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    A special device was designed and set up to investigate the electrical behavior of conductive layers on flexible substrates under oscillatory bending. The resistance of conductive coatings can be measured during various oscillatory bending conditions. The bending radius, the amplitude and the frequency can be set to well-defined values. Furthermore, the setup allows us to apply tensile or compressive stress to the coating as well as both stresses alternately. Thus, various bending loads occurring in printable electronics applications can be simulated to investigate the electrical reliability of conductive coatings. In addition, it is possible to simulate different environmental conditions during oscillatory bending by running the device in an environmental chamber. Characterizations of the electrical behavior under oscillatory bending were carried out on commercially available polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films sputtered with indium-tin oxide (ITO) and coated with poly3,4ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT). For coatings of sputtered ITO, a dramatic increase of the resistance is observed for bending radii smaller than 14 mm due to cracks spanning the whole sample width. The higher the amplitude, the more pronounced is the increase of the resistance. Coatings of PEDOT show high stability under oscillatory bending. There is no change in resistance observed for all bending radii and amplitudes applied over a large number of cycles

  8. STABLE DIAMOND GRINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Gutsalenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper generalizes on the one hand theory of kinematic-geometrical simulation of grinding processes by means of tools with working part as binding matrix with abrasive grains located in it in random manner, for example diamond grains, and on the other hand practical performance of combined grinding process, based on introduction of additional energy as electric discharges and called by the organization-developer (Kharkov Polytechnic Institute «diamond-spark grinding» as applied to processing by means of diamond wheel. Implementation of diamond-spark grinding technologies on the basis of developed generalized theoretical approach allows to use the tool with prescribed tool-life, moreover to make the most efficient use of it up to full exhausting of tool-life, determined by diamond-bearing thickness. Development is directed forward computer-aided manufacturing.

  9. Could binary mixture of Nd-Ni ions control the electrical behavior of strontium-barium M-type hexaferrite nanoparticles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed, E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.com [Surface and Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Farooq, Saima [Surface and Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Strontium-barium hexaferrites (Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) in single magnetoplumbite phase solid structure are synthesized by the co-precipitation method. {yields} Structural and electrical properties of Nd-Ni substituted ferrites are investigated. {yields} These ferrite materials possess high electrical resistivity (108 {Omega} cm) that is essential to curb the eddy current loss, which is pre-requisite for surface mount devices. -- Abstract: Cationic substitution in M-type hexaferrites is considered to be an important tool for modification of their electrical properties. This work is part of our comprehensive study on the synthesis and characterization of Nd-Ni doped strontium-barium hexaferrite nanomaterials of nominal composition Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5-x}Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 12-y}Ni{sub y}O{sub 19} (x = 0.00-0.10; y = 0.00-1.00). Doping with this binary mixture modulates the physical and electrical properties of strontium-barium hexaferrite nanoparticles. Structural and electrical properties of the co-precipitated ferrites are investigated using state-of-the-art techniques. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that the lattice parameters and cell volume are inversely related to the dopant content. Temperature dependent DC-electrical resistivity measurements infer that resistivity of strontium-barium hexaferrites decreases from 1.8 x 10{sup 10} to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} {Omega} cm whereas the drift mobility, dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent are directly related to the Nd-Ni content. The results of the study demonstrate a relationship between the modulation of electrical properties of substituted ferrites and nature of cations and their lattice site occupancy.

  10. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  11. Industrial and residential electricity demand dynamics in Japan: How did price and income elasticities evolve from 1989 to 2014?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Nan; Mogi, Gento

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the price and income elasticities of industrial and residential electricity demand in Japan with the annual data from 1989 to 2014. A time varying parameter (TVP) model with the Kalman filter is applied to monitor the evolution of consumer behaviors in the “post-bubble” period given the exogenous shock (financial crisis in 2008) and the structural breaks (electricity deregulation and Fukushima Daiichi crisis). The TVP model can provide a robust estimation of elasticities and can detect the outliers and the structural breaks. The results suggest that both industrial and residential consumers become less sensitive to price after the electricity deregulation and the financial crisis, and more sensitive to price after the Fukushima Daiichi crisis. Especially the industrial sector is less sensitive to price after the retail deregulation. By contrast, the income elasticities of industrial and residential sector consumers are stable during the examined period. Results also indicate that a negative relationship exists between the price elasticity of electricity demand and the price level of electricity after the electric sector deregulation. Some insights on the further electric sector reform and the environmental taxation in Japan are also provided. - Highlights: • A time varying parameter model is calculated with the Kalman filter. • Income elasticities are stable while price elasticities are time-varying. • Industrial sector is less sensitive to price change than residential sector. • Negative relationship between price elasticity and price level is found.

  12. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity, although it could increase.

  13. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  14. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  15. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  16. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  17. Electromagnetic foundations of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Faria, J A Brandao

    2008-01-01

    The applications of electromagnetic phenomena within electrical engineering have been evolving and progressing at a fast pace. In contrast, the underlying principles have been stable for a long time and are not expected to undergo any changes. It is these electromagnetic field fundamentals that are the subject of discussion in this book with an emphasis on basic principles, concepts and governing laws that apply across the electrical engineering discipline. Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering begins with an explanation of Maxwell's equations, from which the fundament

  18. Effects of retarded electrical fields on observables sensitive to the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gao-Feng; Li, Bao-An; Yong, Gao-Chan; Ou, Li; Cao, Xin-Wei; Liu, Xu-Yang

    2018-03-01

    Within the isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model IBUU11, we examine the relativistic retardation effects of electrical fields on the π-/π+ ratio and neutron-proton differential transverse flow in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. Compared to the static Coulomb fields, the retarded electric fields of fast-moving charges are known to be anisotropic and the associated relativistic corrections can be significant. They are found to increase the number of energetic protons in the participant region at the maximum compression by as much as 25% but that of energetic neutrons by less than 10% in 197Au+197Au reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. Consequently, more π+ and relatively fewer π- mesons are produced, leading to an appreciable reduction of the π-/π+ ratio compared to calculations with the static Coulomb fields. Also, the neutron-proton differential transverse flow, as another sensitive probe of high-density symmetry energy, is also decreased appreciably due to the stronger retarded electrical fields in directions perpendicular to the velocities of fast-moving charges compared to calculations using the isotropic static electrical fields. Moreover, the retardation effects on these observables are found to be approximately independent of the reaction impact parameter.

  19. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  20. Anomalous behavior of the steel alloying elements in the genetic structure of the solid metal at its smelting in electric furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Михайлович Скребцов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Melting process in an electric arc furnace and transformations taking place in solidified metals are not thoroughly understood yet. This article is devoted to these phenomena in liquid and solid metal and therefore is relevant at the moment. The authors sampled molten metal during all periods of mild steel smelting in an electric arc furnace beginning from melting the charge up to metal outlet out of the furnace into the ladle. Samples were analyzed for chemical elements content, and the microstructure of solidified samples (the ratio of ferrite and pearlite. It has been found that elements expanding γ – phase domain of existence (Mn, Ni during oxidation act similarly at deoxidation, but much weaker. This fact is interesting for science, it is advisable that these phenomena should be checked for the metal melted in other melting units – induction and crucible furnaces

  1. Behavioral evidence that magnetic field effects in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis, might not depend on magnetite or induced electric currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato, F.S. [Lawson Research Inst., London, Ontario (Canada); Kavaliers, M.; Carson, J.J.L. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    Although extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (< 300 Hz) appear to exert a variety of biological effects, the magnetic field sensing/transduction mechanism(s) remains to be established. Here, using the inhibitory effects of magnetic fields on endogenous opioid peptide-mediated analgesic response of the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis, the authors addressed the mechanism(s) of action of ELF magnetic fields. Indirect mechanisms involving both induced electric fields and direct magnetic field detection mechanisms (e.g., magnetite, parametric resonance) were evaluated. Snails were exposed to a static magnetic field (B{sub DC} = 78 {+-} 1 {micro}T) and a 60 Hz magnetic field (B{sub AC} = 299 {+-} 1 {micro}T peak) with the angle between the static and 60 Hz magnetic fields varied in eight steps between 0{degree} and 90{degree}. At 0{degree} and 90{degree}, the magnetic field reduced opioid-induced analgesia by approximately 20%, and this inhibition was increased to a maximum of 50% when the angle was between 50{degree} and 70{degree}. Because B{sub AC} was fixed in amplitude, direction, and frequency, any induced electric currents would be constant independent of the B{sub AC}/B{sub DC} angle. Also, an energy transduction mechanism involving magnetite should show greatest sensitivity at 90{degree}. Therefore, the energy transduction mechanism probably does not involve induced electric currents or magnetite. Rather, their results suggest a direct magnetic field detection mechanism consistent with the parametric resonance model proposed by Lednev.

  2. Cross Kelvin force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy studies of organic bulk heterojunction blends for local morphology and electrical behavior analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve-Faure, C., E-mail: Christina.villeneuve@laplace.unvi-tlse.fr [LAPLACE, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); Le Borgne, D. [LAPLACE, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LCC-CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Bedel-Pereira, E.; Séguy, I. [UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Moineau Chane-Ching, K. I.; Hernandez-Maldonado, D. [UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LCC-CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2015-02-07

    Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic devices performances depend on the relative organization and physical properties of the electron-donor and -acceptor materials. In this paper, BHJs of poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) associated with an electron acceptor material, 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C6 (PCBM) or [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}], are studied in terms of morphology, ordering, and electrical properties. First, comparison between the two BHJs performed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman characterizations shows that P3HT structuration is improved by blending with [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}]. Then, the relationship between charges trapping, electrical properties, and film morphology is investigated using conductive AFM and Kelvin Force Microscopy. Measurements in dark condition and under solar cell simulator provide complementary information on electrical phenomena in these organic nanostructures. Finally, time dependent measurement highlights the influence of charges stacking on conduction. Specifically, we demonstrate that charge accumulation initiated by illumination remains valid after switching off the light, and induces the modification in current versus voltage characteristic of P3HT: PCBM blend. Finally, we observe a current increasing which can be attributed to the energy barrier decreasing due to charges trapping in PCBM.

  3. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  4. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  5. Impact of Physical Deformation on Electrical Performance of Paper-Based Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2017-01-23

    We report on investigation of the mechanical properties of paper electronics (printed and made out of paper). One key objective of such paper electronics is to achieve ultraflexibility. Therefore, it is important to understand electrical functionality and reliability of paper electronics under various physical (mechanical) deformations. Here, we show the general mechanical properties of the cellulose paper used and its electrical behavior under applied strain, tackling the main effects that need to be identified when building paper-based systems, from product performance and stability perspective. An overview of the stress-strain behavior of silver ink on paper is discussed, and then, we tackle a more specific analysis of the performance variations of paper sensors made with recyclable household materials when exposed to various mechanical conditions of tensile and compressive bending. This paper is important for developing stable wearable sensors for incorporation into Internet of Everything applications.

  6. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  7. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  8. Electricity derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Barone-Adesi, Giovanni; Gigli, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose an algorithm for pricing derivatives written on electricity in an incomplete market setting. A discrete time model for price dynamics which embodies the main features of electricity price revealed by simple time series analysis is considered. We use jointly Binomial and Monte Carlo methods for pricing under a risk-neutral measure of which we prove the existence.

  9. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  10. Electrical and magnetic behavior of iron doped nickel titanate (Fe{sup 3+}/NiTiO{sub 3}) magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenin, Nayagam; Karthik, Arumugam; Sridharpanday, Mathu; Selvam, Mohanraj; Srither, Saturappan Ravisekaran; Arunmetha, Sundarmoorthy; Paramasivam, Palanisamy; Rajendran, Venkatachalam, E-mail: veerajendran@gmail.com

    2016-01-01

    Iron doped nickel titanate (Fe{sup 3+}/NiTiO{sub 3}) ferromagnetic nanoparticles with different concentrations of Fe (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mol) were synthesized using precipitation route with precursor source such as nickel nitrate and iron nitrate solutions. The prepared magnetic nanopowders were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, vibrating sample magnetometer, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to explore the structural, ferromagnetic, and dielectric properties. The obtained XRD pattern shows formation of iron doped nickel titanate in orthorhombic structure. The crystallite size ranges from 57 to 21 nm and specific surface area ranges from 11 to 137 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. The hysteresis loops of nanomagnetic materials show ferromagnetic behavior with higher magnitude of coercivity (H{sub c}) 867–462 Oe. The impedance analysis of ferromagnetic materials explores the ferro-dielectric behavior with enhanced properties of Fe{sup 3+}/NiTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles at higher Fe content. - Highlights: • Iron doped nickel titanate magnetic nanoparticles. • Ferromagnetic magnetism behavior with higher magnitude of coercivity. • Dielectric behavior of ferromagnetic nanoparticles with increase of Fe content.

  11. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  12. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  13. Stable states in a strong IR field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2015-05-01

    It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.

  14. Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

  15. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  16. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I [Fayetteville, AR; Bellaiche, Laurent M [Fayetteville, AR; Prosandeev, Sergey A [Fayetteville, AR; Ponomareva, Inna V [Fayetteville, AR; Kornev, Igor A [Fayetteville, AR

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  17. Apparatus to detect stable fractional charges on matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderspek, R.

    1980-04-01

    The construction of an apparatus designed to detect stable fractional charges on matter, if they exist, to the level of 10 -24 per nucleon is reported and discussed. The charges on a stream of highly consistent droplets produced by the apparatus are determined by accurate measurement of the deflection of the droplets in falling through a static electric field. Maintenance of certain parameters of operation calculated to limit the random effects of electrical and aerodynamical disturbances on the droplets indicate a precision in the measurement of the charge on a droplet of 0.02e can be attained. 7 figures

  18. The effects of Co-Ti co-doping on the magnetic, electrical, and magnetodielectric behaviors of M-type barium hexaferrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Guan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic, electrical and magnetodielectric properties have been studied in Co-Ti co-doped M-type hexaferrite BaCoxTixFe12-2xO19 (x = 0 ∼ 4. With the incorporation of Co-Ti, both their ferromagnetic magnetization and coercivity have been greatly changed. The temperature dependent magnetization curve shows a apparent hump at around 420 K, likely in association with more complicated cycloidal spin ordering, which is closely related to ferroelectric polarization. Interestingly, a significantly enhancement in resistivity (∼3 orders in magnitude can be obtained in co-doped samples (x > 2, which is beneficial for magnetoelectric properties. The magnetoelectric effect were examined by dielectric tunibility under external magnetic field, which shows apparent tunability up to ∼−3% for sample with x = 2 at 1T magnetic field, further supporting it is a room temperature single phase mutliferroic material.

  19. Electrical Behavior of Cd0.3Zn1.1x S0.7 Thin Films for Non-Heat Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliff Orori Mosiori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like Kenya, solution processing technique is the cheapest and simplest technique to grow inorganic composites thin films. This method was used to grow thin films of Cd0.3Zn1.1xS0.7 on ordinary microscope Perspex substrate slides from aqueous solutions of Zinc chloride and cadmium chloride in ammonia solution. A solution of triethanalomine was used as a complexing agent while thiourea was used as source of sulphide ions. Electrical properties as a function of their thicknesses were obtained by varying deposition time while all other parameters were maintained constant. Using a resistance measurement device and a Gauss meter, resistivity and the conductivity of the films were found to be thickness dependent with semiconductor nature.

  20. Supplier choice and WTP for electricity attributes in an emerging market: The role of perceived past experience, environmental concern and energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Francisco Javier; González, Rosa Marina; Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes customers' preferences and their willingness to pay (WTP) for certain service attributes in an electricity supplier choice context. Specifically, a stated preference choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market where limited competition exists. Preferences for different electricity suppliers and three level-of-service attributes are investigated, namely, supply reliability, share of renewable energies and availability of a complementary energy audit service. The results might be interpreted as an indication of different aspects new firms need to consider if they plan to enter in the market. There is an opportunity for new companies to establish in the market, though evidence of brand loyalty to the current company and/or significant switching costs are also found, especially in the case of older people. Regarding the estimated WTP, several results should be highlighted. First, customers who have experienced more serious outages in the past tend to show a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. Second, highly-educated respondents, those who state a great concern for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and those who carry out energy saving actions in their homes exhibit a larger WTP for renewable energies. This empirical evidence provides useful information for authorities responsible for energy policy design. - Highlights: • A stated choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market. • Serious outages in the past lead to a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. • A higher education level explains a greater WTP for renewables. • People concerned for emissions and energy savers show greater WTP for renewables. • These findings provide useful information for energy policy design

  1. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  2. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  3. Electric theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ha Seong

    2006-02-01

    This book explains electric theory which is divided into four chapters. The first chapter includes electricity and material, electric field, capacitance, magnetic field and electromagnetic force, inductance. The second chapter mentions electronic circuit analysis, electric resistance,heating and power, chemical activity on current and battery with electrolysis. The third chapter deals with an alternating current circuit about the basics of an AC circuit, operating of resistance, inductance and capacitance, series circuit and parallel circuit of PLC, an alternating current circuit, Three-phase Alternating current, two terminal pair network and voltage and current of non-linearity circuit. The last explains transient phenomena of RC series circuit, RL series circuit, transient phenomena of an alternating current circuit and transient phenomena of RLC series circuit.

  4. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  5. Electric empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Paul

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the economic and political aspects of Ontario Hydro, a provincial crown corporation. He also deals with nuclear safety of the CANDU reactors and the ecological effects of electric power supply. Alternate sources of energy are also mentioned

  6. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  7. Electricity Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Details technologies that can be used to store electricity so it can be used at times when demand exceeds generation, which helps utilities operate more effectively, reduce brownouts, and allow for more renewable energy resources to be built and used.

  8. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  9. Study of the effects of the interconnectivity of the metallic phase on the electrical and thermal behavior in alumina-ni and zirconia-ni interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, R.N.; Awais, H.B.; Mehmood, M.; Tariq, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    The addition of metallic inclusion in ceramic matrix can enhance the electrical and magnetic properties of the composite. Connectivity of conducting phase in an insulating matrix can be studied using electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, Hall Effect and by microscopic techniques. The wide range of application of such studies include, susceptor materials for induction heating, thin film resistors, gel formation permeability in porous structure and electromagnetic behavior of composites. The main phenomenon to be investigated is the insulating to conducting transition by the determination to of percolation range. This phenomenon depends on the concentration, shape, dimension and the crystallographic direction of the imbedded conducting particles. In this investigation variable concerning the percolation range of alumina- Ni and zirconia-Ni composites have been studied. The results provided the role of the size ratio of particles of matrix and the conducting phase, variation of resistance in terms of real part of impedance and thermal expansion on percolation effect. Scanning electron image have been used to study the percolation microscopically. (author)

  10. Contribution of stable isotopes to the study of pharmacokinetics of magnesium salts; Apport des isotopes stables a l'etude de la pharmacocinetique de sels de magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benech, H

    1999-05-28

    The use of stable isotopes as labels is becoming an attractive tool for the study of magnesium behavior in humans. It has been used two stable isotopes of magnesium, {sup 25}Mg and {sup 26}Mg, to measure the absolute bioavailability of a pharmaceutical form of magnesium. (N.C.)

  11. Behavioral determination of stimulus pair discrimination of auditory acoustic and electrical stimuli using a classical conditioning and heart-rate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Simeon J; Paolini, Antonio G

    2012-06-06

    Acute animal preparations have been used in research prospectively investigating electrode designs and stimulation techniques for integration into neural auditory prostheses, such as auditory brainstem implants and auditory midbrain implants. While acute experiments can give initial insight to the effectiveness of the implant, testing the chronically implanted and awake animals provides the advantage of examining the psychophysical properties of the sensations induced using implanted devices. Several techniques such as reward-based operant conditioning, conditioned avoidance, or classical fear conditioning have been used to provide behavioral confirmation of detection of a relevant stimulus attribute. Selection of a technique involves balancing aspects including time efficiency (often poor in reward-based approaches), the ability to test a plurality of stimulus attributes simultaneously (limited in conditioned avoidance), and measure reliability of repeated stimuli (a potential constraint when physiological measures are employed). Here, a classical fear conditioning behavioral method is presented which may be used to simultaneously test both detection of a stimulus, and discrimination between two stimuli. Heart-rate is used as a measure of fear response, which reduces or eliminates the requirement for time-consuming video coding for freeze behaviour or other such measures (although such measures could be included to provide convergent evidence). Animals were conditioned using these techniques in three 2-hour conditioning sessions, each providing 48 stimulus trials. Subsequent 48-trial testing sessions were then used to test for detection of each stimulus in presented pairs, and test discrimination between the member stimuli of each pair. This behavioral method is presented in the context of its utilisation in auditory prosthetic research. The implantation of electrocardiogram telemetry devices is shown. Subsequent implantation of brain electrodes into the Cochlear

  12. Stochastic estimation of electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity consumption forecasting represents a part of the stable functioning of the power system. It is very important because of rationality and increase of control process efficiency and development planning of all aspects of society. On a scientific basis, forecasting is a possible way to solve problems. Among different models that have been used in the area of forecasting, the stochastic aspect of forecasting as a part of quantitative models takes a very important place in applications. ARIMA models and Kalman filter as stochastic estimators have been treated together for electricity consumption forecasting. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to present the stochastic forecasting aspect using short time series. (author)

  13. Modulation of the behavioral and electrical responses to the repellent DEET elicited by the pre-exposure to the same compound in Blattella germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Sfara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Insects under different stimuli from the environment modify behavioural responses due to changes in the sensitivity of neurons at the peripheral and/or at the central level of the nervous system. This phenomenon is called neuronal plasticity, and sensory adaptation is an example of it. An insect repellent is a chemical that produces oriented movements of the insects away from its source. In this work we studied the modulation of the behavioural and electrical response to the repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET in males of the German cockroach B. germanica produced by previous exposure to the same repellent. Methods. We determined repellency using a circular arena, one half of which was treated with DEET. The time spent by insects in each half of the arena was measured, and a repellency coefficient (RC was calculated. The RCs of pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed insects were compared. To determine a possible role of nitric oxide in the modulation of the response to DEET after pre-exposure, the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC was applied on cockroaches’ antennae. The electrical activity of the cockroaches’ antennae in response to DEET was recorded using electroantennogram (EAG technique. The response to DEET was recorded also after a long stimulation with the same repellent, and after topical application of SNAC and dbcGMP (a cGMP analogue on the antennae. Results. We found that previous exposure of B. germanica males to the repellent DEET produced an increase of the repellency at the behavioural level, measured as RC. A possible role of nitric oxide (NO in the transduction pathway of this phenomenon is suggested, since treatment of the cockroaches with the NO donor SNAC also produced an increase of the repellency elicited by DEET. On the other hand, the response of the cockroaches’ antennae exposed to DEET was determined electrophysiologically. The electrical activity in response to DEET decreased when the

  14. Fast and stable redox reactions of MnO₂/CNT hybrid electrodes for dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Taoli; Wei, Bingqing

    2015-07-21

    Pseudocapacitors, which are energy storage devices that take advantage of redox reactions to store electricity, have a different charge storage mechanism compared to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), and they could realize further gains if they were used as stretchable power sources. The realization of dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors and understanding of the underlying fundamentals of their mechanical-electrochemical relationship have become indispensable. We report herein the electrochemical performance of dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors using buckled MnO2/CNT hybrid electrodes. The extremely small relaxation time constant of less than 0.15 s indicates a fast redox reaction at the MnO2/CNT hybrid electrodes, securing a stable electrochemical performance for the dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors. This finding and the fundamental understanding gained from the pseudo-capacitive behavior coupled with mechanical deformation under a dynamic stretching mode would provide guidance to further improve their overall performance including a higher power density than LIBs, a higher energy density than EDLCs, and a long-life cycling stability. Most importantly, these results will potentially accelerate the applications of stretchable pseudocapacitors for flexible and biomedical electronics.

  15. Geochemical and geo-electrical study of mud pools at the Mutnovsky volcano (South Kamchatka, Russia): Behavior of elements, structures of feeding channels and a model of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonova, E.P.; Bortnikova, S.B.; Gora, M.P.; Manstein, Yu.A.; Shevko, A.Ya.; Panin, G.L.; Manstein, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents data on the geochemical composition of boiling mud pools at the Mutnovsky volcano. The physicochemical characteristics of the pools and the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in pool solutions vary widely. A comparison of the geochemical compositions of host rocks and solutions indicates that leaching from rocks is not the only source of chemicals in thermal solutions. Geophysical studies reveal the inner structure of thermal fields, which reflect the shapes of the underground reservoirs and feed channels. Using geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography and frequency domain investigations), it was shown that the vertical structure and complex geochemical zonation of the feed channels leads to a high contrast in the compositions of the mud solutions. These findings answer questions about the origin and composition of surface manifestations. To elucidate the mechanisms of solution formation, an attempt was made to describe the magmatic fluid evolution and the resulting mixing of waters by physical and mathematical models. The model illustrates fluid migration from a magma chamber to the surface. It is shown that the formation of brines corresponding to the mud pool composition is possible during secondary boiling.

  16. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  17. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  18. Ephemeral Electric Potential and Electric Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the various embodiments provide for the minimization of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic leakage electrical currents enabling true measurements of electric potentials and electric fields. In an embodiment, an ephemeral electric potential and electric field sensor system may have at least one electric field sensor and a rotator coupled to the electric field sensor and be configured to rotate the electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency. In an embodiment, ephemeral electric potential and electric field measurements may be taken by rotating at least one electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency, receiving electrical potential measurements from the electric field sensor when the electric field sensor is rotating at the quasi-static frequency, and generating and outputting images based at least in part on the received electrical potential measurements.

  19. Oxygen partial pressure effect on structural and electrical behavior of pulsed laser deposited Zn{sub 0.98}Co{sub 0.02}O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhar, K.C., E-mail: kcsekhar@fisica.uminho.pt [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Khodorov, A. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Chahboun, A. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); FST Tanger, Physics Department, BP416 Tanger (Morocco); Levichev, S. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Almeida, A.; Moreira, J. Agostinho [IFIMUP and IN - Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Kamakshi, Koppole [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Silva, C.J.R. [Centre of Chemistry, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Pereira, M.; Gomes, M.J.M. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2012-07-16

    Thin Zn{sub 0.98}Co{sub 0.02}O films were grown by pulsed laser deposition at different oxygen partial pressure (PO{sub 2}) and its influence on their structural and electrical properties was investigated. Raman and photoluminescence studies revealed that zinc interstitial defects significantly decreased with increase of PO{sub 2}. Complex impedance spectroscopy has been made to elucidate conduction mechanism and electronic relaxation process in Zn{sub 0.98}Co{sub 0.02}O films. Resistivity/impedance in the films grown at 0.1 mbar decreased as the temperature increases while the films grown at 0.01 and 0.001 mbar have shown opposite trend. The change in resistivity/impedance with temperature in the films grown at low and high PO{sub 2} is attributed to annihilation of defects and thermal activation of free carriers respectively. The relaxation time in the films grown at low PO{sub 2} increases with the temperature. It exhibits an exponential dependence on the inverse temperature with three different slopes. The corresponding energies estimated from Arrhenius type relation are very close to the energies for electronic relaxation of zinc interstitials, zinc antisities and oxygen vacancies respectively. Impedance analysis and current-voltage characteristics suggest that the resistivity of Zn{sub 0.98}Co{sub 0.02}O films is mainly due to bulk effect of the films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The native point defects were characterized by impedance spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc interstitial defects significantly decreased with increase of oxygen partial pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conduction mechanism in the films grown at low pressures is governed by native defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The impedance and I-V characteristics suggest that the resistivity is mainly due to bulk effect of the films.

  20. Electrically powered hand tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  1. Bi-stable wave propagation and early afterdepolarization-mediated cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Marvin G; Sato, Daisuke; de Lange, Enno; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; Garfinkel, Alan; Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin

    2012-01-01

    In normal atrial and ventricular tissue, the electrical wavefronts are mediated by the fast sodium current (I(Na)), whereas in sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodal tissue, conduction is mediated by the slow L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). However, it has not been shown whether the same tissue can exhibit both the I(Na)-mediated and the I(Ca,L)-mediated conduction. This study sought to test the hypothesis that bi-stable cardiac wave conduction, mediated by I(Na) and I(Ca,L), respectively, can occur in the same tissue under conditions promoting early afterdepolarizations (EADs), and to study how this novel wave dynamics is related to the mechanisms of EAD-mediated arrhythmias. Computer models of two-dimensional (2D) tissue with a physiologically detailed action potential model were used to study the bi-stable wave dynamics. Theoretical predictions were tested experimentally by optical mapping in neonatal rat ventricular myocyte monolayers. In the same 2D homogeneous tissue, we could induce spiral waves that are mediated by either I(Na) or I(Ca,L) under conditions in which the action potential model exhibited EADs. This bi-stable wave propagation behavior was similar to bi-stability shown in many other nonlinear systems. Because the bi-stable states are also excitable, we call this novel behavior bi-excitability. In a 2D heterogeneous tissue, the I(Ca,L)-mediated spiral wave meanders, giving rise to a twisting electrocardiographic QRS axis, resembling torsades de pointes, whereas the coexistence and interplay between the I(Na)-mediated wavefronts and I(Ca,L)-mediated wavefronts give rise to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. We also present experimental evidence for bi-excitability under EAD-promoting conditions in neonatal rat ventricular myocyte monolayers exposed to BayK8644 and isoproterenol. Under EAD-prone conditions, both I(Na)-mediated conduction and I(Ca,L)-mediated conduction can occur in the same tissue. These novel wave dynamics may be responsible for

  2. Electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity pricing in most countries, especially in the developing world, has been determined by traditional accounting criteria where it raises revenue requirements to cover the operating costs and a return on past and future capital investments in possible power systems. The use of economic principles to improve the total economic efficiency in the electricity industry is discussed. Basic marginal cost theory, long run marginal costing (LRMC) cost categories and rating periods, marginal capacity costs, marginal energy costs, consumer costs, short run marginal costing (SRMC), marginal cost of fuel, marginal cost of network losses, market clearing price, value of unserved energy and network quality of supply cost are discussed

  3. Is Sensation Seeking a Stable Trait or Does It Change over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed, in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change…

  4. Role of structural modifications of montmorillonite, electrical properties effect, physical behavior of nanocomposite proton conducting membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin K. Sainul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membranes have been synthesized from polyimide (PI doped with different contents of montmorillonite (MMT which was obtained by solution casting technique. The enhancement of conductivity was achieved through modification with the MMT. Prepared membranes were systematically characterized in terms of ion exchange capacity, water uptake, methanol uptake, swelling behavior and proton conductivity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements were used to confirm the structures of the PI/MMT composite electrolyte membranes. SEM surface morphological images of the composite membranes showed that the MMT nanoclay particles were dispersed uniformly within the membrane what was also reflected in XRD results which indicated a good compatibility of MMT particles with the polymer complex. The TGA spectra showed that the thermal stability of the membrane was reduced by adding MMT into the polymer network. The prepared membrane with 10 wt.% of modified MMT exhibited the highest proton conductivity value of 7.06 × 10-2 S·cm-1 at 70 °C. These results imply the potential application of the PI/MMT composite membranes as improved PEMs for DMFC applications.

  5. Bifurcation properties of nematic liquid crystals exposed to an electric field: Switchability, bistability, and multistability

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.

    2013-07-01

    Bistable liquid crystal displays (LCDs) offer the potential for considerable power savings compared with conventional (monostable) LCDs. The existence of two (or more) stable field-free states that are optically distinct means that contrast can be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine the basic physical principles involved in generating multiple stable states and the switching between these states. We consider a two-dimensional geometry in which variable surface anchoring conditions are used to control the steady-state solutions and explore how different anchoring conditions can influence the number and type of solutions and whether or not switching is possible between the states. We find a wide range of possible behaviors, including bistability, tristability, and tetrastability, and investigate how the solution landscape changes as the boundary conditions are tuned. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  6. Electrical Rectification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    bio-mimetic systems. O w ing to the saturation of the e± ciency of sil- icon devices in electronics industry, m olecular electronics has gained trem endous im petus in re- cent tim es. T heoretical predictions and experi- m ental realizations of such system s have given birth to a ... their electrical conductance property and pos-.

  7. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  8. Highly scalable multichannel mesh electronics for stable chronic brain electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian-Ming; Hong, Guosong; Viveros, Robert D; Zhou, Tao; Lieber, Charles M

    2017-11-21

    Implantable electrical probes have led to advances in neuroscience, brain-machine interfaces, and treatment of neurological diseases, yet they remain limited in several key aspects. Ideally, an electrical probe should be capable of recording from large numbers of neurons across multiple local circuits and, importantly, allow stable tracking of the evolution of these neurons over the entire course of study. Silicon probes based on microfabrication can yield large-scale, high-density recording but face challenges of chronic gliosis and instability due to mechanical and structural mismatch with the brain. Ultraflexible mesh electronics, on the other hand, have demonstrated negligible chronic immune response and stable long-term brain monitoring at single-neuron level, although, to date, it has been limited to 16 channels. Here, we present a scalable scheme for highly multiplexed mesh electronics probes to bridge the gap between scalability and flexibility, where 32 to 128 channels per probe were implemented while the crucial brain-like structure and mechanics were maintained. Combining this mesh design with multisite injection, we demonstrate stable 128-channel local field potential and single-unit recordings from multiple brain regions in awake restrained mice over 4 mo. In addition, the newly integrated mesh is used to validate stable chronic recordings in freely behaving mice. This scalable scheme for mesh electronics together with demonstrated long-term stability represent important progress toward the realization of ideal implantable electrical probes allowing for mapping and tracking single-neuron level circuit changes associated with learning, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  10. Spectral Behavior of the "Stable Shell" Star HD 179343

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iliev, L.; Kubát, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, Suppl. (2010), s. 33-37 ISSN 1220-5168 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : variable star s * Be/shell star s * spectral observations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  11. Simulation of power plant construction in competitive Korean electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Nam Sung; Huh, Sung Chul

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the forecast of power plant construction in competitive Korean electricity market. In Korea, KEPCO (Korean Electric Power Corporation, fully controlled by government) was responsible for from the production of the electricity to the sale of electricity to customer. However, the generation part is separated from KEPCO and six generation companies were established for whole sale competition from April 1st, 2001. The generation companies consist of five fossil power companies and one nuclear power company. Fossil power companies are schedule to be sold to private companies including foreign investors. Nuclear power company is owned by government. The competition in generation market will start from 2003. ISO (Independence System Operator) will purchase the electricity from the power exchange market. The market price is determined by the SMP (System Marginal Price) which is decided by the balance between demand and supply of electricity in power exchange market. Under this uncertain circumstance, the energy policy planners are interested to the construction of the power plant in the future. These interests are accelerated due to the recent shortage of electricity supply in California. In the competitive market, investors are no longer interested in the investment for the capital intensive, long lead time generating technologies. Large nuclear and coal plants were no longer the top choices. Instead, investors in the competitive market are interested in smaller, more efficient, cheaper, cleaner technologies such as CCGT (Combined Cycle Gas Turbine). Electricity is treated as commodity in the competitive market. The investor's behavior in the commodity market shows that the new investment decision is made when the market price exceeds the sum of capital cost and variable cost of the new facility and the existing facility utilization depends on the marginal cost of the facility. This investor's behavior can be applied to the new investments for the

  12. Contribution of stable isotopes to the study of pharmacokinetics of magnesium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benech, H.

    1999-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes as labels is becoming an attractive tool for the study of magnesium behavior in humans. It has been used two stable isotopes of magnesium, 25 Mg and 26 Mg, to measure the absolute bioavailability of a pharmaceutical form of magnesium. (N.C.)

  13. A new cascade NN based method to short-term load forecast in deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouhi, Sajjad; Keynia, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We are proposed a new hybrid cascaded NN based method and WT to short-term load forecast in deregulated electricity market. • An efficient preprocessor consist of normalization and shuffling of signals is presented. • In order to select the best inputs, a two-stage feature selection is presented. • A new cascaded structure consist of three cascaded NNs is used as forecaster. - Abstract: Short-term load forecasting (STLF) is a major discussion in efficient operation of power systems. The electricity load is a nonlinear signal with time dependent behavior. The area of electricity load forecasting has still essential need for more accurate and stable load forecast algorithm. To improve the accuracy of prediction, a new hybrid forecast strategy based on cascaded neural network is proposed for STLF. This method is consists of wavelet transform, an intelligent two-stage feature selection, and cascaded neural network. The feature selection is used to remove the irrelevant and redundant inputs. The forecast engine is composed of three cascaded neural network (CNN) structure. This cascaded structure can be efficiently extract input/output mapping function of the nonlinear electricity load data. Adjustable parameters of the intelligent feature selection and CNN is fine-tuned by a kind of cross-validation technique. The proposed STLF is tested on PJM and New York electricity markets. It is concluded from the result, the proposed algorithm is a robust forecast method

  14. Electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report focuses on the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) administration of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, intended to protect the public, investors, and consumers from abuses associated with the control of electric and gas utility companies through the holding company structure. These abuses include subjecting subsidiary utilities to excessive charges for services, construction work, and materials; frustrating effective state regulation through the holding company structure; and overloading subsidiary utilities with debt to prevent voluntary rate reductions. GAO discusses industry changes during the past decade involving electric utility holding companies; SEC's regulatory response to such changes; and the relationship between SEC, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and states in protecting consumer and investor interests in light of these changes

  15. Electricity Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, A.; Beith, A.J.; Hardy, P.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of the debate, which lasted a total of about 7 hours, a verbatim report of the first five of which are included here, was about energy conservation. Several new clauses and amendments were discussed. One would place a duty on the new Director of the Energy Supply industry to promote the efficiency and conservation of energy, another would appoint a Deputy Director with responsibility for energy conservation, and the third would require targets of energy efficiency and pollution reduction to be achieved. This allowed discussion on energy saving by domestic thermal insulation, improved efficiency of heating and refrigeration units and on renewable energy sources especially world energy. The second part of the debate was about access to information regarding health and safety resulting from any activities of the electricity supply industry. The remainder of the debate concerned regional representation and the economics of the electricity supply industry. (UK)

  16. Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  17. Electrical deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Deregulation in the electricity sector took effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. Business consumers discovered that their electricity rates had almost doubled in a one-month period. The government argued that it was the case of short term pain for long term gain. The intent of the deregulation is the lowering of prices through competition. This principle applies when the supply meets the demand, but when the demand exceeds the supply, prices increase. When initial plans were made for the deregulation of the sector, utilities did not invest huge amounts of capital to build new generation plants, as it was not known how they would fare in the deregulated environment. This situation was compounded by the fact that there was an economic boom around the same time in Alberta, adding to the demands made on the existing generation infrastructure (approximately 4 per cent per year over the past decade). At the moment, some resource developers such as Syncrude, Amoco, and Daishowa produce their own electricity and export their excess capacity to the provincial grid for general use. The rules of the deregulated market have been clarified and a number of utilities are planning new generation plants and facilities. TransAlta, EPCOR, and Enmax Corp. have announced plans to expand or build new coal-fired plants. Alberta has an estimated 35 billion tonnes of recoverable coal, and 25 million tonnes of coal were used in 1999 to produce 75 per cent of the electricity required in Alberta. Over the next ten years, 4,000 megawatts of new capacity is planned, representing a 50 per cent increase over current levels. AES Corporation, a Virginia power giant, has also announced plans to build a generator in Alberta

  18. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  19. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape, and Color on Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Foil, Lane D

    2018-04-02

    Stable fly management is challenging because of the fly's dispersal behavior and its tendency to remain on the host only while feeding. Optically attractive traps have been used to survey and sometimes reduce adult populations. Insecticide-treated blue and black cloth targets developed for tsetse fly management in Africa were found to be attractive to stable flies in the United States, and various evaluations were conducted in Louisiana and Florida. Tests using untreated targets were designed to answer questions about configuration, size, and color relative to efficacy and stability in high winds. Studies with electric grid targets and with targets paired with Olson traps showed cloth target color attraction in the following decreasing order: black > blue-black > blue. A solid black target is easier to make than a blue-black target because no sewing is involved. Attraction was not affected when flat 1-m2 targets were formed into cylinders, despite the limited view of the blue and black colors together. There was no reduction in attraction when the 1-m2 cylindrical targets were compared with smaller (63 × 30 cm high) cylindrical targets. In addition, there was no difference in attraction between the small blue-black, blue, and black targets. Significance of findings and implications of potential uses for treated targets are discussed. Target attraction was indicated by the numbers of stable flies captured on an Olson sticky trap placed 30 cm from the target. Although this system is adequate for field research, it greatly underestimates the actual numbers of stable flies attracted to treated targets.

  20. Diaminouronium Nitriminotetrazolates - Thermally Stable Explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Klapoetke, Thomas M.; Stierstorfer, Joerg; Fischer, Niko; Piercey, Davin; Scheutzow, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Diaminouronium 5-nitriminotetrazolate (1) and diaminouronium 1-methyl-5-nitrimino-tetrazolate (2) were synthesized by the reaction of diaminourea with 5-nitriminotetrazole (3) and 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazole (4), respectively. The energetic compounds 1 and 2 were fully characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, NMR spectroscopy, IR- and Raman spectroscopy as well as DSC measurements. The sensitivities towards impact, friction and electrical discharge were determi...

  1. High precision and stable structures for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Da Mota Silva, S; Hauviller, Claude

    1999-01-01

    The central detectors used in High Energy Physics Experiments require the use of light and stable structures capable of supporting delicate and precise radiation detection elements. These structures need to be highly stable under environmental conditions where external vibrations, high radiation levels, temperature and humidity gradients should be taken into account. Their main design drivers are high dimension and dynamic stability, high stiffness to mass ratio and large radiation length. For most applications, these constraints lead us to choose Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics ( CFRP) as structural element. The construction of light and stable structures with CFRP for these applications can be achieved by careful design engineering and further confirmation at the prototyping phase. However, the experimental environment can influence their characteristics and behavior. In this case, theuse of adaptive structures could become a solution for this problem. We are studying structures in CFRP with bonded piezoel...

  2. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  3. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  4. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  5. On results of measurement and method of behavior analysis for land slide protection wall in excavation works for main building foundation of No.2 plant in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuki, Hideo; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Nishioka, Toshimichi

    1987-01-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Co. has been constructing the nuclear power station having 8 million kW capacity of seven BWR plants in the site of about 4.2 million m 2 in Niigata Prefecture. No.1 BWR plant of 1100 MWe output started the operation in September, 1985. As a rule, the important structures in nuclear power stations such as a reactor building and a turbine building are to be directly supported on bedrocks, and in this case, on the mudstone of Nishiyama strata. As this Nishiyama strata exists in large depth, the excavation works for the foundations of buildings are to be carried out by installing large scale land slide protection walls. In this report, among the excavation works for the main building foundation of No.2 plant, the results of examining the behavior of the land slide protection wall installed in soft rock ground based on the results of measurement of vertical excavation by land slide protection method and the techniques of its analysis are described. The geological features, the design of land slide protection walls, the measurement of the land slide protection walls and surrounding ground and the results, and the examination of the analysis methods by a beam model and FEM are reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  7. Controlling molecular condensation/diffusion of copper phthalocyanine by local electric field induced with scanning tunneling microscope tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Katsumi; Yaginuma, Shin; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2018-02-01

    We have discovered the condensation/diffusion phenomena of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules controlled with a pulsed electric field induced by the scanning tunneling microscope tip. This behavior is not explained by the conventional induced dipole model. In order to understand the mechanism, we have measured the electronic structure of the molecule by tunneling spectroscopy and also performed theoretical calculations on molecular orbitals. These data clearly indicate that the molecule is positively charged owing to charge transfer to the substrate, and that hydrogen bonding exists between CuPc molecules, which makes the molecular island stable.

  8. Long-term stable surface modification of DLC coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzmann Gaby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of coatings based on diamond like carbon (DLC for medical applications was established during the last years. Main advantages of these coatings are its high hardness, good wear and friction behavior and its biocompatibility. Using low-energy electron-beam treatment, we addressed the surface modification of DLC coatings. The aim was to generate new biofunctional surface characteristics that are long-term stable.

  9. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  10. Solar Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  11. Introducing fecal stable isotope analysis in primate weaning studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J

    2012-10-01

    This research investigates the potential of a new, noninvasive method for determining age of weaning among primates using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in feces. Analysis of stable isotope ratios in body tissues is a well-established method in archeology and ecology for reconstructing diet. This is the first study to investigate weaning in primates using fecal stable isotope ratios. Diets of a single François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) mother-infant pair at the Toledo Zoo are reconstructed using this technique to track changes in infant suckling behavior over the weaning period. Stable isotope ratios in feces are sampled instead of more traditional samples such as bone or hair to enable daily, noninvasive snapshots of weaning status. Isotopic assessments of weaning status are compared to visual assessments to identify any discordance between the two. Three measurements documented the transition from breast milk to solid foods: stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C), stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)N), and nitrogen content of feces (%N). It appears that solid foods were introduced at approximately 2 months of infant age, but that nursing continued into the 12th month, when sample collection ceased. Stable isotope data exposed a much longer weaning period than what was expected based on previously published data for captive langurs, and clarified visual estimates of weaning status. This reflects the method's sensitivity to suckling at night and ability to distinguish actual nursing from comfort nursing. After testing this method with zoo animals, it can readily be applied among wild populations. An isotopic approach to weaning provides a new, accurate, and biologically meaningful assessment of interbirth intervals, and facilitates a better understanding of mother-infant interactions. Both of these outcomes are critical for developing successful conservation strategies for captive and wild primates. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Energy conservation in electric distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chong-Jin.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential for energy and power savings that exist in electric power delivery systems. These savings translate into significant financial and environmental benefits for electricity producers and consumers as well as for society in general. AlliedSignal's knowledge and perspectives on this topic are the result of discussions with hundreds of utility executives, government officials and other industry experts over the past decade in conjunction with marketing our Amorphous Metal technology for electric distribution transformers. Amorphous metal is a technology developed by AlliedSignal that significantly reduces the energy lost in electric distribution transformers at an incremental cost of just a few cents per kilo-Watt-hour. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: Amorphous Metal Alloy Technology; Energy Savings Opportunity; The Industrial Barriers and Remedies; Worldwide Demand; and A Low Risk Strategy. I wish this presentation will help KEPCO achieve their stated aims of ensuring sound development of the national economy and enhancement of public life through the economic and stable supply of electric power. AlliedSignal Korea Ltd. in conjunction with AlliedSignal Amorphous Metals in the U.S. are here to work with KEPCO, transformer manufacturers, industry, and government agencies to achieve greater efficiency in power distribution

  13. High efficiency and stable white OLED using a single emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Mechanical, Aerospace, Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2016-01-18

    The ultimate objective of this project was to demonstrate an efficient and stable white OLED using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate. The focus of the project is on the development of efficient and stable square planar phosphorescent emitters and evaluation of such class of materials in the device settings. Key challenges included improving the emission efficiency of molecular dopants and excimers, controlling emission color of emitters and their excimers, and improving optical and electrical stability of emissive dopants. At the end of this research program, the PI has made enough progress to demonstrate the potential of excimer-based white OLED as a cost-effective solution for WOLED panel in the solid state lighting applications.

  14. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  15. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  16. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  17. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  18. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  19. Essays on pricing electricity and electricity derivatives in deregulated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Julia

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation is composed of four essays on the behavior of wholesale electricity prices and their derivatives. The first essay provides an empirical model that takes into account the spatial features of a transmission network on the electricity market. The spatial structure of the transmission grid plays a key role in determining electricity prices, but it has not been incorporated into previous empirical models. The econometric model in this essay incorporates a simple representation of the transmission system into a spatial panel data model of electricity prices, and also accounts for the effect of dynamic transmission system constraints on electricity market integration. Empirical results using PJM data confirm the existence of spatial patterns in electricity prices and show that spatial correlation diminishes as transmission lines become more congested. The second essay develops and empirically tests a model of the influence of natural gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium. I link a model of the effect of gas storage constraints on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to a model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. Empirical results using PJM data support the model's predictions that gas storage inventories sharply reduce the electricity forward premium when demand for electricity is high and space-heating demand for gas is low. The third essay examines the efficiency of PJM electricity markets. A market is efficient if prices reflect all relevant information, so that prices follow a random walk. The hypothesis of random walk is examined using empirical tests, including the Portmanteau, Augmented Dickey-Fuller, KPSS, and multiple variance ratio tests. The results are mixed though evidence of some level of market efficiency is found. The last essay investigates the possibility that previous researchers have drawn spurious conclusions based on classical unit root tests incorrectly applied to

  20. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  1. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  2. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  3. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  4. Stable Langmuir solitons in plasma with diatomic ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dvornikov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We study stable axially and spherically symmetric spatial solitons in plasma with diatomic ions. The stability of a soliton against collapse is provided by the interaction of induced electric dipole moments of ions with the rapidly oscillating electric field of a plasmoid. We derive the new cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which governs the soliton dynamics and numerically solve it. Then we discuss the possibility of implementation of such plasmoids in realistic atmospheric plasma. In particular, we suggest that spherically symmetric Langmuir solitons, described in the present work, can be excited at the formation stage of long-lived atmospheric plasma structures. The implication of our model for the interpretation of the results of experiments for the plasmoids generation is discussed.

  5. World electricity and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, A.

    1990-01-01

    Electric and gas utilities are central middlemen in the energy business. Worldwide, more than 50% of all primary energy is transformed by utilities and delivered to final consumers through utility wires and pipes. The structure and behavior of the electricity and gas industries and the role and behavior of utilities are therefore important to all other energy industry players. The electricity and gas industries are special. Unlike oil, coal, or wood, electricity and gas are transported from producers to consumers mostly via fixed grids. This means that supplies are generally tied to specific markets and, unlike an oil tanker on the high seas, cannot be easily diverted elsewhere. These grids are natural monopolies inasmuch as having more than one wire or pipe along a given route is generally unnecessary duplicative. In addition, both supply and grid investments are generally large and lumpy. Industrial organization theory suggests that the coordination of industries can be achieved either through hierarchies or through markets. Hierarchies are generally preferred when the transaction costs of coordinating through markets is too high. These two elements of electricity and gas industry structure are the means of hierarchical coordination. This paper discusses the possibilities for changing the structure of utilities to one which has greater reliance on markets

  6. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintov, Nicole D; Schultz, P Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are central players in these systems, they are sometimes not central considerations in technology or program design, and in some cases, their motivations for participating in such systems are not fully appreciated. Behavioral science can be instrumental in engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this paper, we present emerging technologies made possible by a smart grid infrastructure, and for each we highlight ways in which behavioral science can be applied to enhance their impact on energy savings.

  7. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eSintov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are key players in these systems, they tend to be overlooked. Behavioral science is therefore key to engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this paper, we highlight several ways in which behavioral science can be applied to better understand and engage customers in smart grid systems.

  8. Electricity market players subgroup report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borison, A.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine competition in the electric power industry from an ''industrial organization'' point of view. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 describes the ''industrial organization'' approach used to analyze the electric power market. Industrial organization emphasizes specific market performance criteria, and the impact of market structure and behavior on performance. Chapter 3 identifies the participants in the electric power market, grouped primarily into regulated producers, unregulated producers, and consumers. Chapter 4 describes the varieties of electric power competition, organized along two dimensions: producer competition and consumer competition. Chapters 5 and 6 identify the issues raised by competition along the two dimensions. These issues include efficiency, equity, quality, and stability. Chapters 7 through 9 describe market structure, behavior and performance in three competitive scenarios: minimum competition, maximum competition, and moderate competition. Market structure, behavior and performance are discussed, and the issues raised in Chapters 5 and 6 are discussed in detail. Chapter 10 provides conclusions about ''winners and losers'' and identifies issues that require further study

  9. Uptake and distribution of 137Cs, stable Cs and K in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao

    2003-01-01

    The uptake and distributions of 137 Cs, stable Cs and K were determined for rice plant components, including polished rice, rice bran, hulls, leaves, stems, and roots. The distribution of 137 Cs in polished rice and rice bran was similar to that of stable Cs, while that of K was different. The concentration ratios of Cs/K in leaves increased in older leaf blade positions, which meant that the translocation rate of stable Cs, was slower than that of K. At harvest the dry weight of polished rice accounted for 34% of the entire rice plant, while the distributions of stable Cs in the polished rice and the non-edible parts were 7 and 93%, respectively. These findings suggest that the transfer and distribution of stable Cs in rice plants are different from those of K, and the behavior of stable Cs provides a useful analogue in predicting the fate of 137 Cs in an agricultural environment. (author)

  10. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-07-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g -1 ). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li + ) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li + and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries.

  11. Effects of Reserpine on Reproduction and Serotonin Immunoreactivity in the Stable Fly Stomoxys Calcitrans (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic amines are known to play critical roles in key insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. This study documents the effects of reserpine on mating and egg-laying behaviors of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), which is one of the most economically significa...

  12. Adsorption and diffusion of lithium in a graphene/blue-phosphorus heterostructure and the effect of an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kaimin; Tang, Jing; Wu, Shiyun; Yang, Chengfu; Hao, Jiabo

    2016-12-21

    The adsorption and diffusion behaviors of lithium (Li) in a graphene/blue-phosphorus (G/BP) heterostructure have been investigated using a first principles method based on density functional theory (DFT). The effect of an external electric field on the adsorption and diffusion behaviors has also been investigated. The results show that the adsorption energy of Li on the graphene side of the G/BP heterostructure is higher than that on monolayer graphene, and Li adsorption on the BP side of the G/BP/Li system is slightly stronger than that on monolayer BP (BP/Li). The adsorption energy of Li reaches 2.47 eV, however, the energy barriers of Li diffusion decrease in the interlayer of the G/BP heterostructure. The results mentioned above suggest that the rate performance of the G/BP heterostructure is better than that of monolayer graphene. Furthermore, the adsorption energies of Li atoms in the three different most stable sites, i.e., H G , T P and H 1 sites, increase by about 0.49 eV, 0.26 eV, and 0.13 eV, respectively, as the electric field intensity reaches 0.6 V Å -1 . The diffusion energy barrier is significantly decreased by an external electric field. It is demonstrated that the external electric field can not only enhance the adsorption but can also modulate the diffusion barriers of Li atoms in the G/BP heterostructure.

  13. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  14. Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, S

    2009-02-11

    High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

  15. Self-assembly of metal nanowires induced by alternating current electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Pablo; Arcenegui, Juan J.; Morgan, Hywel; Ramos, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the reversible assembly of an aqueous suspension of metal nanowires into two different 2-dimensional stable configurations. The assembly is induced by an AC electric field of magnitude around 10 kV/m. It is known that single metal nanowires orientate parallel to the electric field for all values of applied frequency, according to two different mechanisms depending on the frequency. These different mechanisms also govern the mutual interaction between nanowires, which leads to directed-assembly into distinctive structures, the shape of which depends on the frequency of the applied field. We show that for frequencies higher than the typical frequency for charging the electrical double layer at the metal-electrolyte interface, dipole-dipole interaction leads to the formation of chains of nanowires. For lower frequencies, the nanowires form wavy bands perpendicular to the electric field direction. This behavior appears to be driven by the electroosmotic flow induced on the metal surface of the nanowires. Remarkably, no similar structures have been reported in previous studies of nanowires.

  16. Stimuli-Responsive Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites under Electric Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Piao, Shang Hao; Kwon, Seung Hyuk; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2016-01-01

    This short Feature Article reviews electric stimuli-responsive polymer/clay nanocomposites with respect to their fabrication, physical characteristics and electrorheological (ER) behaviors under applied electric fields when dispersed in oil. Their structural characteristics, morphological features and thermal degradation behavior were examined by X-ray diffraction pattern, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Particul...

  17. Stable Treemaps via Local Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Max; Speckmann, Bettina; Verbeek, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Treemaps are a popular tool to visualize hierarchical data: items are represented by nested rectangles and the area of each rectangle corresponds to the data being visualized for this item. The visual quality of a treemap is commonly measured via the aspect ratio of the rectangles. If the data changes, then a second important quality criterion is the stability of the treemap: how much does the treemap change as the data changes. We present a novel stable treemapping algorithm that has very high visual quality. Whereas existing treemapping algorithms generally recompute the treemap every time the input changes, our algorithm changes the layout of the treemap using only local modifications. This approach not only gives us direct control over stability, but it also allows us to use a larger set of possible layouts, thus provably resulting in treemaps of higher visual quality compared to existing algorithms. We further prove that we can reach all possible treemap layouts using only our local modifications. Furthermore, we introduce a new measure for stability that better captures the relative positions of rectangles. We finally show via experiments on real-world data that our algorithm outperforms existing treemapping algorithms also in practice on either visual quality and/or stability. Our algorithm scores high on stability regardless of whether we use an existing stability measure or our new measure.

  18. Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Hayashibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications.Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favour of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm.

  19. GUI for studying the parameters influence of the electric arc model for a three-phase electric arc furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiormez, L.; Prostean, O.; Panoiu, M.; Panoiu, C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis regarding the modeling of the behavior for a three-phase electric arc furnace installation. Therefore, a block diagram is implemented in Simulink that represents the modeling of the entire electric arc furnace installation. This block diagram contains also the modeling of the electric arc which is the element that makes the electric arc furnace behaving as a nonlinear load. The values for the model parameters of the electric arc furnace installation are like the ones from the real installation taken into consideration. Other model parameters are the electric arc model ones. In order to study the influence of the parameters of the electric arc models, it is developed a Matlab program that contains the graphical user interfaces. These interfaces make connection with the models of the electric arc implemented in Simulink. The interfaces allow the user to modify parameters for each of the electric arc model. Current and voltage of the electric arc are the variables taken into account to study the influence of the parameters on the electric arc models. Waveforms for voltage and current of the electric arc are illustrated when a parameter of the model is modified in order to analyze the importance of this parameter on the electric arc model. Also, for each of the models is presented the voltage-current characteristic of the electric arc because this characteristic gives information about the behavior of the electric arc furnace installation.

  20. Electricity rationing and public response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha Souza, Leonardo [United Nations Statistics Division, New York (United States); Jorge Soares, Lacir [CCH/LESCE - Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energy crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza [Soares, L.J. and Souza, L.R. (2006), ''Forecasting electricity demand using generalized long memory'', International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 17-28.], making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The structural break, as well as the forecast errors from this model, also permits verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis. (author)

  1. Electricity rationing and public response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Leonardo Rocha [United Nations, Statistics Div., New York, NY (United States); Soares, Lacir Jorge [CCH/LESCE - Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energy crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza [Soares, L.J. and Souza, L.R. (2006), 'Forecasting electricity demand using generalized long memory', International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 17-28.], making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The structural break, as well as the forecast errors from this model, also permits verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis. (Author)

  2. Stable long-term chronic brain mapping at the single-neuron level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian-Ming; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Schuhmann, Thomas G; Viveros, Robert D; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-10-01

    Stable in vivo mapping and modulation of the same neurons and brain circuits over extended periods is critical to both neuroscience and medicine. Current electrical implants offer single-neuron spatiotemporal resolution but are limited by such factors as relative shear motion and chronic immune responses during long-term recording. To overcome these limitations, we developed a chronic in vivo recording and stimulation platform based on flexible mesh electronics, and we demonstrated stable multiplexed local field potentials and single-unit recordings in mouse brains for at least 8 months without probe repositioning. Properties of acquired signals suggest robust tracking of the same neurons over this period. This recording and stimulation platform allowed us to evoke stable single-neuron responses to chronic electrical stimulation and to carry out longitudinal studies of brain aging in freely behaving mice. Such advantages could open up future studies in mapping and modulating changes associated with learning, aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Stable Superstring Relics and Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Coriano, Claudio; Plumacher, Michael; Coriano, Claudio; Faraggi, Alon E.; Plumacher, Michael

    2001-01-01

    One of the most intriguing experimental results of recent years is the observation of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) above the GZK cutoff. Plausible candidates for the UHECR primaries are the decay products of a meta--stable matter state with mass of order O(10^{12-15 GeV}), which simultaneously is a good cold dark matter candidate. We study possible meta-stable matter states that arise from Wilson line breaking of GUT symmetries in semi-realistic heterotic string models. In the models that we study the exotic matter states can be classified according to patterns of SO(10) symmetry breaking. We show that cryptons, which are states that carry fractional electric charge $\\pm1/2$, and are confined by a hidden gauge group cannot produce viable dark matter. This is due to the fact that, in addition to the lightest neutral bound state, cryptons give rise to meta-stable charged bound states. However, these states may still account for the UHECR events. We argue that the uniton, which is an exotic Standard Mod...

  4. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  5. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  6. Controlling Electrical Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...). In general, OSHA's electrical standards are based on the National Fire Protection Associations Standard NFPA 70E, Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces, and in turn, from the National Electrical Code (NEC...

  7. Electrically Conductive and Protective Coating for Planar SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2017-12-04

    Ferritic stainless steels are preferred interconnect materials for intermediate temperature SOFCs because of their resistance to oxidation, high formability and low cost. However, their protective oxide layer produces Cr-containing volatile species at SOFC operating temperatures and conditions, which can cause cathode poisoning. Electrically conducting spinel coatings have been developed to prevent cathode poisoning and to maintain an electrically conductive pathway through SOFC stacks. However, this coating is not compatible with the formation of stable, hermetic seals between the interconnect frame component and the ceramic cell. Thus, a new aluminizing process has been developed by PNNL to enable durable sealing, prevent Cr evaporation, and maintain electrical insulation between stack repeat units. Hence, two different types of coating need to have stable operation of SOFC stacks. This paper will focus on the electrically conductive coating process. Moreover, an advanced coating process, compatible with a non-electrically conductive coating will be

  8. Prices on electricity and transmission of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication contains data on prices of electric energy and transmission of electricity valid from 1 January 2003. The purpose is to illustrate the price changes on the electricity market in terms of prices for different customer categories. All companies holding network concessions for areas and all companies trading in electricity are included in this report, which is produced on an annual basis.The prices for transmission services 1 January 2003 were on the whole unchanged compared to the preceding year. For households the mean annual cost was SEK 882 for flats, SEK 4 335 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 1 925 for those without electric heating. Electricity prices rose considerably on 1 January 2003 compared to the year before. The mean price per kWh for households with standard agreements was SEK 0.519 for deliveries to flats, SEK 0.447 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 0.471 without electric heating. As a result, the mean annual cost increased by SEK 326 for flats, SEK 3 012 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating, and by SEK 774 for those houses without electric heating. The high costs of electricity may be explained in part by the development on the Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool), where the spot price increased by about 290 per cent during 2002 (1 USD is about 8 SEK)

  9. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  10. Investigation of the electrical characteristics of electrically conducting yarns and fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, R. D.; Baymuratov, B. H.; Akbarov, D. N.; Ilhamova, M.

    2017-11-01

    Electro-conductive textile materials and products are used presently giving solutions to the problems, related to static electricity, electromagnetic shielding and electromagnetic radiation. Thus a study of their electro-physical characteristics, character of conductivity, possibility of forecasting of electric parameters etc has a substantial value. This work shows the possibility of production electro-conducting textile materials with stable anti-static properties by introduction of electro-conducting yarn into the structure of fabrics. The results of the research, directed to the study of the electro-physical characteristics of electroconducting yarn and fabrics, are influenced by the frequent washing of polyester fabrics containing the different amounts of electro-conducting filaments in the composition. This article reviews the results of the related research, of the electrical characteristics of the yarn and fabric, of the effect of multiple water treatments on the electrical properties of polyester fabrics, containing in their composition different amounts of electrically conductive yarns.

  11. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  12. DOE handbook electrical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  13. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  14. Electric engineering introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Byeong Won; Eom, Sang Ho

    1999-03-01

    It is divided into nine chapters, which includes electricity theory such as structure of material and current, nature of electricity, static, magnetic force and magnetic attraction, attraction of current and a storage battery, electric circuit on a direct current circuit, single phase circuit and 3-phase current circuit electricity machine like DC generator, DC motor, alternator, electric transformer, single-phase induction motor, 3-phase induction motor, synchronous motor, synchro electric machine, semiconductor such as diode, transistor, FET, UJT, silicon symmetrical switch, electronic circuit like smoothing circuit and Bistable MV. circuit, automatic control, measurement of electricity, electric application and safety.

  15. Changing the Mobility Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Steffensen, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Short Abstract: Carsharing is one option to change mobility behavior. It is successful in major cities. No research results are available for small and medium size cities. In the project, we analyzed the implementation of carsharing in such a smaller setting. Full Abstract: Traffic jams, noise, CO2-emissions or particulate pollution as well as lack of inner-city space ask for political action and a change of individual mobility behavior. The German discussion about electric cars and ...

  16. Effect of Sr substitution on the room temperature electrical properties of La1-xSrxFeO3 nano-crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafa, C. A.; Triyono, D.; Laysandra, H.

    2017-07-01

    LaFeO3 is a material with Perovskite structure which electrical properties got investigated a lot, because as a p-type semiconductor it showed good gas sensing behavior through resistivity comparison. Sr doping on LaFeO3 is able to improve the electrical conductivity through structural modification. Using the Sr atoms doping concentration (x) from 0.1 to 0.4, La1-xSrxFeO3 nanocrystal pellets were synthesized using sol-gel method, followed by gradual heat treatment and uniaxial compaction. Structural analysis from XRD characterization shows that the structure of the materials is Orthorhombic Perovskite. The topography of the sample by SEM reveals grain and grain boundary existence with emerging agglomeration. The electrical properties of the material, as functions of frequency, were measured by Impedance Spectroscopy method using RLC meter. Through the Nyquist plot and Bode plot, the electrical conductivity of La1-xSrxFeO3 is contributed by grain and grain boundaries. It is reported that La0.6Sr0.4FeO3 sample has the most superior electrical conductivity of all samples, and the electrical permittivity of both La0.8Sr0.2FeO3 and La0.7Sr0.3FeO3 are the most stable.

  17. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  18. physico-chemical and stable isotopes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details the mineralogical, chemical and stable isotope abundances of calcrete in the Letlhakeng fossil valley. The stable isotope abundances (O and C) of calcretes yielded some values which were tested against the nature of the calcretes – pedogenic or groundwater type. The Kgalagadi (Kalahari) is a vast ...

  19. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  20. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar

  1. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  2. Stable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of the halophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the halophytic Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Yan-Lin Sun, Soon-Kwan Hong. Abstract. In this study, an efficient procedure for stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) was established. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105, harboring a ...

  3. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  4. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  5. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2006-11-01

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

  6. Infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Hydrous Silicate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolper, Edward

    2007-03-05

    The focus of this DOE-funded project has been the study of volatile components in magmas and the atmosphere. Over the twenty-one year period of this project, we have used experimental petrology and stable isotope geochemistry to study the behavior and properties of volatile components dissolved in silicate minerals and melts and glasses. More recently, we have also studied the concentration and isotopic composition of CO2 in the atmosphere, especially in relation to air quality issues in the Los Angeles basin.

  7. Nonlinear density waves in a marginally stable gravitating disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchagin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of short nonlinear density waves in a disk at the stability limit is studied for arbitrary values of the radial wave number k/sub r/. For waves with wave numbers that do not lie at the minimum of the dispersion curve, the behavior of the amplitude is described by a nonlinear parabolic equation; however, stationary soliton solutions cannot exist in such a system since there is no dispersion spreading of a packet. For wave numbers lying at the minimum of the dispersion curve, soliton structures with determined amplitude are possible. In stable gravitating disks and in a disk at the stability limit, two physically different types of soliton can exist

  8. Stable corrugated state of the two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Moreno, R.M.; Moreno, M.; Ortiz, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A corrugated and stable ground state is found for the two-dimensional electron gas in both the normal paramagnetic and the fully polarized phases. The self-consistent Hartree-Fock method is used with a modulated set of trial wave functions within the deformable jellium model. The results for high metallic densities reproduce the usual noncorrugated ferromagnetic electron-gas behavior. A transition to a paramagnetic corrugated state for values of r s ∼6.5 is predicted. At lower densities r s ∼30, a second transition to a corrugated ferromagnetic phase is suggested

  9. Mensuration of magnetic and electric characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen M, Eduardo; Sarria Navarro, Erika; Fula, Marco Antonio

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the design of a virtual instrument (VI) that allows the quick and precise measure of the magnetic behavior (of the materials), under the magnetization cycle. Additionally, the (VI) will be in capacity of measuring the electric impedance of an element or electric circuit. The virtual instrument was elaborated in the tool of virtual instrumentation Lab View 4.0 of National Instruments

  10. Swiss electricity statistics 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss Department of Energy has published electricity statistics for 1982. This report presents them in tabular form. The tables are classified under the following headings: important reference numbers, Swiss electricity review, production of electrical energy, use of electrical energy, load diagrams and coping with user requirements, import and export of energy 1982, possible building of power stations before 1989, finance, appendix

  11. Swiss electricity statistics 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This detailed article discusses the following subjects: Survey of electricity supply in Switzerland in 1996; The Swiss electricity balance; Electric power generation; Electric power consumption; Generation, consumption and loads on selected days; Energy trade with other countries; Expansion capacities until 2003; Financial situation and appendix. (orig./RHM) [de

  12. Power Supply, Electrical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a method for evaluation of electrical power supply operational and performance characteristics; identifies supporting tests...report is applicable to conversion type electrical supplies, rotary and static converters, but not applicable to power supply converters that convert energy in any form other than electrical to electrical energy.

  13. Electrical installations technology

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1968-01-01

    Electrical Installations Technology covers the syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute course No. 51, the "Electricians B Certificate”. This book is composed of 15 chapters that deal with basic electrical science and electrical installations. The introductory chapters discuss the fundamentals and basic electrical principles, including the concept of mechanics, heat, magnetic fields, electric currents, power, and energy. These chapters also explore the atomic theory of electric current and the electric circuit, conductors, and insulators. The subsequent chapter focuses on the chemis

  14. Demand Profile Study of Battery Electric Vehicle under Different Charging Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guang Ya; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    An increased research on electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) deals with their flexible use in electric power grids. Several research projects on smart grids and electric mobility are now looking into realistic models representing the behavior of an EV during charging...

  15. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Hawaiian Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-23

    NREL and the Hawaiian Electric Companies are collaborating with the solar and inverter industries to implement advanced inverters, allowing greater solar photovoltaic (PV) penetrations that will support the State of Hawaii's goal to achieve 100% renewable energy by 2045. Advanced inverters will help maintain stable grid operations by riding through grid disturbances when the PV output is needed, operating autonomously to smooth voltage fluctuations, and coordinating the start-up and reconnection of PV systems and other distributed energy resources.

  16. Electricity intensity backstop level to meet sustainable backstop supply technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2006-01-01

    The concept of a backstop level of electricity intensity is introduced and illustrated for the highest income economies of the world. The backstop level corresponds with the intensity that would be triggered by applying end-use electricity prices equal to the cost price of a fully sustainable electricity supply. Section 1 of the paper discusses the issue of electricity (also energy) intensity of economies. It is argued that identifying a 'demand for electricity intensity' bridges the gap between the high willingness to pay for electricity services on the one hand and the disinterested attitude of consumers regarding the invisible and impalpable product electricity on the other hand. Assessment of the demand curve for electricity intensity in a cross section of high income OECD countries comes to a long-run price elasticity of almost -1. Section 2 revives Nordhaus' concept of backstop supply technologies for weighing three power sources (fossil, nuclear, and renewable sources) in meeting today's criteria of sustainable backstop technology. Only renewable sources meet the main sustainability criteria, but the economic cost of a fully sustainable electricity supply will be elevated. The closing question of Section 3, that is, whether the countries can afford the high cost of backstop electricity supplies, is answered by indicating what reductions in intensity are required to keep the electricity bills stable. The targeted intensity level is called the backstop level, and provides a fixed point for electricity efficiency policies. The analysis supports the call for comprehensive and enduring tax reform policies

  17. Stable Organic Neutral Diradical via Reversible Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenpin; Quanz, Henrik; Burghaus, Olaf; Hofmann, Jonas; Logemann, Christian; Beeck, Sebastian; Schreiner, Peter R; Wegner, Hermann A

    2017-12-27

    We report the formation of a stable neutral diboron diradical simply by coordination of an aromatic dinitrogen compound to an ortho-phenyldiborane. This process is reversible upon addition of pyridine. The diradical species is stable above 200 °C. Computations are consistent with an open-shell triplet diradical with a very small open-shell singlet-triplet energy gap that is indicative of the electronic disjointness of the two radical sites. This opens a new way of generating stable radicals with fascinating electronic properties useful for a large variety of applications.

  18. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  19. Electricity Market Interconnections and Electricity Price Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Nuno; Duque, João

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model of changes in electricity price returns in the context of interconnected electricity markets. This model predicts an inverse relationship between the increase in interconnection capacity and the volatility of price returns in the corresponding electricity markets. This means that an increase of interconnection between two markets leads to a decrease in the volatility of their prices. We support our model with empirical results from the Australian, European an...

  20. Prices on electricity and transmission of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains data on prices of electric energy and transmission of electricity valid on 1 January 2002. The purpose is to illustrate the price changes on the electricity market in terms of prices for different customer categories. All companies holding network concessions for areas and all companies trading in electricity are included in this report, which is produced on an annual basis. The prices for transmission services 1 January 2002 were on the whole unchanged compared to the preceding year. For households the mean annual cost was SEK 856 for flats, SEK 4,194 one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 1,881 without electric heating. (1 SEK ∼ 0.1 USD). Electricity prices rose considerably on 1 January 2002 compared to the year before. The mean price per kWh for households according to standard agreement was SEK 0.356 for deliveries to flats, SEK 0.296 for apartments in one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 0.316 without electric heating. That means that the mean annual cost increased by SEK 171 for flats. For one- or two-family houses with electric heating, costs increased by SEK 1,424, and by SEK 379 for those houses without electric heating. The high costs of electricity may be explained in part by the development on the Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool), where the spot price increased by 75 per cent during 2001. The price development for household customers during 1996-2002 is shown in a diagram

  1. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  2. Electrical Aspects of Impinging Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Chien

    This dissertation examines the use of electric fields as one mechanism for controlling combustion as flames are partially extinguished when impinging on nearby surfaces. Electrical aspects of flames, specifically, the production of chemi-ions in hydrocarbon flames and the use of convective flows driven by these ions, have been investigated in a wide range of applications in prior work but despite this fairly comprehensive effort to study electrical aspects of combustion, relatively little research has focused on electrical phenomena near flame extinguishment, nor for flames near impingement surfaces. Electrical impinging flames have complex properties under global influences of ion-driven winds and flow field disturbances from the impingement surface. Challenges of measurements when an electric field is applied in the system have limited an understanding of changes to the flame behavior and species concentrations caused by the field. This research initially characterizes the ability of high voltage power supplies to respond on sufficiently short time scales to permit real time electrical flame actuation. The study then characterizes the influence of an electric field on the impinging flame shape, ion current and flow field of the thermal plume associated with the flame. The more significant further examinations can be separated into two parts: 1) the potential for using electric fields to control the release of carbon monoxide (CO) from surface-impinging flames, and 2) an investigation of controlling electrically the heat transfer to a plate on which the flame impinges. Carbon monoxide (CO) results from the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels and, while CO can be desirable in some syngas processes, it is usually a dangerous emission from forest fires, gas heaters, gas stoves, or furnaces where insufficient oxygen in the core reaction does not fully oxidize the fuel to carbon dioxide and water. Determining how carbon monoxide is released and how heat transfer

  3. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  4. Electricity market 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment

  5. Electricity market 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment.

  6. Effect of γ-irradiation on the optical and electrical properties of fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Ahmad; Elfiky, Dalia; Ramadan, Ahmed M.; Hassan, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the optical and electrical properties of the reinforced fiber polymeric based materials became an important issue. Fiberglass/epoxy and Kevlar fiber/epoxy were selected as investigated samples manufactured with hand lay-up without autoclave curing technique. The selected technique is simple and low cost while being rarely used in space materials production. The electric conductivity and dielectric constant for those samples were measured with increasing the gamma radiation dose. Moreover, the absorptivity, band gap and color change were determined. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was performed to each of the material's constituent to evaluate the change in the investigated materials due to radiation exposure dose. In this study, the change of electrical properties for both investigated materials showed a slight variation of the test parameters with respect to the gamma dose increase; this variation is placed in the insulators rang. The tested samples showed an insulator stable behavior during the test period. The change of optical properties for both composite specimens showed the maximum absorptivity at the gamma dose 750 kGy. These materials are suitable for structure materials and thermal control for orbital life less than 7 years. In addition, the transparency of epoxy matrix was degraded. However, there is no color change for either Kevlar fiber or fiberglass.

  7. Ultrathin and stable Nickel films as transparent conductive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilli, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.grilli@enea.it [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Di Sarcina, I. [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Bossi, S. [ENEA, Robotics Laboratory, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); The Biorobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Pisa (Italy); Rinaldi, A.; Pilloni, L.; Piegari, A. [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2015-11-02

    Ultrathin stable transparent conductive nickel films were deposited on quartz substrates by radio frequency sputtering at room temperature. Such films showed visible transmittance up to 80% and conductivity up to 1.8 × 10{sup 4} S/cm, further increased to 2,3 × 10{sup 5} S/cm by incorporation of a micrometric silver grid. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed quite compact, smooth and low surface roughness films. Excellent film stability, ease, fast and low cost process fabrication make these films highly competitive compared to indium tin oxide alternative transparent conductors. Films were characterized regarding their morphological, optical and electrical properties. - Highlights: • Indium-free transparent conductors are proposed. • Ultrathin Ni films are fabricated with a very fast process at room temperature. • Films have conductivity values up to 1.8 × 10{sup 4} S/cm. • Ni ultrathin films are good candidates for UV and NIR optoelectronic applications.

  8. Experimental studies of stable confined electron clouds using Gabor lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Meusel, O.; Glaeser, B.; Schulte, K.

    2013-04-22

    Based on the idea of D. Gabor [1] space charge lenses are under investigation to be a powerful focussing device for intense ion beams. A stable confined electron column is used to provide strong radially symmetric electrostatic focussing, e.g. for positively charged ion beams. The advantages of Gabor lenses are a mass independent focussing strength, space charge compensation of the ion beam and reduced magnetic or electric fields compared to conventional focussing devices. Collective phenomena of the electron cloud result in aberrations and emittance growth of the ion beam. The knowledge of the behaviour of the electron cloud prevents a decrease of the beam brilliance. Numerical models developed to describe the electron confinement and dynamics within a Gabor lens help to understand the interaction of the ion beam with the electron column and show the causes of non-neutral plasma instabilities. The diagnosis of the electron cloud properties helps to evaluate the numerical models and to investigate the influen...

  9. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  10. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  11. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  12. Allan Hills Stable Water Isotopes, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable water isotope values at 10 m resolution along an approximately 5 km transect through the main icefield of the Allan Hills Blue Ice...

  13. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacokinetic profile or mode of action of a drug substance. Secondly, stable isotopes may be used for the assessment of drug products or drug delivery systems by determination of parameters such as the bioavailability or the release profile. Thirdly, patients may be assessed in relation to patient-specific drug treatment; this concept is often called personalized medicine. In this article, the application of stable isotope technology in the aforementioned three areas is reviewed, with emphasis on developments over the past 25 years. The applications are illustrated with examples from clinical studies in humans. PMID:21801197

  14. Tannaka duality and stable infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanari, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of fine tannakian infinity-categories and prove Tannaka duality results for symmetric monoidal stable infinity-categories over a field of characteristic zero. We also discuss several examples.

  15. On Stable Marriages and Greedy Matchings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, Fredrik; Naim, Md; Lerring, Hakon; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-12-11

    Research on stable marriage problems has a long and mathematically rigorous history, while that of exploiting greedy matchings in combinatorial scientific computing is a younger and less developed research field. In this paper we consider the relationships between these two areas. In particular we show that several problems related to computing greedy matchings can be formulated as stable marriage problems and as a consequence several recently proposed algorithms for computing greedy matchings are in fact special cases of well known algorithms for the stable marriage problem. However, in terms of implementations and practical scalable solutions on modern hardware, the greedy matching community has made considerable progress. We show that due to the strong relationship between these two fields many of these results are also applicable for solving stable marriage problems.

  16. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and rheological properties of graphene oxide-based nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadian, Mahboobeh; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.; Youssefi, Abbas

    2014-12-01

    Highly stable graphene oxide (GO)-based nanofluids were simply prepared by dispersing graphite oxide with the average crystallite size of 20 nm, in polar base fluids without using any surfactant. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and rheological properties of the nanofluids were measured at different mass fractions and various temperatures. An enormous enhancement, 25,678 %, in electrical conductivity of distilled water was observed by loading 0.0006 mass fraction of GO at 25 °C. GO-ethylene glycol nanofluids exhibited a non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior followed by a shear-independent region. This shear-thinning behavior became more pronounced at higher GO concentrations. The maximum ratio of the viscosity of nanofluid to that of the ethylene glycol as a base fluid was 3.4 for the mass fraction of 0.005 of GO at 20 °C under shear rate of 27.5 s-1. Thermal conductivity enhancement of 30 % was obtained for GO-ethylene glycol nanofluid for mass fraction of 0.07. The measurement of the transport properties of this new kind of nanofluid showed that it could provide an ideal fluid for heat transfer and electronic applications.

  17. The Reactivity of Stable Metallacyclobutenes and Vinylcarbenes

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Ryan Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1. Historical Development of Stable Metallacyclobutenes Fred Tebbe and co-workers synthesized the first stable metallacyclobutene complexes in the late 1970’s by treatment of an intermediate titanium methylene species – later popularized as the “Tebbe reagent” – with acetylenes. Robert Grubbs at Caltech further studied this system, using it to detail a degenerate metathesis reaction and to isolate a metallacyclobutane complex – which was implicated in the emerging field of alkene meta...

  18. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Effective use of electric power facilities and promotion of energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Iwao

    1999-01-01

    The capacity of Japan's commercial electric power facilities has been increased to more than 200 million kw. In order to provide a stable supply of electric power to meet constantly fluctuaring electric power demands, Japan's power plants generate electricity using an optimal combination of facilities, with nuclear power and coal-fired thermoelectric power providing the base load supply. In the use of electric power, moreover, measures are being implemented to reduce generation costs, conserve energy, and cut carbon dioxide emissions by reducing maximum output and equalizing the load. This report presents information concerning measures for improving the efficiency of electric power facilities operation, equalizing the load and promoting energy conservation. (author)

  20. A crawling robot driven by multi-stable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Alexander; Yan, Tongxi; Chien, Brian; Wissa, A.; Tawfick, S.

    2017-09-01

    Using origami folding to construct and actuate mechanisms and machines offers attractive opportunities from small, scalable, and cheap robots to deployable adaptive structures. This paper presents the design of a bio-inspired origami crawling robot constructed by folding sheets of paper. The origami building block structure is based on the Kresling crease pattern (CP), a chiral tower with a polygonal base, which expands and contracts through coupled longitudinal and rotational motion similar to a screw. We design the origami to have multi-stable structural equilibria which can be tuned by changing the folding CP. Kinematic analysis of these structures based on rigid-plates and hinges at fold lines precludes the shape transformation associated with the bistability of the physical models. To capture the kinematics of the bi-stable origami, the panels’ deformation behavior is modeled utilizing principles of virtual folds. Virtual folds approximate material bending by hinged, rigid panels, which facilitates the development of a kinematic solution via rigid-plate rotation analysis. As such, the kinetics and stability of folded structures are investigated by assigning suitable torsional spring constants to the fold lines. The results presented demonstrate the effect of fold-pattern geometries on the snapping behavior of the bi-stable origami structure based on the Kresling pattern. The crawling robot is presented as a case study for the use of this origami structure to mimic crawling locomotion. The robot is comprised of two origami towers nested inside a paper bellow, and connected by 3D printed end plates. DC motors are used to actuate the expansion and contraction of the internal origami structures to achieve forward locomotion and steering. Beyond locomotion, this simple design can find applications in manipulators, booms, and active structures.

  1. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  2. Precision control of single-molecule electrical junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiss, Wolfgang; Wang, Changsheng; Grace, Iain; Batsanov, Andrei S; Schiffrin, David J; Higgins, Simon J; Bryce, Martin R; Lambert, Colin J; Nichols, Richard J

    2006-12-01

    There is much discussion of molecules as components for future electronic devices. However, the contacts, the local environment and the temperature can all affect their electrical properties. This sensitivity, particularly at the single-molecule level, may limit the use of molecules as active electrical components, and therefore it is important to design and evaluate molecular junctions with a robust and stable electrical response over a wide range of junction configurations and temperatures. Here we report an approach to monitor the electrical properties of single-molecule junctions, which involves precise control of the contact spacing and tilt angle of the molecule. Comparison with ab initio transport calculations shows that the tilt-angle dependence of the electrical conductance is a sensitive spectroscopic probe, providing information about the position of the Fermi energy. It is also shown that the electrical properties of flexible molecules are dependent on temperature, whereas those of molecules designed for their rigidity are not.

  3. The Sensitivity of Residential Electricity Demand in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stranti Nastiti Kusumaningrum

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, the residential electricity price for High VA (Volt-Ampere households has changed due to changes in pricing policies. This paper analyzes the responsiveness of residential electricity demand to the change in electricity prices and income among two different household groups (Low VA and High VA in 2011 and 2014. Using an electricity consumption model and the Quantile Regression method, the results show that residential electricity demand is price and income inelastic. Income elasticity is lower than price elasticity. Furthermore, the effects on price elasticity also found in the Low VA group, whose rate remained stable. At the same time, evidence proves the impact of the change in pricing policy on income elasticity remains unclear. This result implies that the government has to be more careful in regulating electricity prices for the low VA group, while maintaining economic stability.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.6048

  4. electrical and thermo-electric characterization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-09-04

    Sep 4, 2005 ... The thermo-electric power of the. films investigated in the temperature range from room temperature to 473K gave values in the range (3 -120) V/K. Data treatment suggests that the dominant carrier scattering mode is by ionized impurities. Keywords: C d0 thin films, electrical conductivity thermoe lectric ...

  5. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  6. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  7. Stable Encoding of Task Structure Coexists With Flexible Coding of Task Events in Sensorimotor Striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yasuo; Liu, Jun; Hu, Dan; DeCoteau, William E.; Eden, Uri T.; Smith, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    The sensorimotor striatum, as part of the brain's habit circuitry, has been suggested to store fixed action values as a result of stimulus-response learning and has been contrasted with a more flexible system that conditionally assigns values to behaviors. The stability of neural activity in the sensorimotor striatum is thought to underlie not only normal habits but also addiction and clinical syndromes characterized by behavioral fixity. By recording in the sensorimotor striatum of mice, we asked whether neuronal activity acquired during procedural learning would be stable even if the sensory stimuli triggering the habitual behavior were altered. Contrary to expectation, both fixed and flexible activity patterns appeared. One, representing the global structure of the acquired behavior, was stable across changes in task cuing. The second, a fine-grain representation of task events, adjusted rapidly. Such dual forms of representation may be critical to allow motor and cognitive flexibility despite habitual performance. PMID:19625536

  8. Metallization systems for stable ohmic contacts to GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, J.L.; Douglas, K.D.; Vendura, G.; Kolawa, E.; So, F.C.T.; Nicolet, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A metallization scheme to form reproducible and stable ohmic contacts to GaAs is described. The approach is based on the configuration: GaAs/X/Y/Z; where X is a thin metal film (e.g. Pt, Ti, Pd, Ru), Y is an electrically conducting diffusion barrier layer (TiN, W or W/sub 0.7/N/sub 0.3/), and Z is a thick metal layer (e.g. Ag) typically required for bonding or soldering purposes. The value and reproducibility of the contact resistance in these metallization systems results from the uniform steady-state solid-phase reaction of the metal X with GaAs. The stability of the contacts is achieved by the diffusion barrier layer Y, which not only confines the reaction of X with GaAs, but also prevents the top metal layer Z from interfering with this reaction. Applications of such contacts in fabricating stable solar cells are also discussed

  9. Modeling spot markets for electricity and pricing electricity derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yumei

    Spot prices for electricity have been very volatile with dramatic price spikes occurring in restructured market. The task of forecasting electricity prices and managing price risk presents a new challenge for market players. The objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to develop a stochastic model of price behavior and predict price spikes; (2) to examine the effect of weather forecasts on forecasted prices; (3) to price electricity options and value generation capacity. The volatile behavior of prices can be represented by a stochastic regime-switching model. In the model, the means of the high-price and low-price regimes and the probabilities of switching from one regime to the other are specified as functions of daily peak load. The probability of switching to the high-price regime is positively related to load, but is still not high enough at the highest loads to predict price spikes accurately. An application of this model shows how the structure of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland market changed when market-based offers were allowed, resulting in higher price spikes. An ARIMA model including temperature, seasonal, and weekly effects is estimated to forecast daily peak load. Forecasts of load under different assumptions about weather patterns are used to predict changes of price behavior given the regime-switching model of prices. Results show that the range of temperature forecasts from a normal summer to an extremely warm summer cause relatively small increases in temperature (+1.5%) and load (+3.0%). In contrast, the increases in prices are large (+20%). The conclusion is that the seasonal outlook forecasts provided by NOAA are potentially valuable for predicting prices in electricity markets. The traditional option models, based on Geometric Brownian Motion are not appropriate for electricity prices. An option model using the regime-switching framework is developed to value a European call option. The model includes volatility risk and allows changes

  10. Electricity consumption, industrial production, and entrepreneurship in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sizhong; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of a tri-variate vector autoregressive framework that includes entrepreneurship, this paper examines the link between electricity consumption and industrial production in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Unlike the existing studies, this paper focuses on one sector of the economy and utilises a unique monthly dataset. Empirical analysis based on Johansen's cointegration approach shows that the three variables are cointegrated – i.e., a stable long-run relationship exists among electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Empirical analysis based on data from January 1983 to February 2014 reveals that electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to industrial production and entrepreneurship. Furthermore, entrepreneurship Granger causes electricity consumption, which causes industrial production. As electricity consumption causes industrial output, the growth hypothesis concerning energy consumption and economic growth holds in Singapore's manufacturing sector and policies that restrict electricity production, without electricity imports, are likely to lead to a decline in the manufacturing output. - Highlights: • Using a unique monthly dataset, we focus on Singapore's manufacturing sector. • Electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship are cointegrated. • Electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to the other variables. • Entrepreneurship causes electricity consumption which causes industrial production. • We find that growth hypothesis governs the electricity consumption and real output

  11. Electrical current in nanoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchetti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In ultra-small electronic devices of the next generations the semiclassical model of electron motion in a periodical lattice between collisions turns out to be inadequate because the electron spread has magnitude order of the size of the ultra-small electronic device. In this Letter we consider the basic conceptual framework regarding how the length scale of the electrical device influences the transport behavior of the electrons between collisions and the electrical current. By taking into account the interference effects we obtain a very basic model for electrons transport, where the density current peak is given as function on the ratio between the thermal de Broglie wavelength and the lattice period. This result could be also useful in order to understand the basic effect of the insulator/metal transition.

  12. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Electricity market 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  14. Electricity market 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment.

  15. Why is electricity consumption inconsistent with economic growth in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Studies have indicated that there exists a relatively stable and positive correlation between electricity consumption and economic growth and there should not be a large deviation between them. However, the deviation between electricity consumption and economic growth in China during the Asian Financial Crisis and Global Economic Crisis sparks intense debates. We attempt to explain the deviation from the perspective of inventory investment adjustment in the business cycle using the SVAR model in this paper. The results show that the effects of inventory investment adjustment shock and electricity consumption structure shock on the deviation are positive but tend to be negative for electricity efficiency shock. The results of historical decomposition of these shocks also show that the inventory investment adjustment shock is the main factor that influences the deviation during the Global Economic Crisis. Economic fluctuation in the short term can not change the economic development pattern and the characteristics of electricity demand. Once the economy returns to stable growth, the deviation between electricity consumption and economic growth will shrink and disappear soon. - Highlights: • We analyze the deviation between GDP and electricity consumption in business cycle. • The inventory investment adjustment mainly impacts the deviation in China. • Concentrated electricity consumption of heavy industry magnifies the deviation.

  16. Competition in decentralized electricity markets: Three papers on electricity auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbord, David William Cameron

    This thesis consists of three self-contained papers on the analysis of electricity auctions written over a period of twelve years. The first paper models price competition in a decentralized wholesale market for electricity as a first-price, sealed-bid, multi-unit auction. In both the pure and mixed-strategy equilibria of the model, above marginal cost pricing and inefficient despatch of generating units occur. An alternative regulatory pricing rule is considered and it is shown that offering to supply at marginal cost can be induced as a dominant strategy for all firms. The second paper analyses strategic interaction between long-term contracts and price competition in the British electricity wholesale market, and confirms that forward contracts will tend to put downward pressure on spot market prices. A 'strategic commitment' motive for selling forward contracts is also identified: a generator may commit itself to bidding lower prices into the spot market in order to ensure that it will be despatched with its full capacity. The third paper characterizes bidding behavior and market outcomes in uniform and discriminatory electricity auctions. Uniform auctions result in higher average prices than discriminatory auctions, but the ranking in terms of productive efficiency is ambiguous. The comparative effects of other market design features, such as the number of steps in suppliers' bid functions, the duration of bids and the elasticity of demand are analyzed. The paper also clarifies some methodological issues in the analysis of electricity auctions. In particular we show that analogies with continuous share auctions are misplaced so long as firms are restricted to a finite number of bids.

  17. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  18. A hybrid simulation model for a stable auroral arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    Full Text Available We present a new type of hybrid simulation model, intended to simulate a single stable auroral arc in the latitude/altitude plane. The ionospheric ions are treated as particles, the electrons are assumed to follow a Boltzmann response and the magnetospheric ions are assumed to be so hot that they form a background population unaffected by the electric fields that arise. The system is driven by assumed parallel electron energisation causing a primary negative charge cloud and an associated potential structure to build up. The results show how a closed potential structure and density depletion of an auroral arc build up and how they decay after the driver is turned off. The model also produces upgoing energetic ion beams and predicts strong static perpendicular electric fields to be found in a relatively narrow altitude range (~ 5000–11 000 km.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; auroral phenomena – Space plasma physics (numerical simulation studies

  19. Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, R. T.

    2016-10-01

    1. Electrostatics: fundamental facts; 2. Electricity as a measurable quantity; 3. Measurement of electric force and potential; 4. Condensers; 5. Electrical machines; 6. Measurement of potential and electric force; 7. Magnetic attraction and repulsion; 8. Laws of magnetic force; 9. Experiments with magnets; 10. Magnetic calculations; 11. Magnetic measurements; 12. Terrestrial magnetism; 13. The electric current; 14. Relation between electromagnetic force and current; 15. Measurement of current; 16. Measurement of resistance and electromotive force; 17. Measurement of quantity of electricity, condensers; 18. Thermal activity of a current; 19. The voltaic cell (theory); 20. Electromagnetism; 21. Magnetisation of iron; 22. Electromagnetic instruments; 23. Electromagnetic induction; 24. Applications of electromagnetic induction; 25. Telegraphy and telephony; 26. Electric waves; 27. Transference of electricity through gases: corpuscles and electrons; Answers to examples; Index.

  20. Driving with electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursin, M.; Hoeckel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at the chances offered to the electricity supply industry by the increasing use of battery-driven vehicles - and the advantages thus offered to the environment. The use of the vehicles' batteries to form a distributed electricity storage scheme is discussed. The authors comment that, although electrically-driven vehicles consume more power, the total primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions will be reduced. The actual electricity consumption of electric vehicles and the source of this power are examined. Power saved by the reduced use of electrical heating systems and boilers could, according to the authors, be used to charge the batteries of electric vehicles. The use of these batteries as a storage system to help regulate electricity supplies is discussed and the steps to be taken for the implementation of such a system are listed