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Sample records for stable early sensory

  1. Gray matter volumes of early sensory regions are associated with individual differences in sensory processing.

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    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-12-01

    Sensory processing (i.e., the manner in which the nervous system receives, modulates, integrates, and organizes sensory stimuli) is critical when humans are deciding how to react to environmental demands. Although behavioral studies have shown that there are stable individual differences in sensory processing, the neural substrates that implement such differences remain unknown. To investigate this issue, structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 51 healthy adults and individual differences in sensory processing were assessed using the Sensory Profile questionnaire (Brown et al.: Am J Occup Ther 55 (2001) 75-82). There were positive relationships between the Sensory Profile modality-specific subscales and gray matter volumes in the primary or secondary sensory areas for the visual, auditory, touch, and taste/smell modalities. Thus, the present results suggest that individual differences in sensory processing are implemented by the early sensory regions. Hum Brain Mapp 38:6206-6217, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Early compensatory sensory re-education.

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    Daniele, Hugo R; Aguado, Leda

    2003-02-01

    After a neurorrhaphy, there will be a distal disconnection between the cortex and skin receptors, along with interruption of sensibility information. This report demonstrates the efficacy of a new sensory re-education program for achieving optimal sensation in a relatively short time. Between 1999 and 2001, in the authors' Hand Rehabilitation Department, 11 patients with previous neurorrhaphy were subjected to a program of early "compensatory sensory re-education." Lesions were caused by clean cut. There were 13 primary digital nerve procedures, 12 at the distal palmar MP level, and one at the radial dorsal branch of the index (just after emerging from the common digital nerve). The technique of compensatory sensory re-education was based on a previous, but modified, sensory re-education method. In order to evaluate the results in the compensatory sensory re-education series described, additional tests for evaluation of achieved functional sensibility were used. The authors' best results were achieved in a maximum of 8 weeks (4-8 weeks), much less time than with the original method (1-2 years). Using the British classification, it was possible to compare the achieved levels of sensibility and the time required for optimal results. The different methods of sensibility re-education may be similar, but with the authors' compensatory sensory re-education method, substantial time is saved.

  3. Early sensory experience influences the development of multisensory thalamocortical and intracortical connections of primary sensory cortices.

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    Henschke, Julia U; Oelschlegel, Anja M; Angenstein, Frank; Ohl, Frank W; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Kanold, Patrick O; Budinger, Eike

    2018-04-01

    The nervous system integrates information from multiple senses. This multisensory integration already occurs in primary sensory cortices via direct thalamocortical and corticocortical connections across modalities. In humans, sensory loss from birth results in functional recruitment of the deprived cortical territory by the spared senses but the underlying circuit changes are not well known. Using tracer injections into primary auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortex within the first postnatal month of life in a rodent model (Mongolian gerbil) we show that multisensory thalamocortical connections emerge before corticocortical connections but mostly disappear during development. Early auditory, somatosensory, or visual deprivation increases multisensory connections via axonal reorganization processes mediated by non-lemniscal thalamic nuclei and the primary areas themselves. Functional single-photon emission computed tomography of regional cerebral blood flow reveals altered stimulus-induced activity and higher functional connectivity specifically between primary areas in deprived animals. Together, we show that intracortical multisensory connections are formed as a consequence of sensory-driven multisensory thalamocortical activity and that spared senses functionally recruit deprived cortical areas by an altered development of sensory thalamocortical and corticocortical connections. The functional-anatomical changes after early sensory deprivation have translational implications for the therapy of developmental hearing loss, blindness, and sensory paralysis and might also underlie developmental synesthesia.

  4. Sensory processing disorder in preterm infants during early childhood and relationships to early neurobehavior.

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    Ryckman, Justin; Hilton, Claudia; Rogers, Cynthia; Pineda, Roberta

    2017-10-01

    Preterm infants are exposed to a variety of sensory stimuli that they are not developmentally prepared to handle, which puts them at risk for developing a sensory processing disorder. However, the patterns and predictors of sensory processing disorder and their relationship to early behavior at term equivalent age are poorly understood. The aims of the study are to: 1) describe the incidence of sensory processing disorder in preterm infants at four to six years of age, 2) define medical and sociodemographic factors that relate to sensory processing disorder, and 3) explore relationships between early neurobehavior at term equivalent age and sensory processing disorder at age four to six years. This study was a prospective longitudinal design. Thirty-two preterm infants born ≤30weeks gestation were enrolled. Infants had standardized neurobehavioral testing at term equivalent age with the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. At four to six years of age, participants were assessed with the Sensory Processing Assessment for Young Children (SPA). Sixteen children (50%) had at least one abnormal score on the SPA, indicating a sensory processing disorder. There were no identified relationships between medical and sociodemographic factors and sensory processing disorder. More sub-optimal reflexes (p=0.04) and more signs of stress (p=0.02) at term equivalent age were related to having a sensory processing disorder in early childhood. Preterm infants are at an increased risk for developing a sensory processing disorder. Medical and sociodemographic factors related to sensory processing disorder could not be isolated in this study, however relationships between sensory processing disorder and early neurobehavior were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tidal volume inflection and its sensory consequences during exercise in patients with stable asthma.

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    Laveneziana, Pierantonio; Bruni, Giulia Innocenti; Presi, Ilenia; Stendardi, Loredana; Duranti, Roberto; Scano, Giorgio

    2013-01-15

    Sixteen patients with stable asthma performed a symptom-limited constant work-rate CWR cycle exercise during which breathing pattern, operating lung volumes, dyspnea intensity and its qualitative descriptors were measured. An inflection in the relation between tidal volume (V(T)) and ventilation (V˙(E)) was observed in each subject. The sense of "work/effort" was the dominant dyspnea descriptor selected up to the V(T)/V˙(E) inflection, whereas after it dyspnea intensity and the selection frequency of "unsatisfied inspiration" rose steeply in 37.5% of subjects in whom inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) had decreased to a critical level of 0.6L at the V(T) inflection point. In contrast, dyspnea increased linearly with exercise time and V˙(E), and "work/effort" was the dominant descriptor selected throughout exercise in 62.5% of subjects in whom the V(T)/V˙(E) inflection occurred at a preserved IRV. The V(T) inflection during exercise in patients with stable asthma marked a mechanical event with important sensory consequences only when it occurred at a critical reduced IRV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Perception and the strongest sensory memory trace of multi-stable displays both form shortly after the stimulus onset.

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    Pastukhov, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relation between perception and sensory memory of multi-stable structure-from-motion displays. The latter is an implicit visual memory that reflects a recent history of perceptual dominance and influences only the initial perception of multi-stable displays. First, we established the earliest time point when the direction of an illusory rotation can be reversed after the display onset (29-114 ms). Because our display manipulation did not bias perception towards a specific direction of illusory rotation but only signaled the change in motion, this means that the perceptual dominance was established no later than 29-114 ms after the stimulus onset. Second, we used orientation-selectivity of sensory memory to establish which display orientation produced the strongest memory trace and when this orientation was presented during the preceding prime interval (80-140 ms). Surprisingly, both estimates point towards the time interval immediately after the display onset, indicating that both perception and sensory memory form at approximately the same time. This suggests a tighter integration between perception and sensory memory than previously thought, warrants a reconsideration of its role in visual perception, and indicates that sensory memory could be a unique behavioral correlate of the earlier perceptual inference that can be studied post hoc.

  7. Trajectories of Sensory Over-Responsivity from Early to Middle Childhood: Birth and Temperament Risk Factors

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    Van Hulle, Carol; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2015-01-01

    Sensory over-responsivity, a subtype of sensory modulation disorder, is characterized by extreme negative reactions to normative sensory experiences. These over-reactions can interfere with daily activities and cause stress to children and their families. The etiology and developmental course of sensory over-responsivity is still largely unknown. We measured tactile and auditory over-responsivity in a population-based, typically developing sample of twins (N=978) at age two years via a caregiver report temperament questionnaire and again at age seven years via a sensory over-responsivity symptom inventory. Participating twins were treated as singletons although all analyses controlled for clustering within families. Children were divided into four trajectory groups based on risk status at both ages: low symptom (N=768), remitted (N=75), late-onset (N=112), and chronic (N=24). A subset of children who screened positive for SOR in toddlerhood (N = 102) took part in a pilot study focused on sensory over-responsivity at four years of age. Children in the chronic group had more severe symptoms of sensory sensitivity at age four years, including more motion sensitivity, than the other trajectory groups. Children in the chronic group had a younger gestational age and were more likely to be low birth-weight than the low symptom group. Differences between remitted and late-onset groups and the low-symptoms group were inconsistent across measures. Sensory over-responsivity was modestly correlated across ages (r = .22 for tactile over-responsivity and r = .11 for auditory over-responsivity), but symptoms were more stable among children born prematurely or who had more fearful and less soothable temperaments. A clear implication is that assessment over development may be necessary for a valid sensory processing disorder diagnosis, and a speculative implication is that sensory over-responsivity symptoms may be etiologically heterogeneous, with different causes of transient and

  8. Sensory hypersensitivity predicts enhanced attention capture by faces in the early development of ASD

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    E.J.H Jones

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory sensitivity is prevalent among young children with ASD, but its relation to social communication impairment is unclear. Recently, increased sensory hypersensitivity has been linked to greater activity of the neural salience network (Green et al., 2016. Increased neural sensitivity to stimuli, especially social stimuli, could provide greater opportunity for social learning and improved outcomes. Consistent with this framework, in Experiment 1 we found that parent report of greater sensory hypersensitivity at 2 years in toddlers with ASD (N = 27 was predictive of increased neural responsiveness to social stimuli (larger amplitude event-related potential/ERP responses to faces at P1, P400 and Nc at 4 years, and this in turn was related to parent report of increased social approach at 4 years. In Experiment 2, parent report of increased perceptual sensitivity at 6 months in infants at low and high familial risk for ASD (N = 35 predicted larger ERP P1 amplitude to faces at 18 months. Increased sensory hypersensitivity in early development thus predicted greater attention capture by faces in later development, and this related to more optimal social behavioral development. Sensory hypersensitivity may index a child's ability to benefit from supportive environments during development. Early sensory symptoms may not always be developmentally problematic for individuals with ASD. Keywords: Autism, Sensory hypersensitivity, Social attention, Salience network, Infant, EEG

  9. Stable Chlorine Isotope Study: Application to Early Solar System Materials

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    Mala,ira. M/; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C-Y; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.

    2010-01-01

    A significantly large mass fractionation between two stable chlorine isotopes is expected during planetary processes In addition, in view of the isotopic heterogeneity of other light elements, the chlorine isotopes can potentially be used as a tracer for the origins and evolutionary processes of early solar system materials. Due to analytical difficulties, however, current chlorine isotope studies on planetary materials are quite controversial among IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and/or TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1-3]. Although a cross-calibration of IRMS and TIMS indicates that both techniques are sufficiently consistent with each other [4], some authors have claimed that the Cl-37/Cl-35 ratio of geological samples obtained by TIMS technique are, in general, misleadingly too high and variable compared to those of IRMS [3]. For example, almost no differences of Cl isotope composition were observed among mantle materials and carbonaceous meteorites by [3]. On the other hand, according to more recent IRMS work [2], significant Cl isotope variations are confirmed for mantle materials. Therefore, additional careful investigation of Cl isotope analyses are now required to confirm real chlorine isotope variations for planetary materials including carbonaceous chondrites [5]. A significantly large mass fractionation between two stable chlorine isotopes is expected during planetary processes In addition, in view of the isotopic heterogeneity of other light elements, the chlorine isotopes can potentially be used as a tracer for the origins and evolutionary processes of early solar system materials. Due to analytical difficulties, however, current chlorine isotope studies on planetary materials are quite controversial among IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and/or TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1-3]. Although a cross-calibration of IRMS and TIMS indicates that both techniques are sufficiently consistent with each

  10. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

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    Hiroshi Ueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28 or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV, calbindin (CB, and calretinin (CR neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6. Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity.

  11. Oxytocin is implicated in social memory deficits induced by early sensory deprivation in mice.

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    Zhang, Jin-Bao; Chen, Ling; Lv, Zhu-Man; Niu, Xue-Yuan; Shao, Can-Can; Zhang, Chan; Pruski, Michal; Huang, Ying; Qi, Cong-Cong; Song, Ning-Ning; Lang, Bing; Ding, Yu-Qiang

    2016-12-13

    Early-life sensory input plays a crucial role in brain development. Although deprivation of orofacial sensory input at perinatal stages disrupts the establishment of the barrel cortex and relevant callosal connections, its long-term effect on adult behavior remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the behavioral phenotypes in adult mice with unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve (ION) at postnatal day 3 (P3). Although ION-transected mice had normal locomotor activity, motor coordination, olfaction, anxiety-like behaviors, novel object memory, preference for social novelty and sociability, they presented deficits in social memory and spatial memory compared with control mice. In addition, the social memory deficit was associated with reduced oxytocin (OXT) levels in the hypothalamus and could be partially restored by intranasal administration of OXT. Thus, early sensory deprivation does result in behavioral alterations in mice, some of which may be associated with the disruption of oxytocin signaling.

  12. Early and severe sensory loss in three adult siblings with hexosaminidase A and B deficiency (Sandhoff disease).

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    Schnorf, H; Gitzelmann, R; Bosshard, N U; Spycher, M; Waespe, W

    1995-01-01

    Three siblings in their sixth and seventh decade with hexosaminidase A and B deficiency (adult form of GM2-gangliosidosis, variant O) developed early and severe sensory loss in addition to chronic motor neuron disease and cerebellar ataxia. Prominent mechanoallodynia was a manifesting symptom in two siblings. It is suggested that sensory deficits are due to a central-peripheral dying back axonopathy. The early and dominant sensory disturbances extend the clinical range of GM2-gangliosidosis.

  13. Early and severe sensory loss in three adult siblings with hexosaminidase A and B deficiency (Sandhoff disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorf, H; Gitzelmann, R; Bosshard, N U; Spycher, M; Waespe, W

    1995-01-01

    Three siblings in their sixth and seventh decade with hexosaminidase A and B deficiency (adult form of GM2-gangliosidosis, variant O) developed early and severe sensory loss in addition to chronic motor neuron disease and cerebellar ataxia. Prominent mechanoallodynia was a manifesting symptom in two siblings. It is suggested that sensory deficits are due to a central-peripheral dying back axonopathy. The early and dominant sensory disturbances extend the clinical range of GM2-gangliosidosis. Images PMID:8530938

  14. Acquired auditory-visual synesthesia: A window to early cross-modal sensory interactions

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    Pegah Afra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pegah Afra, Michael Funke, Fumisuke MatsuoDepartment of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Synesthesia is experienced when sensory stimulation of one sensory modality elicits an involuntary sensation in another sensory modality. Auditory-visual synesthesia occurs when auditory stimuli elicit visual sensations. It has developmental, induced and acquired varieties. The acquired variety has been reported in association with deafferentation of the visual system as well as temporal lobe pathology with intact visual pathways. The induced variety has been reported in experimental and post-surgical blindfolding, as well as intake of hallucinogenic or psychedelics. Although in humans there is no known anatomical pathway connecting auditory areas to primary and/or early visual association areas, there is imaging and neurophysiologic evidence to the presence of early cross modal interactions between the auditory and visual sensory pathways. Synesthesia may be a window of opportunity to study these cross modal interactions. Here we review the existing literature in the acquired and induced auditory-visual synesthesias and discuss the possible neural mechanisms.Keywords: synesthesia, auditory-visual, cross modal

  15. Towards a stable numerical time scale for the early Paleogene

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    Hilgen, Frederik; Kuiper, Klaudia; Sierro, Francisco J.; Wotzlaw, Jorn; Schaltegger, Urs; Sahy, Diana; Condon, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The construction of an astronomical time scale for the early Paleogene is hampered by ambiguities in the number, correlation and tuning of 405-kyr eccentricity related cycles in deep marine records from ODP cores and land-based sections. The two most competing age models result in astronomical ages for the K/Pg boundary that differ by ~750 kyr (~66.0 Ma of Vandenberghe et al. (2012) versus 65.25 Ma of Westerhold et al. (2012); these ages in turn are consistent with proposed ages for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) that differ by ~300 kyr (28.201 Ma of Kuiper et al. (2008) versus 27.89 Ma of Westerhold et al. (2012)); an even older age of 28.294 Ma is proposed based on a statistical optimization model (Renne et al., 2011). The astronomically calibrated FCs age of 28.201 ± 0.046 Ma of Kuiper et al. (2008), which is consistent with the astronomical age of ~66.0 Ma for the K/Pg boundary, is currently adopted in the standard geological time scale (GTS2012). Here we combine new and published data in an attempt to solve the controversy and arrive at a stable nuemrical time scale for the early Paleogene. Supporting their younger age model, Westerhold et al. (2012) argue that the tuning of Miocene sections in the Mediterranean, which underlie the older FCs age of Kuiper et al. (2008) and, hence, the coupled older early Paleogene age model of Vandenberghe et al. (2012), might be too old by three precession cycles. We thoroughly rechecked this tuning; distinctive cycle patterns related to eccentricity and precession-obliquity interference make a younger tuning that would be consistent with the younger astronomical age of 27.89 Ma for the FCs of Westerhold et al. (2012) challenging. Next we compared youngest U/Pb zircon and astronomical ages for a number of ash beds in the tuned Miocene section of Monte dei Corvi. These ages are indistinguishable, indicating that the two independent dating methods yield the same age when the same event is dated. This is consistent with results

  16. Early auditory sensory processing of voices is facilitated by visual mechanisms.

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    Schall, Sonja; Kiebel, Stefan J; Maess, Burkhard; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2013-08-15

    How do we recognize people that are familiar to us? There is overwhelming evidence that our brains process voice and face in a combined fashion to optimally recognize both who is speaking and what is said. Surprisingly, this combined processing of voice and face seems to occur even if one stream of information is missing. For example, if subjects only hear someone who is familiar to them talking, without seeing their face, visual face-processing areas are active. One reason for this crossmodal activation might be that it is instrumental for early sensory processing of voices-a hypothesis that is contrary to current models of unisensory perception. Here, we test this hypothesis by harnessing a temporally highly resolved method, i.e., magnetoencephalography (MEG), to identify the temporal response profile of the fusiform face area in response to auditory-only voice recognition. Participants briefly learned a set of voices audio-visually, i.e., together with a talking face. After learning, we measured subjects' MEG signals in response to the auditory-only, now familiar, voices. The results revealed three key mechanisms that characterize the sensory processing of familiar speakers' voices: (i) activation in the face-sensitive fusiform gyrus at very early auditory processing stages, i.e., only 100ms after auditory onset, (ii) a temporal facilitation of auditory processing (M200), and (iii) a correlation of this temporal facilitation with recognition performance. These findings suggest that a neural representation of face information is evoked before the identity of the voice is even recognized and that the brain uses this visual representation to facilitate early sensory processing of auditory-only voices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Music and speech listening enhance the recovery of early sensory processing after stroke.

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    Särkämö, Teppo; Pihko, Elina; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2010-12-01

    Our surrounding auditory environment has a dramatic influence on the development of basic auditory and cognitive skills, but little is known about how it influences the recovery of these skills after neural damage. Here, we studied the long-term effects of daily music and speech listening on auditory sensory memory after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients who had middle cerebral artery stroke were randomly assigned to a music listening group, an audio book listening group, or a control group. Auditory sensory memory, as indexed by the magnetic MMN (MMNm) response to changes in sound frequency and duration, was measured 1 week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke with whole-head magnetoencephalography recordings. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that the amplitude of the frequency MMNm increased significantly more in both music and audio book groups than in the control group during the 6-month poststroke period. In contrast, the duration MMNm amplitude increased more in the audio book group than in the other groups. Moreover, changes in the frequency MMNm amplitude correlated significantly with the behavioral improvement of verbal memory and focused attention induced by music listening. These findings demonstrate that merely listening to music and speech after neural damage can induce long-term plastic changes in early sensory processing, which, in turn, may facilitate the recovery of higher cognitive functions. The neural mechanisms potentially underlying this effect are discussed.

  18. Stable isotope composition and volume of Early Archaean oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes between mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust) and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time oxygen was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen was not, as it can...... escape to space [1]. Hydrogen isotope ratios of serpentinites from the ~3.8Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are between -53 and -99‰; the highest values are in antigorite ± lizardite serpentinites from a low-strain lithologic domain where hydrothermal reaction of Archaean seawater with oceanic...... of continents present at that time), and the mass of Early Archaean oceans to ~109 to 126% of present day oceans. Oxygen isotope analyses from these Isua serpentinites (δ18O = +0.1 to 5.6‰ relative to VSMOW) indicate that early Archaean δ18OSEAWATER similar to modern oceans. Our observations suggest...

  19. The Role of Sensory Modulation Deficits and Behavioral Symptoms in a Diagnosis for Early Childhood

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    Perez-Robles, Ruth; Doval, Eduardo; Jane, Ma Claustre; da Silva, Pedro Caldeira; Papoila, Ana Luisa; Virella, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To contribute to the validation of the sensory and behavioral criteria for Regulation Disorders of Sensory Processing (RDSP) (DC:0-3R, 2005), this study examined a sample of toddlers in a clinical setting to analyze: (1) the severity of sensory modulation deficits and the behavioral symptoms of RDSP; (2) the associations between sensory and…

  20. Age-Related Declines in Early Sensory Memory: Identification of Rapid Auditory and Visual Stimulus Sequences.

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    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Age-related temporal-processing declines of rapidly presented sequences may involve contributions of sensory memory. This study investigated recall for rapidly presented auditory (vowel) and visual (letter) sequences presented at six different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) that spanned threshold SOAs for sequence identification. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults participated in all tasks. Results were investigated at both equivalent performance levels (i.e., SOA threshold) and at identical physical stimulus values (i.e., SOAs). For four-item sequences, results demonstrated best performance for the first and last items in the auditory sequences, but only the first item for visual sequences. For two-item sequences, adults identified the second vowel or letter significantly better than the first. Overall, when temporal-order performance was equated for each individual by testing at SOA thresholds, recall accuracy for each position across the age groups was highly similar. These results suggest that modality-specific processing declines of older adults primarily determine temporal-order performance for rapid sequences. However, there is some evidence for a second amodal processing decline in older adults related to early sensory memory for final items in a sequence. This selective deficit was observed particularly for longer sequence lengths and was not accounted for by temporal masking.

  1. Early use of artificial sensibility to improve sensory recovery after repair of the median and ulnar nerve.

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    Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran

    2003-01-01

    Artificial sensibility based on use of a "tactile glove" which substitutes for lack of sensory afferent inflow with acoustic feedback, was used early after repair of the median and ulnar nerves in a 21-year-old man. After six and 12 months the functional outcome exceeded what is expected in adults, and analysis with calculations for the minimal detectable change (MDC) in tactile gnosis showed a true change. This case highlights the timing of sensory re-education after nerve repair and also emphasises the importance of early restitution of afferent inflow from a denervated hand during rehabilitation.

  2. Effects of Early Sensory Stimulation on the Premature Infant as Measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

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    Stone, Kathy Kees; And Others

    Looking beyond the overall effectiveness of sensory stimulation, this study aimed to identify specific aspects of infant behavior most responsive to early stimulation. Subjects were 65 premature infants with a birth weight of less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces and a gestational age under 37 weeks. Experimental group members had completed a multimodal…

  3. Sensory Integration Therapy in Malaysia and Singapore: Sources of Information and Reasons for Use in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, H. M.; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Sensory integration (SI) therapy is a popular form of intervention for children with disabilities, particularly those with autism spectrum disorders, even though research evidence demonstrating beneficial outcomes from the use of SI therapy is limited. A questionnaire was distributed to early intervention education service providers in Malaysia…

  4. Implications of a neural network model of early sensori-motor development for the field of developmental neurology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, JJ; Touwen, BCL; Vos, JE

    This paper reports on a neural network model for early sensori-motor development and on the possible implications of this research for our understanding and, eventually, treatment of motor disorders like cerebral palsy. We recapitulate the results we published in detail in a series of papers [1-4].

  5. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

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    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  6. Early embryonic chromosome instability results in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmik Mkrtchyan

    Full Text Available The discovery of copy number variations (CNV in the human genome opened new perspectives on the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the aetiology of common diseases. Here, a single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human tissues led us to uncover the phenomenon of mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. The CNV mosaic ratios were different between the 10 individuals studied. However, they were stable in the T lymphocytes, immortalized B lymphoblastoid cells, and skin fibroblasts analyzed in each individual. Because these cell types have a common origin in the connective tissues, we suggest that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and occur only once, after which the stable mosaic ratio is maintained throughout the differentiated tissues. This concept is further supported by a unique study of immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year difference from two subjects. We provide the first evidence of somatic mosaicism for CNV, with stable variation ratios in different cell types of one individual leading to the hypothesis of early embryonic chromosome instability resulting in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues. This concept has the potential to open new perspectives in personalized genetic diagnostics and can explain genetic phenomena like diminished penetrance in autosomal dominant diseases. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to better understand the aetiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic mutations.

  7. Increased Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Sensory Neurons of Early Diabetic Rats Is Corrected by Electroacupuncture

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    Stefania Lucia Nori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN, characterized by early hyperalgesia and increased nerve growth factor (NGF, evolves in late irreversible neuropathic symptoms with reduced NGF support to sensory neurons. Electroacupuncture (EA modulates NGF in the peripheral nervous system, being effective for the treatment of DPN symptoms. We hypothesize that NGF plays an important pathogenic role in DPN development, while EA could be useful in the therapy of DPN by modulating NGF expression/activity. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ injection. One week after STZ, EA was started and continued for three weeks. NGF system and hyperalgesia-related mediators were analyzed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG and in their spinal cord and skin innervation territories. Our results show that four weeks long diabetes increased NGF and NGF receptors and deregulated intracellular signaling mediators of DRG neurons hypersensitization; EA in diabetic rats decreased NGF and NGF receptors, normalized c-Jun N-terminal and p38 kinases activation, decreased transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel, and possibly activated the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (Nf-κB. In conclusion, NGF signaling deregulation might play an important role in the development of DPN. EA represents a supportive tool to control DPN development by modulating NGF signaling in diabetes-targeted neurons.

  8. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia B; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G; Boggio, Paulo S; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  9. Very early feeding in stable small for gestational age preterm infants: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Sulam, Daniella; Konikoff, Fred; Regev, Rivka H; Litmanovitz, Ita; Naftali, Timna

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of initiating very early feeding on time-to-reach full feeding in stable, small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants. Preterm infants with gestational age below 37 weeks and birth weight below the 10(th) percentile were randomly allocated to a very early (within 24 hours of birth) feeding regimen or delayed (after 24 hours of birth) feeding. All infants had in utero evidence of absent or reverse diastolic flow. Infants unable to start early feeding were excluded. Time-to-reach full feeding, feeding progression, and related morbidity were compared. Electrogastrography (EGG) was used to measure pre- and postprandial gastric motility on the second and seventh day after feeding initiation. Sixty infants were included in the study, 30 in each group. Infants included in the very early feeding regimen achieved full enteral feeding sooner than controls (98±80-157 vs. 172±123-261 hours of age, respectively; p= 0.004) and were discharged home earlier (p=0.04). No necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was documented in both study groups. Gastric motility was improved at day seven after feeding initiation in both study groups, with no difference between groups. Stable SGA preterm infants on a very early feeding regimen achieved full enteral feeding and were discharged home significantly earlier than those on a delayed regimen, with no excess morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of bicoid and hunchback molecules in the early Drosophila embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Okabe-Oho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Precise patterning of morphogen molecules and their accurate reading out are of key importance in embryonic development. Recent experiments have visualized distributions of proteins in developing embryos and shown that the gradient of concentration of Bicoid morphogen in Drosophila embryos is established rapidly after fertilization and remains stable through syncytial mitoses. This stable Bicoid gradient is read out in a precise way to distribute Hunchback with small fluctuations in each embryo and in a reproducible way, with small embryo-to-embryo fluctuation. The mechanisms of such stable, precise, and reproducible patterning through noisy cellular processes, however, still remain mysterious. To address these issues, here we develop the one- and three-dimensional stochastic models of the early Drosophila embryo. The simulated results show that the fluctuation in expression of the hunchback gene is dominated by the random arrival of Bicoid at the hunchback enhancer. Slow diffusion of Hunchback protein, however, averages out this intense fluctuation, leading to the precise patterning of distribution of Hunchback without loss of sharpness of the boundary of its distribution. The coordinated rates of diffusion and transport of input Bicoid and output Hunchback play decisive roles in suppressing fluctuations arising from the dynamical structure change in embryos and those arising from the random diffusion of molecules, and give rise to the stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of Bicoid and Hunchback distributions.

  11. Progress in the Understanding of Sensory and Perceptual Processes in Early Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Marshall M.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on investigations of infant sensation and perception over the past 25 years. Describes the knowledge base concerning the sensory and perceptual world of the infant in the mid-1960s. Methodological highlights in the study of vision and audition are covered. (RJC)

  12. The effects of early diagenesis on the chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiker, E.C.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of modern and ancient buried wood show that there is a linear correlation between carbohydrate content and the stable carbon isotope composition as carbohydrates are preferentially degraded during early diagenesis. As the carbohydrate content decreases, the delta 13 C value of the degraded wood decreases 1 to 2 per mil, approaching the value of the residual lignin. These results indicate that carbohydrate degradation products are lost and not incorporated into the aromatic structure as lignin is selectively preserved during early diagenesis of wood. These results also indicate that attempts to quantify terrestrial inputs to modern sedimentary organic matter based on delta 13 C values should consider the possibility of a 1 to 2 per mil decrease in the delta 13 C value of degraded wood. (author)

  13. Early sensory cortex is activated in the absence of explicit input during crossmodal item retrieval: evidence from MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Ajay S; Gilbert, Jessica R; Horwitz, Barry

    2013-02-01

    Crossmodal associations form a fundamental aspect of our daily lives. In this study we investigated the neural correlates of crossmodal association in early sensory cortices using magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a paired associate recognition paradigm in which subjects were tested after multiple training sessions over a span of four weeks. Subjects had to learn 12 abstract, nonlinguistic, pairs of auditory and visual objects that consisted of crossmodal (visual-auditory, VA; auditory-visual, AV) and unimodal (visual-visual, VV; auditory-auditory, AA) paired items. Visual objects included abstract, non-nameable, fractal-like images, and auditory objects included abstract tone sequences. During scanning, subjects were shown the first item of a pair (S1), followed by a delay, then the simultaneous presentation of a visual and auditory stimulus (S2). Subjects were instructed to indicate whether either of the S2 stimuli contained the correct paired associate of S1. Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAMspm), a minimum variance beamformer, was then used to assess source power differences between the crossmodal conditions and their corresponding unimodal conditions (i.e., AV-AA and VA-VV) in the beta (15-30 Hz) and low gamma frequencies (31-54 Hz) during the S1 period. We found greater power during S1 in the corresponding modality-specific association areas for crossmodal compared with unimodal stimuli. Thus, even in the absence of explicit sensory input, the retrieval of well-learned, crossmodal pairs activate sensory areas associated with the corresponding modality. These findings support theories which posit that modality-specific regions of cortex are involved in the storage and retrieval of sensory-specific items from long-term memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early sensory re-education of the hand after peripheral nerve repair based on mirror therapy: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Mayara H.; Barbosa, Rafael I.; Marcolino, Alexandre M.; Elui, Valéria M. C.; Rosén, Birgitta; Fonseca, Marisa C. R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mirror therapy has been used as an alternative stimulus to feed the somatosensory cortex in an attempt to preserve hand cortical representation with better functional results. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short-term functional outcome of an early re-education program using mirror therapy compared to a late classic sensory program for hand nerve repair. METHOD: This is a randomized controlled trial. We assessed 20 patients with median and ulnar nerve and flexor tendon repair using the Rosen Score combined with the DASH questionnaire. The early phase group using mirror therapy began on the first postoperative week and lasted 5 months. The control group received classic sensory re-education when the protective sensation threshold was restored. All participants received a patient education booklet and were submitted to the modified Duran protocol for flexor tendon repair. The assessments were performed by the same investigator blinded to the allocated treatment. Mann-Whitney Test and Effect Size using Cohen's d score were used for inter-group comparisons at 3 and 6 months after intervention. RESULTS: The primary outcome (Rosen score) values for the Mirror Therapy group and classic therapy control group after 3 and 6 months were 1.68 (SD=0.5); 1.96 (SD=0.56) and 1.65 (SD=0.52); 1.51 (SD=0.62), respectively. No between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Although some clinical improvement was observed, mirror therapy was not shown to be more effective than late sensory re-education in an intermediate phase of nerve repair in the hand. Replication is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26786080

  15. Early sensory re-education of the hand after peripheral nerve repair based on mirror therapy: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara H. Paula

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mirror therapy has been used as an alternative stimulus to feed the somatosensory cortex in an attempt to preserve hand cortical representation with better functional results. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short-term functional outcome of an early re-education program using mirror therapy compared to a late classic sensory program for hand nerve repair. METHOD: This is a randomized controlled trial. We assessed 20 patients with median and ulnar nerve and flexor tendon repair using the Rosen Score combined with the DASH questionnaire. The early phase group using mirror therapy began on the first postoperative week and lasted 5 months. The control group received classic sensory re-education when the protective sensation threshold was restored. All participants received a patient education booklet and were submitted to the modified Duran protocol for flexor tendon repair. The assessments were performed by the same investigator blinded to the allocated treatment. Mann-Whitney Test and Effect Size using Cohen's d score were used for inter-group comparisons at 3 and 6 months after intervention. RESULTS: The primary outcome (Rosen score values for the Mirror Therapy group and classic therapy control group after 3 and 6 months were 1.68 (SD=0.5; 1.96 (SD=0.56 and 1.65 (SD=0.52; 1.51 (SD=0.62, respectively. No between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Although some clinical improvement was observed, mirror therapy was not shown to be more effective than late sensory re-education in an intermediate phase of nerve repair in the hand. Replication is needed to confirm these findings.

  16. Early visual ERPs show stable body-sensitive patterns over a 4-week test period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Katie; Kennett, Steffan; Gillmeister, Helge

    2018-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies feature among the most cited papers in the field of body representation, with recent research highlighting the potential of ERPs as neuropsychiatric biomarkers. Despite this, investigation into how reliable early visual ERPs and body-sensitive effects are over time has been overlooked. This study therefore aimed to assess the stability of early body-sensitive effects and visual P1, N1 and VPP responses. Participants were asked to identify pictures of their own bodies, other bodies and houses during an EEG test session that was completed at the same time, once a week, for four consecutive weeks. Results showed that amplitude and latency of early visual components and their associated body-sensitive effects were stable over the 4-week period. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed that VPP component amplitude might be more reliable than VPP latency and specific electrode sites might be more robust indicators of body-sensitive cortical activity than others. These findings suggest that visual P1, N1 and VPP responses, alongside body-sensitive N1/VPP effects, are robust indications of neuronal activity. We conclude that these components are eligible to be considered as electrophysiological biomarkers relevant to body representation. PMID:29438399

  17. Developmental Risk Signals as a Screening Tool for Early Identification of Sensory Processing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Cristina; Gomez, M Marlene; Ramos, Gregorio; Rios Del Rio, Janina

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this research was to determine if the indicators of risk included in the Indicators of Developmental Risk Signals (INDIPCD-R) could differentiate between children at risk of sensory processing disorders (SPDs) from those with normal development and if the SPD indicators correlated with a delay or altered development. A retrospective, descriptive, correlational design was used with a sample of 51 children, 36 referred because of clinical sensory processing indicators and 15 with non-clinical indicators. Participants were assessed with a developmental scale Revised Profile of Developmental Behaviors (PCD-R), the Sensory Profile, play and clinical observations. The INDIPCD-R showed a high correlation with developmental areas of PCD-R and a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, when compared with the Sensory Profile. T-test results for independent samples showed significant differences at p ≤ 0.01 level between the children with SPD indicators and those with no clinical signs in the PCD-R. The Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted for unpaired samples, to verify if there were significant differences between children with apparent SPD indicators and children with no apparent difficulties. The Spearman's rho was used to identify the correlations between the INDIPCD-R, with different areas of development. This study supports the use of the INDIPCD-R as a screening instrument that could be used by occupational therapists to discriminate children with and without indicators of SPD. The limitation of this study was that it did not cover all the ages of the INDIPCD-R. Additional studies are required to determine the utility of this instrument for outcome studies and whether it is valid and reliable to identify children at risk of different pathologies. The INDIPCD-R is a low-cost instrument that allows the occupational therapist to make a quick review of the different components that could be involved in SPD and therefore guide the more in

  18. Bi-stable wave propagation and early afterdepolarization-mediated cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Marvin G; Sato, Daisuke; de Lange, Enno; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; Garfinkel, Alan; Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin

    2012-01-01

    In normal atrial and ventricular tissue, the electrical wavefronts are mediated by the fast sodium current (I(Na)), whereas in sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodal tissue, conduction is mediated by the slow L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). However, it has not been shown whether the same tissue can exhibit both the I(Na)-mediated and the I(Ca,L)-mediated conduction. This study sought to test the hypothesis that bi-stable cardiac wave conduction, mediated by I(Na) and I(Ca,L), respectively, can occur in the same tissue under conditions promoting early afterdepolarizations (EADs), and to study how this novel wave dynamics is related to the mechanisms of EAD-mediated arrhythmias. Computer models of two-dimensional (2D) tissue with a physiologically detailed action potential model were used to study the bi-stable wave dynamics. Theoretical predictions were tested experimentally by optical mapping in neonatal rat ventricular myocyte monolayers. In the same 2D homogeneous tissue, we could induce spiral waves that are mediated by either I(Na) or I(Ca,L) under conditions in which the action potential model exhibited EADs. This bi-stable wave propagation behavior was similar to bi-stability shown in many other nonlinear systems. Because the bi-stable states are also excitable, we call this novel behavior bi-excitability. In a 2D heterogeneous tissue, the I(Ca,L)-mediated spiral wave meanders, giving rise to a twisting electrocardiographic QRS axis, resembling torsades de pointes, whereas the coexistence and interplay between the I(Na)-mediated wavefronts and I(Ca,L)-mediated wavefronts give rise to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. We also present experimental evidence for bi-excitability under EAD-promoting conditions in neonatal rat ventricular myocyte monolayers exposed to BayK8644 and isoproterenol. Under EAD-prone conditions, both I(Na)-mediated conduction and I(Ca,L)-mediated conduction can occur in the same tissue. These novel wave dynamics may be responsible for

  19. High resolution deep-sea stable isotopes: do Early Eocene hyperthermals share a common origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretano, Vittoria; Lourens, Lucas J.; Zachos, James C.; Sluijs, Appy

    2013-04-01

    During the Early Eocene, the Earth experienced a prolonged warming trend (55-50 Ma), punctuated by a series of short-lived global warming events known as "hyperthermals", of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, (PETM) is the most extreme, followed by the ETM2 (Elmo) and the ETM3 ("X-event"). Along with these events, a number of less pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions, termed A to L by Cramer et al (2003), occurred throughout the Paleogene up to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). The drastic increase in temperature during the hyperthermals is associated with the release of large amounts of isotopically light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Several hypotheses have been proposed to determine the sources and mechanisms of these carbon inputs, in particular the dissociation of marine gas hydrates. However, what still remains unclear is whether or not these events share a common source. To address this question we compare the quantitative relationship between high-resolution carbon and oxygen stable isotope records from benthic foraminiferal tests. A similar correspondence between changes in the carbon cycle and global temperature among the events, regardless of their magnitudes, would imply a similarity in their origins. Following Stap et al. 2010, we present the results of the comparison between our data and previously published data, using deep-sea material to extend the record to the I1-I2 events.

  20. Brief Report: Assessment of Early Sensory Processing in Infants at High-Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germani, Tamara; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Brian, Jessica; Smith, Isabel; Roberts, Wendy; Szatmari, Peter; Roncadin, Caroline; Sacrey, Lori Ann R.; Garon, Nancy; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed sensory processing differences between 24-month infants at high-risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), each with an older sibling with ASD, and low-risk infants with no family history of ASD. Sensory processing differences were assessed using the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile, a parent-reported measure. Groups were compared…

  1. Age effects on preattentive and early attentive auditory processing of redundant stimuli: is sensory gating affected by physiological aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Kreisel, Stefan H; Bachmann, Silke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thomas, Christine

    2011-10-01

    The frontal hypothesis of aging predicts an age-related decline in cognitive functions requiring inhibitory or attentional regulation. In Alzheimer's disease, preattentive gating out of redundant information is impaired. Our study aimed to examine changes associated with physiological aging in both pre- and early attentive inhibition of recurrent acoustic information. Using a passive double-click paradigm, we recorded mid-latency (P30-P50) and late-latency (N100 and P200) evoked potentials in healthy young (26 ± 5 years) and healthy elderly subjects (72 ± 5 years). Physiological aging did not affect auditory gating in amplitude measures. Both age groups exhibited clear inhibition in preattentive P50 and attention-modulated (N100) components, whereas P30 was not attenuated. Irrespective of age, the magnitude of inhibition differed significantly, being most pronounced for N100 gating. Inhibition of redundant information seems to be preserved with physiological aging. Early attentive N100 gating showed the maximum effect. Further studies are warranted to evaluate sensory gating as a suitable biomarker of underlying neurodegenerative disease.

  2. Early functional impairment of sensory-motor connectivity in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, George Z.; Blivis, Dvir; Liu, Wenfang; Drobac, Estelle; Crowder, Melissa E.; Kong, Lingling; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; O'Donovan, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY To define alterations of neuronal connectivity that occur during motor neuron degeneration, we characterized the function and structure of spinal circuitry in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) model mice. SMA motor neurons show reduced proprioceptive reflexes that correlate with decreased number and function of synapses on motor neuron somata and proximal dendrites. These abnormalities occur at an early stage of disease in motor neurons innervating proximal hindlimb muscles and medial motor neurons innervating axial muscles, but only at end-stage disease in motor neurons innervating distal hindlimb muscles. Motor neuron loss follows afferent synapse loss with the same temporal and topographical pattern. Trichostatin A, which improves motor behavior and survival of SMA mice, partially restores spinal reflexes illustrating the reversibility of these synaptic defects. De-afferentation of motor neurons is an early event in SMA and may be a primary cause of motor dysfunction that is amenable to therapeutic intervention. PMID:21315257

  3. [A case report of bilateral trigeminal sensory neuropathy as one of the initial manifestation of systemic scleroderma (the difficulties of early diagnosis of the primary disease)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Ju V; Anan'eva, L P; Tjurnikov, V M; Zaharova, A Ju

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the case of a patient with bilateral trigeminal sensory neuropathy (TSN), as a possible neurological manifestation of systemic scleroderma (SS). In this patient, intense non-paroxysmal facial pain caused by TSN, subjectively dominated over other manifestations of SS, including Raynaud's syndrome, for at least 1.5 years, thus hampering the diagnosis of the primary disease. In addition to pain, which was not relieved by analgesic medication, TSN was manifested by marked sensory deficit on the face (hypoesthesia / anesthesia) and bilateral sensory deficits in the oral cavity, including the anterior third of the tongue. TSN was also combined with disorders of taste perception. The assumption of rheumatic origin of TSN occurred during a primary neurological examination: a standard examination revealed generalized sensory polyneuropathy with bilateral involvement of the trigeminal nerve; the additional study identified no neurological signs of rheumatic diseases, including Raynaud's phenomenon. SS met all the criteria for the diagnosis (2013), high titers of nuclear ribonucleoprotein were determined as well. Thus, TSN as early and subjectively dominant manifestation of SS can complicate the diagnosis of primary rheumatic diseases. Therefore, in cases of distal sensory polyneuropathy with bilateral involvement of the trigeminal nerve, it is necessary to conduct an additional survey to identify the signs of possible rheumatic diseases: signs of vascular lesion (Raynaud's syndrome), lesions of skin, joints and muscles.

  4. Sensory nerve degeneration in a mouse model mimicking early manifestations of familial amyloid polyneuropathy due to transthyretin Ala97Ser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, H-W; Chiang, H; Lin, W-M; Yu, I-S; Lin, S-W; Hsieh, S-T

    2018-02-08

    Sensory nerve degeneration and consequent abnormal sensations are the earliest and most prevalent manifestations of familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) due to amyloidogenic transthyretin (TTR). FAP is a relentlessly progressive degenerative disease of the peripheral nervous system. However, there is a lack of mouse models to replicate the early neuropathic manifestations of FAP. We established human TTR knock-in mice by replacing one allele of the mouse Ttr locus with human wild-type TTR (hTTR wt ) or human TTR with the A97S mutation (hTTR A97S ). Given the late onset of neuropathic manifestations in A97S-FAP, we investigated nerve pathology, physiology, and behavioural tests in these mice at two age points: the adult group (8 - 56 weeks) and the ageing group (> 104 weeks). In the adult group, nerve profiles, neurophysiology and behaviour were similar between hTTR wt and hTTR A97S mice. By contrast, ageing hTTR A97S mice showed small fibre neuropathy with decreased intraepidermal nerve fibre density and behavioural signs of mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, significant reductions in sural nerve myelinated nerve fibre density and sensory nerve action potential amplitudes in these mice indicated degeneration of large sensory fibres. The unaffected motor nerve physiology replicated the early symptoms of FAP patients, that is, sensory nerves were more vulnerable to mutant TTR than motor nerves. These results demonstrate that the hTTR A97S mouse model develops sensory nerve pathology and corresponding physiology mimicking A97S-FAP and provides a platform to develop new therapies for the early stage of A97S-FAP. © 2018 British Neuropathological Society.

  5. First-hand sensory experience plays a limited role in children's early understanding of seeing and hearing as sources of knowledge: evidence from typically hearing and deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie

    2014-11-01

    One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage  = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage  = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  6. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  7. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-wight women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.G.; Boesveldt, S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The

  8. A community-based study of early childhood sensory stimulation in home environment associated with growth and psychomotor development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Raza, Syed Ahsan; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2014-10-01

    Sensory stimulation (SS) is a non-nutritional modifiable risk factor for early childhood development. We assessed SS in home environment and examined its influence on physical growth and psychomotor development (PD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 26 communities in Pakistan among children aged development. There is a need to corroborate these results by additional research for integration in health policy initiatives.

  9. Impedance-matching hearing in Paleozoic reptiles: evidence of advanced sensory perception at an early stage of amniote evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group members such as frogs, mammals, squamates, turtles, crocodiles, and birds, the presence of true tympanic ears has never been recorded in a Paleozoic amniote, suggesting they evolved fairly recently in amniote history. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed a morphological examination and a phylogenetic analysis of poorly known parareptiles from the Middle Permian of the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We recovered a well-supported clade that is characterized by a unique cheek morphology indicative of a tympanum stretching across large parts of the temporal region to an extent not seen in other amniotes, fossil or extant, and a braincase specialized in showing modifications clearly related to an increase in auditory function, unlike the braincase of any other Paleozoic tetrapod. In addition, we estimated the ratio of the tympanum area relative to the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon of the clade, which, at 23:1, is in close correspondence to that of modern amniotes capable of efficient impedance-matching hearing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using modern amniotes as analogues, the possession of an impedance-matching middle ear in these parareptiles suggests unique ecological adaptations potentially related to living in dim-light environments. More importantly, our results demonstrate that already at an early stage of amniote diversification, and prior to the Permo-Triassic extinction event, the complexity of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems had reached a level that

  10. Impedance-matching hearing in Paleozoic reptiles: evidence of advanced sensory perception at an early stage of amniote evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Tsuji, Linda A

    2007-09-12

    Insights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group members such as frogs, mammals, squamates, turtles, crocodiles, and birds, the presence of true tympanic ears has never been recorded in a Paleozoic amniote, suggesting they evolved fairly recently in amniote history. In the present study, we performed a morphological examination and a phylogenetic analysis of poorly known parareptiles from the Middle Permian of the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We recovered a well-supported clade that is characterized by a unique cheek morphology indicative of a tympanum stretching across large parts of the temporal region to an extent not seen in other amniotes, fossil or extant, and a braincase specialized in showing modifications clearly related to an increase in auditory function, unlike the braincase of any other Paleozoic tetrapod. In addition, we estimated the ratio of the tympanum area relative to the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon of the clade, which, at 23:1, is in close correspondence to that of modern amniotes capable of efficient impedance-matching hearing. Using modern amniotes as analogues, the possession of an impedance-matching middle ear in these parareptiles suggests unique ecological adaptations potentially related to living in dim-light environments. More importantly, our results demonstrate that already at an early stage of amniote diversification, and prior to the Permo-Triassic extinction event, the complexity of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems had reached a level that proved advanced sensory perception to be of notable adaptive significance.

  11. There’s no smell like home: how sensory ontogeny plays a role in the early life history of estuarine-dependent fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jack O'Connor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution and connectivity of marine organisms and their populations are largely determined by biophysical factors affecting dispersal during the larval phase. It is becoming increasingly clear that larval behaviour and active swimming may influence dispersal patterns, but which sensory cues are involved and critically when during the pre-settlement stage do these abilities develop? To investigate this we studied the ontogeny of olfactory responses to habitat cues in reared larvae of two temperate estuarine-dependant fish species. Since the critical period of movement from coastal waters to estuary areas was of interest we compared olfactory cues from the coastal zone with those from the upper estuary to test preference behaviour. We found that these larval fishes have a dynamic sensory ontogeny during early growth stages, with clear preferences for habitat chemical cues developing among individuals over time at consistent growth stages. The ontogeny of behavioural responses differed between species indicative of contrasting recruitment strategies, and subsequent trials indicate that the presence of chemicals cues from organic matter such as seagrass may interact with responses to salinity levels to drive the dynamics in behavioural shifts observed. This research into pre-settlement behaviour of early-stage temperate fishes supports the hypothesis that sensory ecology plays a role in larval transport from ocean to estuary.

  12. Early sensory-perceptual processing deficits for affectively valenced inputs are more pronounced in schizophrenia patients with a history of violence than in their non-violent peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Foxe, John J; Czobor, Pal; Wylie, Glenn R; Kamiel, Stephanie M; Huening, Jessica; Nair-Collins, Mike; Krakowski, Menahem I

    2013-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia are more prone to violent behaviors than the general population. It is increasingly recognized that processing of emotionally valenced stimuli is impaired in schizophrenia, a deficit that may play a role in aggressive behavior. Our goal was to establish whether patients with a history of violence would show more severe deficits in processing emotionally valenced inputs than non-violent patients. Using event-related potentials, we measured how early during processing of emotional valence, evidence of aberrant function was observed. A total of 42 schizophrenia patients (21 with history of violence; 21 without) and 28 healthy controls were tested. Participants performed an inhibitory control task, making speeded responses to pictorial stimuli. Pictures occasionally repeated twice and participants withheld responses to these repeats. Valenced pictures from the International Affective Picture System were presented. Results in controls showed modulations during the earliest phases of sensory processing (<100 ms) for negatively valenced pictures. A cascade of modulations ensued, involving sensory and perceptual processing stages. In contrast, neither schizophrenia group showed early differentiation. Non-violent patients showed earliest modulations beginning ∼150 ms. For violent patients, however, earliest modulations were further delayed and highly attenuated. The current study reveals sensory-perceptual processing dysfunction for negatively valenced inputs, which is particularly pronounced in aggressive patients.

  13. Age and weight at final discharge from an early discharge programme for stable but tube-fed preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt, A M; Stanchev, H.; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Preterm birth is often associated with prolonged hospitalisation, complicating the parent-child relationship and breastfeeding rates. As a result, an early discharge programme was implemented in the department of neonatology at Rigshospitalet. The infants were stable, but required tube feeding......, and during the programme, they received home visits by neonatal nurses. We evaluated the programme, focusing on the infants' well-being, using weight gain, breastfeeding rates and total duration of hospitalisation as outcomes. METHODS: Over an 11-year period, 500 infants participated in the programme...

  14. Stable isotope analysis as an early monitoring tool for community-scale effects of rat eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Katherine M.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Wegmann, Alex; Miller-ter Kuile, Ana; Fisher, Robert N.; Young, Hillary S.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive rats have colonized most of the islands of the world, resulting in strong negative impacts on native biodiversity and on ecosystem functions. As prolific omnivores, invasive rats can cause local extirpation of a wide range of native species, with cascading consequences that can reshape communities and ecosystems. Eradication of rats on islands is now becoming a widespread approach to restore ecosystems, and many native island species show strong numerical responses to rat eradication. However, the effect of rat eradication on other consumers can extend beyond direct numerical effects, to changes in behavior, dietary composition, and other ecological parameters. These behavioral and trophic effects may have strong cascading impacts on the ecology of restored ecosystems, but they have rarely been examined. In this study, we explore how rat eradication has affected the trophic ecology of native land crab communities. Using stable isotope analysis of rats and crabs, we demonstrate that the diet or trophic position of most crabs changed subsequent to rat eradication. Combined with the numerical recovery of two carnivorous land crab species (Geograpsus spp.), this led to a dramatic widening of the crab trophic niche following rat eradication. Given the established importance of land crabs in structuring island communities, particularly plants, this suggests an unappreciated mechanism by which rat eradication may alter island ecology. This study also demonstrates the potential for stable isotope analysis as a complementary monitoring tool to traditional techniques, with the potential to provide more nuanced assessments of the community- and ecosystem-wide effects of restoration.

  15. The Significance of Memory in Sensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S

    2017-05-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The significance of memory in sensory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S.

    2017-01-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing.

  17. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the search for life on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Desmarais, D.

    1989-01-01

    The utility of measurements of C-13/C-12 ratios in organic vs inorganic deposits for searching for signs of life on early Mars is considered. It is suggested that three assumptions are necessary. First, if there was life on Mars, it caused the fractionation of carbon isotopes in analogy with past biological activity on earth. Second, the fractionation would be detectable. Third, if a fractionation would be observed, there exist no abiotic explanations for the observed fractionation pattern.

  18. Identification of Lichen Metabolism in an Early Devonian Terrestrial Fossil using Carbon Stable Isotope Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S.; Jahren, H.

    2002-05-01

    The fossil organismSpongiophyton minutissimum is commonly found in early terrestrial assemblages (Devonian age, 430-340 Ma). Suites of morphological descriptions of this fossil have been published, starting in 1954, and have led to two competing hypotheses: 1.) that this early colonizer of land was a primitive bryophyte, and therefore a precursor to modern plant organisms, and 2.) thatS. minutissimum was a lichen: a close association between an alga and a fungus. Because the ultimate mechanisms for carbon supply to the carboxylating enzyme in bryophytes and lichens differ fundamentally, we expect these two types of organisms to exhibit separate ranges of δ 13Ctissue value. In bryophytes, gaseous carbon dioxide diffuses through perforations in cuticle (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Cbryophyte = ~20 ‰ ). Within the lichen, carbon is supplied to the carboxylating enzyme of the photobiont as carbon dioxide dissolved in fungal cell fluids (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Clichen = ~15 ‰ ). By comparing the δ 13Ctissue value ofS. minutissimum (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 75) with δ 13Ctissue values in twenty-five lichens, representative of the four different phylogenetic clades (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 25) and thirty different genera of bryophytes including mosses, liverworts, and hornworts (mean = -28 ‰ ;n = 30), we conclude thatS. minutissimum was cycling carbon via processes that much more closely resembled those of lichens, and not bryophytes. We discuss the general strategies associated with lichen biology, such as the ability to withstand dessication during reproduction, and how they may have contributed to the successful colonization of terrestrial environments.

  19. Stable isotope and calcareous nannofossil assemblage record of the late Paleocene and early Eocene (Cicogna section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnini, Claudia; Spofforth, David J. A.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Rio, Domenico; Pälike, Heiko; Backman, Jan; Muttoni, Giovanni; Dallanave, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    We present records of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, CaCO3 content, and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages across an 81 m thick section of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks now exposed along the Cicogna Stream in northeast Italy. The studied stratigraphic section represents sediment accumulation in a bathyal hemipelagic setting from approximately 57.5 to 52.2 Ma, a multi-million-year time interval characterized by perturbations in the global carbon cycle and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The bulk carbonate δ13C profile for the Cicogna section, once placed on a common timescale, resembles that at several other locations across the world, and includes both a long-term drop in δ13C and multiple short-term carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). This precise correlation of widely separated δ13C records in marine sequences results from temporal changes in the carbon composition of the exogenic carbon cycle. However, diagenesis has likely modified the δ13C record at Cicogna, an interpretation supported by variations in bulk carbonate δ18O, which do not conform to expectations for a primary signal. The record of CaCO3 content reflects a combination of carbonate dilution and dissolution, as also inferred at other sites. Our detailed documentation and statistical analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages show major differences before, during and after the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Other CIEs in our lower Paleogene section do not exhibit such a distinctive change; instead, these events are sometimes characterized by variations restricted to a limited number of taxa and transient shifts in the relative abundance of primary assemblage components. Both long-lasting and short-lived modifications to calcareous nannofossil assemblages preferentially affected nannoliths or holococcoliths such as Discoaster, Fasciculithus, Rhomboaster/Tribrachiatus, Sphenolithus and Zygrhablithus, which underwent distinct variations in

  20. How stable are quantitative sensory testing measurements over time? Report on 10-week reliability and agreement of results in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagel, Helen; Puta, Christian; Lehmann, Thomas; Baumbach, Philipp; Menard, Martha B; Gabriel, Brunhild; Gabriel, Holger H W; Weiss, Thomas; Musial, Frauke

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a diagnostic tool for the assessment of the somatosensory system. To establish QST as an outcome measure for clinical trials, the question of how similar the measurements are over time is crucial. Therefore, long-term reliability and limits of agreement of the standardized QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain were tested. QST on the lower back and hand dorsum (dominant hand) were assessed twice in 22 healthy volunteers (10 males and 12 females; mean age: 46.6±13.0 years), with sessions separated by 10.0±2.9 weeks. All measurements were performed by one investigator. To investigate long-term reliability and agreement of QST, differences between the two measurements, correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Bland-Altman plots (limits of agreement), and standard error of measurement were used. Most parameters of the QST were reliable over 10 weeks in healthy volunteers: Almost-perfect ICCs were observed for heat pain threshold (hand) and mechanical pain sensitivity (back). Substantial ICCs were observed for heat pain threshold (back), pressure pain threshold (back), mechanical pain sensitivity (hand), and vibration detection threshold (back and hand). Some QST parameters, such as cold detection threshold, exhibited low ICCs, but also very low variability. Generally, QST measures exhibited narrow limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plots. The standardized QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain is feasible to be used in treatment trials. Moreover, defining a statistically meaningful change is possible, which is a prerequisite for the use of QST in clinical trials as well as in long-term investigations of disease progression.

  1. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianquan; Liu, Dengcai; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang

    2005-10-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  2. The effects of hemorrhagic parenchymal infarction on the establishment of sensori-motor structural and functional connectivity in early infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arichi, T.; Edwards, A.D. [Kings College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College London, Department of Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Counsell, S.J.; Mondi, V.; Tusor, N.; Merchant, N. [Kings College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Allievi, A.G.; Burdet, E. [Imperial College London, Department of Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Chew, A.T. [Kings College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Paediatrics, London (United Kingdom); Martinez-Biarge, M.; Cowan, F.M. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Paediatrics, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    The objective of the study was to characterize alterations of structural and functional connectivity within the developing sensori-motor system in infants with focal perinatal brain injury and at high risk of cerebral palsy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were used to study the developing functional and structural connectivity framework in six infants born prematurely at term equivalent age. This was first characterised in three infants without focal pathology, which was then compared to that derived from three infants with unilateral haemorrhagic parenchymal infarction and a subsequent focal periventricular white matter lesion who developed later haemiparesis. Functional responses to passive hand movement were in the contralateral perirolandic cortex, regardless of focal pathology. In infants with unilateral periventricular injury, afferent thalamo-cortical tracts appeared to have developed compensatory trajectories which circumvented areas of damage. In contrast, efferent corticospinal tracts showed marked asymmetry at term equivalent age following focal brain injury. Sensori-motor network analysis suggested that inter-hemispheric functional connectivity is largely preserved despite pathology and that impairment may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Following focal perinatal brain injury, altered structural and functional connectivity is already present and can be characterized with MRI at term equivalent age. The results of this small case series suggest that these techniques may provide valuable new information about prognosis and the pathophysiology underlying cerebral palsy. (orig.)

  3. How stable are quantitative sensory testing measurements over time? Report on 10-week reliability and agreement of results in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothnagel H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen Nothnagel,1,2,* Christian Puta,1,3,* Thomas Lehmann,4 Philipp Baumbach,5 Martha B Menard,6,7 Brunhild Gabriel,1 Holger H W Gabriel,1 Thomas Weiss,8 Frauke Musial2 1Department of Sports Medicine and Health Promotion, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany; 2Department of Community Medicine, National Research Center in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Center for Interdisciplinary Prevention of Diseases Related to Professional Activities, 4Department of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Friedrich Schiller University, 5Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Jena, Germany; 6Crocker Institute, Kiawah Island, SC, 7School of Integrative Medicine and Health Sciences, Saybrook University, Oakland, CA, USA; 8Department of Biological and Clinical Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Quantitative sensory testing (QST is a diagnostic tool for the assessment of the somatosensory system. To establish QST as an outcome measure for clinical trials, the question of how similar the measurements are over time is crucial. Therefore, long-term reliability and limits of agreement of the standardized QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain were tested. Methods: QST on the lower back and hand dorsum (dominant hand were assessed twice in 22 healthy volunteers (10 males and 12 females; mean age: 46.6±13.0 years, with sessions separated by 10.0±2.9 weeks. All measurements were performed by one investigator. To investigate long-term reliability and agreement of QST, differences between the two measurements, correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, Bland–Altman plots (limits of agreement, and standard error of measurement were used. Results: Most parameters of the QST were reliable over 10 weeks in

  4. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert attenuates early EEG components associated with defective sensory gating in patients with Alzheimer disease - a two-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürschmid, Stefan; Reichert, Christoph; Kuhn, Jens; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen

    2017-10-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deterioration of memory and cognitive function and a degeneration of neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM). The NBM is the major input source of acetylcholine (ACh) to the cortex. The decreasing cholinergic innervation of the cortex due to degeneration of the NBM might be the cause of loss of memory function. NBM-Deep brain stimulation (NBM-DBS) is considered to serve as a potential therapeutic option for patients with AD by supporting residual cholinergic transmission to stabilize oscillatory activity in memory-relevant circuits. However, whether DBS could improve sensory memory functions in patients with AD is not clear. Here, in a passive auditory oddball paradigm, patients with AD (N = 2) listened to repetitive background tones (standard tones) randomly interrupted by frequency deviants in two blocks with NBM-DBS OFF and then NBM-DBS ON, while age-matched healthy controls (N = 6) repeated the experiment twice. The mismatch negativity in NBM-DBS OFF significantly differed from controls in both blocks, but not under NBM-DBS, which was likely due to a pronounced P50 increase overlapping with the N1 in NBM-DBS OFF. This early complex of EEG components recovered under stimulation to a normal level as defined by responses in controls. In this temporal interval, we found in patients with NBM-DBS ON (but not with NBM-DBS OFF) and in controls a strong repetition suppression effect to standard tones - with more attenuated responses to frequently repeated standard tones. This highlights the role of NBM-DBS for sensory gating of familiar auditory information into sensory memory. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Early and moderate sensory stimulation exerts a protective effect on perilesion representations of somatosensory cortex after focal ischemic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, Christian; Zennou-Azogui, Yoh'i

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that intensive training within an early critical time window after focal cortical ischemia increases the area of damaged tissue and is detrimental to behavioral recovery. We postulated that moderate stimulation initiated soon after the lesion could have protective effects on peri-infarct cortical somatotopic representations. Therefore, we have assessed the effects of mild cutaneous stimulation delivered in an attention-demanding behavioral context on the functional organization of the perilesion somatosensory cortex using high-density electrophysiological mapping. We compared the effects of 6-day training initiated on the 3rd day postlesion (early training; ET) to those of same-duration training started on the 8th day (delayed training; DT). Our findings confirm previous work showing that the absence of training aggravates representational loss in the perilesion zone. In addition, ET was found to be sufficient to limit expansion of the ischemic lesion and reduce tissue loss, and substantially maintain the neuronal responsiveness to tactile stimulation, thereby preserving somatotopic map arrangement in the peri-infarct cortical territories. By contrast, DT did not prevent tissue loss and only partially reinstated lost representations in a use-dependent manner within the spared peri-infarct cortical area. This study differentiates the effects of early versus delayed training on perilesion tissue and cortical map reorganization, and underscores the neuroprotective influence of mild rehabilitative stimulation on neuronal response properties in the peri-infarct cortex during an early critical period.

  6. Stable immediate early gene expression patterns in medial prefrontal cortex and striatum after long-term cocaine self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Limpens, Jules H W; Spijker, Sabine; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Voorn, Pieter

    2017-03-01

    The transition from casual to compulsive drug use is thought to occur as a consequence of repeated drug taking leading to neuroadaptive changes in brain circuitry involved in emotion and cognition. At the basis of such neuroadaptations lie changes in the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) implicated in transcriptional regulation, synaptic plasticity and intracellular signalling. However, little is known about how IEG expression patterns change during long-term drug self-administration. The present study, therefore, compares the effects of 10 and 60-day self-administration of cocaine and sucrose on the expression of 17 IEGs in brain regions implicated in addictive behaviour, i.e. dorsal striatum, ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Increased expression after cocaine self-administration was found for 6 IEGs in dorsal and ventral striatum (c-fos, Mkp1, Fosb/ΔFosb, Egr2, Egr4, and Arc) and 10 IEGs in mPFC (same 6 IEGs as in striatum, plus Bdnf, Homer1, Sgk1 and Rgs2). Five of these 10 IEGs (Egr2, Fosb/ΔFosb, Bdnf, Homer1 and Jun) and Trkb in mPFC were responsive to long-term sucrose self-administration. Importantly, no major differences were found between IEG expression patterns after 10 or 60 days of cocaine self-administration, except Fosb/ΔFosb in dorsal striatum and Egr2 in mPFC, whereas the amount of cocaine obtained per session was comparable for short-term and long-term self-administration. These steady changes in IEG expression are, therefore, associated with stable self-administration behaviour rather than the total amount of cocaine consumed. Thus, sustained impulses to IEG regulation during prolonged cocaine self-administration may evoke neuroplastic changes underlying compulsive drug use. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. The effect of sensory level electrical stimulation of the masseter muscle in early stroke patients with dysphagia: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umay, Ebru K; Yaylaci, Atilay; Saylam, Guleser; Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Gurcay, Eda; Akcapinar, Dehen; Kirac, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Dysphagia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in stroke patients. As the first study in literature, we aimed to evaluate the effects of sensory-level electrical stimulation (SES) to bilateral masseter muscles in early stroke patients with dysphagia. This study was conducted at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic of our hospital between 2013 and 2015. Ninety-eight patients with dysphagia within the first month after ischemic stroke were included in this study. Patients were evaluated by bedside screening tests (Bedside Dysphagia Score, Neurological Examination Dysphagia Score, Total Dysphagia Score, and Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability test) and by flexible fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) methods. All patients were included in a traditional swallowing therapy. Patients were divided into two groups, namely the "stimulation group" and "sham group." SES was applied to bilateral masseter muscles. Evaluation parameters were compared between the groups before and after therapy. The Friedman test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher exact test were used in this study. There was a significant improvement in dysphagia severity scores evaluated by bedside screening tests and FEES in cognitive and total functionality levels except in motor functional independence level in the stimulation group. In the sham group, there were no significant changes in the evaluation parameters. SES applied to bilateral masseter muscles may provide an effective treatment for both dysphagia and cognitive function in early stroke patients.

  8. Early postnatal development of electrophysiological and histological properties of sensory sural nerves in male rats that were maternally deprived and artificially reared: Role of tactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempoalteca, Rene; Porras, Mercedes G; Moreno-Pérez, Suelem; Ramirez-Funez, Gabriela; Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; González Del Pliego, Margarita; Mariscal-Tovar, Silvia; Mendoza-Garrido, Maria E; Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Melo, Angel I

    2018-04-01

    Early adverse experiences disrupt brain development and behavior, but little is known about how such experiences impact on the development of the peripheral nervous system. Recently, we found alterations in the electrophysiological and histological characteristics of the sensory sural (SU) nerve in maternally deprived, artificially reared (AR) adult male rats, as compared with maternally reared (MR) control rats. In the present study, our aim was to characterize the ontogeny of these alterations. Thus, male pups of four postnatal days (PND) were (1) AR group, (2) AR and received daily tactile stimulation to the body and anogenital region (AR-Tactile group); or (3) reared by their mother (MR group). At PND 7, 14, or 21, electrophysiological properties and histological characteristics of the SU nerves were assessed. At PND 7, the electrophysiological properties and most histological parameters of the SU nerve did not differ among MR, AR, and AR-Tactile groups. By contrast, at PND 14 and/or 21, the SU nerve of AR rats showed a lower CAP amplitude and area, and a significant reduction in myelin area and myelin thickness, which were accompanied by a reduction in axon area (day 21 only) compared to the nerves of MR rats. Tactile stimulation (AR-Tactile group) partially prevented most of these alterations. These results suggest that sensory cues from the mother and/or littermates during the first 7-14 PND are relevant for the proper development and function of the adult SU nerve. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 351-362, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sensory acceptance tests of red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder, minimally processed and irradiated; Testes sensoriais de aceitacao da beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder, minimamente processada e irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho, E-mail: nilberkenup@ctex.eb.b [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; Freire Junior, Murillo [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-08-15

    Red beet (Early Wonder) was cultivated in an experimental area of the Department of Fitotecnia at the Institute of Agronomy at the Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. After harvest, the roots were minimally processed; packed; exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) and stored for 20 days at 8.0 deg C. Sensory evaluations were performed 1; 9; 13 and 20 days after irradiation by 12 testers who rated the overall appearance and aroma on a hedonic scale. The results indicated that the irradiated samples remained within the limit of acceptance for 20 days. In addition, the aroma was found to be a more sensitive indicator of the effect of different doses of radiation to the acceptance of the product. (author)

  10. Meaning in meaninglessness: The propensity to perceive meaningful patterns in coincident events and randomly arranged stimuli is linked to enhanced attention in early sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominger, Christian; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Papousek, Ilona

    2018-05-01

    Perception of objectively independent events or stimuli as being significantly connected and the associated proneness to perceive meaningful patterns constitute part of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, which are associated with altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception. Since perceiving meaningful patterns is to some extent already prevalent in the general population, the aim of the study was to investigate whether the propensity to experience meaningful patterns in co-occurring events and random stimuli may be associated with similar altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception. Self-reported and behavioral indicators of the perception of meaningful patterns were assessed in non-clinical individuals, along with EEG auditory evoked potentials during the performance of an attention related lateralized speech perception task (Dichotic Listening Test). A greater propensity to perceive meaningful patterns was associated with higher N1 amplitudes of the evoked potentials to the onset of the dichotically presented consonant-vowel syllables, indicating enhanced automatic attention in early sensory processing. The study suggests that more basic mechanisms in how people associate events may play a greater role in the cognitive biases that are manifest in personality expressions such as positive schizotypy, rather than that positive schizotypy moderates these cognitive biases directly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable immediate early gene expression patterns in medial prefrontal cortex and striatum after long-term cocaine self-administration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, P.; Limpens, J.H.; Spijker, S.; Vanderschuren, L.J.; Voorn, P.

    2017-01-01

    The transition from casual to compulsive drug use is thought to occur as a consequence of repeated drug taking leading to neuroadaptive changes in brain circuitry involved in emotion and cognition. At the basis of such neuroadaptations lie changes in the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs)

  12. Stable immediate early gene expression patterns in medial prefrontal cortex and striatum after long-term cocaine self-administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Ping; Limpens, Jules H W; Spijker, Sabine; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Voorn, Pieter

    The transition from casual to compulsive drug use is thought to occur as a consequence of repeated drug taking leading to neuroadaptive changes in brain circuitry involved in emotion and cognition. At the basis of such neuroadaptations lie changes in the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs)

  13. Climatic and palaeoceanographic changes during the Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) inferred from clay mineralogy and stable isotope (C-O) geochemistry (NW Europe)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougeault, Cédric; Pellenard, Pierre; Deconinck, Jean François

    2017-01-01

    The Early Jurassic was broadly a greenhouse climate period that was punctuated by short warm and cold climatic events, positive and negative excursions of carbon isotopes, and episodes of enhanced organic matter burial. Clay minerals from Pliensbachian sediments recovered from two boreholes...... in the Paris Basin, are used here as proxies of detrital supplies, runoff conditions, and palaeoceanographic changes. The combined use of these minerals with stable isotope data (C-O) from bulk carbonates and organic matter allows palaeoclimatic reconstructions to be refined for the Pliensbachian. Kaolinite...... isotope excursion at the so-called Sinemurian Pliensbachian Boundary Event (SPBE). The Early/Late Pliensbachian transition was also characterised by more humid conditions. This warm interval is associated with a major change in oceanic circulation during the Davoei Zone, likely triggered by sea-level rise...

  14. Three exploratory studies of relations between young adults' preference for activities involving a specific sense modality and sensory attributes of early memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, A S; Stuve, M

    2001-04-01

    Three studies explored whether young adults' preference for using a sense modality, e.g., hearing, correlated with presence or clarity of attributes of that sense modality in earliest memories from childhood, elementary school, or high school. In Study 1, 75 graduates or seniors in fine arts, fashion merchandising, music, conducting, or dance showed no greater frequency or clarity of any modality's sensory attributes. In Study 2, 213 beginning university students' ratings of current importance of activities emphasizing a sense modality correlated with sensory contents of recollections only for smell and taste. In Study 3, 102 beginning students' ratings of current enjoyment in using a sense modality and sensory contents of recollections were correlated and involved every modality except vision.

  15. Pedogenic carbonate stable isotopic evidence for wooded habitat preference of early Pleistocene tool makers in the Turkana Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Rhonda L; Lepre, Christopher J; Feibel, Craig S; Wright, James D; Mortlock, Richard A; Harmand, Sonia; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Roche, Hélène

    2013-07-01

    The origin and evolution of early Pleistocene hominin lithic technologies in Africa occurred within the context of savanna grassland ecosystems. The Nachukui Formation of the Turkana Basin in northern Kenya, containing Oldowan and Acheulean tool assemblages and fossil evidence for early members of Homo and Paranthropus, provides an extensive spatial and temporal paleosol record of early Pleistocene savanna flora. Here we present new carbon isotopic (δ(13)CVPDB) values of pedogenic carbonates (68 nodules, 193 analyses) from the Nachukui Formation in order to characterize past vegetation structure and change through time. We compared three members (Kalochoro, Kaitio, and Natoo) at five locations spanning 2.4-1.4Ma and sampled in proximity to hominin archaeological and paleontological sites. Our results indicate diverse habitats showing a mosaic pattern of vegetation cover at each location yet demonstrate grassland expansion through time influenced by paleogeography. Kalochoro floodplains occurred adjacent to large river systems, and paleosols show evidence of C3 woodlands averaging 46-50% woody cover. Kaitio habitats were located along smaller rivers and lake margins. Paleosols yielded evidence for reduced portions of woody vegetation averaging 34-37% woody cover. Natoo environments had the highest percentage of grasslands averaging 21% woody cover near a diminishing Lake Turkana precursor. We also compared paleosol δ(13)CVPDB values of lithic archaeological sites with paleosol δ(13)CVPDB values of all environments available to hominins at 2.4-1.4Ma in the Nachukui and Koobi Fora Formations. Grassy environments became more widespread during this interval; woody canopy cover mean percentages steadily decreased by 12%. However, significantly more wooded savanna habitats were present in the vicinity of lithic archaeological sites and did not mirror the basin-wide trend of grassland spread. Hominin lithic archaeological sites consistently demonstrated woody cover

  16. Family context, victimization, and child trauma symptoms: variations in safe, stable, and nurturing relationships during early and middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Hamby, Sherry; Leeb, Rebecca T; Mercy, James A; Holt, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    Based on a nationally representative sample of 2,017 children age 2-9 years, this study examines variations in "safe, stable, and nurturing" relationships (SSNRs), including several forms of family perpetrated victimization, and documents associations between these factors and child trauma symptoms. Findings show that many children were exposed to multiple forms of victimization within the family (such as physical or sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, child neglect, sibling victimization, and witnessing family violence), as evidenced by substantial intercorrelations among the different forms of victimization. Moreover, victimization exposure was significantly associated with several indices of parental dysfunction, family adversity, residential instability, and problematic parenting practices. Of all SSNR variables considered, emotional abuse and inconsistent or hostile parenting emerged as having the most powerful independent effects on child trauma symptoms. Also, findings supported a cumulative risk model, whereby trauma symptom levels increased with each additional SSNR risk factor to which children were exposed. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  17. Early Stages of Musical Development: Relationships between Sensory Integration Dysfunction, Parental Influence, and Musical Disposition of a Three-Year-Old "Maestro"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; McPherson, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    Current literature offers only scant information on very young children who display high attention and engagement in music, but who are not drawn from normal populations. This study of three-year-old Danny, who possesses the neurological disorder Sensory Integration Dysfunction, provides a case study of the types of parent-child interactions that…

  18. Reconstructing Changes in Deep Ocean Temperature and Global Carbon Cycle during the Early Eocene Warming Trend: High-Resolution Benthic Stable Isotope Records from the SE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretano, V.; Zachos, J. C.; Lourens, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    From the late Paleocene to the early Eocene, Earth's surface temperatures generally rose, resulting in an increase of at least 5°C in the deep ocean and culminating in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). This long-term warming was punctuated by a series of short-lived global warming events known as "hyperthermals", of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) represents the most extreme example. At least two other short-term episodes have been identified as hyperthermals: the ETM2 (or Elmo event) at about 53.7 Myr and the ETM3 (or X-event) at about 52.5 Myr. These transient events are marked by prominent carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), recorded in marine and continental sedimentary sequences and driven by fast and massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Recently, evidence has indicated the presence of a regular series of hyperthermal events following the peak in temperatures of the EECO. However, continuous records are needed to investigate short- and long- term changes in the climate system throughout the Early Eocene warming trend. Here, we present new high-resolution benthic stable isotope records of the Early Eocene from ODP Site 1263, (Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic). The carbon and oxygen records document changes in deep-sea temperature and global carbon cycle encompassing the Early Eocene hyperthermal events and the EECO interval. The transition phase to the post-EECO events is distinct by the decoupling of carbon and oxygen isotopes on the long-term scale. Spectral and wavelet analyses suggest the influence of orbital forcing, specifically long and short eccentricity cycles.

  19. Dysfunctional Sensory Modalities, Locus Coeruleus, and Basal Forebrain: Early Determinants that Promote Neuropathogenesis of Cognitive and Memory Decline and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulatzai, Mak Adam

    2016-10-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. It is essential to unravel its etiology and pathogenesis. This should enable us to study the presymptomatic stages of the disease and to analyze and reverse the antemortem behavioral, memory, and cognitive dysfunction. Prima facie, an ongoing chronic vulnerability involving neural insult may lead normal elderly to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and then to AD. Development of effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to thwart the disease pathology obviously requires a thorough delineation of underlying disruptive neuropathological processes. Our sensory capacity for touch, smell, taste, hearing, and vision declines with advancing age. Declines in different sensory attributes are considered here to be the primary "first-tier pathologies." Olfactory loss is among the first clinical signs of neurodegenerative diseases including AD and Parkinson's disease (PD). Sensory dysfunction in the aged promotes pathological disturbances in the locus coeruleus, basal forebrain, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and several key areas of neocortex and brainstem. Hence, sensory dysfunction is the pivotal factor that may upregulate cognitive and memory dysfunction. The age-related constellation of comorbid pathological factors may include apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, alcohol abuse, head trauma, and obstructive sleep apnea. The concepts and trajectories delineated here are the dynamic pillars of the current hypothesis presented-it postulates that the sensory decline, in conjunction with the above pathologies, is crucial in triggering neurodegeneration and promoting cognitive/memory dysfunction in aging and AD. The application of this thesis can be important in formulating new multifactorial preventive and treatment strategies (suggested here) in order to attenuate cognitive and memory decline and ameliorate pathological dysfunction in aging, MCI, and AD.

  20. Online monitoring of stable carbon isotopes of methane in anaerobic digestion as a new tool for early warning of process instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polag, D; May, T; Müller, L; König, H; Jacobi, F; Laukenmann, S; Keppler, F

    2015-12-01

    Effective control of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants requires the monitoring of process sensitive and rapid response parameters in order to ensure efficient biogas production and to prevent potential process failure. In this study, stable carbon isotopes of methane (δ(13)CCH4) produced in a full-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor were investigated as a potential new monitoring tool for this purpose. Over a six-month period with variable organic loading rates, δ(13)CCH4-values were measured online by a portable high-precision laser absorption spectrometer. During a stress period of consecutive high organic loading, δ(13)CCH4-values early indicated process changes in contrast to traditionally monitored parameters where a change was observed some five to ten days later. Comparison of the stable isotope values with data from microbial analyses showed a distinct relationship between the quantity of potentially acetoclastic methanogens and δ(13)CCH4-values. This finding indicates an association between dominant methanogenic pathways and carbon isotope values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensory Features of Toddlers at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott-Robinson, Kelsey; Lane, Alison E; Harpster, Karen

    2016-01-01

    We observed sensory features in toddlers ages 12-24 mo with risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explored their relationship to general development and early signs of ASD. Participants (N = 46) included toddlers with higher risk for ASD. All participants were administered standardized assessments of sensory features, early signs of ASD, and general development at a single study visit. Sensory features in toddlers were characterized as either adaptive or reactive. Toddlers with more difficulties in oral sensory processing displayed more early signs of ASD. Typical oral and auditory processing were associated with higher cognitive function, and toddlers with fewer sensory features overall had more mature language skills. Specific sensory features were associated with both early signs of ASD and less mature general development. Replication of this preliminary study is required. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  3. Climatic and palaeoceanographic changes during the Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) inferred from clay mineralogy and stable isotope (C-O) geochemistry (NW Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougeault, Cédric; Pellenard, Pierre; Deconinck, Jean-François; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Dommergues, Jean-Louis; Bruneau, Ludovic; Cocquerez, Théophile; Laffont, Rémi; Huret, Emilia; Thibault, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    The Early Jurassic was broadly a greenhouse climate period that was punctuated by short warm and cold climatic events, positive and negative excursions of carbon isotopes, and episodes of enhanced organic matter burial. Clay minerals from Pliensbachian sediments recovered from two boreholes in the Paris Basin, are used here as proxies of detrital supplies, runoff conditions, and palaeoceanographic changes. The combined use of these minerals with stable isotope data (C-O) from bulk carbonates and organic matter allows palaeoclimatic reconstructions to be refined for the Pliensbachian. Kaolinite/illite ratio is discussed as a reliable proxy of the hydrological cycle and runoff from landmasses. Three periods of enhanced runoff are recognised within the Pliensbachian. The first one at the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian transition shows a significant increase of kaolinite concomitant with the negative carbon isotope excursion at the so-called Sinemurian Pliensbachian Boundary Event (SPBE). The Early/Late Pliensbachian transition was also characterised by more humid conditions. This warm interval is associated with a major change in oceanic circulation during the Davoei Zone, likely triggered by sea-level rise; the newly created palaeogeography, notably the flooding of the London-Brabant Massif, allowed boreal detrital supplies, including kaolinite and chlorite, to be exported to the Paris Basin. The last event of enhanced runoff occurred during the late Pliensbachian (Subnodosus Subzone of the Margaritatus Zone), which occurred also during a warm period, favouring organic matter production and preservation. Our study highlights the major role of the London Brabant Massif in influencing oceanic circulation of the NW European area, as a topographic barrier (emerged lands) during periods of lowstand sea-level and its flooding during period of high sea-level. This massif was the unique source of smectite in the Paris Basin. Two episodes of smectite-rich sedimentation ('smectite

  4. Epilepsy and the Sensory Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The relations of epilepsy and the sensory systems are bidirectional. Epilepsy may act on sensory systems by producing sensory seizure symptoms, by altering sensory performance, and by epilepsy treatment causing sensory side effects. Sensory system activity may have an important role in both generation and inhibition of seizures.

  5. Early Forming a Hummingbird-like Hovering Neural Network Circuitry Pattern with Reentrant Spatiotemporal Energy-Sensory Orientation Privileged to Avoid “Epilepsy” Based on a Biomimetic Acetylcholinesterase Memcapacitor Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen T. Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hummingbird’s significant asymmetry hovering flight with energy conservation pattern is remarkable among all vertebrates. However, little is known to human’s neuronal network circuitry current flow pattern for whether or not has this privilege during slow wave sleeping (SWS. What is the advantage in order to avoid diseases if we have this network pattern ? A memory device was developed with nanostructured biomimetic acetylcholinesterase (ACHE gorge membrane on gold chips as memcapacitor 1, served as a normal brain network prosthesis, compared with a mutated ACHE prosthesis as device 2, for evaluation of neuronal network circuitry integrity in the presence of Amyloid- beta (Ab under the conditions of free from tracers and antibodies in spiked NIST SRM 965A human serum. Three categories of Reentrant Energy-Sensory images are presented based on infused brain pulse energies in a matrix of “Sensory Biomarkers” having frequencies over 0.25-333 Hz at free and fixed Ab levels, respectively. Early non-symptomatic epilepsy was indentified and predicted by device 2 due to Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO and large areas of 38 µM Ab re-depositions. Device 1 sensitively “feels” Ab damage because of its Frequency Oscillation (HFO enhanced the hummingbird- like hovering pattern with higher reentrant energy sensitivity of 0.12 pj/bit/s/µm3 without Ab compared with Ab, 13 aj/bit/s/µm3/nM over 3.8-471 nM range over 0.003-4s. Device 1 reliably detected early CR dysfunction privileged to avoid epilepsy.

  6. A high-resolution benthic stable-isotope record for the South Atlantic: implications for orbital scale changes in Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climate and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littler, K.; Zachos, J. C.; Kersey, A.; Röhl, U.; Westerhold, T.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleogene was climatically dynamic, with both sustained and transient episodes of elevated global temperatures, and pCO2 levels, as well as periodic carbon-cycle perturbations of varying magnitude, and so provides a natural laboratory for investigating the links between climate and the carbon-cycle under a range of greenhouse conditions. Although the Paleogene "hyperthermals" such as the PETM and ETM-2 have been studied in great detail, the background low-amplitude cycles seen in carbon and oxygen isotope records throughout the Paleocene-Eocene have hitherto received less attention. Here we present a continuous, >6 myr long high-resolution (~2-3 kyr), orbitally-tuned, benthic foraminiferal stable-isotope record spanning the late Paleocene and early Eocene interval (~54-61 Ma) of Site 1262, Walvis Ridge (South Atlantic). Spectral analysis of this record clearly demonstrates orbital modulation of both the carbon cycle and climate during this interval, and reveals the evolving response of the climate-system to orbital forcing, both preceding and following the PETM. The benthic oxygen-isotope record shows low frequency oscillations in deep-water temperatures of up to 3°C between long-eccentricity minima and maxima, as well as higher frequency oscillations in the precession bands, but essentially no variability in obliquity, save for a few brief intervals. The carbon isotope record exhibits variance concentrated in all primary orbital bands, but with the largest amplitude cycles in the 400 kyr band over most of this interval. Additionally, complimentary %coarse fraction (%CF) and Fe intensity records from Site 1262, show coherent long and short-term changes in regional saturation and CCD depth, thus providing insights into the coupling of the carbon cycle, climate and regional ocean circulation during this period.

  7. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  8. LEARNING STRATEGY REFINEMENT REVERSES EARLY SENSORY CORTICAL MAP EXPANSION BUT NOT BEHAVIOR: SUPPORT FOR A THEORY OF DIRECTED CORTICAL SUBSTRATES OF LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Gabriel A.; Bieszczad, Kasia M.; Weinberger, Norman M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary sensory cortical fields develop highly specific associative representational plasticity, notably enlarged area of representation of reinforced signal stimuli within their topographic maps. However, overtraining subjects after they have solved an instrumental task can reduce or eliminate the expansion while the successful behavior remains. As the development of this plasticity depends on the learning strategy used to solve a task, we asked whether the loss of expansion is due to the strategy used during overtraining. Adult male rats were trained in a three-tone auditory discrimination task to bar-press to the CS+ for water reward and refrain from doing so during the CS− tones and silent intertrial intervals; errors were punished by a flashing light and time-out penalty. Groups acquired this task to a criterion within seven training sessions by relying on a strategy that was “bar-press from tone-onset-to-error signal” (“TOTE”). Three groups then received different levels of overtraining: Group ST, none; Group RT, one week; Group OT, three weeks. Post-training mapping of their primary auditory fields (A1) showed that Groups ST and RT had developed significantly expanded representational areas, specifically restricted to the frequency band of the CS+ tone. In contrast, the A1 of Group OT was no different from naïve controls. Analysis of learning strategy revealed this group had shifted strategy to a refinement of TOTE in which they self-terminated bar-presses before making an error (“iTOTE”). Across all animals, the greater the use of iTOTE, the smaller was the representation of the CS+ in A1. Thus, the loss of cortical expansion is attributable to a shift or refinement in strategy. This reversal of expansion was considered in light of a novel theoretical framework (CONCERTO) highlighting four basic principles of brain function that resolve anomalous findings and explaining why even a minor change in strategy would involve concomitant shifts of

  9. Learning strategy refinement reverses early sensory cortical map expansion but not behavior: Support for a theory of directed cortical substrates of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Gabriel A; Bieszczad, Kasia M; Weinberger, Norman M

    2015-12-01

    Primary sensory cortical fields develop highly specific associative representational plasticity, notably enlarged area of representation of reinforced signal stimuli within their topographic maps. However, overtraining subjects after they have solved an instrumental task can reduce or eliminate the expansion while the successful behavior remains. As the development of this plasticity depends on the learning strategy used to solve a task, we asked whether the loss of expansion is due to the strategy used during overtraining. Adult male rats were trained in a three-tone auditory discrimination task to bar-press to the CS+ for water reward and refrain from doing so during the CS- tones and silent intertrial intervals; errors were punished by a flashing light and time-out penalty. Groups acquired this task to a criterion within seven training sessions by relying on a strategy that was "bar-press from tone-onset-to-error signal" ("TOTE"). Three groups then received different levels of overtraining: Group ST, none; Group RT, one week; Group OT, three weeks. Post-training mapping of their primary auditory fields (A1) showed that Groups ST and RT had developed significantly expanded representational areas, specifically restricted to the frequency band of the CS+ tone. In contrast, the A1 of Group OT was no different from naïve controls. Analysis of learning strategy revealed this group had shifted strategy to a refinement of TOTE in which they self-terminated bar-presses before making an error ("iTOTE"). Across all animals, the greater the use of iTOTE, the smaller was the representation of the CS+ in A1. Thus, the loss of cortical expansion is attributable to a shift or refinement in strategy. This reversal of expansion was considered in light of a novel theoretical framework (CONCERTO) highlighting four basic principles of brain function that resolve anomalous findings and explaining why even a minor change in strategy would involve concomitant shifts of involved brain

  10. A sensory feedback system utilizing cutaneous electrical stimulation for stroke patients with sensory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Kahori; Takeda, Kotaro; Osu, Rieko; Ushiba, Junichi; Sakata, Sachiko; Otaka, Yohei

    2011-01-01

    Sensory disturbance is very common following stroke and may exacerbate a patient's functional impairment, even if the patient has good motor function. For instance, patients with sensory disturbances will often grip an object with excessive or underestimated pinch pressure, because they do not receive the appropriate sensory feedback and must rely only on visual feedback. In this study, we developed a sensory feedback system that used cutaneous electrical stimulation for patients with sensory loss. In the system, electrical stimulation is modulated by the strength of pinch pressure and the patients are able to identify their fingertip pinch pressure. To evaluate the efficacy of the system, a clinical case study was conducted in a stroke patient with severe sensory loss. The fluctuation in force control during grasping was gradually decreased as the training progressed and the patient was able to maintain a stable pinch pressure during grasping even without the system following 2 months of intervention. We conclude that the system described in this study may be a useful contribution towards the rehabilitation of patients with sensory loss. © 2011 IEEE

  11. Making decisions with unknown sensory reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneve, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    To make fast and accurate behavioral choices, we need to integrate noisy sensory input, take prior knowledge into account, and adjust our decision criteria. It was shown previously that in two-alternative-forced-choice tasks, optimal decision making can be formalized in the framework of a sequential probability ratio test and is then equivalent to a diffusion model. However, this analogy hides a "chicken and egg" problem: to know how quickly we should integrate the sensory input and set the optimal decision threshold, the reliability of the sensory observations must be known in advance. Most of the time, we cannot know this reliability without first observing the decision outcome. We consider here a Bayesian decision model that simultaneously infers the probability of two different choices and at the same time estimates the reliability of the sensory information on which this choice is based. We show that this can be achieved within a single trial, based on the noisy responses of sensory spiking neurons. The resulting model is a non-linear diffusion to bound where the weight of the sensory inputs and the decision threshold are both dynamically changing over time. In difficult decision trials, early sensory inputs have a stronger impact on the decision, and the threshold collapses such that choices are made faster but with low accuracy. The reverse is true in easy trials: the sensory weight and the threshold increase over time, leading to slower decisions but at much higher accuracy. In contrast to standard diffusion models, adaptive sensory weights construct an accurate representation for the probability of each choice. This information can then be combined appropriately with other unreliable cues, such as priors. We show that this model can account for recent findings in a motion discrimination task, and can be implemented in a neural architecture using fast Hebbian learning.

  12. Functional sensory symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, J.; Vermeulen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) sensory symptoms are those in which the patient genuinely experiences alteration or absence of normal sensation in the absence of neurologic disease. The hallmark of functional sensory symptoms is the presence of internal inconsistency revealing a pattern of symptoms

  13. Sensory correlations in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Janet K; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Grannemann, Bruce D; Garver, Carolyn R; Johnson, Danny G; Andrews, Alonzo A; Savla, Jayshree S; Mehta, Jyutika A; Schroeder, Jennifer L

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different processing modalities using total scores. Analysis also showed a significant correlation between processing modalities for both high and low thresholds, with the exception that auditory high threshold processing did not correlate with oral low threshold or touch low threshold processing. Examination of the different age groups suggests that sensory disturbance correlates with severity of autism in children, but not in adolescents and adults. Evidence from this study suggests that: all the main modalities and multisensory processing appear to be affected; sensory processing dysfunction in autism is global in nature; and sensory processing problems need to be considered part of the disorder.

  14. Probabilistic sensory recoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2008-08-01

    A hallmark of higher brain functions is the ability to contemplate the world rather than to respond reflexively to it. To do so, the nervous system makes use of a modular architecture in which sensory representations are dissociated from areas that control actions. This flexibility however necessitates a recoding scheme that would put sensory information to use in the control of behavior. Sensory recoding faces two important challenges. First, recoding must take into account the inherent variability of sensory responses. Second, it must be flexible enough to satisfy the requirements of different perceptual goals. Recent progress in theory, psychophysics, and neurophysiology indicate that cortical circuitry might meet these challenges by evaluating sensory signals probabilistically.

  15. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  16. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  17. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  18. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  19. Early transcriptional response to aminoglycoside antibiotic suggests alternate pathways leading to apoptosis of sensory hair cells in the mouse inner ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eSegil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aminoglycoside antibiotics are the drug of choice for treating many bacterial infections, but their administration results in hearing loss in nearly one fourth of the patients who receive them. Several biochemical pathways have been implicated in aminoglycoside antibiotic ototoxicity; however, little is known about how hair cells respond to aminoglycoside antibiotics at the transcriptome level. Here we have investigated the genome-wide response to the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin. Using organotypic cultures of the perinatal organ of Corti, we performed RNA sequencing using cDNA libraries obtained from FACS-purified hair cells. Within 3 hours of gentamicin treatment, the messenger RNA level of more than three thousand genes in hair cells changed significantly. Bioinformatic analysis of these changes highlighted several known signal transduction pathways, including the JNK pathway and the NF-κB pathway, in addition to genes involved in the stress response, apoptosis, cell cycle control, and DNA damage repair. In contrast, only 698 genes, mainly involved in cell cycle and metabolite biosynthetic processes, were significantly affected in the non-hair cell population. The gene expression profiles of hair cells in response to gentamicin share a considerable similarity with those previously observed in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Our findings suggest that previously observed early responses to gentamicin in hair cells in specific signaling pathways are reflected in changes in gene expression. Additionally, the observed changes in gene expression of cell cycle regulatory genes indicate a disruption of the postmitotic state, which may suggest an alternative pathway regulating gentamicin-induced hair cell death. This work provides a more comprehensive view of aminoglycoside antibiotic ototoxicity, and thus contribute to identifying potential pathways or therapeutic targets to alleviate this important side effect of aminoglycoside

  20. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  1. Verification and clarification of patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Zoe; Mulligan, Shelley; Roley, Susanne Smith; Blanche, Erna; Cermak, Sharon; Coleman, Gina Geppert; Bodison, Stefanie; Lane, Christianne Joy

    2011-01-01

    Building on established relationships between the constructs of sensory integration in typical and special needs populations, in this retrospective study we examined patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction in 273 children ages 4-9 who had received occupational therapy evaluations in two private practice settings. Test results on the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests, portions of the Sensory Processing Measure representing tactile overresponsiveness, and parent report of attention and activity level were included in the analyses. Exploratory factor analysis identified patterns similar to those found in early studies by Ayres (1965, 1966a, 1966b, 1969, 1972b, 1977, & 1989), namely Visuodyspraxia and Somatodyspraxia, Vestibular and Proprioceptive Bilateral Integration and Sequencing, Tactile and Visual Discrimination, and Tactile Defensiveness and Attention. Findings reinforce associations between constructs of sensory integration and assist with understanding sensory integration disorders that may affect childhood occupation. Limitations include the potential for subjective interpretation in factor analysis and inability to adjust measures available in charts in a retrospective research.

  2. Breach of sensory integration in children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziyevska Mariya.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From the first moments of life, the child acquires the experience of being in the world around him through the senses such as touch, balance, proprioception, taste, sight, hearing and smell. The development of sensory integration of individual processes helps to effectively carry out every activity and function in society. Changes in the quality and quantity of sensory information may lead to sensory integration disorder child, which is immediately reflected in his behavior. In this paper we have presented information on the levels of sensory integration and testing of samples with a simple touch of activities that can be done without special equipment, both at home and in child care. Dissemination of knowledge about the processes of sensory integration, both among doctors, teachers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and psychology as well as parents can contribute to early diagnosis of problems in children sensory-social development, further impeding the normal functioning of the child in society.

  3. Sensory evaluation techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meilgaard, Morten; Civille, Gail Vance; Carr, B. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    ..., #2 as a textbook for courses at the academic level, it aims to provide just enough theoretical background to enable the student to understand which sensory methods are best suited to particular...

  4. Neuromorphic sensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

    2010-06-01

    Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensory Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Other Developmental Disorders and Typical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Carolyn; Hepburn, Susan; Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder but little is known about the early developmental patterns of these symptoms. This study examined the development of sensory symptoms and the relationship between sensory symptoms and adaptive functioning during early childhood. Three groups of children were followed across three time…

  6. Climate, Environment and Early Human Innovation: Stable Isotope and Faunal Proxy Evidence from Archaeological Sites (98-59ka in the Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Roberts

    Full Text Available The Middle Stone Age (MSA of southern Africa, and in particular its Still Bay and Howiesons Poort lithic traditions, represents a period of dramatic subsistence, cultural, and technological innovation by our species, Homo sapiens. Climate change has frequently been postulated as a primary driver of the appearance of these innovative behaviours, with researchers invoking either climate instability as a reason for the development of buffering mechanisms, or environmentally stable refugia as providing a stable setting for experimentation. Testing these alternative models has proved intractable, however, as existing regional palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records remain spatially, stratigraphically, and chronologically disconnected from the archaeological record. Here we report high-resolution records of environmental shifts based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in ostrich eggshell (OES fragments, faunal remains, and shellfish assemblages excavated from two key MSA archaeological sequences, Blombos Cave and Klipdrift Shelter. We compare these records with archaeological material remains in the same strata. The results from both sites, spanning the periods 98-73 ka and 72-59 ka, respectively, show significant changes in vegetation, aridity, rainfall seasonality, and sea temperature in the vicinity of the sites during periods of human occupation. While these changes clearly influenced human subsistence strategies, we find that the remarkable cultural and technological innovations seen in the sites cannot be linked directly to climate shifts. Our results demonstrate the need for scale-appropriate, on-site testing of behavioural-environmental links, rather than broader, regional comparisons.

  7. Climate, Environment and Early Human Innovation: Stable Isotope and Faunal Proxy Evidence from Archaeological Sites (98-59ka) in the Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick; Henshilwood, Christopher S; van Niekerk, Karen L; Keene, Petro; Gledhill, Andrew; Reynard, Jerome; Badenhorst, Shaw; Lee-Thorp, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) of southern Africa, and in particular its Still Bay and Howiesons Poort lithic traditions, represents a period of dramatic subsistence, cultural, and technological innovation by our species, Homo sapiens. Climate change has frequently been postulated as a primary driver of the appearance of these innovative behaviours, with researchers invoking either climate instability as a reason for the development of buffering mechanisms, or environmentally stable refugia as providing a stable setting for experimentation. Testing these alternative models has proved intractable, however, as existing regional palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records remain spatially, stratigraphically, and chronologically disconnected from the archaeological record. Here we report high-resolution records of environmental shifts based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in ostrich eggshell (OES) fragments, faunal remains, and shellfish assemblages excavated from two key MSA archaeological sequences, Blombos Cave and Klipdrift Shelter. We compare these records with archaeological material remains in the same strata. The results from both sites, spanning the periods 98-73 ka and 72-59 ka, respectively, show significant changes in vegetation, aridity, rainfall seasonality, and sea temperature in the vicinity of the sites during periods of human occupation. While these changes clearly influenced human subsistence strategies, we find that the remarkable cultural and technological innovations seen in the sites cannot be linked directly to climate shifts. Our results demonstrate the need for scale-appropriate, on-site testing of behavioural-environmental links, rather than broader, regional comparisons.

  8. Onset timing of cross-sensory activations and multisensory interactions in auditory and visual sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Tommi; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Letham, Benjamin; Israeli, Emily; Sahyoun, Cherif; Vasios, Christos; Stufflebeam, Steven; Hämäläinen, Matti; Belliveau, John W

    2010-05-01

    Here we report early cross-sensory activations and audiovisual interactions at the visual and auditory cortices using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to obtain accurate timing information. Data from an identical fMRI experiment were employed to support MEG source localization results. Simple auditory and visual stimuli (300-ms noise bursts and checkerboards) were presented to seven healthy humans. MEG source analysis suggested generators in the auditory and visual sensory cortices for both within-modality and cross-sensory activations. fMRI cross-sensory activations were strong in the visual but almost absent in the auditory cortex; this discrepancy with MEG possibly reflects the influence of acoustical scanner noise in fMRI. In the primary auditory cortices (Heschl's gyrus) the onset of activity to auditory stimuli was observed at 23 ms in both hemispheres, and to visual stimuli at 82 ms in the left and at 75 ms in the right hemisphere. In the primary visual cortex (Calcarine fissure) the activations to visual stimuli started at 43 ms and to auditory stimuli at 53 ms. Cross-sensory activations thus started later than sensory-specific activations, by 55 ms in the auditory cortex and by 10 ms in the visual cortex, suggesting that the origins of the cross-sensory activations may be in the primary sensory cortices of the opposite modality, with conduction delays (from one sensory cortex to another) of 30-35 ms. Audiovisual interactions started at 85 ms in the left auditory, 80 ms in the right auditory and 74 ms in the visual cortex, i.e., 3-21 ms after inputs from the two modalities converged.

  9. Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

  10. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and a Polydiacetylene Coating to Create a Biocompatible and Stable Molecule for Use in Cancer Diagnostics and Early Detection in Molecular Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Shweta

    Earlier cancer detection and diagnosis is essential to prevent cancer mortality in nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Fluorescence and magnetic signals provide a way for earlier detection through imaging systems. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have a superparamagnetism feature that allows them to act as contrast agents that can be detected through a magnetic resonance imaging system. These iron oxide cores have a polymer coating around them to provide stability, prevent aggregation, and allow for biocompatibility within the body. In addition, these functional coatings can have ligands and peptides for detection and therapy purposes. One functional coating is a polydiacetylene coating due to its chromatic and optical properties. When polymerized, it has the ability to change color in the visible spectrum to blue (not a fluorescent signal) and when heated, it changes to a red color (fluorescent signal). This way a strong and stable layer is formed around the iron oxide cores. These coatings are placed on the iron cores using a modified dual solvent exchange method, in which DMSO is slowly replaced by water without the use of organic solvents previous used. In addition, these nanoparticles can then be PEGylated, which provides a more stable and water soluble compound in aqueous solutions. Measurements can be taken through dynamic light scattering for size distributions and zeta potential and the Nanodrop for absorbance. Ideal sizes are about 30 nm for MNPs. Moreover, for future directions, there can be more molecules attached to the coated layers to use for molecular detection and analysis.

  11. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  12. Reconstructions of Climatic and Topographic Gradients in the Sierra Nevada during the early Eocene using compound-specific stable isotopes and organic molecular temperature proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, M. T.; Pagani, M.; Brandon, M.; Erwin, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial sediments from the early Cenozoic provide important records of continental temperature gradients during periods of high global temperatures and PCO2, yet these records are often interpreted in terms of either climatic or orographic effects. As a result, linking models of past global climate with terrestrial temperature information is hampered by a lack of detailed information on paleoelevation. Organic molecular proxies provide new tools to help distinguish between climatic and orographic information in terrestrial sediments. For this study, we used organic molecular proxies to determine paleoelevation and paleotemperature gradients in the Sierra Nevada during the early Eocene warm period. Specifically, we analyzed the hydrogen and carbon isotopes of n-alkanes in bulk sediments and fossil angiosperm leaf cuticle in overbank deposits of major drainages of the Eocene Sierra Nevada to quantify the changes in the isotopic composition of leaf water that potentially reflect changes in paleoelevation. We coupled this data with paleotemperature measurements across this landscape using the MBT/CBT organic molecular temperature proxy, as well as thermodynamic models of the isotopic evolution of rainwater during orographic ascent. Hydrogen isotopes of n-alkanes systematically decrease by more than 30 per mil with distance from the Eocene shoreline and temperature data show a decrease of more than 8 degrees across this ancient range, with temperatures near the ocean margin exceeding 22 degrees. Isotopic and temperature data provide evidence for steep topography and high temperature lapse rates at the California margin during the early Eocene. These results support model estimates of temperature and relative humidity for the early Eocene based on a four time doubling of atmospheric CO2.

  13. Synergistic Sensory Platform: Robotic Nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Wick

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept, structural design and implementation of components of a multifunctional sensory network, consisting of a Mobile Robotic Platform (MRP and stationary multifunctional sensors, which are wirelessly communicating with the MRP. Each section provides the review of the principles of operation and the network components’ practical implementation. The analysis is focused on the structure of the robotic platform, sensory network and electronics and on the methods of the environment monitoring and data processing algorithms that provide maximal reliability, flexibility and stable operability of the system. The main aim of this project is the development of the Robotic Nurse (RN—a 24/7 robotic helper for the hospital nurse personnel. To support long-lasting autonomic operation of the platform, all mechanical, electronic and photonic components were designed to provide minimal weight, size and power consumption, while still providing high operational efficiency, accuracy of measurements and adequateness of the sensor response. The stationary sensors serve as the remote “eyes, ears and noses” of the main MRP. After data acquisition, processing and analysing, the robot activates the mobile platform or specific sensors and cameras. The cross-use of data received from sensors of different types provides high reliability of the system. The key RN capabilities are simultaneous monitoring of physical conditions of a large number of patients and alarming in case of an emergency. The robotic platform Nav-2 exploits innovative principles of any-direction motion with omni-wheels, navigation and environment analysis. It includes an innovative mini-laser, the absorption spectrum analyser and a portable, extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectrometer with two-dimensional detector array.

  14. Studying Sensory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  15. Analyses of stable isotopes in camelids collagen bones from Tulan Ravine, Atacama Puna, early formative period (CA 3,1000-2,400BP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Patricio; Cartajena, Isabel; Nunez, Lautaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of isotope analysis (δ 13 C y δ 15 N) conducted on bone collagen found in Lama guanicoe and Lama glama remains from Tulan-85 and Tulan-54 archaeological sites. Both sites have been dated to the Early Formative Period (ca. 3,100-2,400 ap) and are located southeast of the Atacama Puna basin. Faunal samples were selected using anatomical and morphometric criteria. The results indicate divergences in the diets of both species, reflecting vegetation variation in the Tulan Quebrada caused by altitude differences and linked to hunting and herding areas [es

  16. The impact of atypical sensory processing on social impairments in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thye, Melissa D; Bednarz, Haley M; Herringshaw, Abbey J; Sartin, Emma B; Kana, Rajesh K

    2017-05-17

    Altered sensory processing has been an important feature of the clinical descriptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is evidence that sensory dysregulation arises early in the progression of ASD and impacts social functioning. This paper reviews behavioral and neurobiological evidence that describes how sensory deficits across multiple modalities (vision, hearing, touch, olfaction, gustation, and multisensory integration) could impact social functions in ASD. Theoretical models of ASD and their implications for the relationship between sensory and social functioning are discussed. Furthermore, neural differences in anatomy, function, and connectivity of different regions underlying sensory and social processing are also discussed. We conclude that there are multiple mechanisms through which early sensory dysregulation in ASD could cascade into social deficits across development. Future research is needed to clarify these mechanisms, and specific focus should be given to distinguish between deficits in primary sensory processing and altered top-down attentional and cognitive processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  18. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-06

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  19. Sensory ability in the narwhal tooth organ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweeia, Martin T; Eichmiller, Frederick C; Hauschka, Peter V; Donahue, Gretchen A; Orr, Jack R; Ferguson, Steven H; Watt, Cortney A; Mead, James G; Potter, Charles W; Dietz, Rune; Giuseppetti, Anthony A; Black, Sandie R; Trachtenberg, Alexander J; Kuo, Winston P

    2014-04-01

    The erupted tusk of the narwhal exhibits sensory ability. The hypothesized sensory pathway begins with ocean water entering through cementum channels to a network of patent dentinal tubules extending from the dentinocementum junction to the inner pulpal wall. Circumpulpal sensory structures then signal pulpal nerves terminating near the base of the tusk. The maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve then transmits this sensory information to the brain. This sensory pathway was first described in published results of patent dentinal tubules, and evidence from dissection of tusk nerve connection via the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. New evidence presented here indicates that the patent dentinal tubules communicate with open channels through a porous cementum from the ocean environment. The ability of pulpal tissue to react to external stimuli is supported by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers in the pulp and gene expression of pulpal sensory nerve tissue. Final confirmation of sensory ability is demonstrated by significant changes in heart rate when alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water are exposed to the external tusk surface. Additional supporting information for function includes new observations of dentinal tubule networks evident in unerupted tusks, female erupted tusks, and vestigial teeth. New findings of sexual foraging divergence documented by stable isotope and fatty acid results add to the discussion of the functional significance of the narwhal tusk. The combined evidence suggests multiple tusk functions may have driven the tooth organ system's evolutionary development and persistence. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sensory Impairments and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Chen, Yanjun; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Pinto, A Alex

    2017-08-01

    Hearing, visual, and olfactory impairments have been associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about associations with cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Sensory and cognitive functions were measured on participants in the baseline examination (2005-2008) of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Cognitive function was measured with the Trail Making tests A (TMTA) and B (TMTB) and the Grooved Peg Board test. Pure-tone audiometry, Pelli-Robson letter charts, and the San Diego Odor Identification test were used to measure hearing, contrast sensitivity, and olfaction, respectively. There were 2,836 participants aged 21-84 years with measures of hearing, visual, olfactory, and cognitive function at the baseline examination. Nineteen percent of the cohort had one sensory impairment and 3% had multiple sensory impairments. In multivariable adjusted linear regression models that included all three sensory impairments, hearing impairment, visual impairment, and olfactory impairment were each independently associated with poorer performance on the TMTA, TMTB, and Grooved Peg Board (p impairments in all models). Participants with a sensory impairment took on average from 2 to 10 seconds longer than participants without the corresponding sensory impairment to complete these tests. Results were similar in models that included adjustment for hearing aid use. Hearing, visual and olfactory impairment were associated with poorer performance on cognitive function tests independent of the other sensory impairments and factors associated with cognition. Sensory impairments in midlife are associated with subtle deficits in cognitive function which may be indicative of early brain aging.

  1. Creativity and sensory gating indexed by the P50: selective versus leaky sensory gating in divergent thinkers and creative achievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelina, Darya L; O'Leary, Daniel; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Nusslock, Robin; Beeman, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Creativity has previously been linked with atypical attention, but it is not clear what aspects of attention, or what types of creativity are associated. Here we investigated specific neural markers of a very early form of attention, namely sensory gating, indexed by the P50 ERP, and how it relates to two measures of creativity: divergent thinking and real-world creative achievement. Data from 84 participants revealed that divergent thinking (assessed with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking) was associated with selective sensory gating, whereas real-world creative achievement was associated with "leaky" sensory gating, both in zero-order correlations and when controlling for academic test scores in a regression. Thus both creativity measures related to sensory gating, but in opposite directions. Additionally, divergent thinking and real-world creative achievement did not interact in predicting P50 sensory gating, suggesting that these two creativity measures orthogonally relate to P50 sensory gating. Finally, the ERP effect was specific to the P50 - neither divergent thinking nor creative achievement were related to later components, such as the N100 and P200. Overall results suggest that leaky sensory gating may help people integrate ideas that are outside of focus of attention, leading to creativity in the real world; whereas divergent thinking, measured by divergent thinking tests which emphasize numerous responses within a limited time, may require selective sensory processing more than previously thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stable isotope and calcareous nannofossil assemblage records for the Cicogna section: toward a detailed template of late Paleocene and early Eocene global carbon cycle and nannoplankton evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnini, C.; Spofforth, D. J. A.; Dickens, G. R.; Rio, D.; Pälike, H.; Backman, J.; Muttoni, G.; Dallanave, E.

    2015-09-01

    We present records of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, CaCO3 content, and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages across an 81 m thick section of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks now exposed along Cicogna Stream in northeast Italy. The studied stratigraphic section represents sediment accumulation in a bathyal hemipelagic setting from approximately 57.5 to 52.2 Ma, a multi-million-year time interval characterized by perturbations in the global carbon cycle and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The bulk carbonate δ13C profile for the Cicogna section, once placed on a common time scale, resembles that at several other locations across the world, and includes both a long-term drop in δ13C, and multiple short-term carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). This precise correlation of widely separated δ13C records in marine sequences results from temporal changes in the carbon composition of the exogenic carbon cycle. However, diagenesis has likely modified the δ13C record at Cicogna, an interpretation supported by variations in bulk carbonate δ18O, which do not conform to expectations for a primary signal. The record of CaCO3 content reflects a combination of carbonate dilution and dissolution, as also inferred at other sites. Our detailed documentation and statistical analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages show major differences before, during and after the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum. Other CIEs in our lower Paleogene section do not exhibit such a distinctive change; instead, these events are sometimes characterized by variations restricted to a limited number of taxa and transient shifts in the relative abundance of primary assemblage components. Both long-lasting and short-lived modifications to calcareous nannofossil assemblages preferentially affected nannoliths or holococcoliths such as Discoaster, Fasciculithus, Rhomboaster/Tribrachiatus, Spenolithus and Zygrhablithus, which underwent distinct variations in

  3. Effects of Prenatal Sensory-Evoked Arousal on Postnatal Behavior and Perceptual Responsiveness in Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Gregory Durelle

    2002-01-01

    Prenatal sensory stimulation can have facilitative or interfering effects upon subsequent perceptual learning and development in bobwhite quail. Exposure to moderate amounts of unimodal prenatal sensory stimulation has been shown to accelerate early intersensory responsiveness, while exposure to concurrent prenatal bimodal sensory stimulation has been shown to interfere with perceptual learning and development. An immediate mechanism that may underlie this developmental intersensory interfe...

  4. The associations between severity of early postoperative pain, chronic postsurgical pain and plasma concentration of stable nitric oxide products after breast surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, Gabriella

    2012-02-03

    In this study, we compared the effects of two analgesic regimens on perioperative nitric oxide index (NOx) and the likelihood of subsequent development of chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after breast surgery and sought to determine the association among early postoperative pain, NOx, and the likelihood of subsequent development of CPSP. Twenty-nine consecutive ASA I or II patients undergoing breast surgery with axillary clearance were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Patients in group S (n = 15) received a standard intraoperative and postoperative analgesic regimen (morphine sulfate, diclofenac, dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride + acetaminophen prn). Patients in group N (n = 14) received a continuous paravertebral block (for 48 h) and acetaminophen and parecoxib (followed by celecoxib up to 5 days). Visual analog scale pain scores at rest and on arm movement were recorded regularly until the fifth postoperative day. A telephone interview was conducted 10 wk postoperatively. The McGill Pain Questionnaire was used to characterize pain. NOx was estimated preoperatively, at the end of surgery, 30 min and 2, 4, 12, 24, 48 h postoperatively. Twelve (80%) patients in group S and no patient in group N developed CPSP (P = 0.009). Compared with patients with a pain rating index > or =1 (n = 18) 10 wk postoperatively, patients with a pain rating index = 0 (n = 11) had lesser visual analog scale pain scores on movement at each postoperative time point from 30 min until 96 h postoperatively (P < 0.005) and at rest 30 min (0.6 +\\/- 1.5 versus 30.2 +\\/- 26.8; P = 0.004), 4 h (2.3 +\\/- 7.5 versus 19.0 +\\/- 25.8; P = 0.013), 8 h (4.4 +\\/- 10.2 versus 21.4 +\\/- 27.0; P = 0.03) and 12 h (0.7 +\\/- 1.2 versus 15.4 +\\/- 27.0; P = 0.035) postoperatively. NOx values were greater in group N compared with group S 48 h postoperatively (40.6 +\\/- 20.1 versus 26.4 +\\/- 13.5; P = 0.04).

  5. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  6. [Age-related changes of sensory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Hanyu, Haruo; Umahara, Takahiko

    2013-10-01

    Pathological processes usually superimpose on physiological aging even in the sensory system including visual, hearing, olfactory, taste and somatosensory functions. Representative changes of age-related changes are presbyopia, cataracts, and presbyacusis. Reduced sense of smell is seen in normal aging, but the prominent reduction detected by the odor stick identification test is noticed especially in early stage of Alzheimer or Parkinson disease. Reduced sense of taste is well-known especially in salty sense, while the changes of sweet, bitter, and sour tastes are different among individuals. Finally, deep sensation of vibration and proprioception is decreased with age as well as superficial sensation (touch, temperature, pain). As a result, impaired sensory system could induce deterioration of the activities of daily living and quality of life in the elderly.

  7. The changing sensory room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    In 2017 the kindergarten The Milky Way in the city Vejle in Denmark made a sensory room that has the special ability change whenever wanted by the children and social educators. Kjetil Sandvik (to the right) from Copenhagen University and Klaus Thestrup from Aarhus University reflects upon what...... they saw, took part in and talked with the social educators about. Jacob Knudsen from VIFIN filmed the two gentlemen and organised the project. it is a room composed around common experiments, many self-made objects, open narrative structures. and a combination of digital and analogue elements....

  8. Sensory Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    little note of the body-mind interactions we have with the material world. Utilizing examples from primary schools, it is argued that a sensory pedagogy in science requires a deliberate sensitization and validation of the senses’ presence and that a sensor pedagogy approach may reveal the unique ways...... in how we all experience the world. Troubling science education pedagogy is therefore also a reconceptualization of who we are and how we make sense of the world and the acceptance that the body-mind is present, imbalanced and complex....

  9. Transcendence and Sensoriness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protestant theology and culture are known for a reserved, at times skeptical, attitude to the use of art and aesthetic forms of expression in a religious context. In Transcendence and Sensoriness, this attitude is analysed and discussed both theoretically and through case studies considered...... in a broad theological and philosophical framework of religious aesthetics. Nordic scholars of theology, philosophy, art, music, and architecture, discuss questions of transcendence, the human senses, and the arts in order to challenge established perspectives within the aesthetics of religion and theology....

  10. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  11. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES I. SALAD CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina PEVICHAROVA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of six salad cucumber varieties was carried out. The aim of this experiment was to assess the influence of the harvest time on the fruit sensory properties. Flesh colour was the most stable character while appearance, skin colour, aroma, texture, taste and total sensory evaluation varied during the three investigated harvest periods. Two-way analysis of variance proved significant effect of the varieties, harvest time and its interaction on all sensory characters. Depending on the harvest time some of the varieties changed their places one toward other by total sensory evaluation. Therefore, it could not be made reliable conclusions of data obtained from one harvest time. The number of harvest times as well as the number of vegetations should be more then one in order to receive more accurate information for sensory characteristics.

  12. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  13. Multi-sensory Sculpting (MSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Maria

    2013-01-01

    -conscious and modality-specific level and use multi-sensory metaphors to express embodied knowledge. Retrieving embodied brand knowledge requires methods that (a) stimulate various senses that have been involved in brand knowledge formation and (b) give consumers the opportunity to express themselves metaphorically...... in a format similar to their cognitive representations. This article introduces multi-sensory sculpting (MSS) as a method that allows retrieving embodied brand knowledge via multi-sensory metaphors and proposes a multi-layered metaphor analysis procedure to interpret these multi-sensory data. The paper...

  14. White matter correlates of sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryweller, Jennifer R.; Schauder, Kimberly B.; Anderson, Adam W.; Heacock, Jessica L.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Loring, Whitney A.; Cascio, Carissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been characterized by atypical socio-communicative behavior, sensorimotor impairment and abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. DTI has been used to determine the presence and nature of abnormality in white matter integrity that may contribute to the behavioral phenomena that characterize ASD. Although atypical patterns of sensory responding in ASD are well documented in the behavioral literature, much less is known about the neural networks associated with aberrant sensory processing. To address the roles of basic sensory, sensory association and early attentional processes in sensory responsiveness in ASD, our investigation focused on five white matter fiber tracts known to be involved in these various stages of sensory processing: superior corona radiata, centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and splenium. We acquired high angular resolution diffusion images from 32 children with ASD and 26 typically developing children between the ages of 5 and 8. We also administered sensory assessments to examine brain-behavior relationships between white matter integrity and sensory variables. Our findings suggest a modulatory role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and splenium in atypical sensorimotor and early attention processes in ASD. Increased tactile defensiveness was found to be related to reduced fractional anisotropy in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which may reflect an aberrant connection between limbic structures in the temporal lobe and the inferior parietal cortex. Our findings also corroborate the modulatory role of the splenium in attentional orienting, but suggest the possibility of a more diffuse or separable network for social orienting in ASD. Future investigation should consider the use of whole brain analyses for a more robust assessment of white matter microstructure. PMID:25379451

  15. White matter correlates of sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Pryweller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been characterized by atypical socio-communicative behavior, sensorimotor impairment and abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. DTI has been used to determine the presence and nature of abnormality in white matter integrity that may contribute to the behavioral phenomena that characterize ASD. Although atypical patterns of sensory responding in ASD are well documented in the behavioral literature, much less is known about the neural networks associated with aberrant sensory processing. To address the roles of basic sensory, sensory association and early attentional processes in sensory responsiveness in ASD, our investigation focused on five white matter fiber tracts known to be involved in these various stages of sensory processing: superior corona radiata, centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and splenium. We acquired high angular resolution diffusion images from 32 children with ASD and 26 typically developing children between the ages of 5 and 8. We also administered sensory assessments to examine brain-behavior relationships between white matter integrity and sensory variables. Our findings suggest a modulatory role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and splenium in atypical sensorimotor and early attention processes in ASD. Increased tactile defensiveness was found to be related to reduced fractional anisotropy in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which may reflect an aberrant connection between limbic structures in the temporal lobe and the inferior parietal cortex. Our findings also corroborate the modulatory role of the splenium in attentional orienting, but suggest the possibility of a more diffuse or separable network for social orienting in ASD. Future investigation should consider the use of whole brain analyses for a more robust assessment of white matter microstructure.

  16. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  17. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    in projective mapping frame geometry and restrictions on the reported semantics. Two rapid descriptive evaluation techniques were proposed to represent a consensus evaluation. One of the approaches, ‘consensus attribute rating’ (CAR), allows a group of assessors to rate products on a list of pre......-selected attributes. The other approach, ‘consensus Napping’, allows a group of assessors to project products according to an agreed consensus placement on a paper sheet. Evaluations were performed either by groups of experienced sensory assessors or by product experts. Compared with conventional profiling techniques......, the evaluations showed significant correlations between some product configurations, but no consistent and systematic similarities. On average, product expert groups had less in common with the reference profiles than the trained panellist groups and the semantic descriptions of products varied to a large degree...

  18. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    A recent trend in descriptive sensory evaluation methodology has been the application of rapid evaluation techniques. The ease in use makes the techniques extremely easy to implement by industry and university environments. Thus, one might not consider validity in the choice of method. The overall...... in projective mapping frame geometry and restrictions on the reported semantics. Two rapid descriptive evaluation techniques were proposed to represent a consensus evaluation. One of the approaches, ‘consensus attribute rating’ (CAR), allows a group of assessors to rate products on a list of pre...... for all groups. Hence, consensus profiling with untrained assessors should not be used for the purpose of considering consistency between panels, while assessors trained in the product may perform more reliably. As for projective mapping variations of frame geometry, evaluations in a rectangular...

  19. Sensory properties and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risvik, E

    1994-01-01

    Common mistakes are frequent in sensory evaluation of meats and meat products. Conceptual confusion is often observed in triangular tests when add-on questions are included in the testing procedures, and when descriptive and hedonic scales are mixed in profiling exercises. Similar consumer responses are often recorded from trained, and thus biased, panels. Preference for meats seems to be most strongly affected by changes in colour/appearance and texture, and to a lesser extent by changes in flavour (that is when off-flavours are not present). It is difficult to generalise as to whether appearance/colour attributes or texture attributes are the most important. A simplified model for texture understanding is suggested, where water/fat perception and structure perception (described by juiciness and tenderness) are orthogonal phenomena and where most other textural attributes can be explained by this structure. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Tic Modulation Using Sensory Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca W. Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sensory trick, or geste antagoniste, is defined as a physical gesture (such as a touch on a particular body part that mitigates the production of an involuntary movement. This phenomenon is most commonly described as a feature of dystonia. Here we present a case of successful modulation of tics using sensory tricks.Case Report:: A case report and video are presented. The case and video demonstrate a 19-year-old male who successfully controlled his tics with various sensory tricks.Discussion: It is underappreciated by movement disorder physicians that sensory tricks can play a role in tics. Introducing this concept to patients could potentially help in tic control. In addition, understanding the pathophysiological underpinnings of sensory tricks could help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of tics.

  1. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  2. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Speciation through sensory drive in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seehausen, Ole; Terai, Yohey; Magalhaes, Isabel S.; Carleton, Karen L.; Mrosso, Hillary D. J.; Miyagi, Ryutaro; van der Sluijs, Inke; Schneider, Maria V.; Maan, Martine E.; Tachida, Hidenori; Imai, Hiroo; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically, divergent selection on sensory systems can cause speciation through sensory drive. However, empirical evidence is rare and incomplete. Here we demonstrate sensory drive speciation within island populations of cichlid fish. We identify the ecological and molecular basis of divergent

  4. Testes sensoriais de aceitação da beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L., cv. Early Wonder, minimamente processada e irradiada Sensory acceptance tests of red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L., cv. Early Wonder, minimally processed and irradiated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilber Kenup Hernandes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A beterraba vermelha (variedade hortícola, cultivar Early Wonder foi cultivada na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia do Instituto de Agronomia da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Após a colheita, as raízes foram minimamente processadas, embaladas e submetidas a diferentes doses de radiação gama (0; 0,5; 1,0; e 1,5 kGy, sendo em seguida armazenadas, por 20 dias, a 8 ºC. Durante o período de armazenamento, aos: 1, 9, 13 e 20 dias, foram realizados testes sensoriais, nos quais 12 avaliadores julgaram a aparência e o aroma segundo uma escala hedônica. Os resultados indicaram que as amostras irradiadas com doses de 1,0 e 1,5 kGy mantiveram-se dentro dos padrões de aceitabilidade por 20 dias. Alem disso, foi também observado que a avaliação do aroma permitiu uma melhor discriminação, dos efeitos das diferentes doses de radiação sobre a aceitação do produto.Red beet (Early Wonder was cultivated in an experimental area of the Department of Fitotecnia at the Institute of Agronomy at the Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ. After harvest, the roots were minimally processed; packed; exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy and stored for 20 days at 8.0 ºC. Sensory evaluations were performed 1; 9; 13 and 20 days after irradiation by 12 testers who rated the overall appearance and aroma on a hedonic scale. The results indicated that the irradiated samples remained within the limit of acceptance for 20 days. In addition, the aroma was found to be a more sensitive indicator of the effect of different doses of radiation to the acceptance of the product.

  5. Sensory Processing in Internationally Adopted, Post-Institutionalized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbarger, Julia; Gunnar, Megan; Schneider, Mary; Pollak, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Background/Methods: Sensory processing capacities of 8-12-year-old internationally adopted (IA) children who experienced prolonged institutional care (greater than 12 months with 75% of pre-adoption lives in institutional care) prior to adoption into family environments (PI) were compared to a group of IA children who were adopted early (less than…

  6. Sensory Integration and the Perceptual Experience of Persons with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarocci, Grace; McDonald, John

    2006-01-01

    Research studies on sensory issues in autism, including those based on questionnaires, autobiographical accounts, retrospective video observations and early experimental approaches are reviewed in terms of their strengths and limitations. We present a cognitive neuroscience theoretical perspective on multisensory integration and propose that this…

  7. Physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of milk, butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the physicochemical, microbial load and sensory properties of milk, butter with or without garlic was carried out using fresh milk from white Fulani cow for eight weeks of the lactation. The milk used was milked manually by the Fulanis early in the morning. Fat content was highest in milk (4.13±0.16) and least in ...

  8. Sensory gating in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Ilana S; Talbot, Lisa S; Eidelman, Polina; Gruber, June; Harvey, Allison G

    2010-06-01

    Although previous research indicates that sleep architecture is largely intact in primary insomnia (PI), the spectral content of the sleeping electroencephalographic trace and measures of brain metabolism suggest that individuals with PI are physiologically more aroused than good sleepers. Such observations imply that individuals with PI may not experience the full deactivation of sensory and cognitive processing, resulting in reduced filtering of external sensory information during sleep. To test this hypothesis, gating of sensory information during sleep was tested in participants with primary insomnia (n = 18) and good sleepers (n = 20). Sensory gating was operationally defined as (i) the difference in magnitude of evoked response potentials elicited by pairs of clicks presented during Wake and Stage II sleep, and (ii) the number of K complexes evoked by the same auditory stimulus. During wake the groups did not differ in magnitude of sensory gating. During sleep, sensory gating of the N350 component was attenuated and completely diminished in participants with insomnia. P450, which occurred only during sleep, was strongly gated in good sleepers, and less so in participants with insomnia. Additionally, participants with insomnia showed no stimulus-related increase in K complexes. Thus, PI is potentially associated with impaired capacity to filter out external sensory information, especially during sleep. The potential of using stimulus-evoked K complexes as a biomarker for primary insomnia is discussed.

  9. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  10. SENSORY PROCESSING DURING CHILDHOOD IN PRETERM INFANTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Carolina Cabral de Paula; de Oliveira, Suelen Rosa; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; de Miranda, Débora Marques; Bouzada, Maria Cândida Ferrarez

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To conduct a systematic search for grounded and quality evidence of sensory processing in preterm infants during childhood. Data source: The search of the available literature on the theme was held in the following electronic databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline)/PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs)/Virtual Library in Health (BVS), Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)/BVS, Scopus, and Web of Science. We included only original indexed studies with a quantitative approach, which were available in full text on digital media, published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish between 2005 and 2015, involving children aged 0-9years. Data synthesis: 581 articles were identified and eight were included. Six studies (75%) found high frequency of dysfunction in sensory processing in preterm infants. The association of sensory processing with developmental outcomes was observed in three studies (37.5%). The association of sensory processing with neonatal characteristics was observed in five studies (62.5%), and the sensory processing results are often associated with gestational age, male gender, and white matter lesions. Conclusions: The current literature suggests that preterm birth affects the sensory processing, negatively. Gestational age, male gender, and white matter lesions appear as risk factors for sensoryprocessing disorders in preterm infants. The impairment in the ability to receivesensory inputs, to integrateand to adapt to them seems to have a negative effect on motor, cognitive, and language development of these children. We highlight the feasibility of identifying sensory processing disorders early in life, favoring early clinical interventions. PMID:28977307

  11. Uranium-induced sensory alterations in the zebrafish Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faucher, K., E-mail: kfaucher@hotmail.fr [Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie des radionucleides (LECO), Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire, Centre de Cadarache, Batiment 186, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Floriani, M.; Gilbin, R.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie des radionucleides (LECO), Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire, Centre de Cadarache, Batiment 186, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2012-11-15

    The effect of chronic exposure to uranium ions (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) on sensory tissues including the olfactory and lateral line systems was investigated in zebrafish (Danio rerio) using scanning electron microscopy. The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to uranium damaged sensory tissues in fish. The fish were exposed to uranium at the concentration of 250 {mu}g l{sup -1} for 10 days followed by a depuration period of 23 days. Measurements of uranium uptake in different fish organs: olfactory rosettes and bulbs, brain, skin, and muscles, were also determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS during the entire experimental period. The results showed that uranium displayed a strong affinity for sensory structures in direct contact with the surrounding medium, such as the olfactory and lateral line systems distributed on the skin. A decreasing gradient of uranium concentration was found: olfactory rosettes > olfactory bulbs > skin > muscles > brain. At the end of the experiment, uranium was present in non-negligible quantities in sensory tissues. In parallel, fish exposed to uranium showed severe sensory tissue alterations at the level of the olfactory and lateral line systems. In both sensory systems, the gross morphology was altered and the sensory hair cells were significantly damaged very early after the initiation of exposure (from the 3rd day). At the end of the experiment, after 23 days of depuration, the lateral line system still displayed slight tissue alterations, but approximately 80% of the neuromasts in this system had regenerated. In contrast, the olfactory system took more time to recover, as more than half of the olfactory rosettes observed remained destroyed at the end of the experiment. This study showed, for the first time, that uranium is able to damage fish sensory tissues to such an extent that tissue regeneration is delayed.

  12. Uncovering sensory axonal dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ying Sung

    Full Text Available This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr. Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (P<0.05, shortened strength-duration time constant (P<0.01, increased superexcitability (P<0.01, decreased subexcitability (P<0.05, decreased accommodation to depolarizing current (P<0.01, and a trend of decreased accommodation to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus. All the changes progressed into G1 (TNSr 1-8 and G2+3 (TNSr 9-24 groups. In contrast, motor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (P<0.01 in the G0 group. This study revealed that the development of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches.

  13. Reward maximization justifies the transition from sensory selection at childhood to sensory integration at adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daee, Pedram; Mirian, Maryam S; Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili

    2014-01-01

    In a multisensory task, human adults integrate information from different sensory modalities--behaviorally in an optimal Bayesian fashion--while children mostly rely on a single sensor modality for decision making. The reason behind this change of behavior over age and the process behind learning the required statistics for optimal integration are still unclear and have not been justified by the conventional Bayesian modeling. We propose an interactive multisensory learning framework without making any prior assumptions about the sensory models. In this framework, learning in every modality and in their joint space is done in parallel using a single-step reinforcement learning method. A simple statistical test on confidence intervals on the mean of reward distributions is used to select the most informative source of information among the individual modalities and the joint space. Analyses of the method and the simulation results on a multimodal localization task show that the learning system autonomously starts with sensory selection and gradually switches to sensory integration. This is because, relying more on modalities--i.e. selection--at early learning steps (childhood) is more rewarding than favoring decisions learned in the joint space since, smaller state-space in modalities results in faster learning in every individual modality. In contrast, after gaining sufficient experiences (adulthood), the quality of learning in the joint space matures while learning in modalities suffers from insufficient accuracy due to perceptual aliasing. It results in tighter confidence interval for the joint space and consequently causes a smooth shift from selection to integration. It suggests that sensory selection and integration are emergent behavior and both are outputs of a single reward maximization process; i.e. the transition is not a preprogrammed phenomenon.

  14. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use...... of a memory model. This approach is validated here by the comparison of the sensory dissonance using memory model to data obtained using human subjects....

  15. Analyzing sensory data with R

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Descriptive Approaches When panelists rate products according to one single list of attributes Data, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Measuring the impact of the experimental design on the perception of the products? When products are rated according to one single list of attributesData, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Adding supplementary information to the product space When products are rated according to several lists

  16. A high-resolution benthic stable-isotope record for the South Atlantic: Implications for orbital-scale changes in Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climate and carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littler, Kate; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas; Zachos, James C.

    2014-09-01

    The Late Paleocene and Early Eocene were characterized by warm greenhouse climates, punctuated by a series of rapid warming and ocean acidification events known as “hyperthermals”, thought to have been paced or triggered by orbital cycles. While these hyperthermals, such as the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), have been studied in great detail, the background low-amplitude cycles seen in carbon and oxygen-isotope records throughout the Paleocene-Eocene have hitherto not been resolved. Here we present a 7.7 million year (myr) long, high-resolution, orbitally-tuned, benthic foraminiferal stable-isotope record spanning the late Paleocene and early Eocene interval (∼52.5-60.5 Ma) from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1262, South Atlantic. This high resolution (∼2-4 kyr) record allows the changing character and phasing of orbitally-modulated cycles to be studied in unprecedented detail as it reflects the long-term trend in carbon cycle and climate over this interval. The main pacemaker in the benthic oxygen-isotope (δ18O) and carbon-isotope (δ13C) records from ODP Site 1262, are the long (405 kyr) and short (100 kyr) eccentricity cycles, and precession (21 kyr). Obliquity (41 kyr) is almost absent throughout the section except for a few brief intervals where it has a relatively weak influence. During the course of the Early Paleogene record, and particularly in the latest Paleocene, eccentricity-paced negative carbon-isotope excursions (δ13C, CIEs) and coeval negative oxygen-isotope (δ18O) excursions correspond to low carbonate (CaCO3) and coarse fraction (%CF) values due to increased carbonate dissolution, suggesting shoaling of the lysocline and accompanied changes in the global exogenic carbon cycle. These negative CIEs and δ18O events coincide with maxima in eccentricity, with changes in δ18O leading changes in δ13C by ∼6 (±5) kyr in the 405-kyr band and by ∼3 (±1) kyr in the higher frequency 100-kyr band on average. However, these

  17. A high-resolution benthic stable-isotope record and new benthic Mg/Ca data from the South Atlantic: implications for orbitally-paced changes in Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climate and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littler, K.; Zachos, J. C.; Kersey, A.; Roehl, U.; Westerhold, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Paleogene was a time of high global temperatures, elevated pCO2 levels and periodic carbon-cycle perturbations of varying magnitude, and so provides a series of natural experiments or case studies for investigating the links between climate and the carbon-cycle under greenhouse conditions. The transient "hyperthermal" events such as the PETM have been studied in great detail, however the background climate and carbon cycle of the Paleocene-Eocene was less well characterised. Here we present the completed high-resolution (~2-3 kyr), single-site, orbitally-tuned, benthic foraminiferal stable-isotope record from Walvis Ridge (South Atlantic), spanning ~8 Myrs of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene. Spectral analysis of the Site 1262 records clearly demonstrates the strong orbital modulation of both the carbon cycle and climate during this interval, with power concentrated in the eccentricity and precession bands. The lack of power in the obliquity band strongly suggests that significant ice-sheets, capable of influencing global sea-level, were not present on Antarctica during this period, unlike those seen in the Oligocene onwards. Comparison of this record with an orbitally-tuned record from Pacific Site 1209, demonstrates that the long-term and cyclical signals captured in the 1262 oxygen and carbon isotope records are global. The benthic carbon isotope records show bottom waters in the Pacific were consistently more aged (longer residence time) than in the Atlantic. Reconstructing deep sea absolute temperature variations based on the oxygen isotope records, reveals fluctuations by up to 3°C between long eccentricity (405 kyr) minima and maxima. Complementary benthic Mg/Ca records from the Latest Paleocene at Site 1262, also suggests that changes in deep-water temperature associated with these eccentricity-paced fluctuations were not insignificant. Furthermore, while it would be desirable to calculate d18Osw from the paired foraminiferal oxygen-isotope and Mg

  18. Developmental sequelae and neurophysiologic substrates of sensory seeking in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano-Goodwin, Cara R; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Simon, David M; Ibañez, Lisa V; Murias, Michael; Kirby, Anne; Newsom, Cassandra R; Wallace, Mark T; Stone, Wendy L; Cascio, Carissa J

    2017-08-14

    It has been proposed that early differences in sensory responsiveness arise from atypical neural function and produce cascading effects on development across domains. This longitudinal study prospectively followed infants at heightened risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and infants at relatively lower risk for ASD (siblings of typically developing children; Sibs-TD) to examine the developmental sequelae and possible neurophysiological substrates of a specific sensory response pattern: unusually intense interest in nonsocial sensory stimuli or "sensory seeking." At 18 months, sensory seeking and social orienting were measured with the Sensory Processing Assessment, and a potential neural signature for sensory seeking (i.e., frontal alpha asymmetry) was measured via resting state electroencephalography. At 36 months, infants' social symptomatology was assessed in a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. Sibs-ASD showed elevated sensory seeking relative to Sibs-TD, and increased sensory seeking was concurrently associated with reduced social orienting across groups and resting frontal asymmetry in Sibs-ASD. Sensory seeking also predicted later social symptomatology. Findings suggest that sensory seeking may produce cascading effects on social development in infants at risk for ASD and that atypical frontal asymmetry may underlie this atypical pattern of sensory responsiveness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Sensory and instrumental texture analysis of Bulgarian commercial pates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tonchev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this study was to characterize the textural differences between Bulgarian commercial pates with different ingredients and to adapt the used methods for later application in texture analysis of sterilized meat products. Texture parameters were studied by sensory and instrumental methods. The sensory panel was stated from students in similar age and was asked to fulfill a questionnaire about their likening the poultry pates bought from the commercial network. Nine points sensory scales were used, about appearance, colour, spreadability by knife to bread, flavor, consistency, taste, aftertaste and overall likening. The panelists were asked to rank the pates based on their colour, spreadability and consistency. Instrumental texture parameters – texture profile and spreadability work, were analyzed by Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer in Texture Profile Analysis (TPA and compression methods. For further analysis of spreadability, the probes were scanned by flatbed scanner before and after compression and their area ratio was measured by image analysis method. The results of sensory analysis show that, the pate with duck meat received the highest liking based on the overall liking, followed by pate with turkey meat and pate from chicken meat and liver and the lowest liked was the pate with goose meat. Based on the sensory spreadability and consistency the hardest was the pate with goose meat followed by pate with turkey meat and pate from chicken meat and liver and the softest was the pate with duck meat. The results from instrumental spreadability and hardness showed positive correlations with the results of the sensory analysis.

  20. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  1. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  2. Sensory Cortical Plasticity Participates in the Epigenetic Regulation of Robust Memory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Mimi L; Bieszczad, Kasia M

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity remodels sensory cortex across the lifespan. A function of adult sensory cortical plasticity may be capturing available information during perception for memory formation. The degree of experience-dependent remodeling in sensory cortex appears to determine memory strength and specificity for important sensory signals. A key open question is how plasticity is engaged to induce different degrees of sensory cortical remodeling. Neural plasticity for long-term memory requires the expression of genes underlying stable changes in neuronal function, structure, connectivity, and, ultimately, behavior. Lasting changes in transcriptional activity may depend on epigenetic mechanisms; some of the best studied in behavioral neuroscience are DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, which, respectively, promote and repress gene expression. One purpose of this review is to propose epigenetic regulation of sensory cortical remodeling as a mechanism enabling the transformation of significant information from experiences into content-rich memories of those experiences. Recent evidence suggests how epigenetic mechanisms regulate highly specific reorganization of sensory cortical representations that establish a widespread network for memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms could initiate events to establish exceptionally persistent and robust memories at a systems-wide level by engaging sensory cortical plasticity for gating what and how much information becomes encoded.

  3. Topography of sensory symptoms in patients with drug-naïve restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yong Seo; Lee, Gwan-Taek; Lee, Seo Young; Cho, Yong Won; Jung, Ki-Young

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to describe the sensory topography of restless legs syndrome (RLS) sensory symptoms and to identify the relationship between topography and clinical variables. Eighty adult patients with drug-naïve RLS who had symptoms for more than 1year were consecutively recruited. During face-to-face interviews using a structured paper and pencil questionnaire with all participants, we obtained clinical information and also marked the topography of RLS sensory symptoms on a specified body template, all of which were subsequently inputted into our in-house software. The RLS sensory topography patterns were classified according to localization, lateralization, and symmetry. We investigated if these sensory topography patterns differed according to various clinical variables. The lower extremities only (LE) were the most common location (72.5%), and 76.3% of participants exhibited symmetric sensory topography. Late-onset RLS showed more asymmetric sensory distribution compared with early-onset RLS (P=.024). Patients whose sensory symptoms involved the lower extremities in addition to other body parts (LE-PLUS) showed more severe RLS compared with those involving the LE (P=.037). RLS sensory symptoms typically were symmetrically located in the lower extremities. LE-PLUS or an asymmetric distribution more often occurred in patients with more severe RLS symptoms or late-onset RLS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  5. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  6. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  7. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  8. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  9. Hyperactivation balances sensory processing deficits during mood induction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Miriam; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Mathiak, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    While impairments in emotion recognition are consistently reported in schizophrenia, there is some debate on the experience of emotion. Only few studies investigated neural correlates of emotional experience in schizophrenia. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared a standard visual mood induction paradigm with an audiovisual method aimed at eliciting emotions more automatically. To investigate the interplay of sensory, cognitive and emotional mechanisms during emotion experience, we examined connectivity patterns between brain areas. Sixteen schizophrenia patients and sixteen healthy subjects participated in two different mood inductions (visual and audiovisual) that were administered for different emotions (happiness, sadness and neutral). Confirming the dissociation of behavioral and neural correlates of emotion experience, patients rated their mood similarly to healthy subjects but showed differences in neural activations. Sensory brain areas were activated less, increased activity emerged in higher cortical areas, particularly during audiovisual stimulation. Connectivity was increased between primary and secondary sensory processing areas in schizophrenia. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit in filtering and processing sensory information alongside increased higher-order cognitive effort compensating for perception deficits in the affective domain. This may suffice to recover emotion experience in ratings of clinically stable patients but may fail during acute psychosis.

  10. Relationships among Sensory Responsiveness, Anxiety, and Ritual Behaviors in Children with and without Atypical Sensory Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Shalita, Tami; Mansour, Hanin; Dar, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    To explore relationships between sensory responsiveness, anxiety, and ritual behaviors in boys with typical and atypical sensory responsiveness. Forty-eight boys, ages 5-9 participated in the study (28 boys with atypical sensory responsiveness and 20 controls). Atypical sensory responsiveness was defined as a score of ≤154 on the Short Sensory Profile. Parents completed the Sensory Profile, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children with atypical sensory responsiveness had significantly higher levels of anxiety and a higher frequency of ritual behaviors than controls. Atypical sensory responsiveness was significantly related to both anxiety and ritual behaviors, with anxiety mediating the relationship between sensory modulation and ritual behaviors. The findings elucidate the potential consequences of atypical sensory responsiveness and could support the notion that ritual behaviors develop as a coping mechanism in response to anxiety stemming from primary difficulty in modulating sensory input.

  11. Habits of the Sensory System and Mental Health: Understanding Sensory Dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailliard, Antoine L

    2015-01-01

    In occupational therapy, research has studied sensory function predominantly in relation to sensory disorders. There is a gap in the literature exploring how sensory experiences affect mental health. This study sought to provide a phenomenological understanding of how people relate experiences of sensory dissonance to their mental health. Ten immigrants from Latin America participated in semistructured interviews and video observations of their occupational behavior. Participants' experiences of sensory dissonance provoked negative mental states and distress. Participants reported poor mental health following sensory experiences that were incongruent with their habits of sensing. They also intentionally used sensory anchors to induce positive mental states and connect with past occupational experiences. Occupational therapy practitioners should be mindful of how sensory environments can facilitate or impede intervention. Practitioners are encouraged to harness clients' sensory habits and use sensory anchors as a form of sensory scaffolding to facilitate therapeutic gains. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  12. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  13. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  14. Sensory imagination and narrative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2013-01-01

    I argue that we can clarify and explain an important form of focalization or narrative perspective by the structure of perspective in sensory imagination. Understanding focalization in this way enables us to see why one particular form of focalization has to do with the representation of perceptu...

  15. Making Sense of Sensory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

  16. A sensory-driven controller for quadruped locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, César; Santos, Cristina P

    2017-02-01

    Locomotion of quadruped robots has not yet achieved the harmony, flexibility, efficiency and robustness of its biological counterparts. Biological research showed that spinal reflexes are crucial for a successful locomotion in the most varied terrains. In this context, the development of bio-inspired controllers seems to be a good way to move toward an efficient and robust robotic locomotion, by mimicking their biological counterparts. This contribution presents a sensory-driven controller designed for the simulated Oncilla quadruped robot. In the proposed reflex controller, movement is generated through the robot's interactions with the environment, and therefore, the controller is solely dependent on sensory information. The results show that the reflex controller is capable of producing stable quadruped locomotion with a regular stepping pattern. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with slopes without changing the parameters and with small obstacles, overcoming them successfully. Finally, system robustness was verified by adding noise to sensors and actuators and also delays.

  17. Sensory processing and ADHD in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele-Webster, Lynne A; Magill-Evans, Joyce E; Pei, Jacqueline R

    2012-02-01

    Sensory processing problems are prevalent in children who have fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. It is unclear to what degree these problems are distinct from attention deficits as measured during the diagnostic process in these children. To understand sensory processing in these children, which may assist with early identification and intervention. The relationship between attention and sensory processing was studied in a retrospective sample of 26 Canadian children diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. A very low correlation (r = .02) between Short Sensory Profile scores and the attention deficit hyperactivity index of the Conners' Parent Rating Scales was found for the five- to ten-year-old children. Sensory processing problems were found in 81% of the children, similar to other studies of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. These findings can guide modifications of the environments, tasks, and approaches to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

  18. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  19. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  20. Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-02-28

    Much of the literature on male-female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

  1. Qigong Sensory Training Pilot Study: A Tactile Home Program for Children with or At-Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Atzili, Orit; Salls, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the efficacy of Qigong Sensory Training, a parent-implemented tactile intervention, in improving sensory processing and self-regulation in children with or at-risk for autism who were enrolled in early intervention. A pretest-posttest, single-subject design was implemented with three families. After 5 months, atypical…

  2. Early interfaced neural activity from chronic amputated nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitija Garde

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct interfacing of transected peripheral nerves with advanced robotic prosthetic devices has been proposed as a strategy for achieving natural motor control and sensory perception of such bionic substitutes, thus fully functionally replacing missing limbs in amputees. Multi-electrode arrays placed in the brain and peripheral nerves have been used successfully to convey neural control of prosthetic devices to the user. However, reactive gliosis, micro hemorrhages, axonopathy and excessive inflammation, currently limit their long-term use. Here we demonstrate that enticement of peripheral nerve regeneration through a non-obstructive multi-electrode array, after either acute or chronic nerve amputation, offers a viable alternative to obtain early neural recordings and to enhance long-term interfacing of nerve activity. Non restrictive electrode arrays placed in the path of regenerating nerve fibers allowed the recording of action potentials as early as 8 days post-implantation with high signal-to-noise ratio, as long as 3 months in some animals, and with minimal inflammation at the nerve tissue-metal electrode interface. Our findings suggest that regenerative on-dependent multi-electrode arrays of open design allow the early and stable interfacing of neural activity from amputated peripheral nerves and might contribute towards conveying full neural control and sensory feedback to users of robotic prosthetic devices. .

  3. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  4. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  5. Short-term depression and transient memory in sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillary, Grant; Heydt, Rüdiger von der; Niebur, Ernst

    2017-12-01

    Persistent neuronal activity is usually studied in the context of short-term memory localized in central cortical areas. Recent studies show that early sensory areas also can have persistent representations of stimuli which emerge quickly (over tens of milliseconds) and decay slowly (over seconds). Traditional positive feedback models cannot explain sensory persistence for at least two reasons: (i) They show attractor dynamics, with transient perturbations resulting in a quasi-permanent change of system state, whereas sensory systems return to the original state after a transient. (ii) As we show, those positive feedback models which decay to baseline lose their persistence when their recurrent connections are subject to short-term depression, a common property of excitatory connections in early sensory areas. Dual time constant network behavior has also been implemented by nonlinear afferents producing a large transient input followed by much smaller steady state input. We show that such networks require unphysiologically large onset transients to produce the rise and decay observed in sensory areas. Our study explores how memory and persistence can be implemented in another model class, derivative feedback networks. We show that these networks can operate with two vastly different time courses, changing their state quickly when new information is coming in but retaining it for a long time, and that these capabilities are robust to short-term depression. Specifically, derivative feedback networks with short-term depression that acts differentially on positive and negative feedback projections are capable of dynamically changing their time constant, thus allowing fast onset and slow decay of responses without requiring unrealistically large input transients.

  6. The sensory timecourses associated with conscious visual item memory and source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Preston P; Slotnick, Scott D

    2015-09-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) findings have suggested that during visual item and source memory, nonconscious and conscious sensory (occipital-temporal) activity onsets may be restricted to early (0-800 ms) and late (800-1600 ms) temporal epochs, respectively. In an ERP experiment, we tested this hypothesis by separately assessing whether the onset of conscious sensory activity was restricted to the late epoch during source (location) memory and item (shape) memory. We found that conscious sensory activity had a late (>800 ms) onset during source memory and an early (memory. In a follow-up fMRI experiment, conscious sensory activity was localized to BA17, BA18, and BA19. Of primary importance, the distinct source memory and item memory ERP onsets contradict the hypothesis that there is a fixed temporal boundary separating nonconscious and conscious processing during all forms of visual conscious retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning to balance on one leg: motor strategy and sensory weighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieen, J.H.; van Leeuwen, M.; Faber, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated motor and sensory changes underlying learning of a balance task. Fourteen participants practiced balancing on one leg on a board that could freely rotate in the frontal plane. They performed six, 16-s trials standing on one leg on a stable surface (2 trials without manipulation, 2

  8. Toward an Interdisciplinary Understanding of Sensory Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Integration of the Neural and Symptom Literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauder, Kimberly B; Bennetto, Loisa

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing differences have long been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and they have recently been added to the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The focus on sensory processing in ASD research has increased substantially in the last decade. This research has been approached from two different perspectives: the first focuses on characterizing the symptoms that manifest in response to real world sensory stimulation, and the second focuses on the neural pathways and mechanisms underlying sensory processing. The purpose of this paper is to integrate the empirical literature on sensory processing in ASD from the last decade, including both studies characterizing sensory symptoms and those that investigate neural response to sensory stimuli. We begin with a discussion of definitions to clarify some of the inconsistencies in terminology that currently exist in the field. Next, the sensory symptoms literature is reviewed with a particular focus on developmental considerations and the relationship of sensory symptoms to other core features of the disorder. Then, the neuroscience literature is reviewed with a focus on methodological approaches and specific sensory modalities. Currently, these sensory symptoms and neuroscience perspectives are largely developing independently from each other leading to multiple, but separate, theories and methods, thus creating a multidisciplinary approach to sensory processing in ASD. In order to progress our understanding of sensory processing in ASD, it is now critical to integrate these two research perspectives and move toward an interdisciplinary approach. This will inevitably aid in a better understanding of the underlying biological basis of these symptoms and help realize the translational value through its application to early identification and treatment. The review ends with specific recommendations for future research to help bridge these two research perspectives in order to advance our understanding

  9. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  10. Sensory memory during physiological aging indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzoli, Manuela; Pirulli, Cornelia; Brignani, Debora; Maioli, Claudio; Miniussi, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Physiological aging affects early sensory-perceptual processes. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate changes in auditory sensory memory in physiological aging using the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) paradigm as index. The MMN is a marker recorded through the electroencephalogram and is used to evaluate the integrity of the memory system. We adopted a new, faster paradigm to look for differences between 3 groups of subjects of different ages (young, middle age and older adults) as a function of short or long intervals between stimuli. We found that older adults did not show MMN at long interval condition and that the duration of MMN varied according to the participants' age. The current study provides electrophysiological evidence supporting the theory that the encoding of stimuli is preserved during normal aging, whereas the maintenance of sensory memory is impaired. Considering the advantage offered by the MMN paradigm used here, these data might be a useful reference point for the assessment of auditory sensory memory in pathological aging (e.g., in neurodegenerative diseases). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  12. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  13. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-29

    strains at the base of antennae, similar to halteres in Diptera . We are investigating various aspects of these phenomena in greater detail to understand...coordination in the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Tanvi Deora): One of the key sensory inputs for flight stability in Diptera comes from the haltere...as they land on visual objects that we provide them. This assay relies on the fact that houseflies are attracted to strong contrast visual cues when

  14. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  15. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  16. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  17. Timing flickers across sensory modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Anna Maria; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    In tasks requiring a comparison of the duration of a reference and a test visual cue, the spatial position of test cue is likely to be implicitly coded, providing a form of a congruency effect or introducing a response bias according to the environmental scale or its vectorial reference. The precise mechanism generating these perceptual shifts in subjective duration is not understood, although several studies suggest that spatial attentional factors may play a critical role. Here we use a duration comparison task within and across sensory modalities to examine if temporal performance is also modulated when people are exposed to spatial distractors involving different sensory modalities. Different groups of healthy participants performed duration comparison tasks in separate sessions: a time comparison task of visual stimuli during exposure to spatially presented auditory distractors; and a time comparison task of auditory stimuli during exposure to spatially presented visual distractors. We found the duration of visual stimuli biased depending on the spatial position of auditory distractors. Observers underestimated the duration of stimuli presented in the left spatial field, while there was an overestimation trend in estimating the duration of stimuli presented in the right spatial field. In contrast, timing of auditory stimuli was unaffected by exposure to visual distractors. These results support the existence of multisensory interactions between space and time showing that, in cross-modal paradigms, the presence of auditory distractors can modify visuo-temporal perception but not vice versa. This asymmetry is discussed in terms of sensory perceptual differences between the two systems.

  18. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  19. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  20. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  1. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  3. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  4. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  5. Effectiveness of sensory processing strategies on activity level in inclusive preschool classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Lin Lin,1,2 Yu-Fan Min,3 Li-Wei Chou,1,2,* Chin-Kai Lin,4,* 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Faith, Hope and Love, Center for Children and Adults With Disabilities, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of sensory processing strategies in improving the activity level of children with sensory integration dysfunction.Methods: The study used a matching-only pretest–posttest control group design, which requires random matching of sensory integration dysfunction to the corresponding intervention group (n = 18 and control group (n = 18. The intervention group comprised 3–6-year-old children who received an 8-week school-day intervention during implementation of the theme curriculum.Results: The 8-week treatment significantly reduced the activity level and foot-swinging episodes in children with sensory integration dysfunction, and obtained a medium-effect size. However, the level of improvement in the control group did not show any statistically significant change.Conclusion: Sensory processing strategies could improve activity levels in children with sensory integration dysfunction. However, this study was unable to exclude a developmental effect. The social validity results show that sensory processing strategies can be integrated into the theme curriculum and improve activity levels in children.Keywords: activity level, preschool inclusive classroom, sensory integration dysfunction, sensory processing strategy

  6. The effects of gamma irradiation on the vitamin E content and sensory qualities of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. L. Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Rodas, Maria A.B. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 355, 01246-902 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mastro, Nelida L. del [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. L. Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    Pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis) were treated with gamma irradiation and evaluated for changes in vitamin E content and sensory properties. Irradiation at 1 and 3 kGy resulted in no changes in vitamin E content measured as {alpha}-tocopherol equivalents by a colorimetric method. A trained sensory panel found that irradiation at 1 kGy produced no significant changes in appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes. The vitamin E content of irradiated pecan nuts remained stable, but from the point of view of sensory quality a dose of merely 1 kGy can be considered as recommendable.

  7. Probiotic Strawberry Yogurts: Microbiological, Chemical and Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Tamer; Cakmakci, Songül

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in yogurt made with strawberry marmalade (SM) and to examine the quality properties of probiotic yogurt. Acidity, pH, bacterial counts and sensory analysis of the yogurt samples were investigated on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 during storage at 4 °C. The survival rate of L. acidophilus was greater than that of B. bifidum. The viability of L. acidophilus decreased during the storage period, but B. bifidum numbers remained stable during the storage period. The highest L. acidophilus count (7.20 log cfu/g) was found in L. acidophilus + B. bifidum SM yogurt on day 1. The highest B. bifidum count (6.13 log cfu/g) was detected in yogurt containing L. acidophilus + B. bifidum SM yogurt on day 7. Yeast and mould counts of all yogurts increased during the storage period. Coliform bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected in the yogurt samples. The highest overall acceptance sensory score was observed in yogurts containing L. acidophilus. Considering the sensory and probiotic characteristics of all yogurt samples, this study suggested that strawberry yogurt with a suitable 5-7 day storage period can be produced with single L. acidophilus addition or single B. bifidum addition.

  8. A pilot study of sensory feedback by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to improve manipulation deficit caused by severe sensory loss after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Kahori; Otaka, Yohei; Takeda, Kotaro; Sakata, Sachiko; Ushiba, Junichi; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Liu, Meigen; Osu, Rieko

    2013-06-13

    Sensory disturbance is common following stroke and can exacerbate functional deficits, even in patients with relatively good motor function. In particular, loss of appropriate sensory feedback in severe sensory loss impairs manipulation capability. We hypothesized that task-oriented training with sensory feedback assistance would improve manipulation capability even without sensory pathway recovery. We developed a system that provides sensory feedback by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (SENS) for patients with sensory loss, and investigated the feasibility of the system in a stroke patient with severe sensory impairment and mild motor deficit. The electrical current was modulated by the force exerted by the fingertips so as to allow the patient to identify the intensity. The patient had severe sensory loss due to a right thalamic hemorrhage suffered 27 months prior to participation in the study. The patient first practiced a cylindrical grasp task with SENS for 1 hour daily over 29 days. Pressure information from the affected thumb was fed back to the unaffected shoulder. The same patient practiced a tip pinch task with SENS for 1 hour daily over 4 days. Pressure information from the affected thumb and index finger was fed back to the unaffected and affected shoulders, respectively. We assessed the feasibility of SENS and examined the improvement of manipulation capability after training with SENS. The fluctuation in fingertip force during the cylindrical grasp task gradually decreased as the training progressed. The patient was able to maintain a stable grip force after training, even without SENS. Pressure exerted by the tip pinch of the affected hand was unstable before intervention with SENS compared with that of the unaffected hand. However, they were similar to each other immediately after SENS was initiated, suggesting that the somatosensory information improved tip pinch performance. The patient's manipulation capability assessed by the Box

  9. The Notch ligand JAG1 is required for sensory progenitor development in the mammalian inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Kiernan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, six separate sensory regions in the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance function. Each sensory region is made up of hair cells, which are the sensory cells, and their associated supporting cells, both arising from a common progenitor. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the development of these sensory organs. Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of hair cells and supporting cells by mediating lateral inhibition via the ligands Delta-like 1 and Jagged (JAG 2. However, another Notch ligand, JAG1, is expressed early in the sensory patches prior to cell differentiation, indicating that there may be an earlier role for Notch signaling in sensory development in the ear. Here, using conditional gene targeting, we show that the Jag1 gene is required for the normal development of all six sensory organs within the inner ear. Cristae are completely lacking in Jag1-conditional knockout (cko mutant inner ears, whereas the cochlea and utricle show partial sensory development. The saccular macula is present but malformed. Using SOX2 and p27kip1 as molecular markers of the prosensory domain, we show that JAG1 is initially expressed in all the prosensory regions of the ear, but becomes down-regulated in the nascent organ of Corti by embryonic day 14.5, when the cells exit the cell cycle and differentiate. We also show that both SOX2 and p27kip1 are down-regulated in Jag1-cko inner ears. Taken together, these data demonstrate that JAG1 is expressed early in the prosensory domains of both the cochlear and vestibular regions, and is required to maintain the normal expression levels of both SOX2 and p27kip1. These data demonstrate that JAG1-mediated Notch signaling is essential during early development for establishing the prosensory regions of the inner ear.

  10. Diminished auditory sensory gating during active auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Robert J; Meier, Andrew; Houck, Jon; Clark, Vincent P; Lewine, Jeffrey D; Turner, Jessica; Calhoun, Vince; Stephen, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Auditory sensory gating, assessed in a paired-click paradigm, indicates the extent to which incoming stimuli are filtered, or "gated", in auditory cortex. Gating is typically computed as the ratio of the peak amplitude of the event related potential (ERP) to a second click (S2) divided by the peak amplitude of the ERP to a first click (S1). Higher gating ratios are purportedly indicative of incomplete suppression of S2 and considered to represent sensory processing dysfunction. In schizophrenia, hallucination severity is positively correlated with gating ratios, and it was hypothesized that a failure of sensory control processes early in auditory sensation (gating) may represent a larger system failure within the auditory data stream; resulting in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). EEG data were collected while patients (N=12) with treatment-resistant AVH pressed a button to indicate the beginning (AVH-on) and end (AVH-off) of each AVH during a paired click protocol. For each participant, separate gating ratios were computed for the P50, N100, and P200 components for each of the AVH-off and AVH-on states. AVH trait severity was assessed using the Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scales AVH Total score (PSYRATS). The results of a mixed model ANOVA revealed an overall effect for AVH state, such that gating ratios were significantly higher during the AVH-on state than during AVH-off for all three components. PSYRATS score was significantly and negatively correlated with N100 gating ratio only in the AVH-off state. These findings link onset of AVH with a failure of an empirically-defined auditory inhibition system, auditory sensory gating, and pave the way for a sensory gating model of AVH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2003-01-01

    As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for

  12. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  13. Food Intake Is Influenced by Sensory Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Katherine R.; Harris, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile), and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Food intake was significantly higher for high-sensitivity compared to low-sensitivity individuals. Furthermore, individual scores of sensory sensitivity were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. These data could indicate that individuals who are more sensitive to the sensory properties of food have a heightened perception of palatability, which, in turn, leads to a greater food intake. PMID:22916284

  14. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    Sensory characteristics of cod products available to consumers were analyzed, and different ways to analyze sensory results were viewed. Ten cod samples of different origin (wild and farmed cod), storage time (short and extended) and storage method (stored fresh, frozen or packed in modified...... atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...... the products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...

  15. Multivariate analysis of data in sensory science

    CERN Document Server

    Naes, T; Risvik, E

    1996-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multivariate analysis in sensory science is described in this volume. Both methods for aggregated and individual sensory profiles are discussed. Processes and results are presented in such a way that they can be understood not only by statisticians but also by experienced sensory panel leaders and users of sensory analysis. The techniques presented are focused on examples and interpretation rather than on the technical aspects, with an emphasis on new and important methods which are possibly not so well known to scientists in the field. Important features of the book are discussions on the relationship among the methods with a strong accent on the connection between problems and methods. All procedures presented are described in relation to sensory data and not as completely general statistical techniques. Sensory scientists, applied statisticians, chemometricians, those working in consumer science, food scientists and agronomers will find this book of value.

  16. Food intake is influenced by sensory sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Naish

    Full Text Available Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile, and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Food intake was significantly higher for high-sensitivity compared to low-sensitivity individuals. Furthermore, individual scores of sensory sensitivity were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. These data could indicate that individuals who are more sensitive to the sensory properties of food have a heightened perception of palatability, which, in turn, leads to a greater food intake.

  17. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  18. Gray colored glasses: is major depression partially a sensory perceptual disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Major depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder that can involve profound dysregulation of mood. While depression is associated with additional abnormalities besides reduced mood, such as cognitive dysfunction, it is not well established that sensory perception is also altered in this disorder (aside from in psychotic depression). Recent studies have shown that visual processing, in as early a stage as the retina, is impaired in depression. This paper examines the hypothesis that major depression can involve alterations in sensory perception. A Pubmed literature search investigated several lines of evidence: innervation of sensory cortex by serotonin and norepinephrine; antidepressant drugs and depression itself affecting processing of facial expressions of emotion; electroencephalography (EEG) studies of depressed persons and antidepressant drugs; involvement of the serotonergic 5HT2A receptor in both depression and hallucinogenic drug action; psychotic depression involving sensory distortions; dopamine possibly playing a role in depression; and the antidepressant effect of blocking the NMDA receptor with ketamine. Data from each of these lines of evidence support the hypothesis that major depression can involve sensory perceptual alterations. Loss of interest in one's daily activities and inability to experience pleasure, also known as anhedonia, in major depression may in part be mediated by sensory abnormalities, whereby normal sensory perceptions are no longer present to activate reward circuitry. The data supporting the hypothesis tend to be associative, so further confirmation of the hypothesis awaits additional controlled experiments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the sensory characteristics of strawberry cultivars throughout the harvest season using projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Esteban; Varela, Pablo; de Saldamando, Luis; Ares, Gastón

    2014-02-01

    Strawberry breeding programs should be able to rely on valid and simple methodologies for evaluating sensory quality of new cultivars. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the applicability of a simple sensory methodology, named projective mapping, to evaluate the sensory characteristics of strawberry cultivars and advanced selections throughout the harvest season. Three strawberry cultivars and two advanced selections were evaluated by an untrained assessor panel using projective mapping in three different moments of the harvest season: June (early season), August (mid-season) and September (peak harvest). Instrumental measurements were also performed. Projective mapping enabled the identification of the main sensory characteristics of the strawberry cultivars and advanced selections, as well as the similarities and differences among them. Sensory characteristics of the five evaluated strawberry cultivars and advanced selections largely varied throughout the harvest season. Simple instrumental measurements were not able to predict the sensory characteristics of the strawberry cultivars, suggesting the importance of sensory methodologies for the evaluation of new cultivars in breeding programs. Projective mapping consisted of a quick alternative for the evaluation of new cultivars relative to standard commercial cultivars. Its main advantage is that a large number of cultivars can be screened with minimal investment of time and resources. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Genotype and environment effects on sensory, nutritional, and physical traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobos, M.J.; Izquierdo, M. A.; Sanz, A.T.; Gil, J.; Flores, F.; Rubio, J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of chickpea cultivars with high quality grains for human consumption is an important objective in breeding programs. Genotype and environment effects on seed quality traits (sensorial, nutritional and physical) were studied in chickpea dry grain. Twenty genotypes were grown in winter and spring sowings over two campaigns in four different locations in southern Spain. Significant differences were observed in oil, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and protein content between sowing times (S). In winter, oil and ADF content were higher, while protein content was lower. Although, in general, highly significant variation was detected for genotype (G), environment (E) and single interactions (GE, GS and ES), the genotype effect was stronger for ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), oil, starch and protein content, and for physical and sensory traits (r2>27%). In contrast, environment played an important role in variation in the content of amylose and amylopectin (r2=71.7%). No high relationships were found between the sensory and nutritional or physical characteristics studied. In general, our results suggest a high genetic gain for seed quality in nutritional, physical and sensory traits in chickpea. Genotypes with good seed sensory quality should be selected in the final stages of the breeding program, because it is not feasible to evaluate very large numbers of samples. However, in some cases, moderate correlations were found between sensory and either nutritional or physical traits. Therefore, indirect selection to increase the frequency of genes for sensory traits in an early stage should be considered.

  1. Genotype and environment effects on sensory, nutritional, and physical traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Cobos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of chickpea cultivars with high quality grains for human consumption is an important objective in breeding programs. Genotype and environment effects on seed quality traits (sensorial, nutritional and physical were studied in chickpea dry grain. Twenty genotypes were grown in winter and spring sowings over two campaigns in four different locations in southern Spain. Significant differences were observed in oil, acid detergent fiber (ADF and protein content between sowing times (S. In winter, oil and ADF content were higher, while protein content was lower. Although, in general, highly significant variation was detected for genotype (G, environment (E and single interactions (GE, GS and ES, the genotype effect was stronger for ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, oil, starch and protein content, and for physical and sensory traits (r2>27%. In contrast, environment played an important role in variation in the content of amylose and amylopectin (r2=71.7%. No high relationships were found between the sensory and nutritional or physical characteristics studied. In general, our results suggest a high genetic gain for seed quality in nutritional, physical and sensory traits in chickpea. Genotypes with good seed sensory quality should be selected in the final stages of the breeding program, because it is not feasible to evaluate very large numbers of samples. However, in some cases, moderate correlations were found between sensory and either nutritional or physical traits. Therefore, indirect selection to increase the frequency of genes for sensory traits in an early stage should be considered.

  2. Genotype and environment effects on sensory, nutritional, and physical traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobos, M.J.; Izquierdo, M. A.; Sanz, A.T.; Gil, J.; Flores, F.; Rubio, J.

    2016-07-01

    The development of chickpea cultivars with high quality grains for human consumption is an important objective in breeding programs. Genotype and environment effects on seed quality traits (sensorial, nutritional and physical) were studied in chickpea dry grain. Twenty genotypes were grown in winter and spring sowings over two campaigns in four different locations in southern Spain. Significant differences were observed in oil, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and protein content between sowing times (S). In winter, oil and ADF content were higher, while protein content was lower. Although, in general, highly significant variation was detected for genotype (G), environment (E) and single interactions (GE, GS and ES), the genotype effect was stronger for ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), oil, starch and protein content, and for physical and sensory traits (r2>27%). In contrast, environment played an important role in variation in the content of amylose and amylopectin (r2=71.7%). No high relationships were found between the sensory and nutritional or physical characteristics studied. In general, our results suggest a high genetic gain for seed quality in nutritional, physical and sensory traits in chickpea. Genotypes with good seed sensory quality should be selected in the final stages of the breeding program, because it is not feasible to evaluate very large numbers of samples. However, in some cases, moderate correlations were found between sensory and either nutritional or physical traits. Therefore, indirect selection to increase the frequency of genes for sensory traits in an early stage should be considered.

  3. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  4. Conscious and unconscious sensory inflows allow effective control of the functions of the human brain and heart at the initial ageing stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Anatolij T; Malyarenko, Tatyana N; Malyarenko, Yurij E; Terentjev, Vladimir P; Dyuzhikov, Alexandr A

    2006-11-01

    The authors of the present article based their assumption on the concept that the sensory systems are the "windows to the brain" through which various functions of the human organism can be controlled. Comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms of the optimization of the sensory systems, brain, and cardiac functions has increased based on the prolonged sensory flows using conscious and unconscious aromatherapy and multimodal sensory activation. Sensory flow evoked stable systemic responses, including adaptive alteration of psycho-emotional state, attention, memory, sensorimotor reactions, intersensory interaction, visual information processing, statokinetic stability, and autonomic heart rhythm control. The efficacy and expediency of the use of sensory flow for non-medicinal correction of vital functions of the human organism at the initial stages of ageing was revealed.

  5. Sensory processing abilities of children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitoria T. Shimizu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the sensory processing abilities of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and children without disabilities, and to analyze the relationship between sensory processing difficulties and behavioural symptoms presented by children with ADHD. METHOD : Thirty-seven children with ADHD were compared with thirty-seven controls using a translated and adapted version of the "Sensory Profile" answered by the parents/caregivers. For the ADHD group, Sensory Profile scores were correlated to behavioural symptoms assessed using the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL and the Behavioural Teacher Rating Scale (EACI-P. The statistical analyses were conducted using the Mann Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS : Children with ADHD showed significant impairments compared to the control group in sensory processing and modulation, as well as in behavioural and emotional responses as observed in 11 out of 14 sections and 6 out of 9 factors. Differences in all Sensory Profile response patterns were also observed between the two groups of children. Sensory Profile scores showed a moderately negative correlation with CBCL and EACI-P scores in the ADHD group. CONCLUSION : These results indicate that children with ADHD may present sensory processing impairments, which may contribute to the inappropriate behavioural and learning responses displayed by children with ADHD. It also suggests the importance of understanding the sensory processing difficulties and its possible contribution to the ADHD symptomatology.

  6. Sensory processing abilities of children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Vitoria T; Bueno, Orlando F A; Miranda, Mônica C

    2014-01-01

    To assess and compare the sensory processing abilities of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children without disabilities, and to analyze the relationship between sensory processing difficulties and behavioural symptoms presented by children with ADHD. Thirty-seven children with ADHD were compared with thirty-seven controls using a translated and adapted version of the "Sensory Profile" answered by the parents/caregivers. For the ADHD group, Sensory Profile scores were correlated to behavioural symptoms assessed using the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the Behavioural Teacher Rating Scale (EACI-P). The statistical analyses were conducted using the Mann Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficients. Children with ADHD showed significant impairments compared to the control group in sensory processing and modulation, as well as in behavioural and emotional responses as observed in 11 out of 14 sections and 6 out of 9 factors. Differences in all Sensory Profile response patterns were also observed between the two groups of children. Sensory Profile scores showed a moderately negative correlation with CBCL and EACI-P scores in the ADHD group. These results indicate that children with ADHD may present sensory processing impairments, which may contribute to the inappropriate behavioural and learning responses displayed by children with ADHD. It also suggests the importance of understanding the sensory processing difficulties and its possible contribution to the ADHD symptomatology.

  7. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey

    2007-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  8. Do Birds Experience Sensory Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabanac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To answer the question of whether sensory pleasure exists in birds, I trained an African-gray parrot (Psittacus erythacus named Aristote to speak. Stage 1 of the study consisted in gaining Aristote's affection. In Stage 2 Aristote was taught to speak, following Irene Pepperberg's triangular method: another person and I would talk together and look at Aristote only when it used understandable French words. Thus Aristote learned to say a few words for obtaining toys or getting my attention; e.g. “donne bouchon” (give cork or “donne gratte” (give scratch/tickle, with the appropriate reward. In Stage 3, the word bon (good was added to the short list of words used by Aristote. I said “bon” when giving Aristote the stimuli it requested and which would, presumably, be pleasurable; e.g. gratte bon. Aristote started to use short sentences such as “yaourt bon” (good yogurt. Eventually, Aristote transferred the word bon to new stimuli such as raisin (grape, an association I myself had never made. Such a use of vocabulary, and moreover its transfer, likely shows that this bird experienced sensory pleasure.

  9. Sensory defects in Necdin deficient mice result from a loss of sensory neurons correlated within an increase of developmental programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Pierre-Alain

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human NECDIN gene is involved in a neurodevelopmental disorder, Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS. Previously we reported a mouse Necdin knock-out model with similar defects to PWS patients. Despite the putative roles attributed to Necdin, mainly from in vitro studies, its in vivo function remains unclear. In this study, we investigate sensory-motor behaviour in Necdin deficient mice. We reveal cellular defects and analyse their cause. Results We report sensory differences in Necdin deficient mice compared to wild type animals. These differences led us to investigate sensory neuron development in Necdin deficient mouse embryos. First, we describe the expression pattern of Necdin in developing DRGs and report a reduction of one-third in specified sensory neurons in dorsal roots ganglia and show that this neuronal loss is achieved by E13.5, when DRGs sensory neurons are specified. In parallel, we observed an increase of 41% in neuronal apoptosis during the wave of naturally occurring cell death at E12.5. Since it is assumed that Necdin is a P75NTR interactor, we looked at the P75NTR-expressing cell population in Necdin knock-out embryos. Unexpectedly, Necdin loss of function has no effect on p75NTR expressing neurons suggesting no direct genetic interaction between Necdin and P75NTR in this context. Although we exclude a role of Necdin in axonal outgrowth from spinal sensory neurons in early developmental stages; such a role could occur later in neuronal differentiation. Finally we also exclude an anti-proliferative role of Necdin in developing sensory neurons. Conclusion Overall, our data show clearly that, in early development of the nervous system, Necdin is an anti-apoptotic or survival factor.

  10. Effects of a Sensory Stimulation by Nurses and Families on Level of Cognitive Function, and Basic Cognitive Sensory Recovery of Comatose Patients With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moattari, Marzieh; Alizadeh Shirazi, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Nasrin; Zareh, Najaf

    2016-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that early sensory stimulation and regular family visiting programs are potential nursing interventions to improve the outcomes of head injured comatose patients. However, little is known about the impacts of family involvement in providing sensory stimulation. To determine the effects of a sensory stimulation program conducted by nurses and families on the consciousness, level of cognitive function, and basic cognitive sensory recovery of head injury comatose patients. This was a randomized clinical trial performed at the Shiraz level I trauma center including 60 head injured comatose patients with an initial Glasgow coma score (GCS) of less than 8. Patients were randomly assigned to receive sensory stimulation by a qualified nurse (nurse group; n = 20), by the family (family group; n = 20), or usual care (control group; n = 20). The sensory stimulation program involving the nurses and patients' families was conducted, twice daily, in the morning and evening for 7 days. The level of consciousness, level of cognitive function, and basic cognitive sensory recovery of the patients were evaluated and monitored using the GCS, Rancho Los Amigos (RLA), and Western Neuro-Sensory stimulation profile (WNSSP). Data were analyzed by chi square, Kruskal-Wallis, and repeated-measures tests using SPSS. All the patients were comparable regarding their baseline characteristics, level of consciousness, level of cognitive function, and basic cognitive sensory recovery determined by GCS, RLA, and WNSSP. Although the two intervention groups of the study improved, those who received the sensory stimulation program from their families had significantly higher GCS (P = 0.001), RLA (P = 0.001), and WNSSP (P = 0.001) scores after 7 days when compared to the two other groups. The application of sensory stimulation by families led to significant increases in the consciousness, level of cognitive function, and basic cognitive sensory recovery of comatose

  11. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Tuan V.; Brownstone, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks...

  12. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  13. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Tuan V; Brownstone, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks have not been determined. Considering the many sources of sensory inputs to the spinal cord, determining this distribution would provide insights into how sensory inputs are integrated to adjust ongoing locomotor activity. We asked whether a sparsely distributed set of sensory inputs could modify ongoing locomotor activity. To address this question, several computational models of locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) that were mechanistically diverse and generated locomotor-like rhythmic activity were developed. We show that sensory inputs restricted to a small subset of the network neurons can perturb locomotor activity in the same manner as seen experimentally. Furthermore, we show that an architecture with sparse sensory input improves the capacity to gate sensory information by selectively modulating sensory channels. These data demonstrate that sensory input to rhythm-generating networks need not be extensively distributed. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Electrophysiological Changes of Sensory Nerves in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus of Different Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmeen Sultana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Among the diabetic neuropathiessymmetrical sensory polyneuropathy is the most common one. Abnormalities of sensory nerve conduction are featuresof diabetic nerve damage. Significant association has been found between electrophysiological parameters of sensorynerves and duration of metabolic derangement in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Objectives: The present study wasdesigned to characterize nerve conduction abnormalities of sensory nerves in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus ofdifferent duration and also to assess whether duration of diabetes has any influence on the sensory nerve function.Methods: Forty-four type 2 diabetic subjects were included in two groups:- Group B1 consisted of 23 diabetic subjectshaving duration of diabetes for 5-10 years (shorter duration and Group B2 consisted of 21 diabetic subjects havingduration of diabetes for 10-15 years (longer duration. Twenty-five age and BMI matched healthy subjects withoutfamily history of diabetes were included as Group A (control subjects. Sensory nerve conduction velocities, actionpotential amplitudes and latencies of ulnar and sural nerves were measured by a standard NCV-EMG equipment. Result:No significant changes in sensory nerve conduction parameters were observed in the group of diabetic subjects havingshorter duration of diabetes. In the diabetic group with relatively longer duration of diabetes some of the sensory nerveconduction parameters were affected. Among them S SNAP and S NCV were significantly (P<0.01 and <0.05 respectivelyreduced in diabetic group with relatively longer duration of diabetes. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated thatneuronal dysfunction for sensory nerves appears after a prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia; there may also be somegenetic and biochemical basis (other than hyperglycemia for early sensory sparing in type 2 diabetic population of

  15. Sensory Dysfunction in Early Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services ...SX, Arnold SE, Grossman M, Clark CM, Shaw LM, McCluskey L, Elman L, Van Deerlin VM, Lee VM, Soares H, Trojanowski JQ. Plasma epidermal growth...Arnold, S.E., Karlawish, J., Siderowf, A., Hurtig, H., Elman , L., McCluskey, L., Van Deerlin, V., Lee, V.M.-Y., Trojanowski, J.Q. Building an

  16. Sensory Properties of Traditionally-Fermented Buttermilk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to test the hypothesis that the main problems of traditionally-fermented milk products processed in the rural setup are based on variable sensory quality, hygiene and unattractive presentation to consumers. Sensory evaluation scores of 9 samples of traditional fermented buttermilk and control ...

  17. Tactile Sensory Dysfunction in Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While a group of children with ADHD may have normal behavioral responses to sensory stimuli, another group may be hyperreactive. The aim of this survey was studying association of tactile sensory responsivity with co-morbidity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD symptoms, subtypes of ADHD, and gender in children with ADHD.

  18. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and

  19. chemical composition and sensory acceptability of partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ravioli and spaghetti (David and Bender, 2006). It is one of the most common sources of carbohydrate in a diet. Production and consumption of pasta products vary depending on the region of the world and culinary .... determined using a graduated flexible tape. Sensory evaluation. Sensory evaluation was carried out by a ...

  20. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  1. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.

  2. SENSORY ATTRIBUTES AND CONSUMPTION OF MELON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    ABSTRACT. The study investigated the sensory attributes of melon-soybean soup with Indian spinach vegetables which was observed to be poorly accepted in consumption. Descriptive research design and sensory evaluation was used. The study population comprised three hundred and fifty students from 100-500 level ...

  3. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution, v......, visual rehabilitation, and multisensory processes....

  4. Evaluation of Physicochemical, Functional and Sensory Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Physicochemical, Functional and Sensory Properties of Fermented Fura Powder Supplemented with Soy. ... Nigerian Food Journal ... and sensory properties while another sample was stored at room temperature; samples were withdrawn at intervals of 4 and 6 weeks for some functional properties evaluation.

  5. Sensory (re)weighting in spatial orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, B.B.G.T.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the orientation of our body as well as objects in space, more commonly referred to as spatial orientation, involves the processing of various sensory signals, including visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive signals. The brain needs to integrate these sensory signals, which are noisy and

  6. Measuring Sensory Reactivity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Application and Simplification of a Clinician-Administered Sensory Observation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Bellesheim, Katherine; Siper, Paige M.; Wang, A. Ting; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Grodberg, David; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory reactivity is a new DSM-5 criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study aims to validate a clinician-administered sensory observation in ASD, the Sensory Processing Scale Assessment (SPS). The SPS and the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) parent-report were used to measure sensory reactivity in children with ASD (n = 35) and…

  7. Shelf-stable egg-based products processed by high pressure thermal sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing a thermally sterilized egg-based product with increased shelf life without losing the sensory and nutritional properties of the freshly prepared product is challenging. Until recently, all commercial shelf-stable egg-based products were sterilized using conventional thermal processing; how...

  8. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    that individuals can improve sensory and sociosensory resolution through deliberate sensory reintegration practices. We conclude that we humans are the victims of our own success, our hands so skilled they fill the world with captivating things, our eyes so innocent they follow eagerly.

  9. Sensory and cognitive neurophysiology in rats, Part 1: Controlled tactile stimulation and micro-ECoG recordings in freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, George; Fransen, Anne M M; Maris, Eric

    2014-07-30

    We have developed a setup for rats that allows for controlled sensory input to an animal engaged in a task while recording both electrophysiological signals and behavioral output. We record electrophysiological signals using a novel high-density micro-electrocorticography (micro-ECoG) grid that covers almost the whole somatosensory system. We dealt with the well-known difficulty that the rat uses its whisker system in an active (motor-controlled) way to explore its environment by designing a head-mounted device that stimulates the rat's snout in a way unaffected by whisker movements. We replicate the spatial specificity of early evoked responses in somatosensory and auditory cortex. In a companion paper (Cognitive Neurophysiology in Rats, Part 2: Validation and Demonstration) we validate our setup and show for the first time that the ECoG can be used to record evoked responses in a signal that reflects neural output (spiking activity). Compared with high-density wire recordings, micro-ECoG offers a much more stable signal without readjustments, and a much better scalability. Compared with head-fixed preparations, our head-mounted stimulator allows to stay closer to the rat's natural way of collecting sensory information. For perceptual and cognitive research, our setup provides a unique combination of possibilities that cannot be achieved in other setups for rodents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  11. Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Christian; D'Alonzo, Marco; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran; Sebelius, Fredrik; Cipriani, Christian

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges facing prosthetic designers and engineers is to restore the missing sensory function inherit to hand amputation. Several different techniques can be employed to provide amputees with sensory feedback: sensory substitution methods where the recorded stimulus is not only transferred to the amputee, but also translated to a different modality (modality-matched feedback), which transfers the stimulus without translation and direct neural stimulation, which interacts directly with peripheral afferent nerves. This paper presents an overview of the principal works and devices employed to provide upper limb amputees with sensory feedback. The focus is on sensory substitution and modality matched feedback; the principal features, advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented.

  12. Sensory system development influences the ontogeny of trace eyeblink conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Mary E; Freeman, John H

    2017-01-01

    The developmental emergence of delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is dependent on the development of the sensory system stimulated by the conditioned stimulus (CS). However, trace EBC has traditionally been believed to be dependent on the development of forebrain structures, such as the hippocampus. If hippocampal development alone is limiting the developmental emergence of trace EBC, then using an earlier developing sensory modality should not affect the rate or asymptote of conditioning. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether using a vibration CS would facilitate the ontogeny of trace EBC relative to an auditory CS. Rat pups received six sessions of trace EBC or unpaired training using either a tone or vibration CS on postnatal day (P) 17-18, 21-22, or 24-25. Training with a vibration CS resulted in rapid conditioning as early as P17-18, whereas training with a tone CS did not result in rapid conditioning until after P17-18. The results suggest that the ontogeny of trace EBC depends, at least in part, on sensory system development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sensory hair cell death and regeneration in fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Monroe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory hair cells are specialized mechanotransductive receptors required for hearing and vestibular function. Loss of hair cells in humans and other mammals is permanent and causes reduced hearing and balance. In the early 1980’s, it was shown that hair cells continue to be added to the inner ear sensory epithelia in cartilaginous and bony fishes. Soon thereafter, hair cell regeneration was documented in the chick cochlea following acoustic trauma. Since then, research using chick and other avian models has led to great insights into hair cell death and regeneration. However, with the rise of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying disease and developmental processes, there has been an increased interest in studying sensory hair cell death and regeneration in its lateral line and inner ears. Advances derived from studies in zebrafish and other fish species include understanding the effect of ototoxins on hair cells and finding otoprotectants to mitigate ototoxin damage, the role of cellular proliferation versus direct transdifferentiation during hair cell regeneration, and elucidating cellular pathways involved in the regeneration process. This review will summarize research on hair cell death and regeneration using fish models, indicate the potential strengths and weaknesses of these models, and discuss several emerging areas of future studies.

  14. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  15. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  16. Late rise in hemolymph osmolality in Macrobrachium acanthurus (diadromous freshwater shrimp) exposed to brackish water: Early reduction in branchial Na+/K+ pump activity but stable muscle HSP70 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carolina A; Maraschi, Anieli C; Lara, Alessandra F; Amado, Enelise M; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2018-02-01

    Some Macrobrachium shrimps (Caridea, Palaemonidae) are diadromous; freshwater adults are truly euryhaline, while larvae need saline water for development. Branchial Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in NaCl absorption in freshwater. This study aimed at verifying the time course of the osmoregulatory response of adult Macrobrachium acanthurus to high salinity brackish water (20‰), from the first 30min to 5days. The goal was to detect possible transition from hyper- to hyporegulation, the putative involvement of branchial NKA and CA, or the induction of muscular HSP70 expression. Hemolymph osmotic and ionic concentrations remained relatively stable and close to control levels until ~9h of exposure, but later increased consistently (~50%). A fast reduction in NKA activity (3-6h) was observed; these shrimps seem to shut off salt absorption already in the first hours. Later on, especially after 24h, hemolymph concentrations rise but HSP70 expression is not induced, possibly because constitutive levels are already sufficient to prevent protein damage. Time-dependent response mechanisms effective in high salinity brackish water, resulting in salt loading avoidance and suggestive of hyporegulation should be further investigated in decapods that evolutionary invaded freshwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Age as a factor in sensory integration function in Taiwanese children

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    Lin CK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chin-Kai Lin,1 Huey-Min Wu,2 Hsin-Yi Wang,3 Mei-Hui Tseng,4,5 Chung-Hui Lin61Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Research Center for Testing and Assessment, National Academy for Educational Research, New Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Special Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan; 4School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 6School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medical Science and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, TaiwanObjective: Sensory integration progresses along a normal developmental sequence. However, few studies have explored how age difference affects the way sensory integration functions in Taiwanese children as they develop. Therefore, this study aims to pinpoint the role of age in sensory integration.Method: A purposive sampling plan was employed. The study population comprised 1,000 Chinese children aged 36 to 131 months (mean = 74.48 months, standard deviation = 25.69 months. Subjects were scored on seven subsets of the Test of Sensory Integration Function (TSIF. An analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to identify differences between four age groups (ages 3−4, 5−6, 7−8, and 9−10 years, in the categories of the TSIF.Results: ANOVA revealed that age is a significant factor in each of the seven tasks of sensory integration associated with various stages of development. The effect of age was significant in all four groups for the subscale of Bilateral Integration Sequences. The function of sensory integration for the children aged 5−8 years did not produce statistically significant results for the subscale of Postural Movement, Sensory Discrimination, Sensory Seeking, or Attention and Activity. For the subscale of Sensory Modulation and Emotional

  18. Development of cosmetic formulations containing glucan polymer of Cassava (Manihot esculenta: stability and sensory analysis

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    Luisa M. Manço

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the development, rheological behaviour determination, and sensory analysis of cosmetic formulations containing glucan biopolymer (Manihot esculenta, a tensor agent that was proposed to produce an immediate lifting and smoothing effect. For this purpose, formulations were developed and supplemented or not with 4 % of hydrolysed Manihot esculenta tuber extract and submitted to preliminary stability tests. These formulations were evaluated in terms of rheological behaviour over 90 days. Sensory analysis was carried out through a research with 20 cosmetic consumers who answered a questionnaire regarding their perception to the cosmetic qualities. The formulations presented pseudoplastic behavior and were considered stable in the physical stability studies, with the exception of the gel formulation based on Ammonium Acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP Copolymer. The formulations were well evaluated in the sensory parameters. The gel formulations based on Polyacrylamide, C13- 14 Isoparaffin, and Laureth-7 were stable and presented the best sensory profile in some evaluated parameters, such as spreadability, smoothness and skin moisturizing, and can be considered an appropriate vehicle for formulations containing hydrolysed Manihot esculenta tuber extract.

  19. Some Motivational Properties of Sensory Stimulation in Psychotic Children

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    Rincover, Arnold; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This experiment assessed the reinforcing properties of sensory stimulation for autistic children using three different types of sensory stimulation: music, visual flickering, and visual movement. (SB)

  20. Diabetic polyneuropathy, sensory neurons, nuclear structure and spliceosome alterations: a role for CWC22

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    Masaki Kobayashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Unique deficits in the function of adult sensory neurons as part of their early neurodegeneration might account for progressive polyneuropathy during chronic diabetes mellitus. Here, we provide structural and functional evidence for aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in a chronic type 1 model of experimental diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN. Cajal bodies (CBs, unique nuclear substructures involved in RNA splicing, increased in number in diabetic sensory neurons, but their expected colocalization with survival motor neuron (SMN proteins was reduced – a mislocalization described in motor neurons of spinal muscular atrophy. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs, also participants in the spliceosome, had abnormal multiple nuclear foci unassociated with CBs, and their associated snRNAs were reduced. CWC22, a key spliceosome protein, was aberrantly upregulated in diabetic dorsal root ganglia (DRG, and impaired neuronal function. CWC22 attenuated sensory neuron plasticity, with knockdown in vitro enhancing their neurite outgrowth. Further, axonal delivery of CWC22 siRNA unilaterally to locally knock down the aberrant protein in diabetic nerves improved aspects of sensory function in diabetic mice. Collectively, our findings identify subtle but significant alterations in spliceosome structure and function, including dysregulated CBs and CWC22 overexpression, in diabetic sensory neurons that offer new ideas regarding diabetic sensory neurodegeneration in polyneuropathy.

  1. Multisensory Integration and Calibration in Children and Adults with and without Sensory and Motor Disabilities.

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    Gori, Monica

    2015-01-01

    During the first years of life, sensory modalities communicate with each other. This process is fundamental for the development of unisensory and multisensory skills. The absence of one sensory input impacts on the development of other modalities. Since 2008 we have studied these aspects and developed our cross-sensory calibration theory. This theory emerged from the observation that children start to integrate multisensory information (such as vision and touch) only after 8-10 years of age. Before this age the more accurate sense teaches (calibrates) the others; when one calibrating modality is missing, the other modalities result impaired. Children with visual disability have problems in understanding the haptic or auditory perception of space and children with motor disabilities have problems in understanding the visual dimension of objects. This review presents our recent studies on multisensory integration and cross-sensory calibration in children and adults with and without sensory and motor disabilities. The goal of this review is to show the importance of interaction between sensory systems during the early period of life in order to correct perceptual development to occur.

  2. Sensory Processing Dysfunction in the Personal Experience and Neuronal Machinery of Schizophrenia

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    Javitt, Daniel C.; Freedman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing deficits, first investigated by Kraeplin and Bleuler as possible pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia, are now being re-characterized in the context of modern understanding of the involved molecular and neurobiological brain mechanisms. The National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria position these deficits as intermediaries between molecular and cellular mechanisms and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations. The pre-pulse inhibition of startle responses by a weaker preceding tone, the inhibitory gating of response to paired sensory stimuli characterized using the auditory P50 evoked response, and the detection of slightly different stimuli that elicits the cortical Mismatch Negativity potential demonstrate deficits in early sensory processing mechanisms, whose molecular and neurobiological bases are increasingly well understood. Deficits in sensory processing underlie more complex cognitive dysfunction and, vice versa, are affected by higher-level cognitive difficulties. These deficits are now being used to identify genes involved in familial transmission of the illness and to monitor potentially therapeutic drug effects for both treatment and prevention. This research also provides a clinical reminder that patients’ sensory perception of the surrounding world, even during treatment sessions, may differ considerable from others’ perceptions. A person’s ability to understand and interact effectively with surrounding world ultimately depends upon an underlying sensory experience of it. PMID:25553496

  3. Descriptive sensory analysis of Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena DOP and Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia DOP.

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    Zeppa, Giuseppe; Gambigliani Zoccoli, Mario; Nasi, Enrico; Masini, Giovanni; Meglioli, Giuseppe; Zappino, Matteo

    2013-12-01

    Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale (ABT) is a typical Italian vinegar available in two different forms: Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena DOP (ABTM) and Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia DOP (ABTRE). ABT is obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic bio-oxidation of cooked grape must and aged at least 12 years in wooden casks and is known and sold around the world. Despite this widespread recognition, data on sensory characteristics of these products are very scarce. Therefore a descriptive analysis was conducted to define a lexicon for the ABT sensory profile and to create a simple, stable and reproducible synthetic ABT for training panellists. A lexicon of 20 sensory parameters was defined and validated and a synthetic ABT was prepared as standard reference. Simple standards for panellist training were also defined and the sensory profiles of ABTM and ABTRE were obtained. The obtained results confirm that descriptive analysis can be used for the sensory characterisation of ABT and that the sensory profiles of ABTM and ABTRE are very different. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a lexicon and proper standard references are essential for describing the sensory qualities of ABT both for technical purposes and to protect the product from commercial fraud. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Beyond words: sensory properties of depressive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Hörmann, Claudia Cecile; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Jacob, Gitta A; Meyer, Björn; Holmes, Emily A; Späth, Christina; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rose, Matthias; Klein, Jan Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Verbal thoughts (such as negative cognitions) and sensory phenomena (such as visual mental imagery) are usually conceptualised as distinct mental experiences. The present study examined to what extent depressive thoughts are accompanied by sensory experiences and how this is associated with symptom severity, insight of illness and quality of life. A large sample of mildly to moderately depressed patients (N = 356) was recruited from multiple sources and asked about sensory properties of their depressive thoughts in an online study. Diagnostic status and symptom severity were established over a telephone interview with trained raters. Sensory properties of negative thoughts were reported by 56.5% of the sample (i.e., sensation in at least one sensory modality). The highest prevalence was seen for bodily (39.6%) followed by auditory (30.6%) and visual (27.2%) sensations. Patients reporting sensory properties of thoughts showed more severe psychopathological symptoms than those who did not. The degree of perceptuality was marginally associated with quality of life. The findings support the notion that depressive thoughts are not only verbal but commonly accompanied by sensory experiences. The perceptuality of depressive thoughts and the resulting sense of authenticity may contribute to the emotional impact and pervasiveness of such thoughts, making them difficult to dismiss for their holder.

  5. Whisker sensory system - from receptor to decision.

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    Diamond, Mathew E; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2013-04-01

    One of the great challenges of systems neuroscience is to understand how the neocortex transforms neuronal representations of the physical characteristics of sensory stimuli into the percepts which can guide the animal's decisions. Here we present progress made in understanding behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of a highly efficient sensory apparatus, the rat whisker system. Beginning with the 1970s discovery of "barrels" in the rat and mouse brain, one line of research has focused on unraveling the circuits that transmit information from the whiskers to the sensory cortex, together with the cellular mechanisms that underlie sensory responses. A second, more recent line of research has focused on tactile psychophysics, that is, quantification of the behavioral capacities supported by whisker sensation. The opportunity to join these two lines of investigation makes whisker-mediated sensation an exciting platform for the study of the neuronal bases of perception and decision-making. Even more appealing is the beginning-to-end prospective offered by this system: the inquiry can start at the level of the sensory receptor and conclude with the animal's choice. We argue that rats can switch between two modes of operation of the whisker sensory system: (1) generative mode and (2) receptive mode. In the generative mode, the rat moves its whiskers forward and backward to actively seek contact with objects and to palpate the object after initial contact. In the receptive mode, the rat immobilizes its whiskers to optimize the collection of signals from an object that is moving by its own power. We describe behavioral tasks that rats perform in these different modes. Next, we explore which neuronal codes in sensory cortex account for the rats' discrimination capacities. Finally, we present hypotheses for mechanisms through which "downstream" brain regions may read out the activity of sensory cortex in order to extract the significance of sensory stimuli and, ultimately

  6. Active inference, sensory attenuation and illusions.

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    Brown, Harriet; Adams, Rick A; Parees, Isabel; Edwards, Mark; Friston, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Active inference provides a simple and neurobiologically plausible account of how action and perception are coupled in producing (Bayes) optimal behaviour. This can be seen most easily as minimising prediction error: we can either change our predictions to explain sensory input through perception. Alternatively, we can actively change sensory input to fulfil our predictions. In active inference, this action is mediated by classical reflex arcs that minimise proprioceptive prediction error created by descending proprioceptive predictions. However, this creates a conflict between action and perception; in that, self-generated movements require predictions to override the sensory evidence that one is not actually moving. However, ignoring sensory evidence means that externally generated sensations will not be perceived. Conversely, attending to (proprioceptive and somatosensory) sensations enables the detection of externally generated events but precludes generation of actions. This conflict can be resolved by attenuating the precision of sensory evidence during movement or, equivalently, attending away from the consequences of self-made acts. We propose that this Bayes optimal withdrawal of precise sensory evidence during movement is the cause of psychophysical sensory attenuation. Furthermore, it explains the force-matching illusion and reproduces empirical results almost exactly. Finally, if attenuation is removed, the force-matching illusion disappears and false (delusional) inferences about agency emerge. This is important, given the negative correlation between sensory attenuation and delusional beliefs in normal subjects--and the reduction in the magnitude of the illusion in schizophrenia. Active inference therefore links the neuromodulatory optimisation of precision to sensory attenuation and illusory phenomena during the attribution of agency in normal subjects. It also provides a functional account of deficits in syndromes characterised by false inference

  7. The canonical relationship between sensory-motor functioning and cognitive processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S; Pass, Lisa A; Finch, W Holmes; Dean, Raymond S; Woodcock, Richard W

    2009-05-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) typically exhibits a pattern of behavioral deficits, impairment in academic achievement, and cognitive processing, and presents with sensory-motor deficits. This study examined the relationships between sensory-motor tasks, cognitive processing, and academic achievement for a group of 67 children with ADHD. Strong canonical correlations emerged between sensory-motor functioning and academic achievement (.93) and sensory-motor functioning and cognitive processing (.98). An analysis of the redundancy coefficient showed that sensory-motor skills accounted for 65% of the variance in the achievement variables and 31% of the variance in the cognitive processing variables. The strong relationship between sensory-motor skills and higher order cognitive processes indicates that early assessment of sensory-motor skills may be useful in the identification of subsequent deficits in academic performance. Neuropsychologists should carefully consider the contribution of sensory-motor functioning to the more widely studied and assessed constructs of academic, behavioral, and emotional problems in children with ADHD.

  8. Sensory reactivity, empathizing and systemizing in autism spectrum conditions and sensory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Miller, Lucy Jane; Schoen, Sarah A; Jo Brout, Jennifer; Sullivan, Jillian; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2017-05-18

    Although the DSM-5 added sensory symptoms as a criterion for ASC, there is a group of children who display sensory symptoms but do not have ASC; children with sensory processing disorder (SPD). To be able to differentiate these two disorders, our aim was to evaluate whether children with ASC show more sensory symptomatology and/or different cognitive styles in empathy and systemizing compared to children with SPD and typically developing (TD) children. The study included 210 participants: 68 children with ASC, 79 with SPD and 63 TD children. The Sensory Processing Scale Inventory was used to measure sensory symptoms, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to measure autistic traits, and the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) to measure cognitive styles. Across groups, a greater sensory symptomatology was associated with lower empathy. Further, both the ASC and SPD groups showed more sensory symptoms than TD children. Children with ASC and SPD only differed on sensory under-reactivity. The ASD group did, however, show lower empathy and higher systemizing scores than the SPD group. Together, this suggest that sensory symptoms alone may not be adequate to differentiate children with ASC and SPD but that cognitive style measures could be used for differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  10. Sensory processing patterns predict the integration of information held in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew X; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wilson, Kristin E; Ouslis, Natasha E; Barense, Morgan D; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Given the limited resources of visual working memory, multiple items may be remembered as an averaged group or ensemble. As a result, local information may be ill-defined, but these ensemble representations provide accurate diagnostics of the natural world by combining gist information with item-level information held in visual working memory. Some neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by sensory processing profiles that predispose individuals to avoid or seek-out sensory stimulation, fundamentally altering their perceptual experience. Here, we report such processing styles will affect the computation of ensemble statistics in the general population. We identified stable adult sensory processing patterns to demonstrate that individuals with low sensory thresholds who show a greater proclivity to engage in active response strategies to prevent sensory overstimulation are less likely to integrate mean size information across a set of similar items and are therefore more likely to be biased away from the mean size representation of an ensemble display. We therefore propose the study of ensemble processing should extend beyond the statistics of the display, and should also consider the statistics of the observer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  12. PENGUJIAN SENSORIS NUGGET AYAM FORTIFIKASI DAUN KELOR

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    Sri Hastuti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation chicken nuggets with fortification Moringa leaves can be expected as a source of protein as well as of other nutritional components needed by the body. Sensory testing nugget products have been set by the National Standardization Agency (BSN is SNI No. 2346: 2011. The purpose of this study was to determine sensory and preference of chicken nuggets with fresh Moringa leaves and moringa leaf powder 2% fortification. The results showed that the sensory testing of the appearance, smell, taste and texture nuggets still appropriate ISO standard that is above 7. While testing of the texture, taste, color and odor generating value from moderate like to like.

  13. Understanding the sensory irregularities of esophageal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Brock, Christina; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Gregersen, Hans; Khan, Sheeba; Lelic, Dina; Lottrup, Christian; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2016-08-01

    Symptoms relating to esophageal sensory abnormalities can be encountered in the clinical environment. Such sensory abnormalities may be present in demonstrable disease, such as erosive esophagitis, and in the ostensibly normal esophagus, such as non-erosive reflux disease or functional chest pain. In this review, the authors discuss esophageal sensation and the esophageal pain system. In addition, the authors provide a primer concerning the techniques that are available for investigating the autonomic nervous system, neuroimaging and neurophysiology of esophageal sensory function. Such technological advances, whilst not readily available in the clinic may facilitate the stratification and individualization of therapy in disorders of esophageal sensation in the future.

  14. The Impact of Ecological Niche on Adaptive Flexibility of Sensory Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Pallas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolution and development are interdependent, particularly with regard to the construction of the nervous system and its position as the machine that produces behavior. On the one hand, the processes directing development and plasticity of the brain provide avenues through which natural selection can sculpt neural cell fate and connectivity, and on the other hand, they are themselves subject to selection pressure. For example, mutations that produce heritable perturbations in neuronal birth and death rates, transcription factor expression, or availability of axon guidance factors within sensory pathways can markedly affect the development of form and thus the function of stimulus decoding circuitry. This evolvability of flexible circuits makes them more adaptable to environmental variation. Although there is general agreement on this point, whether the sensitivity of circuits to environmental influence and the mechanisms underlying development and plasticity of sensory pathways are similar across species from different ecological niches has received almost no attention. Neural circuits are generally more sensitive to environmental influences during an early critical period, but not all niches afford the same access to stimuli in early life. Furthermore, depending on predictability of the habitat and ecological niche, sensory coding circuits might be more susceptible to sensory experience in some species than in others. Despite decades of work on understanding the mechanisms underlying critical period plasticity, the importance of ecological niche in visual pathway development has received little attention. Here, I will explore the relationship between critical period plasticity and ecological niche in mammalian sensory pathways.

  15. Altered functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to nonpainful sensory stimulation in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Solà, Marina; Pujol, Jesus; Wager, Tor D; Garcia-Fontanals, Alba; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Garcia-Blanco, Susana; Poca-Dias, Violant; Harrison, Ben J; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Monfort, Jordi; Garcia-Fructuoso, Ferran; Deus, Joan

    2014-11-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterized by chronic pain and enhanced responses to acute noxious events. However, the sensory systems affected in FM may extend beyond pain itself, as FM patients show reduced tolerance to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation. Characterizing the neural substrates of multisensory hypersensitivity in FM may thus provide important clues about the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. The aim of this study was to characterize brain responses to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation in FM patients and their relationship to subjective sensory sensitivity and clinical pain severity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess brain response to auditory, visual, and tactile motor stimulation in 35 women with FM and 25 matched controls. Correlation and mediation analyses were performed to establish the relationship between brain responses and 3 types of outcomes: subjective hypersensitivity to daily sensory stimulation, spontaneous pain, and functional disability. Patients reported increased subjective sensitivity (increased unpleasantness) in response to multisensory stimulation in daily life. Functional MRI revealed that patients showed reduced task-evoked activation in primary/secondary visual and auditory areas and augmented responses in the insula and anterior lingual gyrus. Reduced responses in visual and auditory areas were correlated with subjective sensory hypersensitivity and clinical severity measures. FM patients showed strong attenuation of brain responses to nonpainful events in early sensory cortices, accompanied by an amplified response at later stages of sensory integration in the insula. These abnormalities are associated with core FM symptoms, suggesting that they may be part of the pathophysiology of the disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  17. Behavioral guides for sensory neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, M

    2006-06-01

    The study of natural behavior is important for understanding the coding schemes of sensory systems. The jamming avoidance response of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia is an excellent example of a bottom-up approach, in which behavioral analyses guided neurophysiological studies. These studies started from the electroreceptive sense organs to the motor output consisting of pacemaker neurons. Going in the opposite direction, from the central nervous system to lower centers, is the characteristic of the top-down approach. Although this approach is perhaps more difficult than the bottom-up approach, it was successfully employed in the neuroethological analysis of sound localization in the barn owl. In the latter studies, high-order neurons selective for complex natural stimuli led to the discovery of neural pathways and networks responsible for the genesis of the stimulus selectivity. Comparison of Eigenmannia and barn owls, and their neural systems, has revealed similarities in network designs, such as parallel pathways and their convergence to produce stimulus selectivity necessary for detection of natural stimuli.

  18. Specific Sensory Techniques and Sensory Environmental Modifications for Children and Youth With Sensory Integration Difficulties: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodison, Stefanie C; Parham, L Diane

    This systematic review examined the effectiveness of specific sensory techniques and sensory environmental modifications to improve participation of children with sensory integration (SI) difficulties. Abstracts of 11,436 articles published between January 2007 and May 2015 were examined. Studies were included if designs reflected high levels of evidence, participants demonstrated SI difficulties, and outcome measures addressed function or participation. Eight studies met inclusion criteria. Seven studies evaluated effects of specific sensory techniques for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Qigong massage, weighted vests, slow swinging, and incorporation of multisensory activities into preschool routines. One study of sensory environmental modifications examined adaptations to a dental clinic for children with ASD. Strong evidence supported Qigong massage, moderate evidence supported sensory modifications to the dental care environment, and limited evidence supported weighted vests. The evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions regarding slow linear swinging and incorporation of multisensory activities into preschool settings. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. Stochastic resonance in noisy spiking retinal and sensory neuron models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok; Kosko, Bart

    2005-01-01

    Two new theorems show that small amounts of additive white noise can improve the bit count or mutual information of several popular models of spiking retinal neurons and spiking sensory neurons. The first theorem gives necessary and sufficient conditions for this noise benefit or stochastic resonance (SR) effect for subthreshold signals in a standard family of Poisson spiking models of retinal neurons. The result holds for all types of finite-variance noise and for all types of infinite-variance stable noise: SR occurs if and only if a sum of noise means or location parameters falls outside a 'forbidden interval' of values. The second theorem gives a similar forbidden-interval sufficient condition for the SR effect for several types of spiking sensory neurons that include the Fitzhugh-Nagumo neuron, the leaky integrate-and-fire neuron, and the reduced Type I neuron model if the additive noise is Gaussian white noise. Simulations show that neither the forbidden-interval condition nor Gaussianity is necessary for the SR effect.

  20. Sensory deprivation differentially impacts the dendritic development of pyramidal versus non-pyramidal neurons in layer 6 of mouse barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chien; Tam, Danny; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2012-04-01

    Early postnatal sensory experience can have profound impacts on the structure and function of cortical circuits affecting behavior. Using the mouse whisker-to-barrel system we chronically deprived animals of normal sensory experience by bilaterally trimming their whiskers every other day from birth for the first postnatal month. Brain tissue was then processed for Golgi staining and neurons in layer 6 of barrel cortex were reconstructed in three dimensions. Dendritic and somatic parameters were compared between sensory-deprived and normal sensory experience groups. Results demonstrated that layer 6 non-pyramidal neurons in the chronically deprived group showed an expansion of their dendritic arbors. The pyramidal cells responded to sensory deprivation with increased somatic size and basilar dendritic arborization but overall decreased apical dendritic parameters. In sum, sensory deprivation impacted on the neuronal architecture of pyramidal and non-pyramidal neurons in layer 6, which may provide a substrate for observed physiological and behavioral changes resulting from whisker trimming.

  1. Timing of moderate level prenatal alcohol exposure influences gene expression of sensory processing behavior in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Schneider

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing disorder (SPD, characterized by over- or under-responsivity to non-noxious environmental stimuli, is a common but poorly understood disorder. We examined the role of prenatal alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR, and striatal dopamine (DA function on behavioral measures of sensory responsivity to repeated non-noxious sensory stimuli in macaque monkeys. Results indicated that early gestation alcohol exposure induced behavioral under-responsivity to environmental stimuli in monkeys carrying the short (s rh5-HTTLPR allele compared to both early-exposed monkeys homozygous for the long (l allele and monkeys from middle-to-late exposed pregnancies and controls, regardless of genotype. Moreover, prenatal timing of alcohol exposure altered the relationship between sensory scores and DA D2R availability. In early-exposed monkeys, a positive relationship was shown between sensory scores and DA D2R availability, with low or blunted DA function associated with under-responsive sensory function. The opposite pattern was found for the middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group. These findings raise questions about how the timing of prenatal perturbation and genotype contributes to effects on neural processing and possibly alters neural connections.

  2. Case of sensory ataxic ganglionopathy-myelopathy in copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Gabriella; Grassivaro, Francesca; Brocadello, Filippo; Manara, Renzo; Pesenti, Francesco Francini

    2009-02-15

    Spinal cord involvement associated with severe copper deficiency has been reported in the last 8 years. Copper deficiency may produce an ataxic myelopathy. Clinical and neuroimaging findings are similar to the subacute combined degeneration seen in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. Macrocytic, normocytic and microcytic anemia, leukopenia and, in severe cases, pancytopenia are well known hematologic manifestations. The most patients with copper deficiency myelopathy had unrecognized carency. Some authors suggested that early recognition and copper supplementation may prevent neurologic deterioration but clinical findings do not improve. We present a patient with copper deficiency, dorsal root ganglions and cervical dorsal columns involvement. Clinical status and neuroimaging improved after copper replacement therapy. Sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia may be the most sensitive nervous pathway. In this case the early copper treatment allowed to improve neurologic lesions and to prevent further involvements.

  3. Episodic Memory Retrieval Functionally Relies on Very Rapid Reactivation of Sensory Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhauser, Gerd T; Braun, Verena; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2016-01-06

    Episodic memory retrieval is assumed to rely on the rapid reactivation of sensory information that was present during encoding, a process termed "ecphory." We investigated the functional relevance of this scarcely understood process in two experiments in human participants. We presented stimuli to the left or right of fixation at encoding, followed by an episodic memory test with centrally presented retrieval cues. This allowed us to track the reactivation of lateralized sensory memory traces during retrieval. Successful episodic retrieval led to a very early (∼100-200 ms) reactivation of lateralized alpha/beta (10-25 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) power decreases in the visual cortex contralateral to the visual field at encoding. Applying rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation to interfere with early retrieval processing in the visual cortex led to decreased episodic memory performance specifically for items encoded in the visual field contralateral to the site of stimulation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that episodic memory functionally relies on very rapid reactivation of sensory information. Remembering personal experiences requires a "mental time travel" to revisit sensory information perceived in the past. This process is typically described as a controlled, relatively slow process. However, by using electroencephalography to measure neural activity with a high time resolution, we show that such episodic retrieval entails a very rapid reactivation of sensory brain areas. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to alter brain function during retrieval revealed that this early sensory reactivation is causally relevant for conscious remembering. These results give first neural evidence for a functional, preconscious component of episodic remembering. This provides new insight into the nature of human memory and may help in the understanding of psychiatric conditions that involve the automatic intrusion of unwanted memories. Copyright

  4. Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues.

  5. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on sensory function in persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) have only identified pressure pain threshold to be significantly different from pain-free patients despite several patients reporting cutaneous pain and wind-up phenomena. However the limited number of patients studied...... hinders evaluation of potential subgroups for further investigation and/or treatment allocation. Thus we used a standardized QST protocol to evaluate sensory functions in PPP and pain-free control patients, to allow individual sensory characterization of pain patients from calculated Z-values. Seventy PPP...... patients with pain related impairment of everyday activities were compared with normative data from 40 pain-free postherniotomy patients operated>1 year previously. Z-values showed a large variation in sensory disturbances ranging from pronounced detection hypoesthesia (Z=6, cold) to pain hyperalgesia (Z...

  6. The Chemical Background for Sensory Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan

    or consumer panels. Sensory evaluation is a primary measurement for providing immediate information of human perception on the products. Instrumental methods give objective analysis of compounds that potentially contribute to food flavour. These two kinds of analysis, basically, give different types...... of information about food flavour but correlate to each other. The exploration of relationships between sensory and instrumental data is one important aspect for fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of sensory perception. This thesis has investigated the importance and limitation of aroma analysis...... closer towards the direct link between volatiles and sensory sensation. In Study 5, GC-O results showed that esters were the main odour active compounds which contribute to fruity notes of Solaris wine. An optimized APCI-MS/MS method in monitoring in nose (in vivo) aroma release for select odour active...

  7. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2010-01-01

    patients with pain related impairment of everyday activities were compared with normative data from 40 pain-free postherniotomy patients operated>1 year previously. Z-values showed a large variation in sensory disturbances ranging from pronounced detection hypoesthesia (Z=6, cold) to pain hyperalgesia (Z......Previous studies on sensory function in persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) have only identified pressure pain threshold to be significantly different from pain-free patients despite several patients reporting cutaneous pain and wind-up phenomena. However the limited number of patients studied...... hinders evaluation of potential subgroups for further investigation and/or treatment allocation. Thus we used a standardized QST protocol to evaluate sensory functions in PPP and pain-free control patients, to allow individual sensory characterization of pain patients from calculated Z-values. Seventy PPP...

  8. ANALISIS SENSORI RUSIP DARI SUNGAILIAT-BANGKA

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    Dyah Koesoemawardani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the sensory properties of rusip from traditional market in Sungailiat-Bangka. Purposed sampling was used to collect the samples, and sensory analysis was done by using free choice profiling (FCP and focus groups method. The Results shows that sensory properties of raw rusip were opaq, thick, and partly mashy.. The colors were grey, brown and very dark brown. The dominant taste were salty, sour, bitter, and the sensation to the tongue was burned and ichy. The aromas formed were fishy, acidic, and rotten. In addition it was also noticed terasi and sardine-like aromas. Keyword : rusip, Bangka, sensory, free choice profiling, focus groups

  9. Sensory deprivation leading to late onset psychosis

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    Swapnajeet Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory deprivation is understood as diminution or absence of perceptual experiences to the usual external stimuli. Sensory deprivation in elderly is reported to be associated with depression, anxiety, psychosis, dementia, etc. In this report, we present the case of an 84-year- elderly man who developed auditory hallucination and after 1 year of onset of hearing difficulties. He was managed with quetiapine, with which he showed significant improvement.

  10. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  11. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L A; Hills, P J; Dick, K M; Jones, S P; Bright, P

    2016-02-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  13. Sensorial saturation for neonatal analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo V; Cordelli, Duccio M; Marchi, Simonetta; Ceccarelli, Simona; Perrone, Serafina; Maffei, Marianna; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a procedure in which touch, massage, taste, voice, smell, and sight compete with pain, producing almost complete analgesia during heel prick in neonates. SS is an apparently complex maneuvre, but when correctly explained it is easily learnt. In the present paper, we studied its feasibility, assessing whether a long training is really needed to achieve good results. We enrolled 66 consecutive babies and divided them randomly into 3 groups which received the following forms of analgesia: glucose plus sucking (A), SS performed by nurses (B), SS performed by mothers (C). We did not use perfume on the caregivers' hands, so that babies could smell the natural scent of the hands. We assessed pain level by the ABC scale. Median scores of groups A, B, and C were: 1 (0 to 6), 0 (0 to 4), and 0 (0 to 6), respectively. Mean scores were: 0.6, 0.6, and 1.7 and standard errors were 0.38, 0.22, and 0.32, respectively. Scores of groups B and C were significantly lower than that of A (P=0.03 and 0.006, respectively). No significant difference was found between values of scores of groups B and C. Even without the use of perfume on the hands, SS was effective as an analgesic maneuvre. It made no difference whether SS was performed by mothers who applied it for the first time or experienced nurses. SS is rapid to learn and any caregiver (mother, pediatrician or nurse) can effectively use it.

  14. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  15. Excessive Sensory Stimulation during Development Alters Neural Plasticity and Vulnerability to Cocaine in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, Shilpa; Donckels, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Julian S B; Christakis, Dimitri A; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Ferguson, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks, which can have a profound impact on brain function and behavior later in life. Previous work has shown that mice exposed to excessive sensory stimulation during development are hyperactive and novelty seeking, and display impaired cognition compared with controls. In this study, we addressed the issue of whether excessive sensory stimulation during development could alter behaviors related to addiction and underlying circuitry in CD-1 mice. We found that the reinforcing properties of cocaine were significantly enhanced in mice exposed to excessive sensory stimulation. Moreover, although these mice displayed hyperactivity that became more pronounced over time, they showed impaired persistence of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. These behavioral effects were associated with alterations in glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Together, these findings suggest that excessive sensory stimulation in early life significantly alters drug reward and the neural circuits that regulate addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity. These observations highlight the consequences of early life experiences and may have important implications for children growing up in today's complex technological environment.

  16. Six1 is a key regulator of the developmental and evolutionary architecture of sensory neurons in craniates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Ochi, Haruki; Ikeda, Keiko; Sato, Shigeru; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Ogino, Hajime; Ueno, Naoto; Kawakami, Kiyoshi

    2014-05-29

    Various senses and sensory nerve architectures of animals have evolved during adaptation to exploit diverse environments. In craniates, the trunk sensory system has evolved from simple mechanosensory neurons inside the spinal cord (intramedullary), called Rohon-Beard (RB) cells, to multimodal sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) outside the spinal cord (extramedullary). The fish and amphibian trunk sensory systems switch from RB cells to DRG during development, while amniotes rely exclusively on the DRG system. The mechanisms underlying the ontogenic switching and its link to phylogenetic transition remain unknown. In Xenopus, Six1 overexpression promoted precocious apoptosis of RB cells and emergence of extramedullary sensory neurons, whereas Six1 knockdown delayed the reduction in RB cell number. Genetic ablation of Six1 and Six4 in mice led to the appearance of intramedullary sensory neuron-like cells as a result of medial migration of neural crest cells into the spinal cord and production of immature DRG neurons and fused DRG. Restoration of SIX1 expression in the neural crest-linage partially rescued the phenotype, indicating the cell autonomous requirements of SIX1 for normal extramedullary sensory neurogenesis. Mouse Six1 enhancer that mediates the expression in DRG neurons activated transcription in Xenopus RB cells earlier than endogenous six1 expression, suggesting earlier onset of mouse SIX1 expression than Xenopus during sensory development. The results indicated the critical role of Six1 in transition of RB cells to DRG neurons during Xenopus development and establishment of exclusive DRG system of mice. The study provided evidence that early appearance of SIX1 expression, which correlated with mouse Six1 enhancer, is essential for the formation of DRG-dominant system in mice, suggesting that heterochronic changes in Six1 enhancer sequence play an important role in alteration of trunk sensory architecture and contribute to the evolution of the

  17. The Efficiency of Sensory Integration Interventions in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekçetin, Serkan; Akı, Esra; Üstünyurt, Zeynep; Kayıhan, Hülya

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of individualized sensory integration interventions on the sensory processing functions of preterm infants. Thirty-four preterm infants (intervention group) at a corrected age of seven months and 34 term infants (control group) were included. The preterm infants underwent an eight-week sensory integration intervention. Before and after the intervention, the preterm infants' sensory processing functions were evaluated using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants and compared with those of term infants. Preterm infants had significantly poorer sensory processing function preintervention when compared with term infants. There was a significant improvement in preterm infants' sensory processing functions after the sensory integration intervention. In conclusion, preterm infants should be evaluated for sensory processing disorders and individualized sensory integration interventions should be implemented. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Aging effects on functional auditory and visual processing using fMRI with variable sensory loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Michael; Joyce, Dan W; Lamar, Melissa; Dannhauser, Thomas; Tracy, Derek K; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, studies investigating the functional implications of age-related structural brain alterations have focused on higher cognitive processes; by increasing stimulus load, these studies assess behavioral and neurophysiological performance. In order to understand age-related changes in these higher cognitive processes, it is crucial to examine changes in visual and auditory processes that are the gateways to higher cognitive functions. This study provides evidence for age-related functional decline in visual and auditory processing, and regional alterations in functional brain processing, using non-invasive neuroimaging. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), younger (n=11; mean age=31) and older (n=10; mean age=68) adults were imaged while observing flashing checkerboard images (passive visual stimuli) and hearing word lists (passive auditory stimuli) across varying stimuli presentation rates. Younger adults showed greater overall levels of temporal and occipital cortical activation than older adults for both auditory and visual stimuli. The relative change in activity as a function of stimulus presentation rate showed differences between young and older participants. In visual cortex, the older group showed a decrease in fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal magnitude as stimulus frequency increased, whereas the younger group showed a linear increase. In auditory cortex, the younger group showed a relative increase as a function of word presentation rate, while older participants showed a relatively stable magnitude of fMRI BOLD response across all rates. When analyzing participants across all ages, only the auditory cortical activation showed a continuous, monotonically decreasing BOLD signal magnitude as a function of age. Our preliminary findings show an age-related decline in demand-related, passive early sensory processing. As stimulus demand increases, visual and auditory cortex do not show increases in activity in older

  19. Sensory shelf-life limiting factor of high hydrostatic pressure processed avocado paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Velázquez, D A; Hernández-Brenes, C

    2011-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing pasteurizes avocado paste without a significant impact on flavor. Although HHP-treated avocado paste stored under refrigeration is safe for human consumption for months, sensory changes taking place during storage cause the rejection of the product by consumers within days. Although it is known that the shelf life of the product ends before its microbial counts are high, its sensory shelf life limiting factor remains unknown. The present study focused on the use of a trained panel and a consumer panel to determine the sensory shelf life limiting factor of HHP-treated avocado paste. The trained panel identified sour and rancid flavors as the main sensory descriptors (critical descriptors) that differentiated stored from freshly processed samples. Further data obtained from consumers identified sour flavor as the main cause for a significant decrease in the acceptability (shelf life limiting factor) of refrigerated HHP-treated avocado paste. The study allowed the elucidation of a proposed deterioration mechanism for HHP-treated avocado paste during its refrigerated shelf life. The information through this work enhances scientific knowledge of the product and proposes the sour flavor development during storage as a relevant sensory attribute that needs to be improved in order to enhance the product shelf life. At present, HHP is the most effective commercial nonthermal technology to process avocado paste when compared to thermal and chemical alternatives. HHP-treated avocado paste is a microbiologically stable food for a period of at least 45 d stored under refrigeration. However, previous published work indicated that consumers rejected the product after approximately 19 d of storage due to sensory changes. This manuscript presents a sensory study that permitted the identification of the critical sensory descriptor that is acting as the sensory shelf life limiting factor of the product. The data presented herein along with

  20. Modified prenatal sensory stimulation influences postnatal behavioral and perceptual responsiveness in bobwhite quail chicks (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D; Lickliter, Robert

    2004-06-01

    Asynchronous bimodal stimulation during prenatal development elicits higher levels of behavioral and physiological arousal in precocial avian embryos than does unimodal sensory stimulation. To investigate whether the increased arousal associated with prenatal bimodal stimulation has enduring effects into postnatal development, bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos received no supplemental stimulation, unimodal auditory stimulation, or bimodal (audiovisual) stimulation prior to hatching. Embryos exposed to concurrent bimodal stimulation demonstrated greater levels of behavioral activity and failed to use maternal visual cues to successfully direct species-specific perceptual preferences following hatching. These results provide initial evidence that asynchronous bimodal sensory stimulation during prenatal development can have enduring effects on early postnatal behavioral arousal and perceptual responsiveness and suggest that developmental limitations on prenatal sensory stimulation play an important role in the emergence of species-typical behavior.

  1. Risk prediction and impaired tactile sensory perception among cancer patients during chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Lima Ramos Cardoso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to estimate the prevalence of impaired tactile sensory perception, identify risk factors, and establish a risk prediction model among adult patients receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy. Method: historical cohort study based on information obtained from the medical files of 127 patients cared for in the cancer unit of a private hospital in a city in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics, with survival and multivariate analysis by Cox regression. Results: 57% of the 127 patients included in the study developed impaired tactile sensory perception. The independent variables that caused significant impact, together with time elapsed from the beginning of treatment up to the onset of the condition, were: bone, hepatic and regional lymph node metastases; alcoholism; palliative chemotherapy; and discomfort in lower limbs. Conclusion: impaired tactile sensory perception was common among adult patients during chemotherapy, indicating the need to implement interventions designed for early identification and treatment of this condition.

  2. Developing Healthy Food Preferences in Preschool Children Through Taste Exposure, Sensory Learning, and Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekitsing, Chandani; Hetherington, Marion M; Blundell-Birtill, Pam

    2018-02-14

    The present review was undertaken in order to summarize and evaluate recent research investigating taste exposure, sensory learning, and nutrition education interventions for promoting vegetable intake in preschool children. Overall, taste exposure interventions yielded the best outcomes for increasing vegetable intake in early childhood. Evidence from sensory learning strategies such as visual exposure and experiential learning also show some success. While nutrition education remains the most common approach used in preschool settings, additional elements are needed to strengthen the educational program for increasing vegetable intake. There is a substantial gap in the evidence base to promote vegetable intake in food fussy children. The present review reveals the relative importance of different intervention strategies for promoting vegetable intake. To strengthen intervention effects for improving vegetable intake in preschool children, future research could consider integrating taste exposure and sensory learning strategies with nutrition education within the preschool curriculum.

  3. The Applicability of the Short Sensory Profile for Screening Sensory Processing Disorders among Israeli Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the applicability of the short sensory profile (SSP) for screening sensory processing disorders (SPDs) among typical children in Israel, and to evaluate the relationship between SPDs and socio-demographic parameters. Participants were 395 Israeli children, aged 3 years to 10 years 11 months, with typical…

  4. Learning about Sensory Integration Dysfunction: Strategies to Meet Young Children's Sensory Needs at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stacy D.; Rains, Kari W.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners and parents are seeking ways to help children who are not able to integrate sensory information; this has generated recent media attention. A child's inability to integrate sensory information can have implications for the whole family and their everyday routines. Research conducted by occupational therapists has provided a rich…

  5. Can Sensory Gallery Guides for Children with Sensory Processing Challenges Improve Their Museum Experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Tina S.; Blake, Amanda B.; Shelffo, Kathleen E.

    2018-01-01

    Children routinely visit art museums as part of their educational experience and family time, many of them having special needs. The number of children diagnosed with autism and sensory processing disorders is increasing. These conditions may include heightened sensory "avoiding" or "seeking" behaviors that can interfere with a…

  6. Cross-sensory facilitation reveals neural interactions between visual and tactile motion in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eGori

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies show that the human brain integrates information across the different senses and that stimuli of one sensory modality can enhance the perception of other modalities. Here we study the processes that mediate cross-modal facilitation and summation between visual and tactile motion. We find that while summation produced a generic, non-specific improvement of thresholds, probably reflecting higher-order interaction of decision signals, facilitation reveals a strong, direction-specific interaction, which we believe reflects sensory interactions. We measured visual and tactile velocity discrimination thresholds over a wide range of base velocities and conditions. Thresholds for both visual and tactile stimuli showed the characteristic dipper function, with the minimum thresholds occurring at a given pedestal speed. When visual and tactile coherent stimuli were combined (summation condition the thresholds for these multi-sensory stimuli also showed a dipper function with the minimum thresholds occurring in a similar range to that for unisensory signals. However, the improvement of multisensory thresholds was weak and not directionally specific, well predicted by the maximum likelihood estimation model (agreeing with previous research. A different technique (facilitation did, however, reveal direction-specific enhancement. Adding a non-informative pedestal motion stimulus in one sensory modality (vision or touch selectively lowered thresholds in the other, by the same amount as pedestals in the same modality. Facilitation did not occur for neutral stimuli like sounds (that would also have reduced temporal uncertainty, nor for motion in opposite direction, even in blocked trials where the subjects knew that the motion was in the opposite direction showing that the facilitation was not under subject control. Cross-sensory facilitation is strong evidence for functionally relevant cross-sensory integration at early levels of sensory

  7. Anti-Hebbian Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity and Adaptive Sensory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Roberts

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive processing influences the central nervous system's interpretation of incoming sensory information. One of the functions of this adaptative sensory processing is to allow the nervous system to ignore predictable sensory information so that it may focus on important new information needed to improve performance of specific tasks. The mechanism of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP has proven to be intriguing in this context because of its dual role in long-term memory and ongoing adaptation to maintain optimal tuning of neural responses. Some of the clearest links between STDP and adaptive sensory processing have come from in vitro, in vivo, and modeling studies of the electrosensory systems of fish. Plasticity in such systems is anti-Hebbian, i.e. presynaptic inputs that repeatedly precede and hence could contribute to a postsynaptic neuron’s firing are weakened. The learning dynamics of anti-Hebbian STDP learning rules are stable if the timing relations obey strict constraints. The stability of these learning rules leads to clear predictions of how functional consequences can arise from the detailed structure of the plasticity. Here we review the connection between theoretical predictions and functional consequences of anti-Hebbian STDP, focusing on adaptive processing in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish. After introducing electrosensory adaptive processing and the dynamics of anti-Hebbian STDP learning rules, we address issues of predictive sensory cancellation and novelty detection, descending control of plasticity, synaptic scaling, and optimal sensory tuning. We conclude with examples in other systems where these principles may apply.

  8. Physiological and behavioral differences in sensory processing: a comparison of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah A Schoen; Sarah A Schoen; Sarah A Schoen; Lucy J Miller; Lucy J Miller; Lucy J Miller; Barbara A Brett-Green; Barbara A Brett-Green; Darci M Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    A high incidence of sensory processing difficulties exists in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and children with idiopathic Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD). This is the first study to directly compare and contrast these clinical disorders. Sympathetic nervous system markers of arousal and reactivity were utilized in a laboratory paradigm that administered a series of sensory challenges across five sensory domains. The Short Sensory Profile, a standardized parent-report measure,...

  9. Physiological and Behavioral Differences in Sensory Processing: A Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Schoen, Sarah A.; Miller, Lucy J.; Brett-Green, Barbara A.; Nielsen, Darci M.

    2009-01-01

    A high incidence of sensory processing difficulties exists in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and children with Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD). This is the first study to directly compare and contrast these clinical disorders. Sympathetic nervous system markers of arousal and reactivity were utilized in a laboratory paradigm that administered a series of sensory challenges across five sensory domains. The Short Sensory Profile, a standardized parent-report measure, provided a ...

  10. Enriched and Deprived Sensory Experience Induces Structural Changes and Rewires Connectivity during the Postnatal Development of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkaitz Bengoetxea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, sensory experience modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during the critical period, when the functional and structural properties of cortical neurons are particularly susceptible to alterations. Although the time course for experience-mediated sensory development is specific for each system, postnatal development acts as a whole, and if one cortical area is deprived of its normal sensory inputs during early stages, it will be reorganized by the nondeprived senses in a process of cross-modal plasticity that not only increases performance in the remaining senses when one is deprived, but also rewires the brain allowing the deprived cortex to process inputs from other senses and cortices, maintaining the modular configuration. This paper summarizes our current understanding of sensory systems development, focused specially in the visual system. It delineates sensory enhancement and sensory deprivation effects at both physiological and anatomical levels and describes the use of enriched environment as a tool to rewire loss of brain areas to enhance other active senses. Finally, strategies to apply restorative features in human-deprived senses are studied, discussing the beneficial and detrimental effects of cross-modal plasticity in prostheses and sensory substitution devices implantation.

  11. Stability and selectivity of a chronic, multi-contact cuff electrode for sensory stimulation in human amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, J Robert; Tyler, Dustin J

    2015-04-01

    Stability and selectivity are important when restoring long-term, functional sensory feedback in individuals with limb-loss. Our objective is to demonstrate a chronic, clinical neural stimulation system for providing selective sensory response in two upper-limb amputees. Multi-contact cuff electrodes were implanted in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves of the upper-limb. Nerve stimulation produced a selective sensory response on 19 of 20 contacts and 16 of 16 contacts in subjects 1 and 2, respectively. Stimulation elicited multiple, distinct percept areas on the phantom and residual limb. Consistent threshold, impedance, and percept areas have demonstrated that the neural interface is stable for the duration of this on-going, chronic study. We have achieved selective nerve response from multi-contact cuff electrodes by demonstrating characteristic percept areas and thresholds for each contact. Selective sensory response remains consistent in two upper-limb amputees for 1 and 2 years, the longest multi-contact sensory feedback system to date. Our approach demonstrates selectivity and stability can be achieved through an extraneural interface, which can provide sensory feedback to amputees.

  12. Effects of polysialic acid on sensory innervation of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiuli; Zhang, Yuntao; Schwend, Tyler; Conrad, Gary W

    2015-02-15

    Sensory trigeminal growth cones innervate the cornea in a coordinated fashion during embryonic development. Polysialic acid (polySia) is known for its important roles during nerve development and regeneration. The purpose of this work is to determine whether polySia, present in developing eyefronts and on the surface of sensory nerves, may provide guidance cues to nerves during corneal innervation. Expression and localization of polySia in embryonic day (E)5-14 chick eyefronts and E9 trigeminal ganglia were identified using Western blotting and immunostaining. Effects of polySia removal on trigeminal nerve growth behavior were determined in vivo, using exogenous endoneuraminidase (endoN) treatments to remove polySia substrates during chick cornea development, and in vitro, using neuronal explant cultures. PolySia substrates, made by the physical adsorption of colominic acid to a surface coated with poly-d-lysine (PDL), were used as a model to investigate functions of the polySia expressed in axonal environments. PolySia was localized within developing eyefronts and on trigeminal sensory nerves. Distributions of PolySia in corneas and pericorneal regions are developmentally regulated. PolySia removal caused defasciculation of the limbal nerve trunk in vivo from E7 to E10. Removal of polySia on trigeminal neurites inhibited neurite outgrowth and caused axon defasciculation, but did not affect Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM) expression or Schwann cell migration in vitro. PolySia substrates in vitro inhibited outgrowth of trigeminal neurites and promoted their fasciculation. In conclusion, polySia is localized on corneal nerves and in their targeting environment during early developing stages of chick embryos. PolySias promote fasciculation of trigeminal axons in vivo and in vitro, whereas, in contrast, their removal promotes defasciculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A single high dose of escitalopram disrupts sensory gating and habituation, but not sensorimotor gating in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oranje, Bob; Wienberg, Malene; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2011-01-01

    Early mechanisms to limit the input of sensory information to higher brain areas are important for a healthy individual. In previous studies, we found that a low dose of 10mg escitalopram (SSRI) disrupts habituation, without affecting sensory and sensorimotor gating in healthy volunteers. In the ......Early mechanisms to limit the input of sensory information to higher brain areas are important for a healthy individual. In previous studies, we found that a low dose of 10mg escitalopram (SSRI) disrupts habituation, without affecting sensory and sensorimotor gating in healthy volunteers....... In the current study a higher dose of 15mg was used. The hypothesis was that this higher dose of escitalopram would not only disrupt habituation, but also sensory and sensorimotor gating. Twenty healthy male volunteers received either placebo or 15mg escitalopram, after which they were tested in a P50...... suppression, and a habituation and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex paradigm. Escitalopram significantly decreased P50 suppression and habituation, but had no effect on PPI. The results indicate that habituation and sensory gating are disrupted by increased serotonergic activity, while...

  14. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation i...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species......Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...... in species and storage time (1-9 clays) in ice at OC. An initial list containing 46 descriptive words derived from panel, panel leaders and literature was reduced in two steps to 15 words. The vocabulary development was split up in five "qualitative" and seven "quantitative" sessions with relevant references...

  15. Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta

    2015-12-01

    Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conversion of sensory signals into perceptual decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Ranulfo; de Lafuente, Victor

    2013-04-01

    A fundamental problem in neurobiology is to understand how brain circuits represent sensory information and how such representations give rise to perception, memory and decision-making. We demonstrate that a sensory stimulus engages multiple areas of the cerebral cortex, including primary sensory, prefrontal, premotor and motor cortices. As information transverses the cortical circuits it shows progressively more relation to perception, memory and decision reports. In particular, we show how somatosensory areas on the parietal lobe generate a parameterized representation of a tactile stimulus. This representation is maintained in working memory by prefrontal and premotor areas of the frontal lobe. The presentation of a second stimulus, that monkeys are trained to compare with the first, generates decision-related activity reflecting which stimulus had the higher frequency. Importantly, decision-related activity is observed across several cortical circuits including prefrontal, premotor and parietal cortices. Sensory information is encoded by neuronal populations with opposite tuning, and suggests that a simple subtraction operation could be the underlying mechanism by which past and present sensory information is compared to generate perceptual decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plantar Sole Unweighting Alters the Sensory Transmission to the Cortical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Mouchnino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that somatosensory inputs to the cortex undergo an early and a later stage of processing. The later has been shown to be enhanced when the earlier transmission decreased. In this framework, mechanical factors such as the mechanical stress to which sensors are subjected when wearing a loaded vest are associated with a decrease in sensory transmission. This decrease is in turn associated with an increase in the late sensory processes originating from cortical areas. We hypothesized that unweighting the plantar sole should lead to a facilitation of the sensory transmission. To test this hypothesis, we recorded cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs of individuals following cutaneous stimulation (by mean of an electrical stimulation of the foot sole in different conditions of unweighting when standing still with eyes closed. To this end, the effective bodyweight (BW was reduced from 100% BW to 40% BW. Contrary to what was expected, we found an attenuation of sensory information when the BW was unweighted to 41% which was not compensated by an increase of the late SEP component. Overall these results suggested that the attenuation of sensory transmission observed in 40 BW condition was not solely due to the absence of forces acting on the sole of the feet but rather to the current relevance of the afferent signals related to the balance constraints of the task.

  18. Sensory integration intervention and the development of the premature infant: A controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuona, E; Van Jaarsveld, A; Raubenheimer, J; Van Heerden, R

    2017-10-31

    Premature infants are at risk of sensory processing difficulties and developmental delays due to an immature central nervous system and possible episodes of medical instability, discomfort, pain and stress during the first weeks or months after birth. To investigate the effect of Ayres Sensory Integration (ASI) on the development of premature infants in the first 12 months of life. A pre-/post-test experimental design was used to randomly divide 24 premature infants from a low socioeconomic setting in Bloemfontein, South Africa, into experimental and control groups after being matched by corrected age and gender. Developmental status was determined with the Bayley III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile. The experimental group received 10 weeks of ASI intervention. ASI intervention had a positive effect on the sensory processing and development of premature infants, especially in terms of cognitive, language and motor development. ASI intervention at an early age enhances the developmental progress of premature infants.

  19. Sensory and motor characterization in the postnatal valproate rat model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stacey; Millette, Alexandre; Devine, Darragh P

    2012-01-01

    Although autism is diagnosed according to three core features of social deficits, communication impairments, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors, other behavioral features such as sensory and motor impairments are present in more than 70% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Exposure of rat pups to the teratogen valproate during sensitive periods of brain development has been shown to elicit behavioral features associated with autism diagnosis and has been proposed as a valid animal model of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to characterize sensory and motor performance in rats postnatally treated with valproate. Thirty-four rat pups were injected with either valproate (150 mg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 6-12. Auditory and tactile startle as well as auditory sensory gating was assessed during both the juvenile and adolescent stages of development; motor testing was conducted during late adolescence and included a sunflower seed eating task and a vermicelli handling task. Valproate-treated rats were underresponsive to auditory stimuli, showed deficits in auditory sensory gating, and demonstrated impairments in motor speed and performance. These findings suggest that postnatal valproate treatment elicits sensory and motor features often seen in individuals with ASD. Further, the hyposensitivity seen in postnatally valproate-treated rats contrasted with hypersensitivity previously reported in prenatally valproate-exposed rats. This suggests that timing of teratogenic exposure during early brain development may be important to consider when investigating the neurobiological basis of sensorimotor impairments in ASD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Physiological and behavioral differences in sensory processing: a comparison of children with autism spectrum disorder and sensory modulation disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Sarah A; Miller, Lucy J; Brett-Green, Barbara A; Nielsen, Darci M

    2009-01-01

    A high incidence of sensory processing difficulties exists in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and children with Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD). This is the first study to directly compare and contrast these clinical disorders. Sympathetic nervous system markers of arousal and reactivity were utilized in a laboratory paradigm that administered a series of sensory challenges across five sensory domains. The Short Sensory Profile, a standardized parent-report measure, provided a measure of sensory-related behaviors. Physiological arousal and sensory reactivity were lower in children with ASD whereas reactivity after each sensory stimulus was higher in SMD, particularly to the first stimulus in each sensory domain. Both clinical groups had significantly more sensory-related behaviors than typically developing children, with contrasting profiles. The ASD group had more taste/smell sensitivity and sensory under-responsivity while the SMD group had more atypical sensory seeking behavior. This study provides preliminary evidence distinguishing sympathetic nervous system functions and sensory-related behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder. Differentiating the physiology and sensory symptoms in clinical groups is essential to the provision of appropriate interventions.

  1. Physiological and behavioral differences in sensory processing: a comparison of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Schoen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A high incidence of sensory processing difficulties exists in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and children with idiopathic Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD. This is the first study to directly compare and contrast these clinical disorders. Sympathetic nervous system markers of arousal and reactivity were utilized in a laboratory paradigm that administered a series of sensory challenges across five sensory domains. The Short Sensory Profile, a standardized parent-report measure, provided a measure of sensory-related behaviors. Physiological arousal and sensory reactivity were lower in children with ASD whereas reactivity after each sensory stimulus was higher in SMD, particularly to the first stimulus in each sensory domain. Both clinical groups had significantly more sensory-related behaviors than typically developing children, with contrasting profiles. The ASD group had more taste/smell sensitivity and sensory under-responsivity while the SMD group had more atypical sensory seeking behavior. This study provides preliminary evidence distinguishing sympathetic nervous system functions and sensory-related behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder. Differentiating the physiology and sensory symptoms in clinical groups is essential to the provision of appropriate interventions.

  2. Physiological and Behavioral Differences in Sensory Processing: A Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Sarah A.; Miller, Lucy J.; Brett-Green, Barbara A.; Nielsen, Darci M.

    2009-01-01

    A high incidence of sensory processing difficulties exists in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and children with Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD). This is the first study to directly compare and contrast these clinical disorders. Sympathetic nervous system markers of arousal and reactivity were utilized in a laboratory paradigm that administered a series of sensory challenges across five sensory domains. The Short Sensory Profile, a standardized parent-report measure, provided a measure of sensory-related behaviors. Physiological arousal and sensory reactivity were lower in children with ASD whereas reactivity after each sensory stimulus was higher in SMD, particularly to the first stimulus in each sensory domain. Both clinical groups had significantly more sensory-related behaviors than typically developing children, with contrasting profiles. The ASD group had more taste/smell sensitivity and sensory under-responsivity while the SMD group had more atypical sensory seeking behavior. This study provides preliminary evidence distinguishing sympathetic nervous system functions and sensory-related behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder. Differentiating the physiology and sensory symptoms in clinical groups is essential to the provision of appropriate interventions. PMID:19915733

  3. Sensorial evaluation genuineness of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Tomášek

    2008-01-01

    seems less typical and characteristic substitute in evaluation.Riesling rhine – the most suitable location was chosen vineyard Šobes by judges, which gives incommutable features to smell and taste by sandy soils of Dyje massif above river Dyje. A specimen No. 9 represented the smell; specimens No. 10 and 11 were evaluated as average and untypical. They had quite different features in recognizing vintages.The authenticity was extended by sensorial evaluation and at the same time the outstanding locations were chosen, which can give wines of unusual quantity every year in connecting certain variety. The most suitable locations for singular type of wine with extending authenticity are Riesling rhine – vineyard Šobes, Sauvignon blanc – vineyard Knížecí vrch, Veltliner grun – vineyard Weinperky.

  4. Sensory processing problems in children with ADHD, a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    One of the most common psychiatric disorders in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Its course and outcome are heterogeneous. Sensory processing problems impact the nature of response to daily events. ADHD and sensory problems may occur together and interact. No published review article about sensory processing problems in children with ADHD were found. A systematic search, conducted on Pub-Med (up to January 2010), and Google Scholar, yielded 255 abstracts on sensory processing problems in children including 11 studies about sensory problems in children with ADHD. Sensory processing problems in children with ADHD is not a well studied area. Sensory processing problems in children with ADHD are more common than in typically developing children. Findings do not support that ADHD subtypes are distinct disorders with regard to sensory processing problems. However, co-morbidity with oppositional defiant disorder and anxiety are predictors of more severe sensory processing problems in children with ADHD.

  5. Age differences in visual sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D A; Thompson, L W

    1978-05-01

    Age differences in visual sensory memory were studied using the direct measure procedure of Haber and Standing (1969) -- the longest interstimulus interval at which subjects reported a single stimulus as continuous was measured. The visual storage of the young (mean age 24 years) was found to persist for 289 msec compared to 248 for the old (mean age 67 years). Similar estimates of sensory memory duration were obtained when either monoptic or dichoptic stimulus presentations were employed, supporting the idea that visual storage is centrally mediated for both age groups. The relevance of these findings for age differences in the registration of information into primary and secondary memory and their implications for the stimulus persistence hypothesis are considered. The appropriateness and validity of the persistence of form task for studies of sensory memory and aging are also discussed.

  6. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2000-01-01

    in species and storage time (1-9 clays) in ice at OC. An initial list containing 46 descriptive words derived from panel, panel leaders and literature was reduced in two steps to 15 words. The vocabulary development was split up in five "qualitative" and seven "quantitative" sessions with relevant references......Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species...

  7. Comparing location memory for 4 sensory modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Smeets, Monique A M; Postma, Albert

    2010-02-01

    Stimuli from all sensory modalities can be linked to places and thus might serve as navigation cues. We compared performance for 4 sensory modalities in a location memory task: Black-and-white drawings of free forms (vision), 1-s manipulated environmental sounds (audition), surface textures of natural and artificial materials (touch), and unfamiliar smells (olfaction) were presented in 10 cubes. In the learning stage, participants walked to a cube, opened it, and perceived its content. Subsequently, in a relocation task, they placed each stimulus back in its original location. Although the proportion of correct locations selected just failed to yield significant differences between the modalities, the proportion of stimuli placed in the vicinity of the correct location or on the correct side of the room was significantly higher for vision than for touch, olfaction, and audition. These outcomes suggest that approximate location memory is superior for vision compared with other sensory modalities.

  8. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  9. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  10. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler.

  11. Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ∼24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Estrabismo sensorial: estudo de 191 casos

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Bráulio Folco Telles de; Bigolin,Silvane; Souza,Murilo Barreto; Polati,Mariza

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar os prontuários dos pacientes com estrabismo sensorial em aspectos variados, como etiologia, tipo e medida do desvio, correlação do tipo do desvio com a idade de aparecimento da doença de base, e resultado cirúrgico dos casos operados. MÉTODOS: Avaliação dos prontuários médicos dos pacientes com estrabismo sensorial atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - USP - no setor de Motilidade Ocular Extrínseca, no período de setembro ...

  13. Feldenkrais sensory imagery and forward reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, P A; Rogers, D K

    2000-12-01

    To investigate the effect of sensory imagery on subsequent movement, a unilateral Fleldenkrais lesson of imaging a soft bristle brush passing over one half of the body and in which no movement occurred, was given to 12 naive subjects. Forward flexion for each side of the body was measured at a sit-and-reach box. For 8 and 10 subjects who reported the perception of a side as being longer and lighter following the sensory imagery, there was also a significant increase in the forward flexion range on that side.

  14. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  15. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  16. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  17. Classification of children with autism spectrum disorder by sensory subtype: a case for sensory-based phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E; Molloy, Cynthia A; Bishop, Somer L

    2014-06-01

    This study examines whether sensory differences can be used to classify meaningful subgroups of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers of children with ASD aged 2-10 years (n = 228) completed the Short Sensory Profile. Model-based cluster analysis was used to extract sensory subtypes. The relationship of these subtypes to age, gender, autism symptom severity, and nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) was further explored. Four distinct sensory subtypes were identified: (a) sensory adaptive; (b) taste smell sensitive; (c) postural inattentive; and (d) generalized sensory difference. The sensory subtypes differ from each other on two dimensions: (a) the severity of reported sensory differences; and (b) the focus of differences across auditory, taste, smell, vestibular and proprioceptive domains. Examination of the clinical features of each subtype reveals two possible mechanisms of sensory disturbance in autism: (a) sensory hyperreactivity; and (b) difficulties with multisensory processing. Further, the sensory subtypes are not well explained by other variables such as age, gender, IQ, and autism symptom severity. We conclude that classification of children using sensory differences offers a promising method by which to identify phenotypes in ASD. Sensory-based phenotypes may be useful in identifying behavioral features responsive to specific interventions thereby improving intervention effectiveness. Further validation of the sensory-based phenotypes by establishing neural and physiological correlates is recommended. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Clinical neurophysiology and quantitative sensory testing in the investigation of orofacial pain and sensory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. Some conditions, such as atypical facial pain, still lack proper diagnostic criteria, and their etiology is not known. The recent development of neurophysiological methods and quantitative sensory testing for the examination of the trigeminal somatosensory system offers several tools for diagnostic and etiological investigation of orofacial pain. This review presents some of these techniques and the results of their application in studies on orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Clinical neurophysiological investigation has greater diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than clinical examination in the detection of the neurogenic abnormalities of either peripheral or central origin that may underlie symptoms of orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Neurophysiological testing may also reveal trigeminal pathology when magnetic resonance imaging has failed to detect it, so these methods should be considered complementary to each other in the investigation of orofacial pain patients. The blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw jerk, sensory neurography of the inferior alveolar nerve, and the recording of trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials with near-nerve stimulation have all proved to be sensitive and reliable in the detection of dysfunction of the myelinated sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve or its central connections within the brainstem. With appropriately small thermodes, thermal quantitative sensory testing is useful for the detection of trigeminal small-fiber dysfunction (Adelta and C). In neuropathic conditions, it is most sensitive to lesions causing axonal injury. By combining different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system, an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. Neurophysiological and quantitative sensory tests have already highlighted some similarities among various orofacial pain conditions

  19. Cell-cell junctions: a target of acoustic overstimulation in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guiliang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to intense noise causes the excessive movement of the organ of Corti, stretching the organ and compromising sensory cell functions. We recently revealed changes in the transcriptional expression of multiple adhesion-related genes during the acute phases of cochlear damage, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is an early event in the process of cochlear pathogenesis. However, the functional state of cell junctions in the sensory epithelium is not clear. Here, we employed graded dextran-FITC, a macromolecule tracer that is impermeable to the organ of Corti under physiological conditions, to evaluate the barrier function of cell junctions in normal and noise-traumatized cochlear sensory epithelia. Results Exposure to an impulse noise of 155 dB (peak sound pressure level caused a site-specific disruption in the intercellular junctions within the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. The most vulnerable sites were the junctions among the Hensen cells and between the Hensen and Deiters cells within the outer zone of the sensory epithelium. The junction clefts that formed in the reticular lamina were permeable to 40 and 500 but not 2,000 kDa dextran-FITC macromolecules. Moreover, this study showed that the interruption of junction integrity occurred in the reticular lamina and also in the basilar membrane, a site that had been considered to be resistant to acoustic injury. Finally, our study revealed a general spatial correlation between the site of sensory cell damage and the site of junction disruption. However, the two events lacked a strict one-to-one correlation, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is a contributing, but not the sole, factor for initiating acute sensory cell death. Conclusions Impulse noise causes the functional disruption of intercellular junctions in the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. This disruption occurs at an early phase of cochlear

  20. Postnatal maturation of GABAergic modulation of sensory inputs onto lateral amygdala principal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Daniel; Ehrlich, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    Throughout life, fear learning is indispensable for survival and neural plasticity in the lateral amygdala underlies this learning and storage of fear memories. During development, properties of fear learning continue to change into adulthood, but currently little is known about changes in amygdala circuits that enable these behavioural transitions. In recordings from neurons in lateral amygdala brain slices from infant up to adult mice, we show that spontaneous and evoked excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmissions mature into adolescence. At this time, increased inhibitory activity and signalling has the ability to restrict the function of excitation by presynaptic modulation, and may thus enable precise stimulus associations to limit fear generalization from adolescence onward. Our results provide a basis for addressing plasticity mechanisms that underlie altered fear behaviour in young animals. Convergent evidence suggests that plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) participates in acquisition and storage of fear memory. Sensory inputs from thalamic and cortical areas activate principal neurons and local GABAergic interneurons, which provide feed-forward inhibition that tightly controls LA activity and plasticity via pre- and postsynaptic GABAA and GABAB receptors. GABAergic control is also critical during fear expression, generalization and extinction in adult animals. During rodent development, properties of fear and extinction learning continue to change into early adulthood. Currently, few studies have assessed physiological changes in amygdala circuits that may enable these behavioural transitions. To obtain first insights, we investigated changes in spontaneous and sensory input-evoked inhibition onto LA principal neurons and then focused on GABAB receptor-mediated modulation of excitatory sensory inputs in infant, juvenile, adolescent and young adult mice. We found that spontaneous and sensory-evoked inhibition increased during development

  1. Interference in ballistic motor learning - is motor interference really sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    not require learning. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of corticospinal motor output at intensities below ankle movement threshold did not cause interference, whereas suprathreshold rTMS did. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve to the plantarflexors (but not extensors......Skill gained after a short period of practice in one motor task can be abolished if a second task is learned shortly afterwards. We hypothesised that interference requires the same circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects......) caused interference. We conclude that interference is remarkably specific for circuits involved in a specific movement direction / activation of individual muscles and depends crucially on sensory error signals. One possible mechanism of interference may be disruption of early motor memory consolidation....

  2. Noisy Lives, Noisy Bodies: Exploring the Sensorial Embodiment of Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2017-01-01

    Social inequality in cancer survival is well known, and within public health promotion enhancing awareness of cancer symptoms is oft en promoted as a way to reduce social differences in stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis. In order to add to our knowledge of what may lie behind social...... inequalities in cancer survival encountered in many high-income countries, this article explores the situatedness of bodily sensations. Based on comparative ethnographic fi eldwork, we argue that the socially and biologically informed body influences how people from lower social classes experience sensations....... Overall, we point out how the sensorial is tied to the embodiment of the social situation in the sense that some bodies make more ‘noise’ than others. It follows that standardised approaches to improving early care seeking by increasing knowledge and awareness may overlook essential explanations of social...

  3. Embedded Controller Design for Pig Stable Ventilation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob

    present an early result for performing system identification for zone based climate dynamics, based on an idea of guaranteed internal flow directions. Paper 6 presents a verified stable distributed temperature controller for pig stables divided into zones. Paper 7 is an expanded journal version of paper 6......This thesis focuses on zone based climate control in pig stables and how to implement climate controllers in a new range of products. The presented controllers are based on simple models of climate dynamics and simple models of actuators. The implementation uses graphical point and click features...... from the Mathworks' range of products and automatic code generation. It is furthermore shown how to build new climate control systems based on cheap and readily available hardware and software. An early result for performing system identification for zone based climate dynamics is also presented...

  4. Learning from sensory and reward prediction errors during motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2011-03-01

    Voluntary motor commands produce two kinds of consequences. Initially, a sensory consequence is observed in terms of activity in our primary sensory organs (e.g., vision, proprioception). Subsequently, the brain evaluates the sensory feedback and produces a subjective measure of utility or usefulness of the motor commands (e.g., reward). As a result, comparisons between predicted and observed consequences of motor commands produce two forms of prediction error. How do these errors contribute to changes in motor commands? Here, we considered a reach adaptation protocol and found that when high quality sensory feedback was available, adaptation of motor commands was driven almost exclusively by sensory prediction errors. This form of learning had a distinct signature: as motor commands adapted, the subjects altered their predictions regarding sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized this learning broadly to neighboring motor commands. In contrast, as the quality of the sensory feedback degraded, adaptation of motor commands became more dependent on reward prediction errors. Reward prediction errors produced comparable changes in the motor commands, but produced no change in the predicted sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized only locally. Because we found that there was a within subject correlation between generalization patterns and sensory remapping, it is plausible that during adaptation an individual's relative reliance on sensory vs. reward prediction errors could be inferred. We suggest that while motor commands change because of sensory and reward prediction errors, only sensory prediction errors produce a change in the neural system that predicts sensory consequences of motor commands.

  5. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  6. CHEMICAL, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY CHANGES OF MARINADE MUSSEL (PERNA PERNA, LINNÉ 1758 STORAGE AT 4ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aveiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out to evaluate the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes of the brown mussel (Perna perna marinated with two different sauces. Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes were monitored, at 4ºC (±1ºC, for a period of 50 days. At the end of this period of storage, in both preparations, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N remained lower than the upper limit (35 mg TVB-N per 100 g fish flesh and pH and acidity were insignificant. On the basis of sensory analyses, the mussels marinated in the two sauces remained stable during cold storage for 42 and 21 days, respectively.

  7. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815640; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070219249; Braun, Kees Pj|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207237239; Bruining, Hilgo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304811440

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum

  8. Sensory quality of frozen shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Maria Barbosa Nunes Queiroga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory quality of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown and stored in a freezer. A sensory analysis consisted of the Quality Index Method (MIQ to review the raw shrimp and Descriptive Analysis (AD in cooked shrimp in samples stored for a period of 90 days, using eight previously trained panelists. Accommodation comprising shrimp filet (100-120 pieces / kg samples were subjected to freezing in liquid nitrogen (- 86 °C, Freezing Tunnel (- 35 °C and Domestic Freezer (- 18 °C. At 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage in these freezing systems, determination of pH, water holding capacity (WHC, weight loss during cooking (WLC, shearing force, color, total volatile bases (TVB and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were performed. The attributes manual firmness and softness showed better results in rapid freezing. The color parameters (a *, b * and L *, WHC and WCL were higher at 90 days of storage, no significant losses were observed. Highlighted the strength of greater shear in slowly frozen samples at 90 days, confirming the results reported by the sensory panel. At 90 days of storage, the frozen shrimp showed good sensory quality and physical and chemistry characteristics. The shelf life of this shrimp could be set at about 90 days.

  9. Sensorial differences according to sex and ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L A; Lin, S M; Teixeira, M J; de Siqueira, J T T; Jacob Filho, W; de Siqueira, S R D T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate age and sex differences in orofacial sensory detection. One hundred and twenty-six (126) healthy subjects were divided into five groups according to their ages. They were assessed with a quantitative sensory testing protocol for gustative, olfactory, thermal (cold/warm), mechanical (tactile/vibration/electric), and pain (deep/superficial) detection thresholds. The corneal reflex was also evaluated. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA, chi-squared, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The groups of subjects over 61 years old had higher olfactory (P sweet P = 0.004, salty P = 0.007, sour P = 0.006), thermal (warm P sweet P = 0.020, salty P = 0.002, sour P < 0.001, and bitter P = 0.002), olfactory (P = 0.010), warm (P < 0.001) and deep (P < 0.001), and superficial pain (P = 0.008) detection thresholds than men, and men from all age groups had lower vibratory detection thresholds (P = 0.006) than women. High sensory detection thresholds were observed in subjects over the 6th decade of life, and women had a more accurate sensory perception than men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. CHEMICAL, SENSORY AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Adesola Osibona

    The effects of two types of ice on the quality of Pomadasys commersonnii with storage time were conducted. The overall sensory evaluation otherwise known as quality index (QI) ranged from 3 – 0, the scores of 3 was for very fresh fish while zero implied deterioration. The QI for fish stored in ice block ranged from 2.9 – 1.0,.

  11. High sensory-processing sensitivity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.; Rasche, J.; Schabracq, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the construct validity of an instrument for the measurement of sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS), the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS), was examined. Among the outcomes, first, the results confirm an earlier conclusion of researchers that the HSPS does not measure a

  12. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  13. A Housefly Sensory-Motor Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griff, Edwin R; Kane, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly "Musca domestica" that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration…

  14. Sensory Food Aversions in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoor, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Sensory Food Aversion is one of the most common feeding disorders during the first 3 years of life, when young children are transitioned to self-feeding, and when issues of autonomy and dependency have to be negotiated between parents and child. In this article, the author discusses "picky eaters" and the importance of distinguishing between…

  15. The Sensory Neocortex and Associative Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschauer, Dominik; Rumpel, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Most behaviors in mammals are directly or indirectly guided by prior experience and therefore depend on the ability of our brains to form memories. The ability to form an association between an initially possibly neutral sensory stimulus and its behavioral relevance is essential for our ability to navigate in a changing environment. The formation of a memory is a complex process involving many areas of the brain. In this chapter we review classic and recent work that has shed light on the specific contribution of sensory cortical areas to the formation of associative memories. We discuss synaptic and circuit mechanisms that mediate plastic adaptations of functional properties in individual neurons as well as larger neuronal populations forming topographically organized representations. Furthermore, we describe commonly used behavioral paradigms that are used to study the mechanisms of memory formation. We focus on the auditory modality that is receiving increasing attention for the study of associative memory in rodent model systems. We argue that sensory cortical areas may play an important role for the memory-dependent categorical recognition of previously encountered sensory stimuli.

  16. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Sligte, I.G.; Barrett, A.B.; Seth, A.K.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the

  17. Learning of Sensory Sequences in Cerebellar Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Markus; Boenisch, Raoul; Gerwig, Marcus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

    2004-01-01

    A possible role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences has been proposed. The present study sought to determine whether patients with cerebellar lesions are impaired in the acquisition and discrimination of sequences of sensory stimuli of different modalities. A group of 26 cerebellar patients and 26 controls matched for…

  18. Sensory source strength of used ventilation filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Alm, Ole Martin; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    A two-year-old filter was placed in a ventilation system recirculating the air in an experimental space. Via glass tubes supplied with a small fan it was possible to extract air upstream and downstream of the filter to an adjacent room. A panel could thus perform sensory assessments of the air from...

  19. 10428 PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    beta carotene contents increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the level of substitution increased. The standard recorded ... Key words: Cookies, sweet potato, mango mesocarp, physical, Chemical, Sensory, Beta carotene ... baking powder and eggs were purchased from Wurukum Market, Makurdi, Benue State. Preparation of ...

  20. Correlations among sensory characteristics and relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... old Xhosa lop-eared, Nguni, Xhosa-Boer cross and Boer goat kids were kept at the University of Fort. Hare Farm until slaughter. ..... Chulayo AY, Muchenje V, Mwale M, Masika PJ (2011). Effects of some medicinal plants on consumer sensory characteristics of village chicken meat. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10: ...

  1. Physical, Sensory and Microbiological Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread was produced from the flour blends using the straight dough method. Loaf weight and volume decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing levels of plantain flour inclusion. Sensory evaluation of the flour samples revealed significant differences in the ratings for crumb colour and texture between 100% wheat ...

  2. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurt produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the physicochemical and sensory acceptability of yoghurt produced from ewe, goat and a mixture of ewe milk and goat milk in Nigeria in order for the populace to harness the nutritional and therapeutic benefits of the milks. Methods: Samples of whole cow milk (WCM) as standard, goat milk (GM), ewe ...

  3. Sensory modulation of movement, posture and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saradjian, A H

    2015-11-01

    During voluntary movement, there exists a well known functional sensory attenuation of afferent inputs, which allows us to discriminate between information related to our own movements and those arising from the external environment. This attenuation or 'gating' prevents some signals from interfering with movement elaboration and production. However, there are situations in which certain task-relevant sensory inputs may not be gated. This review begins by identifying the prevalent findings in the literature with specific regard to the somatosensory modality, and reviews the many cases of classical sensory gating phenomenon accompanying voluntary movement and their neural basis. This review also focuses on the newer axes of research that demonstrate that task-specific sensory information may be disinhibited or even facilitated during engagement in voluntary actions. Finally, a particular emphasis will be placed on postural and/or locomotor tasks involving strong somatosensory demands, especially for the setting of the anticipatory postural adjustments observed prior the initiation of locomotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Yoghurt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of incorporation of Carrot Juice on the physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of yoghurt. Materials and method: Carrot Juice (CAJ) was used to substitute 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% Yoghurt (YOG).The physical, chemical ...

  5. Carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological assessment of stored cassava fufu from two cultivars of yellow cassava (TMS 01/1368 and TMS 01/1412) being multiplied for distribution in South-East and South-South Nigeria were investigated using standard techniques. There is scanty information on ...

  6. Nutritional, physiological, physicochemical and sensory stability of gamma irradiated Kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.-P.; Kim, D.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Kim, M.-R.; Kim, K.-S.; Byun, M.-W.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on nutritional, physiological, physicochemical and sensory properties of the Korean lactic acid fermented vegetable, Kimchi, were investigated. The composition of amino acids and organic acids in Kimchi were not influenced by gamma irradiation less than 10 kGy. Angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitory, xanthin oxidase inhibitory, electron donating and antimicrobial activity of Kimchi extract were stable up to 10 kGy. There were no significant changes in pH and texture at less than 10 kGy. Color values were influenced at 10 kGy of gamma irradiation, and resulted in the increase of L*- and reduction of a*-value. About 90% of panelists identified a sensory difference between non-irradiated and 10 kGy-irradiated sample, and Kimchi irradiated at 10 kGy had lower scores in acceptability than those of the control or irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy

  7. Nutritional, physiological, physicochemical and sensory stability of gamma irradiated Kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree; Kim, Kyong-Soo; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2004-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on nutritional, physiological, physicochemical and sensory properties of the Korean lactic acid fermented vegetable, Kimchi, were investigated. The composition of amino acids and organic acids in Kimchi were not influenced by gamma irradiation less than 10 kGy. Angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitory, xanthin oxidase inhibitory, electron donating and antimicrobial activity of Kimchi extract were stable up to 10 kGy. There were no significant changes in pH and texture at less than 10 kGy. Color values were influenced at 10 kGy of gamma irradiation, and resulted in the increase of L*- and reduction of a*-value. About 90% of panelists identified a sensory difference between non-irradiated and 10 kGy-irradiated sample, and Kimchi irradiated at 10 kGy had lower scores in acceptability than those of the control or irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy.

  8. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés eArenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony as well. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe. Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees´ physiology, behavior and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits.

  9. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  10. Comment entrainer la memoire sensorielle (How to Train Sensory Memory).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Regine

    1993-01-01

    At the University of Queensland (Australia), second-language instruction techniques involving principles of sensory training are being used experimentally. The method promotes sensory integration of speech events through auditory, visual, and kinesthetic memory. (MSE)

  11. Idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Tinley, Paul; Curtin, Michael

    2010-08-16

    It is generally understood that toe walking involves the absence or limitation of heel strike in the contact phase of the gait cycle. Toe walking has been identified as a symptom of disease processes, trauma and/or neurogenic influences. When there is no obvious cause of the gait pattern, a diagnosis of idiopathic toe walking (ITW) is made. Although there has been limited research into the pathophysiology of ITW, there has been an increasing number of contemporary texts and practitioner debates proposing that this gait pattern is linked to a sensory processing dysfunction (SPD). The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature and provide a summary of what is known about the relationship between toe walking and SPD. Forty-nine articles were reviewed, predominantly sourced from peer reviewed journals. Five contemporary texts were also reviewed. The literature styles consisted of author opinion pieces, letters to the editor, clinical trials, case studies, classification studies, poster/conference abstracts and narrative literature reviews. Literature was assessed and graded according to level of evidence. Only one small prospective, descriptive study without control has been conducted in relation to idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing. A cross-sectional study into the prevalence of idiopathic toe walking proposed sensory processing as being a reason for the difference. A proposed link between ITW and sensory processing was found within four contemporary texts and one conference abstract. Based on the limited conclusive evidence available, the relationship between ITW and sensory processing has not been confirmed. Given the limited number and types of studies together with the growing body of anecdotal evidence it is proposed that further investigation of this relationship would be advantageous.

  12. Sensory axonal dysfunction in cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Lui, Tai-Ngar; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in sensory axonal excitability in the distal nerve in patients with cervical radiculopathy. The patients were classified by the findings of cervical MRI into two subgroups: 22 patients with C6/7 root compression and 25 patients with cervical cord and root compression above/at C6/7. Patients were investigated using conventional nerve conduction studies (NCS) and nerve excitability testing. Sensory nerve excitability testing was undertaken with stimulation at the wrist and recording from digit II (dermatome C6/7). The results were compared with healthy controls. Both preoperative and postoperative tests were performed if the patient underwent surgery. Sensory axonal excitability was significantly different in both cohorts compared with healthy controls, including prolonged strength-duration time constant, reduced S2 accommodation, increased threshold electrotonus hyperpolarisation (TEh (90-100 ms)), and increased superexcitability. The changes in these excitability indices are compatible with axonal membrane hyperpolarisation. In five patients who underwent surgery, the postoperative sensory excitability was tested after 1 week, and showed significant changes in TE (TEh (90-100 ms) and TEh slope, pcervical radiculopathy. These findings suggest that the hyperpolarised pattern might be due to Na(+)-K(+) ATPase overactivation induced by proximal ischaemia, or could reflect the remyelinating process. Distal sensory axons were hyperpolarised even though there were no changes in NCS, suggesting that nerve excitability testing may be more sensitive to clinical symptoms than NCS in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Sensory Processing Problems in Children with ADHD, a Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    One of the most common psychiatric disorders in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Its course and outcome are heterogeneous. Sensory processing problems impact the nature of response to daily events. ADHD and sensory problems may occur together and interact. No published review article about sensory processing problems in children with ADHD were found. A systematic search, conducted on Pub-Med (up to January 2010), and Google Scholar, yielded 255 abstracts on sensory...

  14. Analogy-making in the Semai sensory world

    OpenAIRE

    Tufvesson, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the interplay between language, culture, and perception, iconicity structures our representations of what we experience. By examining secondary iconicity in sensory vocabulary, this study draws attention to diagrammatic qualities in human interaction with, and representation of, the sensory world. In Semai (Mon-Khmer, Aslian), spoken on Peninsular Malaysia, sensory experiences are encoded by expressives. Expressives display a diagrammatic iconic structure whereby related sensory experience...

  15. Sensory integration disorder – child functioning at school and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Smovnik, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Sensory integration is a process of organising sensory information, planning and producing adaptive responses. This is one of the most important processes for academic and everyday work. Sensory integration has its roots in the nervous system. If a part of it isn't working appropriately, it causes sensory processing disorder (SPD). Between 5 and 15 % of children diagnosed with SPD (e.g. Miller, 2007), and symptoms of SPD often overlap with other disorders (e.g. ADHD, autism), therefore it is ...

  16. Sensory Evaluation of the Selected Coffee Products Using Fuzzy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Lazim; M. Suriani

    2009-01-01

    Knowing consumers' preferences and perceptions of the sensory evaluation of drink products are very significant to manufacturers and retailers alike. With no appropriate sensory analysis, there is a high risk of market disappointment. This paper aims to rank the selected coffee products and also to determine the best of quality attribute through sensory evaluation using fuzzy decision making model. Three products of coffee drinks were used for sensory evaluation. Data wer...

  17. Reorganization of the somatosensory cortex in hemiplegic cerebral palsy associated with impaired sensory tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Papadelis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies argue that sensory deficits in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP are related to deviant somatosensory processing in the ipsilesional primary somatosensory cortex (S1. A separate body of structural neuroimaging literature argues that these deficits are due to structural damage of the ascending sensory tracts (AST. The relationship between the functional and structural integrity of the somatosensory system and the sensory performance is largely unknown in HCP. To address this relationship, we combined findings from magnetoencephalography (MEG and probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT in 10 children with HCP and 13 typically developing (TD children. With MEG, we mapped the functionally active regions in the contralateral S1 during tactile stimulation of the thumb, middle, and little fingers of both hands. Using these MEG-defined functional active regions as regions of interest for PDT, we estimated the diffusion parameters of the AST. Somatosensory function was assessed via two-point discrimination tests. Our MEG data showed: (i an abnormal somatotopic organization in all children with HCP in either one or both of their hemispheres; (ii longer Euclidean distances between the digit maps in the S1 of children with HCP compared to TD children; (iii suppressed gamma responses at early latencies for both hemispheres of children with HCP; and (iv a positive correlation between the Euclidean distances and the sensory tests for the more affected hemisphere of children with HCP. Our MEG-guided PDT data showed: (i higher mean and radian diffusivity of the AST in children with HCP; (ii a positive correlation between the axial diffusivity of the AST with the sensory tests for the more affected hemisphere; and (iii a negative correlation between the gamma power change and the AD of the AST for the MA hemisphere. Our findings associate for the first time bilateral cortical functional reorganization in the S1 of HCP children with

  18. Reorganization of the somatosensory cortex in hemiplegic cerebral palsy associated with impaired sensory tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelis, Christos; Butler, Erin E; Rubenstein, Madelyn; Sun, Limin; Zollei, Lilla; Nimec, Donna; Snyder, Brian; Grant, Patricia Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies argue that sensory deficits in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) are related to deviant somatosensory processing in the ipsilesional primary somatosensory cortex (S1). A separate body of structural neuroimaging literature argues that these deficits are due to structural damage of the ascending sensory tracts (AST). The relationship between the functional and structural integrity of the somatosensory system and the sensory performance is largely unknown in HCP. To address this relationship, we combined findings from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) in 10 children with HCP and 13 typically developing (TD) children. With MEG, we mapped the functionally active regions in the contralateral S1 during tactile stimulation of the thumb, middle, and little fingers of both hands. Using these MEG-defined functional active regions as regions of interest for PDT, we estimated the diffusion parameters of the AST. Somatosensory function was assessed via two-point discrimination tests. Our MEG data showed: (i) an abnormal somatotopic organization in all children with HCP in either one or both of their hemispheres; (ii) longer Euclidean distances between the digit maps in the S1 of children with HCP compared to TD children; (iii) suppressed gamma responses at early latencies for both hemispheres of children with HCP; and (iv) a positive correlation between the Euclidean distances and the sensory tests for the more affected hemisphere of children with HCP. Our MEG-guided PDT data showed: (i) higher mean and radian diffusivity of the AST in children with HCP; (ii) a positive correlation between the axial diffusivity of the AST with the sensory tests for the more affected hemisphere; and (iii) a negative correlation between the gamma power change and the AD of the AST for the MA hemisphere. Our findings associate for the first time bilateral cortical functional reorganization in the S1 of HCP children with

  19. An exploratory event-related potential study of multisensory integration in sensory over-responsive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett-Green, Barbara A; Miller, Lucy J; Schoen, Sarah A; Nielsen, Darci M

    2010-03-19

    Children who are over-responsive to sensation have defensive and "fight or flight" reactions to ordinary levels of sensory stimulation in the environment. Based on clinical observations, sensory over-responsivity is hypothesized to reflect atypical neural integration of sensory input. To examine a possible underlying neural mechanism of the disorder, integration of simultaneous multisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation was studied in twenty children with sensory over-responsivity (SOR) using event-related potentials (ERPs). Three types of sensory stimuli were presented and ERPs were recorded from thirty-two scalp electrodes while participants watched a silent cartoon: bilateral auditory clicks, right somatosensory median nerve electrical pulses, or both simultaneously. The paradigm was passive; no behavioral responses were required. To examine integration, responses to simultaneous multisensory auditory-somatosensory stimulation were compared to the sum of unisensory auditory plus unisensory somatosensory responses in four time-windows: (60-80 ms, 80-110 ms, 110-150 ms, and 180-220 ms). Specific midline and lateral electrode sites were examined over scalp regions where auditory-somatosensory integration was expected based on previous studies. Midline electrode sites (Fz, Cz, and Pz) showed significant integration during two time-windows: 60-80 ms and 180-220 ms. Significant integration was also found at contralateral electrode site (C3) for the time-window between 180 and 220 ms. At ipsilateral electrode sites (C4 and CP6), no significant integration was found during any of the time-windows (i.e. the multisensory ERP was not significantly different from the summed unisensory ERP). These results demonstrate that MSI can be reliably measured in children with SOR and provide evidence that multisensory auditory-somatosensory input is integrated during both early and later stages of sensory information processing, mainly over fronto-central scalp regions. 2010

  20. Distinct development of the trigeminal sensory nuclei in platypus and echidna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Hardman, Craig D

    2012-01-01

    Both lineages of the modern monotremes have been reported to be capable of electroreception using the trigeminal pathways and it has been argued that electroreception arose in an aquatic platypus-like ancestor of both modern monotreme groups. On the other hand, the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex of the platypus is highly modified for processing tactile and electrosensory information from the bill, whereas the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex of the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is not particularly specialized. If the common ancestor for both platypus and echidna were an electroreceptively and trigeminally specialized aquatic feeder, one would expect the early stages of development of the trigeminal sensory nuclei in both species to show evidence of structural specialization from the outset. To determine whether this is the case, we examined the development of the trigeminal sensory nuclei in the platypus and short-beaked echidna using the Hill and Hubrecht embryological collections. We found that the highly specialized features of the platypus trigeminal sensory nuclei (i.e. the large size of the principal nucleus and oral part of the spinal trigeminal nuclear complex, and the presence of a dorsolateral parvicellular segment in the principal nucleus) appear around the time of hatching in the platypus, but are never seen at any stage in the echidna. Our findings support the proposition that the modern echidna and platypus are derived from a common ancestor with only minimal trigeminal specialization and that the peculiar anatomy of the trigeminal sensory nuclei in the modern platypus emerged in the ornithorhynchids after divergence from the tachyglossids. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Electrophysiological evidence for age effects on sensory memory processing of tonal patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Rimmele, Johanna; Sussman, Elyse; Keitel, Christian; Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2011-01-01

    In older adults, difficulties processing complex auditory scenes, such as speech comprehension in noisy environments, might be due to a specific impairment of temporal processing at early, automatic processing stages involving auditory sensory memory (ASM). Even though age effects on auditory temporal processing have been well-documented, there is a paucity of research on how ASM processing of more complex tone-patterns is altered by age. In the current study, age effects on ASM processing of...

  2. Oropharyngeal and laryngeal sensory innervation in the pathophysiology of swallowing disorders and sensory stimulation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Rofes, Laia; Casamitjana, J Francesc; Padrón, Andreína; Quer, Miquel; Clavé, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) affects older and neurological patients, causing malnutrition and dehydration and increasing the risk for aspiration pneumonia. There is evidence that sensory deficits in those populations are closely related to swallowing disorders, and several research groups are developing new therapies based on sensory stimulation of this area. More information on the sensory innervation participating in the swallow response is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of OD and to develop new treatments. This review focuses on the sensory innervation of the human oropharynx and larynx in healthy people compared with patients with swallowing disorders in order to unravel the abnormalities that may lead to the loss of sensitivity in patients with OD. We also hypothesize the pathway through which active sensory-enhancement treatments may elicit their therapeutic effect on patients with swallowing dysfunctions. As far as we know, this is the first time a review covers the anatomy, histology, ultrastructure, and molecular biology of the sensory innervation of the swallowing function. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Measuring sensory processing patterns of older Chinese people: psychometric validation of the adult sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J C C

    2006-11-01

    The Adult Sensory Profile (ASP) evaluates the sensory experiences of adults in the categories of auditory, visual, taste/smell, touch, movement, and activity level. It generates four sensory processing patterns including low registration, sensation seeking, sensory sensitivity, and sensation avoiding. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of ASP (ASP-CV) for older Hong Kong Chinese adults. Ninety-six participants with normal cognitive functioning and 33 participants with dementia were recruited. All participants were involved in the investigation of internal consistency and construct validity. One sub-sample from each group was selected for test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability respectively. The ASP-CV demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability (r = 0.91-0.99 and 0.76-0.88 respectively), and satisfactory internal consistency (alpha = 0.58-0.72). The construct validity of ASP-CV was supported by the known-groups method, in which participants with dementia differed significantly from their healthy counterparts in the patterns of 'low registration' (F(1, 127) = 9.69, p = 0.002), 'sensory sensitivity' (F(1, 127) = 4.63, p = 0.033), and 'sensation avoiding' (F(1, 127) = 15.87, p sensory processing functions of older Hong Kong Chinese people. Further studies are suggested to examine the factor structure of and the equivalence of self-report and proxy report of ASP-CV.

  4. Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Unusual sensory processing has been widely reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, the majority of research in this area has focused on children. The present study assessed sensory processing in adults with ASD using the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), a 60-item self-report questionnaire assessing levels of sensory…

  5. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  6. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  7. Sensory Responsiveness in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Claudia L.; Babb-Keeble, Alison; Westover, Erin Eitzmann; Zhang, Yi; Adams, Claire; Collins, Diane M.; Karmarkar, Amol; Reistetter, Timothy A.; Constantino, John N.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined sensory responsiveness in unaffected siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and associations between sensory responsiveness and social severity. Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaires and Social Responsiveness Scales were completed by parents of 185 children between age 4 and 10.95 years. Significant…

  8. Sensory Integration Dysfunction: Implications for Counselors Working with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Rebecca L.

    2007-01-01

    Sensory Integration Dysfunction (SID), a sensory processing problem that afflicts about 15% of children, sets many children on a developmental trajectory of emotional and social problems. Children with SID often unintentionally alienate parents, peers, and teachers in their efforts to modify the amounts of sensory stimulation they receive. They…

  9. Implementing a Sensory Evaluation System in the Manufacturing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Often the people responsible for implementing sensory evaluation systems have had no formal training in sensory evaluation and the task can seem quite daunting. This paper presents some elements that are considered important when planning the design and implementation of a sensory system for process control.

  10. Pelvic floor dysfunction and sensory impairment: Current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Charlotte; Smith, Anthony; Marshall, Andy; Reid, Fiona

    2017-03-01

    To explore the role of sensory nerve impairment in women with pelvic organ prolapse, painful bladder syndrome, urinary and fecal incontinence, and sexual dysfunction. Medline and Embase were searched for articles in which sensory testing, either quantitative sensory testing or current perception thresholds, had been used to evaluate women with pelvic organ prolapse, stress and urge urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence and female sexual dysfunction. All search terms were expanded within each database prior to searching. Research to date has included small numbers of participants, used poorly matched controls, lacked a systemic sensory examination and applied non-standardized sensory testing techniques. However, the evidence suggests women with pelvic organ prolapse demonstrate sensory dysfunction. The role of sensory impairment in stress urinary incontinence is inconclusive. In women with urge urinary incontinence there is some evidence to suggest it may be urethrally mediated. Women with painful bladder syndrome may have more sensitive nerve endings which are unable to ignore repeated stimuli. Sensory impairment is common in women with sexual dysfunction, typically involving larger nerve fibres. There were no studies evaluating sensory function in women with fecal incontinence. Current evidence suggests women with pelvic floor dysfunction demonstrate sensory impairment though the causes remain unclear. Further studies are needed to investigate the different conditions of pelvic floor dysfunction using standardized sensory testing techniques, as well as evaluate the timing and mechanism by which any sensory impairment develops. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:550-556, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory…

  12. Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. MM Magoro, BI Zondagh, PJ Jooste, L Morey. Abstract. This study determined the sensory attributes and acceptability of cooked meat sausages containing beef offal. Four formulations of sausages were selected for sensory evaluation and comparison ...

  13. Sensory integration intervention and the development of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants and the Infant/ Toddler Sensory Profile. The experimental group received 10 weeks of ASI intervention. Results. ASI intervention had a positive effect on the sensory processing and development of premature infants, especially in terms of cognitive, language and motor development.

  14. Reliability of the Participation and Sensory Environment Questionnaire: Teacher Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Aimee; Fletcher, Tina; Pfeiffer, Beth; Dunlap, Karen; Pickens, Noralyn

    2017-01-01

    The Participation and Sensory Environment Questionnaire-Teacher Version (PSEQ-TV) is a teacher-report questionnaire to assess the impact of the sensory environment on participation of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Many children with ASD have sensory processing differences, although these differences are frequently…

  15. Identification of stable fly attractant compounds in vinasse, a byproduct of sugarcane-ethanol distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvez Serra, N S; Goulart, H F; Triana, M F; Dos Santos Tavares, S; Almeida, C I M; DA Costa, J G; Santana, A E G; Zhu, J J

    2017-12-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is a worldwide pest of livestock. Recent outbreaks of stable flies in sugarcane fields in Brazil have become a serious problem for livestock producers. Larvae and pupae found inside sugarcane stems after harvesting may indicate that stable flies use these stems as potential oviposition or larval development sites. Field observations suggest that outbreaks of stable flies are associated with the vinasse and filter cake derived from biomass distillation in sugarcane ethanol production that are used as fertilizers in sugarcane fields. Adult stable flies are attracted to vinasse, which appears to present an ideal larval development site. The primary goal of the present study is to demonstrate the role of vinasse in influencing the sensory physiological and behavioural responses of stable flies, and to identify its associated volatile attractant compounds. Both laboratory and field studies showed that vinasse is extremely attractive to adult stable flies. Chemical analyses of volatiles collected revealed a wide range of carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenols and aldehydes as potential attractant compounds. These newly identified attractants could be used to develop a tool for the attractant-baited mass trapping of stable flies in order to reduce infestations. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yasuto

    1988-01-01

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13 C and 14 C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO 2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13 C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)

  17. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  18. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  19. Stratifying patients with peripheral neuropathic pain based on sensory profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollert, Jan; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    In a recent cluster analysis, it has been shown that patients with peripheral neuropathic pain can be grouped into 3 sensory phenotypes based on quantitative sensory testing profiles, which are mainly characterized by either sensory loss, intact sensory function and mild thermal hyperalgesia and...... populations that need to be screened to reach a subpopulation large enough to conduct a phenotype-stratified study. The most common phenotype in diabetic polyneuropathy was sensory loss (83%), followed by mechanical hyperalgesia (75%) and thermal hyperalgesia (34%, note that percentages are overlapping...

  20. Quantitative sensory testing in measurement of neuropathic pain phenomena and other sensory abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Miroslav-Misha; Walk, David; Edwards, Robert R; Sehgal, Nalini; Moeller-Bertram, Toby; Wasan, Ajay; Irving, Gordon; Argoff, Charles; Wallace, Mark

    2009-09-01

    Neuropathic pain disorders are usually characterized by spontaneous ongoing or intermittent symptoms, stimulus-evoked positive sensory phenomena, and negative sensory phenomena. Spontaneous individual subject specific phenomena are identified in the neurologic history and are quantifiable by means of self-reported neuropathic pain symptoms tools such as scales, inventories, and questionnaires. Negative and positive sensory phenomena are assessed by the neurologic bedside examination and quantitative sensory testing (QST), which refers to psychophysical tests of sensory perception during the administration of stimuli with predetermined physical properties and following specific protocols. QST is able to capture and quantify stimulus-evoked negative and positive sensory phenomena, and as such should become standard if not a critical tool in neuropathic pain research and practice. Although the advent of anatomic and functional imaging modalities is revolutionizing our understanding of the mechanisms of neuropathic pain, only by anchoring such test results to individual subjects' own perceptions via QST can they provide meaningful information about neuropathic pain, which is based on perceptual experience. To yield useful results, QST requires a cooperative subject and carefully standardized methods, including standardization of the stimulus parameters as well as the testing environment, instructions, and evaluation methods. This manuscript provides a concise review of fundamental concepts necessary for understanding the role of QST in the process of eliciting information about sensory abnormalities associated with neuropathic pain and the place of that information in analysis of pain mechanisms. Together with the companion manuscript, this review provides definitions that should help further the use of QST as a diagnostic tool as well.

  1. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis Sand

    2015-01-01

    the use of remote sensing. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We reveal a hierarchy of sensing modes (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing, and echolocation) where body size determines the available battery of sensing modes and where larger body size means...... a longer sensing range. The size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We characterize the governing mechanisms and theoretically...... predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align very well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic...

  2. Sensory Experience Memory in Resource Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Gordon J

    2017-01-01

    A sensory experience memory (SEM) is an emotional memory that may be either connected to an intellectual memory or it may have become dissociated from its corresponding intellectual memory. Sensory experience memories are the cause of a number of pathologies, including PTSD, panic disorder, and anxiety. When a personality state that holds a negative SEM assumes the conscious, the client may display negative emotional reactions that appear unwarranted. SEMs can also play a central role in therapy to resolve pathology. Resource therapy (RT) incorporates the understanding of SEMs in both diagnosis and treatment. RT will be used in this article to illustrate the importance of working with SEMs, but therapists can translate the use of SEMs to other therapeutic modalities.

  3. Acoustic mirrors as sensory traps for bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Stefan; Zsebők, Sándor; Schmieder, Daniela; Siemers, Björn M

    2017-09-08

    Sensory traps pose a considerable and often fatal risk for animals, leading them to misinterpret their environment. Bats predominantly rely on their echolocation system to forage, orientate, and navigate. We found that bats can mistake smooth, vertical surfaces as clear flight paths, repeatedly colliding with them, likely as a result of their acoustic mirror properties. The probability of collision is influenced by the number of echolocation calls and by the amount of time spent in front of the surface. The echolocation call analysis corroborates that bats perceive smooth, vertical surfaces as open flyways. Reporting on occurrences with different species in the wild, we argue that it is necessary to more closely monitor potentially dangerous locations with acoustic mirror properties (such as glass fronts) to assess the true frequency of fatalities around these sensory traps. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual sensory impairment in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julie M; Gopinath, Bamini; McMahon, Catherine M; Leeder, Stephen R; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin

    2011-12-01

    Hearing and visual impairments are commonly viewed separately in research and service provision, but they often occur together as dual sensory impairment or DSI in older populations. This article examines the frequency and effects of DSI in older age and notes limitations in the evidence. Search of electronic databases of published papers. DSI diminishes communication and well-being and can cause social isolation, depression, reduced independence, mortality, and cognitive impairment. Although intuitively DSI may be expected to have additional impacts over single sensory impairment, research findings are inconclusive. Services and supports required by people with DSI are simply a combination of those required by people with single vision and hearing loss, taking account of the unique communication difficulties posed by DSI.

  6. Approximate Sensory Data Collection: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyao Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoTs, wireless sensor networks (WSNs and related techniques, the amount of sensory data manifests an explosive growth. In some applications of IoTs and WSNs, the size of sensory data has already exceeded several petabytes annually, which brings too many troubles and challenges for the data collection, which is a primary operation in IoTs and WSNs. Since the exact data collection is not affordable for many WSN and IoT systems due to the limitations on bandwidth and energy, many approximate data collection algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. This survey reviews the state of the art of approximatedatacollectionalgorithms. Weclassifythemintothreecategories: themodel-basedones, the compressive sensing based ones, and the query-driven ones. For each category of algorithms, the advantages and disadvantages are elaborated, some challenges and unsolved problems are pointed out, and the research prospects are forecasted.

  7. Approximate Sensory Data Collection: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siyao; Cai, Zhipeng; Li, Jianzhong

    2017-03-10

    With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoTs), wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and related techniques, the amount of sensory data manifests an explosive growth. In some applications of IoTs and WSNs, the size of sensory data has already exceeded several petabytes annually, which brings too many troubles and challenges for the data collection, which is a primary operation in IoTs and WSNs. Since the exact data collection is not affordable for many WSN and IoT systems due to the limitations on bandwidth and energy, many approximate data collection algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. This survey reviews the state of the art of approximatedatacollectionalgorithms. Weclassifythemintothreecategories: themodel-basedones, the compressive sensing based ones, and the query-driven ones. For each category of algorithms, the advantages and disadvantages are elaborated, some challenges and unsolved problems are pointed out, and the research prospects are forecasted.

  8. Sensory loss amongst old family members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Dag; Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2018-01-01

    and their close family. Our tentative findings point towards a prominence of different insecurities and discomforts in social life that directly links to the decreased sensory abilities. Experiences of being ‘lost’, ‘set afloat’ and disconnected in everyday life interactions are broadly described by all...... on the old people suffering a decline in sensory abilities, but also on family members as individual loss becomes collective loss in the context of family and kinship. The paper presentation takes its point of departure in rough pieces of empirical material (e.g. film-clips, sound...... and ethnographic presence in the lives of approximately 30 old people living either in private homes or in nursery homes. The study is conducted in both rural and urban settings in Denmark. The working paper will focus on family related aspects, as they emerge in the lives of the followed informants...

  9. Sensory integration dynamics in a hierarchical network explains choice probabilities in cortical area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Klaus; Compte, Albert; Roxin, Alex; Peixoto, Diogo; Renart, Alfonso; de la Rocha, Jaime

    2015-02-04

    Neuronal variability in sensory cortex predicts perceptual decisions. This relationship, termed choice probability (CP), can arise from sensory variability biasing behaviour and from top-down signals reflecting behaviour. To investigate the interaction of these mechanisms during the decision-making process, we use a hierarchical network model composed of reciprocally connected sensory and integration circuits. Consistent with monkey behaviour in a fixed-duration motion discrimination task, the model integrates sensory evidence transiently, giving rise to a decaying bottom-up CP component. However, the dynamics of the hierarchical loop recruits a concurrently rising top-down component, resulting in sustained CP. We compute the CP time-course of neurons in the medial temporal area (MT) and find an early transient component and a separate late contribution reflecting decision build-up. The stability of individual CPs and the dynamics of noise correlations further support this decomposition. Our model provides a unified understanding of the circuit dynamics linking neural and behavioural variability.

  10. Assessment of Sensory Processing and Executive Functions in Childhood: Development, Reliability, and Validity of the EPYFEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Romero-Ayuso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the “Assessment of Sensory Processing and Executive Functions in Childhood” (EPYFEI, a questionnaire designed to assess the sensory processing and executive functions of children aged between 3 and 11 years. The EPYFEI was completed by a sample of 1,732 parents of children aged between 3 and 11 years who lived in Spain. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted and showed five main factors: (1 executive attention, working memory, and initiation of actions; (2 general sensory processing; (3 emotional and behavioral self-regulation; (4 supervision, correction of actions, and problem solving; and (5 inhibitory. The reliability of the analysis was high both for the whole questionnaire and for the factors it is composed of. Results provide evidence of the potential usefulness of the EPYFEI in clinical contexts for the early detection of neurodevelopmental disorders, in which there may be a deficit of executive functions and sensory processing.

  11. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  12. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system...

  13. The migrant sensory neuritis of Wartenberg.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, W B; Esiri, M

    1983-01-01

    Six cases are reported that conform to Wartenberg's description of migrant sensory neuritis. This is a benign relapsing and remitting condition in which pain and subsequent loss of sensation in the distribution of individual cutaneous nerves is induced by movement of the limbs inducing stretch. Sural nerve biopsy in one case showed loss of large myelinated fibres, axonal sprouting and some changes suggestive of ischaemia.

  14. Sensory processing subtypes in autism: association with adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E; Young, Robyn L; Baker, Amy E Z; Angley, Manya T

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes were differentiated by taste and smell sensitivity and movement-related sensory behavior. Further, sensory processing subtypes predicted communication competence and maladaptive behavior. The findings of this study lay the foundation for the generation of more specific hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of sensory processing dysfunction in autism, and support the continued use of sensory-based interventions in the remediation of communication and behavioral difficulties in autism.

  15. [Sensory integration function in children with primary nocturnal enuresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu-Hong; Cheng, Huan

    2008-10-01

    To assess the sensory integration function of children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and explore the role of sensory integration dysfunction in the pathogenesis of PNE. Sensory integration function was assessed by the Childhood Sensory Integration Ability Development Checklist in 46 children with PNE and 46 normal children (control). The incidence of sensory integration dysfunction in the PNE group (82.6%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (43.5%)(Psensory integration dysfunction in the PNE group but only 1 (2.1%) in the control group (Psensory integration indexes revealed by sensory integration function testing in the PNE group were significantly lower than those in the control group (Psensory integration dysfunction. Sensory integration dysfunction may be associated with the pathogenesis of PNE.

  16. Complete functional characterization of sensory neurons by system identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Michael C-K; David, Stephen V; Gallant, Jack L

    2006-01-01

    System identification is a growing approach to sensory neurophysiology that facilitates the development of quantitative functional models of sensory processing. This approach provides a clear set of guidelines for combining experimental data with other knowledge about sensory function to obtain a description that optimally predicts the way that neurons process sensory information. This prediction paradigm provides an objective method for evaluating and comparing computational models. In this chapter we review many of the system identification algorithms that have been used in sensory neurophysiology, and we show how they can be viewed as variants of a single statistical inference problem. We then review many of the practical issues that arise when applying these methods to neurophysiological experiments: stimulus selection, behavioral control, model visualization, and validation. Finally we discuss several problems to which system identification has been applied recently, including one important long-term goal of sensory neuroscience: developing models of sensory systems that accurately predict neuronal responses under completely natural conditions.

  17. Persistent sensory dysfunction in pain-free herniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Kehlet, H; Aasvang, E K

    2010-01-01

    mechanisms. Therefore, we aimed to establish normative data on sensory function in pain-free patients >1 year after a groin herniotomy. METHODS: Sensory thresholds were assessed in 40 pain-free patients by a standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST). Secondary endpoints included comparison of sensory......BACKGROUND: Persistent post-herniotomy pain may be a neuropathic pain state based on the finding of a persistent sensory dysfunction. However, detailed information on the normal distribution of sensory function in pain-free post-herniotomy patients hinders identification of exact pathogenic...... function between the operated and the naïve side, and correlation between sensory function modalities. RESULTS: QST showed that on the operated side, thermal data were normally distributed, but mechanical pressure and pinch thresholds were normalized only after log-transformation, and cold pain...

  18. Sensory dysfunction and the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, L A

    1999-10-01

    Dysfunction of the sensory system of the gut is now generally believed to be important in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This disturbance may well account for some of the symptoms of the disorder, such as abdominal pain, by virtue of the fact that intra-lumenal events (e.g. contractions) may be 'sensed' more easily. It can be assessed in the laboratory by a variety of techniques, but usually involves measuring the patient's response to distension of any site of the gut, most commonly the rectum. Hypersensitivity is the most frequent finding, but hyposensitivity can also occur--hypersensitivity does not appear to be specific to any particular pattern of bowel habit, but hyposensitivity does tend to be generally only seen in patients with constipation, especially those with the 'no urge' type. Although there is some evidence to support hypersensitivity being related to enhanced vigilance in some patients, other data suggest that there may be a true alteration in sensory processing. The mechanisms underlying this sensory dysfunction remain to be elucidated, but could involve changes in either the enteric, spinal and/or central nervous systems. Finally, factors such as gender, stress, emotion and infection can all influence the sensitivity of the gut and may therefore play a role in IBS.

  19. Basic and supplementary sensory feedback in handwriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDanna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mastering of handwriting is so essential in our society that it is important to try to find new methods for facilitating its learning and rehabilitation. The ability to control the graphic movements clearly impacts on the quality of the writing. This control allows both the programming of letter formation before movement execution and the online adjustments during execution, thanks to diverse sensory feedback. New technologies improve existing techniques or enable new methods to supply the writer with real-time computer-assisted feedback. The possibilities are numerous and various. Therefore, two main questions arise: 1-What aspect of the movement is concerned and 2- How can we best inform the writer to help them correct their handwriting? In a first step, we report studies on feedback naturally used by the writer. The purpose is to determine which information is carried by each sensory modality, how it is used in handwriting control and how this control changes with practice and learning. In a second step, we report studies on supplementary feedback provided to the writer to help them to better control and learn how to write. We suggest that, depending on their contents, certain sensory modalities will be more appropriate than others to assist handwriting motor control. We emphasize particularly the relevance of auditory modality as online supplementary feedback on handwriting movements. Using real-time supplementary feedback to assist in the handwriting process is probably destined for a brilliant future with the growing availability and rapid development of tablets.

  20. Sensory shelf life of dulce de leche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garitta, L; Hough, G; Sánchez, R

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the sensory cutoff points for dulce de leche (DL) critical descriptors, both for defective off-flavors and for storage changes in desirable attributes, and to estimate the shelf life of DL as a function of storage temperature. The critical descriptors used to determine the cutoff points were plastic flavor, burnt flavor, dark color, and spreadability. Linear correlations between sensory acceptability and trained panel scores were used to determine the sensory failure cutoff point for each descriptor. To estimate shelf life, DL samples were stored at 25, 37, and 45 degrees C. Plastic flavor was the first descriptor to reach its cutoff point at 25 degrees C and was used for shelf-life calculations. Plastic flavor vs. storage time followed zero-order reaction rate. Shelf-life estimations at different temperatures were 109 d at 25 degrees C, 53 d at 37 degrees C, and 9 d at 45 degrees C. The activation energy, necessary to calculate shelf lives at different temperatures, was 14,370 +/- 2080 cal/mol.

  1. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  2. Physicochemical and sensorial quality of banana genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronielli Cardoso Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the diversity of banana varieties in Brazil, only a few cultivars have the proper agronomic traits and fruit quality for commercial exploitation. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical traits and sensorial acceptance of banana genotypes, in order to identify those with potential for commercial growing. Six improved banana genotypes were assessed (BRS Maravilha, PC 0101, FHIA 18, TM 2803, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira, as well as three commercial cultivars (Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã. Analyses of peel and pulp color, peel thickness, pulp yield, moisture, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total carotenoids and sensorial acceptance were performed. The BRS Maravilha, FHIA 18, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira genotypes presented physicochemical traits similar to the Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã commercial cultivars. The BRS Maravilha and TM 2803 genotypes had sensorial acceptance similar to the Prata Anã and Grand Naine cultivars, and are therefore promising for commercial growing, with the advantage of being resistant to the black Sigatoka and Panama disease.

  3. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Ala I; Daroub, Hamza; Georges, Camille; Shayto, Rani; Nader, Ralph; Chalhoub, Jean; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-08-10

    To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations. Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate (SPS), and oral sodium sulfate (OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted (n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand(®) sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing (n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right (JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products. Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes (P sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showed significant differences between the various samples (P sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results. Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions.

  4. Basic and supplementary sensory feedback in handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Jérémy; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The mastering of handwriting is so essential in our society that it is important to try to find new methods for facilitating its learning and rehabilitation. The ability to control the graphic movements clearly impacts on the quality of the writing. This control allows both the programming of letter formation before movement execution and the online adjustments during execution, thanks to diverse sensory feedback (FB). New technologies improve existing techniques or enable new methods to supply the writer with real-time computer-assisted FB. The possibilities are numerous and various. Therefore, two main questions arise: (1) What aspect of the movement is concerned and (2) How can we best inform the writer to help them correct their handwriting? In a first step, we report studies on FB naturally used by the writer. The purpose is to determine which information is carried by each sensory modality, how it is used in handwriting control and how this control changes with practice and learning. In a second step, we report studies on supplementary FB provided to the writer to help them to better control and learn how to write. We suggest that, depending on their contents, certain sensory modalities will be more appropriate than others to assist handwriting motor control. We emphasize particularly the relevance of auditory modality as online supplementary FB on handwriting movements. Using real-time supplementary FB to assist in the handwriting process is probably destined for a brilliant future with the growing availability and rapid development of tablets.

  5. Photoreactions and Structural Changes of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kawanabe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR is an archaeal-type rhodopsin found in eubacteria. The gene encoding ASR forms a single operon with ASRT (ASR transducer which is a 14 kDa soluble protein, suggesting that ASR functions as a photochromic sensor by activating the soluble transducer. This article reviews the detailed photoreaction processes of ASR, which were studied by low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. The former research reveals that the retinal isomerization is similar to bacteriorhodopsin (BR, but the hydrogen-bonding network around the Schiff base and cytoplasmic region is different. The latter study shows the stable photoproduct of the all-trans form is 100% 13-cis, and that of the 13-cis form is 100% all-trans. These results suggest that the structural changes of ASR in the cytoplasmic domain play important roles in the activation of the transducer protein, and photochromic reaction is optimized for its sensor function.

  6. Stable Fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), Dispersal and Governing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Osbrink, Weste L A

    2015-01-01

    Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (fly movement occurs between host animals and resting sites to feed and mate, mainly at on-farm locations where herbivorous livestock regularly congregate. Small numbers emigrate from livestock congregation sites in search of other hosts and oviposition substrate, mostly within stable flies are active year-round in warm latitudes, cold winters in temperate areas result in substantial population and activity declines, limiting movement of any sort to warmer seasons. Long-distance dispersal (>13 km) is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one "lineage", the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  7. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  8. Evaluating Sensory Processing in Fragile X Syndrome: Psychometric Analysis of the Brain Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacz, Jacek; Raspa, Melissa; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2018-02-07

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), especially those co-diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), face many sensory processing challenges. However, sensory processing measures informed by neurophysiology are lacking. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a parent/caregiver report, the Brain-Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS), based on Polyvagal Theory. Parents/guardians reported on 333 individuals with FXS, 41% with ASD features. Factor structure using a split-sample exploratory-confirmatory design conformed to neurophysiological predictions. Internal consistency, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability were good to excellent. BBCSS subscales converged with the Sensory Profile and Sensory Experiences Questionnaire. However, data also suggest that BBCSS subscales reflect unique features related to sensory processing. Individuals with FXS and ASD features displayed more sensory challenges on most subscales.

  9. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  10. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  11. [Sensory integration: benefits and effectiveness of therapeutic management in sensory processing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela-Torras, M; Abad-Mas, L; Tudela-Torras, E

    2017-02-24

    Today, the fact that sensory integration difficulties with a neurological basis exist and that they seriously condition the development of those individuals who suffer from them is widely accepted and acknowledged as being obvious by the vast majority of professionals working in the field of community healthcare. However, less is known and there is more controversy about effective treatments that can be applied to them. This is because many professionals criticise the fact that there is not enough scientific evidence to prove, both quantitatively and empirically, the outcomes of the interventions implemented as alternatives to pharmacological therapy. Consequently, when the symptoms and repercussions on the quality of life deriving from a distorted sensory integration are really disabling for the person, pharmacological treatment is used as the only possible approach, with the side effects that this entails. The reason for this is largely the fact that little is known about other effective therapeutic approaches, such as occupational therapy based on sensory integration.

  12. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR: understanding the triggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Barratt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction.

  13. Physical stability assessment and sensory optimization of a dairy-free emulsion using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Daniel; de Castro, I Alves; Ellendersen, L Souza Neves; Masson, M Lucia

    2010-04-01

    Desserts made with soy cream, which are oil-in-water emulsions, are widely consumed by lactose-intolerant individuals in Brazil. In this regard, this study aimed at using response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the sensory attributes of a soy-based emulsion over a range of pink guava juice (GJ: 22% to 32%) and soy protein (SP: 1% to 3%). WHC and backscattering were analyzed after 72 h of storage at 7 degrees C. Furthermore, a rating test was performed to determine the degree of liking of color, taste, creaminess, appearance, and overall acceptability. The data showed that the samples were stable against gravity and storage. The models developed by RSM adequately described the creaminess, taste, and appearance of the emulsions. The response surface of the desirability function was used successfully in the optimization of the sensory properties of dairy-free emulsions, suggesting that a product with 30.35% GJ and 3% SP was the best combination of these components. The optimized sample presented suitable sensory properties, in addition to being a source of dietary fiber, iron, copper, and ascorbic acid.

  14. Comparing the NIS vs. MRC and INCAT sensory scale through Rasch analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draak, Thomas H P; Vanhoutte, Els K; van Nes, Sonja I; Gorson, Kenneth C; Van der Pol, W-Ludo; Notermans, Nicolette C; Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo; Lewis, Richard A; Léger, Jean-Marc; Van den Bergh, Peter Y K; Lauria, Giuseppe; Bril, Vera; Katzberg, Hans; Lunn, Michael P T; Pouget, Jean; van der Kooi, Anneke J; Hahn, Angelika F; van den Berg, Leonard H; van Doorn, Pieter A; Cornblath, David R; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J

    2015-09-01

    We performed a comparison between Neuropathy Impairment Scale-sensory (NISs) vs. the modified Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment sensory scale (mISS), and NIS-motor vs. the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance-related polyneuropathy (MGUSP). The ordinal data were subjected to Rasch analyses, creating Rasch-transformed (RT)-intervals for all measures. Comparison between measures was based on validity/reliability with an emphasis on responsiveness (using the patient's level of change related to the individually obtained varying SE for minimum clinically important difference). Eighty stable patients (GBS: 30, CIDP: 30, and MGUSP: 20) were assessed twice (entry: two observers; 2-4 weeks later: one observer), and 137 newly diagnosed or relapsing patients (GBS: 55, CIDP: 59, and IgM-MGUSP: 23) were serially examined with 12 months follow-up. Data modifications were needed to improve model fit for all measures. The sensory and motor scales demonstrated approximately equal and acceptable validity and reliability scores. Responsiveness scores were poor but slightly higher in RT-mISS compared to RT-NISs. Responsiveness was equal for the RT-motor scales, but higher in GBS compared to CIDP; responsiveness was poor in patients with MGUSP, suggesting a longer duration of follow-up in the latter group of patients. © 2015 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  15. Sensory integration therapies for children with developmental and behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Michelle; Desch, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Sensory-based therapies are increasingly used by occupational therapists and sometimes by other types of therapists in treatment of children with developmental and behavioral disorders. Sensory-based therapies involve activities that are believed to organize the sensory system by providing vestibular, proprioceptive, auditory, and tactile inputs. Brushes, swings, balls, and other specially designed therapeutic or recreational equipment are used to provide these inputs. However, it is unclear whether children who present with sensory-based problems have an actual "disorder" of the sensory pathways of the brain or whether these deficits are characteristics associated with other developmental and behavioral disorders. Because there is no universally accepted framework for diagnosis, sensory processing disorder generally should not be diagnosed. Other developmental and behavioral disorders must always be considered, and a thorough evaluation should be completed. Difficulty tolerating or processing sensory information is a characteristic that may be seen in many developmental behavioral disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental coordination disorders, and childhood anxiety disorders. Occupational therapy with the use of sensory-based therapies may be acceptable as one of the components of a comprehensive treatment plan. However, parents should be informed that the amount of research regarding the effectiveness of sensory integration therapy is limited and inconclusive. Important roles for pediatricians and other clinicians may include discussing these limitations with parents, talking with families about a trial period of sensory integration therapy, and teaching families how to evaluate the effectiveness of a therapy.

  16. Hierarchical sparse coding in the sensory system of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Liani, Idan; Shtangel, Oshrat; Ginzburg, Shira; Yee, Lisa; Sternberg, Paul W

    2015-01-27

    Animals with compact sensory systems face an encoding problem where a small number of sensory neurons are required to encode information about its surrounding complex environment. Using Caenorhabditis elegans worms as a model, we ask how chemical stimuli are encoded by a small and highly connected sensory system. We first generated a comprehensive library of transgenic worms where each animal expresses a genetically encoded calcium indicator in individual sensory neurons. This library includes the vast majority of the sensory system in C. elegans. Imaging from individual sensory neurons while subjecting the worms to various stimuli allowed us to compile a comprehensive functional map of the sensory system at single neuron resolution. The functional map reveals that despite the dense wiring, chemosensory neurons represent the environment using sparse codes. Moreover, although anatomically closely connected, chemo- and mechano-sensory neurons are functionally segregated. In addition, the code is hierarchical, where few neurons participate in encoding multiple cues, whereas other sensory neurons are stimulus specific. This encoding strategy may have evolved to mitigate the constraints of a compact sensory system.

  17. Sensory modulation in preterm children: Theoretical perspective and systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinka Bröring

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in terms of registration, integration and modulation. However, research into sensory processing problems and, in particular, sensory modulation problems, is scarce in preterm children.This review aims to integrate available evidence on sensory modulation problems in preterm infants and children (<37 weeks of gestation and their association with neurocognitive and behavioral problems.Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, EMBASE.com and PsycINFO following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Selection criteria included assessment of sensory modulation in preterm born children (<37 weeks of gestation or with prematurity as a risk factor.Eighteen studies were included. Results of this review support the presence of sensory modulation problems in preterm children. Although prematurity may distort various aspects of sensory modulation, the nature and severity of sensory modulation problems differ widely between studies.Sensory modulation problems may play a key role in understanding neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae in preterm children. Some support is found for a dose-response relationship between both white matter brain injury and length of NICU stay and sensory modulation problems.

  18. Design of partially optically stable reflector systems and prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    The characteristics and design method of the total optically stable (TOS) reflector systems/prisms were introduced in an early paper (Tsai and Lin in Appl. Opt. 47:4158-4163, 2008), where only two types of TOS reflector system exist, namely preservation or retroreflection. In this paper, we introduce the partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, which is only optically stable about a specific directional vector; nevertheless, the exiting light ray is not restricted to preservation or retroreflection. The proposed paper also presents an analytic method for the design of POS reflector systems comprised of multiple reflectors. Furthermore, it is shown that a POS prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces with specific conditions at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system with multiple reflectors.

  19. Impairment of sensory-motor plasticity in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Carmen; Carmen, Terranova; SantAngelo, Antonino; Antonino, Sant'Angelo; Morgante, Francesca; Francesca, Morgante; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Vincenzo, Rizzo; Allegra, Roberta; Roberta, Allegra; Arena, Maria Grazia; Grazia, Arena Maria; Ricciardi, Lucia; Lucia, Ricciardi; Ghilardi, Marie Felice; Felice, Ghilardi Maria; Girlanda, Paolo; Paolo, Girlanda; Quartarone, Angelo; Angelo, Quartarone

    2013-01-01

    Primary motor cortex (M1) is relatively spared in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim of the present study was to investigate whether abnormal M1 synaptic plasticity is present at an early stage of AD. We employed an electrophysiological protocol, named rapid paired associative stimulation (rPAS), involving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) paired with electrical stimulation of the contralateral median nerve, that modifies corticospinal excitability and short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). We studied 10 patients with a diagnosis of probable mild AD according to the Mini Mental State Examination score (minimum 21) and 14 age-matched control subjects. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) amplitudes and short-afferent inhibition (SAI) were measured at baseline before and for up to 60 min after 5Hz-rPAS in abductor pollicis brevis (APB). rPAS consisted of 600 pairs of transcranial magnetic stimuli, at a rate of 5 Hz for 2 min, coupled with electrical median nerve stimulation preceding TMS over the contralateral M1 at an inter-stimulus interval of 25 ms. Baseline SAI was significantly reduced in AD patients. In the control subjects rPAS induced a significant increase in MEP amplitudes and a decrease of SAI in the APB muscle persistently for up to 1 h. Conversely 5Hz-rPAS did not induce any significant changes in MEP amplitudes and SAI in mild AD patients. Sensory-motor plasticity is impaired in the motor cortex of AD at an early stage of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) in Indian patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out for early confirmation of clinically diagnosed patients of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) by electro-diagnostic tests which included motor conduction, sensory conduction studies and F-wave studies. The aim of the study was early confirmation of clinically suspected patients of CTS by motor ...

  1. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system identification paradigm where the experimental goal is to estimate and possibly compare sensory processing models. We discuss various theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive firing rate optimization, including optimization with stimulus space constraints, firing rate adaptation, and possible network constraints on the optimal stimulus. We consider the problem of system identification, and show how accurate estimation of non-linear models can be highly dependent on the stimulus set used to probe the network. We suggest that optimizing stimuli for accurate model estimation may make it possible to successfully identify non-linear models which are otherwise intractable, and summarize several recent studies of this type. Finally, we present a two-stage stimulus design procedure which combines the dual goals of model estimation and model comparison and may be especially useful for system identification experiments where the appropriate model is unknown beforehand. We propose that fast, on-line stimulus optimization enabled by increasing computer power can make it practical to move sensory neuroscience away from a descriptive paradigm and toward a new paradigm of real-time model estimation and comparison.

  2. Structural and Functional Recovery of Sensory Cilia in C. elegans IFT Mutants upon Aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Cornils

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of cilia are formed and maintained by the highly conserved process of intraflagellar transport (IFT. Mutations in IFT genes lead to ciliary structural defects and systemic disorders termed ciliopathies. Here we show that the severely truncated sensory cilia of hypomorphic IFT mutants in C. elegans transiently elongate during a discrete period of adult aging leading to markedly improved sensory behaviors. Age-dependent restoration of cilia morphology occurs in structurally diverse cilia types and requires IFT. We demonstrate that while DAF-16/FOXO is dispensable, the age-dependent suppression of cilia phenotypes in IFT mutants requires cell-autonomous functions of the HSF1 heat shock factor and the Hsp90 chaperone. Our results describe an unexpected role of early aging and protein quality control mechanisms in suppressing ciliary phenotypes of IFT mutants, and suggest possible strategies for targeting subsets of ciliopathies.

  3. A biomarker based on the stable isotopes of nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Vyllinniskii; Vance, Derek; Archer, Corey; House, Christopher H.

    2009-01-01

    The new stable isotope systems of transition metals are increasingly used to understand and quantify the impact of primitive microbial metabolisms on the modern and ancient Earth. To date, little effort has been expended on nickel (Ni) isotopes but there are good reasons to believe that this system may be more straightforward, and useful in this respect, than some others. Here, we present Ni stable isotope data for abiotic terrestrial samples and pure cultures of methanogens. The dataset for rocks reveals little isotopic variability and provides a lithologic baseline for terrestrial Ni isotope studies. In contrast, methanogens assimilate the light isotopes, yielding residual media with a complementary heavy isotopic enrichment. Methanogenesis may have evolved during or before the Archean, when methane could have been key to Earth's early systems. Our data suggest significant potential in Ni stable isotopes for identifying and quantifying methanogenesis on the early planet. Additionally, Ni stable isotope fractionation may well prove to be the fundamental unambiguous trace metal biomarker for methanogens. PMID:19553218

  4. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Teng

    Full Text Available Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99; controls (76.53±7.47; t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory

  5. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  6. [Temperature and sensorial qualities of food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puisais, J; Durand, M P

    2001-01-01

    The pleasure of food-intake was emphasized by Brillat-Savarin in XIXo century. Beside pathogen bacterias, bad flavours caused by bacterial growth or enzymatic effects may happen in refrigerators with a mismanaged temperature. We have to distinguish between food-conservation and food-intake temperature. The ideal room-temperature to appreciate a meal is about 22 degrees C with a damp of 60%. Relating to the four main flavours, salt and sweet are at their best at 18 degrees, bitter and sour at 8 degrees. All what is written before can be applied either in the case of sensorial analysis and meal.

  7. Neurology: an ancient sensory organ in crocodilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daphne

    2002-05-16

    Crocodilians hunt at night, waiting half-submerged for land-bound prey to disturb the water surface. Here I show that crocodilians have specialized sensory organs on their faces that can detect small disruptions in the surface of the surrounding water, and which are linked to a dedicated, hypertrophied nerve system. Such 'dome' pressure receptors are also evident in fossils from the Jurassic period, indicating that these semi-aquatic predators solved the problem of combining armour with tactile sensitivity many millions of years ago.

  8. Dementia Gateway: Sensory Loss and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Alys; Waterman, Heather; Ferguson-Coleman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of prevalence studies of dementia and sensory loss, but clear evidence of an association between visual impairment and dementia, and age-related hearing loss and dementia.  Visual deficits can be the first or major manifestation that trigger people to seek help regarding Alzheimer’s disease, although people are often not aware of the link.  Recent research has demonstrated strongly that there is a relationship between age-related hearing loss and an increased risk of a...

  9. Auditory sensory ("echoic") memory dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, R D; Cowan, N; Ritter, W; Javitt, D C

    1995-10-01

    Studies of working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia have focused largely on prefrontal components. This study investigated the integrity of auditory sensory ("echoic") memory, a component that shows little dependence on prefrontal functioning. Echoic memory was investigated in 20 schizophrenic subjects and 20 age- and IQ-matched normal comparison subjects with the use of nondelayed and delayed tone matching. Schizophrenic subjects were markedly impaired in their ability to match two tones after an extremely brief delay between them (300 msec) but were unimpaired when there was no delay between tones. Working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia affects brain regions outside the prefrontal cortex as well as within.

  10. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins

    OpenAIRE

    Cerling, Thure E.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Mbua, Emma N.; Leakey, Louise N.; Leakey, Meave G.; Leakey, Richard E.; Brown, Francis H.; Grine, Frederick E.; Hart, John A.; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T.; Wood, Bernard A.

    2013-01-01

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, t...

  11. Visualization of Sensory Neurons and Their Projections in an Upper Motor Neuron Reporter Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Genç

    Full Text Available Visualization of peripheral nervous system axons and cell bodies is important to understand their development, target recognition, and integration into complex circuitries. Numerous studies have used protein gene product (PGP 9.5 [a.k.a. ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1] expression as a marker to label sensory neurons and their axons. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP expression, under the control of UCHL1 promoter, is stable and long lasting in the UCHL1-eGFP reporter line. In addition to the genetic labeling of corticospinal motor neurons in the motor cortex and degeneration-resistant spinal motor neurons in the spinal cord, here we report that neurons of the peripheral nervous system are also fluorescently labeled in the UCHL1-eGFP reporter line. eGFP expression is turned on at embryonic ages and lasts through adulthood, allowing detailed studies of cell bodies, axons and target innervation patterns of all sensory neurons in vivo. In addition, visualization of both the sensory and the motor neurons in the same animal offers many advantages. In this report, we used UCHL1-eGFP reporter line in two different disease paradigms: diabetes and motor neuron disease. eGFP expression in sensory axons helped determine changes in epidermal nerve fiber density in a high-fat diet induced diabetes model. Our findings corroborate previous studies, and suggest that more than five months is required for significant skin denervation. Crossing UCHL1-eGFP with hSOD1G93A mice generated hSOD1G93A-UeGFP reporter line of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and revealed sensory nervous system defects, especially towards disease end-stage. Our studies not only emphasize the complexity of the disease in ALS, but also reveal that UCHL1-eGFP reporter line would be a valuable tool to visualize and study various aspects of sensory nervous system development and degeneration in the context of numerous diseases.

  12. Visualization of Sensory Neurons and Their Projections in an Upper Motor Neuron Reporter Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Barış; Lagrimas, Amiko Krisa Bunag; Kuru, Pınar; Hess, Robert; Tu, Michael William; Menichella, Daniela Maria; Miller, Richard J; Paller, Amy S; Özdinler, P Hande

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of peripheral nervous system axons and cell bodies is important to understand their development, target recognition, and integration into complex circuitries. Numerous studies have used protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 [a.k.a. ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1)] expression as a marker to label sensory neurons and their axons. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression, under the control of UCHL1 promoter, is stable and long lasting in the UCHL1-eGFP reporter line. In addition to the genetic labeling of corticospinal motor neurons in the motor cortex and degeneration-resistant spinal motor neurons in the spinal cord, here we report that neurons of the peripheral nervous system are also fluorescently labeled in the UCHL1-eGFP reporter line. eGFP expression is turned on at embryonic ages and lasts through adulthood, allowing detailed studies of cell bodies, axons and target innervation patterns of all sensory neurons in vivo. In addition, visualization of both the sensory and the motor neurons in the same animal offers many advantages. In this report, we used UCHL1-eGFP reporter line in two different disease paradigms: diabetes and motor neuron disease. eGFP expression in sensory axons helped determine changes in epidermal nerve fiber density in a high-fat diet induced diabetes model. Our findings corroborate previous studies, and suggest that more than five months is required for significant skin denervation. Crossing UCHL1-eGFP with hSOD1G93A mice generated hSOD1G93A-UeGFP reporter line of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and revealed sensory nervous system defects, especially towards disease end-stage. Our studies not only emphasize the complexity of the disease in ALS, but also reveal that UCHL1-eGFP reporter line would be a valuable tool to visualize and study various aspects of sensory nervous system development and degeneration in the context of numerous diseases.

  13. Sensory Subtypes in Preschool Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomchek, Scott D; Little, Lauren M; Myers, John; Dunn, Winnie

    2018-02-07

    Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research has investigated how sensory features elucidate subtypes that enhance our understanding of etiology and tailored treatment approaches. Previous studies, however, have not integrated core developmental behaviors with sensory features in investigations of subtypes in ASD. Therefore, we used latent profile analysis to examine subtypes in a preschool aged sample considering sensory processing patterns in combination with social-communication skill, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. Results showed four subtypes that differed by degree and quality of sensory features, age and differential presentation of developmental skills. Findings partially align with previous literature on sensory subtypes and extends our understanding of how sensory processing aligns with other developmental domains in young children with ASD.

  14. Brief report: Further evidence of sensory subtypes in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E; Dennis, Simon J; Geraghty, Maureen E

    2011-06-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the triad of sensory subtypes reported earlier. Subtypes were differentiated from each other based on degree of SP dysfunction, taste/smell sensitivity and vestibular/proprioceptive processing. Further elucidation of two of the subtypes was also achieved in this study. Children with a primary pattern of sensory-based inattention could be further described as sensory seekers or non-seekers. Children with a primary pattern of vestibular/proprioceptive dysfunction were also differentiated on movement and tactile sensitivity.

  15. Adaptation to sensory input tunes visual cortex to criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Woodrow L.; Clawson, Wesley P.; Pobst, Jeff; Karimipanah, Yahya; Wright, Nathaniel C.; Wessel, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    A long-standing hypothesis at the interface of physics and neuroscience is that neural networks self-organize to the critical point of a phase transition, thereby optimizing aspects of sensory information processing. This idea is partially supported by strong evidence for critical dynamics observed in the cerebral cortex, but the impact of sensory input on these dynamics is largely unknown. Thus, the foundations of this hypothesis--the self-organization process and how it manifests during strong sensory input--remain unstudied experimentally. Here we show in visual cortex and in a computational model that strong sensory input initially elicits cortical network dynamics that are not critical, but adaptive changes in the network rapidly tune the system to criticality. This conclusion is based on observations of multifaceted scaling laws predicted to occur at criticality. Our findings establish sensory adaptation as a self-organizing mechanism that maintains criticality in visual cortex during sensory information processing.

  16. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placek, V.; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M.

    2004-01-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x -containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested

  17. Learning to balance on one leg: motor strategy and sensory weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dieën, Jaap H; van Leeuwen, Marloes; Faber, Gert S

    2015-11-01

    We investigated motor and sensory changes underlying learning of a balance task. Fourteen participants practiced balancing on one leg on a board that could freely rotate in the frontal plane. They performed six, 16-s trials standing on one leg on a stable surface (2 trials without manipulation, 2 with vestibular, and 2 with visual stimulation) and six trials on the balance board before and after a 30-min training. Center of mass (COM) movement, segment, and total angular momenta and board angles were determined. Trials on stable surface were compared with trials after training to assess effects of surface conditions. Trials pretraining and posttraining were compared to assess rapid (between trials pretraining) and slower (before and after training) learning, and sensory manipulation trials were compared with unperturbed trials to assess sensory weighting. COM excursions were larger on the unstable surface but decreased with practice, with the largest improvement over the pretraining trials. Changes in angular momentum contributed more to COM acceleration on the balance board, but with practice this decreased. Visual stimulation increased sway similarly in both surface conditions, while vestibular stimulation increased sway less on the balance board. With practice, the effects of visual and vestibular stimulation increased rapidly. Initially, oscillations of the balance board occurred at 3.5 Hz, which decreased with practice. The initial decrease in sway with practice was associated with upweighting of visual information, while later changes were associated with suppression of oscillations that we suggest are due to too high proprioceptive feedback gains. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  19. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  20. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  1. Hey2 functions in parallel with Hes1 and Hes5 for mammalian auditory sensory organ development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Michael T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During mouse development, the precursor cells that give rise to the auditory sensory organ, the organ of Corti, are specified prior to embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5. Subsequently, the sensory domain is patterned precisely into one row of inner and three rows of outer sensory hair cells interdigitated with supporting cells. Both the restriction of the sensory domain and the patterning of the sensory mosaic of the organ of Corti involve Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and cellular rearrangement characteristic of convergent extension. This study explores the expression and function of a putative Notch target gene. Results We report that a putative Notch target gene, hairy-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcriptional factor Hey2, is expressed in the cochlear epithelium prior to terminal differentiation. Its expression is subsequently restricted to supporting cells, overlapping with the expression domains of two known Notch target genes, Hairy and enhancer of split homolog genes Hes1 and Hes5. In combination with the loss of Hes1 or Hes5, genetic inactivation of Hey2 leads to increased numbers of mis-patterned inner or outer hair cells, respectively. Surprisingly, the ectopic hair cells in Hey2 mutants are accompanied by ectopic supporting cells. Furthermore, Hey2-/-;Hes1-/- and Hey2-/-;Hes1+/- mutants show a complete penetrance of early embryonic lethality. Conclusion Our results indicate that Hey2 functions in parallel with Hes1 and Hes5 in patterning the organ of Corti, and interacts genetically with Hes1 for early embryonic development and survival. Our data implicates expansion of the progenitor pool and/or the boundaries of the developing sensory organ to account for patterning defects observed in Hey2 mutants.

  2. Evidence against perfect integration of sensory information during perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carland, Matthew A; Marcos, Encarni; Thura, David; Cisek, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Perceptual decision making is often modeled as perfect integration of sequential sensory samples until the accumulated total reaches a fixed decision bound. In that view, the buildup of neural activity during perceptual decision making is attributed to temporal integration. However, an alternative explanation is that sensory estimates are computed quickly with a low-pass filter and combined with a growing signal reflecting the urgency to respond and it is the latter that is primarily responsible for neural activity buildup. These models are difficult to distinguish empirically because they make similar predictions for tasks in which sensory information is constant within a trial, as in most previous studies. Here we presented subjects with a variant of the classic constant-coherence motion discrimination (CMD) task in which we inserted brief motion pulses. We examined the effect of these pulses on reaction times (RTs) in two conditions: 1) when the CMD trials were blocked and subjects responded quickly and 2) when the same CMD trials were interleaved among trials of a variable-motion coherence task that motivated slower decisions. In the blocked condition, early pulses had a strong effect on RTs but late pulses did not, consistent with both models. However, when subjects slowed their decision policy in the interleaved condition, later pulses now became effective while early pulses lost their efficacy. This last result contradicts models based on perfect integration of sensory evidence and implies that motion signals are processed with a strong leak, equivalent to a low-pass filter with a short time constant. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) and Frisson: Mindfully Induced Sensory Phenomena That Promote Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Marisa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    There are many important phenomena involved in human functioning that are unnoticed, misunderstood, not applied, or do not pique the interest of the scientific community. Among these, "autonomous sensory meridian response" ("ASMR") and "frisson" are two very noteworthy instances that may prove to be therapeutically…

  4. The Sensory Nature of Episodic Memory: Sensory Priming Effects Due to Memory Trace Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Lionel; Labeye, Elodie; Lesourd, Mathieu; Versace, Remy

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence that memory and perceptual processing are underpinned by the same mechanisms. Specifically, the authors conducted 3 experiments that emphasized the sensory aspect of memory traces. They examined their predictions with a short-term priming paradigm based on 2 distinct phases: a learning phase consisting…

  5. Bilateral Pathways from the Basal Forebrain to Sensory Cortices May Contribute to Synchronous Sensory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Chaves-Coira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing in the cortex should integrate inputs arriving from receptive fields located on both sides of the body. This role could be played by the corpus callosum through precise projections between both hemispheres. However, different studies suggest that cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain (BF could also contribute to the synchronization and integration of cortical activities. Using tracer injections and optogenetic techniques in transgenic mice, we investigated whether the BF cells project bilaterally to sensory cortical areas, and have provided anatomical evidence to support a modulatory role for the cholinergic projections in sensory integration. Application of the retrograde tracer Fluor-Gold or Fast Blue in both hemispheres of the primary somatosensory (S1, auditory or visual cortical areas showed labeled neurons in the ipsi- and contralateral areas of the diagonal band of Broca and substantia innominata. The nucleus basalis magnocellularis only showed ipsilateral projections to the cortex. Optogenetic stimulation of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca facilitated whisker responses in the S1 cortex of both hemispheres through activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors and this effect was diminished by atropine injection. In conclusion, our findings have revealed that specific areas of the BF project bilaterally to sensory cortices and may contribute to the coordination of neuronal activity on both hemispheres.

  6. Psychometric Properties of Dunn\\'s Sensory Profile School Companion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Movallali

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion The results showed that Dunn's sensory profile has good reliability and validity. Dunn's sensory profile is a useful tool for assessing sensory processing patterns in school and kindergarten settings, and can be used by occupational therapists in clinical environments and by psychologists in educational environments. Information obtained from this profile can have diagnostic value and could also be used for the design of curriculum and classroom space.

  7. An MR-compatible Hand Sensory Vibrotactile System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fa; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Slota, Gregory P.; Seo, Na Jin; Webster, John G

    2014-01-01

    Recently, application of vibrotactile noise to the wrist or back of the hand has been shown to enhance fingertip tactile sensory perception (Enders et al 2013), supporting a potential for an assistive device worn at the wrist, that generates minute vibration to help the elderly or patients with sensory deficit. However, knowledge regarding the detailed physiological mechanism behind this sensory improvement in the central nervous system, especially in the human brain, is limited, hindering pr...

  8. Research on Sensory Integration in a Taste of Food

    OpenAIRE

    森谷, 哲朗; 矢野, 博明; 岩田, 洋夫

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes sensory integration using the Food Simulator. A taste of a food arises from mixture of auditory, chemical, and force sensation. The food simulator generates a food texture according to the force profile captured from a user's biting force of a real food. By development of the Food Simulator, we can extract only texture from taste. We experimented in sensory integration by displaying texture, sound, smell and taste. Our goal is to study integration among sensory modalities...

  9. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars Perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssego produzidos em duas safras em um pomar experimental implantado na Lapa (PR, Brasil. Os cultivares analisados foram Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier e Vanguarda. As análises sensoriais foram realizadas por julgadores previamente treinados, sendo 20 julgadores na primeira safra e 10 na segunda. O método de avaliação empregado foi a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa na qual foram mensurados os atributos aparência, aroma, cor de polpa, firmeza de polpa, sabor e suculência dos frutos. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram a preferência por frutos de sabor adocicado, com polpa macia e suculenta. Os cultivares Chimarrita, Chiripá e Coral obtiveram o melhor desempenho nas análises sensoriais. Foi verificado ainda que os atributos aroma, firmeza de polpa e sabor são considerados suficientes para a avaliação do perfil sensorial de

  10. Sensory neurons do not induce motor neuron loss in a human stem cell model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Andrew J; Ebert, Allison D

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to paralysis and early death due to reduced SMN protein. It is unclear why there is such a profound motor neuron loss, but recent evidence from fly and mouse studies indicate that cells comprising the whole sensory-motor circuit may contribute to motor neuron dysfunction and loss. Here, we used induced pluripotent stem cells derived from SMA patients to test whether sensory neurons directly contribute to motor neuron loss. We generated sensory neurons from SMA induced pluripotent stem cells and found no difference in neuron generation or survival, although there was a reduced calcium response to depolarizing stimuli. Using co-culture of SMA induced pluripotent stem cell derived sensory neurons with control induced pluripotent stem cell derived motor neurons, we found no significant reduction in motor neuron number or glutamate transporter boutons on motor neuron cell bodies or neurites. We conclude that SMA sensory neurons do not overtly contribute to motor neuron loss in this human stem cell system.

  11. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy J; Nielsen, Darci M; Schoen, Sarah A; Brett-Green, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE EXPLORES THE CONVERGENCE OF TWO FIELDS, WHICH HAVE SIMILAR THEORETICAL ORIGINS: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is sensory processing disorder (SPD). In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term MSI in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  12. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Miller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term multisensory integration in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  13. Activity Regulates the Incidence of Heteronymous Sensory-Motor Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Alana I.; Simon, Christian M.; Abbott, L. F.; Mentis, George Z.; Jessell, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The construction of spinal sensory-motor circuits involves the selection of appropriate synaptic partners and the allocation of precise synaptic input densities. Many aspects of spinal sensory-motor selectivity appear to be preserved when peripheral sensory activation is blocked, which has led to a view that sensory-motor circuits are assembled in an activity-independent manner. Yet it remains unclear whether activity-dependent refinement has a role in the establishment of connections between sensory afferents and those motor pools that have synergistic biomechanical functions. We show here that genetically abolishing central sensory-motor neurotransmission leads to a selective enhancement in the number and density of such “heteronymous” connections, whereas other aspects of sensory-motor connectivity are preserved. Spike-timing dependent synaptic refinement represents one possible mechanism for the changes in connectivity observed after activity blockade. Our findings therefore reveal that sensory activity does have a limited and selective role in the establishment of patterned monosynaptic sensory-motor connections. PMID:26094608

  14. The sensory side of post-stroke motor rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Russo, Cristina; Edwards, Dylan J

    2016-04-11

    Contemporary strategies to promote motor recovery following stroke focus on repetitive voluntary movements. Although successful movement relies on efficient sensorimotor integration, functional outcomes often bias motor therapy toward motor-related impairments such as weakness, spasticity and synergies; sensory therapy and reintegration is implied, but seldom targeted. However, the planning and execution of voluntary movement requires that the brain extracts sensory information regarding body position and predicts future positions, by integrating a variety of sensory inputs with ongoing and planned motor activity. Neurological patients who have lost one or more of their senses may show profoundly affected motor functions, even if muscle strength remains unaffected. Following stroke, motor recovery can be dictated by the degree of sensory disruption. Consequently, a thorough account of sensory function might be both prognostic and prescriptive in neurorehabilitation. This review outlines the key sensory components of human voluntary movement, describes how sensory disruption can influence prognosis and expected outcomes in stroke patients, reports on current sensory-based approaches in post-stroke motor rehabilitation, and makes recommendations for optimizing rehabilitation programs based on sensory stimulation.

  15. A dual-trace model for visual sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Marcus; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-11-01

    Visual sensory memory refers to a transient memory lingering briefly after the stimulus offset. Although previous literature suggests that visual sensory memory is supported by a fine-grained trace for continuous representation and a coarse-grained trace of categorical information, simultaneous separation and assessment of these traces can be difficult without a quantitative model. The present study used a continuous estimation procedure to test a novel mathematical model of the dual-trace hypothesis of visual sensory memory according to which visual sensory memory could be modeled as a mixture of 2 von Mises (2VM) distributions differing in standard deviation. When visual sensory memory and working memory (WM) for colors were distinguished using different experimental manipulations in the first 3 experiments, the 2VM model outperformed Zhang and Luck (2008) standard mixture model (SM) representing a mixture of a single memory trace and random guesses, even though SM outperformed 2VM for WM. Experiment 4 generalized 2VM's advantages of fitting visual sensory memory data over SM from color to orientation. Furthermore, a single trace model and 4 other alternative models were ruled out, suggesting the necessity and sufficiency of dual traces for visual sensory memory. Together these results support the dual-trace model of visual sensory memory and provide a preliminary inquiry into the nature of information loss from visual sensory memory to WM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Sensory pain qualities in neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Sean; Carroll, Ian; Emir, Birol; Murphy, T Kevin; Whalen, Ed; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    The qualities of chronic neuropathic pain (NeP) may be informative about the different mechanisms of pain. We previously developed a 2-factor model of NeP that described an underlying structure among sensory descriptors on the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. The goal of this study was to confirm the correlated 2-factor model of NeP. Individual descriptive scores from the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test a correlated 2-factor model. Factor 1 (stabbing pain) was characterized by high loadings on stabbing, sharp, and shooting sensory items; factor 2 (heavy pain) was characterized by high loadings on heavy, gnawing, and aching items. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis strongly supported the correlated 2-factor model. This article validates a model that describes the qualities of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia. These data suggest that specific pain qualities may be associated with pain mechanisms or may be useful for predicting treatment response. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Asymmetric sensory reweighting in human upright stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logan

    Full Text Available To investigate sensory reweighting as a fundamental property of sensor fusion during standing, we probed postural control with simultaneous rotations of the visual scene and surface of support. Nineteen subjects were presented with pseudo-random pitch rotations of visual scene and platform at the ankle to test for amplitude dependencies in the following conditions: low amplitude vision: high amplitude platform, low amplitude vision: low amplitude platform, and high amplitude vision: low amplitude platform. Gain and phase of frequency response functions (FRFs to each stimulus were computed for two body sway angles and a single weighted EMG signal recorded from seven muscles. When platform stimulus amplitude was increased while visual stimulus amplitude remained constant, gain to vision increased, providing strong evidence for inter-modal reweighting between vision and somatosensation during standing. Intra-modal reweighting of vision was also observed as gains to vision decreased as visual stimulus amplitude increased. Such intra-modal and inter-modal amplitude dependent changes in gain were also observed in muscular activity. Gains of leg segment angle and muscular activity relative to the platform, on the other hand, showed only intra-modal reweighting. That is, changing platform motion amplitude altered the responses to both visual and support surface motion whereas changing visual scene motion amplitude did not significantly affect responses to support surface motion, indicating that the sensory integration scheme between somatosensation (at the support surface and vision is asymmetric.

  18. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  19. Palm to finger ulnar sensory nerve conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Davidowich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  20. Powdered tucupi condiment: sensory and hygroscopic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma dos Santos COSTA

    Full Text Available Abstract Tucupi is a fermented liquid obtained from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, very much appreciated by the traditional cuisine of Northern Brazil. However, there are no scientific reports on its use in the formulation of products. Thus, the present study aimed to elaborate a powdered condiment with tucupi, as well as to assess the product’s sensory acceptability and its hygroscopic behavior. The powdered tucupi used in the formulation of the condiment was obtained by drying in a spray dryer. The product underwent sensory evaluation for its acceptability regarding the attributes of color, aroma, flavor, and overall impression and a purchase intention test was applied by hedonic scale. The acceptability index was 80% for overall impression and the purchase intention test indicated that 94% of the judges would be willing to buy the product. The product’s moisture sorption isotherms presented type-II behavior for adsorption and type-III for desorption, at 25 °C. The hygroscopic behavior indicated that the product is more susceptible to spoilage changes when stored in an environment with relative humidity above 60% and the Peleg model showed an excellent performance on predicting the product’s moisture sorption isotherms.

  1. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, psensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, pSensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which was independent of clinical characteristics. Patients further demonstrated similar pattern and level of utilizing sensory information to maintain balance compared to the controls.

  2. Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum show sensory processing differences as measured by the sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Arroyo, Monica S; Dunn, Winnie; Strominger, Zoe; Sherr, Elliott H; Marco, Elysa

    2015-09-01

    Given reports of high pain thresholds and reduced auditory response in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), this study investigated whether affected participants report atypical experiences and behaviors on a well-established sensory processing measure. Fourteen participants with AgCC (ages 11-59) completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (Brown & Dunn, 2001). Sensory profile scales were classified as "Atypical" if they were more than 1 standard deviation from the mean. Fifty-seven percent of participants with AgCC reported reduced sensory registration as compared to an expected 16% of the normative sample. Similarly, 50% of the AgCC participants reported atypically increased auditory processing difficulties. Using a well-established sensory processing questionnaire, participants with AgCC reported measurable differences in multiple aspects of sensory processing. The most notable difference was in the quadrant of low sensory registration, suggesting that individuals with AgCC may require sensory information to be presented more slowly or at a higher intensity for adequate processing. The sensory modality that was most affected was the auditory system, which is consistent with increased rates of language disorders and autism spectrum disorders in this population. Understanding sensory processing in individuals with AgCC can both elucidate the role of interhemispheric transfer in the development of intact sensory processing as well as contribute to our knowledge of the role of the corpus callosum in a range of disorders in which sensory processes are impacted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  4. Effects of EEG-vigilance regulation patterns on early perceptual processes in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhtereva, Valeria; Sander, Christian; Forschack, Norman; Olbrich, Sebastian; Hegerl, Ulrich; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-01-01

    To investigate influences of EEG-vigilance regulation patterns on perceptual processing during sustained visual attention in early visual areas. We compared a subject group with stable vigilance regulation to a group with unstable EEG-vigilance regulation. A rapid serial visual presentation stream (RSVP) elicited a 7.5 Hz steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), a continuous sinusoidal brain response as a measure of attentional resource allocation during sustained attention in early visual cortex. Subjects performed a target discrimination task. 150 trials were divided into two parts (75 trials each, trial duration: 11 s). A significant interaction vigilance group by experimental part provided significantly greater SSVEP amplitudes for the unstable group in the second compared to the first part of the experiment. Both groups showed training effects with increased hit rates and d'-values in the second part of the experiment. The unexpected finding of SSVEP amplitude increase for the unstable group might be due to competitive interactions for neural resources between the alpha response and SSVEPs. Individual patterns of EEG-vigilance regulation have a moderate impact on early sensory processing during sustained visual attention that is not paralleled in task performance. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early information processing deficit in schizophrenia. New findings using schizophrenic subgroups and manic control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccuzzo, D P; Braff, D L

    1981-02-01

    In recent years, the idea that schizophrenia involves a primary disturbance of the higher cognitive (ie, cortical) thinking processes has been challenged by investigators who have shown that there may be a primary disturbance in schizophrenia in the early stages of information processing that occurs during the first few hundred milliseconds after the stimulus reaches the sense organs. Among the hypothesized early information processing deficits are deficiencies in iconic storage (a brief peripheral memory store) and slowness of processing from iconic storage to a more permanent memory system. Three experiments were conducted using tachistoscopically presented stimuli in order to evaluate these two stages of information processing (iconic storage and speed of processing) in schizophrenic and control subjects. Results converged in supporting the hypothesis, that independent of iconic storage and sensory registration, slow information processing is a relatively stable deficit of schizophrenic patients with a poor prognosis. The schizophrenic patients with a good prognosis had a similar deficit, which was reversible. Results are discussed as they relate to the early information processing deficit theories of schizophrenia.

  6. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  7. Adaptation in human somatosensory cortex as a model of sensory memory construction: a study using high-density EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Claire; Joyce, Niamh; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation in sensory cortices has been seen as a mechanism allowing the creation of transient memory representations. Here we tested the adapting properties of early responses in human somatosensory areas SI and SII by analysing somatosensory-evoked potentials over the very first repetitions of a stimulus. SI and SII generators were identified by well-defined scalp potentials and source localisation from high-density 128-channel EEG. Earliest responses (~20 ms) from area 3b in the depth of the post-central gyrus did not show significant adaptation to stimuli repeated at 300 ms intervals. In contrast, responses around 45 ms from the crown of the gyrus (areas 1 and 2) rapidly lessened to a plateau and abated at the 20th stimulation, and activities from SII in the parietal operculum at ~100 ms displayed strong adaptation with a steady amplitude decrease from the first repetition. Although responses in both SI (1-2) and SII areas showed adapting properties and hence sensory memory capacities, evidence of sensory mismatch detection has been demonstrated only for responses reflecting SII activation. This may index the passage from an early form of sensory storage in SI to more operational memory codes in SII, allowing the prediction of forthcoming input and the triggering of a specific signal when such input differs from the previous sequence. This is consistent with a model whereby the length of temporal receptive windows increases with progression in the cortical hierarchy, in parallel with the complexity and abstraction of neural representations.

  8. Sensory neuron regulation of gastrointestinal inflammation and bacterial host defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, N Y; Mills, K; Chiu, I M

    2017-07-01

    Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage. Emerging evidence shows that sensory neurons participate in host-microbe interactions. Sensory neurons are able to detect pathogenic and commensal bacteria through specific metabolites, cell-wall components, and toxins. Here, we review recent work on the mechanisms of bacterial detection by distinct subtypes of gut-innervating sensory neurons. Upon activation, sensory neurons communicate to the immune system to modulate tissue inflammation through antidromic signalling and efferent neural circuits. We discuss how this neuro-immune regulation is orchestrated through transient receptor potential ion channels and sensory neuropeptides including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Recent studies also highlight a role for sensory neurons in regulating host defence against enteric bacterial pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter rodentium and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Understanding how sensory neurons respond to gastrointestinal flora and communicate with immune cells to regulate host defence enhances our knowledge of host physiology and may form the basis for new approaches to treat gastrointestinal diseases. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  9. Helping Children with Sensory Processing Disorders: The Role of Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Normally functioning sensory systems develop through sensory experiences. Children are stimulated through their senses in many different ways. Even though a person's sensory system is intact, he or she may have a sensory processing disorder (SPD), also known as sensory integration dysfunction. This means the person's brain does not correctly…

  10. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  11. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  12. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  13. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  14. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  15. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry of the Mount Everest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebelin, A.; Mulch, A.; Teyssier, C.; Jessup, M. J.; Law, R. D.; Brunel, M.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term climatic evolution and atmospheric circulation patterns are influenced to a first order by the topography of the largest mountain ranges. Reconstructing the Neogene elevation history of the Mount Everest region is of particular interest for understanding the tectonic history of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen as well as global scale atmospheric circulation and biotic changes through time. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry uses the isotopic lapse rate of precipitations preserved in the near-surface record. In the absence of surface deposits such as paleosols, volcanic ashes, or lacustrine limestone that record the stable isotopic composition of early to mid-Miocene water preserved in the highly erosive Himalayan range, we conduct stable-isotope paleoaltimetry based on the hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of hydrous minerals that crystallized in the South Tibetan detachment (STD) shear zone at ~17 Ma. For paleoaltimetry reconstruction we compare stable isotope records from the STD mylonitic footwall to age-equivalent oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) measured within pedogenic carbonate from Siwalik foreland paleosols that developed near Miocene sea level. The relative differences between meteoric water compositions in the foreland basin and the δ18Owater calculated from the hydrogen isotope composition of syntectonic minerals suggest that by ~17 Ma the central Himalaya was at an elevation similar to what it is today, and that a rain shadow likely existed at that time. Our results demonstrate the power of shear-zone based paleoaltimetry in eroded mountain belts, call for caution in interpreting basin-based stable isotope paleoaltimetry in the rain shadow of the mid-Miocene Himalayan range and suggest that strengthening of the South Asian monsoon may have occurred in early to mid-Miocene, earlier than previously thought.

  16. Estudo sensorial de sopa-creme formulada à base de palmito Sensorial evaluation of cream soup formulated with heart of palm base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Azevedo Magalhães MONTEIRO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O coração da palmeira Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. (pupunha, foi utilizado sob forma desidratada na formulação de uma sopa-creme para merenda escolar. A análise sensorial dessa sopa-creme foi feita em duas partes. Testou-se a sopa-creme em adultos utilizando-se a escala hedônica variando de 1 a 9 pontos ( 1 -- "desgostei extremamente" e 9 -- "gostei extremamente", e, para crianças, a escala hedônica facial de 1 a 7 pontos ( 1- "desgostei extremamente" e 7 -- "gostei extremamente". Os resultados encontrados na análise sensorial revelaram não haver diferença significativa, quando comparadas as sopas-creme de palmito e coração da palmeira, para adultos; quanto às crianças, a sopa-creme de coração da palmeira alcançou o "gostei moderadamente". Esses podem ser considerados bons resultados, uma vez que o palmito não faz parte do hábito alimentar destas crianças.The utilization of the sub-product of processing of Bactris gasipaes was studied using a dehydration process for processed food (soup-cream to be used in school snacks. The sensorial analysis by a standard-formulation for soup-cream obtained by the early tests was made. An hedonic analysis ranging from 1 to 9 (1- "I extremely disliked it" and 9- "I extremely liked it" was used for sensorial analysis in adults; and a facial hedonic analysis ranging from 1 to 7 (1- "I extremely disliked it" and 7- "I extremely liked it" was used for children. The sensorial analysis revealed no diferences between the soup-cream of the heart of palm and that of the palm stipes for adults; for children, the rating of the soup-cream of palm stipes reached "I sort of liked it"> These can be taken as good results since heart of palm is not a common meal for the children in that sample.

  17. The Experience of Children Living with Sensory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch, Melissa Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Sensory processing disorder (SPD) is a neurological condition that alters the way an individual perceives sensory information. Although the condition has been studied for more than 40 years, SPD remains a difficult condition to diagnose, treat, and live with because it affects individuals uniquely, and the symptoms can change from childhood to…

  18. Temperament and Sensory Features of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M. E.; Freuler, A.; Baranek, G. T.; Watson, L. R.; Poe, M. D.; Sabatino, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3-7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations…

  19. Sensory Over-Responsivity in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Miller, Lucy J.; Schoen, Sarah A.; Nielsen, Darci M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anecdotal reports and empirical evidence suggest that sensory processing issues are a key feature of autism spectrum conditions. This study set out to investigate whether adults with autism spectrum conditions report more sensory over-responsivity than adults without autism spectrum conditions. Another goal of the study was to identify whether…

  20. Effect of consumer background on sensory scores of microwaved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of consumer background on the sensory evaluation of microwaved Angus loins. The steaks were prepared using a microwave. Only salt was added to taste. Sensory evaluation was done by an untrained panel of 70 participants of different ages, tribes and gender.