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Sample records for stable continuous wave

  1. Stable continuous-wave single-frequency Nd:YAG blue laser at 473 nm considering the influence of the energy-transfer upconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoting; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Qin; Li, Yuanji; Zhang, Kuanshou

    2010-06-07

    We report a continuous-wave (cw) single frequency Nd:YAG blue laser at 473 nm end-pumped by a laser diode. A ring laser resonator was designed, the frequency doubling efficiency and the length of nonlinear crystal were optimized based on the investigation of the influence of the frequency doubling efficiency on the thermal lensing effect induced by energy-transfer upconversion. By intracavity frequency doubling with PPKTP crystal, an output power of 1 W all-solid-state cw blue laser of single-frequency operation was achieved. The stability of the blue output power was better than +/- 1.8% in the given four hours.

  2. Nonlinear density waves in a marginally stable gravitating disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchagin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of short nonlinear density waves in a disk at the stability limit is studied for arbitrary values of the radial wave number k/sub r/. For waves with wave numbers that do not lie at the minimum of the dispersion curve, the behavior of the amplitude is described by a nonlinear parabolic equation; however, stationary soliton solutions cannot exist in such a system since there is no dispersion spreading of a packet. For wave numbers lying at the minimum of the dispersion curve, soliton structures with determined amplitude are possible. In stable gravitating disks and in a disk at the stability limit, two physically different types of soliton can exist

  3. Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Sintes, Alicia M.; Schutz, Bernard F.; Frasca, Sergio; Palomba, Cristiano

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an incoherent method to search for continuous gravitational waves based on the Hough transform, a well-known technique used for detecting patterns in digital images. We apply the Hough transform to detect patterns in the time-frequency plane of the data produced by an earth-based gravitational wave detector. Two different flavors of searches will be considered, depending on the type of input to the Hough transform: either Fourier transforms of the detector data or the output of a coherent matched-filtering type search. We present the technical details for implementing the Hough transform algorithm for both kinds of searches, their statistical properties, and their sensitivities

  4. Continuous waves probing in dynamic acoustoelastic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalerandi, M.; Gliozzi, A. S.; Ait Ouarabi, M.; Boubenider, F.

    2016-05-01

    Consolidated granular media display a peculiar nonlinear elastic behavior, which is normally analysed with dynamic ultrasonic testing exploiting the dependence on amplitude of different measurable quantities, such as the resonance frequency shift, the amount of harmonics generation, or the break of the superposition principle. However, dynamic testing allows measuring effects which are averaged over one (or more) cycles of the exciting perturbation. Dynamic acoustoelastic testing has been proposed to overcome this limitation and allow the determination of the real amplitude dependence of the modulus of the material. Here, we propose an implementation of the approach, in which the pulse probing waves are substituted by continuous waves. As a result, instead of measuring a time-of-flight as a function of the pump strain, we study the dependence of the resonance frequency on the strain amplitude, allowing to derive the same conclusions but with an easier to implement procedure.

  5. An Unconditionally Stable Method for Solving the Acoustic Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Kai Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An unconditionally stable method for solving the time-domain acoustic wave equation using Associated Hermit orthogonal functions is proposed. The second-order time derivatives in acoustic wave equation are expanded by these orthogonal basis functions. By applying Galerkin temporal testing procedure, the time variable can be eliminated from the calculations. The restriction of Courant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL condition in selecting time step for analyzing thin layer can be avoided. Numerical results show the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. Adaptive Sniping for Volatile and Stable Continuous Double Auction Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, I. E.; Bagnall, A. J.

    This paper introduces a new adaptive sniping agent for the Continuous Double Auction. We begin by analysing the performance of the well known Kaplan sniper in two extremes of market conditions. We generate volatile and stable market conditions using the well known Zero Intelligence-Constrained agent and a new zero-intelligence agent Small Increment (SI). ZI-C agents submit random but profitable bids/offers and cause high volatility in prices and individual trader performance. Our new zero-intelligence agent, SI, makes small random adjustments to the outstanding bid/offer and hence is more cautious than ZI-C. We present results for SI in self-play and then analyse Kaplan in volatile and stable markets. We demonstrate that the non-adaptive Kaplan sniper can be configured to suit either market conditions, but no single configuration is performs well across both market types. We believe that in a dynamic auction environment where current or future market conditions cannot be predicted a viable sniping strategy should adapt its behaviour to suit prevailing market conditions. To this end, we propose the Adaptive Sniper (AS) agent for the CDA. AS traders classify sniping opportunities using a statistical model of market activity and adjust their classification thresholds using a Widrow-Hoff adapted search. Our AS agent requires little configuration, and outperforms the original Kaplan sniper in volatile and stable markets, and in a mixed trader type scenario that includes adaptive strategies from the literature.

  7. Stochastic generation of continuous wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trulsen, J.; Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans

    1983-01-01

    Wave packets of electromagnetic or Langmuir waves trapped in a well between oscillating reflectors are considered. An equation for the temporal evolution of the probability distribution for the carrier wave number is derived, and solved analytically in terms of moments in the limits of long...

  8. Continuity relations and quantum wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedecke, G.H.; Davis, B.T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the mathematical synthesis of the Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon, Pauli-Schroedinger, and Dirac equations starting from probability continuity relations. We utilize methods similar to those employed by R. E. Collins (Lett. Nuovo Cimento, 18 (1977) 581) in his construction of the Schroedinger equation from the position probability continuity relation for a single particle. Our new results include the mathematical construction of the Pauli-Schroedinger and Dirac equations from the position probability continuity relations for a particle that can transition between two states or among four states, respectively.

  9. A continuous wave RF vacuum window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, R.

    1999-09-01

    An essential part of an ICRF system to be used in fusion reactor is the RF window. This is fitted in a coaxial transmission line. It forms a vacuum and tritium boundary between the antenna, situated inside the machine, and the transmission line, which feeds it. A double window is required with a vacuum inter-space. The dielectric, which forms the vacuum boundary, must be brazed into its housing. The window must be of a robust construction, and capable of withstanding both axial and radial loads. The vacuum boundaries should be thick walled in order act as a suitable tritium barrier. A further requirement is that the window is capable of continuous operation. The design of such a window is presented below. A half scale prototype has been manufactured, which has successfully completed RF, vacuum, and mechanical testing at JET, but has no water cooling, which is a requirement for continuous operation. The design presented here is for a window to match the existing 30 Ω main transmission lines at JET. It employs two opposed ceramic dielectric cones with a much increased angle of incidence compared with existing JET windows. The housing is machined from titanium. Small corona rings are used, and the tracking distance along the ceramic surface is large. The geometry minimizes the peak electric field strength. The design uses substantial pre-stressing during manufacture, to produce a compressive stress field throughout the dielectric material. Significant tensile stresses in the ceramic, and therefore the possibility of fracture due to applied thermal and mechanical loading, are eliminated in this way. A full-scale actively cooled RF window using this basic design should be capable of continuous use at 50 kV in the 20 - 90 MHz range. A half scale, inertially cooled prototype window has been designed, built and tested successfully at JET to 48 kV for up to 20 seconds. The prototype uses alumina for the dielectric, whereas beryllia is more appropriate for continuous

  10. Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum, O.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Present day knowledge of the magnitude of the strain levels in the ground associated with geotechnical structures, together with an increasing number of projects requiring the best estimates of ground movements around excavations, has led to, inter alia, increased interest in measuring the very......-small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....

  12. Traveling-wave solutions in continuous chains of unidirectionally coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu; Rozov, N. Kh

    2017-12-01

    Proposed is a mathematical model of a continuous annular chain of unidirectionally coupled generators given by certain nonlinear advection-type hyperbolic boundary value problem. Such problems are constructed by a limit transition from annular chains of unidirectionally coupled ordinary differential equations with an unbounded increase in the number of links. It is shown that any preassigned finite number of stable periodic motions of the traveling-wave type can coexist in the model.

  13. Stable Alfven wave dynamo action in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances in linear resistive MHD stability analysis are used to calculate the quasi-linear dynamo mean electromotive force of Alfven waves. This emf is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport and mean-field evolution code. The changing equilibrium is then fed back to the stability code to complete a computational framework that self-consistently evaluates a dynamic plasma dynamo. Static quasi-linear Alfven wave calculations have shown that dynamo emfs on the order of eta vector J are possible. This suggested a possible explanation of RFP behavior and a new (externally driven) mechanism for extending operation and controlling field profiles (possibly reducing plasma transport). This thesis demonstrates that the dynamo emf can quickly induce plasma currents whose emf cancels the dynamo effect. This thesis also contains extensive studies of resistive Alfven wave properties. This includes behavior versus spectral location, magnetic Reynolds number and wave number

  14. Stable one-dimensional periodic waves in Kerr-type saturable and quadratic nonlinear media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Egorov, Alexey A; Vysloukh, Victor A; Torner, Lluis

    2004-01-01

    We review the latest progress and properties of the families of bright and dark one-dimensional periodic waves propagating in saturable Kerr-type and quadratic nonlinear media. We show how saturation of the nonlinear response results in the appearance of stability (instability) bands in a focusing (defocusing) medium, which is in sharp contrast with the properties of periodic waves in Kerr media. One of the key results discovered is the stabilization of multicolour periodic waves in quadratic media. In particular, dark-type waves are shown to be metastable, while bright-type waves are completely stable in a broad range of energy flows and material parameters. This yields the first known example of completely stable periodic wave patterns propagating in conservative uniform media supporting bright solitons. Such results open the way to the experimental observation of the corresponding self-sustained periodic wave patterns

  15. The Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) design and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M. (Grumman Space and Electronics Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Nightingale, M.P.S. (AEA Industrial Technology, Culham (United Kingdom)); Yule, T.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The design of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) and the status of the fabricated hardware is presented. The CWDD is a high brightness, 352 MHz, CW linear accelerator designed to deliver a 7.54 MeV, 80 mA D[sup [minus

  16. Toward continuous-wave operation of organic semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Matsushima, Toshinori; Bencheikh, Fatima; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo; Fujihara, Takashi; Goushi, Kenichi; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2017-01-01

    The demonstration of continuous-wave lasing from organic semiconductor films is highly desirable for practical applications in the areas of spectroscopy, data communication, and sensing, but it still remains a challenging objective. We report low-threshold surface-emitting organic distributed feedback lasers operating in the quasi–continuous-wave regime at 80 MHz as well as under long-pulse photoexcitation of 30 ms. This outstanding performance was achieved using an organic semiconductor thin film with high optical gain, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and no triplet absorption losses at the lasing wavelength combined with a mixed-order distributed feedback grating to achieve a low lasing threshold. A simple encapsulation technique greatly reduced the laser-induced thermal degradation and suppressed the ablation of the gain medium otherwise taking place under intense continuous-wave photoexcitation. Overall, this study provides evidence that the development of a continuous-wave organic semiconductor laser technology is possible via the engineering of the gain medium and the device architecture. PMID:28508042

  17. Extremely stable piezo mechanisms for the New Gravitational Wave Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenburg, J.A.C.M.; Rijnveld, N.; Hogenhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    Detection and observation of gravitational waves requires extreme stability in the frequency range 3e-5 Hz to 1 Hz. NGO/LISA will attain this by creating a giant interferometer in space, based on free floating proof masses in three spacecrafts. To operate NGO/LISA, the following piezo mechanisms are

  18. Cluster Observations of Non-Time Continuous Magnetosonic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon N.; Demekhov, Andrei G.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Ganushkina, Natalia Y.; Sibeck, David G.; Balikhin, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial magnetosonic waves are normally observed as temporally continuous sets of emissions lasting from minutes to hours. Recent observations, however, have shown that this is not always the case. Using Cluster data, this study identifies two distinct forms of these non temporally continuous use missions. The first, referred to as rising tone emissions, are characterized by the systematic onset of wave activity at increasing proton gyroharmonic frequencies. Sets of harmonic emissions (emission elements)are observed to occur periodically in the region +/- 10 off the geomagnetic equator. The sweep rate of these emissions maximizes at the geomagnetic equator. In addition, the ellipticity and propagation direction also change systematically as Cluster crosses the geomagnetic equator. It is shown that the observed frequency sweep rate is unlikely to result from the sideband instability related to nonlinear trapping of suprathermal protons in the wave field. The second form of emissions is characterized by the simultaneous onset of activity across a range of harmonic frequencies. These waves are observed at irregular intervals. Their occurrence correlates with changes in the spacecraft potential, a measurement that is used as a proxy for electron density. Thus, these waves appear to be trapped within regions of localized enhancement of the electron density.

  19. EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH CONTINUOUS SPIKES-WAVES ACTIVITY DURING SLEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Belousova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author represents the review and discussion of current scientific literature devoted to epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes-waves activity during sleep — the special form of partly reversible age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by triad of symptoms: continuous prolonged epileptiform (spike-wave activity on EEG in sleep, epileptic seizures and cognitive disorders. The author describes the aspects of classification, pathogenesis and etiology, prevalence, clinical picture and diagnostics of this disorder, including the peculiar anomalies on EEG. The especial attention is given to approaches to the treatment of epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikeswaves activity during sleep. Efficacy of valproates, corticosteroid hormones and antiepileptic drugs of other groups is considered. The author represents own experience of treatment this disorder with corticosteroids, scheme of therapy and assessment of efficacy.

  20. Continuous wave room temperature external ring cavity quantum cascade laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revin, D. G., E-mail: d.revin@sheffield.ac.uk; Hemingway, M.; Vaitiekus, D.; Cockburn, J. W. [Physics and Astronomy Department, The University of Sheffield, S3 7RH Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hempler, N.; Maker, G. T.; Malcolm, G. P. A. [M Squared Lasers Ltd., G20 0SP Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-29

    An external ring cavity quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm wavelength in a continuous-wave regime at the temperature of 15 °C is demonstrated. Out-coupled continuous-wave optical powers of up to 23 mW are observed for light of one propagation direction with an estimated total intra-cavity optical power flux in excess of 340 mW. The uni-directional regime characterized by the intensity ratio of more than 60 for the light propagating in the opposite directions was achieved. A single emission peak wavelength tuning range of 90 cm{sup −1} is realized by the incorporation of a diffraction grating into the cavity.

  1. Continuous wave room temperature external ring cavity quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revin, D. G.; Hemingway, M.; Vaitiekus, D.; Cockburn, J. W.; Hempler, N.; Maker, G. T.; Malcolm, G. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    An external ring cavity quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm wavelength in a continuous-wave regime at the temperature of 15 °C is demonstrated. Out-coupled continuous-wave optical powers of up to 23 mW are observed for light of one propagation direction with an estimated total intra-cavity optical power flux in excess of 340 mW. The uni-directional regime characterized by the intensity ratio of more than 60 for the light propagating in the opposite directions was achieved. A single emission peak wavelength tuning range of 90 cm −1 is realized by the incorporation of a diffraction grating into the cavity

  2. High-precision terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave imaging method using continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Tianyi; Dai, Bing; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Wei; You, Chengwu; Wang, Kejia; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Shenglie; Yang, Zhengang

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by the extensive application of terahertz (THz) imaging technologies in the field of aerospace, we exploit a THz frequency modulated continuous-wave imaging method with continuous wavelet transform (CWT) algorithm to detect a multilayer heat shield made of special materials. This method uses the frequency modulation continuous-wave system to catch the reflected THz signal and then process the image data by the CWT with different basis functions. By calculating the sizes of the defects area in the final images and then comparing the results with real samples, a practical high-precision THz imaging method is demonstrated. Our method can be an effective tool for the THz nondestructive testing of composites, drugs, and some cultural heritages.

  3. Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowade, Rosita

    2010-12-15

    Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)

  4. Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowade, Rosita

    2010-12-01

    Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)

  5. Nonlinear wave propagation in discrete and continuous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothos, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this review we try to capture some of the recent excitement induced by a large volume of theoretical and computational studies addressing nonlinear Schrödinger models (discrete and continuous) and the localized structures that they support. We focus on some prototypical structures, namely the breather solutions and solitary waves. In particular, we investigate the bifurcation of travelling wave solution in Discrete NLS system applying dynamical systems methods. Next, we examine the combined effects of cubic and quintic terms of the long range type in the dynamics of a double well potential. The relevant bifurcations, the stability of the branches and their dynamical implications are examined both in the reduced (ODE) and in the full (PDE) setting. We also offer an outlook on interesting possibilities for future work on this theme.

  6. Stable solitary waves in super dense plasmas at external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaani, Azam; Javidan, Kurosh; Sarbishaei, Mohsen

    2015-07-01

    Propagation of localized waves in a Fermi-Dirac distributed super dense matter at the presence of strong external magnetic fields is studied using the reductive perturbation method. We have shown that stable solitons can be created in such non-relativistic fluids in the presence of an external magnetic field. Such solitary waves are governed by the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation. Properties of solitonic solutions are studied in media with different values of background mass density and strength of magnetic field.

  7. Commissioning status of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, P.D.; Dooling, J.; Lorello, M.; Rathke, J.; Carwardine, J.; Godden, D.; Pile, G.; Yule, T.; Zinneman, T.

    1993-01-01

    Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Argonne National Laboratory, and Culham Laboratory are commissioning the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) in a facility at Argonne National Laboratory. CWDD is a high-brightness, high-current, 7.5-MeV negative deuterium accelerator. The 352-MHz rf accelerating cavities are cryogenically cooled with supercritical neon to reduce the rf power requirements. Installation of the accelerator into the Argonne facility began in May 1991, and first beam from the injector was extracted in February 1992. The accelerator and facility and described, and current status and future plans are discussed

  8. All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, Karsten J; Loeffler, Torsten; Quast, Holger; Thomson, Mark; Bauer, Tobias; Leonhardt, Rainer; Czasch, Stephanie; Roskos, Hartmut G

    2002-01-01

    We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1/2. For a specific histological sample, an analysis of image noise is discussed

  9. Advection of pollutants by internal solitary waves in oceanic and atmospheric stable stratifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Haarlemmer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available When a pollutant is released into the ocean or atmosphere under turbulent conditions, even a steady release is captured by large eddies resulting in localized patches of high concentration of the pollutant. If such a cloud of pollutant subsequently enters a stable stratification-either a pycnocline or thermocline-then internal waves are excited. Since large solitary internal waves have a recirculating core, pollutants may be trapped in the sclitary wave, and advected large distances through the waveguide provided by the stratification. This paper addresses the mechanisms, through computer and physical simulation, by which a localized release of a dense pollutant results in solitary waves that trap the pollutant or disperse the pollutant faster than in the absence of the waves.

  10. Generation of ultrasound in materials using continuous-wave lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, James N; DiComo, Gregory P; Nikitin, Sergei

    2012-03-01

    Generating and detecting ultrasound is a standard method of nondestructive evaluation of materials. Pulsed lasers are used to generate ultrasound remotely in situations that prohibit the use of contact transducers. The scanning rate is limited by the repetition rates of the pulsed lasers, ranging between 10 and 100 Hz for lasers with sufficient pulse widths and energies. Alternately, a high-power continuous-wave laser can be scanned across the surface, creating an ultrasonic wavefront. Since generation is continuous, the scanning rate can be as much as 4 orders of magnitude higher than with pulsed lasers. This paper introduces the concept, comparing the theoretical scanning speed with generation by pulsed laser. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  11. Stable Alfven-wave dynamo action in the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Previous theoretical work has suggested that Alfven waves may be related to the anomalous toroidal magnetic flux generation and extended (over classical expectations) discharge times observed in the reversed-field pinch. This thesis examines the dynamo action of stable Alfven waves as a means of generating toroidal flux. Recent advances in linear resistive MHD stability analysis are used to calculate the quasi-linear dynamo mean electromotive force of Alfven waves. This emf is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport and mean-field evolution code. The changing equilibrium is then fed back to the stability code to complete a computational framework that self-consistently evaluates a dynamic plasma dynamo. This technique is readily extendable to other plasmas in which dynamic stable model action is of interest. Such plasmas include Alfven wave current-drive and plasma heating for fusion devices, as well as astrophysical and geophysical dynamo systems. This study also contains extensive studies of resistive Alfven wave properties. This includes behavior versus spectral location, magnetic Reynolds number and wave number

  12. Continuous control of asymmetric forebody vortices in a bi-stable state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-te; Cheng, Ke-ming; Gu, Yun-song; Li, Zhuo-qi

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the problem of continuous control of asymmetric forebody vortices at a high angle of attack in a bi-stable regime, a dual synthetic jet actuator embedded in an ogive forebody was designed. Alternating unsteady disturbance with varying degree asymmetrical flow fields near the nozzles is generated by adjusting the duty cycle of the drive signal of the actuator, specifically embodying the asymmetric time-averaged pattern of jet velocity, vorticity, and turbulent kinetic energy. Experimental results show that within the range of relatively high angles of attack, including the angle-of-attack region in a bi-stable state, the lateral force of the ogive forebody is continuously controlled by adjusting the duty cycle of the drive signal; the position of the forebody vortices in space, the vorticity magnitude, the total pressure coefficient near the vortex core, and the vortex breakdown location are continuously changed with the duty cycle increased observed from the time-averaged flow field. Instantaneous flow field results indicate that although the forebody vortices are in an unsteady oscillation state, a continuous change in the forebody vortices' oscillation balance position as the duty cycle increases leads to a continuous change in the model's surface pressure distribution and time-averaged lateral force. Different from the traditional control principle, in this study, other different degree asymmetrical states of the forebody vortices except the bi-stable state are obtained using the dual synthetic jet control technology.

  13. Exploiting large-scale correlations to detect continuous gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Holger J; Allen, Bruce

    2009-10-30

    Fully coherent searches (over realistic ranges of parameter space and year-long observation times) for unknown sources of continuous gravitational waves are computationally prohibitive. Less expensive hierarchical searches divide the data into shorter segments which are analyzed coherently, then detection statistics from different segments are combined incoherently. The novel method presented here solves the long-standing problem of how best to do the incoherent combination. The optimal solution exploits large-scale parameter-space correlations in the coherent detection statistic. Application to simulated data shows dramatic sensitivity improvements compared with previously available (ad hoc) methods, increasing the spatial volume probed by more than 2 orders of magnitude at lower computational cost.

  14. Resonance control for a cw [continuous wave] accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.M.; Biddle, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A resonance-control technique is described that has been successfully applied to several cw accelerating structures built by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the National Bureau of Standards and for the University of Illinois. The technique involves sensing the rf fields in an accelerating structure as well as the rf power feeding into the cavity and, then, using the measurement to control the resonant frequency of the structure by altering the temperature of the structure. The temperature of the structure is altered by adjusting the temperature of the circulating cooling water. The technique has been applied to continuous wave (cw) side-coupled cavities only but should have applications with most high-average-power accelerator structures. Some additional effort would be required for pulsed systems

  15. Simulations of nonlinear continuous wave pressure fields in FOCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Hamilton, Mark F.; McGough, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    The Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya - Kuznetsov (KZK) equation is a parabolic approximation to the Westervelt equation that models the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and nonlinearity. Although the KZK equation is only valid in the far field of the paraxial region for mildly focused or unfocused transducers, the KZK equation is widely applied in medical ultrasound simulations. For a continuous wave input, the KZK equation is effectively modeled by the Bergen Code [J. Berntsen, Numerical Calculations of Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, in M. F. Hamilton and D. T. Blackstock, editors, Frontiers of Nonlinear Acoustics: Proceedings of 12th ISNA, Elsevier, 1990], which is a finite difference model that utilizes operator splitting. Similar C++ routines have been developed for FOCUS, the `Fast Object-Oriented C++ Ultrasound Simulator' (http://www.egr.msu.edu/˜fultras-web) to calculate nonlinear pressure fields generated by axisymmetric flat circular and spherically focused ultrasound transducers. This new routine complements an existing FOCUS program that models nonlinear ultrasound propagation with the angular spectrum approach [P. T. Christopher and K. J. Parker, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 488-499 (1991)]. Results obtained from these two nonlinear ultrasound simulation approaches are evaluated and compared for continuous wave linear simulations. The simulation results match closely in the farfield of the paraxial region, but the results differ in the nearfield. The nonlinear pressure field generated by a spherically focused transducer with a peak surface pressure of 0.2MPa radiating in a lossy medium with β = 3.5 is simulated, and the computation times are also evaluated. The nonlinear simulation results demonstrate acceptable agreement in the focal zone. These two related nonlinear simulation approaches are now included with FOCUS to enable convenient simulations of nonlinear pressure fields on desktop and laptop computers.

  16. Gravity Waves and Wind-Farm Efficiency in Neutral and Stable Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2018-02-01

    We use large-eddy simulations (LES) to investigate the impact of stable stratification on gravity-wave excitation and energy extraction in a large wind farm. To this end, the development of an equilibrium conventionally neutral boundary layer into a stable boundary layer over a period of 8 h is considered, using two different cooling rates. We find that turbulence decay has considerable influence on the energy extraction at the beginning of the boundary-layer transition, but afterwards, energy extraction is dominated by geometrical and jet effects induced by an inertial oscillation. It is further shown that the inertial oscillation enhances gravity-wave excitation. By comparing LES results with a simple one-dimensional model, we show that this is related to an interplay between wind-farm drag, variations in the Froude number and the dispersive effects of vertically-propagating gravity waves. We further find that the pressure gradients induced by gravity waves lead to significant upstream flow deceleration, reducing the average turbine output compared to a turbine in isolated operation. This leads us to the definition of a non-local wind-farm efficiency, next to a more standard wind-farm wake efficiency, and we show that both can be of the same order of magnitude. Finally, an energy flux analysis is performed to further elucidate the effect of gravity waves on the flow in the wind farm.

  17. Continuous-wave room-temperature diamond maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Jonathan D.; Salvadori, Enrico; Sathian, Juna; Alford, Neil Mcn.; Kay, Christopher W. M.

    2018-03-01

    The maser—the microwave progenitor of the optical laser—has been confined to relative obscurity owing to its reliance on cryogenic refrigeration and high-vacuum systems. Despite this, it has found application in deep-space communications and radio astronomy owing to its unparalleled performance as a low-noise amplifier and oscillator. The recent demonstration of a room-temperature solid-state maser that utilizes polarized electron populations within the triplet states of photo-excited pentacene molecules in a p-terphenyl host paves the way for a new class of maser. However, p-terphenyl has poor thermal and mechanical properties, and the decay rates of the triplet sublevel of pentacene mean that only pulsed maser operation has been observed in this system. Alternative materials are therefore required to achieve continuous emission: inorganic materials that contain spin defects, such as diamond and silicon carbide, have been proposed. Here we report a continuous-wave room-temperature maser oscillator using optically pumped nitrogen–vacancy defect centres in diamond. This demonstration highlights the potential of room-temperature solid-state masers for use in a new generation of microwave devices that could find application in medicine, security, sensing and quantum technologies.

  18. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the

  19. Study of plasma-based stable and ultra-wideband electromagnetic wave absorption for stealth application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuyang, CHEN; Fangfang, SHEN; Yanming, LIU; Wei, AI; Xiaoping, LI

    2018-06-01

    A plasma-based stable, ultra-wideband electromagnetic (EM) wave absorber structure is studied in this paper for stealth applications. The stability is maintained by a multi-layer structure with several plasma layers and dielectric layers distributed alternately. The plasma in each plasma layer is designed to be uniform, whereas it has a discrete nonuniform distribution from the overall view of the structure. The nonuniform distribution of the plasma is the key to obtaining ultra-wideband wave absorption. A discrete Epstein distribution model is put forward to constrain the nonuniform electron density of the plasma layers, by which the wave absorption range is extended to the ultra-wideband. Then, the scattering matrix method (SMM) is employed to analyze the electromagnetic reflection and absorption of the absorber structure. In the simulation, the validation of the proposed structure and model in ultra-wideband EM wave absorption is first illustrated by comparing the nonuniform plasma model with the uniform case. Then, the influence of various parameters on the EM wave reflection of the plasma are simulated and analyzed in detail, verifying the EM wave absorption performance of the absorber. The proposed structure and model are expected to be superior in some realistic applications, such as supersonic aircraft.

  20. Continuous particle focusing in a waved microchannel using negative dc dielectrophoresis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming; Li, Shunbo; Cao, Wenbin; Li, Weihua; Wen, Weijia; Alici, Gursel

    2012-01-01

    We present a waved microchannel for continuous focusing of microparticles and cells using negative direct current (dc) dielectrophoresis. The waved channel is composed of consecutive s-shaped curved channels in series to generate an electric field

  1. Toward jet injection by continuous-wave laser cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrospe-Rodriguez, Carla; Visser, Claas Willem; Schlautmann, Stefan; Rivas, David Fernandez; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2017-10-01

    This is a study motivated by the need to develop a needle-free device for eliminating major global healthcare problems caused by needles. The generation of liquid jets by means of a continuous-wave laser, focused into a light absorbing solution, was studied with the aim of developing a portable and affordable jet injector. We designed and fabricated glass microfluidic devices, which consist of a chamber where thermocavitation is created and a tapered channel. The growth of a vapor bubble displaces and expels the liquid through the channel as a fast traveling jet. Different parameters were varied with the purpose of increasing the jet velocity. The velocity increases with smaller channel diameters and taper ratios, whereas larger chambers significantly reduce the jet speed. It was found that the initial position of the liquid-air meniscus interface and its dynamics contribute to increased jet velocities. A maximum velocity of 94±3 m/s for a channel diameter of D=120 μm, taper ratio n=0.25, and chamber length E=200 μm was achieved. Finally, agarose gel-based skin phantoms were used to demonstrate the potential of our devices to penetrate the skin. The maximum penetration depth achieved was ˜1 mm, which is sufficient to penetrate the stratum corneum and for most medical applications. A meta-analysis shows that larger injection volumes will be required as a next step to medical relevance for laser-induced jet injection techniques in general.

  2. Continuous wave terahertz reflection imaging of human colorectal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2013-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-ionizing, and nondestructive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. Fresh excisions of normal colon tissue were obtained from surgeries performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. Reflection measurements of thick sections of colorectal tissues, mounted in an aluminum sample holder, were obtained for both fresh and formalin fixed tissues. The two-dimensional reflection images were acquired by using an optically pumped far-infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz with liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance form the samples was collected. Analysis of the images showed the importance of understanding the effects of formalin fixation while determining reflectance level of tissue response. The resulting co- and cross-polarized images of both normal and formalin fixed tissues showed uniform terahertz response over the entire sample area. Initial measurements indicated a co-polarized reflectance of 16%, and a cross-polarized reflectance of 0.55% from fresh excisions of normal colonic tissues.

  3. Adaptive clustering procedure for continuous gravitational wave searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avneet; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Walsh, Sinéad

    2017-10-01

    In hierarchical searches for continuous gravitational waves, clustering of candidates is an important post-processing step because it reduces the number of noise candidates that are followed up at successive stages [J. Aasi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 102002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevD.88.102002; B. Behnke, M. A. Papa, and R. Prix, Phys. Rev. D 91, 064007 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.064007; M. A. Papa et al., Phys. Rev. D 94, 122006 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.122006]. Previous clustering procedures bundled together nearby candidates ascribing them to the same root cause (be it a signal or a disturbance), based on a predefined cluster volume. In this paper, we present a procedure that adapts the cluster volume to the data itself and checks for consistency of such volume with what is expected from a signal. This significantly improves the noise rejection capabilities at fixed detection threshold, and at fixed computing resources for the follow-up stages, this results in an overall more sensitive search. This new procedure was employed in the first Einstein@Home search on data from the first science run of the advanced LIGO detectors (O1) [LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration, arXiv:1707.02669 [Phys. Rev. D (to be published)

  4. Environmental assessment of the proposed Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    An assessment was made of the potential environmental impacts of construction and operation of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), including an evaluation of alternative actions. Key elements considered were on- and off-site radiological effects and potential impacts to cultural resources. The radiological consequences of routine operations of the CWDD are readily reduced to insignificant levels by bulk shielding, confinement, and containment. The radiation dose to the maximally exposed off-site individual would be 0.52 mrem/yr from direct radiation and 1.2 x 10 -3 mrem/yr from airborne radionuclides, based on maximum planned facility operation. The maximum credible postulated accident would result in a dose to the maximally exposed individual of less than 20 mrem. A cultural resource survey has determined that the location for the CWDD has, no cultural resource sites or materials and construction is permitted by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Demands for utility services would require only about two percent of excess capacity already installed at Argonne. Other environmental impact categories were considered, including socioeconomic effects, aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna, wetlands, and water and air quality

  5. The Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) design and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M. [Grumman Space and Electronics Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States); Nightingale, M.P.S. [AEA Industrial Technology, Culham (United Kingdom); Yule, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The design of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) and the status of the fabricated hardware is presented. The CWDD is a high brightness, 352 MHz, CW linear accelerator designed to deliver a 7.54 MeV, 80 mA D{sup {minus}} beam at a transverse normalized rms emittance of 0.11 {pi} mm-mrad and a longitudinal rms emittance of 0.20 {pi} mm-mrad. End-to-end beam dynamics analysis for nominal and off-design conditions is described. The tuning and predicted operational performance os the as-built device are also discussed. These results all indicate that the present design can meet the output performance specifications in the presence of combined errors at the limits of the specified engineering tolerances. Preliminary injector operations have been conducted at AEA Technologies, Culham Laboratory and at Argonne National Laboratory, where the CWDD is sited. Initial RGQ beam experiments at Argonne are projected for October 1993. DTL installation and commissioning will be completed in 1994.

  6. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  7. LDRD final report on continuous wave intersubband terahertz sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samora, Sally; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.; Young, Erik W.; Fuller, Charles T.; Stephenson, Larry L.; Reno, John Louis; Wanke, Michael Clement; Hudgens, James J.

    2005-02-01

    There is a general lack of compact electromagnetic radiation sources between 1 and 10 terahertz (THz). This a challenging spectral region lying between optical devices at high frequencies and electronic devices at low frequencies. While technologically very underdeveloped the THz region has the promise to be of significant technological importance, yet demonstrating its relevance has proven difficult due to the immaturity of the area. While the last decade has seen much experimental work in ultra-short pulsed terahertz sources, many applications will require continuous wave (cw) sources, which are just beginning to demonstrate adequate performance for application use. In this project, we proposed examination of two potential THz sources based on intersubband semiconductor transitions, which were as yet unproven. In particular we wished to explore quantum cascade lasers based sources and electronic based harmonic generators. Shortly after the beginning of the project, we shifted our emphasis to the quantum cascade lasers due to two events; the publication of the first THz quantum cascade laser by another group thereby proving feasibility, and the temporary shut down of the UC Santa Barbara free-electron lasers which were to be used as the pump source for the harmonic generation. The development efforts focused on two separate cascade laser thrusts. The ultimate goal of the first thrust was for a quantum cascade laser to simultaneously emit two mid-infrared frequencies differing by a few THz and to use these to pump a non-linear optical material to generate THz radiation via parametric interactions in a specifically engineered intersubband transition. While the final goal was not realized by the end of the project, many of the completed steps leading to the goal will be described in the report. The second thrust was to develop direct THz QC lasers operating at terahertz frequencies. This is simpler than a mixing approach, and has now been demonstrated by a few groups

  8. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.

  9. Unconditionally stable WLP-FDTD method for the modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in gyrotropic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Wei; Xi, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Jin-Sheng; Liu, Jiang-fan

    2015-12-14

    The unconditional stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on field expansion with weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs) is applied to model electromagnetic wave propagation in gyrotropic materials. The conventional Yee cell is modified to have the tightly coupled current density components located at the same spatial position. The perfectly matched layer (PML) is formulated in a stretched-coordinate (SC) system with the complex-frequency-shifted (CFS) factor to achieve good absorption performance. Numerical examples are shown to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  10. Spiral waves are stable in discrete element models of two-dimensional homogeneous excitable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A. B.; Chernyak, Y. B.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    The spontaneous breakup of a single spiral wave of excitation into a turbulent wave pattern has been observed in both discrete element models and continuous reaction-diffusion models of spatially homogeneous 2D excitable media. These results have attracted considerable interest, since spiral breakup is thought to be an important mechanism of transition from the heart rhythm disturbance ventricular tachycardia to the fatal arrhythmia ventricular fibrillation. It is not known whether this process can occur in the absence of disease-induced spatial heterogeneity of the electrical properties of the ventricular tissue. Candidate mechanisms for spiral breakup in uniform 2D media have emerged, but the physical validity of the mechanisms and their applicability to myocardium require further scrutiny. In this letter, we examine the computer simulation results obtained in two discrete element models and show that the instability of each spiral is an artifact resulting from an unphysical dependence of wave speed on wave front curvature in the medium. We conclude that spiral breakup does not occur in these two models at the specified parameter values and that great care must be exercised in the representation of a continuous excitable medium via discrete elements.

  11. Continuing studies of the plasma beat wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1990-01-01

    This is a proposal for the release of third year funds for the ''Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator'' program (PBWA) at UCLA under the direction of Professor C. Joshi. This report is also a summary of progress on this project since March 1990; i.e., the date of the last report to the DOE. Once again we note that although the program is for historical reasons called the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator Program, our group is active in all areas of applications of lasers and plasmas in future high energy accelerators. These are as follows: heat gradient plasma structures; excited by plasma beat wave technique; laser wake field technique; and plasma wake field technique. Development of a photoinjector-driven, 20 MeV linac; and theoretical studies of the plasma lens and use of plasmas at the final focus

  12. Noninvasive continuous monitoring of digital pulse waves during hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkert, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis treatment is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal failure. A noninvasive method for continuous hemodynamic monitoring is needed. We used noninvasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous, investiga...

  13. Free wave propagation in continuous pipes carrying a flowing fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espindola, J.J. de; Silva, J.B. da

    1982-01-01

    The propagation constants of a periodically supported pipe are computed. Use is made of a general free wave-propagation theory, based on transfer matrices. Comparison is made with previously published results, computed through a simpler, limited scope theory. (Author) [pt

  14. Methods to filter out spurious disturbances in continuous-wave searches from gravitational-wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Semicoherent all-sky searches over year-long observation times for continuous gravitational wave signals produce various thousands of potential periodic source candidates. Efficient methods able to discard false candidate events are crucial in order to put all the efforts into a computationally intensive follow-up analysis for the remaining most promising candidates (Shaltev et al 2014 Phys. Rev. D 89 124030). In this paper we present a set of techniques able to fulfill such requirements, identifying and eliminating false candidate events, reducing thus the bulk of candidate sets that need to be further investigated. Some of these techniques were also used to streamline the candidate sets returned by the Einstein@Home hierarchical searches presented in (Aasi J et al (The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration) 2013 Phys. Rev. D 87 042001). These powerful methods and the benefits originating from their application to both simulated and on detector data from the fifth LIGO science run are illustrated and discussed. (paper)

  15. Blandford's argument: The strongest continuous gravitational wave signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knispel, Benjamin; Allen, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    For a uniform population of neutron stars whose spin-down is dominated by the emission of gravitational radiation, an old argument of Blandford states that the expected gravitational-wave amplitude of the nearest source is independent of the deformation and rotation frequency of the objects. Recent work has improved and extended this argument to set upper limits on the expected amplitude from neutron stars that also emit electromagnetic radiation. We restate these arguments in a more general framework, and simulate the evolution of such a population of stars in the gravitational potential of our galaxy. The simulations allow us to test the assumptions of Blandford's argument on a realistic model of our galaxy. We show that the two key assumptions of the argument (two dimensionality of the spatial distribution and a steady-state frequency distribution) are in general not fulfilled. The effective scaling dimension D of the spatial distribution of neutron stars is significantly larger than two, and for frequencies detectable by terrestrial instruments the frequency distribution is not in a steady state unless the ellipticity is unrealistically large. Thus, in the cases of most interest, the maximum expected gravitational-wave amplitude does have a strong dependence on the deformation and rotation frequency of the population. The results strengthen the previous upper limits on the expected gravitational-wave amplitude from neutron stars by a factor of 6 for realistic values of ellipticity.

  16. Stable grid refinement and singular source discretization for seismic wave simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-10-30

    An energy conserving discretization of the elastic wave equation in second order formulation is developed for a composite grid, consisting of a set of structured rectangular component grids with hanging nodes on the grid refinement interface. Previously developed summation-by-parts properties are generalized to devise a stable second order accurate coupling of the solution across mesh refinement interfaces. The discretization of singular source terms of point force and point moment tensor type are also studied. Based on enforcing discrete moment conditions that mimic properties of the Dirac distribution and its gradient, previous single grid formulas are generalized to work in the vicinity of grid refinement interfaces. These source discretization formulas are shown to give second order accuracy in the solution, with the error being essentially independent of the distance between the source and the grid refinement boundary. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the properties of the proposed method.

  17. A Wave-Optics Approach to Paraxial Geometrical Laws Based on Continuity at Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a derivation of the paraxial geometrical laws starting from a wave-optics approach, in particular by using simple continuity conditions of paraxial spherical waves at boundaries (discontinuities) between optical media. Paraxial geometrical imaging and magnification laws, under refraction and reflection at boundaries, are derived for…

  18. Rapidly tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.E.; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.; Auerbach, M.; Wessels, P.; Fallnich, C.

    2003-01-01

    We report on rapid, all-electronically controlled wavelength tuning of a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an ytterbium fiber laser. The OPO is singly resonant for the signal wave and consists of a 40-mm-long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal in a

  19. Next wave EM technology : Electromagnetic communication technology continues to progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwick, J.

    1998-01-01

    Alpine Oil Services Corp. and Ryan Energy Technologies Inc., have made technological advances in the use of real time electromagnetic (EM) data transmission, using low frequency radio waves to transmit well commands or geological information. The development of the telemetry activated tool was done in two steps. The first technology was real time EM data transmission from the subsurface which used the wellbore to transfer information. The second step was constructing a memory pack which involved an electronic instrument installed in the wellbore which was programmed to perform certain tasks at certain times by transmitting signals back and forth. The use of EM communication allows the geological steering information to come back faster. The EM signal is much faster compared to MWD systems for deeper directional wells. The EM technology also has immediate applications in underbalanced drilling. 1 fig

  20. Continuity Conditions on Schrodinger Wave Functions at Discontinuities of the Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, David

    1979-01-01

    Several standard arguments which attempt to show that the wave function and its derivative must be continuous across jump discontinuities of the potential are reviewed and their defects discussed. (Author/HM)

  1. Comparison of femtosecond laser and continuous wave UV sources for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecko, Christopher J; Munson, Katherine M; Saunders, Abbie; Sun, Guangxing; Begley, Tadhg P; Lis, John T; Webb, Watt W

    2007-01-01

    Crosslinking proteins to the nucleic acids they bind affords stable access to otherwise transient regulatory interactions. Photochemical crosslinking provides an attractive alternative to formaldehyde-based protocols, but irradiation with conventional UV sources typically yields inadequate product amounts. Crosslinking with pulsed UV lasers has been heralded as a revolutionary technique to increase photochemical yield, but this method had only been tested on a few protein-nucleic acid complexes. To test the generality of the yield enhancement, we have investigated the benefits of using approximately 150 fs UV pulses to crosslink TATA-binding protein, glucocorticoid receptor and heat shock factor to oligonucleotides in vitro. For these proteins, we find that the quantum yields (and saturating yields) for forming crosslinks using the high-peak intensity femtosecond laser do not improve on those obtained with low-intensity continuous wave (CW) UV sources. The photodamage to the oligonucleotides and proteins also has comparable quantum yields. Measurements of the photochemical reaction yields of several small molecules selected to model the crosslinking reactions also exhibit nearly linear dependences on UV intensity instead of the previously predicted quadratic dependence. Unfortunately, these results disprove earlier assertions that femtosecond pulsed laser sources provide significant advantages over CW radiation for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

  2. Temporal variability of tidal and gravity waves during a record long 10-day continuous lidar sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Kathrin; Gerding, Michael; Baumgarten, Gerd; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2018-01-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) as well as solar tides are a key driving mechanism for the circulation in the Earth's atmosphere. The propagation of gravity waves is strongly affected by tidal waves as they modulate the mean background wind field and vice versa, which is not yet fully understood and not adequately implemented in many circulation models. The daylight-capable Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar at Kühlungsborn (54° N, 12° E) typically provides temperature data to investigate both wave phenomena during one full day or several consecutive days in the middle atmosphere between 30 and 75 km altitude. Outstanding weather conditions in May 2016 allowed for an unprecedented 10-day continuous lidar measurement, which shows a large variability of gravity waves and tides on timescales of days. Using a one-dimensional spectral filtering technique, gravity and tidal waves are separated according to their specific periods or vertical wavelengths, and their temporal evolution is studied. During the measurement period a strong 24 h wave occurs only between 40 and 60 km and vanishes after a few days. The disappearance is related to an enhancement of gravity waves with periods of 4-8 h. Wind data provided by ECMWF are used to analyze the meteorological situation at our site. The local wind structure changes during the observation period, which leads to different propagation conditions for gravity waves in the last days of the measurement period and therefore a strong GW activity. The analysis indicates a further change in wave-wave interaction resulting in a minimum of the 24 h tide. The observed variability of tides and gravity waves on timescales of a few days clearly demonstrates the importance of continuous measurements with high temporal and spatial resolution to detect interaction phenomena, which can help to improve parametrization schemes of GWs in general circulation models.

  3. Neuronal Networks in Children with Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groening, Kristina; Moehring, Jan; Moeller, Friederike; Boor, Rainer; Brodbeck, Verena; Michel, Christoph M.; Rodionov, Roman; Lemieux, Louis; Stephani, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep is an age-related disorder characterized by the presence of interictal epileptiform discharges during at least greater than 85% of sleep and cognitive deficits associated with this electroencephalography pattern. The pathophysiological mechanisms of continuous spikes and…

  4. Design and fabrication of a continuous wave electron accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Jiro

    1997-01-01

    The Physics Institute of Sao Paulo University, SP, Brazil is fabricating a 31 MeV cw racetrack microtron (RTM) designed for nuclear physics research. This is a two-stage microtron that includes a 1.93 MeV injector linac feeding a five-turn microtron booster. After 28 turns, the main microtron delivers a 31 MeV continuous electron beam. The objective of this work is the development and fabrication of an advanced, beta=l, cw accelerating structure for the main microtron. The accelerating structure will be a side-coupled structure (SCS). We have chosen this kind of cavity, because it presents good vacuum properties, allows operation at higher accelerating electric fields and has a shunt impedance better than 81 MQ/m, with a high coupling factor ( 3 - 5%). The engineering design is the Los Alamos one. There will be two tuning plungers placed at both ends of the accelerating structure. They automatically and quickly compensate for the variation in the resonance frequency caused by changes in the structure temperature. Our design represents an advanced accelerating structure with the optimum SCS properties coexisting with the plunger's good tuning properties. (author)

  5. Picometer stable scan mechanism for gravitational wave detection in space: LISA PAAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnenburg, J. A. C. M.; Rijnveld, N.

    2017-11-01

    Detection and observation of gravitational waves requires extreme stability in the frequency range 0.03 mHz to 1 Hz. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission will attain this by creating a giant interferometer in space, based on free floating proof masses in three spacecrafts. Due to orbit evolution and time delay in the interferometer arms, the direction of transmitted light changes. To solve this problem, a picometer stable Point-Ahead Angle Mechanism (PAAM) was designed, realized and successfully tested. The PAAM concept is based on a rotatable mirror. The critical requirements are the contribution to the optical path length (less than 1.4 pm / rt Hz) and the angular jitter (less than 8 nrad / rt Hz). Extreme dimensional stability is achieved by manufacturing a monolithical Haberland hinge mechanism out of Ti6Al4V, through high precision wire erosion. Extreme thermal stability is realized by placing the thermal center on the surface of the mirror. Because of piezo actuator noise and leakage, the PAAM has to be controlled in closed-loop. To meet the requirements in the low frequencies, an active target capacitance-to-digital converter is used. Interferometric measurements with a triangular resonant cavity in vacuum proved that the PAAM meets the requirements.

  6. Conservative, unconditionally stable discretization methods for Hamiltonian equations, applied to wave motion in lattice equations modeling protein molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMesurier, Brenton

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is described for generating exactly energy-momentum conserving time discretizations for a wide class of Hamiltonian systems of DEs with quadratic momenta, including mechanical systems with central forces; it is well-suited in particular to the large systems that arise in both spatial discretizations of nonlinear wave equations and lattice equations such as the Davydov System modeling energetic pulse propagation in protein molecules. The method is unconditionally stable, making it well-suited to equations of broadly “Discrete NLS form”, including many arising in nonlinear optics. Key features of the resulting discretizations are exact conservation of both the Hamiltonian and quadratic conserved quantities related to continuous linear symmetries, preservation of time reversal symmetry, unconditional stability, and respecting the linearity of certain terms. The last feature allows a simple, efficient iterative solution of the resulting nonlinear algebraic systems that retain unconditional stability, avoiding the need for full Newton-type solvers. One distinction from earlier work on conservative discretizations is a new and more straightforward nearly canonical procedure for constructing the discretizations, based on a “discrete gradient calculus with product rule” that mimics the essential properties of partial derivatives. This numerical method is then used to study the Davydov system, revealing that previously conjectured continuum limit approximations by NLS do not hold, but that sech-like pulses related to NLS solitons can nevertheless sometimes arise.

  7. Bi-directional ultrasonic wave coupling to FBGs in continuously bonded optical fiber sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Junghyun; Hackney, Drew; Bradford, Philip; Peters, Kara

    2017-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are typically spot-bonded onto the surface of a structure to detect ultrasonic waves in laboratory demonstrations. However, to protect the rest of the optical fiber from any environmental damage during real applications, bonding the entire length of fiber, called continuous bonding, is commonly done. In this paper, we investigate the impact of continuously bonding FBGs on the measured Lamb wave signal. In theory, the ultrasonic wave signal can bi-directionally transfer between the optical fiber and the plate at any adhered location, which could potentially produce output signal distortion for the continuous bonding case. Therefore, an experiment is performed to investigate the plate-to-fiber and fiber-to-plate signal transfer, from which the signal coupling coefficient of each case is theoretically estimated based on the experimental data. We demonstrate that the two coupling coefficients are comparable, with the plate-to-fiber case approximately 19% larger than the fiber-to-plate case. Finally, the signal waveform and arrival time of the output FBG responses are compared between the continuous and spot bonding cases. The results indicate that the resulting Lamb wave signal output is only that directly detected at the FBG location; however, a slight difference in signal waveform is observed between the two bonding configurations. This paper demonstrates the practicality of using continuously bonded FBGs for ultrasonic wave detection in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications.

  8. Wave function continuity and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction at conical intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Garrett A; Levine, Benjamin G

    2016-05-14

    We demonstrate that though exact in principle, the expansion of the total molecular wave function as a sum over adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) vibronic states makes inclusion of the second-derivative nonadiabatic energy term near conical intersections practically problematic. In order to construct a well-behaved molecular wave function that has density at a conical intersection, the individual BO vibronic states in the summation must be discontinuous. When the second-derivative nonadiabatic terms are added to the Hamiltonian, singularities in the diagonal BO corrections (DBOCs) of the individual BO states arise from these discontinuities. In contrast to the well-known singularities in the first-derivative couplings at conical intersections, these singularities are non-integrable, resulting in undefined DBOC matrix elements. Though these singularities suggest that the exact molecular wave function may not have density at the conical intersection point, there is no physical basis for this constraint. Instead, the singularities are artifacts of the chosen basis of discontinuous functions. We also demonstrate that continuity of the total molecular wave function does not require continuity of the individual adiabatic nuclear wave functions. We classify nonadiabatic molecular dynamics methods according to the constraints placed on wave function continuity and analyze their formal properties. Based on our analysis, it is recommended that the DBOC be neglected when employing mixed quantum-classical methods and certain approximate quantum dynamical methods in the adiabatic representation.

  9. Time series analysis of continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben; Mann, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneou......The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra...

  10. Second-order interference of two independent and tunable single-mode continuous-wave lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianbin; Chen Hui; Zheng Huaibin; Xu Zhuo; Wei Dong; Zhou Yu; Gao Hong; Li Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    The second-order temporal interference of two independent single-mode continuous-wave lasers is discussed by employing two-photon interference in Feynman’s path integral theory. It is concluded that whether the second-order temporal interference pattern can or cannot be retrieved via two-photon coincidence counting rate is dependent on the resolution time of the detection system and the frequency difference between these two lasers. Two identical and tunable single-mode continuous-wave diode lasers are employed to verify the predictions. These studies are helpful to understand the physics of two-photon interference with photons of different spectra. (paper)

  11. Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinjie; Yazdi, Shahrzad; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Ding, Xiaoyun; Chiang, I-Kao; Sharp, Kendra; Huang, Tony Jun

    2011-07-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) continuous microparticle focusing has been achieved in a single-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel using a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW). The SSAW was generated by the interference of two identical surface acoustic waves (SAWs) created by two parallel interdigital transducers (IDTs) on a piezoelectric substrate with a microchannel precisely bonded between them. To understand the working principle of the SSAW-based 3D focusing and investigate the position of the focal point, we computed longitudinal waves, generated by the SAWs and radiated into the fluid media from opposite sides of the microchannel, and the resultant pressure and velocity fields due to the interference and reflection of the longitudinal waves. Simulation results predict the existence of a focusing point which is in good agreement with our experimental observations. Compared with other 3D focusing techniques, this method is non-invasive, robust, energy-efficient, easy to implement, and applicable to nearly all types of microparticles.

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were...... recruited. Cathodal tDCS and sham stimulation were applied to the epileptic focus, before sleep (1 mA; 20 min). Cathodal tDCS did not reduce the spike-index in any of the patients....

  13. Continuous-wave optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Liu, Zhixiong; Alatawi, Abdullah; Ng, Tien Khee; Wu, Tao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We report an optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter operating in continuous-wave (CW) with a power density threshold of ~89 kW/cm2. The device has an active region of CH3NH3PbBr3 embedded in a dielectric microcavity

  14. Continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox with traveling-wave second-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum entanglement are at the heart of quantum mechanics. Here we show that single-pass traveling-wave second-harmonic generation can be used to demonstrate both entanglement and the paradox with continuous variables that are analogous to the position and momentum of the original proposal

  15. Continuous-wave Optically Pumped Lasing of Hybrid Perovskite VCSEL at Green Wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2017-05-08

    We demonstrate the lasing of a perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at green wavelengths, which operates under continuous-wave optical pumping at room-temperature by embedding hybrid perovskite between dielectric mirrors deposited at low-temperature.

  16. Continuous-wave Optically Pumped Lasing of Hybrid Perovskite VCSEL at Green Wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Liu, Zhixiong; Alatawi, Abdullah; Ng, Tien Khee; Wu, Tao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the lasing of a perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at green wavelengths, which operates under continuous-wave optical pumping at room-temperature by embedding hybrid perovskite between dielectric mirrors deposited at low-temperature.

  17. Search for continuous gravitational waves from neutron stars in globular cluster NGC 6544

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoebeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Sigurdsson, S.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a directed search for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth initial LIGO science run. The target was the nearby globular cluster NGC 6544 at a distance of approximate to 2.7 kpc. The search covered a broad band of frequencies along with first and second frequency

  18. Continuous wave terahertz radiation from an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot photomixer device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, T.; Leyman, R.; Carnegie, D.; Bazieva, N.; Erbert, G.; Schulz, S.; Reardon, C.; Reynolds, S.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2012-08-01

    Generation of continuous wave radiation at terahertz (THz) frequencies from a heterodyne source based on quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor materials is reported. The source comprises an active region characterised by multiple alternating photoconductive and QD carrier trapping layers and is pumped by two infrared optical signals with slightly offset wavelengths, allowing photoconductive device switching at the signals' difference frequency ˜1 THz.

  19. Time-Frequency-Wavenumber Analysis of Surface Waves Using the Continuous Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Fäh, D.; Giardini, D.

    2013-03-01

    A modified approach to surface wave dispersion analysis using active sources is proposed. The method is based on continuous recordings, and uses the continuous wavelet transform to analyze the phase velocity dispersion of surface waves. This gives the possibility to accurately localize the phase information in time, and to isolate the most significant contribution of the surface waves. To extract the dispersion information, then, a hybrid technique is applied to the narrowband filtered seismic recordings. The technique combines the flexibility of the slant stack method in identifying waves that propagate in space and time, with the resolution of f- k approaches. This is particularly beneficial for higher mode identification in cases of high noise levels. To process the continuous wavelet transform, a new mother wavelet is presented and compared to the classical and widely used Morlet type. The proposed wavelet is obtained from a raised-cosine envelope function (Hanning type). The proposed approach is particularly suitable when using continuous recordings (e.g., from seismological-like equipment) since it does not require any hardware-based source triggering. This can be subsequently done with the proposed method. Estimation of the surface wave phase delay is performed in the frequency domain by means of a covariance matrix averaging procedure over successive wave field excitations. Thus, no record stacking is necessary in the time domain and a large number of consecutive shots can be used. This leads to a certain simplification of the field procedures. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, we tested it on synthetics as well on real field data. For the real case we also combine dispersion curves from ambient vibrations and active measurements.

  20. Experiments in nonlinear dynamics using control-based continuation: Tracking stable and unstable response curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    We show how to implement control-based continuation in a nonlinear experiment using existing and freely available software. We demonstrate that it is possible to track the complete frequency response, including the unstable branches, for a harmonically forced impact oscillator.......We show how to implement control-based continuation in a nonlinear experiment using existing and freely available software. We demonstrate that it is possible to track the complete frequency response, including the unstable branches, for a harmonically forced impact oscillator....

  1. Frequency comb generation by a continuous-wave-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on cascading quadratic nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvila, Ville; Phillips, C R; Halonen, Lauri; Vainio, Markku

    2013-11-01

    We report optical frequency comb generation by a continuous-wave pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) without any active modulation. The OPO is configured as singly resonant with an additional nonlinear crystal (periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3) placed inside the OPO for phase mismatched second harmonic generation (SHG) of the resonating signal beam. The phase mismatched SHG causes cascading χ(2) nonlinearities, which can substantially increase the effective χ(3) nonlinearity in MgO:LiNbO3, leading to spectral broadening of the OPO signal beam via self-phase modulation. The OPO generates a stable 4 THz wide (-30 dB) frequency comb centered at 1.56 μm.

  2. Continuous-wave, single-frequency 229  nm laser source for laser cooling of cadmium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yushi; Yarborough, J M; Merzlyak, Yevgeny; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Hayashida, Keitaro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-02-15

    Continuous-wave output at 229 nm for the application of laser cooling of Cd atoms was generated by the fourth harmonic using two successive second-harmonic generation stages. Employing a single-frequency optically pumped semiconductor laser as a fundamental source, 0.56 W of output at 229 nm was observed with a 10-mm long, Brewster-cut BBO crystal in an external cavity with 1.62 W of 458 nm input. Conversion efficiency from 458 nm to 229 nm was more than 34%. By applying a tapered amplifier (TA) as a fundamental source, we demonstrated magneto-optical trapping of all stable Cd isotopes including isotopes Cd111 and Cd113, which are applicable to optical lattice clocks.

  3. Continuous particle focusing in a waved microchannel using negative dc dielectrophoresis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming

    2012-07-26

    We present a waved microchannel for continuous focusing of microparticles and cells using negative direct current (dc) dielectrophoresis. The waved channel is composed of consecutive s-shaped curved channels in series to generate an electric field gradient required for the dielectrophoretic effect. When particles move electrokinetically through the channel, the experienced negative dielectrophoretic forces alternate directions within two adjacent semicircular microchannels, leading to a focused continuous-flow stream along the channel centerline. Both the experimentally observed and numerically simulated results of the focusing performance are reported, which coincide acceptably in proportion to the specified dimensions (i.e. inlet and outlet of the waved channel). How the applied electric field, particle size and medium concentration affect the performance was studied by focusing polystyrene microparticles of varying sizes. As an application in the field of biology, the focusing of yeast cells in the waved mcirochannel was tested. This waved microchannel shows a great potential for microflow cytometry applications and is expected to be widely used before different processing steps in lab-on-A-chip devices with integrated functions. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. A continuous wave fan beam tomography system having a best estimating filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    A continuous wave fan beam tomographic system is described which continuously samples X-ray absorption values and a means of providing a best-estimate of the X-ray absorption values at discrete points in time determined by sampling signal s(t). The means to provide the best-estimate include a continuous filter having a frequency range defined by the geometry of the mechanical system. Errors due to the statistical variation in photon emissions of the X-ray source are thereby minimized and the effective signal-to-noise ratio of signals is enhanced, which in turn allows a significant reduction in radiation dosage. (author)

  5. Evidence for a continuous spectrum of equatorial waves in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Charles C.

    1980-06-01

    Seven-month records of current and temperature measurements from a moored array centered at 53°E on the equator in the Indian Ocean are consistent with a continuous spectrum of equatorially trapped internal inertial-gravity, mixed Rossby-gravity, and Kelvin waves. A model spectrum of free linear waves analogous to those for mid-latitude internal gravity waves is used to compute spectra of observed quantities at depths greater than about 2000 m. Model parameters are adjusted to fit general patterns in the observed spectra over periods from roughly 2 days to 1 month. Measurements at shallower depths presumably include forced motions which we have not attempted to model. This `straw-person' spectrum is consistent with the limited data available. The model spectru Ē (n, m, ω) = K · B(m) · C(n, ω), where Ē is an average local energy density in the equatorial wave guide which has amplitude K, wave number shape B(m) ∝ (1 + m/m*)-3, where m is vertical mode number and the bandwidth parameter m* is between 4 and 8, and frequency shape C(n, ω) ∝ [(2n + 1 + s2)½ · σ3]-1 where n is meridional mode number, and s and σ are dimensionless zonal wave number and frequency related by the usual dispersion relation. The scales are (β/cm)½ and (β · cm)½ for horizontal wave number and frequency, where cm is the Kelvin wave speed of the vertical mode m. At each frequency and vertical wave number, energy is partitioned equally among the available inertial gravity modes so that the field tends toward horizontal isotropy at high frequency. The transition between Kelvin and mixed Rossby-gravity motion at low frequency and inertial-gravity motion at high frequency occurs at a period of roughly 1 week. At periods in the range 1-3 weeks, the model spectrum which fits the observations suggests that mixed Rossby-gravity motion dominates; at shorter periods gravity motion dominates. The model results are consistent with the low vertical coherence lengths observed (roughly 80 m

  6. Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Amy C

    2012-04-15

    We demonstrate wavelength conversion through nonlinear parametric processes in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with maximum conversion efficiency of -13 dB at telecommunication data rates (10 GHz) using only 15 mW of pump peak power. Conversion bandwidths as large as 150 nm (20 THz) are measured in continuous-wave regime at telecommunication wavelengths. The nonlinear refractive index of the material is determined by four-wave mixing (FWM) to be n(2)=7.43×10(-13) cm(2)/W, approximately an order of magnitude larger than that of single crystal silicon. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  7. Coupled granular/continuous medium for thermally stable perpendicular magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonobe, Y.; Weller, D.; Ikeda, Y.; Takano, K.; Schabes, M.E.; Zeltzer, G.; Do, H.; Yen, B.K.; Best, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    We studied coupled granular/continuous (CGC) perpendicular media consisting of a continuous multilayer structure and a granular layer. The addition of Co/Pt multilayers decreased the nucleation field from 200 to -1800 Oe and increased the squareness from 0.9 to 1.0. The moment decay at room temperature was significantly reduced from -4.8% to -0.05% per decade. At elevated temperatures, strong exchange coupling between a granular layer and a continuous layer is needed for thermal stability. The exchange-coupled continuous layer reduces thermal demagnetization as it effectively increases the grain size, tightens the grain distribution, and prevents the reversal of individual grains. Magnetic Force Microscope image showed a larger magnetic cluster size for the CGC structure. Compared to the CoCr 18 Pt 12 medium, the CGC medium had 2.3 dB higher output. However, the noise for the CGC medium increased with the recording density, while the noise for the CoCr 18 Pt 12 medium remained constant from 4 to 15 kfc/mm. Further optimization and noise reduction are still required for future high density recording

  8. Coupled granular/continuous medium for thermally stable perpendicular magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, Y.; Weller, D.; Ikeda, Y.; Takano, K.; Schabes, M. E.; Zeltzer, G.; Do, H.; Yen, B. K.; Best, M. E.

    2001-10-01

    We studied coupled granular/continuous (CGC) perpendicular media consisting of a continuous multilayer structure and a granular layer. The addition of Co/Pt multilayers decreased the nucleation field from 200 to -1800 Oe and increased the squareness from 0.9 to 1.0. The moment decay at room temperature was significantly reduced from -4.8% to -0.05% per decade. At elevated temperatures, strong exchange coupling between a granular layer and a continuous layer is needed for thermal stability. The exchange-coupled continuous layer reduces thermal demagnetization as it effectively increases the grain size, tightens the grain distribution, and prevents the reversal of individual grains. Magnetic Force Microscope image showed a larger magnetic cluster size for the CGC structure. Compared to the CoCr 18Pt 12 medium, the CGC medium had 2.3 dB higher output. However, the noise for the CGC medium increased with the recording density, while the noise for the CoCr 18Pt 12 medium remained constant from 4 to 15 kfc/mm. Further optimization and noise reduction are still required for future high density recording.

  9. Energy Properties of Ion Acoustic Waves in Stable and Unstable Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    1979-01-01

    Energy exchange between potential energy and ion kinetic energy in an ion acoustic wave is considered. In order to investigate the linear Landau damping or growth, the energy is calculated by use of first‐order quantities only so that nonlinear effects are not involved. It is found that for ion...... acoustic waves that are growing or damped in space the time average of the sum of the potential and the kinetic energy density is independent of position. Energy absorption spectra in particle velocity space are calculated; they are relatively broad and complicated functions. This shows that plasma ions...... of all velocities exchange energy with the wave....

  10. Limitations On The Creation of Continuously Surfable Waves Generated By A Pressure Source Moving In A Circular Path

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmied, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research presented in this work was to investigate the novel idea to produce continuous breaking waves, whereby a pressure source was rotated within an annular wave pool. The concept was that the pressure source generates non-breaking waves that propagate inward to the inner ring of

  11. The second wave of earthworm invasion: soil organic matter dynamics from the stable isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Bernard, M.; Pitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    Through transformation of plant litter into soil organic matter (SOM) and translocation of ingested organic material among different soil depths, soil organisms, especially earthworms, are one of the major factors affecting SOM dynamics. In North America temperate soil, historical human activity has lead to invasion of European earthworms into habitats that were previously earthworm-free or inhabited only by native species. By consuming leaf litter and SOM, burrowing, and casting, invasive earthworms have been known for reducing the understory vegetation and leaf litter layer while increasing the thickness of organic soil, causing changes in the soil habitat and the distribution of SOM. Recently, another group of invasive earthworm, namely Amynthas from Asia, has been reported invading habitats already dominated by European species, causing a 'second wave of invasion' where the soil ecosystem, already modified by European species, is going through another transition. The mechanisms through which these functionally (ecologically) different species affect C and N transformation could be better understood by tracing the carbon and nitrogen derived from 13C- and 15N-labeled leaf litter into earthworm tissues and SOM. The objective of this study is to understand how earthworm species that differ ecologically, including the Asian Amynthas, interact with each other and how these interactions affect SOM dynamics. We hypothesized that 1) species feeding on different food resources will have different isotopic signature and their tissue 13C and 15N values will change due to facilitation or interspecific competition on food resources, and 2) the short-term fate of litter-derived carbon differs depending on the presence or absence of different earthworm species. These hypotheses were tested by field sampling and lab mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched Tulip Poplar leaf litter (mean 13C = 124‰, mean 15N = 1667‰) produced from tree saplings growing in an

  12. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth; Virta, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions

  13. Stable Graphical Model Estimation with Random Forests for Discrete, Continuous, and Mixed Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Fellinghauer, Bernd; Bühlmann, Peter; Ryffel, Martin; von Rhein, Michael; Reinhardt, Jan D.

    2011-01-01

    A conditional independence graph is a concise representation of pairwise conditional independence among many variables. Graphical Random Forests (GRaFo) are a novel method for estimating pairwise conditional independence relationships among mixed-type, i.e. continuous and discrete, variables. The number of edges is a tuning parameter in any graphical model estimator and there is no obvious number that constitutes a good choice. Stability Selection helps choosing this parameter with respect to...

  14. OPTIMAL STRATEGIES FOR CONTINUOUS GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTION IN PULSAR TIMING ARRAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Creighton, J. D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are expected to emit a continuous gravitational wave signal in the pulsar timing array (PTA) frequency band (10 –9 to 10 –7 Hz). The development of data analysis techniques aimed at efficient detection and characterization of these signals is critical to the gravitational wave detection effort. In this paper, we leverage methods developed for LIGO continuous wave gravitational searches and explore the use of the F-statistic for such searches in pulsar timing data. Babak and Sesana have used this approach in the context of PTAs to show that one can resolve multiple SMBHB sources in the sky. Our work improves on several aspects of prior continuous wave search methods developed for PTA data analysis. The algorithm is implemented fully in the time domain, which naturally deals with the irregular sampling typical of PTA data and avoids spectral leakage problems associated with frequency domain methods. We take into account the fitting of the timing model and have generalized our approach to deal with both correlated and uncorrelated colored noise sources. We also develop an incoherent detection statistic that maximizes over all pulsar-dependent contributions to the likelihood. To test the effectiveness and sensitivity of our detection statistics, we perform a number of Monte Carlo simulations. We produce sensitivity curves for PTAs of various configurations and outline an implementation of a fully functional data analysis pipeline. Finally, we present a derivation of the likelihood maximized over the gravitational wave phases at the pulsar locations, which results in a vast reduction of the search parameter space.

  15. Stable aerobic granules in continuous-flow bioreactor with self-forming dynamic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Li, Yajie; Yang, Changzhu; Pu, Wenhong; He, Liu; Bo, Fu

    2012-10-01

    A novel continuous-flow bioreactor with aerobic granular sludge and self-forming dynamic membrane (CGSFDMBR) was developed for efficient wastewater treatment. Under continuous-flow operation, aerobic granular sludge was successfully cultivated and characterized with small particle size of about 0.1-1.0mm, low settling velocity of about 15-25 m/h, loose structure and high water content of about 96-98%. To maintain the stability of aerobic granular sludge, strategies based on the differences of settling velocity and particle-size between granular and flocculent sludge were implemented. Moreover, in CGSFDMBR, membrane fouling was greatly relieved. Dynamic membrane was just cleaned once in more than 45 days' operation. CGSFDMBR presented good performance in treating septic tank wastewater, obtaining average COD, NH(4)(+)-N, TN and TP removal rates of 83.3%, 73.3%, 67.3% and 60%, respectively, which was more efficient than conventional bioreactors since that carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were simultaneously removed in a single aerobic reactor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A prospective study of levetiracetam efficacy in epileptic syndromes with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkins, Mary; Nikanorova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the add-on effect of levetiracetam (LEV) treatment on the EEG and clinical status of children with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep (CSWS).......To evaluate the add-on effect of levetiracetam (LEV) treatment on the EEG and clinical status of children with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep (CSWS)....

  17. CdS thin films prepared by continuous wave Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Tenpas, Eric W.; Vuong, Khanh D.; Williams, James A.; Schuesselbauer, E.; Bernstein, R.; Fagan, J. G.; Wang, Xing W.

    1995-08-01

    We report new results on continuous wave Nd:YAG laser deposition of cadmium sulfide thin films. Substrates were soda-lime silicate glass, silica glass, silicon, and copper coated formvar sheets. As deposited films were mixtures of cubic and hexagonal phases, with two different grain sizes. As revealed by SEM micrographs, films had smooth surface morphology. As revealed by TEM analysis, grain sizes were extremely small.

  18. A diode-end-pumped Nd:GYSGG continuous wave laser at 1104 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, B J; Kang, H X; Zhang, C G; Chen, P; Gao, R L; Liang, J; Gao, H J; Zhang, Q L; Sun, D L; Yin, S T; Luo, J Q

    2013-01-01

    The continuous wave (CW) laser performance of Nd:GYSGG at 1104 nm is investigated for the first time, to our knowledge. A CW laser output power of 4.7 W is obtained when the pump power of the 808 nm fiber coupled laser diode is 19.1 W, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 24.6% and slope efficiency of 37%. (paper)

  19. High performance superconducting radio frequency ingot niobium technology for continuous wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2015-01-01

    Future continuous wave (CW) accelerators require the superconducting radio frequency cavities with high quality factor and medium accelerating gradients (≤20 MV/m). Ingot niobium cavities with medium purity fulfill the specifications of both accelerating gradient and high quality factor with simple processing techniques and potential reduction in cost. This contribution reviews the current superconducting radiofrequency research and development and outlines the potential benefits of using ingot niobium technology for CW applications

  20. Continuous terahertz-wave generation using a monolithically integrated horn antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytavit, E.; Beck, A.; Akalin, T.; Lampin, J.-F.; Hindle, F.; Yang, C.; Mouret, G.

    2008-09-01

    A transverse electromagnetic horn antenna is monolithically integrated with a standard ultrafast interdigitated electrode photodetector on low-temperature-grown GaAs. Continuous-wave terahertz radiation is generated at frequencies up to 2 THz with a maximum power of approximately 1 μW at 780 GHz. Experimental variations in the terahertz power as function of the frequency are explained by means of electromagnetic simulations of the antenna and the photomixer vicinity.

  1. Time series analysis of continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar wind measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeholm, M; Mikkelsen, T; Mann, J; Enevoldsen, K; Courtney, M

    2008-01-01

    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 μm continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneously obtained from a mast-mounted sonic anemometer at 78 meters height at the test station for large wind turbines at Hoevsoere in Western Jutland, Denmark is presented for the first time

  2. Bound states embedded into continuous spectrum as 'gathered' (compactified) scattering waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhar'ev, B.N.; Chabanov, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that states of continuous spectrum (the half-line case) can be considered as bound states normalized by unity but distributed on the infinite interval with vanishing density. Then the algorithms of shifting the range of primary localization of a chosen bound state in potential well of finite width appear to be applicable to scattering functions. The potential perturbations of the same type (but now on half-axis) concentrate the scattering wave in near vicinity of the origin, which leads to creation of bound state embedded into continuous spectrum. (author). 8 refs., 7 figs

  3. New high accuracy super stable alternating direction implicit methods for two and three dimensional hyperbolic damped wave equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report new three level implicit super stable methods of order two in time and four in space for the solution of hyperbolic damped wave equations in one, two and three space dimensions subject to given appropriate initial and Dirichlet boundary conditions. We use uniform grid points both in time and space directions. Our methods behave like fourth order accurate, when grid size in time-direction is directly proportional to the square of grid size in space-direction. The proposed methods are super stable. The resulting system of algebraic equations is solved by the Gauss elimination method. We discuss new alternating direction implicit (ADI methods for two and three dimensional problems. Numerical results and the graphical representation of numerical solution are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed methods.

  4. Generation of continuous-wave 194 nm laser for mercury ion optical frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hongxin; Wu, Yue; Chen, Guozhu; Shen, Yong; Liu, Qu; Precision measurement; atomic clock Team

    2015-05-01

    194 nm continuous-wave (CW) laser is an essential part in mercury ion optical frequency standard. The continuous-wave tunable radiation sources in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region of the spectrum is also serviceable in high-resolution spectroscopy with many atomic and molecular lines. We introduce a scheme to generate continuous-wave 194 nm radiation with SFM in a Beta Barium Borate (BBO) crystal here. The two source beams are at 718 nm and 266 nm, respectively. Due to the property of BBO, critical phase matching (CPM) is implemented. One bow-tie cavity is used to resonantly enhance the 718 nm beam while the 266 nm makes a single pass, which makes the configuration easy to implement. Considering the walk-off effect in CPM, the cavity mode is designed to be elliptical so that the conversion efficiency can be promoted. Since the 266 nm radiation is generated by a 532 nm laser through SHG in a BBO crystal with a large walk-off angle, the output mode is quite non-Gaussian. To improve mode matching, we shaped the 266 nm beam into Gaussian modes with a cylindrical lens and iris diaphragm. As a result, 2.05 mW 194 nm radiation can be generated. As we know, this is the highest power for 194 nm CW laser using SFM in BBO with just single resonance. The work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91436103 and No. 11204374).

  5. Continuous-wave lasing in an organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yufei; Kerner, Ross A.; Grede, Alex J.; Rand, Barry P.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as promising gain media for tunable, solution-processed semiconductor lasers. However, continuous-wave operation has not been achieved so far1-3. Here, we demonstrate that optically pumped continuous-wave lasing can be sustained above threshold excitation intensities of 17 kW cm-2 for over an hour in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) distributed feedback lasers that are maintained below the MAPbI3 tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature of T ≈ 160 K. In contrast with the lasing death phenomenon that occurs for pure tetragonal-phase MAPbI3 at T > 160 K (ref. 4), we find that continuous-wave gain becomes possible at T ≈ 100 K from tetragonal-phase inclusions that are photogenerated by the pump within the normally existing, larger-bandgap orthorhombic host matrix. In this mixed-phase system, the tetragonal inclusions function as carrier recombination sinks that reduce the transparency threshold, in loose analogy to inorganic semiconductor quantum wells, and may serve as a model for engineering improved perovskite gain media.

  6. Terminal load response law of coaxial cable to continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaodong; Wei Guanghui; Li Xinfeng; Lu Xinfu

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the coupling response law of continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation to coaxial cable, the typical RF coaxial cable is selected as the object under test. The equipment or subsystem connected by coaxial cable is equivalent to a lumped load. Continuous wave irradiation effect experiments under different conditions are carried out to analyze the terminal load response law of coaxial cable. The results indicate that the coaxial cable has a frequency selecting characteristic under electromagnetic irradiation, and the terminal load response voltage peak appears at a series of discrete frequency points where the test cable's relative lengths equal to semi-integers. When the coaxial cable is irradiated by continuous wave, the induced sheath current converts to the differential-mode induced voltage between inner conductor and shielding layer through transfer impedance, and the internal resistance of induced voltage source is the characteristic impedance of the coaxial cable. The change in terminal load value has no influence on the response curve. The voltages on the terminal load and the internal resistance of equivalent induced voltage source obey the principle of voltage division. Moreover, when the sheath current on the coaxial cable is in resonance, the distributed induced voltage between adjacent current nodes is in the same polarity, which can be equivalent to a single induced voltage source. The induced voltage source which is adjacent to the terminal load plays the leading role in the irradiation response process. (authors)

  7. Spin wave differential circuit for realization of thermally stable magnonic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Taichi, E-mail: goto@ee.tut.ac.jp; Kanazawa, Naoki; Buyandalai, Altansargai; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibari-Ga-Oka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Okajima, Shingo; Hasegawa, Takashi [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Kyoto 617-8555 (Japan); Granovsky, Alexander B. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Sekiguchi, Koji [Department of Physics, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ross, Caroline A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    A magnetic-field sensor with a high sensitivity of 38 pT/Hz was demonstrated. By utilizing a spin-wave differential circuit (SWDC) using two yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films, the temperature sensitivity was suppressed, and the thermal stability of the phase of the spin waves was −0.0095° K{sup −1}, which is three orders of magnitude better than a simple YIG-based sensor, ∼20° K{sup −1}. The SWDC architecture opens the way to design YIG-based magnonic devices.

  8. Spin wave differential circuit for realization of thermally stable magnonic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Taichi; Kanazawa, Naoki; Buyandalai, Altansargai; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru; Okajima, Shingo; Hasegawa, Takashi; Granovsky, Alexander B.; Sekiguchi, Koji; Ross, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic-field sensor with a high sensitivity of 38 pT/Hz was demonstrated. By utilizing a spin-wave differential circuit (SWDC) using two yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films, the temperature sensitivity was suppressed, and the thermal stability of the phase of the spin waves was −0.0095° K −1 , which is three orders of magnitude better than a simple YIG-based sensor, ∼20° K −1 . The SWDC architecture opens the way to design YIG-based magnonic devices

  9. Experimental Verification of a Global Exponentially Stable Nonlinear Wave Encounter Frequency Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belleter, Dennis J.W.; Galeazzi, Roberto; Fossen, Thor Inge

    2015-01-01

    towing tank experiments using a container ship scale model. The estimates for both regular and irregular waves confirm the results. Finally, the estimator is applied to full-scale data gathered from a container ship operating in the Atlantic Ocean during a storm. Again the theoretical results...

  10. Stable operating regimes in NET with respect to Alfven wave instabilities during neutral beam current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhartt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Supra-thermal ions can contribute to the steady-state current in future large tokamak machines like NET or ITER. The fast-ion population is generated by collisional slowing-down of high-energy ions which were injected as neutral atoms in quasi-tangential direction and ionized by plasma interactions. Depending on the initial beam shape these fast ions can excite microinstabilities of the Alfven-wave type which are driven by the gradients in velocity-space. The ensuring plasma turbulence is expected to slow down the fast ions very quickly. This effect reduces the current drive efficiency which otherwise is comparable to that of other current drive schemes like lower hybrid waves where the toroidal current is carried by high-energy resonant electrons. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig

  11. Soliton generation via continuous stokes acoustic self-scattering of hypersonic waves in a paramagnetic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugay, A. N.; Sazonov, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed for continuous frequency down-conversion of acoustic waves propagating in a paramagnetic crystal at a low temperature in an applied magnetic field. A transverse hypersonic pulse generating a carrier-free longitudinal strain pulse via nonlinear effects is scattered by the generated pulse. This leads to a Stokes shift in the transverse hypersonic wave proportional to its intensity, and both pulses continue to propagate in the form of a mode-locked soliton. As the transverse-pulse frequency is Stokes shifted, its spectrum becomes narrower. This process can be effectively implemented only if the linear group velocity of the transverse hypersonic pulse equals the phase velocity of the longitudinal strain wave. These velocities are renormalized by spin-phonon coupling and can be made equal by adjusting the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The transverse structure of the soliton depends on the sign of the group velocity dispersion of the transverse component. When the dispersion is positive, planar solitons can develop whose transverse component has a topological defect of dark vortex type and longitudinal component has a hole. In the opposite case, the formation of two-component acoustic 'bullets' or vortices localized in all directions is possible

  12. Coherently combining data between detectors for all-sky semi-coherent continuous gravitational wave searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, E; Riles, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments, e.g., by up to 42% over a single detector for an all-sky search. For misaligned detectors, however, this improvement requires careful attention when marginalizing over unknown polarization parameters. In addition, care must be taken in correcting for differential detector velocity due to the Earth’s rotation for high signal frequencies and widely separated detectors. (paper)

  13. Flow angle dependent photoacoustic Doppler power spectra under intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic Doppler (PAD power spectra showing an evident Doppler shift represent the major characteristics of the continuous wave-excited or burst wave-excited versions of PAD flow measurements. In this paper, the flow angle dependences of the PAD power spectra are investigated using an experiment setup that was established based on intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation. The setup has an overall configuration that is similar to a previously reported configuration, but is more sophisticated in that it accurately aligns the laser illumination with the ultrasound detection process, and in that it picks up the correct sample position. In the analysis of the power spectra data, we find that the background power spectra can be extracted by combining the output signals from the two channels of the lock-in amplifier, which is very useful for identification of the PAD power spectra. The power spectra are presented and analyzed in opposite flow directions, at different flow speeds, and at different flow angles. The power spectra at a 90° flow angle show the unique properties of symmetrical shapes due to PAD broadening. For the other flow angles, the smoothed power spectra clearly show a flow angle cosine relationship.

  14. On the classification of the spectrally stable standing waves of the Hartree problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Vladimir; Stefanov, Atanas

    2018-05-01

    We consider the fractional Hartree model, with general power non-linearity and arbitrary spatial dimension. We construct variationally the "normalized" solutions for the corresponding Choquard-Pekar model-in particular a number of key properties, like smoothness and bell-shapedness are established. As a consequence of the construction, we show that these solitons are spectrally stable as solutions to the time-dependent Hartree model. In addition, we analyze the spectral stability of the Moroz-Van Schaftingen solitons of the classical Hartree problem, in any dimensions and power non-linearity. A full classification is obtained, the main conclusion of which is that only and exactly the "normalized" solutions (which exist only in a portion of the range) are spectrally stable.

  15. Terahertz transmission properties of silicon wafers using continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Ji, Taeksoo; Eom, Joo Beom

    2017-04-01

    We present the spectral properties of Si wafers using continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) spectroscopy. By using a tunable laser source and a fixed distributed-feedback laser diode (DFB-LD), a stably tunable beat source for CW-THz spectroscopy system can be implemented. THz radiation is generated in the frequency range of 100 GHz-800 GHz by photomixing in a photoconductive antenna. We also measured CW-THz waveforms by changing the beat frequency and confirmed repeatability through repeated measurement. We calculated the peaks of the THz frequency by taking fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of measured THz waveforms. The feasibility of CW-THz spectroscopy is demonstrated by the THz spectra of Si wafers with different resistivities, mobilities, and carrier concentrations. The results show that Si wafers with a lower resistivity absorb more THz waves. Thus, we expect our CW-THz system to have the advantage of being able to perform fast non-destructive analysis.

  16. Terahertz transmission properties of silicon wafers using continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Eom, Joo Beom; Ji, Taeksoo

    2017-01-01

    We present the spectral properties of Si wafers using continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) spectroscopy. By using a tunable laser source and a fixed distributed-feedback laser diode (DFB-LD), a stably tunable beat source for CW-THz spectroscopy system can be implemented. THz radiation is generated in the frequency range of 100 GHz–800 GHz by photomixing in a photoconductive antenna. We also measured CW-THz waveforms by changing the beat frequency and confirmed repeatability through repeated measurement. We calculated the peaks of the THz frequency by taking fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of measured THz waveforms. The feasibility of CW-THz spectroscopy is demonstrated by the THz spectra of Si wafers with different resistivities, mobilities, and carrier concentrations. The results show that Si wafers with a lower resistivity absorb more THz waves. Thus, we expect our CW-THz system to have the advantage of being able to perform fast non-destructive analysis. (paper)

  17. Optimised frequency modulation for continuous-wave optical magnetic resonance sensing using nitrogen-vacancy ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ella, Haitham; Ahmadi, Sepehr; Wojciechowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    transitions, we experimentally show that when the ratio between the hyperfine linewidth and their separation is ≥ 1=4, square-wave based frequency modulation generates the steepest slope at modulation depths exceeding the separation of the hyperfine lines, compared to sine-wave based modulation. We formulate......Magnetometers based on ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centres are a promising platform for continuously sensing static and low-frequency magnetic fields. Their combination with phase-sensitive (lock-in) detection creates a highly versatile sensor with a sensitivity that is proportional...... to the derivative of the optical magnetic resonance lock-in spectrum, which is in turn dependant on the lock-in modulation parameters. Here we study the dependence of the lock-in spectral slope on the modulation of the spin-driving microwave field. Given the presence of the intrinsic nitrogen hyperfine spin...

  18. Searching for continuous gravitational wave signals. The hierarchical Hough transform algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, M.; Schutz, B.F.; Sintes, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that matched filtering techniques cannot be applied for searching extensive parameter space volumes for continuous gravitational wave signals. This is the reason why alternative strategies are being pursued. Hierarchical strategies are best at investigating a large parameter space when there exist computational power constraints. Algorithms of this kind are being implemented by all the groups that are developing software for analyzing the data of the gravitational wave detectors that will come online in the next years. In this talk I will report about the hierarchical Hough transform method that the GEO 600 data analysis team at the Albert Einstein Institute is developing. The three step hierarchical algorithm has been described elsewhere [8]. In this talk I will focus on some of the implementational aspects we are currently concerned with. (author)

  19. Generation of continuous-wave single-frequency 1.5 W 378 nm radiation by frequency doubling of a Ti:sapphire laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yong-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Hoon; Lim, Gwon; Han, Jae-Min; Park, Hyun-Min; Kim, Taek-Soo; Jeong, Do-Young

    2010-03-20

    We have generated continuous-wave single-frequency 1.5 W 378 nm radiation by frequency doubling a high-power Ti:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity. An LBO crystal that is Brewster-cut and antireflection coated on both ends is used for a long-term stable frequency doubling. By optimizing the input coupler's reflectivity, we could generate 1.5 W 378 nm radiation from a 5 W 756 nm Ti:sapphire laser. According to our knowledge, this is the highest CW frequency-doubled power of a Ti:sapphire laser.

  20. Quasi-continuous wave and continuous wave laser operation of Eu:KGd(WO4)2 crystal on a 5D0 → 7F4 transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashkevich, V I; Orlovich, V A; Bui, A A; Bagayev, S N; Vatnik, S M; Loiko, P A; Yumashev, K V; Kuleshov, N V; Pavlyuk, A A

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of quasi-continuous wave (quasi-CW) and real CW room-temperature lasing on the 5 D 0  →  7 F 4 transition of Eu 3+ -doped material using a 25 at.%Eu 3+  : KGd(WO 4 ) 2 crystal pumped into the 7 F 1  →  5 D 1 transition by a diode-end-pumped Nd 3+  : KGd(WO 4 ) 2 /KTP green laser at 533.6 nm. The maximum CW output power of this laser at 702.3 nm is 5.3 mW with 1.4% green-to-red conversion efficiency. In quasi-CW operation mode with a 10% duty cycle, the peak power of ms long pulses reaches ∼54 mW, which corresponds to the optical conversion efficiency of 3.5%. (letter)

  1. Pulsar discoveries by volunteer distributed computing and the strongest continuous gravitational wave signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Neutron stars are the endpoints of stellar evolution and one of the most compact forms of matter in the universe. They can be observed as radio pulsars and are promising sources for the emission of continuous gravitational waves. Discovering new radio pulsars in tight binary orbits offers the opportunity to conduct very high precision tests of General Relativity and to further our understanding of neutron star structure and matter at super-nuclear densities. The direct detection of gravitational waves would validate Einstein's theory of Relativity and open a new window to the universe by offering a novel astronomical tool. This thesis addresses both of these scientific fields: the first fully coherent search for radio pulsars in tight, circular orbits has been planned, set up and conducted in the course of this thesis. Two unusual radio pulsars, one of them in a binary system, have been discovered. The other half of this thesis is concerned with the simulation of the Galactic neutron star population to predict their emission of continuous gravitational waves. First realistic statistical upper limits on the strongest continuous gravitational-wave signal and detection predictions for realistic all-sky blind searches have been obtained. The data from a large-scale pulsar survey with the 305-m Arecibo radio telescope were searched for signals from radio pulsars in binary orbits. The massive amount of computational work was done on hundreds of thousands of computers volunteered by members of the general public through the distributed computing project Einstein@Home. The newly developed analysis pipeline searched for pulsar spin frequencies below 250 Hz and for orbital periods as short as 11 min. The structure of the search pipeline consisting of data preparation, data analysis, result post-processing, and set-up of the pipeline components is presented in detail. The first radio pulsar, discovered with this search, PSR J2007+2722, is an isolated radio pulsar, likely from

  2. Thermal properties and continuous-wave laser performance of Yb:LuVO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Zhang, H. J.; Yu, Y. G.; Wang, J. Y.; Tao, X. T.; Liu, J. H.; Petrov, V.; Ling, Z. C.; Xia, H. R.; Jiang, M. H.

    2007-03-01

    A laser crystal of Yb:LuVO4 with high optical quality was grown by the Czochralski technique. Its thermal properties including specific heat, thermal expansion coefficients, and thermal conductivities along the a- and c-axis have been measured for the first time. Continuous-wave laser output up to 3.5 W at 1031 nm was obtained at room temperature through end-pumping by a high-power diode laser. The corresponding optical conversion efficiency was 43% and the slope efficiency was 72%.

  3. Beam characterization of a new continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, A., E-mail: aperry4@hawk.iit.edu [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Zinkann, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    A new Continuous Wave (CW) Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) for the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System) Intensity Upgrade was developed, built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. We present here a characterization of the RFQ output beam in the longitudinal phase space, as well as a measurement of the transverse beam halo. Measurement results are compared to simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK. -- Highlights: • Beam commissioning of a new CW RFQ has been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. • Energy spread and bunch shape measurements were conducted. • The formation of a beam halo in the transverse phase space was studied.

  4. Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous wave, conically scanning LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Mikkelsen, Torben; Courtney, Michael

    averaging is done in two steps: 1) the weighted averaging of the wind speed in the probe volume of the laser beam; 2) the averaging of the wind speeds occurring on the circular path described by the conically scanning lidar. Therefore the standard deviation measured by a lidar resolves only the turbulence...... of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar. First, the wind speed standard deviation measured by such a lidar gives on average 80% of the standard deviation measured by a cup anemometer. This difference is due to the spatial averaging inherently made by a cw conically scanning lidar. The spatial...

  5. 532 nm continuous wave mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with SESAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L; Liu, J; Liu, M; Liu, S; Chen, F; Wang, W; Wang, Y

    2009-01-01

    We obtain continuous wave mode-locked Nd:GdVO 4 -KTP laser with a SESAM. This is the first report of CW mode-locked Nd:GdVO 4 -KTP laser with a SESAM to our knowledge. 396 mw CW mode-locked pulse is achieved at the incident power of 7.653 W, with the repetition about 95 MHz. The pulse duration is assumed to be 5.5 ps, this is the shortest green pulse of 532 nm with SESAM

  6. Comb-Resolved Dual-Comb Spectroscopy Stabilized by Free-Running Continuous-Wave Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuse, Naoya; Ozawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy with relatively phase-locked two frequency combs, instead of frequency combs firmly fixed to the absolute frequency references. By stabilizing two beat frequencies between two mode-locked lasers at different wavelengths observed via free-running continuous-wave (CW) lasers, two combs are tightly phase locked to each other. The frequency noise of the CW lasers barely affects the performance of dual-comb spectroscopy because of the extremely fast common-mode noise rejection. Transform-limited comb-resolved dual-comb spectroscopy with a 6 Hz radio frequency linewidth is demonstrated by the use of Yb-fiber oscillators.

  7. Welding uranium with a multikilowatt, continuous-wave, carbon dioxide laser welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.W.; Townsend, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    A 15-kilowatt, continuous-wave carbon dioxide laser was contracted to make partial-penetration welds in 6.35-and 12.7-mm-thick wrought depleted uranium plates. Welding power and speed ranged from 2.3 to 12.9 kilowatts and from 21 to 127 millimeters per second, respectively. Results show that depth-to-width ratios of at least unity are feasible. The overall characteristics of the process indicate it can produce welds resembling those made by the electron-beam welding process

  8. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent ra...

  9. Continuous wave ultraviolet radiation induced frustration of etching in lithium niobate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailis, S.; Riziotis, C.; Smith, P.G.R.; Scott, J.G.; Eason, R.W

    2003-02-15

    Illumination of the -z face of congruent lithium niobate single crystals with continuous wave (c.w.) ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation modifies the response of the surface to subsequent acid etching. A frequency doubled Ar{sup +} laser ({lambda}=244 nm) was used to illuminate the -z crystal face making it resistive to HF etching and thus transforming the illuminated tracks into ridge structures. This process enables the fabrication of relief patterns in a photolithographic manner. Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy indicates preservation of the good crystal quality after irradiation.

  10. Wide-band continuous-wave terahertz source with a vertically integrated photomixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytavit, E.; Lampin, J.-F.; Hindle, F.; Yang, C.; Mouret, G.

    2009-10-01

    A transverse electromagnetic horn antenna is monolithically integrated with a low temperature grown GaAs vertical photodetector on a silicon substrate forming a vertically integrated photomixer. Continuous-wave terahertz radiation is generated at frequencies up to 3.5 THz with a power level reaching 20 nW around 3 THz. Microwave and material concepts allow both qualitative and quantitative explanations of the experimental results. The thin film microstrip line topology has been adapted for active devices by an Au-Au thermocompression layer transfer technique and seems to be a promising generic tool for a new generation of efficient terahertz devices.

  11. Enhancement of Continuous Variable Entanglement in Four-Wave Mixing due to Atomic Memory Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Zhu, Zhu; Xiang-Ming, Hu; Fei, Wang; Jing-Yan, Li

    2010-01-01

    We explore the effects of atomic memory on quantum correlations of two-mode light fields from four-wave mixing. A three-level atomic system in Λ configuration is considered, in which the atomic relaxation times are comparable to or longer than the cavity relaxation times and thus there exists the atomic memory. The quantum correlation spectrum in the output is calculated without the adiabatic elimination of atomic variables. It is shown that the continuous variable entanglement is enhanced over a wide range of the normalized detuning in the intermediate and bad cavity cases compared with the good cavity case. In some situations more significant enhancement occurs at sidebands

  12. All-solid-state continuous-wave doubly resonant all-intracavity sum-frequency mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, H M; Heine, F; Huber, G; Halldórsson, T

    1997-10-01

    A new resonator design for doubly resonant continuous-wave intracavity sum-frequency mixing is presented. We generated 212 mW of coherent radiation at 618 nm by mixing the radiation of a 1080-nm Nd(3+):YAlO(3) laser and a 1444-nm Nd(3+):YAG laser. Two different mixing resonator setups and several nonlinear-optical crystals were investigated. So far output is limited by unequal performance of the two fundamental lasers and coating problems of the nonlinear crystals.

  13. Continuous-Wave Single-Photon Transistor Based on a Superconducting Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriienko, Oleksandr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2016-01-01

    We propose a microwave frequency single-photon transistor which can operate under continuous wave probing and represents an efficient single microwave photon detector. It can be realized using an impedance matched system of a three level artificial ladder-type atom coupled to two microwave cavities...... and the appearance of a photon flux leaving the second cavity through a separate input-output port. The proposal does not require time variation of the probe signals, thus corresponding to a passive version of a single-photon transistor. The resulting device is robust to qubit dephasing processes, possesses low dark...

  14. On the shape of continuous wave infrared stimulated luminescence signals from feldspars: A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagonis, V.; Jain, Mayank; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2014-01-01

    The continuous-wave IRSL (CW-IRSL) signals from feldspars are known to decay in a non-exponential manner, and their exact mathematical description is of great importance in dosimetric and dating studies. This paper investigates the possibility of fitting experimental CW-IRSL curves from a variety...... to guide future modeling work on luminescence processes in feldspars. Small statistical differences were found between K-rich and Na-rich fractions of the same sample. However, the experimental data shows that the parameters depend on the irradiation dose, but do not depend on the time elapsed after...

  15. Fourier Deconvolution Methods for Resolution Enhancement in Continuous-Wave EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, George H; Poyner, Russell R

    2015-01-01

    An overview of resolution enhancement of conventional, field-swept, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra using Fourier transform-based deconvolution methods is presented. Basic steps that are involved in resolution enhancement of calculated spectra using an implementation based on complex discrete Fourier transform algorithms are illustrated. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. An application to an experimentally obtained spectrum is provided to illustrate the power of the method for resolving overlapped transitions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical phase locking of two infrared continuous wave lasers separated by 100 THz

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiodo, N.; Du-Burck, F.; Hrabina, Jan; Lours, M.; Chea, E.; Acef, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 10 (2014), s. 2936-2939 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P820; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR040 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Continuous wave lasers * Frequency allocation * Harmonic generation * Laser optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2014

  17. High-resolution multiphoton microscopy with a low-power continuous wave laser pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Dong; Li, Shen; Du, Bo; Dong, Yang; Wang, Ze-Hao; Guo, Guang-Can; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2018-02-15

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been widely used for three-dimensional biological imaging. Here, based on the photon-induced charge state conversion process, we demonstrated a low-power high-resolution MPM with a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Continuous wave green and orange lasers were used to pump and detect the two-photon charge state conversion, respectively. The power of the laser for multiphoton excitation was 40 μW. Both the axial and lateral resolutions were improved approximately 1.5 times compared with confocal microscopy. The results can be used to improve the resolution of the NV center-based quantum sensing and biological imaging.

  18. High speed video shooting with continuous-wave laser illumination in laboratory modeling of wind - wave interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim

    2014-05-01

    Three examples of usage of high-speed video filming in investigation of wind-wave interaction in laboratory conditions is described. Experiments were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS (length 10 m, cross section of air channel 0.4 x 0.4 m, wind velocity up to 24 m/s) and at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m, wind velocity up to 10 m/s). A combination of PIV-measurements, optical measurements of water surface form and wave gages were used for detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. The modified PIV-method is based on the use of continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination of the airflow seeded by particles and high-speed video. During the experiments on the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS Green (532 nm) CW laser with 1.5 Wt output power was used as a source for light sheet. High speed digital camera Videosprint (VS-Fast) was used for taking visualized air flow images with the frame rate 2000 Hz. Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave profile. The mean wind velocity profiles were retrieved using conditional in phase averaging like in [1]. In the experiments on the LASIF more powerful Argon laser (4 Wt, CW) was used as well as high-speed camera with higher sensitivity and resolution: Optronics Camrecord CR3000x2, frame rate 3571 Hz, frame size 259×1696 px. In both series of experiments spherical 0.02 mm polyamide particles with inertial time 7 ms were used for seeding airflow. New particle seeding system based on utilization of air pressure is capable of injecting 2 g of particles per second for 1.3 - 2.4 s without flow disturbance. Used in LASIF this system provided high particle density on PIV-images. In combination with high-resolution camera it allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from

  19. Modeling of the response of the POLARBEAR bolometers with a continuously rotating half-wave plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Satoru; POLARBEAR Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The curly pattern, the so-called B-mode, in the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a powerful probe to measure primordial gravitational waves from the cosmic inflation, as well as the weak lensing due to the large scale structure of the Universe. At present, ground-based CMB experiments with a few arcminutes resolution such as POLARBEAR, SPTpol, and ACTPol have successfully measured the angular power spectrum of the B-mode only in sub-degree scales, though these experiments also have potential to measure the inflationary B-modes in degree scales in absence of the low-frequency noise (1/f noise). Thus, techniques of polarization signal modulation such as a continuously rotating half-wave plate (CRHWP) are widely investigated to suppress the 1/f noise and also to reduce instrumental systematic errors. In this study, we have implemented a CRHWP placed around the prime focus of the POLARBEAR telescope and operated at ambient temperatures. We construct a comprehensive model including half-wave plate synchronous signals, detector non-linearities, beam imperfections, and all noise sources. Using this model, we show that, in practice, the 1/f noise and instrumental systematics could remain even with the CRHWP. However, we also evaluate those effects from test observations using a prototype CRHWP on the POLARBEAR telescope and find that the residual 1/f noise is sufficiently small for POLARBEAR to probe the multipoles about 40. We will also discuss prospects for future CMB experiments with better sensitivities.

  20. Continuous ultrasonic waves to detect steam bubbles in water under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H J.M.; Schurink, F

    1985-01-01

    Steam in the recirculation circuit of boilers may lead to unacceptable high thermal loads on the evaporator tubes. The ability to detect steam in the recirculation circuit during process transients is therefore important. A simple detector using continuous ultrasonic waves and able to detect bubbles in water contained in steel tubes is described in this paper. The variation of the transmitted wave caused by the bubbles was determined by demodulation. The results have met the objectives set for cold water with air bubbles. A clear indication of the presence of steam bubbles was found in fast-flowing hot water in a steel tube with a diameter of 60 mm. A change in the low-frequency region of the modulation was the only indication of the presence of steam bubbles in the large-diameter downcomer of the water-separator drum of a boiler in an electrical power plant. Possible causes of the differences in the results obtained are discussed on the basis of differences in bubble sizes and in focusing and reflection of the ultrasonic waves. (orig.). 11 refs.; 10 figs.

  1. Continuous ultrasonic waves to detect steam bubbles in water under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulshof, H.J.M.; Schurink, F.

    1985-01-01

    Steam in the recirculation circuit of boilers may lead to unacceptable high thermal loads on the evaporator tubes. The ability to detect steam in the recirculation circuit during process transients is therefore important. A simple detector using continuous ultrasonic waves and able to detect bubbles in water contained in steel tubes is described in this paper. The variation of the transmitted wave caused by the bubbles was determined by demodulation. The results have met the objectives set for cold water with air bubbles. A clear indication of the presence of steam bubbles was found in fast-flowing hot water in a steel tube with a diameter of 60 mm. A change in the low-frequency region of the modulation was the only indication of the presence of steam bubbles in the large-diameter downcomer of the water-separator drum of a boiler in an electrical power plant. Possible causes of the differences in the results obtained are discussed on the basis of differences in bubble sizes and in focusing and reflection of the ultrasonic waves. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of photosensitivity in germanium doped silica fibers using 244 nm and 266 nm continuous wave lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo; Varming, Poul; Liu, B.

    2001-01-01

    Diode pumped continuous-wave UV lasers offer an interesting alternative to frequency doubled argon-ion lasers. We report the first photosensitivity comparison using these lasers on deuterium loaded standard telecommunication fibers and unloaded experimental fibers....

  3. Soliton radiation beat analysis of optical pulses generated from two continuous-wave lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajnulina, M.; Böhm, M.; Blow, K.; Rieznik, A. A.; Giannone, D.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a fibre-based approach for generation of optical frequency combs (OFCs) with the aim of calibration of astronomical spectrographs in the low and medium-resolution range. This approach includes two steps: in the first step, an appropriate state of optical pulses is generated and subsequently moulded in the second step delivering the desired OFC. More precisely, the first step is realised by injection of two continuous-wave (CW) lasers into a conventional single-mode fibre, whereas the second step generates a broad OFC by using the optical solitons generated in step one as initial condition. We investigate the conversion of a bichromatic input wave produced by two initial CW lasers into a train of optical solitons, which happens in the fibre used as step one. Especially, we are interested in the soliton content of the pulses created in this fibre. For that, we study different initial conditions (a single cosine-hump, an Akhmediev breather, and a deeply modulated bichromatic wave) by means of soliton radiation beat analysis and compare the results to draw conclusion about the soliton content of the state generated in the first step. In case of a deeply modulated bichromatic wave, we observed the formation of a collective soliton crystal for low input powers and the appearance of separated solitons for high input powers. An intermediate state showing the features of both, the soliton crystal and the separated solitons, turned out to be most suitable for the generation of OFC for the purpose of calibration of astronomical spectrographs.

  4. Continuous wave power scaling in high power broad area quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, M.; Leshin, J.; Go, R.; Figueiredo, P.; Shu, H.; Lyakh, A.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental and model results for high power broad area quantum cascade lasers are presented. Continuous wave power scaling from 1.62 W to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15 mm-long, high reflection-coated 5.6 μm quantum cascade lasers with 15 stage active region for active region width increased from 10 μm to 20 μm. A semi-empirical model for broad area devices operating in continuous wave mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sub-linearity of pulsed power vs current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm x 25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300Å, pulsed roll-over current density of 6 kA/cm2 , and InGaAs waveguide layers; optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to 4.5 W from 3.15 mm × 31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  5. One step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhrowiyah, N.; Yasin, M.

    2017-09-01

    The method one step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography is proposed and demonstrated for polyvinyl chloride based material and breast phantom. Approximation which used in this method is selecting regulation coefficient and evaluating the difference between two states that corresponding to the data acquired without and with a change in optical properties. This method is used to recovery of optical parameters from measured boundary data of light propagation in the object. The research is demonstrated by simulation and experimental data. Numerical object is used to produce simulation data. Chloride based material and breast phantom sample is used to produce experimental data. Comparisons of results between experiment and simulation data are conducted to validate the proposed method. The results of the reconstruction image which is produced by the one step linear reconstruction method show that the image reconstruction almost same as the original object. This approach provides a means of imaging that is sensitive to changes in optical properties, which may be particularly useful for functional imaging used continuous wave diffuse optical tomography of early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  6. POWER SCALING IN CONTINUOUS-WAVE YB:YAG MICROCHIP LASER FOR MEASURING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ivashko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics optimization of lasers used in different measuring systems is of great interest up to now. Diode-pumped microchip lasers is one of the most perspective ways for development of solid-state light sources with minimal size and weight together with low energy power consumption. Increasing of output power with good beam quality is rather difficult task for such type of lasers due to thermal effects in the gain crystal under high pump power.The investigation results of continuous-wave longitudinally diode-pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser are presented. In the presented laser radiation from multiple pump laser diodes were focused into the separate zone in one gain crystal that provides simultaneous generation of multiple laser beams. The energy and spatial laser beam characteristics were investigated.Influence of neighboring pumped regions on energy and spatial laser beams parameters both for separate and for sum laser output was observed. The dependences of laser output power from distance between neighboring pumped regions and their number were determined. Decreasing of laser output power was demonstrated with corresponding distance shortening between pumped regions and increasing their quantity with simultaneous improvement of laser beam quality.Demonstrated mutual influence of neighboring pumped regions in the longitudinally diode pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser allow as to generate diffraction limited Gaussian beam with 2W of continuous-wave output power that 30 % higher than in case of one pumped zone. 

  7. Optimally setting up directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO O1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Krishnan, Badri; Prix, Reinhard; Beer, Christian; Zhu, Sylvia J.; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Bock, Oliver; Machenschalk, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we design a search for continuous gravitational waves from three supernova remnants: Vela Jr., Cassiopeia A (Cas A) and G347.3. These systems might harbor rapidly rotating neutron stars emitting quasiperiodic gravitational radiation detectable by the advanced LIGO detectors. Our search is designed to use the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home for a few months and assumes the sensitivity and duty cycles of the advanced LIGO detectors during their first science run. For all three supernova remnants, the sky positions of their central compact objects are well known but the frequency and spin-down rates of the neutron stars are unknown which makes the searches computationally limited. In a previous paper we have proposed a general framework for deciding on what target we should spend computational resources and in what proportion, what frequency and spin-down ranges we should search for every target, and with what search setup. Here we further expand this framework and apply it to design a search directed at detecting continuous gravitational wave signals from the most promising three supernova remnants identified as such in the previous work. Our optimization procedure yields broad frequency and spin-down searches for all three objects, at an unprecedented level of sensitivity: The smallest detectable gravitational wave strain h0 for Cas A is expected to be 2 times smaller than the most sensitive upper limits published to date, and our proposed search, which was set up and ran on the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home, covers a much larger frequency range.

  8. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan, Antonio C.; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2012-01-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE11,2 and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnetic field values is in good agreement with theoretical start currents obtained from linear theory for successive high-order axial modes TE11,2,q. The minimum start current is 27 mA. Power and frequency tuning measurements as a function of the electron cyclotron frequency have also been carried out. A smooth frequency tuning range of 1 GHz was obtained for the operating second-harmonic mode either by magnetic field tuning or beam voltage tuning. Long-term CW operation was evaluated during an uninterrupted period of 48 h, where the gyrotron output power and frequency were kept stable to within ±0.7% and ±6 ppm, respectively, by a computerized control system. Proper operation of an internal quasi-optical mode converter implemented to transform the operating whispering-gallery mode to a Gaussian-like beam was also verified. Based on the images of the gyrotron output beam taken with a pyroelectric camera, the Gaussian-like mode content of the output beam was computed to be 92% with an ellipticity of 12%. PMID:23761938

  9. Experimental investigation on a diode-pumped cesium-vapor laser stably operated at continuous-wave and pulse regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Xu, Dongdong; Gao, Fei; Zheng, Changbin; Zhang, Kuo; He, Yang; Wang, Chunrui; Guo, Jin

    2015-05-04

    Employing a fiber-coupled diode-laser with a center wavelength of 852.25 nm and a line width of 0.17 nm, experimental investigation on diode-end-pumped cesium (Cs) vapor laser stably operated at continuous-wave (CW) and pulse regime is carried out. A 5 mm long cesium vapor cell filled with 60 kPa helium and 20 kPa ethane is used as laser medium. Using an output coupler with reflectivity of 48.79%, 1.26 W 894.57 nm CW laser is obtained at an incident pump power of 4.76 W, corresponding an optical-optical efficiency of 26.8% and a slope-efficiency of 28.8%, respectively. The threshold temperature is 67.5 °C. Stable pulsed cesium laser with a maximum average output power of 2.6 W is obtained at a repetition rate of 76 Hz, and the pulse repetition rate can be extend to 1 kHz with a pulse width of 18 μs.

  10. An 8-year old boy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep presenting with positive onconeuronal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin-Yan; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Feng, Chen; Wang, Jian-Wen; Yang, Guan; Lammers, Stephen H T; Yang, Xiao Fan; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-03-01

    To determine the etiology of epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS)/electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) in an 8-year old boy with a history of neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus. A combination of clinical characterization and follow-up, video EEG and laboratory investigations. We report the case of an 8-year old boy with a history of neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus, who presented with intellectual disability, pharmacotherapy-resistant epilepsy and CSWS/ESES. Although the patient's neuroblastoma had been successfully treated 8 years prior to presentation and an extensive workup did not show a tumor reoccurrence, testing for onconeuronal antibodies was positive for anti-Ma2 and anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibodies. High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone and a taper of oral methylprednisolone were given, leading to a significant clinical improvement. During the taper the patient's condition and EEG manifestations deteriorated again necessitating another cycle of steroid therapy, which lead to a stable improvement. During a 6-month follow-up no CSWS/ESES was seen on EEG and anti-Ma2 and anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibodies remained undetectable. This case suggests that onconeuronal antibodies may be involved in the pathogenesis of CSWS/ESES. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are genetic and environmental influences on job satisfaction stable over time? A three-wave longitudinal twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Dong; Stanek, Kevin C; Zhang, Zhen; Ones, Deniz S; McGue, Matt

    2016-11-01

    Job satisfaction research has unfolded as an exemplary manifestation of the "person versus environment" debate in applied psychology. With the increasing recognition of the importance of time, it is informative to examine a question critical to the dispositional view of job satisfaction: Are genetic influences on job satisfaction stable across different time points? Drawing upon dispositional and situational perspectives on job satisfaction and recent research in developmental behavioral genetics, we examined whether the relative potency of genetic (i.e., the person) and environmental influences on job satisfaction changed over time in a 3-wave longitudinal twin study. Biometric behavioral genetics analyses showed that genetic influences accounted for 31.2% of the variance in job satisfaction measured at approximately Age 21, which was markedly greater than the 18.7% and 19.8% of variance explained by genetic factors at Age 25 and Age 30. Such genetic influences were mediated via positive affectivity and negative affectivity, but not via general mental ability. After partialing out genetic influences, environmental influences on job satisfaction were related to interpersonal conflict at work and occupational status, and these influences were relatively stable across the 3 time points. These results offer important implications for organizations and employees to better understand and implement practices to enhance job satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Mean flow generated by an internal wave packet impinging on the interface between two layers of fluid with continuous density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, John P. [The University of New Hampshire, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kingsbury Hall, Durham, NH (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Internal waves propagating in an idealized two-layer atmosphere are studied numerically. The governing equations are the inviscid anelastic equations for a perfect gas atmosphere. The numerical formulation eliminates all variables in the linear terms except vertical velocity, which are then treated implicitly. Nonlinear terms are treated explicitly. The basic state is a two-layer flow with continuous density at the interface. Each layer has a unique constant for the Brunt-Vaeisaelae frequency. Waves are forced at the bottom of the domain, are periodic in the horizontal direction, and form a finite wave packet in the vertical. The results show that the wave packet forms a mean flow that is confined to the interface region that persists long after the wave packet has moved away. Large-amplitude waves are forced to break beneath the interface. (orig.)

  13. Can continuous scans in orthogonal planes improve diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography for breast lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Peng, Yulan; Zhao, Haina; Luo, Honghao; Jin, Ya; He, Yushuang

    2015-01-01

    Static shear wave elastography (SWE) is used to detect breast lesions, but slice and plane selections result in discrepancies. To evaluate the intraobserver reproducibility of continuous SWE, and whether quantitative elasticities in orthogonal planes perform better in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. One hundred and twenty-two breast lesions scheduled for ultrasound-guided biopsy were recruited. Continuous SWE scans were conducted in orthogonal planes separately. Quantitative elasticities and histopathology results were collected. Reproducibility in the same plane and diagnostic performance in different planes were evaluated. The maximum and mean elasticities of the hardest portion, and standard deviation of whole lesion, had high inter-class correlation coefficients (0.87 to 0.95) and large areas under receiver operation characteristic curve (0.887 to 0.899). Without loss of accuracy, sensitivities had increased in orthogonal planes compared with single plane (from 73.17% up to 82.93% at most). Mean elasticity of whole lesion and lesion-to-parenchyma ratio were significantly less reproducible and less accurate. Continuous SWE is highly reproducible for the same observer. The maximum and mean elasticities of the hardest portion and standard deviation of whole lesion are most reliable. Furthermore, the sensitivities of the three parameters are improved in orthogonal planes without loss of accuracies.

  14. A continuous high-throughput bioparticle sorter based on 3D traveling-wave dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-Fang; Froude, Victoria E; Zhu, Yingxi; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Chang, Hsien-Chang

    2009-11-21

    We present a high throughput (maximum flow rate approximately 10 microl/min or linear velocity approximately 3 mm/s) continuous bio-particle sorter based on 3D traveling-wave dielectrophoresis (twDEP) at an optimum AC frequency of 500 kHz. The high throughput sorting is achieved with a sustained twDEP particle force normal to the continuous through-flow, which is applied over the entire chip by a single 3D electrode array. The design allows continuous fractionation of micron-sized particles into different downstream sub-channels based on differences in their twDEP mobility on both sides of the cross-over. Conventional DEP is integrated upstream to focus the particles into a single levitated queue to allow twDEP sorting by mobility difference and to minimize sedimentation and field-induced lysis. The 3D electrode array design minimizes the offsetting effect of nDEP (negative DEP with particle force towards regions with weak fields) on twDEP such that both forces increase monotonically with voltage to further increase the throughput. Effective focusing and separation of red blood cells from debris-filled heterogeneous samples are demonstrated, as well as size-based separation of poly-dispersed liposome suspensions into two distinct bands at 2.3 to 4.6 microm and 1.5 to 2.7 microm, at the highest throughput recorded in hand-held chips of 6 microl/min.

  15. Acute effects of interval versus continuous endurance training on pulse wave reflection in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Henner; Nussbaumer, Monique; Moor, Christoph; Cordes, Mareike; Schindler, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the acute and 24-hour (h) effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (MCT) on arterial pulse wave reflection, an established marker of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk. In a randomized cross-over design, 21 young healthy male participants performed a HIIT or a MCT on separate visits. Before and 5 (t5), 20 (t20), 35 (t35), and 50 (t50) minutes after the acute exercise bouts, the crude augmentation index (AIx) and the AIx at a set heart rate (AIx@75) were analysed by applanation tonometry. Starting 1 h post-exercise, both indices were captured over 24-h with an oscillometric monitoring device. AIx did not change significantly after MCT but declined progressively after HIIT, reaching significantly lower values compared to MCT at t35 (P = 0.045) and t50 (P = 0.008). AIx@75 increased after both acute exercise types but was higher after HIIT at t5 (P HIIT (P = 0.007) but not after MCT (P = 0.813). Exercise intensity affects pulse wave reflection, with different time courses for AIx and AIx@75 post-exercise. Although initially higher after HIIT, AIx@75 declines in the 24-h recovery period indicating more favourable effects on pulse wave reflection compared to MCT. This may result in substantial positive chronic training effects on arterial stiffness in health and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuous micro-vortex-based nanoparticle manipulation via focused surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye

    2016-12-20

    Despite increasing demand in the manipulation of nanoscale objects for next generation biological and industrial processes, there is a lack of methods for reliable separation, concentration and purification of nanoscale objects. Acoustic methods have proven their utility in contactless manipulation of microscale objects mainly relying on the acoustic radiation effect, though the influence of acoustic streaming has typically prevented manipulation at smaller length scales. In this work, however, we explicitly take advantage of the strong acoustic streaming in the vicinity of a highly focused, high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) beam emanating from a series of focused 6 μm substrate wavelength interdigital transducers patterned on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate and actuated with a 633 MHz sinusoidal signal. This streaming field serves to focus fluid streamlines such that incoming particles interact with the acoustic field similarly regardless of their initial starting positions, and results in particle displacements that would not be possible with a travelling acoustic wave force alone. This streaming-induced manipulation of nanoscale particles is maximized with the formation of micro-vortices that extend the width of the microfluidic channel even with the imposition of a lateral flow, occurring when the streaming-induced flow velocities are an order of magnitude larger than the lateral one. We make use of this acoustic streaming to demonstrate the continuous and differential focusing of 100 nm, 300 nm and 500 nm particles.

  17. Optimised frequency modulation for continuous-wave optical magnetic resonance sensing using nitrogen-vacancy ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ella, Haitham A R; Ahmadi, Sepehr; Wojciechowski, Adam M; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2017-06-26

    Magnetometers based on ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centres are a promising platform for continuously sensing static and low-frequency magnetic fields. Their combination with phase-sensitive (lock-in) detection creates a highly versatile sensor with a sensitivity that is proportional to the derivative of the optical magnetic resonance lock-in spectrum, which is in turn dependant on the lock-in modulation parameters. Here we study the dependence of the lock-in spectral slope on the modulation of the spin-driving microwave field. Given the presence of the intrinsic nitrogen hyperfine spin transitions, we experimentally show that when the ratio between the hyperfine linewidth and their separation is ≳ 1/4, square-wave based frequency modulation generates the steepest slope at modulation depths exceeding the separation of the hyperfine lines, compared to sine-wave based modulation. We formulate a model for calculating lock-in spectra which shows excellent agreement with our experiments, and which shows that an optimum slope is achieved when the linewidth/separation ratio is ≲ 1/4 and the modulation depth is less then the resonance linewidth, irrespective of the modulation function used.

  18. Fiber fuse behavior in kW-level continuous-wave double-clad field laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jun-Yi; Xiao Qi-Rong; Li Dan; Wang Xue-Jiao; Zhang Hai-Tao; Gong Ma-Li; Yan Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, original experimental data for fiber fuse in kW-level continuous-wave (CW) high power double-clad fiber (DCF) laser are reported. The propagating velocity of the fuse is 9.68 m/s in a 3.1-kW Yb-doped DCF laser. Three other cases in Yb-doped DCF are also observed. We think that the ignition of fiber fuse is caused by thermal mechanism, and the formation of bullet-shaped tracks is attributed to the optical discharge and temperature gradient. The inducements of initial fuse and formation of bullet-shaped voids are analyzed. This investigation of fiber fuse helps better understand the fiber fuse behavior, in order to avoid the catastrophic destruction caused by fiber fuse in high power fiber laser. (paper)

  19. Time-synchronized continuous wave laser-induced fluorescence on an oscillatory xenon discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, N A; Cappelli, M A; Hargus, W A

    2012-11-01

    A novel approach to time-synchronizing laser-induced fluorescence measurements to an oscillating current in a 60 Hz xenon discharge lamp using a continuous wave laser is presented. A sample-hold circuit is implemented to separate out signals at different phases along a current cycle, and is followed by a lock-in amplifier to pull out the resulting time-synchronized fluorescence trace from the large background signal. The time evolution of lower state population is derived from the changes in intensity of the fluorescence excitation line shape resulting from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 6s(')[1/2](1)(0)-6p(')[3/2](2) xenon atomic transition at λ = 834.68 nm. Results show that the lower state population oscillates at twice the frequency of the discharge current, 120 Hz.

  20. Time-synchronized continuous wave laser-induced fluorescence on an oscillatory xenon discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, N. A.; Cappelli, M. A. [Stanford Plasma Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hargus, W. A. Jr. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    A novel approach to time-synchronizing laser-induced fluorescence measurements to an oscillating current in a 60 Hz xenon discharge lamp using a continuous wave laser is presented. A sample-hold circuit is implemented to separate out signals at different phases along a current cycle, and is followed by a lock-in amplifier to pull out the resulting time-synchronized fluorescence trace from the large background signal. The time evolution of lower state population is derived from the changes in intensity of the fluorescence excitation line shape resulting from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 6s{sup Prime }[1/2]{sub 1}{sup 0}-6p{sup Prime }[3/2]{sub 2} xenon atomic transition at {lambda}= 834.68 nm. Results show that the lower state population oscillates at twice the frequency of the discharge current, 120 Hz.

  1. Electronic defect levels in continuous wave laser annealed silicon metal oxide semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M.; Garcia, B. J.; Martinez, J.; Garrido, J.; Piqueras, J.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of laser treatment on the bulk and interface states of the Si-SiO2 structure has been investigated. The annealing was performed prior to the gate metallization using a continuous wave Ar+ laser. For low laser powers the interface state density seems to decrease slightly in comparison with untreated samples. However, for the highest irradiating laser powers a new bulk level at 0.41 eV above the valence band with concentrations up to 1015 cm-3 arises probably due to the electrical activation of the oxygen diluted in the Czochralski silicon. Later postmetallization annealings reduce the interface state density to values in the 1010 cm-2 eV-1 range but leave the concentration of the 0.41-eV center nearly unchanged.

  2. Continuous wave protocol for simultaneous polarization and optical detection of P1-center electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, E. J.; Carvajal, B.; Samarth, N.

    2018-01-01

    The ready optical detection and manipulation of bright nitrogen vacancy center spins in diamond plays a key role in contemporary quantum information science and quantum metrology. Other optically dark defects such as substitutional nitrogen atoms (`P1 centers') could also become potentially useful in this context if they could be as easily optically detected and manipulated. We develop a relatively straightforward continuous wave protocol that takes advantage of the dipolar coupling between nitrogen vacancy and P1 centers in type 1b diamond to detect and polarize the dark P1 spins. By combining mutual spin flip transitions with radio frequency driving, we demonstrate the simultaneous optical polarization and detection of the electron spin resonance of the P1 center. This technique should be applicable to detecting and manipulating a broad range of dark spin populations that couple to the nitrogen vacancy center via dipolar fields, allowing for quantum metrology using these spin populations.

  3. Chronic exposure of a honey bee colony to 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, B. B.; Gary, N. E.

    1981-01-01

    A honey bee colony (Apis mellifera L.) was exposed 28 days to 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at a power density (1 mW/sq cm) expected to be associated with rectennae in the solar power satellite power transmission system. Differences found between the control and microwave-treated colonies were not large, and were in the range of normal variation among similar colonies. Thus, there is an indication that microwave treatment had little, if any, effect on (1) flight and pollen foraging activity, (2) maintenance of internal colony temperature, (3) brood rearing activity, (4) food collection and storage, (5) colony weight, and (6) adult populations. Additional experiments are necessary before firm conclusions can be made.

  4. Comparison of continuous wave, spin echo, and rapid scan EPR of irradiated fused quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Deborah G.; Quine, Richard W.; Tseitlin, Mark; Meyer, Virginia; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    The E' defect in irradiated fused quartz has spin lattice relaxation times (T 1 ) about 100-300 μs and spin-spin relaxation times (T 2 ) up to about 200 μs, depending on the concentration of defects and other species in the sample. These long relaxation times make it difficult to record an unsaturated continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal that is free of passage effects. Signals measured at X-band (∼9.5 GHz) by three EPR methods: conventional slow-scan field-modulated EPR, rapid scan EPR, and pulsed EPR, were compared. To acquire spectra with comparable signal-to-noise, both pulsed and rapid scan EPR require less time than conventional CW EPR. Rapid scan spectroscopy does not require the high power amplifiers that are needed for pulsed EPR. The pulsed spectra, and rapid scan spectra obtained by deconvolution of the experimental data, are free of passage effects.

  5. Continuous-wave ceramic Nd:YAG laser at 1123 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S S; Wang, Q P; Zhang, X Y; Cong, Z H; Fan, S Z; Liu, Z J; Sun, W J

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic Nd:YAG (cNd:YAG) materials are employed to generate 1123-nm laser. A fiber-coupled continuous-wave (CW) 808-nm diode laser is used as the pumping source. With an incident diode power of 26.1 W, a CW output power of up to 10.8 W is obtained with a 10-mm-long ceramic Nd:YAG rod (1.0 at.%-Nd-doped). The conversion efficiency from diode power to 1123-nm laser power is 41.4%. The laser performance of another 10-mm-long cNd:YAG rod with a Nd-doping concentration of 0.6 at.% is studied as a comparison

  6. Generation of bright quadricolor continuous-variable entanglement by four-wave-mixing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y. B.; Sheng, J. T.; Xiao, M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to produce bright quadricolor continuous-variable (CV) entanglement by a four-wave mixing process (FWM) with four-level atoms inside the optical ring cavities operating above threshold. The Stokes and anti-Stokes beams are generated via the pump beam (tuned close to one atomic transition) and the coupling beam (tuned to the resonance of another atomic transition), respectively. The quadruply resonant and narrowed linewidth of the cavity fields with different frequencies are achieved and quadricolor CV entanglement among the four cavity fields is demonstrated according to the criterion proposed by van Loock and Furusawa [Phys. Rev. A 67, 052315 (2003)]. This scheme provides a way to generate bright quadricolor CV entanglement and will be significant for applications in quantum information processing and quantum networks.

  7. Stimulated Brillouin scattering continuous wave phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Steven M; Spring, Justin B; Russell, Timothy H

    2008-07-21

    Continuous wave (CW) stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation in step-index optical fibers was studied experimentally and modeled as a function of fiber length. A phase conjugate fidelity over 80% was measured from SBS in a 40 m fiber using a pinhole technique. Fidelity decreases with fiber length, and a fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.06 was found to generate good phase conjugation fidelity over longer lengths than a fiber with 0.13 NA. Modeling and experiment support previous work showing the maximum interaction length which yields a high fidelity phase conjugate beam is inversely proportional to the fiber NA(2), but find that fidelity remains high over much longer fiber lengths than previous models calculated. Conditions for SBS beam cleanup in step-index fibers are discussed.

  8. Interband cascade lasers with >40% continuous-wave wallplug efficiency at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedy, C. L.; Kim, C. S.; Merritt, C. D.; Bewley, W. W.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Kim, M.

    2015-01-01

    Broad-area 10-stage interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting at λ = 3.0–3.2 μm are shown to maintain continuous-wave (cw) wallplug efficiencies exceeding 40% at temperatures up to 125 K, despite having a design optimized for operation at ambient and above. The cw threshold current density at 80 K is only 11 A/cm 2 for a 2 mm cavity with anti-reflection/high-reflection coatings on the two facets. The external differential quantum efficiency for a 1-mm-long cavity with the same coatings is 70% per stage at 80 K, and still above 65% at 150 K. The results demonstrate that at cryogenic temperatures, where free carrier absorption losses are minimized, ICLs can convert electrical to optical energy nearly as efficiently as the best specially designed intersubband-based quantum cascade lasers

  9. Challenges in noise removal from Doppler spectra acquired by a continuous-wave lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelou, Nikolas; Foroughi Abari, Farzad; Mann, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    are presented. A method for determining the background noise spectrum without interrupting the transmission of the laser beam is described. Moreover, the dependency between the determination of the threshold of a Doppler spectrum with low signal-to-noise ratios and the characteristics of the wind flow......This paper is focused on the required post processing of Doppler spectra, acquired from a continuous-wave coherent lidar at high sampling rates (400 Hz) and under rapid scanning of the laser beam. In particular, the necessary steps followed for extracting the wind speed from such Doppler spectra...... are investigated and a systematic approach for removing the noise is outlined. The suggested post processing procedures are applied to two sample time series acquired by a short-range WindScanner during one second each....

  10. Thermal damage produced by high-irradiance continuous wave CO2 laser cutting of tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacker, K T; Walsh, J T; Flotte, T J; Deutsch, T F

    1990-01-01

    Thermal damage produced by continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser ablation of tissue in vitro was measured for irradiances ranging from 360 W/cm2 to 740 kW/cm2 in order to investigate the extent to which ablative cooling can limit tissue damage. Damage zones thinner than 100 microns were readily produced using single pulses to cut guinea pig skin as well as bovine cornea, aorta, and myocardium. Multiple pulses can lead to increased damage. However, a systematic decrease in damage with irradiance, predicted theoretically by an evaporation model of ablation, was not observed. The damage-zone thickness was approximately constant around the periphery of the cut, consistent with the existence of a liquid layer which stores heat and leads to tissue damage, and with a model of damage and ablation recently proposed by Zweig et al.

  11. Precision improvement of frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Fumin

    2018-03-01

    The measurement precision of frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) laser distance measurement should be proportional to the scanning range of the tunable laser. However, the commercial external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is not an ideal tunable laser source in practical applications. Due to the unavoidable mode hopping and scanning nonlinearity of the ECDL, the measurement precision of FMCW laser distance measurements can be substantially affected. Therefore, an FMCW laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers is proposed in this paper. Moreover, to eliminate the effects of ECDL, the frequency-sampling method and mode hopping influence suppression method are employed. Compared with a fringe counting interferometer, this FMCW laser ranging system has a measuring error of ± 20 μm at the distance of 5.8 m.

  12. A simple equilibrium theoretical model and predictions for a continuous wave exciplex pumped alkali laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, David L; Verdeyen, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    The exciplex pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapour, Ar, with and without ethane, by pumping Cs-Ar atomic collision pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically excited CsAr molecules (exciplexes or excimers). The blue satellites of the alkali D 2 lines provide an advantageous pathway for optically pumping atomic alkali lasers on the principal series (resonance) transitions with broad linewidth (>2 nm) semiconductor diode lasers. The development of a simple theoretical analysis of continuous-wave XPAL systems is presented along with predictions as a function of temperature and pump intensity. The model predicts that an optical-to-optical efficiency in the range of 40-50% can be achieved for XPAL.

  13. High-efficiency frequency doubling of continuous-wave laser light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Stefan; Nia, Ramon Moghadas; Schönbeck, Axel; Lastzka, Nico; Steinlechner, Jessica; Eberle, Tobias; Mehmet, Moritz; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman

    2011-09-01

    We report on the observation of high-efficiency frequency doubling of 1550 nm continuous-wave laser light in a nonlinear cavity containing a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal (PPKTP). The fundamental field had a power of 1.10 W and was converted into 1.05 W at 775 nm, yielding a total external conversion efficiency of 95±1%. The latter value is based on the measured depletion of the fundamental field being consistent with the absolute values derived from numerical simulations. According to our model, the conversion efficiency achieved was limited by the nonperfect mode matching into the nonlinear cavity and by the nonperfect impedance matching for the maximum input power available. Our result shows that cavity-assisted frequency conversion based on PPKTP is well suited for low-decoherence frequency conversion of quantum states of light.

  14. Maximizing power output from continuous-wave single-frequency fiber amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Benjamin G

    2015-02-15

    This Letter reports on a method of maximizing the power output from highly saturated cladding-pumped continuous-wave single-frequency fiber amplifiers simultaneously, taking into account the stimulated Brillouin scattering and transverse modal instability thresholds. This results in a design figure of merit depending on the fundamental mode overlap with the doping profile, the peak Brillouin gain coefficient, and the peak mode coupling gain coefficient. This figure of merit is then numerically analyzed for three candidate fiber designs including standard, segmented acoustically tailored, and micro-segmented acoustically tailored photonic-crystal fibers. It is found that each of the latter two fibers should enable a 50% higher output power than standard photonic crystal fiber.

  15. Targeted search for continuous gravitational waves: Bayesian versus maximum-likelihood statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prix, Reinhard; Krishnan, Badri

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the Bayesian framework for detection of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) in the context of targeted searches, where the phase evolution of the GW signal is assumed to be known, while the four amplitude parameters are unknown. We show that the orthodox maximum-likelihood statistic (known as F-statistic) can be rediscovered as a Bayes factor with an unphysical prior in amplitude parameter space. We introduce an alternative detection statistic ('B-statistic') using the Bayes factor with a more natural amplitude prior, namely an isotropic probability distribution for the orientation of GW sources. Monte Carlo simulations of targeted searches show that the resulting Bayesian B-statistic is more powerful in the Neyman-Pearson sense (i.e., has a higher expected detection probability at equal false-alarm probability) than the frequentist F-statistic.

  16. Imitation-tumor targeting based on continuous-wave near-infrared tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qisong; Lu, Jingyang; Sun, Jinwei

    2017-12-01

    Continuous-wave Near-Infrared (NIR) optical spectroscopy has shown great diagnostic capability in the early tumor detection with advantages of low-cost, portable, non-invasive, and non-radiative. In this paper, Modified Lambert-Beer Theory is deployed to address the low-resolution issues of the NIR technique and to design the tumor detecting and imaging system. Considering that tumor tissues have features such as high blood flow and hypoxia, the proposed technique can detect the location, size, and other information of the tumor tissues by comparing the absorbance between pathological and normal tissues. Finally, the tumor tissues can be imaged through tomographic method. The simulation experiments prove that the proposed technique and designed system can efficiently detect the tumor tissues, achieving imaging precision within 1 mm. The work of the paper has shown great potential in the diagnosis of tumor close to body surface.

  17. Continuous-wave optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2017-09-11

    We report an optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter operating in continuous-wave (CW) with a power density threshold of ~89 kW/cm2. The device has an active region of CH3NH3PbBr3 embedded in a dielectric microcavity; this feat was achieved with a combination of optimal spectral alignment of the optical cavity modes with the perovskite optical gain, an adequate Q-factor of the microcavity, adequate thermal stability, and improved material quality with a smooth, passivated, and annealed thin active layer. Our results signify a way towards efficient CW perovskite emitter operation and electrical injection using low-cost fabrication methods for addressing monolithic optoelectronic integration and lasing in the green gap.

  18. Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 and 1,800 MHz Continuous Wave Radio Frequency Radiation (CW RFR) on the permeability of Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) of rats. Results have shown that 20 min RFR exposure of 900 and 1,800 MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of BBB of male rats. There was no change in female rats. The scientific evidence on RFR safety or harm remains inconclusive. More studies are needed to demonstrate the effects of RFR on the permeability of BBB and the mechanisms of that breakdown.

  19. Guided ultrasonic waves for determining effective orthotropic material parameters of continuous-fiber reinforced thermoplastic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webersen, Manuel; Johannesmann, Sarah; Düchting, Julia; Claes, Leander; Henning, Bernd

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic methods are widely established in the NDE/NDT community, where they are mostly used for the detection of flaws and structural damage in various components. A different goal, despite the similar technological approach, is non-destructive material characterization, i.e. the determination of parameters like Young's modulus. Only few works on this topic have considered materials with high damping and strong anisotropy, such as continuous-fiber reinforced plastics, but due to the increasing demand in the industry, appropriate methods are needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate the application of laser-induced ultrasonic Lamb waves for the characterization of fiber-reinforced plastic plates, providing effective parameters for a homogeneous, orthotropic material model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A stable downward continuation of airborne magnetic data: A case study for mineral prospectivity mapping in Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Gholami, Ali; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that a well-known multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique called Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE II) to explore porphyry copper deposits can prioritize the ground-based exploratory evidential layers effectively. In this paper, the PROMETHEE II method is applied to airborne geophysical (potassium radiometry and magnetometry) data, geological layers (fault and host rock zones), and various extracted alteration layers from remote sensing images. The central Iranian volcanic-sedimentary belt is chosen for this study. A stable downward continuation method as an inverse problem in the Fourier domain using Tikhonov and edge-preserving regularizations is proposed to enhance magnetic data. Numerical analysis of synthetic models show that the reconstructed magnetic data at the ground surface exhibits significant enhancement compared to the airborne data. The reduced-to-pole (RTP) and the analytic signal filters are applied to the magnetic data to show better maps of the magnetic anomalies. Four remote sensing evidential layers including argillic, phyllic, propylitic and hydroxyl alterations are extracted from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images in order to map the altered areas associated with porphyry copper deposits. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on six Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images is implemented to map iron oxide layer. The final mineral prospectivity map based on desired geo-data set indicates adequately matching of high potential zones with previous working mines and copper deposits.

  1. Spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors using continuous-wave supercontinuum sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Vishal; Prakash, Roopa; Nagarjun, K. P.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    A simple and powerful method using continuous wave supercontinuum lasers is demonstrated to perform spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors in the NIR Band. In contrast to existing techniques, this method allows for a simple system to achieve the goal, requiring just a standard continuous wave(CW) high-power fiber laser source and an RF spectrum analyzer. From our recent work, we summarize methods to easily convert any high-power fiber laser into a CW supercontinuum. These sources in the time domain exhibit interesting properties all the way down to the femtosecond time scale. This enables measurement of broadband frequency response of photodetectors while the wide optical spectrum of the supercontinuum can be spectrally filtered to obtain this information in a spectrally resolved fashion. The method involves looking at the RF spectrum of the output of a photodetector under test when incident with the supercontinuum. By using prior knowledge of the RF spectrum of the source, the frequency response can be calculated. We utilize two techniques for calibration of the source spectrum, one using a prior measurement and the other relying on a fitted model. Here, we characterize multiple photodetectors from 150MHz bandwidth to >20GHz bandwidth at multiple bands in the NIR region. We utilize a supercontinuum source spanning over 700nm bandwidth from 1300nm to 2000nm. For spectrally resolved measurement, we utilize multiple wavelength bands such as around 1400nm and 1600nm. Interesting behavior was observed in the frequency response of the photodetectors when comparing broadband spectral excitation versus narrower band excitation.

  2. A contactless approach for respiratory gating in PET using continuous-wave radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersepke, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Ersepke@rub.de; Büther, Florian; Heß, Mirco [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany); Schäfers, Klaus P. [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149, Germany and DFG EXC 1003, Cluster of Excellence ‘Cells in Motion,’ Münster 48149 (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce motion artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Clinically established methods for respiratory gating in PET require contact to the patient or a direct optical line between the sensor and the patient’s torso and time consuming preparation. In this work, a contactless method for capturing a respiratory signal during PET is presented based on continuous-wave radar. Methods: The proposed method relies on the principle of emitting an electromagnetic wave and detecting the phase shift of the reflected wave, modulated due to the respiratory movement of the patient’s torso. A 24 GHz carrier frequency was chosen allowing wave propagation through plastic and clothing with high reflections at the skin surface. A detector module and signal processing algorithms were developed to extract a quantitative respiratory signal. The sensor was validated using a high precision linear table. During volunteer measurements and [{sup 18}F] FDG PET scans, the radar sensor was positioned inside the scanner bore of a PET/computed tomography scanner. As reference, pressure belt (one volunteer), depth camera-based (two volunteers, two patients), and PET data-driven (six patients) signals were acquired simultaneously and the signal correlation was quantified. Results: The developed system demonstrated a high measurement accuracy for movement detection within the submillimeter range. With the proposed method, small displacements of 25 μm could be detected, not considerably influenced by clothing or blankets. From the patient studies, the extracted respiratory radar signals revealed high correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient) to those derived from the external pressure belt and depth camera signals (r = 0.69–0.99) and moderate correlation to those of the internal data-driven signals (r = 0.53–0.70). In some cases, a cardiac signal could be visualized, due to the representation of the mechanical heart motion on the skin

  3. A contactless approach for respiratory gating in PET using continuous-wave radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersepke, Thomas; Büther, Florian; Heß, Mirco; Schäfers, Klaus P

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce motion artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Clinically established methods for respiratory gating in PET require contact to the patient or a direct optical line between the sensor and the patient's torso and time consuming preparation. In this work, a contactless method for capturing a respiratory signal during PET is presented based on continuous-wave radar. The proposed method relies on the principle of emitting an electromagnetic wave and detecting the phase shift of the reflected wave, modulated due to the respiratory movement of the patient's torso. A 24 GHz carrier frequency was chosen allowing wave propagation through plastic and clothing with high reflections at the skin surface. A detector module and signal processing algorithms were developed to extract a quantitative respiratory signal. The sensor was validated using a high precision linear table. During volunteer measurements and [(18)F] FDG PET scans, the radar sensor was positioned inside the scanner bore of a PET/computed tomography scanner. As reference, pressure belt (one volunteer), depth camera-based (two volunteers, two patients), and PET data-driven (six patients) signals were acquired simultaneously and the signal correlation was quantified. The developed system demonstrated a high measurement accuracy for movement detection within the submillimeter range. With the proposed method, small displacements of 25 μm could be detected, not considerably influenced by clothing or blankets. From the patient studies, the extracted respiratory radar signals revealed high correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient) to those derived from the external pressure belt and depth camera signals (r = 0.69-0.99) and moderate correlation to those of the internal data-driven signals (r = 0.53-0.70). In some cases, a cardiac signal could be visualized, due to the representation of the mechanical heart motion on the skin. Accurate respiratory signals were

  4. Watt-Level Continuous-Wave Emission from a Bi-Functional Quantum Cascade Laser/Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-18

    cally authorized by the U.S. Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. Watt-level continuous- wave emission from a bi- functional ... wave bi- functional devices, opens the perspective of on-chip dual comb spectroscopy. Also for discrete sens- ing setups, one can switch to lasers...seas.harvard.edu Abstract Bi- functional active regions, capable of light generation and detection at the same wavelength, allow a straightforward realization of

  5. Resampling to accelerate cross-correlation searches for continuous gravitational waves from binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadors, Grant David; Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Whelan, John T.; Zhang, Yuanhao

    2018-02-01

    Continuous-wave (CW) gravitational waves (GWs) call for computationally-intensive methods. Low signal-to-noise ratio signals need templated searches with long coherent integration times and thus fine parameter-space resolution. Longer integration increases sensitivity. Low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) such as Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) may emit accretion-driven CWs at strains reachable by current ground-based observatories. Binary orbital parameters induce phase modulation. This paper describes how resampling corrects binary and detector motion, yielding source-frame time series used for cross-correlation. Compared to the previous, detector-frame, templated cross-correlation method, used for Sco X-1 on data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run (O1), resampling is about 20 × faster in the costliest, most-sensitive frequency bands. Speed-up factors depend on integration time and search setup. The speed could be reinvested into longer integration with a forecast sensitivity gain, 20 to 125 Hz median, of approximately 51%, or from 20 to 250 Hz, 11%, given the same per-band cost and setup. This paper's timing model enables future setup optimization. Resampling scales well with longer integration, and at 10 × unoptimized cost could reach respectively 2.83 × and 2.75 × median sensitivities, limited by spin-wandering. Then an O1 search could yield a marginalized-polarization upper limit reaching torque-balance at 100 Hz. Frequencies from 40 to 140 Hz might be probed in equal observing time with 2 × improved detectors.

  6. Performance of a continuously rotating half-wave plate on the POLARBEAR telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, Satoru [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 Japan (Japan); Aguilar, Mario [Departamento de Física, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Akiba, Yoshiki [SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Hayama, Miura District, Kanagawa, 240-0115 Japan (Japan); Arnold, Kam; Elleflot, Tucker; Galitzki, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA, 92093-0424 (United States); Baccigalupi, Carlo [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, Trieste, I-34136 Italy (Italy); Barron, Darcy; Beckman, Shawn; Chinone, Yuji; Cukierman, Ari; Goeckner-Wald, Neil [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Boettger, David [Centro de Astro-Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Borrill, Julian [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Chapman, Scott [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 Canada (Canada); Ducout, Anne [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8583 Japan (Japan); Errard, Josquin [Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris (ILP), 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris, 75014 France (France); Fabbian, Giulio [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS (UMR 8617), Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, bât. 121, Orsay, 91405 France (France); Fujino, Takuro, E-mail: takakura@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 240-8501 Japan (Japan); and others

    2017-05-01

    A continuously rotating half-wave plate (CRHWP) is a promising tool to improve the sensitivity to large angular scales in cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements. With a CRHWP, single detectors can measure three of the Stokes parameters, I , Q and U , thereby avoiding the set of systematic errors that can be introduced by mismatches in the properties of orthogonal detector pairs. We focus on the implementation of CRHWPs in large aperture telescopes (i.e. the primary mirror is larger than the current maximum half-wave plate diameter of ∼0.5 m), where the CRHWP can be placed between the primary mirror and focal plane. In this configuration, one needs to address the intensity to polarization ( I → P ) leakage of the optics, which becomes a source of 1/f noise and also causes differential gain systematics that arise from CMB temperature fluctuations. In this paper, we present the performance of a CRHWP installed in the (\\scshape Polarbear) experiment, which employs a Gregorian telescope with a 2.5 m primary illumination pattern. The CRHWP is placed near the prime focus between the primary and secondary mirrors. We find that the I → P leakage is larger than the expectation from the physical properties of our primary mirror, resulting in a 1/f knee of 100 mHz. The excess leakage could be due to imperfections in the detector system, i.e. detector non-linearity in the responsivity and time-constant. We demonstrate, however, that by subtracting the leakage correlated with the intensity signal, the 1/f noise knee frequency is reduced to 32 mHz (ℓ ∼ 39 for our scan strategy), which is very promising to probe the primordial B-mode signal. We also discuss methods for further noise subtraction in future projects where the precise temperature control of instrumental components and the leakage reduction will play a key role.

  7. 270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandusky, James R.; Chen, Jianfeng; Gibb, Shawn R.; Mendrick, Mark C.; Moe, Craig G.; Rodak, Lee; Garrett, Gregory A.; Wraback, Michael; Schowalter, Leo J.

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, the achievement of over 60 mW output power from pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in continuous wave operation is reported. Die thinning and encapsulation improved the photon extraction efficiency to over 15%. Improved thermal management and a high characteristic temperature resulted in a low thermal rolloff up to 300 mA injection current with an output power of 67 mW, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.9%, and a wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 2.5% for a single-chip device emitting at 271 nm in continuous wave operation.

  8. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Nehrir, A. R.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 MeasurementsJoel F. Campbell1, Bing Lin1, Michael D. Obland1, Zhaoyan Liu1, Susan Kooi2, Tai-Fang Fan2, Amin R. Nehrir1, Byron Meadows1, Edward V. Browell31NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 2SSAI, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 3STARSS-II Affiliate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 AbstractGlobal and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America project are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the ASCENDS and ACT-America science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new sub-meter hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. These techniques are used in a new data processing

  9. Immediate and long-term changes of fundus autofluorescence in continuous wave laser lesions of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framme, Carsten; Roider, Johann

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether fundus autofluorescence imaging is able to show changes in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluorescence after thermal laser photocoagulation. In vivo imaging of fundus autofluorescence was performed with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. A laser with a wavelength of 488 nm was used for excitation of the tissue and autofluorescence was detected above 500 nm using a barrier filter. One hundred eight eyes of 87 patients who had had previous laser treatment were monitored. The appearance and size of the laser lesions were documented and correlated to the time of treatment. Immediate changes were observed prospectively in 13 eyes; long-term follow-up was studied retrospectively in 95 eyes. In all patients but one, autofluorescence was decreased in the area of laser lesions 1 hour after laser treatment. After 1 month, previously decreased autofluorescence in all lesions changed to significantly increased autofluorescence, which was stable up to 6 months after treatment. Mixed forms were present approximately 6 to 12 months after treatment, showing a central island of increased autofluorescence surrounded by a ring of decreased autofluorescence. After 1 to 2 years, lesions again changed to complete dark spots, enlarging later on. RPE destruction and subsequent proliferation after continuous wave laser photocoagulation can be visualized noninvasively by autofluorescence imaging. Immediate decreased autofluorescence may indicate acute damage of the RPE, subsequent increased autofluorescence seems to indicate proliferative behavior of the RPE, and final dark spots can indicate RPE atrophy secondary to a denaturation of neurosensory retinal tissue. Thus, autofluorescence can be used in the long-term monitoring of RPE changes after laser treatment. The enlargement of the laser atrophy zone demonstrates the potential risk of visual loss after central laser photocoagulation even years after treatment.

  10. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  11. First density profile measurements using frequency modulation of the continuous wave reflectometry on JETa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, L.; Cupido, L.; Sirinelli, A.; Manso, M. E.; Jet-Efds Contributors

    2008-10-01

    We present the main design options and implementation of an X-mode reflectometer developed and successfully installed at JET using an innovative approach. It aims to prove the viability of measuring density profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution using broadband reflectometry operating in long and complex transmission lines. It probes the plasma with magnetic fields between 2.4 and 3.0 T using the V band [~(0-1.4)×1019 m-3]. The first experimental results show the high sensitivity of the diagnostic when measuring changes in the plasma density profile occurring ITER relevant regimes, such as ELMy H-modes. The successful demonstration of this concept motivated the upgrade of the JET frequency modulation of the continuous wave (FMCW) reflectometry diagnostic, to probe both the edge and core. This new system is essential to prove the viability of using the FMCW reflectometry technique to probe the plasma in next step devices, such as ITER, since they share the same waveguide complexity.

  12. Laser ablative nanostructuring of Au in liquid ambience in continuous wave illumination regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherik, A. O.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Ryabchikov, Y. V.; Al-Kattan, A.; Kabashin, A. V.; Itina, T. E.

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) attract particular attention because of their unique size-dependent chemical, physicochemical and optical properties and, hence, their potential applications in catalysis, nanoelectronics, photovoltaics and medicine. In particular, laser-produced colloidal nanoparticles are not only biocompatible, but also reveal unique chemical properties. Different laser systems can be used for synthesis of these colloids, varying from continuous wave (CW) to ultra-short femtosecond lasers. The choice of an optimum laser system is still a challenge in application development. To bring more light at this issue, we investigate an influence of laser parameters on nanoparticle formation from a gold target immersed in deionized water. First, an optical diagnostics of laser-induced hydrodynamic processes taking place near the gold surface is performed. Then, gold nanoparticle colloids with average particle sizes smaller than 10 nm and a very narrow dispersion are shown to be formed by CW laser ablation. The obtained results are compared with the ones obtained by using the second harmonics and with previous results obtained by using femtosecond laser systems.

  13. Photo-conductive detection of continuous THz waves via manipulated ultrafast process in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kiwon; Lee, Eui Su; Lee, Il-Min; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Kyung Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Time-domain and frequency-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy systems often use materials fabricated with exotic and expensive methods that intentionally introduce defects to meet short carrier lifetime requirements. In this study, we demonstrate the development of a nano-photomixer that meets response speed requirements without using defect-incorporated, low-temperature-grown (LTG) semiconductors. Instead, we utilized a thin InGaAs layer grown on a semi-insulating InP substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) combined with nano-electrodes to manipulate local ultrafast photo-carrier dynamics via a carefully designed field-enhancement and plasmon effect. The developed nano-structured photomixer can detect continuous-wave THz radiation up to a frequency of 2 THz with a peak carrier collection efficiency of 5%, which is approximately 10 times better than the reference efficiency of 0.4%. The better efficiency results from the high carrier mobility of the MOCVD-grown InGaAs thin layer with the coincidence of near-field and plasmon-field distributions in the nano-structure. Our result not only provides a generally applicable methodology for manipulating ultrafast carrier dynamics by means of nano-photonic techniques to break the trade-off relation between the carrier lifetime and mobility in typical LTG semiconductors but also contributes to mass-producible photo-conductive THz detectors to facilitate the widespread application of THz technology.

  14. Power scaling and experimentally fitted model for broad area quantum cascade lasers in continuous wave operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, Matthew; Go, Rowel; Figueiredo, Pedro; Todi, Ankesh; Shu, Hong; Leshin, Jason; Lyakh, Arkadiy

    2018-01-01

    Experimental and model results for 15-stage broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are presented. Continuous wave (CW) power scaling from 1.62 to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15-mm long, high reflection-coated QCLs for an active region width increased from 10 to 20 μm. A semiempirical model for broad area devices operating in CW mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sublinearity of pulsed power versus current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall-plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm×25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design, but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300 Å, pulsed rollover current density of 6 kA/cm2, and InGaAs waveguide layers, an optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to ˜4.5 W from 3.15 mm×31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  15. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  16. Surface detection performance evaluation of pseudo-random noise continuous wave laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Valentin; Matthey, Renaud; Pereira do Carmo, Joao

    2017-11-01

    A number of space missions (including in the ESA Exploration Programme) foreseen a use of laser radar sensor (or lidar) for determination of range between spacecrafts or between spacecraft and ground surface (altimetry). Such sensors need to be compact, robust and power efficient, at the same time with high detection performance. These requirements can be achieved with a Pseudo-Random Noise continuous wave lidar (PRN cw lidar). Previous studies have pointed to the advantages of this lidar with respect to space missions, but they also identified its limitations in high optical background. The progress of the lasers and the detectors in the near IR spectral range requires a re-evaluation of the PRN cw lidar potential. Here we address the performances of this lidar for surface detection (altimetry) in planetary missions. The evaluation is based on the following system configuration: (i) A cw fiber amplifier as lidar transmitter. The seeding laser exhibits a single-frequency spectral line, with subsequent amplitude modulation. The fiber amplifier allows high output power level, keeping the spectral characteristics and the modulation of the seeding light input. (ii) An avalanche photodiode in photon counting detection; (iii) Measurement scenarios representative for Earth, Mercury and Mars.

  17. Continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy based on the control of cavity reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixin; Ma, Weiguang; Fu, Xiaofang; Tan, Wei; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2013-07-29

    A new type of continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectrometer based on the control of cavity reflection for trace gas detection was designed and evaluated. The technique separated the acquisitions of the ringdown event and the trigger signal to optical switch by detecting the cavity reflection and transmission, respectively. A detailed description of the time sequence of the measurement process was presented. In order to avoid the wrong extraction of ringdown time encountered accidentally in fitting procedure, the laser frequency and cavity length were scanned synchronously. Based on the statistical analysis of measured ringdown times, the frequency normalized minimum detectable absorption in the reflection control mode was 1.7 × 10(-9)cm(-1)Hz(-1/2), which was 5.4 times smaller than that in the transmission control mode. However the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption spectrum was only 3 times improved since the etalon effect existed. Finally, the peak absorption coefficients of the C(2)H(2) transition near 1530.9nm under different pressures showed a good agreement with the theoretical values.

  18. Sub-wavelength patterning of organic monolayers via nonlinear processing with continuous-wave lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Mareike; Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); CeNIDE-Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); NETZ-NanoEnergieTechnikZentrum, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In recent years, nonlinear processing with continuous-wave lasers has been demonstrated to be a facile means of rapid nanopatterning of organic monolayers down to the sub-100 nm range. In this study, we report on laser patterning of thiol-based organic monolayers with sub-wavelength resolution. Au-coated silicon substrates are functionalized with 1-hexadecanethiol. Irradiation with a focused beam of an Ar{sup +} laser operating at {lambda}=514 nm allows one to locally remove the monolayer. Subsequently, the patterns are transferred into the Au film via selective etching in a ferri-/ferrocyanide solution. Despite a 1/e{sup 2} spot diameter of about 2.8 {mu}m, structures with lateral dimensions down to 250 nm are fabricated. The underlying nonlinear dependence of the patterning process on laser intensity is traced back to the interplay between the laser-induced transient local temperature rise and the thermally activated desorption of the thiol molecules. A simple thermokinetic analysis of the data allows us to determine the effective kinetic parameters. These results complement our previous work on photothermal laser patterning of ultrathin organic coatings, such as silane-based organic monolayers, organo/silicon interfaces and supported membranes. A general introduction to nonlinear laser processing of organic monolayers is presented.

  19. Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongyi; Liu, Hong; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiyan

    2017-11-01

    An admirable and efficient Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm is demonstrated with a compact 35 mm plano-plano cavity. A chosen narrow bandpass filter with high-transmittance (HT) coating at 1064 nm (T=96%) and optimized part-reflection (PR) coating at 1085 nm (T=15%) is used as the output coupler. In the continuous-wave (CW) regime, the maximum output power reaches 3110 mW at the pump power of 11.41 W. Based on a Cr:YAG crystal with initial-transmittance of 91%, the first passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm is achieved. When the pump power is changed from the threshold of 4.50 to 6.08 W, the dual-wavelength lines at 1064 and 1085 nm are generated simultaneously. However, at the pump power of above 6.08 W, the single-wavelength line at 1085 nm is achieved. The largest output power, the highest peak power, and the narrowest pulse width are 1615 mW, 878 W and 26.2 ns, respectively.

  20. Doppler limited rotational transitions of OH and SH radicals measured by continuous-wave terahertz photomixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliet, Sophie; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Guinet, Mickaël; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Bocquet, Robin; Cuisset, Arnaud

    2011-12-01

    A continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) source generated by photomixing has been employed to detect and quantify radicals produced in a cold plasma probing their spin-rotation transitions. Due to their dual interest for both atmospherists and astrophysicists, the hydroxyl OH and the mercapto SH radicals have been chosen. The photomixing technique which can access the largest range of THz frequencies of any known coherent source, allowed to resolve the Doppler-limited hyperfine transitions of OH in the 2.5 THz frequency region. Line profile analysis of the hyperfine components demonstrated that OH radicals have been detected in this region at a ppm level at a temperature close to 490 K. The hyperfine structure of SH has been resolved for the first time above 1 THz. Ten new frequency transitions have been measured in the 1.3-2.6 THz frequency range using the CW-THz synthesizer based on a frequency comb. With relative uncertainties better than 10 -7, the CW-THz frequencies measured in this study are now competitive with those measured by other instruments such as frequency multiplication chains or FT-FIR spectrometers and are now capable to improve the predictions of the complete high-resolution spectra of these radicals collected in the atmospheric and astrophysical spectroscopic databases. versioncorrigeeAC 2011-07-18 17:32 2011 Arnaud Cuisset.

  1. Continuous-wave terahertz by photomixing: applications to gas phase pollutant detection and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

    2008-03-01

    Recent advances in the development of monochromatic continuous-wave terahertz sources suitable for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy and pollution monitoring are reviewed. Details of a source using an ultra fast opto-electronic photomixing element are presented. The construction of a terahertz spectrometer using this source has allowed spectroscopic characterisation and application studies to be completed. Analysis of H 2S and OCS under laboratory conditions are used to demonstrate the spectrometer performance, and the determination of the transition line strengths and pressure self broadening coefficients for pure rotational transitions of OCS. The spectral purity 5 MHz, tunability 0.3 to 3 THz, and long wavelength ≈200 μm of this source have been exploited to identify and quantify numerous chemical species in cigarette smoke. The key advantages of this frequency domain are its high species selectivity and the possibility to make reliable measurements of gas phase samples heavily contaminated by aerosols and particles. To cite this article: F. Hindle et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  2. Application of continuous-wave terahertz computed tomography for the analysis of chicken bone structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Zhai, Changchao; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is able to penetrate many different types of nonpolar and nonmetallic materials without the damaging effects of x-rays. THz technology can be combined with computed tomography (CT) to form THz CT, which is an effective imaging method that is used to visualize the internal structure of a three-dimensional sample as cross-sectional images. Here, we reported an application of THz as the radiation source in CT imaging by replacing the x-rays. In this method, the sample cross section is scanned in all translation and rotation directions. Then, the projection data are reconstructed using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm. Two-dimensional (2-D) cross-sectional images of the chicken ulna were obtained through the continuous-wave (CW) THz CT system. Given by the difference of the THz absorption of different substances, the compact bone and spongy bone inside the chicken ulna are structurally distinguishable in the 2-D cross-sectional images. Using the filtered back projection algorithm, we reconstructed the projection data of the chicken ulna at different projection angle intervals and found that the artifacts and noise in the images are strikingly increased when the projection angle intervals become larger, reflected by the blurred boundary of the compact bone. The quality and fidelity of the 2-D cross-sectional images could be substantially improved by reducing the projection angle intervals. Our experimental data demonstrated a feasible application of the CW THz CT system in biological imaging.

  3. Pulse propagation dynamics in the presence of a continuous-wave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijević, Jelena; Arsenović, Dušan; Jelenković, Branislav M

    2013-01-01

    We present theoretical results for the propagation dynamics of an electromagnetic field pulse through rubidium vapor, while another field, a continuous-wave electromagnetic field, is present. The frequencies of both electromagnetic fields are resonant with the transition between the ground and excited state hyperfine levels of Rb, F g  → F e  = F g  ± 1. Detuning from resonance is done by the magnetic field oriented along the light propagation direction (Hanle configuration). When both the electromagnetic fields are simultaneously interacting with Rb atoms, either electromagnetically induced transparency or absorption is induced. Propagation dynamics was obtained solving the set of Maxwell–Bloch equations for the interacting atoms with two electromagnetic fields. Motivated by recent results (Brazhnikov et al 2011 Eur. Phys. J. D 63 315–25; Brazhnikov et al 2010 JETP Lett. 91 625–9; Kou et al 2011 Phys. Rev. A 84 063807), we have analyzed the influence of experimental parameters, laser polarization, and mutual phases between lasers, which can lead to optical switching, i.e. the transformation from electromagnetically induced absorption to transparency and vice versa. (paper)

  4. Room temperature continuous wave mid-infrared VCSEL operating at 3.35 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, V.; Segal, S.; Lascola, K.; Burgner, C.; Towner, F.; Cazabat, A.; Cole, G. D.; Follman, D.; Heu, P.; Deutsch, C.

    2018-02-01

    Tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) offer a potentially low cost tunable optical source in the 3-5 μm range that will enable commercial spectroscopic sensing of numerous environmentally and industrially important gases including methane, ethane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide. Thus far, achieving room temperature continuous wave (RTCW) VCSEL operation at wavelengths beyond 3 μm has remained an elusive goal. In this paper, we introduce a new device structure that has enabled RTCW VCSEL operation near the methane absorption lines at 3.35 μm. This device structure employs two GaAs/AlGaAs mirrors wafer-bonded to an optically pumped active region comprising compressively strained type-I InGaAsSb quantum wells grown on a GaSb substrate. This substrate is removed in processing, as is one of the GaAs mirror substrates. The VCSEL structure is optically pumped at room temperature with a CW 1550 nm laser through the GaAs substrate, while the emitted 3.3 μm light is captured out of the top of the device. Power and spectrum shape measured as a function of pump power exhibit clear threshold behavior and robust singlemode spectra.

  5. Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Todor, Sebastian; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Klein, Thomas; Jirauschek, Christian; Huber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafast lasers have a crucial function in many fields of science; however, up to now, high-energy pulses directly from compact, efficient and low-power semiconductor lasers are not available. Therefore, we introduce a new approach based on temporal compression of the continuous-wave, wavelength-swept output of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers, where a narrowband optical filter is tuned synchronously to the round-trip time of light in a kilometre-long laser cavity. So far, these rapidly swept lasers enabled orders-of-magnitude speed increase in optical coherence tomography. Here we report on the generation of ~60-70 ps pulses at 390 kHz repetition rate. As energy is stored optically in the long-fibre delay line and not as population inversion in the laser-gain medium, high-energy pulses can now be generated directly from a low-power, compact semiconductor-based oscillator. Our theory predicts subpicosecond pulses with this new technique in the future.

  6. Infrared skin damage thresholds from 1319-nm continuous-wave laser exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Vincelette, Rebecca; Noojin, Gary D.; Clark, Clifton D.; Harbert, Corey A.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Kumru, Semih S.; Maughan, Justin; Kitzis, Naomi; Buffington, Gavin D.; Stolarski, David J.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in vivo using Yucatan miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) to determine thermal damage thresholds to the skin from 1319-nm continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Experiments employed exposure durations of 0.25, 1.0, 2.5, and 10 s and beam diameters of ˜0.6 and 1 cm. Thermal imagery data provided a time-dependent surface temperature response from the laser. A damage endpoint of fifty percent probability of a minimally visible effect was used to determine threshold for damage at 1 and 24 h postexposure. Predicted thermal response and damage thresholds are compared with a numerical model of optical-thermal interaction. Resultant trends with respect to exposure duration and beam diameter are compared with current standardized exposure limits for laser safety. Mathematical modeling agreed well with experimental data, predicting that though laser safety standards are sufficient for exposures <10 s, they may become less safe for very long exposures.

  7. Nitinol laser cutting: microstructure and functional properties of femtosecond and continuous wave laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal processing can affect the properties of smart materials, and the correct selection of the best manufacturing technology is fundamental for producing high tech smart devices, containing embedded functional properties. In this work cutting of thin superelastic Nitinol plates using a femtosecond (fs) and continuous wave (CW) laser was studied. Diamond shaped elements were cut to characterize the kerf qualitative features; microstructural analysis of the cross sections allowed identification of thermal damage characteristics introduced into the material during the laser processes. A thermally undamaged microstructure was observed for fs laser cutting, while CW was seen to be characterized by a large heat-affected zone. Functional properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and tensile testing of laser cut microelements and of the reference material. It was seen that the martensitic transformation behavior of Nitinol is not affected by fs regime, while cw cutting provokes an effect equivalent to a high temperature thermal treatment in the material surrounding the cutting kerf, degradating the material properties. Finally, tensile testing indicated that superelastic performances were guaranteed by fs regime, while strong reduction of the recoverable strain was detected in the CW processed sample.

  8. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadhira, Vebi, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Kurniadi, Deddy, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Juliastuti, E., E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Sutiswan, Adeline, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id [Instrumentation and Control Research Group, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10 40132 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  9. Modification of electrical properties of zinc oxide by continuous wave ytterbium fiber laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, H; Takahashi, M; Tani, J; Abe, N; Tsukamoto, M

    2011-01-01

    The polycrystalline plate-like ZnO samples were irradiated by a continuous wave Yb fiber laser and electrical properties of modified layer were investigated. The laser beam of spot size of 16 μm in diameter was scanned on the surface at a velocity of 5mm/s. There was a threshold for the laser modification. The laser etched grooves were formed above laser power of 20 W. The laser etched depth increased in relation to the laser power, 0.46 mm at 20 W and 5.0 mm at 126 W. The surface layers of laser etched grooves were modified in color and electrical property. The color changed from light yellow to black, and the electrical resistivity drastically decreased from initial value of 1.1x10 5 Ωcm to 3.2x10 -1 Ωcm at 56 W, 2.8x10 -1 Ωcm at 91 W, and 2.0x10 -1 Ωcm at 126 W. The Hall measurement showed that the modified surface layer was an n-type semiconductor and carrier concentration of the layer was 1.5x10 17 cm -3 at 56 W, 7.2x10 17 cm -3 at 91 W, and 1.9x10 18 cm -3 at 126 W.

  10. Modification of electrical properties of zinc oxide by continuous wave ytterbium fiber laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, H; Takahashi, M; Tani, J [Electronic Materials Research Division, Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute, 1-6-50 Morinomiya, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-8553 (Japan); Abe, N; Tsukamoto, M, E-mail: kido@omtri.or.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    The polycrystalline plate-like ZnO samples were irradiated by a continuous wave Yb fiber laser and electrical properties of modified layer were investigated. The laser beam of spot size of 16 {mu}m in diameter was scanned on the surface at a velocity of 5mm/s. There was a threshold for the laser modification. The laser etched grooves were formed above laser power of 20 W. The laser etched depth increased in relation to the laser power, 0.46 mm at 20 W and 5.0 mm at 126 W. The surface layers of laser etched grooves were modified in color and electrical property. The color changed from light yellow to black, and the electrical resistivity drastically decreased from initial value of 1.1x10{sup 5} {Omega}cm to 3.2x10{sup -1} {Omega}cm at 56 W, 2.8x10{sup -1} {Omega}cm at 91 W, and 2.0x10{sup -1} {Omega}cm at 126 W. The Hall measurement showed that the modified surface layer was an n-type semiconductor and carrier concentration of the layer was 1.5x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} at 56 W, 7.2x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} at 91 W, and 1.9x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} at 126 W.

  11. Line-robust statistics for continuous gravitational waves: safety in the case of unequal detector sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keitel, David; Prix, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The multi-detector F-statistic is close to optimal for detecting continuous gravitational waves (CWs) in Gaussian noise. However, it is susceptible to false alarms from instrumental artefacts, for example quasi-monochromatic disturbances (‘lines’), which resemble a CW signal more than Gaussian noise. In a recent paper (Keitel et al 2014 Phys. Rev. D 89 064023), a Bayesian model selection approach was used to derive line-robust detection statistics for CW signals, generalizing both the F-statistic and the F-statistic consistency veto technique and yielding improved performance in line-affected data. Here we investigate a generalization of the assumptions made in that paper: if a CW analysis uses data from two or more detectors with very different sensitivities, the line-robust statistics could be less effective. We investigate the boundaries within which they are still safe to use, in comparison with the F-statistic. Tests using synthetic draws show that the optimally-tuned version of the original line-robust statistic remains safe in most cases of practical interest. We also explore a simple idea on further improving the detection power and safety of these statistics, which we, however, find to be of limited practical use. (paper)

  12. Continuous-wave single-frequency laser with dual wavelength at 1064 and 532 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenwei; Lu, Huadong; Yin, Qiwei; Su, Jing

    2014-10-01

    A continuous-wave high-power single-frequency laser with dual-wavelength output at 1064 and 532 nm is presented. The dependencies of the output power on the transmission of the output coupler and the phase-matching temperature of the LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal are studied. An output coupler with transmission of 19% is used, and the temperature of LBO is controlled to the optimal phase-matching temperature of 422 K; measured maximal output powers of 33.7 W at 1064 nm and of 1.13 W at 532 nm are obtained with optical-optical conversion efficiency of 45.6%. The laser can be single-frequency operated stably and mode-hop-free, and the measured frequency drift is less than 15 MHz in 1 min. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 1064 nm laser are 1.06 and 1.09, respectively. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 532 nm laser are 1.12 and 1.11, respectively.

  13. The Monitoring Case of Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar with Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Y.; Zhai, Q. P.; Chen, L.; Liu, Y. J.; Zhou, K. Q.; Wang, Y. S.; Dou, Y. D.

    2017-09-01

    The features of the landslide geological disaster are wide distribution, variety, high frequency, high intensity, destructive and so on. It has become a natural disaster with harmful and wide range of influence. The technology of ground-based synthetic aperture radar is a novel deformation monitoring technology developed in recent years. The features of the technology are large monitoring area, high accuracy, long distance without contact and so on. In this paper, fast ground-based synthetic aperture radar (Fast-GBSAR) based on frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system is used to collect the data of Ma Liuzui landslide in Chongqing. The device can reduce the atmospheric errors caused by rapidly changing environment. The landslide deformation can be monitored in severe weather conditions (for example, fog) by Fast-GBSAR with acquisition speed up to 5 seconds per time. The data of Ma Liuzui landslide in Chongqing are analyzed in this paper. The result verifies that the device can monitor landslide deformation under severe weather conditions.

  14. Threshold response using modulated continuous wave illumination for multilayer 3D optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, A.; Christenson, C. W.; Khattab, T. A.; Wang, R.; Twieg, R. J.; Singer, K. D.

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve a high capacity 3D optical data storage medium, a nonlinear or threshold writing process is necessary to localize data in the axial dimension. To this end, commercial multilayer discs use thermal ablation of metal films or phase change materials to realize such a threshold process. This paper addresses a threshold writing mechanism relevant to recently reported fluorescence-based data storage in dye-doped co-extruded multilayer films. To gain understanding of the essential physics, single layer spun coat films were used so that the data is easily accessible by analytical techniques. Data were written by attenuating the fluorescence using nanosecond-range exposure times from a 488 nm continuous wave laser overlapping with the single photon absorption spectrum. The threshold writing process was studied over a range of exposure times and intensities, and with different fluorescent dyes. It was found that all of the dyes have a common temperature threshold where fluorescence begins to attenuate, and the physical nature of the thermal process was investigated.

  15. Continuous-wave radar to detect defects within heat exchangers and steam generator tubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassersharif, Bahram (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Caffey, Thurlow Washburn Howell; Jedlicka, Russell P. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Garcia, Gabe V. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2003-01-01

    A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The experimental program resulted in a completed product development schedule and the design of an experimental apparatus for studying handling of the probe and data acquisition. These tests were completed as far as the prototypical probe performance allowed. The prototype probe design did not have sufficient sensitivity to detect a defect signal using the defined radar technique and did not allow successful completion of all of the project milestones. The best results from the prototype probe could not detect a tube defect using the radar principle. Though a more precision probe may be possible, the cost of design and construction was beyond the scope of the project. This report describes the probe development and the status of the design at the termination of the project.

  16. Increase of Carrier-to-Noise Ratio in GPS Receivers Caused by Continuous-Wave Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of personal private devices (PPDs is drawing greater attention to the effects of continuous-wave interference (CWI on the performance of global positioning system (GPS receivers. The effective carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0, an essential index of GNSS receiver performance, is studied in this paper. Receiver tracking performance deteriorates in the presence of interference. Hence, the effective C/N0, which measures tracking performance, decreases. However, simulations and bench tests have shown that the effective C/N0 may increase in the presence of CWI. The reason is that a sinusoidal signal is induced by the CWI in the correlator and may be tracked by the carrier tracking loop. Thus, the effective carrier power depends on the power of the signal induced by the CWI, and the effective C/N0 increases with the power of the CWI. The filtering of the CWI in the carrier tracking loop correlator and its effect on the phase locked loop (PLL tracking performance are analyzed. A mathematical model of the effect of the CWI on the effective C/N0 is derived. Simulation results show that the proposed model is more accurate than existing models, especially when the jam-to-signal ratio (JSR is greater than 30 dBc.

  17. Microcontroller based resonance tracking unit for time resolved continuous wave cavity-ringdown spectroscopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votava, Ondrej; Mašát, Milan; Parker, Alexander E; Jain, Chaithania; Fittschen, Christa

    2012-04-01

    We present in this work a new tracking servoloop electronics for continuous wave cavity-ringdown absorption spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) and its application to time resolved cw-CRDS measurements by coupling the system with a pulsed laser photolysis set-up. The tracking unit significantly increases the repetition rate of the CRDS events and thus improves effective time resolution (and/or the signal-to-noise ratio) in kinetics studies with cw-CRDS in given data acquisition time. The tracking servoloop uses novel strategy to track the cavity resonances that result in a fast relocking (few ms) after the loss of tracking due to an external disturbance. The microcontroller based design is highly flexible and thus advanced tracking strategies are easy to implement by the firmware modification without the need to modify the hardware. We believe that the performance of many existing cw-CRDS experiments, not only time-resolved, can be improved with such tracking unit without any additional modification to the experiment. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  18. Parameter-space metric of semicoherent searches for continuous gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletsch, Holger J.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous gravitational-wave (CW) signals such as emitted by spinning neutron stars are an important target class for current detectors. However, the enormous computational demand prohibits fully coherent broadband all-sky searches for prior unknown CW sources over wide ranges of parameter space and for yearlong observation times. More efficient hierarchical ''semicoherent'' search strategies divide the data into segments much shorter than one year, which are analyzed coherently; then detection statistics from different segments are combined incoherently. To optimally perform the incoherent combination, understanding of the underlying parameter-space structure is requisite. This problem is addressed here by using new coordinates on the parameter space, which yield the first analytical parameter-space metric for the incoherent combination step. This semicoherent metric applies to broadband all-sky surveys (also embedding directed searches at fixed sky position) for isolated CW sources. Furthermore, the additional metric resolution attained through the combination of segments is studied. From the search parameters (sky position, frequency, and frequency derivatives), solely the metric resolution in the frequency derivatives is found to significantly increase with the number of segments.

  19. Preliminary tests on a new near-infrared continuous-wave tissue oximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavola, Claudia; Cicco, Giuseppe; Pirrelli, Anna; Lugara, Pietro M.

    2000-11-01

    We present a preliminary study, in vitro and in vivo, with a novel device for near-infrared tissue oximetry. The light sources used are two quasi-continuous-wave LEDs, emitting at 656 and 851 nm, and the detector is a photodiode. The data are acquired in back-scattering configuration, thus allowing the non-invasive characterization of thick tissues. Stability tests were performed by placing the optical probe on a tissue- like phantom and acquiring data for periods of time ranging from 5 to 40 minutes. No significant drifts in the DC signal were observed after a warm-up period of no more than 10 minutes. We performed reproducibility tests by repositioning the optical probe on the phantom for a number of times. We found a reproducibility better than 5% in the DC signal. We also present the results of a preliminary study conducted in vivo, on the calf muscle of human subjects. We report a comparison of the results obtained with the near-infrared oximeter with the values of blood oxygenation ctO2 measured with conventional chemical tests.

  20. The cause of high-intensity long-duration continuous AE activity (HILDCAAS): interplanetary Alfven wave trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that high intensity (AE > 1,000 nT), long duration (T > 2 d) continuous auroral activity (HILDCAA) events are caused by outward (from the sun) propagating interplanetary Alfven wave trains. The Alfven waves are often (but not always) detected several days after major interplanetary events, such as shocks and solar wind density enhancements. Presumably magnetic reconnection between the southward components of the Alfven wave magnetic fields and magnetospheric fields is the mechanism for transfer of solar wind energy to the magnetosphere. If the stringent requirements for HILDCAA events are relaxed, there are many more AE events of this type. A brief inspection indicates that these are also related to interplanetary Alfvenic fluctuations. We therefore suggest that most auroral activity may be caused by reconnection associated with Alfven waves in the interplanetary medium. (author)

  1. Continuous sheathless microparticle and cell patterning using CL-SSAWs (conductive liquid-based standing surface acoustic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghun Nam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present continuous, sheathless microparticle patterning using conductive liquid (CL-based standing surface acoustic waves (SSAWs. Conventional metal electrodes patterned on a piezoelectric substrate were replaced with electrode channels filled with a CL. The device performance was evaluated with 5-μm fluorescent polystyrene particles at different flow rate and via phase shifting. In addition, our device was further applied to continuous concentration of malaria parasites at the sidewalls of the fluidic channel.

  2. Distinguishing transient signals and instrumental disturbances in semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves with line-robust statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keitel, David

    2016-01-01

    Non-axisymmetries in rotating neutron stars emit quasi-monochromatic gravitational waves. These long-duration ‘continuous wave’ signals are among the main search targets of ground-based interferometric detectors. However, standard detection methods are susceptible to false alarms from instrumental artefacts that resemble a continuous-wave signal. Past work [Keitel, Prix, Papa, Leaci and Siddiqi 2014, Phys. Rev. D 89 064023] showed that a Bayesian approach, based on an explicit model of persistent single-detector disturbances, improves robustness against such artefacts. Since many strong outliers in semi-coherent searches of LIGO data are caused by transient disturbances that last only a few hours or days, I describe in a recent paper [Keitel D 2015, LIGO-P1500159] how to extend this approach to cover transient disturbances, and demonstrate increased sensitivity in realistic simulated data. Additionally, neutron stars could emit transient signals which, for a limited time, also follow the continuous-wave signal model. As a pragmatic alternative to specialized transient searches, I demonstrate how to make standard semi-coherent continuous-wave searches more sensitive to transient signals. Focusing on the time-scale of a single segment in the semi-coherent search, Bayesian model selection yields a simple detection statistic without a significant increase in computational cost. This proceedings contribution gives a brief overview of both works. (paper)

  3. Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave Optical Parametric Oscillator-based Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslanov, D.D.; Spunei, M.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Cristescu, S.M.; Lindsay, I.D.; Lindsay, I.D.; Boller, Klaus J.; Persijn, S.T.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A fiber-amplified Distributed Bragg Reflector diode laser is used to pump a continuous wave, singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO). The output radiation covers the 3–4 μm with ability of rapid (100 THz/s) and broad mode-hop-free tuning (5 cm−1). Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy is

  4. Diagnostic Value of Electrocardiographic T Wave Inversion in Lead aVL in Diagnosing Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem L. Farhan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The clinical value of T wave inversion in lead aVL in diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the correlation between aVL T wave inversion and CAD in patients with chronic stable angina.Methods: Electrocardiograms (ECGs of 257 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography were analyzed. All patients had chronic stable angina. All patients with secondary T wave inversion had been excluded (66 patients. The remaining 191 patients constituted the study population. Detailed ECG interpretation and coronary angiographic findings were conducted by experienced cardiologists.Results: T wave inversion in aVL was identified in 89 ECGs (46.8% with definite ischemic Q-ST-T changes in different leads in 97 ECGs (50.8%. Stand alone aVL T wave inversion was found in 27 ECGs (14.1% while ischemic changes in other leads with normal aVL were identified in 36 ECGs (18.8%. The incidence of CAD was 86.3%. Single, two- and multi-vessel CAD were found in 38.8%, 28.5% and 32.7% of cases respectively. The prevalence of left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex and right coronary arteries were 4.7%, 61.2%, 29.3% and 44.5%, respectively. T wave inversion in aVL was found to be the only ECG variable significantly predicting mid segment left anterior descending artery (LAD lesions (Odds Ratio 2.93, 95% Confidence Interval 1.59-5.37, p=0.001.Conclusion: This study provides new information relating to T wave inversion in lead aVL to mid segment LAD lesions. Implication of this simple finding may help in bedside diagnosis of CAD typically mid LAD lesions. However, further studies are needed to corroborate this finding.

  5. Mathematical characterization of continuous wave infrared stimulated luminescence signals (CW-IRSL) from feldspars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagonis, V.; Phan, Huy; Goodnow, Rebecca; Rosenfeld, Sara; Morthekai, P.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous-wave infrared stimulated luminescence signals (CW-IRSL) from feldspars have been the subject of many experimental studies, due to their importance in luminescence dating and dosimetry. Accurate mathematical characterization of the shape of these CW-IRSL signals in feldspars is of practical and theoretical importance, especially in connection with “anomalous fading” of luminescence signals in dating studies. These signals are known to decay in a non-exponential manner and their exact mathematical shape as a function of stimulation time is an open research question. At long stimulation times the IRSL decay has been shown experimentally to follow a power law of decay, and previous researchers have attempted to fit the overall shape of these signals empirically using the well known Becquerel function (or compressed hyperbola decay law). This paper investigates the possibility of fitting CW-IRSL curves using either the Becquerel decay law, or a recently developed analytical equation based on localized electronic recombination of donor–acceptor pairs in luminescent materials. It is shown that both mathematical approaches can give excellent fits to experimental CW-IRSL curves, and the precision of the fitting process is studied by analyzing a series of curves measured using a single aliquot of a feldspar sample. Both fitting equations are solutions of differential equations involving numerically similar time dependent recombination probabilities k(t). It is concluded that both fitting equations provide approximately equivalent mathematical descriptions of the CW-IRSL curves in feldspars, and can be used as mathematical representations of the shape of CW-IRSL signals. - Highlights: • Feldspar CW-IRSL curves fitted using Becquerel decay law and new analytical equation. • Both mathematical approaches give excellent fits to experimental CW-IRSL curves. • Series of experimental CW-IRSL curves analyzed using both fitting expressions. • The time

  6. Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-10-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  7. 205 nm continuous-wave laser: application to the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourzeix, S.

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the construction of an experimental set-up, and in particular of a tunable continuous-wave laser at 205 nm, for the measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen. Chapter 1 deals with the Lamb shift from a historical point of view, and with the interest of its measurement, for metrology and test of quantum electrodynamics. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theory of the hydrogen atom. The principle of the experiment is based on the comparison of two frequencies which are in a ratio of 4: those of the two-photon transitions of 2S-6S or 2S-6D and 1S-3S. Chapter 3 describes the experimental set-up used to measure the 2S-6D transition which is excited by a titanium-sapphire laser at 820 nm. The 205 nm light required to excite the 1S-3S transition is generated by two frequency-doubling of the titanium-sapphire laser, made in non-linear crystals placed in enhancement cavities. Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to the frequency-doubling. After a recall of non-linear optics, the enhancement cavities are described in detail, as well as the results we achieved. At last chapter 5 describes the research for a signal on the 1S-3S transition: the construction of a ground state atomic beam, and the development of the detection system. This work has led to a preliminary measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen: L(1S) = 8172.850 (174) MHz whose result is in very good agreement with both the previous measurements and the most recent theoretical results. (author)

  8. Multi-photon transitions and Rabi resonance in continuous wave EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiko, Alexander P; Fedaruk, Ryhor; Markevich, Siarhei A

    2015-10-01

    The study of microwave-radiofrequency multi-photon transitions in continuous wave (CW) EPR spectroscopy is extended to a Rabi resonance condition, when the radio frequency of the magnetic-field modulation matches the Rabi frequency of a spin system in the microwave field. Using the non-secular perturbation theory based on the Bogoliubov averaging method, the analytical description of the response of the spin system is derived for all modulation frequency harmonics. When the modulation frequency exceeds the EPR linewidth, multi-photon transitions result in sidebands in absorption EPR spectra measured with phase-sensitive detection at any harmonic. The saturation of different-order multi-photon transitions is shown to be significantly different and to be sensitive to the Rabi resonance. The noticeable frequency shifts of sidebands are found to be the signatures of this resonance. The inversion of two-photon lines in some spectral intervals of the out-of-phase first-harmonic signal is predicted under passage through the Rabi resonance. The inversion indicates the transition from absorption to stimulated emission or vice versa, depending on the sideband. The manifestation of the primary and secondary Rabi resonance is also demonstrated in the time evolution of steady-state EPR signals formed by all harmonics of the modulation frequency. Our results provide a theoretical framework for future developments in multi-photon CW EPR spectroscopy, which can be useful for samples with long spin relaxation times and extremely narrow EPR lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties Using Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, A. W.; Owano, T.; Castaneda, R.; Baer, D. S.; Paldus, B. A.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects that aerosols have on climate require improved in-situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This abstract describes the use of continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) technology to address this problem. The innovations in this instrument are the use of CW-CRD to measure aerosol extinction coefficient, the simultaneous measurement of scattering coefficient, and small size suitable for a wide range of aircraft applications. Our prototype instrument measures extinction and scattering coefficient at 690 nm and extinction coefficient at 1550 nm. The instrument itself is small (60 x 48 x 15 cm) and relatively insensitive to vibrations. The prototype instrument has been tested in our lab and used in the field. While improvements in performance are needed, the prototype has been shown to make accurate and sensitive measurements of extinction and scattering coefficients. Combining these two parameters, one can obtain the single-scattering albedo and absorption coefficient, both important aerosol properties. The use of two wavelengths also allows us to obtain a quantitative idea of the size of the aerosol through the Angstrom exponent. Minimum sensitivity of the prototype instrument is 1.5 x 10(exp -6)/m (1.5/Mm). Validation of the measurement of extinction coefficient has been accomplished by comparing the measurement of calibration spheres with Mie calculations. This instrument and its successors have potential to help reduce uncertainty currently associated with aerosol optical properties and their spatial and temporal variation. Possible applications include studies of visibility, climate forcing by aerosol, and the validation of aerosol retrieval schemes from satellite data.

  10. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS O2 Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  11. All-periodically poled, high-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency tunable UV source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Chaitanya N, Apurv; Jabir, M V; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of an all-periodically poled, continuous-wave (CW), high-power, single-frequency, ultra-violet (UV) source. Based on internal second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of a CW singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped in the green, the UV source provides tunable radiation across 398.94-417.08 nm. The compact source comprising of a 25-mm-long MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) crystal of period Λ(SLT)=8.5  μm for OPO and a 5-mm-long, multi-grating (Λ(KTP)=3.3, 3.4, 3.6 and 3.8 μm), periodically poled potassium titanium phosphate (PPKTP) for intra-cavity SHG, provides as much as 336 mW of UV power at 398.94 nm, corresponding to a green-to-UV conversion efficiency of ∼6.7%. In addition, the singly resonant OPO (SRO) provides 840 mW of idler at 1541.61 nm and substantial signal power of 108 mW at 812.33 nm transmitted through the high reflective cavity mirrors. UV source provides single-frequency radiation with instantaneous line-width of ∼18.3  MHz and power >100  mW in Gaussian beam profile (ellipticity >92%) across the entire tuning range. Access to lower UV wavelengths requires smaller grating periods to compensate high phase-mismatch resulting from high material dispersion in the UV wavelength range. Additionally, we have measured the normalized temperature and spectral acceptance bandwidth of PPKTP crystal in the UV wavelength range to be ∼2.25°C·cm and ∼0.15  nm·cm, respectively.

  12. Intensity Modulation Techniques for Continuous-Wave Lidar for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Obland, M. D.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.; Erxleben, W. H.; McGregor, D.; Dobler, J. T.; Pal, S.; O'Dell, C.

    2017-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America project are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the ASCENDS and ACT-America science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Linear Swept Frequency modulations to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that take advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques and provides very high (at sub-meter level) range resolution. We compare BPSK to linear swept frequency and introduce a new technique to eliminate sidelobes in situations from linear swept frequency where the SNR is high with results that rival BPSK. We also investigate the effects of non-linear modulators, which can in some circumstances degrade the orthogonality of the waveforms, and show how to avoid this. These techniques are used in a new data processing architecture written in

  13. Frequency-Modulated, Continuous-Wave Laser Ranging Using Photon-Counting Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Barber, Zeb W.; Dahl, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Optical ranging is a problem of estimating the round-trip flight time of a phase- or amplitude-modulated optical beam that reflects off of a target. Frequency- modulated, continuous-wave (FMCW) ranging systems obtain this estimate by performing an interferometric measurement between a local frequency- modulated laser beam and a delayed copy returning from the target. The range estimate is formed by mixing the target-return field with the local reference field on a beamsplitter and detecting the resultant beat modulation. In conventional FMCW ranging, the source modulation is linear in instantaneous frequency, the reference-arm field has many more photons than the target-return field, and the time-of-flight estimate is generated by balanced difference- detection of the beamsplitter output, followed by a frequency-domain peak search. This work focused on determining the maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation algorithm when continuous-time photoncounting detectors are used. It is founded on a rigorous statistical characterization of the (random) photoelectron emission times as a function of the incident optical field, including the deleterious effects caused by dark current and dead time. These statistics enable derivation of the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRB) on the accuracy of FMCW ranging, and derivation of the ML estimator, whose performance approaches this bound at high photon flux. The estimation algorithm was developed, and its optimality properties were shown in simulation. Experimental data show that it performs better than the conventional estimation algorithms used. The demonstrated improvement is a factor of 1.414 over frequency-domainbased estimation. If the target interrogating photons and the local reference field photons are costed equally, the optimal allocation of photons between these two arms is to have them equally distributed. This is different than the state of the art, in which the local field is stronger than the target return. The optimal

  14. Evaluation of cellular effects of pulsed and continuous wave radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, Ivan; Trosic, Ivancica

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In less than twenty years, the mobile telephone has gone from being rare, expensive equipment of the business elite to a pervasive, low-cost personal item. Since the introduction of mobile phones, concerns have been raised about the potential detrimental impacts on living beings from regular use. The first 'modern' network technology on second generation cellular technology was launched in 1991 in Finland on the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standard. This study evaluates cellular effects of, both, continuous (CW) and pulsed GSM modulated waves (PW). Continuous cell culture of Chinese hamster lung cells, line V79, was used in this study. Cell growth and colony forming ability (CFA) was analyzed after 1, 2 and 3 hours of exposure to the both frequency fields, 935 MHz CW and 915 MHz PW. Selected frequency fields were generated inside gigahertz transversal electromagnetic mode cell (GTEM) equipped with the signal generators. Hewlett Packard HP8657A signal generator was used to generate CW 935 MHz frequency field. Anritzu MS2711B spectrum analyzer with tracking generator and Micro devices RF 3146 power amplifier module generated PW radiofrequency field of 915 MHz. Averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) belonging to the CW 935 MHz frequency field was calculated to be 0.12 W/kg, and for GSM modulated 915 MHz field was 0.23 W/kg. Cell samples were irradiated in triplicate. The sham exposed control cell samples were included in the study. The temperature inside the exposure set-up was recorded in ten-minute intervals through the irradiation treatment. Both, sham-exposed and exposed cell samples were kept in the same condition, except in the time of irradiation for experimental samples when signal generator was switched on. To determine cell growth, V79 samples were plated in concentration of 1x10 4 cells/mL. Cells were maintained in the standard laboratory conditions, which are humidified atmosphere, 37 C degrees, and 5% CO 2 . Cell

  15. Nondestructive Imaging of an Object Using the Compact Continuous-Wave Sub-Terahertz Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Seok; Kwon, Il Bub; Yoon, Dong Jin; Seo, Dae Cheol [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presented compact CW sub-THz imaging system using the terahertz transmitter(Tx) that generating 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave on based electronic device. Using 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave generated by Tx, we transmitted to sample by point by point scan method and measured transmitting terahertz wave magnitude and phase information respectively with terahertz receiver(Rx) based on sub harmonic mixer. This paper measured and compared images of several samples to obtain better imaging results by changing time delay and step distance of scanning stage which affect image resolution. Also, through the imaging measurement of various samples, we were able to assure possibility of application of terahertz wave

  16. Nondestructive Imaging of an Object Using the Compact Continuous-Wave Sub-Terahertz Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Seok; Kwon, Il Bub; Yoon, Dong Jin; Seo, Dae Cheol

    2010-01-01

    This paper presented compact CW sub-THz imaging system using the terahertz transmitter(Tx) that generating 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave on based electronic device. Using 0.34 THz electromagnetic wave generated by Tx, we transmitted to sample by point by point scan method and measured transmitting terahertz wave magnitude and phase information respectively with terahertz receiver(Rx) based on sub harmonic mixer. This paper measured and compared images of several samples to obtain better imaging results by changing time delay and step distance of scanning stage which affect image resolution. Also, through the imaging measurement of various samples, we were able to assure possibility of application of terahertz wave

  17. Fault Classification and Location in Transmission Lines Using Traveling Waves Modal Components and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Namdari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate fault classification and localization are the bases of protection for transmission systems. This paper presents a new method for classifying and showing location of faults by travelling waves and modal analysis. In the proposed method, characteristics of different faults are investigated using Clarke transformation and initial current traveling wave; then, appropriate indices are introduced to identify different types of faults. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT is employed to extract information of current and voltage travelling waves. Fault location and classification algorithm is being designed according to wavelet transform coefficients relating to current and voltage modal components. The performance of the proposed method is tested for different fault conditions (different fault distance, different fault resistances, and different fault inception angles by using PSCAD and MATLAB with satisfactory results

  18. Cutting performances with new industrial continuous wave ND:YAG high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagnot, C.; Dinechin, G. de; Canneau, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dismantling is a great challenge for nuclear companies which are facing with the cleaning of former nuclear sites. Among the available cutting processes is the multi-kilowatts laser whose power is transmitted through optical fibers. Unlike other cutting processes such as the plasma arc cutting process or the oxy-cutting process, the laser process can be easily implemented by robotic equipments. The mechanised robotic arm carries a laser cutting head to perform, with remote-controlled equipments, the cutting operation. The present study deals with the performances which can be reached with high power continuous wave ND:YAG lasers. The cutting tests were carried out up to 8 kW. The laser power was delivered through a specific power supply chain: a 0.4 mm fiber was transporting the power from the laser to a first interface (coupler) then a second 0.6 mm fiber was bringing the laser power to the cutting head. This solution allowed a power delivery chain whose length could be as high as 100 + 20/50 m. Another advantage of this kind of power supply is that the first fiber can be set in a non-contaminated environment whereas the second fiber lies in the contaminated area. The cutting head used for these tests was a specific tool developed for this laser dismantling work: it is a laser cutting head cooled by pressurized air. This tool was developed with the requirement to be able to sustain a laser power of 14 kW. The pressurized air used to cool the head is also used as cutting gas. The cutting capability was about 10 mm by kW. At the power of 8 kW, austenitic steel plates of thickness 100 mm were cut. These performances were reached with the cut started on the plate's edge. If the cut started in the middle of the plate, the cutting performances were not so high: 8 kW became the power to drill and to cut plates of thickness 40 mm.

  19. Effect of Early Diagnosis and Treatment on the Prognosis of Children with Epilepsy Accompanied by Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Wave Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahua Ju

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment on the prognosis of children with epilepsy accompanied by continuous spikes and waves during slow wave sleep (CSCW. Methods: The clinical characteristics, electroencephalogram (ECG features, treatment and prognosis of 12 children with CSCW in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed, and the followup of 6 months to 4 years was given. Results: Imaging showed that 8 children suffered from brain lesions, while other 4 were normal. The initial onset of 10 children was at night, whereas 2 began with absence seizure in lucid interval, and they gradually appeared comprehensive brain function decline, meanwhile, ECG was characterized by continuous discharge during slow wave sleep. After 3 months of treatment with valproic acid, clonazepam, lamotrigine and hormones, the clinical symptoms and ECG of 10 children improved significantly, in which 3 ones recurred after 6 months of comprehensive treatment. Conclusion: The early manifestation of CSWS is untypical, and hence, early diagnosis and treatment can ameliorate the epileptic seizures of children, effectively inhibit epileptic electrical activity and has favorable prognosis.

  20. DOE Final Report -NON-LINEAR WAVES IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA- BES- Division of Engineering and Materials Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth J. Putterman

    2006-01-01

    FINAL REPORT ON : NON-LINEAR WAVES IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA Doe DE FG03-87ER13686 (001312-001) Submitted January 10, 2006 by Seth J. Putterman 310-8252269 Physics Department University of California Los Angeles, CA 90095 puherman at ritva.physics.ucla.edu NON-LINEAR WAVES IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA I am happy to report that this project has been a big success. For over 10 years the DOE [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering] has funded our research program on the overarching theme of spontaneous energy focusing phenomena. These effects occur when a nonlinear macroscopic system is excited so as to drive it far from equilibrium. The subsequent relaxation to equilibrium does not occur smoothly but instead is accompanied by the formation of structured domains where the energy density is highly concentrated. A signature example is picosecond sonoluminescence [1] wherein a smooth sound wave has its energy density focused by 12 orders of magnitude to generate a clock-like string of picosecond flashes of ultraviolet light. Our earlier work on solitons [2] demonstrated how uniform surface waves break up into stable localized structures. Our experimental work on turbulence produced photos of localized structures lying many standard deviations outside the range of gaussian statistics[3]. This effect is referred to as intermittency. Our recent work on friction finds its motivation in those theories of sonoluminescence which invoke frictional electricity. In its most common form this is the generation of a spark when we touch a doorknob after walking over a carpet. Our reading of the literature on this subject indicated that frictional electricity like sonoluminescence is not understood. So to probe triboelectrification we set up a modern version of an experiment performed by Bernoulli in 1700. Here sparking is caused by the rubbing of glass against mercury. We indeed observed flashes of light which were accompanied by events of stick-slip friction at the interface between the

  1. SeismicWaveTool: Continuous and discrete wavelet analysis and filtering for multichannel seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiana-Merino, J. J.; Rosa-Herranz, J. L.; Rosa-Cintas, S.; Martinez-Espla, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    A MATLAB-based computer code has been developed for the simultaneous wavelet analysis and filtering of multichannel seismic data. The considered time-frequency transforms include the continuous wavelet transform, the discrete wavelet transform and the discrete wavelet packet transform. The developed approaches provide a fast and precise time-frequency examination of the seismograms at different frequency bands. Moreover, filtering methods for noise, transients or even baseline removal, are implemented. The primary motivation is to support seismologists with a user-friendly and fast program for the wavelet analysis, providing practical and understandable results. Program summaryProgram title: SeismicWaveTool Catalogue identifier: AENG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 611072 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14688355 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB (MathWorks Inc.) version 7.8.0.347 (R2009a) or higher. Wavelet Toolbox is required. Computer: Developed on a MacBook Pro. Tested on Mac and PC. No computer-specific optimization was performed. Operating system: Any supporting MATLAB (MathWorks Inc.) v7.8.0.347 (R2009a) or higher. Tested on Mac OS X 10.6.8, Windows XP and Vista. Classification: 13. Nature of problem: Numerous research works have developed a great number of free or commercial wavelet based software, which provide specific solutions for the analysis of seismic data. On the other hand, standard toolboxes, packages or libraries, such as the MathWorks' Wavelet Toolbox for MATLAB, offer command line functions and interfaces for the wavelet analysis of one-component signals. Thus, software usually is focused on very specific problems

  2. A non-intrusive and continuous-in-space technique to investigate the wave transformation and breaking over a breakwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To design longshore breakwaters, the evaluation of the wave motion transformations over the structures and of the energy they are able to absorb, dissipate and reflect is necessary. To characterize features and transformations of monochromatic wave trains above a breakwater, both submerged and emerged, we have designed and developed a non-intrusive and continuous-in-space technique, based on Image Analysis, and carried out an experimental campaign, in a laboratory flume equipped with a wave-maker, in order to test it. The investigation area was lighted with a light sheet and images were recorded by a video-camera. The working fluid was seeded with non buoyant particles to make it bright and clearly distinct from dark background and breakwater. The technique, that is based on a robust algorithm to identify the free surface, has showed to properly work also in prohibitive situations for traditional resistive probes (e.g., very shallow waters and/or breaking waves and to be able to measure the free surface all over the investigation field in a non-intrusive way. Two kind of analysis were mainly performed, a statistical and a spectral one. The peculiarities of the measurement technique allowed to describe the whole wave transformation and to supply useful information for design purposes.

  3. Design of a Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement System Based on Pulse Wave and ECG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Qiang; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhuang-Zhuang; Deng, Gen-Qiang; Wang, Huihui; Mavromoustakis, Constandinos X; Song, Houbing; Ming, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    With increasingly fierce competition for jobs, the pressures on people have risen in recent years, leading to lifestyle and diet disorders that result in significantly higher risks of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is one of the common chronic cardiovascular diseases; however, mainstream blood pressure measurement devices are relatively heavy. When multiple measurements are required, the user experience and the measurement results may be unsatisfactory. In this paper, we describe the design of a signal collection module that collects pulse waves and electrocardiograph (ECG) signals. The collected signals are input into a signal processing module to filter the noise and amplify the useful physiological signals. Then, we use a wavelet transform to eliminate baseline drift noise and detect the feature points of the pulse waves and ECG signals. We propose the concept of detecting the wave shape associated with an instance, an approach that minimizes the impact of atypical pulse waves on blood pressure measurements. Finally, we propose an improved method for measuring blood pressure based on pulse wave velocity that improves the accuracy of blood pressure measurements by 58%. Moreover, the results meet the american medical instrument promotion association standards, which demonstrate the feasibility of our measurement system.

  4. Nonlinear waveform distortion and shock formation in the near field of a continuous wave piston source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Cathignol, Dominique

    2004-05-01

    A classical effect of nonlinear acoustics is that a plane sinusoidal acoustic wave propagating in a nonlinear medium transforms to a sawtooth wave with one shock per cycle. However, the waveform evolution can be quite different in the near field of a plane source due to diffraction. Previous numerical simulations of nonlinear acoustic waves in the near field of a circular piston source predict the development of two shocks per wave cycle [Khokhlova et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 95-108 (2001)]. Moreover, at some locations the peak pressure may be up to 4 times the source amplitude. The motivation of this work was to experimentally verify and further explain the phenomena of the nonlinear waveform distortion. Measurements were conducted in water with a 47-mm-diameter unfocused transducer, working at 1-MHz frequency. For pressure amplitudes higher than 0.5 MPa, two shocks per cycle were observed in the waveform beyond the last minimum of the fundamental harmonic amplitude. With the increase of the observation distance, these two shocks collided and formed one shock (per cycle), i.e., the waveform developed into the classical sawtooth wave. The experimental results were in a very good agreement with the modeling based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation.

  5. High-Temperature Monitoring of Refractory Wall Recession Using Frequency-Modulated Continuous-wave (FM-CW) Radar Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, B.; DeConick, C.; Cartee, G.; Zoughi, R.; Velez, M.; Moore, R.

    2005-01-01

    Furnaces are among the most crucial components in the glass and metallurgical industry. Nowadays, furnaces are being operated at higher temperatures and for longer periods of time thus increasing the rate of wear on the furnace refractory lining. Consequently, there is a great need for a nondestructive tool that can accurately measure refractory wall thickness at high temperatures. In this paper the utility of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) radar is investigated for this purpose

  6. Correlation analysis between surface electromyography and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy parameters during isometric exercise to volitional fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAYLİ, Ömer; AKIN, Ata; ÇOTUK, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the process of muscular fatigue was examined using surface electromyography (sEMG) and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (cw-NIRS) simultaneously during an isometric hand grip exercise at 50% and 75% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), sustained until volitional fatigue. The mean frequency of the sEMG decreased during the whole exercise, whereas the root mean square had a tendency to increase. Oxyhemoglobin/deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes computed ...

  7. Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave Fm-Cw Radar for Evaluation of Refractory Structures Used in Glass Manufacturing Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, B.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Limmer, R.

    2009-03-01

    A frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) handheld radar operating in the frequency range of 8-18 GHz, resulting in a relatively fine range resolution was designed and constructed for on-site inspection of refractory structure thickness. This paper presents the design of the radar and the results of measurements conducted on typical refractory furnace structures assembled in the laboratory.

  8. Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes; Revised September 3, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, Gary E.; Caffey, Thurlow W.H.; Bahram Nassersharif; Garcia, Gabe V.; Jedlicka, Russell P.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B204 Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003. A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The technique is 100% volumetric, and may find smaller defects, more rapidly, and less expensively than present methods. The project described in this report was a joint development effort between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) funded by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the project was to research, design, and develop a new concept utilizing a continuous wave radar to detect defects inside metallic tubes and in particular nuclear plant steam generator tubing. The project was divided into four parallel tracks: computational modeling, experimental prototyping, thermo-mechanical design, and signal detection and analysis

  9. Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary E. Rochau and Thurlow W.H. Caffey, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0740; Bahram Nassersharif and Gabe V. Garcia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001; Russell P. Jedlicka, Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001

    2003-05-01

    OAK B204 Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003. A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The technique is 100% volumetric, and may find smaller defects, more rapidly, and less expensively than present methods. The project described in this report was a joint development effort between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) funded by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the project was to research, design, and develop a new concept utilizing a continuous wave radar to detect defects inside metallic tubes and in particular nuclear plant steam generator tubing. The project was divided into four parallel tracks: computational modeling, experimental prototyping, thermo-mechanical design, and signal detection and analysis.

  10. Pitch angle scattering of relativistic electrons from stationary magnetic waves: Continuous Markov process and quasilinear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, Don S.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a Markov process theory of charged particle scattering from stationary, transverse, magnetic waves. We examine approximations that lead to quasilinear theory, in particular the resonant diffusion approximation. We find that, when appropriate, the resonant diffusion approximation simplifies the result of the weak turbulence approximation without significant further restricting the regime of applicability. We also explore a theory generated by expanding drift and diffusion rates in terms of a presumed small correlation time. This small correlation time expansion leads to results valid for relatively small pitch angle and large wave energy density - a regime that may govern pitch angle scattering of high-energy electrons into the geomagnetic loss cone.

  11. A Multi Mega Watt Continuous Wave RF Window for Particle Accelerator Applications. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vguyen-Tuong, V.

    2004-01-01

    In this analysis the proposed 10MW window design is free of multipacting on the ceramic surface for the full power range, both in the traveling wave and full reflection mode. Near 7MW and 8MW in the traveling wave mode, multipacting might show up on the outer conductor of the matching section. These multipacting barriers are however very soft and are expected to be easily eliminated by regular RF processing. The multipacting analysis can identify early design problems while it is unable to provide certainty in design success and testing of window designs is the only certain measure of freedom from multipacting

  12. Calculating the azimuth of mountain waves, using the effect of tilted fine-scale stable layers on VHF radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is described, based on standard VHF wind-profiler data, where imbalances of echo power between four off-vertical radar beams, caused by mountain waves, can be used to calculate the orientation of the wave pattern. It is shown that the mountain wave azimuth (direction of the horizontal component of the wavevector, is given by the vector [ W (PE - P W ,W (PN - P S ]; PN, PS, PE, PW are radar echo powers, measured in dB, in beams pointed away from vertical by the same angle towards north, south, east and west respectively, and W is the vertical wind velocity. The method is applied to Aberystwyth MST radar data, and the calculated wave vector usually, but not always, points into the low-level wind direction. The mean vertical wind at Aberystwyth, which may also be affected by tilted aspect-sensitive layers, is investigated briefly using the entire radar output 1990-1997. The mean vertical-wind profile is inconsistent with existing theories, but a new mountain-wave interpretation is proposed.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides; instruments and techniques.

  13. First low frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Branco, V.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M. D.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Dia, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. A.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Gonzalez, J.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammer, D. X.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jang, D.H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karlen, J. L.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kerrigan, J.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J. T.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, J. P.; Lee, J. P.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lubinski, M. J.; Luck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Madden-Fong, D. X.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Ma, H.Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okounkova, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W. E.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C. T.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Purrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Racz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodger, A. S.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosins, D.; Rowan, S.; Rud, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schonbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffery, P.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tap, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; Eijningen, J. V.; Eggel, A. A. V.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, MT; Wade, L. E.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, K. J.; Williams, L.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    Following a major upgrade, the two advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) held their first observation run between September 2015 and January 2016. With a strain sensitivity of 10−23/√Hz at 100 Hz, the product of observable volume and measurement time

  14. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CONTINUOUS OUTFLOWS AND PROPAGATING WAVES FROM NOAA 10942 WITH EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER/HINODE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizuka, N.; Hara, H.

    2011-01-01

    We focused on 'sit-and-stare' observations of an outflow region at the edge of active region NOAA 10942 on 2007 February 20 obtained by the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode. We analyzed the data above the base of the outflow and found both continuous outflows and waves, which propagate from the base of the outflow. The spectra at the base of the outflow and at higher locations show different properties. The line profiles show blue-side asymmetry at the base of the outflow where nonthermal broadening becomes large because of fast upflows generated by heating events. On the other hand, at higher locations line profiles are symmetric and the intensity disturbances vary in phase with the velocity disturbances. The correlations between the intensity and velocity disturbances become noticeable at higher locations, so this indicates evidence of (at least locally) upward propagating slow-mode waves along the outflow. We also found a transient oscillation of different period in the wavelet spectrum. This indicates that a different wave is additionally observed during a limited period. High cadence spectroscopic observations revealed intermittent signatures of nonthermal velocities. Each of them seems to correspond to the base of the propagating disturbances. Furthermore, a jet was captured by the sit-and-stare observations across the slit. The similarity of line profiles of the outflow and the jet may indicate that the flows and waves originate in unresolved explosive events in the lower atmosphere of the corona.

  15. A coherent method for the detection and parameter estimation of continuous gravitational wave signals using a pulsar timing array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of a high precision pulsar timing array is a promising approach to detecting gravitational waves in the very low frequency regime (10 –6 -10 –9 Hz) that is complementary to ground-based efforts (e.g., LIGO, Virgo) at high frequencies (∼10-10 3 Hz) and space-based ones (e.g., LISA) at low frequencies (10 –4 -10 –1 Hz). One of the target sources for pulsar timing arrays is individual supermassive black hole binaries which are expected to form in galactic mergers. In this paper, a likelihood-based method for detection and parameter estimation is presented for a monochromatic continuous gravitational wave signal emitted by such a source. The so-called pulsar terms in the signal that arise due to the breakdown of the long-wavelength approximation are explicitly taken into account in this method. In addition, the method accounts for equality and inequality constraints involved in the semi-analytical maximization of the likelihood over a subset of the parameters. The remaining parameters are maximized over numerically using Particle Swarm Optimization. Thus, the method presented here solves the monochromatic continuous wave detection and parameter estimation problem without invoking some of the approximations that have been used in earlier studies.

  16. A coherent method for the detection and parameter estimation of continuous gravitational wave signals using a pulsar timing array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, 1 West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The use of a high precision pulsar timing array is a promising approach to detecting gravitational waves in the very low frequency regime (10{sup –6}-10{sup –9} Hz) that is complementary to ground-based efforts (e.g., LIGO, Virgo) at high frequencies (∼10-10{sup 3} Hz) and space-based ones (e.g., LISA) at low frequencies (10{sup –4}-10{sup –1} Hz). One of the target sources for pulsar timing arrays is individual supermassive black hole binaries which are expected to form in galactic mergers. In this paper, a likelihood-based method for detection and parameter estimation is presented for a monochromatic continuous gravitational wave signal emitted by such a source. The so-called pulsar terms in the signal that arise due to the breakdown of the long-wavelength approximation are explicitly taken into account in this method. In addition, the method accounts for equality and inequality constraints involved in the semi-analytical maximization of the likelihood over a subset of the parameters. The remaining parameters are maximized over numerically using Particle Swarm Optimization. Thus, the method presented here solves the monochromatic continuous wave detection and parameter estimation problem without invoking some of the approximations that have been used in earlier studies.

  17. Transition of spiral calcium waves between multiple stable patterns can be triggered by a single calcium spark in a fire-diffuse-fire model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ai-Hui; Wang, Shi-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Spiral patterns have been found in various nonequilibrium systems. The Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release system in single cardiac cells is unique for highly discrete reaction elements, each giving rise to a Ca2+ spark upon excitation. We imaged the spiral Ca2+ waves in isolated cardiac cells and numerically studied the effect of system excitability on spiral patterns using a two-dimensional fire-diffuse-fire model. We found that under certain conditions, the system was able to display multiple stable patterns of spiral waves, each exhibiting different periods and distinct routines of spiral tips. Transition between these different patterns could be triggered by an internal fluctuation in the form of a single Ca2+ spark. PMID:19792039

  18. Transition of spiral calcium waves between multiple stable patterns can be triggered by a single calcium spark in a fire-diffuse-fire model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ai-Hui; Wang, Shi-Qiang

    2009-09-01

    Spiral patterns have been found in various nonequilibrium systems. The Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release system in single cardiac cells is unique for highly discrete reaction elements, each giving rise to a Ca(2+) spark upon excitation. We imaged the spiral Ca(2+) waves in isolated cardiac cells and numerically studied the effect of system excitability on spiral patterns using a two-dimensional fire-diffuse-fire model. We found that under certain conditions, the system was able to display multiple stable patterns of spiral waves, each exhibiting different periods and distinct routines of spiral tips. Transition between these different patterns could be triggered by an internal fluctuation in the form of a single Ca(2+) spark.

  19. Continuous micro-feeding of fine cohesive powders actuated by pulse inertia force and acoustic radiation force in ultrasonic standing wave field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongcheng; Wu, Liqun; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Rangrang; Zhang, Linan

    2018-07-10

    Stable continuous micro-feeding of fine cohesive powders has recently gained importance in many fields. However, it remains a great challenge in practice because of the powder aggregate caused by interparticle cohesive forces in small capillaries. This paper describes a novel method of feeding fine cohesive powder actuated by a pulse inertia force and acoustic radiation force simultaneously in an ultrasonic standing wave field using a tapered glass nozzle. Nozzles with different outlet diameters are fabricated using glass via a heating process. A pulse inertia force is excited to drive powder movement to the outlet section of the nozzle in a consolidated columnar rod mode. An acoustic radiation force is generated to suspend the particles and make the rod break into large quantities of small agglomerates which impact each other randomly. So the aggregation phenomenon in the fluidization of cohesive powders can be eliminated. The suspended powder is discharged continuously from the nozzle orifice owing to the self-gravities and collisions between the inner particles. The micro-feeding rates can be controlled accurately and the minimum values for RespitoseSV003 and Granulac230 are 0.4 mg/s and 0.5 mg/s respectively. The relative standard deviations of all data points are below 0.12, which is considerably smaller than those of existing vibration feeders with small capillaries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Generation of phase-locked and tunable continuous-wave radiation in the terahertz regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Qudsia; Griebel, Martin; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2005-12-01

    Broadly tunable phase-stable single-frequency terahertz radiation is generated with an optical heterodyne photomixer. The photomixer is excited by two near-infrared CW diode lasers that are phase locked to the stabilized optical frequency comb of a femtosecond titanium:sapphire laser. The terahertz radiation emitted by the photomixer is downconverted into RF frequencies with a waveguide harmonic mixer and measurement-limited linewidths at the Hertz level are demonstrated.

  1. Stable indications of relic gravitational waves in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and forecasts for the Planck mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    The relic gravitational waves are the cleanest probe of the violent times in the very early history of the Universe. They are expected to leave signatures in the observed cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We significantly improved our previous analysis [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. D 79, 023002 (2009)] of the 5-year WMAP TT and TE data at lower multipoles l. This more general analysis returned essentially the same maximum likelihood result (unfortunately, surrounded by large remaining uncertainties): The relic gravitational waves are present and they are responsible for approximately 20% of the temperature quadrupole. We identify and discuss the reasons by which the contribution of gravitational waves can be overlooked in a data analysis. One of the reasons is a misleading reliance on data from very high multipoles l and another a too narrow understanding of the problem as the search for B modes of polarization, rather than the detection of relic gravitational waves with the help of all correlation functions. Our analysis of WMAP5 data has led to the identification of a whole family of models characterized by relatively high values of the likelihood function. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we formulated forecasts for Planck mission in the context of this family of models. We explore in detail various 'optimistic', 'pessimistic', and 'dream case' scenarios. We show that in some circumstances the B-mode detection may be very inconclusive, at the level of signal-to-noise ratio S/N=1.75, whereas a smarter data analysis can reveal the same gravitational wave signal at S/N=6.48. The final result is encouraging. Even under unfavorable conditions in terms of instrumental noises and foregrounds, the relic gravitational waves, if they are characterized by the maximum likelihood parameters that we found from WMAP5 data, will be detected by Planck at the level S/N=3.65.

  2. High Order A-stable Continuous General Linear Methods for Solution of Systems of Initial Value Problems in ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda GuliburYAKUBU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solutions to initial value systems of ordinary differential equations may be approximated efficiently by Runge-Kutta methods or linear multistep methods. Each of these has limitations of one sort or another. In this paper we consider, as a middle ground, the derivation of continuous general linear methods for solution of stiff systems of initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. These methods are designed to combine the advantages of both Runge-Kutta and linear multistep methods. Particularly, methods possessing the property of A-stability are identified as promising methods within this large class of general linear methods. We show that the continuous general linear methods are self-starting and have more ability to solve the stiff systems of ordinary differential equations, than the discrete ones. The initial value systems of ordinary differential equations are solved, for instance, without looking for any other method to start the integration process. This desirable feature of the proposed approach leads to obtaining very high accuracy of the solution of the given problem. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the novelty and reliability of the methods.

  3. Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade laser at λ ~ 9.4 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chuncai; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Jinchuan; Zhai, Shenqiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Junqi; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Shuman; Liu, Fengqi; Wang, Zhanguo

    2018-03-01

    Continuous wave (CW) operation of long wave infrared (LWIR) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is achieved up to a temperature of 303 K. For room temperature CW operation, the wafer with 35 stages was processed into buried heterostructure lasers. For a 2-mm-long and 10-μm-wide laser with high-reflectivity (HR) coating on the rear facet, CW output power of 45 mW at 283 K and 9 mW at 303 K is obtained. The lasing wavelength is around 9.4 μm locating in the LWIR spectrum range. Project supported by the National Key Research And Development Program (No. 2016YFB0402303), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61435014, 61627822, 61574136, 61774146, 61674144, 61404131), the Key Projects of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nos. ZDRW-XH-2016-4, QYZDJ-SSW-JSC027), and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4162060, 4172060).

  4. On continuous ambiguities in model-independent partial wave analysis - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, I.N.

    1995-01-01

    A problem of amplitude reconstruction in terms of the given angular distribution is considered. Solution of this problem is not unique. A class of amplitudes, correspondent to one and the same angular distribution, forms a region in projection onto a finite set of spherical harmonics. An explicit parametrization of a boundary of the region is obtained. A shape of the region of ambiguities is studied in particular example. A scheme of partial-wave analysis, which describes all solutions in the limits of the region, is proposed. 5 refs., 5 figs

  5. Generating Li–Yorke chaos in a stable continuous-time T–S fuzzy model via time-delay feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu-Ye, Sun; Hua-Guang, Zhang; Yan, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the chaotification problem of a stable continuous-time T–S fuzzy system. A simple nonlinear state time-delay feedback controller is designed by parallel distributed compensation technique. Then, the asymptotically approximate relationship between the controlled continuous-time T–S fuzzy system with time-delay and a discrete-time T–S fuzzy system is established. Based on the discrete-time T–S fuzzy system, it proves that the chaos in the discrete-time T–S fuzzy system satisfies the Li–Yorke definition by choosing appropriate controller parameters via the revised Marotto theorem. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed chaotic anticontrol method is verified by a practical example. (general)

  6. A scheme for recording a fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Jiang, Biqiang

    2015-04-01

    A scheme for recording fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave (CW) laser is described and demonstrated experimentally, which employs delayed-time fibers and angular multiplexing technique and can realize the variable temporal resolution at nanosecond scale and different measured depths of object field at certain temporal resolution. The actual delay-time is controlled by two delayed-time fibers with different lengths. The object field information in two different states can be simultaneously recorded in a composite hologram. This scheme is also suitable for recording fast process at picosecond scale, by using an electro-optic modulator.

  7. Field test of an all-semiconductor laser-based coherent continuous-wave Doppler lidar for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Dellwik, Ebba; Hu, Qi

    -produced all-semiconductor laser. The instrument is a coherent continuous-wave lidar with two fixed-focus telescopes for launching laser beams in two different directions. The alternation between the telescopes is achieved by a novel switching technique without any moving parts. Here, we report results from...... signal strength from external atmospheric parameters such as relative humidity and concentrations of atmospheric particles is discussed. This novel lidar instrument design seems to offer a promising low-cost alternative for prevision remote sensing of wind turbine inflow....

  8. High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, L J; Tang, D Y; Xie, G Q; Dong, C M; Jia, Z T; Tao, X T

    2008-01-01

    We report on the continuous wave (CW) and passive Q-switching performance of a high-power diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser. A CW output power of 7.20 W was obtained under an absorbed pump power of 14.97 W, which gives a slop efficiency of 52.7%. With a Cr 4+ doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal as the saturable absorber, the shortest passively Q-switched pulse width, largest pulse energy, and highest peak power achieved were 7.7 ns, 126.25 μJ, and 15.5 kW, respectively

  9. Resonantly diode-pumped continuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N W H; Simakov, N; Hosken, D J; Munch, J; Ottaway, D J; Veitch, P J

    2010-06-21

    We describe an efficient Er:YAG laser that is resonantly pumped using continuous-wave (CW) laser diodes at 1470 nm. For CW lasing, it emits 6.1 W at 1645 nm with a slope efficiency of 36%, the highest efficiency reported for an Er:YAG laser that is pumped in this manner. In Q-switched operation, the laser produces diffraction-limited pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at 2 kHz PRF. To our knowledge this is the first Q-switched Er:YAG laser resonantly pumped by CW laser diodes.

  10. Detection of benzene and toluene gases using a midinfrared continuous-wave external cavity quantum cascade laser at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydoryk, Ihor; Lim, Alan; Jäger, Wolfgang; Tulip, John; Parsons, Matthew T

    2010-02-20

    We demonstrate the application of a commercially available widely tunable continuous-wave external cavity quantum cascade laser as a spectroscopic source for the simultaneous detection of multiple gases. We measured broad absorption features of benzene and toluene between 1012 and 1063 cm(-1) (9.88 and 9.41 microm) at atmospheric pressure using an astigmatic Herriott multipass cell. Our results show experimental detection limits of 0.26 and 0.41 ppm for benzene and toluene, respectively, with a 100 m path length for these two gases.

  11. SiOx Ink-Repellent Layer Deposited by Radio Frequency (RF) Plasmas in Continuous Wave and Pulse Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Fu Yabo; Pang Hua; Zhang Yuefei; Zhang Guangqiu

    2007-01-01

    Low surface energy layers, proposed application for non-water printing in computer to plate (CTP) technology, are deposited in both continuous wave and pulse radio frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor. It is found that the plasma mode dominates the polymer growth rate and the surface composition. Derived from the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and combined with printable test it is concluded that concentration of Si in coatings plays an important role for the ink printability and the ink does not adhere on the surface with high silicon concentration

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James Chien-Chih [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of failing molten lithium or Li2BeF4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactors central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel.

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J. Chien-Chih

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of failing molten lithium or Li 2 BeF 4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactors central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel

  14. Improved forward wave propagation and adjoint-based sensitivity kernel calculations using a numerically stable finite-element PML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Zhinan; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Martin, Roland

    2014-01-01

    with perfectly matched absorbing layers we introduce a computationally efficient boundary storage strategy by saving information along the interface between the CFS-UPML and the main domain only, thus avoiding the need to solve a backward wave propagation problem inside the CFS-UPML, which is known to be highly......In recent years, the application of time-domain adjoint methods to improve large, complex underground tomographic models at the regional scale has led to new challenges for the numerical simulation of forward or adjoint elastic wave propagation problems. An important challenge is to design...... convolution formulation of the complex-frequency-shifted unsplit-field perfectly matched layer (CFS-UPML) derived in previous work more flexible by providing a new treatment to analytically remove singular parameters in the formulation. We also extend this new formulation to 3-D. Furthermore, we derive...

  15. Applications of continuity and discontinuity of a fractional derivative of the wave functions to fractional quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jianping; Xu Mingyu

    2008-01-01

    The space fractional Schroedinger equation with a finite square potential, periodic potential, and delta-function potential is studied in this paper. We find that the continuity or discontinuity condition of a fractional derivative of the wave functions should be considered to solve the fractional Schroedinger equation in fractional quantum mechanics. More parity states than those given by standard quantum mechanics for the finite square potential well are obtained. The corresponding energy equations are derived and then solved by graphical methods. We show the validity of Bloch's theorem and reveal the energy band structure for the periodic potential. The jump (discontinuity) condition for the fractional derivative of the wave function of the delta-function potential is given. With the help of the jump condition, we study some delta-function potential fields. For the delta-function potential well, an alternate expression of the wave function (the H function form of it was given by Dong and Xu [J. Math. Phys. 48, 072105 (2007)]) is obtained. The problems of a particle penetrating through a delta-function potential barrier and the fractional probability current density of the particle are also discussed. We study the Dirac comb and show the energy band structure at the end of the paper

  16. Separation of traveling and standing waves in a finite dispersive string with partial or continuous viscoelastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiangle; Blanchard, Antoine; Tan, Chin An; Lu, Huancai; Bergman, Lawrence A.; McFarland, D. Michael; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2017-12-01

    The free and forced vibrations of a linear string with a local spring-damper on a partial elastic foundation, as well as a linear string on a viscoelastic foundation conceptualized as a continuous distribution of springs and dampers, are studied in this paper. Exact, analytical results are obtained for the free and forced response to a harmonic excitation applied at one end of the string. Relations between mode complexity and energy confinement with the dispersion in the string system are examined for the steady-state forced vibration, and numerical methods are applied to simulate the transient evolution of energy propagation. Eigenvalue loci veering and normal mode localization are observed for weakly coupled subsystems, when the foundation stiffness is sufficiently large, for both the spatially symmetric and asymmetric systems. The forced vibration results show that nonproportional damping-induced mode complexity, for which there are co-existing regions of purely traveling waves and standing waves, is attainable for the dispersive string system. However, this wave transition phenomenon depends strongly on the location of the attached discrete spring-damper relative to the foundation and whether the excitation frequency Ω is above or below the cutoff frequency ωc. When Ωcontrol strategies.

  17. Hidden Markov model tracking of continuous gravitational waves from young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Melatos, A.; Suvorova, S.; Moran, W.; Evans, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    Searches for persistent gravitational radiation from nonpulsating neutron stars in young supernova remnants are computationally challenging because of rapid stellar braking. We describe a practical, efficient, semicoherent search based on a hidden Markov model tracking scheme, solved by the Viterbi algorithm, combined with a maximum likelihood matched filter, the F statistic. The scheme is well suited to analyzing data from advanced detectors like the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO). It can track rapid phase evolution from secular stellar braking and stochastic timing noise torques simultaneously without searching second- and higher-order derivatives of the signal frequency, providing an economical alternative to stack-slide-based semicoherent algorithms. One implementation tracks the signal frequency alone. A second implementation tracks the signal frequency and its first time derivative. It improves the sensitivity by a factor of a few upon the first implementation, but the cost increases by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude.

  18. Continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a distributed feedback laser diode with an external cavity using a volume Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yujin; Sekine, Takashi; Kurita, Takashi; Kato, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a broad-area distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode with a single external-cavity configuration. This high-power DFB laser has a narrow bandwidth (current and temperature ranges.

  19. A Phase-Locked Loop Continuous Wave Sonic Anemometer-Thermometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Weller, F. W.; Busings, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A continuous wake sonic anemometer-thermometer has been developed for simultaneous measurements of vertical velocity and temperature. The phase angle fluctuations are detected by means of a monolithic integrated phase-locked loop, the latter feature providing for inexpensive and accurate...

  20. Effect of temperature on electrical conductance of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during continuous wave laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Geon; Kim, Dong Keun; Moon, Yoon-Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of temperature on the specific electrical conductance of inkjet-printed ink during continuous wave laser sintering, the temperature of the sintered ink was estimated. The ink, which contained 34 wt.% silver nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm, was inkjet-printed onto a liquid crystal display glass substrate. The printed ink was irradiated with a 532 nm continuous wave laser for 60 s with various laser intensities. During laser irradiation, the in-situ electrical conductance of the sintered ink was measured to estimate the transient thermal conductivity of the ink. The electrical conductance and thermal conductivity of the ink was coupled to obtain the transient temperature by applying the Wiedemann–Franz law to a two-dimensional transient heat conduction equation. The electrical conductance of laser-sintered ink was highly dependent on the sintering temperature of the ink. - Highlights: • The in-situ electrical conductance was measured during the laser sintering process. • Wiedemann–Franz law coupled the electrical conductance with transient temperature. • The transient temperature of the laser-sintered Ag nanoparticle ink was estimated

  1. Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Migueis, Mark; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lawrence, Keith St.

    2010-09-01

    A primary focus of neurointensive care is monitoring the injured brain to detect harmful events that can impair cerebral blood flow (CBF), resulting in further injury. Since current noninvasive methods used in the clinic can only assess blood flow indirectly, the goal of this research is to develop an optical technique for measuring absolute CBF. A time-resolved near-infrared (TR-NIR) apparatus is built and CBF is determined by a bolus-tracking method using indocyanine green as an intravascular flow tracer. As a first step in the validation of this technique, CBF is measured in newborn piglets to avoid signal contamination from extracerebral tissue. Measurements are acquired under three conditions: normocapnia, hypercapnia, and following carotid occlusion. For comparison, CBF is concurrently measured by a previously developed continuous-wave NIR method. A strong correlation between CBF measurements from the two techniques is revealed with a slope of 0.79+/-0.06, an intercept of -2.2+/-2.5 ml/100 g/min, and an R2 of 0.810+/-0.088. Results demonstrate that TR-NIR can measure CBF with reasonable accuracy and is sensitive to flow changes. The discrepancy between the two methods at higher CBF could be caused by differences in depth sensitivities between continuous-wave and time-resolved measurements.

  2. Continuous-wave to pulse regimes for a family of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikandé, Alain M.; Voma Titafan, J.; Essimbi, B. Z.

    2017-10-01

    The transition dynamics from continuous-wave to pulse regimes of operation for a generic model of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable absorbers, characterized by an active medium with non-Kerr nonlinearity, are investigated analytically and numerically. The system is described by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with a general m:n saturable nonlinearity (i.e {I}m/{(1+{{Γ }}I)}n, where I is the field intensity and m and n are two positive numbers), coupled to a two-level gain equation. An analysis of stability of continuous waves, following the modulational instability approach, provides a global picture of the self-starting dynamics in the system. The analysis reveals two distinct routes depending on values of the couple (m, n), and on the dispersion regime: in the normal dispersion regime, when m = 2 and n is arbitrary, the self-starting requires positive values of the fast saturable absorber and nonlinearity coefficients, but negative values of these two parameters for the family with m = 0. However, when the spectral filter is negative, the laser can self-start for certain values of the input field and the nonlinearity saturation coefficient Γ. The present work provides a general map for the self-starting mechanisms of rare-earth doped figure-eight fiber lasers, as well as Kerr-lens mode-locked solid-state lasers.

  3. Nanoscale steady-state temperature gradients within polymer nanocomposites undergoing continuous-wave photothermal heating from gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Somsubhra; Wu, Wei-Chen; Tracy, Joseph B; Clarke, Laura I; Bochinski, Jason R

    2017-08-17

    Anisotropically-shaped metal nanoparticles act as nanoscale heaters via excitation of a localized surface plasmon resonance, utilizing a photothermal effect which converts the optical energy into local heat. Steady-state temperatures within a polymer matrix embedded with gold nanorods undergoing photothermal heating using continuous-wave excitation are measured in the immediate spatial vicinity of the nanoparticle (referred to as the local temperature) from observing the rate of physical rotation of the asymmetric nanoparticles within the locally created polymer melt. Average temperatures across the entire (mostly solid) sample (referred to as the global temperature) are simultaneously observed using a fluorescence method from randomly dispersed molecular emitters. Comparing these two independent measurements in films having varying concentrations of nanorods reveals the interplay between the local and global temperatures, clearly demonstrating the capability of these material samples to sustain large steady-state spatial temperature gradients when experiencing continuous-wave excitation photothermal heating. These results are discussed quantitatively. Illustrative imaging studies of nanofibers under photothermal heating also support the presence of a large temperature gradient. Photothermal heating in this manner has potential utility in creating unique thermal processing conditions for outcomes such as driving chemical reactions, inducing crystallinity changes, or enhancing degradation processes in a manner unachievable by conventional heating methods.

  4. Continuous wave superconducting radio frequency electron linac for nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, has been actively serving the nuclear physics research community as a unique forefront international resource since 1995. This cw electron linear accelerator (linac) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has continued to evolve as a precision tool for discerning the structure and dynamics within nuclei. Superconducting rf (SRF) technology has been the essential foundation for CEBAF, first as a 4 GeV machine, then 6 GeV, and currently capable of 12 GeV. Lastly, we review the development, implementation, and performance of SRF systems for CEBAF from its early beginnings to the commissioning of the 12 GeV era.

  5. Continuous wave superconducting radio frequency electron linac for nuclear physics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Reece

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, has been actively serving the nuclear physics research community as a unique forefront international resource since 1995. This cw electron linear accelerator (linac at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab has continued to evolve as a precision tool for discerning the structure and dynamics within nuclei. Superconducting rf (SRF technology has been the essential foundation for CEBAF, first as a 4 GeV machine, then 6 GeV, and currently capable of 12 GeV. We review the development, implementation, and performance of SRF systems for CEBAF from its early beginnings to the commissioning of the 12 GeV era.

  6. Searching for Survivors through Random Human-Body Movement Outdoors by Continuous-Wave Radar Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuantao; Chen, Fuming; Qi, Fugui; Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Jing, Xijing; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    It is a major challenge to search for survivors after chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions. At present, biological radar can be used to achieve this goal by detecting the survivor's respiration signal. However, owing to the random posture of an injured person at a rescue site, the radar wave may directly irradiate the person's head or feet, in which it is difficult to detect the respiration signal. This paper describes a multichannel-based antenna array technology, which forms an omnidirectional detection system via 24-GHz Doppler biological radar, to address the random positioning relative to the antenna of an object to be detected. Furthermore, since the survivors often have random body movement such as struggling and twitching, the slight movements of the body caused by breathing are obscured by these movements. Therefore, a method is proposed to identify random human-body movement by utilizing multichannel information to calculate the background variance of the environment in combination with a constant-false-alarm-rate detector. The conducted outdoor experiments indicate that the system can realize the omnidirectional detection of random human-body movement and distinguish body movement from environmental interference such as movement of leaves and grass. The methods proposed in this paper will be a promising way to search for survivors outdoors.

  7. Searching for Survivors through Random Human-Body Movement Outdoors by Continuous-Wave Radar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Jing, Xijing; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    It is a major challenge to search for survivors after chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions. At present, biological radar can be used to achieve this goal by detecting the survivor’s respiration signal. However, owing to the random posture of an injured person at a rescue site, the radar wave may directly irradiate the person’s head or feet, in which it is difficult to detect the respiration signal. This paper describes a multichannel-based antenna array technology, which forms an omnidirectional detection system via 24-GHz Doppler biological radar, to address the random positioning relative to the antenna of an object to be detected. Furthermore, since the survivors often have random body movement such as struggling and twitching, the slight movements of the body caused by breathing are obscured by these movements. Therefore, a method is proposed to identify random human-body movement by utilizing multichannel information to calculate the background variance of the environment in combination with a constant-false-alarm-rate detector. The conducted outdoor experiments indicate that the system can realize the omnidirectional detection of random human-body movement and distinguish body movement from environmental interference such as movement of leaves and grass. The methods proposed in this paper will be a promising way to search for survivors outdoors. PMID:27073860

  8. Role of additives in combustion waves and effect on stable combustion limit of double-base propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, N [Japan Defence Agency, Tachikawa. 3. Research Center

    1978-12-01

    The effect of additives on the flame structures and the burning rates of double-base propellants have been examined by means of photographic observations and temperature profile measurements. The additives used for this study are lead salicylate (PbSa, 2%), nickel (Ni, 1%), ammonium perchlorate (AP, 30%), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX, 30%). The addition of PbSa increases the burning rate, but does not improve the flame temperature characteristics. The addition of Ni increases the flame temperature significantly at pressures below 30 atm. The Ni acts as a catalyst to promote the flame reaction while it does not act as a burning rate modifier. The additions of AP and HMX increase the thermal performance of the propellant system, however, the HMX does not improve the stable combustion limit of the rocket motor at low pressures. The addition of Ni or AP is found to increase the flame temperature at pressures below 30 atm, and the stable combustion limits is lowered to below 3 atm.

  9. Continuous control of light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with a standing-wave coupling field in a Rb vapor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, In-Ho; Moon, Han Seb

    2011-01-01

    We present the continuous control of the light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with an on-resonant standing-wave coupling field in the 5S 1/2 -5P 1/2 transition of the Λ-type system of 87 Rb atoms. When a coupling field was changed from a traveling-wave to a standing-wave field by adjusting the power of a counterpropagating coupling field, the probe pulse propagation continuously transformed from subluminal propagation, due to electromagnetically induced transparency with the traveling-wave coupling field, to superluminal propagation, due to narrow enhanced absorption with the standing-wave coupling field. The group velocity of the probe pulse was measured to be approximately 0.004c to -0.002c as a function of the disparity between the powers of the copropagating and the counterpropagating coupling fields.

  10. Continuous-wave spatial quantum correlations of light induced by multiple scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Huck, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    and reflectance. Utilizing frequency-resolved quantum noise measurements, we observe that the strength of the spatial quantum correlation function can be controlled by changing the quantum state of an incident bright squeezed-light source. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with the developed......We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance...... theory and form a basis for future research on, e. g., quantum interference of multiple quantum states in a multiple scattering medium....

  11. Evaluation of wind flow with a nacelle-mounted, continuous wave wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medley, John; Barker, Will; Harris, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Nacelle-mounted lidar is becoming widely recognized as a tool with potential for assessing power curves, understanding wind flow characteristics, and controlling turbines. As rotor diameters continue to increase, and the deployment of turbines in complex terrain becomes more widespread, knowledge...... mounted on the nacelle of a 550 kW turbine at the Risø campus of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Lidar measurements of wind speed and turbulence were compared against those made by anemometers on a high-quality traditional mast. Analysis showed excellent correlation between mast and Zeph...... that this is the first time that a commercially available nacelle-mounted lidar has been used to evaluate such rotor-equivalent power curves....

  12. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  13. Continuity and completeness in physical theory: Schroedinger's return to the wave interpretation of quantum mechanics in the 1950's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, S.

    1992-01-01

    In the 50s, Schroedinger proposed a new conception of a continuous theory of Quantum Mechanics, which remarkably modified his 1926 ideas on ondulatory mechanics. The lack of individuality of the atomic particles presented in the new statistics, and in Heisenberg's Indeterminacy Relations, was by him considered as an aspect of a more general crisis in the anthology itself of classical atomism. Unlike his 1926 ideas, he proposed now to represent the wave equation in an n-dimensional space and he considered second-quantization technique as the proper mathematical tool for his new physical conception. Although he accepted that space-time discontinuities and casual gaps may appear here and there on the observational level (e.g. in the Indeterminacy Relations), he was convinced that they could be made compatible with a continuous pure theory, provided one accepted a suitable conception of the theory's epistemiological status. For him, only a continuous theory satisfied the conditions for a complete theory. On these matters, he thought he was somehow orthodox to the ideas of Hertz and Boltzmann, which were also reflected in the teaching of Exner. (author). 69 refs

  14. Quasi-periodic Schroedinger operators in one dimension, absolutely continuous spectra, Bloch waves, and integrable Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chierchia, L.

    1986-01-01

    In the first chapter, the eigenvalue problem for a periodic Schroedinger operator, Lf = (-d 2 /dx 2 + v)f = Ef, is viewed as a two-dimensional Hamiltonian system which is integrable in the sense of Arnold and Liouville. With the aid of the Floquet-BLoch theory, it is shown that such a system is conjugate to two harmonic oscillators with frequencies α and omega, being the rotation number for L and 2π/omega the period of the potential v. This picture is generalized in the second chapter, to quasi periodic Schroedinger operators, L/sub epsilon/, with highly irrational frequencies (omega 1 , ..., omega/sub d/), which are a small perturbation of periodic operators. In the last chapter, the absolutely continuous spectrum σ/sub ac/ of a general quasi-periodic Schroedinger operators is considered. The Radon-Nikodym derivatives (with respect to Lebesgue measure) of the spectral measures are computed in terms of special independent eigensolutions existing for almost ever E in σ/sub ac/. Finally, it is shown that weak Bloch waves always exist for almost ever E in σ/sub ac/ and the question of the existence of genuine Bloch waves is turned into a regularity problem for a certain nonlinear partial differential equation on a d-dimensional torus

  15. Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization, and continuous wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped LiLuF4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. C.; Hang, Y.; Zhang, L. H.; He, X. M.; Yin, J. G.; Li, R.; Yu, T.; Chen, W. B.

    2011-04-01

    Nd3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystal with high optical quality was grown by Czochralski technique. The segregation coefficient of Nd3+ in LiLuF4 crystal was determined by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry method. Polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra were investigated. The peak absorption cross section at 792 nm and peak emission cross section at 1053 nm are 6.94×10-20 and 7.60×10-20 cm2, respectively. With a laser-diode as the pump source, a maximum 6.22 W continuous-wave laser output at 1053 nm has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 37.2% with respect to the pump power.

  16. Characterization of wind velocities in the upstream induction zone of a wind turbine using scanning continuous-wave lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simley, Eric; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2016-01-01

    As a wind turbine generates power, induced velocities, lower than the freestream velocity, will be present upstream of the turbine due to perturbation of the flow by the rotor. In this study, the upstream induction zone of a 225kW horizontal axis Vestas V27 wind turbine located at the Danish...... Technical University’s Risø campus is investigated using a scanning Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) system. Three short-range continuous-wave “WindScanner” lidars are positioned in the field around the V27 turbine allowing detection of all three components of the wind velocity vectors within...... the induction zone. The time-averaged mean wind speeds at different locations in the upstream induction zone are measured by scanning a horizontal plane at hub height and a vertical plane centered at the middle of the rotor extending roughly 1.5 rotor diameters (D) upstream of the rotor. Turbulence statistics...

  17. Diode-side-pumped continuous wave Nd³⁺ : YVO₄ self-Raman laser at 1176 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kores, Cristine Calil; Jakutis-Neto, Jonas; Geskus, Dimitri; Pask, Helen M; Wetter, Niklaus U

    2015-08-01

    Here we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first diode-side-pumped continuous wave (cw) Nd3+:YVO4 self-Raman laser operating at 1176 nm. The compact cavity design is based on the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the pumped side of the Nd3+:YVO4 crystal. Configurations with a single bounce and a double bounce of the laser beam at the pumped faced have been characterized, providing a quasi-cw peak output power of more than 8 W (multimode) with an optical conversion efficiency of 11.5% and 3.7 W (TEM00) having an optical conversion efficiency of 5.4%, respectively. Cw output power of 1.8 W has been demonstrated.

  18. High power diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, B Q; Li, G; Meng, P B; Zhu, G L; Ju, Y L; Wang, Y Z

    2010-01-01

    High power diode-pumped continuous wave (CW) and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO 4 laser is reported. Using two Tm,Ho:YVO 4 rods in a single cavity, up to 20.2 W of CW output lasing at 2054.7 nm was obtained under cryogenic temperature of 77 K with an optical to optical conversion efficiency of 32.9%. For Q-switch operation, up to 19.4 W of output was obtained under 15 kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) with a minimum pulse width of 24.2 ns. In addition, different pulse repetition frequencies of Q-switch operation with 10.0 kHz, 12.5 kHz and 15.0 kHz were investigated comparatively

  19. Efficient continuous-wave eye-safe region signal output from intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Ding Xin; Sheng Quan; Yin Su-Jia; Shi Chun-Peng; Li Xue; Wen Wu-Qi; Yao Jian-Quan; Yu Xuan-Yi

    2012-01-01

    We report an efficient continuous-wave (CW) tunable intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on the multi-period periodically poled lithium niobate and using a laser diode (LD) end-pumped CW 1064 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser as the pump source. A highly efficiency CW operation is realized through a careful cavity design for mode matching and thermal stability. The signal tuning range is 1401–1500 nm obtained by varying the domain period. The maximum output power of 2.2 W at 1500 nm is obtained with a 17.1 W 808 nm LD power and the corresponding conversion efficiency is 12.9%. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Contrast improvement of continuous wave diffuse optical tomography reconstruction by hybrid approach using least square and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Rusha; Dutta, Pranab K.

    2015-07-01

    Reconstruction of the absorption coefficient of tissue with good contrast is of key importance in functional diffuse optical imaging. A hybrid approach using model-based iterative image reconstruction and a genetic algorithm is proposed to enhance the contrast of the reconstructed image. The proposed method yields an observed contrast of 98.4%, mean square error of 0.638×10-3, and object centroid error of (0.001 to 0.22) mm. Experimental validation of the proposed method has also been provided with tissue-like phantoms which shows a significant improvement in image quality and thus establishes the potential of the method for functional diffuse optical tomography reconstruction with continuous wave setup. A case study of finger joint imaging is illustrated as well to show the prospect of the proposed method in clinical diagnosis. The method can also be applied to the concentration measurement of a region of interest in a turbid medium.

  1. Coherent search of continuous gravitational wave signals: extension of the 5-vectors method to a network of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astone, P; Colla, A; Frasca, S; Palomba, C; D'Antonio, S

    2012-01-01

    We describe the extension to multiple datasets of a coherent method for the search of continuous gravitational wave signals, based on the computation of 5-vectors. In particular, we show how to coherently combine different datasets belonging to the same detector or to different detectors. In the latter case the coherent combination is the way to have the maximum increase in signal-to-noise ratio. If the datasets belong to the same detector the advantage comes mainly from the properties of a quantity called coherence which is helpful (in both cases, in fact) in rejecting false candidates. The method has been tested searching for simulated signals injected in Gaussian noise and the results of the simulations are discussed.

  2. Effects of respiration depth on human body radar cross section Using 2.4GHz continuous wave radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexander; Xiaomeng Gao; Jia Xu; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2017-07-01

    In this study, it was tested whether deep and shallow breathing has an effect on the cardiopulmonary radar cross-section (RCS). Continuous wave radar with quadrature architecture at 2.4GHz was used to test 2 human subjects breathing deep and shallow for 30 seconds each while seated 2 meters away from the radar. A retro-reflective marker was placed on the sternum of each subject and measured by infrared motion capture cameras to accurately track displacement of the chest. The quadrature radar outputs were processed to find the radius of the arc on the IQ plot using a circle-fitting algorithm. Results showed that the effective RCS ratio of deep to shallow breathing for subjects 1 and 2 was 6.99 and 2.24 respectively.

  3. End-pumped continuous-wave intracavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with SrWO4 Raman crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F. G.; You, Z. Y.; Zhu, Z. J.; Wang, Y.; Li, J. F.; Tu, C. Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present an end-pumped continuous-wave intra-cavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with a 60 mm long pure crystal SrWO4 and an intra-cavity LiB3O5 frequency doubling crystal. The highest output power of yellow laser at 590 nm was 230 mW and the output power and threshold were found to be correlative with the polarized directions of pure single crystal SrWO4 deeply. Along different directions, the minimum and maximum thresholds of yellow Raman laser at 590 nm were measured to be 2.8 W and 14.3 W with respect to 808 nm LD pump power, respectively.

  4. End-pumped continuous-wave intracavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with SrWO4 Raman crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F G; You, Z Y; Zhu, Z J; Wang, Y; Li, J F; Tu, C Y

    2010-01-01

    We present an end-pumped continuous-wave intra-cavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with a 60 mm long pure crystal SrWO 4 and an intra-cavity LiB 3 O 5 frequency doubling crystal. The highest output power of yellow laser at 590 nm was 230 mW and the output power and threshold were found to be correlative with the polarized directions of pure single crystal SrWO 4 deeply. Along different directions, the minimum and maximum thresholds of yellow Raman laser at 590 nm were measured to be 2.8 W and 14.3 W with respect to 808 nm LD pump power, respectively

  5. Design of neutron beams at the Argonne Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL) for boron neutron capture therapy and neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.L.; McMichael, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron beams are designed for capture therapy based on p-Li and p-Sc reactions using the Argonne Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL). The p-Li beam will provide a 2.5 x 10 9 n/cm 2 s epithermal flux with 7 x 10 5 γ/cm 2 s contamination. On a human brain phantom, this beam allows an advantage depth (AD) of 10 cm, an advantage depth dose rate (ADDR) of 78 cGy/min and an advantage ratio (AR) of 3.2. The p-Sc beam offers 5.9 x 10 7 n/cm 2 s and a dose performance of AD = 8 cm and AR = 3.5, suggesting the potential of near-threshold (p,n) reactions such as the p-Li reaction at E p = 1.92 MeV. A thermal radiography beam could also be obtained from ACWL

  6. Theoretical and experimental signal-to-noise ratio assessment in new direction sensing continuous-wave Doppler lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Foroughi Abari, Farzad; Mann, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    A new direction sensing continuous-wave Doppler lidar based on an image-reject homodyne receiver has recently been demonstrated at DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark. In this contribution we analyse the signal-to-noise ratio resulting from two different data processing methods both...... leading to the direction sensing capability. It is found that using the auto spectrum of the complex signal to determine the wind speed leads to a signal-to-noise ratio equivalent to that of a standard self-heterodyne receiver. Using the imaginary part of the cross spectrum to estimate the Doppler shift...... has the benefit of a zero-mean background spectrum, but comes at the expense of a decrease in the signal-to noise ratio by a factor of √2....

  7. Efficiency of different methods of extra-cavity second harmonic generation of continuous wave single-frequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripunov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey; Radnatarov, Daba

    2016-01-20

    This work presents for the first time to the best of our knowledge a comparative efficiency analysis among various techniques of extra-cavity second harmonic generation (SHG) of continuous-wave single-frequency radiation in nonperiodically poled nonlinear crystals within a broad range of power levels. Efficiency of nonlinear radiation transformation at powers from 1 W to 10 kW was studied in three different configurations: with an external power-enhancement cavity and without the cavity in the case of single and double radiation pass through a nonlinear crystal. It is demonstrated that at power levels exceeding 1 kW, the efficiencies of methods with and without external power-enhancement cavities become comparable, whereas at even higher powers, SHG by a single or double pass through a nonlinear crystal becomes preferable because of the relatively high efficiency of nonlinear transformation and fairly simple implementation.

  8. Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sabry Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on nonlinear frequency conversion from the telecom range via second harmonic generation (SHG and third harmonic generation (THG in suspended gallium nitride slab photonic crystal (PhC cavities on silicon, under continuous-wave resonant excitation. Optimized two-dimensional PhC cavities with augmented far-field coupling have been characterized with quality factors as high as 4.4 × 104, approaching the computed theoretical values. The strong enhancement in light confinement has enabled efficient SHG, achieving a normalized conversion efficiency of 2.4 × 10−3 W−1, as well as simultaneous THG. SHG emission power of up to 0.74 nW has been detected without saturation. The results herein validate the suitability of gallium nitride for integrated nonlinear optical processing.

  9. Efficient continuous-wave 1112 nm Nd:YAG laser operation under direct diode pumping at 885 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J; Dai, X J; Zhang, L; Wu, X D

    2013-01-01

    We report compact diode-end-pumped continuous-wave laser operation at 1112 nm under 885 nm diode-direct pumping for the first time. On the basis of the R 2 →Y 6 transition in a conventional Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) single crystal, the maximum output power of 12.5 W is achieved, with an optical to optical efficiency of 46.6% and a slope efficiency of 52.9%. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest output at 1112 nm generated by a diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser. Furthermore, it is the highest optical to optical efficiency ever reported for 1112 nm Nd:YAG lasers. The short term power stability is ∼0.32% at 12.0 W output. (letter)

  10. Continuous-wave generation and tunability of eye-safe resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Michal; Indra, Lukás.; Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Laser sources generating radiation in the spectral range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm are very attractive for many applications such as satellite communication, range finding, spectroscopy, and atmospheric sensing. The goal of our research was an investigation of continuous-wave generation and wavelength tuning possibility of diode pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser emitting radiation around 1645 nm. We used two 0.5 at. % doped Er:YAG active media with lengths of 10 mm and 25 mm (diameter 5 mm). As a pumping source, a fibre-coupled 1452 nm laser-diode was utilized, which giving possibility of the in-band pumping with a small quantum defect and low thermal stress of the active bulk laser material. The 150 mm long resonator was formed by a pump mirror (HT @ 1450 nm, HR @ 1610 - 1660 nm) and output coupler with 96 % reflectivity at 1610 - 1660 nm. For continuous-wave generation, the maximal output powers were 0.7 W and 1 W for 10 mm and 25 mm long laser crystals, respectively. The corresponding slope efficiencies with respect to absorbed pump power for these Er:YAG lasers were 26.5 % and 37.8 %, respectively. The beam spatial structure was close to the fundamental Gaussian mode. A wavelength tunability was realized by a birefringent plate and four local spectral maxima at 1616, 1633, 1645, and 1657 nm were reached. The output characteristics of the designed and realized resonantly diode-pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser show that this compact system has a potential for usage mainly in spectroscopic fields.

  11. Comparison of the neuroinflammatory responses to selective retina therapy and continuous-wave laser photocoagulation in mouse eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Woo; Choi, Juhye; Kim, Young Shin; Kim, Jina; Brinkmann, Ralf; Lyu, Jungmook; Park, Tae Kwann

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated microglia and inflammatory cell responses after selective retina therapy (SRT) with microsecond-pulsed laser in comparison to continuous-wave laser photocoagulation (cwPC). Healthy C57BL/6 J mice were treated with either a train of short pulses (SRT; 527-nm, Q-switched, 1.7-μs pulse) or a conventional thermal continuous-wave (532-nm, 100-ms pulse duration) laser. The mice were sacrificed and their eyes were enucleated 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after both laser treatments. Pattern of cell death on retinal section was evaluated by TUNEL assay, and the distribution of activated inflammatory cells and glial cells were observed under immunohistochemistry. Consecutive changes for the expression of cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and TGF-β were also examined using immunohistochemistry, and compared among each period after quantification by Western blotting. The numbers of TUNEL-positive cells in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer did not differ in SRT and cwPC lesions, but TUNEL-positive cells in neural retinas were significantly less on SRT. Vague glial cell activation was observed in SRT-treated lesions. The population of inflammatory cells was also significantly decreased after SRT, and the cells were located in the RPE layer and subretinal space. Proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β and TNF-α, showed significantly lower levels after SRT; conversely, the level of TGF-β was similar to the cwPC-treated lesion. SRT resulted in selective RPE damage without collateral thermal injury to the neural retina, and apparently produced negligible glial activation. In addition, SRT showed a markedly less inflammatory response than cwPC, which may have important therapeutic implications for several macular diseases.

  12. Temperature stable LiNbO3 surface acoustic wave device with diode sputtered amorphous TeO2 over-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewan, Namrata; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous TeO 2 thin film, sputtered in the O 2 +Ar(25%+75%) gas environment using a metallic tellurium target, has been identified as an attractive negative temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) material that can yield a temperature stable device when combined with a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device based on positive TCD material such as LiNbO 3 . The influence of amorphous TeO 2 over-layer on the SAW propagation characteristics (velocity and temperature coefficient of delay) of the SAW filters (36 and 70 MHz) based on 128 deg. rotated Y-cut X-propagating lithium niobate (128 deg. Y-X LiNbO 3 ) single crystal has been studied. It is found that 0.042 λ thick TeO 2 over-layer on a prefabricated SAW device operating at 36 MHz centre frequency, reduces the TCD of the device from 76 ppm deg. C -1 to almost zero (∼1.4 ppm deg. C -1 ) without deteriorating its efficiency and could be considered as a suitable alternative for temperature stable devices in comparison to conventional SiO 2 over-layer

  13. Searching for stable Si(n)C(n) clusters: combination of stochastic potential surface search and pseudopotential plane-wave Car-Parinello simulated annealing simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaofeng F; Burggraf, Larry W; Huang, Lingyu

    2013-07-22

    To find low energy Si(n)C(n) structures out of hundreds to thousands of isomers we have developed a general method to search for stable isomeric structures that combines Stochastic Potential Surface Search and Pseudopotential Plane-Wave Density Functional Theory Car-Parinello Molecular Dynamics simulated annealing (PSPW-CPMD-SA). We enhanced the Sunders stochastic search method to generate random cluster structures used as seed structures for PSPW-CPMD-SA simulations. This method ensures that each SA simulation samples a different potential surface region to find the regional minimum structure. By iterations of this automated, parallel process on a high performance computer we located hundreds to more than a thousand stable isomers for each Si(n)C(n) cluster. Among these, five to 10 of the lowest energy isomers were further optimized using B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method. We applied this method to Si(n)C(n) (n = 4-12) clusters and found the lowest energy structures, most not previously reported. By analyzing the bonding patterns of low energy structures of each Si(n)C(n) cluster, we observed that carbon segregations tend to form condensed conjugated rings while Si connects to unsaturated bonds at the periphery of the carbon segregation as single atoms or clusters when n is small and when n is large a silicon network spans over the carbon segregation region.

  14. Searching for Stable SinCn Clusters: Combination of Stochastic Potential Surface Search and Pseudopotential Plane-Wave Car-Parinello Simulated Annealing Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry W. Burggraf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To find low energy SinCn structures out of hundreds to thousands of isomers we have developed a general method to search for stable isomeric structures that combines Stochastic Potential Surface Search and Pseudopotential Plane-Wave Density Functional Theory Car-Parinello Molecular Dynamics simulated annealing (PSPW-CPMD-SA. We enhanced the Sunders stochastic search method to generate random cluster structures used as seed structures for PSPW-CPMD-SA simulations. This method ensures that each SA simulation samples a different potential surface region to find the regional minimum structure. By iterations of this automated, parallel process on a high performance computer we located hundreds to more than a thousand stable isomers for each SinCn cluster. Among these, five to 10 of the lowest energy isomers were further optimized using B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method. We applied this method to SinCn (n = 4–12 clusters and found the lowest energy structures, most not previously reported. By analyzing the bonding patterns of low energy structures of each SinCn cluster, we observed that carbon segregations tend to form condensed conjugated rings while Si connects to unsaturated bonds at the periphery of the carbon segregation as single atoms or clusters when n is small and when n is large a silicon network spans over the carbon segregation region.

  15. A continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator around 5-μm wavelength for high-resolution spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, J; Klemann, A; Gottbehüt, I; Thorwirth, S; Giesen, T F; Schlemmer, S

    2011-06-01

    We present a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (OPO) capable of high resolution spectroscopy at wavelengths between 4.8 μm and 5.4 μm. It is based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) and is singly resonant for the signal radiation around 1.35 μm. Because of the strong absorption of PPLN at wavelengths longer than 4.5 μm, the OPO threshold rises to the scale of several watts, while it produces idler powers of more than 1 mW and offers continuous tuning over 15 GHz. A supersonic jet spectrometer is used in combination with the OPO to perform measurements of the transient linear molecule Si(2)C(3) at 1968.2 cm(-1). Fifty rovibrational transition frequencies of the ν(3) antisymmetric stretching mode have been determined with an accuracy on the order of 10(-4) cm(-1), and molecular parameters for the ground and the v(3) = 1 state have been determined most precisely. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien-Chih Liu, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of falling molten lithium or Li2BeF4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactor`s central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel. X-rays from the fusion microexplosion will ablate a thin layer of blanket material from the surfaces which face toward the fusion site. This generates a highly energetic vapor, which mostly coalesces in the central cavity. The blast expansion from the central cavity generates a shock which propagates through the segmented blanket - a complex geometry, gas-continuous two-phase medium. The impulse that the blast gives to the liquid as it vents past, the gas shock on the chamber wall, and ultimately the liquid impact on the wall are all important quantities to the HYLIFE structural designers.

  17. Distribution of stable isotopes in arid storms . II. A double-component model of kinematic wave flow and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakirevich, Alexander; Dody, Avraham; Adar, Eilon M.; Borisov, Viacheslav; Geyh, Mebus

    A new mathematical method based on a double-component model of kinematic wave flow and approach assesses the dynamic isotopic distribution in arid rain storms and runoff. This model describes the transport and δ18O evolution of rainfall to overland flow and runoff in an arid rocky watershed with uniformly distributed shallow depression storage. The problem was solved numerically. The model was calibrated using a set of temporal discharge and δ18O distribution data for rainfall and runoff collected on a small rocky watershed at the Sede Boker Experimental Site, Israel. Simulation of a reliable result with respect to observation was obtained after parameter adjustment by trial and error. Sensitivity analysis and model application were performed. The model is sensitive to changes in parameters characterizing the depression storage zones. The model reflects the effect of the isotopic memory in the water within the depression storage between sequential rain spells. The use of the double-component model of kinematic wave flow and transport provides an appropriate qualitative and quantitative fitting between computed and observed δ18O distribution in runoff. RésuméUne nouvelle méthode mathématique basée sur un modèle à double composante d'écoulement et de transport par une onde cinématique a été développée pour évaluer la distribution dynamique en isotopes dans les précipitations et dans l'écoulement en région aride. Ce modèle décrit le transport et les variations des δ18O de la pluie vers le ruissellement et l'écoulement de surface dans un bassin aride rocheux où le stockage se fait dans des dépressions peu profondes uniformément réparties. Le problème a été résolu numériquement. Le modèle a été calibré au moyen d'une chronique de débits et d'une distribution des δ18O dans la pluie et dans l'écoulement de surface sur un petit bassin versant rocheux du site expérimental de Sede Boker (Israël). La simulation d'un résultat cr

  18. High-power, continuous-wave, solid-state, single-frequency, tunable source for the ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Apurv Chaitanya, N; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2014-06-15

    We report the development of a compact, high-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency, ultraviolet (UV) source with extended wavelength tunability. The device is based on single-pass, intracavity, second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of the signal radiation of a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) working in the visible and near-IR wavelength range. The SRO is pumped in the green with a 25-mm-long, multigrating, MgO doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) as nonlinear crystal. Using three grating periods, 8.5, 9.0, and 9.5 μm of the MgO:sPPLT crystal and a single set of cavity mirrors, the SRO can be tuned continuously across 710.7-836.3 nm in the signal and corresponding idler across 2115.8-1462.1 nm with maximum idler power of 1.9 W and maximum out-coupled signal power of 254 mW. By frequency-doubling the intracavity signal with a 5-mm-long bismuth borate (BIBO) crystal, we can further tune the SRO continuously over 62.8 nm across 355.4-418.2 nm in the UV with maximum single-frequency UV power, as much as 770 mW at 398.28 nm in a Gaussian beam profile. The UV radiation has an instantaneous line-width of ∼14.5  MHz and peak-peak frequency stability of 151 MHz over 100 s. More than 95% of the tuning range provides UV power >260  mW. Access to lower UV wavelengths can in principle be realized by operating the SRO in the visible using shorter grating periods.

  19. Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves during sleep: the need for transition from childhood to adulthood medical care appears to be related to etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint-Martin, Anne; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Valenti-Hirsch, Maria Paola; Hirsch, Edouard

    2014-08-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous diffuse spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (ECSWS) presents clinically with infrequent nocturnal focal seizures, atypical absences related to secondary bilateral synchrony, negative myoclonia, and atonic and rare generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The unique electroencephalography (EEG) pattern found in ECSWS consists of continuous, diffuse, bilateral spike-waves during slow-wave sleep. Despite the eventual disappearance of clinical seizures and EEG abnormalities by adolescence, the prognosis is guarded in most cases because of neuropsychological and behavioral deficits. ECSWS has a heterogeneous etiology (genetic, structural, and unknown). Because epilepsy and electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities in epileptic encephalopathy with continuous diffuse spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (ECSWS) are self-limited and age related, the need for ongoing medical care and transition to adult care might be questioned. For adolescents in whom etiology remains unknown (possibly genetic) and who experience the disappearance of seizures and EEG abnormalities, there is rarely need for long-term neurologic follow-up, because often a relatively normal cognitive and social evolution follows. However, the majority of patients with structural and possibly "genetic syndromic" etiologies will have persistent cognitive deficits and will need suitable socioeducative care. Therefore, the transition process in ECSWS will depend mainly on etiology and its related features (epileptic active phase duration, and cognitive and behavioral evolution) and revolve around neuropsychological and social support rather than medical and pharmacologic follow-up. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  1. Comparison of therapeutic effects between pulsed and continuous wave 810-nm wavelength laser irradiation for traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ando

    Full Text Available Transcranial low-level laser therapy (LLLT using near-infrared light can efficiently penetrate through the scalp and skull and could allow non-invasive treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI. In the present study, we compared the therapeutic effect using 810-nm wavelength laser light in continuous and pulsed wave modes in a mouse model of TBI.TBI was induced by a controlled cortical-impact device and 4-hours post-TBI 1-group received a sham treatment and 3-groups received a single exposure to transcranial LLLT, either continuous wave or pulsed at 10-Hz or 100-Hz with a 50% duty cycle. An 810-nm Ga-Al-As diode laser delivered a spot with diameter of 1-cm onto the injured head with a power density of 50-mW/cm(2 for 12-minutes giving a fluence of 36-J/cm(2. Neurological severity score (NSS and body weight were measured up to 4 weeks. Mice were sacrificed at 2, 15 and 28 days post-TBI and the lesion size was histologically analyzed. The quantity of ATP production in the brain tissue was determined immediately after laser irradiation. We examined the role of LLLT on the psychological state of the mice at 1 day and 4 weeks after TBI using tail suspension test and forced swim test.The 810-nm laser pulsed at 10-Hz was the most effective judged by improvement in NSS and body weight although the other laser regimens were also effective. The brain lesion volume of mice treated with 10-Hz pulsed-laser irradiation was significantly lower than control group at 15-days and 4-weeks post-TBI. Moreover, we found an antidepressant effect of LLLT at 4-weeks as shown by forced swim and tail suspension tests.The therapeutic effect of LLLT for TBI with an 810-nm laser was more effective at 10-Hz pulse frequency than at CW and 100-Hz. This finding may provide a new insight into biological mechanisms of LLLT.

  2. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  3. Continuous wave and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ in disordered NaLa(MoO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, M.; Liu, J.; Cano-Torres, J. M.; García-Cortés, A.; Cascales, C.; Zaldo, C.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.

    2005-09-01

    Continuous-wave Yb3+ laser operation is studied in single crystals of disordered NaLa(MoO4)2 at room temperature. The sample used was grown by the Czochralski technique and incorporates an Yb ion density of 3.1×1020 cm-3. The effect of the Yb concentration on some of the crystal properties is described as well as the spectroscopic Yb3+ properties at 5 K. Maximum slope efficiencies of about 40% for π and 38% for σ polarization were obtained under Ti:sapphire laser pumping near 976 nm, respectively. The maximum output power for the π polarization was 400 mW at 1039.5 nm, the threshold in this case amounted to 240 mW (absorbed pump power). The laser emission was tunable between 1016 and 1064 nm with a Lyot filter. Lasing was also realized by pumping with a fiber-coupled diode laser module. Maximum output power of 900 mW at 1035 nm was achieved in this case for the π polarization and the threshold was 280 mW. The results, in terms of output power and tunability, are superior in comparison to all previous reports on Yb-doped disordered double tungstate or molybdate crystals and represent a significant improvement in comparison to earlier experiments with low-doped Yb:NaLa(MoO4)2.

  4. Comparison of 250 MHz electron spin echo and continuous wave oxygen EPR imaging methods for in vivo applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Sundramoorthy, Subramanian V.; Barth, Eugene D.; Mailer, Colin; Halpern, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compare two electron paramagnetic resonance imaging modalities at 250 MHz to determine advantages and disadvantages of those modalities for in vivo oxygen imaging. Methods: Electron spin echo (ESE) and continuous wave (CW) methodologies were used to obtain three-dimensional images of a narrow linewidth, water soluble, nontoxic oxygen-sensitive trityl molecule OX063 in vitro and in vivo. The authors also examined sequential images obtained from the same animal injected intravenously with trityl spin probe to determine temporal stability of methodologies. Results: A study of phantoms with different oxygen concentrations revealed a threefold advantage of the ESE methodology in terms of reduced imaging time and more precise oxygen resolution for samples with less than 70 torr oxygen partial pressure. Above∼100 torr, CW performed better. The images produced by both methodologies showed pO2 distributions with similar mean values. However, ESE images demonstrated superior performance in low pO2 regions while missing voxels in high pO2 regions. Conclusions: ESE and CW have different areas of applicability. ESE is superior for hypoxia studies in tumors. PMID:21626937

  5. COHERENT NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR CONTINUOUS GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNALS IN A PULSAR TIMING ARRAY: PULSAR PHASES AS EXTRINSIC PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurements, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430074 (China); Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A., E-mail: ywang12@hust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, 1 West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Supermassive black hole binaries are one of the primary targets of gravitational wave (GW) searches using pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). GW signals from such systems are well represented by parameterized models, allowing the standard Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) to be used for their detection and estimation. However, there is a dichotomy in how the GLRT can be implemented for PTAs: there are two possible ways in which one can split the set of signal parameters for semi-analytical and numerical extremization. The straightforward extension of the method used for continuous signals in ground-based GW searches, where the so-called pulsar phase parameters are maximized numerically, was addressed in an earlier paper. In this paper, we report the first study of the performance of the second approach where the pulsar phases are maximized semi-analytically. This approach is scalable since the number of parameters left over for numerical optimization does not depend on the size of the PTA. Our results show that for the same array size (9 pulsars), the new method performs somewhat worse in parameter estimation, but not in detection, than the previous method where the pulsar phases were maximized numerically. The origin of the performance discrepancy is likely to be in the ill-posedness that is intrinsic to any network analysis method. However, the scalability of the new method allows the ill-posedness to be mitigated by simply adding more pulsars to the array. This is shown explicitly by taking a larger array of pulsars.

  6. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before. We attribute this unique behaviour to surface-localized states in the bandgap that turn HgTe QDs into 4-level systems. The resulting long-lived population inversion induces amplified spontaneous emission under continuous-wave optical pumping at power levels compatible with solar irradiation and direct current electrical pumping. These results introduce an alternative approach for low-threshold QD-based gain media based on intentional trap states that paves the way for solution-processed infrared QD lasers and amplifiers.

  7. Compact, efficient diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 slab continuous-wave 912-nm laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huan; Gong Ma-Li

    2012-01-01

    A fiber-coupled laser-diode (LD) end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab continuous-wave (CW) 912-nm laser and an LD bar end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab CW 912-nm laser are both demonstrated in this paper. Using the fiber-coupled LD of end-pumped type, a highest CW 912-nm laser output power of 10.17 W is obtained with a high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 24.6% and a slope efficiency of 34.5%. The measured M 2 factors of beam quality in x and y directions are 5.3 and 5.1, respectively. Besides, an LD bar of end-pumped type is used to realize CW 912-nm laser output, which has the advantages of compactness and low cost. When the pump power is 38.8 W, the output power is 8.87 W and the measured M 2 factors of beam quality in x and y directions are 16 and 1.31, respectively. In order to improve the beam quality of the 912-nm laser at x direction, a new quasi-concentric laser resonator will be designed, and an LD bar end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab high-power CW 912-nm TEM 00 laser will be realized in the future. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Study of welding characteristics of inconel 600 alloy using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Seong Wook; Yoo, Young Tae; Shin, Ho Jun

    2004-01-01

    Laser beam welding is increasingly being used in welding of structural steels. The laser welding process is one of the most advanced manufacturing technologies owing to its high speed and deep penetration. The thermal cycles associated with laser welding are generally much faster than those involved in conventional arc welding processes, leading to a rather small weld zone. Experiments are performed for Inconel 600 plates changing several process parameter such as laser power, welding speed, shielding gas flow rate, presence of surface pollution, with fixed or variable gap and misalignment between plate and plate, etc. The follow conclusions can be drawn that laser power and welding speed have a pronounced effect on size and shape of the fusion zone. Increase in welding speed resulted in an increase in weld depth/ aspect ratio and hence a decrease in the fusion zone size. The penetration depth increased with the increase in laser power. Welding characteristics of austienite Inconel 600 using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser are experimentally investigated. This paper describes the weld ability of inconel 600 for machine structural use by Nd:YAG laser

  9. Continuous wave and time resolved spectroscopy of InAsN/GaAsN based quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taliercio, T.; Valvin, P.; Intartaglia, R.; Guillet, T.; Lefebvre, P.; Bretagnon, T.; Gil, B.; Sallet, V.; Harmand, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the optical properties of quantum dots based on a new family of semiconductors: III-V dilute nitrides such as (In,Ga)(N,As). Continuous wave and time resolved photoluminescence (PL) experiments allowed us to evaluate the impact of N incorporation during the growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots. Previous work [V. Sallet et al., to be submitted to J. Cryst. Growth (2005); O. Schumann et al., J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2832 (2004)] showed that increasing the flux of N atoms into the growth chamber modifies drastically the size of the dots which leads to a bimodal growth. Two populations of dots with different sizes appear. The quantum dot PL line broadens and a second PL line appears at higher energy. Time resolved PL allows us to identify the nature of this second PL line: second population of quantum dots. A second decay time is observed which we interpret as being the consequence of the perturbation of the electronic states of the quantum dots. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before. We attribute this unique behaviour to surface-localized states in the bandgap that turn HgTe QDs into 4-level systems. The resulting long-lived population inversion induces amplified spontaneous emission under continuous-wave optical pumping at power levels compatible with solar irradiation and direct current electrical pumping. These results introduce an alternative approach for low-threshold QD-based gain media based on intentional trap states that paves the way for solution-processed infrared QD lasers and amplifiers.

  11. Systematic analysis of DNA damage induction and DNA repair pathway activation by continuous wave visible light laser micro-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Muster

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser micro-irradiation can be used to induce DNA damage with high spatial and temporal resolution, representing a powerful tool to analyze DNA repair in vivo in the context of chromatin. However, most lasers induce a mixture of DNA damage leading to the activation of multiple DNA repair pathways and making it impossible to study individual repair processes. Hence, we aimed to establish and validate micro-irradiation conditions together with inhibition of several key proteins to discriminate different types of DNA damage and repair pathways using lasers commonly available in confocal microscopes. Using time-lapse analysis of cells expressing fluorescently tagged repair proteins and also validation of the DNA damage generated by micro-irradiation using several key damage markers, we show that irradiation with a 405 nm continuous wave laser lead to the activation of all repair pathways even in the absence of exogenous sensitization. In contrast, we found that irradiation with 488 nm laser lead to the selective activation of non-processive short-patch base excision and single strand break repair, which were further validated by PARP inhibition and metoxyamine treatment. We conclude that these low energy conditions discriminated against processive long-patch base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair as well as double strand break repair pathways.

  12. A comparative study of the plasmon effect in nanoelectrode THz emitters: Pulse vs. continuous-wave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kiwon; Lee, Eui Su; Lee, Il-Min; Han, Sang-Pil; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Park, Kyung Hyun, E-mail: khp@etri.re.kr [Terahertz Basic Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeongyong [Metal-Insulator Transition Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Donghun [Optical Internet Components Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Plasmonic field enhancement in terahertz (THz) generation is one of the recently arisen techniques in the THz field that has attracted considerable interest. However, the reported levels of enhancement of THz output power in the literature are significantly different from each other, from less than two times to about two orders of magnitude of enhancement in power, which implies the existence of other major limiting factors yet to be revealed. In this work, the contribution of the plasmonic effect to the power enhancement of THz emitters is revisited. We show that the carrier collection efficiency in a THz emitter with plasmonic nanostructures is more critical to the device performance than the plasmonic field enhancement itself. The strong reverse fields induced by the highly localized plasmonic carriers in the vicinity of the nanoelectrodes screen the carrier collections and seriously limit the power enhancement. This is supported by our experimental observations of the significantly enhanced power in a plasmonic nanoelectrode THz emitter in continuous-wave radiation mode, while the same device has limited enhancement with pulsed radiation. We hope that our study may provide an intuitive but practical guideline in adopting plasmonic nanostructures with an aim of enhancing the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  13. Distance measurement using frequency-modulated continuous-wave ladar with calibration by a femtosecond frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui; Zhu, Jigui

    2018-01-01

    Precise distance measurement is of interest for large-scale manufacturing, future space satellite missions, and other industrial applications. The ranging system with femtosecond optical frequency comb (FOFC) could offer high accuracy, stability and direct traceability to SI definition of the meter. Here, we propose a scheme for length measurement based on the frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) ladar with a FOFC. In this scheme, the reference interferometer in the FMCW ladar is calibrated by the intensity detection using the FOFC in the time domain within an optical wavelength resolution. With analysis of the theoretical model, this system has the potential to a high-speed, high-accuracy absolute distance measurement. Then, based on the experimental results, the evaluation of the performance of the calibration of the reference arm is discussed. In addition, the performance of this system is evaluated by a single position measurement with different tuning velocities of wavelength. The experimental results show that the reproducibility of the distance measurement is 10-5 level.

  14. Formation of porous silicon oxide from substrate-bound silicon rich silicon oxide layers by continuous-wave laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Fricke-Begemann, Th.; Peretzki, P.; Ihlemann, J.; Seibt, M.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide that show room temperature photoluminescence (PL) have great potential in silicon light emission applications. Nanocrystalline silicon particle formation by laser irradiation has the unique advantage of spatially controlled heating, which is compatible with modern silicon micro-fabrication technology. In this paper, we employ continuous wave laser irradiation to decompose substrate-bound silicon-rich silicon oxide films into crystalline silicon particles and silicon dioxide. The resulting microstructure is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques with considerable emphasis on the formation and properties of laser damaged regions which typically quench room temperature PL from the nanoparticles. It is shown that such regions consist of an amorphous matrix with a composition similar to silicon dioxide which contains some nanometric silicon particles in addition to pores. A mechanism referred to as "selective silicon ablation" is proposed which consistently explains the experimental observations. Implications for the damage-free laser decomposition of silicon-rich silicon oxides and also for controlled production of porous silicon dioxide films are discussed.

  15. High-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency, all-periodically-poled, near-infrared source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kavita; Chaitanya Kumar, S; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2012-12-15

    We report a high-power, single-frequency, continuous-wave (cw) source tunable across 775-807 nm in the near-infrared, based on internal second harmonic generation (SHG) of a cw singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a Yb-fiber laser. The compact, all-periodically-poled source employs a 48-mm-long, multigrating MgO doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystal for the OPO and a 30-mm-long, fan-out grating MgO-doped stoichiometric periodically poled lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) crystal for intracavity SHG, providing as much as 3.7 W of near-infrared power at 793 nm, together with 4 W of idler power at 3232 nm, at an overall extraction efficiency of 28%. Further, the cw OPO is tunable across 3125-3396 nm in the idler, providing as much as 4.3 W at 3133 nm with >3.8  W over 77% of the tuning range together with >3  W of near-infrared power across 56% of SHG tuning range, in high-spatial beam-quality with M2<1.4. The SHG output has an instantaneous linewidth of 8.5 MHz and exhibits a passive power stability better than 3.5% rms over more than 1 min.

  16. Impact of 120-W 2-μm continuous wave laser vapoenucleation of the prostate on sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubin; Shao, Jinkai; Lu, Yongning; Lü, Yongan; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of 120-W 2-μm continuous wave (cw) laser vapoenucleation of the prostate in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on sexual function. One hundred twenty-two consecutive patients with BPH were retrospectively collected in this study and were classified into two groups for surgical treatment with 2-μm cw laser vapoenucleation or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and general assessment questions were completed before and 12 months after treatment to determine the impact on sexual function. A total of 33 patients (52.4%) in group 1 and 31 (52.5%) in group 2 reported various degrees of erectile dysfunction before surgery. Interestingly, an increase in IIEF-EF score by 2 points was reported by 16 (25.4%) and 14 (23.7%) patients, respectively, and mean EF score did show a marginal but not significant increase postoperatively in both group. Differences about orgasmic intercourse satisfaction, sexual desire domain, and overall satisfaction scores in each group were not significant between preoperative and postoperative, but there was a significant decrease in the orgasmic function domain score at 12 months postoperation in both groups (p function. No significant erectile function improvement was observed after surgery, but these two techniques significantly lowered the IIEF orgasmic function domain and this was mainly caused by retrograde ejaculation.

  17. SimLabel: a graphical user interface to simulate continuous wave EPR spectra from site-directed spin labeling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, E; Le Breton, N; Martinho, M; Mileo, E; Belle, V

    2017-08-01

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) combined with continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (cw EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to reveal, at the residue level, structural transitions in proteins. SDSL-EPR is based on the selective grafting of a paramagnetic label on the protein under study, followed by cw EPR analysis. To extract valuable quantitative information from SDSL-EPR spectra and thus give reliable interpretation on biological system dynamics, numerical simulations of the spectra are required. Such spectral simulations can be carried out by coding in MATLAB using functions from the EasySpin toolbox. For non-expert users of MATLAB, this could be a complex task or even impede the use of such simulation tool. We developed a graphical user interface called SimLabel dedicated to run cw EPR spectra simulations particularly coming from SDSL-EPR experiments. Simlabel provides an intuitive way to visualize, simulate, and fit such cw EPR spectra. An example of SDSL-EPR spectra simulation concerning the study of an intrinsically disordered region undergoing a local induced folding is described and discussed. We believe that this new tool will help the users to rapidly obtain reliable simulated spectra and hence facilitate the interpretation of their results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. High-power Nd:YAG lasers using stable-unstable resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Mudge, D; Ottaway, D J; Veitch, P J; Munch, J P; Hamilton, M W

    2002-01-01

    The development of a power-scalable diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser for advanced long-baseline interferometric detectors of gravitational waves is described. The laser employs a chain of injection-locked slave lasers to yield an efficient, frequency-stable, diffraction-limited laser beam.

  19. On the time-stepping stability of continuous mass-lumped and discontinuous Galerkin finite elements for the 3D acoustic wave equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.; Mulder, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional acoustic wave equation, discretized on tetrahedral meshes. Two methods are considered: mass-lumped continuous finite elements and the symmetric interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method (SIP-DG). Combining the spatial discretization with the leap-frog

  20. Search of the Orion spur for continuous gravitational waves using a loosely coherent algorithm on data from LIGO interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Branco, V.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M. D.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. A.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Gonzalez, J.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammer, D. X.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jang, D.H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karlen, J. L.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelecsenyi, N.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kerrigan, J.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J. T.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Madden-Fong, D. X.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okounkova, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W. E.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C. T.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Racz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodger, A. S.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffery, P.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vansuch, G.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, MT; Wade, L. E.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, K. J.; Williams, L.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report results of a wideband search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars within the Orion spur towards both the inner and outer regions of our Galaxy. As gravitational waves interact very weakly with matter, the search is unimpeded by dust and concentrations of stars. One

  1. Low power continuous wave-laser seed irradiation effect on Moringa oleifera germination, seedling growth and biochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urva; Shafique, Hina; Jamil, Yasir; Haq, Zia Ul; Mujahid, Tamveel; Khan, Aman Ullah; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    2017-05-01

    Recently, laser application in agriculture has gained much attention since plant characteristics were improved significantly in response of pre-sowing seed treatment. Pre-sowing laser seed treatment effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile were studied in Moringa olifera. M. olifera healthy seeds were exposed to 25, 50, 75mJ low power continuous wave laser light and grown under greenhouse conditions. The seedling growth and biochemical attributes were evaluated from 10-day-old seedlings. The germination parameters (percentage, mean germination time), vigor index, seedling growth (root length, seedling length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight) enhanced considerably. The laser energy levels used for seed irradiation showed variable effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile. The mineral contents were recorded to be higher in seedling raised from laser treated seeds, which were higher in roots versus shoots and leaves. The effect of laser treatment on seedling fat, nitrogen and protein content was insignificant and at higher energy level both nitrogen and protein contents decreased versus control. Results revealed that M. olifera germination, seedling growth and mineral contents were enhanced and optimum laser energy level has more acceleratory effect since at three laser energy levels the responses were significantly different. Overall the laser energy levels effect on germination and seedling growth was found in following order; 75mJ>50mJ>25mJ, where as in case of fat, protein and nitrogen contents the trend was as; 25mJ>50mJ and 75mJ. However, this technique could possibly be used to improve the M. olifera germination, seedling growth, and minerals contents where germination is low due to unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantini, S.; Franceschini, M.A.; Gratton, E.; Hueber, D.; Rosenfeld, W.; Maulik, D.; Stubblefield, P.G.; Stankovic, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used continuous-wave (CW) and frequency-domain spectroscopy to investigate the optical properties of the newborn piglet brain in vivo and non-invasively. Three anaesthetized, intubated, ventilated and instrumented newborn piglets were placed into a stereotaxic instrument for optimal experimental stability, reproducible probe-to-scalp optical contact and 3D adjustment of the optical probe. By measuring the absolute values of the brain absorption and reduced scattering coefficients at two wavelengths (758 and 830 nm), frequency-domain spectroscopy provided absolute readings (in contrast to the relative readings of CW spectroscopy) of cerebral haemoglobin concentration and saturation during experimentally induced perturbations in cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation. Such perturbations included a modulation of the inspired oxygen concentration, transient brain asphyxia, carotid artery occlusion and terminal brain asphyxia. The baseline cerebral haemoglobin saturation and concentration, measured with frequency-domain spectroscopy, were about 60% and 42 μM respectively. The cerebral saturation values ranged from a minimum of 17% (during transient brain asphyxia) to a maximum of 80% (during recovery from transient brain asphyxia). To analyse the CW optical data, we have (a) derived a mathematical relationship between the cerebral optical properties and the differential pathlength factor and (b) introduced a method based on the spatial dependence of the detected intensity (dc slope method). The analysis of the cerebral optical signals associated with the arterial pulse and with respiration demonstrates that motion artefacts can significantly affect the intensity recorded from a single optode pair. Motion artefacts can be strongly reduced by combining data from multiple optodes to provide relative readings in the dc slope method. We also report significant biphasic changes (initial decrease and successive increase) in the reduced scattering coefficient measured

  3. Design of a New Water Load for S-band 750 kW Continuous Wave High Power Klystron Used in EAST Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Fukun; Shan, Jiafang; Kuang, Guangli

    2007-04-01

    In order to test the klystrons operated at a frequency of 3.7 GHz in a continuous wave (CW) mode, a type of water load to absorb its power up to 750 kW is presented. The distilled water sealed with an RF ceramic window is used as the absorbent. At a frequency range of 70 MHz, the VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) is below 1.2, and the rise in temperature of water is about 30 oC at the highest power level.

  4. High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Erik Nicolai; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a very high coincidence-to-accidental ratio of 673 using continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a silicon strip waveguide through spontaneous four-wave mixing. This result is obtained by employing on-chip photonic-crystal-based grating couplers for both low-loss fiber......-to-chip coupling and on-chip suppression of generated spontaneous Raman scattering noise. We measure a minimum heralded second-order correlation of g(H)((2)) (0) = 0.12, demonstrating that our source operates in the single- photon regime with low noise. (C) 2017 The Japan Society of Applied Physics...

  5. Histologic evaluation of laser lipolysis comparing continuous wave vs pulsed lasers in an in vivo pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Jessica R; Veerappan, Anna; Chen, Bo; Mirkov, Mirko; Sierra, Ray; Spiegel, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate acute and delayed laser effects of subdermal lipolysis and collagen deposition using an in vivo pig model and to compare histologic findings in fatty tissue after continuous wave diode (CW) vs pulsed laser treatment. Three CW lasers (980, 1370, and 1470 nm) and 3 pulsed lasers (1064, 1320, and 1440 nm) were used to treat 4 Göttingen minipigs. Following administration of Klein tumescent solution, a laser cannula was inserted at the top of a 10 × 2.5-cm rectangle and was passed subdermally to create separate laser "tunnels." Temperatures at the surface and at intervals of 4-mm to 20-mm depths were recorded immediately after exposure and were correlated with skin injury. Full-thickness cutaneous biopsy specimens were obtained at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after exposure and were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome stain. Qualitative and semiquantitative histopathologic evaluations were performed with attention to vascular damage, lipolysis, and collagen deposition. Skin surface damage occurred at temperatures exceeding 46°C. Histologic examination at 1 day after exposure showed hemorrhage, fibrous collagen fiber coagulation, and adipocyte damage. Adipocytes surrounded by histiocytes, a marker of lipolysis, were present at 1 week and 1 month after exposure. Collagen deposition in subdermal fatty tissue and in reticular dermis of some specimens was noted at 1 week and had increased at 1 month. Tissue treated with CW laser at 1470 nm demonstrated greater hemorrhage and more histiocytes at damage sites than tissue treated with pulsed laser at 1440 nm. There was a trend toward more collagen deposition with pulsed lasers than with CW lasers, but this was not statistically significant. Histopathologic comparison between results of CW laser at 980 nm vs pulsed laser at 1064 nm showed the same trend. Hemorrhage differences may result from pulse duration variations. A theoretical calculation estimating temperature rise in vessels supported this

  6. Multiwatt-level continuous-wave midwave infrared generation using difference frequency mixing in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shekhar; Barnes, Jacob O; Gonzalez, Leonel P

    2014-09-01

    Over 3.5 W of continuous-wave power at 3.4 μm was obtained by single-pass difference frequency mixing of 1.064 and 1.55 μm fiber lasers in a 5 cm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Good agreement was obtained between the observed temperature dependence of the generated power and the prediction from focused Gaussian beam theory.

  7. Intersubband Rabi oscillations in asymmetric nanoheterostructures: implications for a tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, V A

    2012-06-01

    A tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation based on a semiconductor nanoheterostructure with asymmetric quantum wells is suggested. It utilizes Rabi oscillations at a transition between quantum well subbands excited by external femtosecond pulses of a mid-infrared electromagnetic field. Due to quantum well broken inversion symmetry the subbands possess different average dipole moments, which enables the creation of polarization at the Rabi frequency as the subband populations change. It is shown that if this polarization is excited so that it is periodic in space, then, though being pulsed, it can produce continuous-wave output radiation. Changing the polarization space period and the time intervals between the exciting pulses, one can tune the frequency of this radiation throughout the far-infrared and THz range. In the present work a concrete multiple quantum well heterostructure design and a scheme of its space-periodic polarization are suggested. It is shown that for existing sources of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses the proposed scheme can provide a continuous-wave output power of order the power of far-infrared and THz quantum cascade lasers. Being added to the possibility of its output frequency tuning, this can make the suggested device attractive for fundamental research and various applications.

  8. A Highly Stable Marching-on-in-Time Volume Integral Equation Solver for Analyzing Transient Wave Interactions on High-Contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-06

    Time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers represent an attractive alternative to finite difference (FDTD) and finite element (FEM) schemes for analyzing transient electromagnetic interactions on composite scatterers. Current induced on a scatterer, in response to a transient incident field, generates a scattered field. First, the scattered field is expressed as a spatio-temporal convolution of the current and the Green function of the background medium. Then, a TDIE is obtained by enforcing boundary conditions and/or fundamental field relations. TDIEs are often solved for the unknown current using marching on-in-time (MOT) schemes. MOT-TDIE solvers expand the current using local spatio-temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDIE and testing the resulting equation in space and time yields a lower triangular system of equations (termed MOT system), which can be solved by marching in time for the coefficients of the current expansion. Stability of the MOT scheme often depends on how accurately the spatio-temporal convolution of the current and the Green function is discretized. In this work, band-limited prolate-based interpolation functions are used as temporal bases in expanding the current and discretizing the spatio-temporal convolution. Unfortunately, these functions are two sided, i.e., they require ”future” current samples for interpolation, resulting in a non-causal MOT system. To alleviate the effect of non-causality and restore the ability to march in time, an extrapolation scheme can be used to estimate the future values of the currents from their past values. Here, an accurate, stable and band-limited extrapolation scheme is developed for this purpose. This extrapolation scheme uses complex exponents, rather than commonly used harmonics, so that propagating and decaying mode fields inside the dielectric scatterers are accurately modeled. The resulting MOT scheme is applied to solving the time domain volume integral equation (VIE

  9. Modeling of intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser absorption spectrometer systems for atmospheric CO(2) column measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Ismail, Syed; Wallace Harrison, F; Browell, Edward V; Nehrir, Amin R; Dobler, Jeremy; Moore, Berrien; Refaat, Tamer; Kooi, Susan A

    2013-10-10

    The focus of this study is to model and validate the performance of intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) CO(2) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) systems and their CO(2) column measurements from airborne and satellite platforms. The model accounts for all fundamental physics of the instruments and their related CO(2) measurement environments, and the modeling results are presented statistically from simulation ensembles that include noise sources and uncertainties related to the LAS instruments and the measurement environments. The characteristics of simulated LAS systems are based on existing technologies and their implementation in existing systems. The modeled instruments are specifically assumed to be IM-CW LAS systems such as the Exelis' airborne multifunctional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) operating in the 1.57 μm CO(2) absorption band. Atmospheric effects due to variations in CO(2), solar radiation, and thin clouds, are also included in the model. Model results are shown to agree well with LAS atmospheric CO(2) measurement performance. For example, the relative bias errors of both MFLL simulated and measured CO(2) differential optical depths were found to agree to within a few tenths of a percent when compared to the in situ observations from the flight of 3 August 2011 over Railroad Valley (RRV), Nevada, during the summer 2011 flight campaign. In addition, the horizontal variations in the model CO(2) differential optical depths were also found to be consistent with those from MFLL measurements. In general, the modeled and measured signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the CO(2) column differential optical depths (τd) agreed to within about 30%. Model simulations of a spaceborne IM-CW LAS system in a 390 km dawn/dusk orbit for CO(2) column measurements showed that with a total of 42 W of transmitted power for one offline and two different sideline channels (placed at different locations on the side of the CO(2) absorption line), the accuracy of the

  10. First low-frequency Einstein@Home all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Deelman, E.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Gonzalez, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y. -M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Rynge, M.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahi, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y. -F.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Anderson, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. This search investigates the low frequency range of Advanced LIGO data, between 20 and 100 Hz, much of which was not explored in initial LIGO.

  11. Accretion-induced spin-wandering effects on the neutron star in Scorpius X-1: Implications for continuous gravitational wave searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arunava; Messenger, Chris; Riles, Keith

    2018-02-01

    The LIGO's discovery of binary black hole mergers has opened up a new era of transient gravitational wave astronomy. The potential detection of gravitational radiation from another class of astronomical objects, rapidly spinning nonaxisymmetric neutron stars, would constitute a new area of gravitational wave astronomy. Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) is one of the most promising sources of continuous gravitational radiation to be detected with present-generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. As the sensitivity of these detectors improve in the coming years, so will power of the search algorithms being used to find gravitational wave signals. Those searches will still require integration over nearly year long observational spans to detect the incredibly weak signals from rotating neutron stars. For low mass X-ray binaries such as Sco X-1 this difficult task is compounded by neutron star "spin wandering" caused by stochastic accretion fluctuations. In this paper, we analyze X-ray data from the R X T E satellite to infer the fluctuating torque on the neutron star in Sco X-1. We then perform a large-scale simulation to quantify the statistical properties of spin-wandering effects on the gravitational wave signal frequency and phase evolution. We find that there are a broad range of expected maximum levels of frequency wandering corresponding to maximum drifts of between 0.3 - 50 μ Hz /sec over a year at 99% confidence. These results can be cast in terms of the maximum allowed length of a coherent signal model neglecting spin-wandering effects as ranging between 5-80 days. This study is designed to guide the development and evaluation of Sco X-1 search algorithms.

  12. Efficient continuous-wave, broadly tunable and passive Q-switching lasers based on a Tm3+:CaF2 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Cheng; Zu, Yuqian; Fan, Xiuwei; Liu, Jie; Guo, Xinsheng; Qian, Xiaobo; Su, Liangbi

    2018-04-01

    Laser operations in the continuous-wave as well as in the pulsed regime of a 4 at.% Tm3+:CaF2 crystal are reported. For the continuous-wave operation, a maximum average output power of 1.15 W was achieved, and the corresponding slope efficiency was more than 64%. A continuous tuning range of about 160 nm from 1877-2036 nm was achieved using a birefringent filter. Using Argentum nanorods as a saturable absorber, the significant pulsed operation of a passively Q-switched Tm3+:CaF2 laser was observed at 1935.4 nm for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. A maximum output power of 385 mW with 41.4 µJ pulse energy was obtained under an absorbed pump power of 2.04 W. The present results indicate that the Tm3+:CaF2 lasers could be promising laser sources to operate in the eye-safe spectral region.

  13. Brainmapping Neuronal Networks in Children with Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Sleep as revealed by DICS and RPDC

    OpenAIRE

    Dierck, Carina

    2018-01-01

    CSWS is an age-related epileptic encephalopathy consisting of the triad of seizures, neuropsychological impairment and a specific EEG-pattern. This EEG-pattern is characterized by spike-and-wave-discharges emphasized during non-REM sleep. Until now, little has been known about the pathophysiologic processes. So far research approaches on the underlying neuronal network have been based on techniques with a good spatial but poor temporal resolution like fMRI and FDG-PET. In this study the se...

  14. Diode-pumped continuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:GdLuAG laser at 1443.9 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianwen; Liu, Zhaojun; Zhang, Sasa; Cong, Zhenghua; Guan, Chen; Xue, Feng; Chen, Hui; Huang, Qingjie; Xu, Xiaodong; Xu, Jun; Qin, Zengguang

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the 1443.9 nm laser characteristics of Nd:GdLuAG crystal. Diode-end-pumping configuration was employed under both continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched operations. For CW operation, the maximum average output power was 1.36 W with a slope efficiency of 15%. By using a V3+:YAG crystal as the saturable absorber, we obtained the maximum average output power of 164 mW under Q-switched operation. The corresponding pulse energy was 29.3 μJ and pulse duration was 59 ns.

  15. The continuous-wave passive mode-locking operation of a diode-pumped mixed Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H-T; Xu, J-L; He, J-L; Zhang, S-Y; Xu, J-Q; Zhao, B

    2011-01-01

    We reported a continuous-wave (CW) passively mode-locked Nd:Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 VO 4 laser at 1064 nm. A partially reflective semiconductor saturable absorber mirror was exploited in the Z-typed resonator. The Nd:Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 VO 4 laser generated CW mode-locked pulses with an average output power of 860 mW, a repetition rate of 53.7 MHz, and a pulse duration of 8.7 ps

  16. Highly efficient single-pass frequency doubling of a continuous-wave distributed feedback laser diode using a PPLN waveguide crystal at 488 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechow, Andreas; Schedel, Marco; Stry, Sandra; Sacher, Joachim; Menzel, Ralf

    2007-10-15

    A continuous-wave distributed feedback diode laser emitting at 976 nm was frequency doubled by the use of a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide crystal with a channel size of 3 microm x 5 microm and an interaction length of 10 mm. A laser to waveguide coupling efficiency of 75% could be achieved resulting in 304 mW of incident infrared light inside the waveguide. Blue laser light emission of 159 mW at 488 nm has been generated, which equals to a conversion efficiency of 52%. The resulting wall plug efficiency was 7.4%.

  17. Numerical Optimisation in Non Reacting Conditions of the Injector Geometry for a Continuous Detonation Wave Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, T.; Davidenko, D.; Dupoirieux, F.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the methodology and the results of a numerical study, which is aimed at the investigation and optimisation of different means of fuel and oxidizer injection adapted to rocket engines operating in the rotating detonation mode. As the simulations are achieved at the local scale of a single injection element, only one periodic pattern of the whole geometry can be calculated so that the travelling detonation waves and the associated chemical reactions can not be taken into account. Here, separate injection of fuel and oxidizer is considered because premixed injection is handicapped by the risk of upstream propagation of the detonation wave. Different associations of geometrical periodicity and symmetry are investigated for the injection elements distributed over the injector head. To analyse the injection and mixing processes, a nonreacting 3D flow is simulated using the LES approach. Performance of the studied configurations is analysed using the results on instantaneous and mean flowfields as well as by comparing the mixing efficiency and the total pressure recovery evaluated for different configurations.

  18. First low-frequency Einstein@Home all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO data

    Science.gov (United States)

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L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Deelman, E.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Rynge, M.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahi, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.-F.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Anderson, D. P.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. This search investigates the low frequency range of Advanced LIGO data, between 20 and 100 Hz, much of which was not explored in initial LIGO. The search was made possible by the computing power provided by the volunteers of the Einstein@Home project. We find no significant signal candidate and set the most stringent upper limits to date on the amplitude of gravitational wave signals from the target population, corresponding to a sensitivity depth of 48.7 [1 /√{Hz }] . At the frequency of best strain sensitivity, near 100 Hz, we set 90% confidence upper limits of 1.8 ×1 0-25. At the low end of our frequency range, 20 Hz, we achieve upper limits of 3.9 ×1 0-24. At 55 Hz we can exclude sources with ellipticities greater than 1 0-5 within 100 pc of Earth with fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of 1038 kg m2 .

  19. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  20. A multi-period optimization model for planning of China's power sector with consideration of carbon dioxide mitigation—The importance of continuous and stable carbon mitigation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongjie; Liu, Pei; Ma, Linwei; LI, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge China's power sector faces is to mitigate its carbon emissions whilst satisfying the ever-increasing power demand. Optimal planning of the power sector with consideration of carbon mitigation for a long-term future remains a complex task, involving many technical alternatives and an infinite number of possible plants installations, retrofitting, and decommissioning over the planning horizon. Previously the authors built a multi-period optimization model for the planning of China's power sector during 2010–2050. Based on that model, this paper executed calculations on the optimal pathways of China's power sector with two typical decision-making modes, which are based on “full-information” and “limited-information” hypothesis, and analyzed the impacts on the optimal planning results by two typical types of carbon tax policies including a “continuous and stable” one and a “loose first and tight later” one. The results showed that making carbon tax policy for long-term future, and improving the continuity and stability in policy execution can effectively help reduce the accumulated total carbon emissions, and also the cost for carbon mitigation of the power sector. The conclusion of this study is of great significance for the policy makers to make carbon mitigation policies in China and other countries as well. - Highlights: • A multi-stage optimization model for planning the power sector is applied as basis. • Difference of ideal and actual decision making processes are proposed and analyzed. • A “continuous and stable” policy and a “loose first and tight later” one are designed. • 4 policy scenarios are studied applying the optimal planning model and compared. • The importance of “continuous and stable” policy for long term is well demonstrated

  1. Tunable continuous wave and passively Q-switched Nd:LuLiF4 laser with monolayer graphene as saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Luo, Jianjun; Li, Shixia; Li, Tao; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Tunable continuous wave and passively Q-switched Nd:LuLiF 4 laser performances were demonstrated. Employing a 2 mm thick quartz plate as the birefringence filter, three continuous tuning ranges from 1045.2 to 1049.9 nm, 1051 to 1055.1 nm and 1072.1 to 1074.3 nm could be obtained. Q-switched laser operation was realized by using a monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber. At an incident pump power of 5.94 W, the maximum average output power was 669 mW with the pulse duration of 210 ns and the pulse repetition rate of 145 kHz at T = 10%. (paper)

  2. Hyper-Rayleigh scattering and hyper-Raman scattering of dye-adsorbed silver nanoparticles induced by a focused continuous-wave near-infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Tamitake; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Ihama, Takashi; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    We report that hyper-Rayleigh scattering, surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering, and two-photon excited luminescence occur intermittently by focusing a continuous-wave near-infrared (cw-NIR) laser into a colloidal silver solution including rhodamine 6G (R6G) and sodium chloride (NaCl). On the other hand, continuous hyper-Rayleigh scattering is observed from colloidal silver free from R6G and NaCl, demonstrating that hyper-Raman scattering and two-photon excited luminescence are attributed to R6G and their intermittent features are dependent on the colloidal dispersion. These results suggest that the cw-NIR laser has three roles; the source of the nonlinear response, optical trapping of nanoparticles, and making nanoparticle aggregates possessing the high activity for the nonlinear response

  3. Exploring the role of wave drag in the stable stratified oceanic and atmospheric bottom boundary layer in the cnrs-toulouse (cnrm-game) large stratified water flume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleczek, M.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Paci, A.; Calmer, R.; Belleudy, A.; Canonici, J.C.; Murguet, F.; Valette, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a laboratory experiment in the CNRM-GAME (Toulouse) stratified water flume of a stably stratified boundary layer, in order to quantify the momentum transfer due to orographically induced gravity waves by gently undulating hills in a boundary layer flow. In a stratified fluid, a

  4. Hydraulic continuity and biological effects of low strength very low frequency electromagnetic waves: Case of microbial biofilm growth in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Merlin; Noamen, Omri; Evelyne, Gonze; Eric, Valette; Gilles, Cauffet; Marc, Henry

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to elucidate the interactions between water, subjected to electromagnetic waves of very low frequency (VLF) (kHz) with low strength electromagnetic fields (3.5 mT inside the coils), and the development of microbial biofilms in this exposed water. Experimental results demonstrate that in water exposed to VLF electromagnetic waves, the biomass of biofilm is limited if hydraulic continuity is achieved between the electromagnetic generator and the biofilm media. The measured amount of the biofilm's biomass is approximately a factor two lower for exposed biofilm than the non-exposed biofilm. Measurements of electromagnetic fields in the air and simulations exhibit very low intensities of fields (electromagnetic generator. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields of the quoted intensities cannot explain thermal and ionizing effects on the biofilm. A variable electrical potential with a magnitude close to 20 mV was detected in the tank in hydraulic continuity with the electromagnetic generator. The application of quantum field theory may help to explain the observed effects in this case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-density optical data storage based on grey level recording in photobleaching polymers using two-photon excitation under ultrashort pulse and continuous wave illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganic, D.; Day, D.; Gu, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Two-photon excitation has been employed in three-dimensional optical data storage by many researchers in an attempt to increase the storage density of a given material. The probability of two-photon excitation is proportional to the squared intensity of the incident light; this effect produces excitation only within a small region of the focus spot. Another advantage of two-photon excitation is the use of infrared illumination, which results in the reduction of scattering and enables the recording of layers at a deep depth in a thick material. The storage density thus obtained using multi-layered bit optical recording can be as high as Tbit/cm 3 . To increase this storage density even further, grey level recording can be employed. This method utilises variable exposure times of a laser beam focused into a photobleaching sample. As a result, the bleached area possesses a certain pixel value which depends upon the exposure time; this can increase the storage density many times depending upon the number of grey levels used. Our experiment shows that it is possible to attain grey level recording using both ultrashort pulsed and continuous-wave illumination. Although continuous wave illumination requires an average power of approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that for ultrashort pulsed illumination, it is a preferred method of recording due to its relatively low system cost and compactness. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  6. Small-scale orographic gravity wave drag in stable boundary layers and its impact on synoptic systems and near surface meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiringakis, Aristofanis; Steeneveld, G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    At present atmospheric models for weather and climate use enhanced turbulent drag under stable conditions, because these empirically provide the necessary momentum drag for accurate forecast of synoptic systems. The enhanced mixing (also known as the "long-tail"), introduces drag that can not be

  7. Application of a Hough Search for Continuous Gravitational Waves on Data from the Fifth LIGO Science Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report on an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range 50-1000 Hertz with the first derivative of frequency in the range -8.9 × 10(exp -10) Hertz per second to zero in two years of data collected during LIGO's fifth science run. Our results employ a Hough transform technique, introducing a chi(sup 2) test and analysis of coincidences between the signal levels in years 1 and 2 of observations that offers a significant improvement in the product of strain sensitivity with compute cycles per data sample compared to previously published searches. Since our search yields no surviving candidates, we present results taking the form of frequency dependent, 95% confidence upper limits on the strain amplitude h(sub 0). The most stringent upper limit from year 1 is 1.0 × 10(exp -24) in the 158.00-158.25 Hertz band. In year 2, the most stringent upper limit is 8.9 × 10(exp -25) in the 146.50-146.75 Hertz band. This improved detection pipeline, which is computationally efficient by at least two orders of magnitude better than our flagship Einstein@Home search, will be important for 'quicklook' searches in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detector era.

  8. FPGA Implementation of an Amplitude-Modulated Continuous-Wave Ultrasonic Ranger Using Restructured Phase-Locking Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate ultrasonic range finder employing Sliding Discrete Fourier Transform (SDFT based restructured phase-locked loop (RPLL, which is an improved version of the recently proposed integrated phase-locking scheme (IPLL, has been expounded. This range finder principally utilizes amplitude-modulated ultrasonic waves assisted by an infrared (IR pilot signal. The phase shift between the envelope of the reference IR pilot signal and that of the received ultrasonic signal is proportional to the range. The extracted envelopes are filtered by SDFT without introducing any additional phase shift. A new RPLL is described in which the phase error is driven to zero using the quadrature signal derived from the SDFT. Further, the quadrature signal is reinforced by another cosine signal derived from a lookup table (LUT. The pulse frequency of the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO is extremely accurate, enabling fine tuning of the SDFT and RPLL also improves the lock time for the 50 Hz input signal to 0.04 s. The percentage phase error for the range 0.6 m to 6 m is about 0.2%. The VHDL codes generated for the various signal processing steps were downloaded into a Cyclone FPGA chip around which the ultrasonic ranger had been built.

  9. High-power, continuous-wave, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator based on MgO:sPPLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya Kumar, S; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2011-07-01

    We report a stable, high-power, cw, mid-IR optical parametric oscillator using MgO-doped stoichiometric periodically poled LiTaO₃ (MgO:sPPLT) pumped by a Yb fiber laser at 1064 nm. The singly resonant oscillator (SRO), based on a 30 mm long crystal, is tunable over 430 nm from 3032 to 3462 nm and can generate as much as 5.5 W of mid-IR output power, with >4 W of over 60% of the tuning range and under reduced thermal effects, enabling room temperature operation. Idler power scaling measurements at ~3.3 μm are compared with an MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO₃ cw SRO, confirming that MgO:sPPLT is an attractive material for multiwatt mid-IR generation. The idler output at 3299 nm exhibits a peak-to-peak power stability better than 12.8% over 5 h and frequency stability of ~1 GHz, while operating close to room temperature, and has a linewidth of ~0.2 nm, limited by the resolution of the wavemeter. The corresponding signal linewidth at 1570 nm is ~21 MHz.

  10. Continuous measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide and water vapour in an urban atmosphere: isotopic variations associated with meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ryuichi; Matsumi, Yutaka; Nakayama, Tomoki; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi; Kurita, Naoyuki; Muramoto, Kenichiro; Takanashi, Satoru; Kodama, Naomi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    Isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the near-surface air were continuously measured for one month in an urban area of the city of Nagoya in central Japan in September 2010 using laser spectroscopic techniques. During the passages of a typhoon and a stationary front in the observation period, remarkable changes in the isotope ratios of CO 2 and water vapour were observed. The isotope ratios of both CO 2 and water vapour decreased during the typhoon passage. The decreases can be attributed to the air coming from an industrial area and the rainout effects of the typhoon, respectively. During the passage of the stationary front, δ 13 C-CO 2 and δ 18 O-CO 2 increased, while δ 2 H-H 2 Ov and δ 18 O-H 2 Ov decreased. These changes can be attributed to the air coming from rural areas and the air surrounding the observational site changing from a subtropical air mass to a subpolar air mass during the passage of the stationary front. A clear relationship was observed between the isotopic CO 2 and water vapour and the meteorological phenomena. Therefore, isotopic information of CO 2 and H 2 Ov could be used as a tracer of meteorological information.

  11. Changes in clot lysis levels of reteplase and streptokinase following continuous wave ultrasound exposure, at ultrasound intensities following attenuation from the skull bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roijer Anders

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound (US has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US exposure. Methods Clots were made from fresh venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers. Each clot was made from 1.4 ml blood and left to coagulate for 1 hour in a plastic test-tube. The thrombolytic drugs used were, 3600 IU streptokinase (SK or 0.25 U reteplase (r-PA, which were mixed in 160 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. Continuous-wave US exposure was applied at a frequency of 1 MHz and intensities ranging from 0.0125 to 1.2 W/cm2. For each thrombolytic drug (n = 2, SK and r-PA and each intensity (n = 9 interventional clots (US-exposed, n = 6 were submerged in thrombolytic solution and exposed to CW-US while control clots (also submerged in thrombolytic solution, n = 6 were left unexposed to US. To evaluate the effect on clot lysis, the haemoglobin (Hb released from each clot was measured every 20 min for 1 hour (20, 40 and 60 min. The Hb content (mg released was estimated by spectrophotometry at 540 nm. The difference in effect on clot lysis was expressed as the difference in the amount of Hb released between pairs of US-exposed clots and control clots. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results Continuous-wave ultrasound significantly decreased the effects of SK at intensities of 0.9 and 1.2 W/cm2 at all times (P 2 and at 1.2 W/cm2, following 40 min exposure at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2, and following 60 min of exposure at 0.05 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2 (all P Conclusion Increasing intensities of CW-US exposure resulted in increased clot lysis of r-PA-treated blood clots, but decreased clot lysis of SK-treated clots.

  12. High-speed photonically assisted analog-to-digital conversion using a continuous wave multiwavelength source and phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnik, Bartosz J; Fetterman, Harold R

    2008-10-01

    A more simple photonically assisted analog-to-digital conversion system utilizing a cw multiwavelength source and phase modulation instead of a mode-locked laser is presented. The output of the cw multiwavelength source is launched into a dispersive device (such as a single-mode fiber). This fiber creates a pulse train, where the central wavelength of each pulse corresponds to a spectral line of the optical source. The pulses can then be either dispersed again to perform discrete wavelength time stretching or demultiplexed for continuous time analog-to-digital conversion. We experimentally demonstrate the operation of both time stretched and interleaved systems at 38 GHz. The potential of integrating this type of system on a monolithic chip is discussed.

  13. Continuity and completeness in physical theory: Schroedinger`s return to the wave interpretation of quantum mechanics in the 1950`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Agostino, S. [Rome Univ. (Italy)

    1992-12-31

    In the 50s, Schroedinger proposed a new conception of a continuous theory of Quantum Mechanics, which remarkably modified his 1926 ideas on ondulatory mechanics. The lack of individuality of the atomic particles presented in the new statistics, and in Heisenberg`s Indeterminacy Relations, was by him considered as an aspect of a more general crisis in the anthology itself of classical atomism. Unlike his 1926 ideas, he proposed now to represent the wave equation in an n-dimensional space and he considered second-quantization technique as the proper mathematical tool for his new physical conception. Although he accepted that space-time discontinuities and casual gaps may appear here and there on the observational level (e.g. in the Indeterminacy Relations), he was convinced that they could be made compatible with a continuous pure theory, provided one accepted a suitable conception of the theory`s epistemiological status. For him, only a continuous theory satisfied the conditions for a complete theory. On these matters, he thought he was somehow orthodox to the ideas of Hertz and Boltzmann, which were also reflected in the teaching of Exner. (author). 69 refs.

  14. Developing a continuous flow-square wave voltammetry method for determination of atrazine in soil solutions using the hanging mercury drop electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Luciana B. O. dos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development of a Continuous Flow-Square Wave Voltammetry method for determination of atrazine using the hanging mercury drop electrode. The best signal to noise ratio was obtained at the square wave frequency of 350 Hz and flow rate of 0.47 mL min-1. Under these conditions, the analytical curve obtained in 0.010 mol L-1 CaCl2 soil extracts in presence of 40 mmol L-1 BR buffer and 0.25 mol L-1 NaNO3 was linear for atrazine concentrations between 0.10 and 2.0 µg mL-1, with detection and quantification limits of 0.030 and 0.10 µg mL-1, respectively. The proposed method increased the analytical throughput in comparison with the batch methodology, allowing a sampling frequency of 72 h-1 to be accomplished. Besides, the sample consumption is significantly reduced, and only 341 µL are necessary for each analysis. The results obtained were similar to the ones obtained by HPLC, but the proposed method is faster and does not use organic solvents.

  15. Crystal growth, optical properties, and continuous-wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped CaNb2O6 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y; Xu, X D; Xiao, X D; Li, D Z; Zhao, C C; Zhou, S M; Xin, Z; Yang, X B; Xu, J

    2009-01-01

    Laser crystal Nd:CaNb 2 O 6 with excellent quality has been grown by Czochralski technique. The effective segregation coefficient of Nd 3+ was studied by X-ray fluorescence method. The polarized absorption spectra and the fluorescence spectra of Nd:CaNb 2 O 6 were measured at room temperature. The peak absorption cross section was calculated to be 6.202×10 -20 cm 2 with a broad FWHM of 7 nm at 808 nm for E ∥ a light polarization. The emission cross section at 1062 nm is 9.87×10 -20 cm 2 . We report what we believe to be the first demonstration of the continuous-wave Nd:CaNb 2 O 6 laser operation under diode pumping. Output power of 1.86 W at 1062 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 19% in the CW regime

  16. Crystal growth, optical properties, and continuous-wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped CaNb2O6 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Xu, X. D.; Xin, Z.; Yang, X. B.; Xiao, X. D.; Li, D. Z.; Zhao, C. C.; Xu, J.; Zhou, S. M.

    2009-10-01

    Laser crystal Nd:CaNb2O6 with excellent quality has been grown by Czochralski technique. The effective segregation coefficient of Nd3+ was studied by X-ray fluorescence method. The polarized absorption spectra and the fluorescence spectra of Nd:CaNb2O6 were measured at room temperature. The peak absorption cross section was calculated to be 6.202×10-20 cm2 with a broad FWHM of 7 nm at 808 nm for E ∥ a light polarization. The emission cross section at 1062 nm is 9.87×10-20 cm2. We report what we believe to be the first demonstration of the continuous-wave Nd:CaNb2O6 laser operation under diode pumping. Output power of 1.86 W at 1062 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 19% in the CW regime.

  17. Diode-laser-pumped high efficiency continuous-wave operation at 912 nm laser in Nd:GdVO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, X; Chen, F; Gao, J; Li, X D; Yan, R P; Zhang, K; Yu, J H; Zhang, Z H

    2009-01-01

    High efficiency operation on continuous-wave (cw) 912 nm laser at room temperature in Nd:GdVO 4 crystal pumped by 808 nm diode-laser is reported in this letter. The maximum output power of 8.0 W was obtained at the incident un-polarized pump power of 47.0 W, giving the corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 17.0% and the average slope efficiency of 22.9%. Further tests show that the lasing threshold is reduced and the efficiency is increased evidently when using the π-polarized 808 nm pump source. 4.8 W 912 nm laser was achieved at the polarized pump power of 21.8 W, optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is increased to 22.0% and average slope efficiency is up to 33.6%

  18. Parallel image-acquisition in continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance imaging with a surface coil array: Proof-of-concept experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Ayano; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    This article describes a feasibility study of parallel image-acquisition using a two-channel surface coil array in continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) imaging. Parallel EPR imaging was performed by multiplexing of EPR detection in the frequency domain. The parallel acquisition system consists of two surface coil resonators and radiofrequency (RF) bridges for EPR detection. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method of parallel image-acquisition with a surface coil array, three-dimensional EPR imaging was carried out using a tube phantom. Technical issues in the multiplexing method of EPR detection were also clarified. We found that degradation in the signal-to-noise ratio due to the interference of RF carriers is a key problem to be solved.

  19. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation in the telecom wavelength range of GaSb-based lasers monolithically grown on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, A.; Cerutti, L.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Narcy, G.; Garreau, A.; Lelarge, F.; Tournié, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report on electrically pumped GaSb-based laser diodes monolithically grown on Si and operating in a continuous wave (cw) in the telecom wavelength range. The laser structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on 6°-off (001) substrates. The devices were processed in coplanar contact geometry. 100 μm × 1 mm laser diodes exhibited a threshold current density of 1 kA/cm-2 measured under pulsed operation at 20 °C. CW operation was achieved up to 35 °C with 10 μm × 1 mm diodes. The output power at 20 °C was around 3 mW/uncoated facet, and the cw emission wavelength 1.59 μm, in the C/L-band of telecom systems.

  20. Continuous-wave and acousto-optically Q-switched 1066 nm laser performance of a novel Nd:GdTaO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; He, Ying; Peng, Zhenfang; Sun, Haiyue; Peng, Fang; Yan, Renpeng; Li, Xudong; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Qingli; Ding, Shoujun

    2018-05-01

    A diode-pumped acousto-optically (AO) Q-switched 1066 nm laser with a novel Nd:GdTaO4 crystal was demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The optimization selection of output coupler was carried out in the continuous-wave (CW) operation. After that the pulsed Nd:GdTaO4 laser performances using different modulation repetition rates of 10 kHz and 20 kHz were investigated. At an absorbed pump power of 10 W and repetition rates of 10 kHz, the obtained minimum pulse width was 28 ns and the maximum peak power was 5.4 kW.

  1. The generation of a continuous-wave Nd:YVO4/LBO laser at 543 nm by direct in-band diode pumping at 888 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, S C; Wang, X; Chu, H

    2013-01-01

    We report the generation of a green laser at 543 nm by intracavity frequency doubling of the continuous-wave (cw) laser operation of a 1086 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser under 888 nm diode pumping into the emitting level 4 F 3/2 . An LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) crystal, cut for critical type I phase matching at room temperature, is used for the laser second-harmonic generation. At an incident pump power of 17.8 W, as high as 4.53 W cw output power at 543 nm is achieved. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is up to 25.4%, and the fluctuation of the green output power is better than 2.3% in a 30 min period. (paper)

  2. High-power diode-pumped Nd:Lu2O3 crystal continuous-wave thin-disk laser at 1359 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J H; Liu, X H; Wu, J B; Zhang, X; Li, Y L

    2012-01-01

    We present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a 1359 nm continuous-wave (CW) Nd:Lu 2 O 3 laser based on the 4 F 5/2 – 4 F 13/2 transition. The use of a pump module with 16 passes through the crystal allowed the realization of a Nd:Lu 2 O 3 thin-disk laser with 3.52 W of CW output power. The slope efficiency with respect to the incident pump power was 21.4%, and the fluctuation of the output power was better than 3.55% in the given 2 hour. The beam quality factor M 2 is 1.14 and 1.18 for tangential direction and sagittal direction, respectively

  3. Continuous-wave green thin-disk laser at 524 nm based on frequency-doubled diode-pumped Yb:GSO crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Y; Zhang, D; Liu, H P; Jin, H J; Li, Y L; Tao, Z H; Ruan, Q R; Zhang, T Y

    2011-01-01

    We report what is believed to be the first demonstration of diode-pumped continuous-wave (CW) thin-disk Yb 3+ -doped Gd 2 SiO 5 (Yb:GSO) laser at 1048 nm. With a 3.8% output coupler, the maximum output power is 1.38 W under a pump power of 17.8 W. Moreover, intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) has also been achieved with a power of 337 mW at 524 nm by using a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) nonlinear crystal. At the output power level of 337 mW, the green power stability is better than 5% and the ellipticity of spot is 0.97

  4. Reliability and current-adaptability studies of a 352 MHz, 17 MeV, continuous-wave injector for an accelerator-driven system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available EUROTRANS is a European research program for the transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator-driven system (ADS. As proposed, the driver linac needs to deliver a 2.5–4 mA, 600 MeV continuous-wave (CW proton beam and later a 20 mA, 800 MeV one to the spallation target in the prototype-scale and industrial-scale demonstration phases, respectively. This paper is focusing on the conceptual studies performed with respect to the 17 MeV injector. First, the special beam dynamics strategies and methods, which have been developed and applied to design a current-variable injector up to 30 mA for allowing an easy upgrade without additional R&D costs, will be introduced. Then the error study made for evaluating the tolerance limits of the designed injector will be presented as well.

  5. Mechanical design and fabrication of the VHF-gun, the Berkeley normal-conducting continuous-wave high-brightness electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R. P.; Ghiorso, W.; Staples, J.; Huang, T. M.; Sannibale, F.; Kramasz, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    A high repetition rate, MHz-class, high-brightness electron source is a key element in future high-repetition-rate x-ray free electron laser-based light sources. The VHF-gun, a novel low frequency radio-frequency gun, is the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) response to that need. The gun design is based on a normal conducting, single cell cavity resonating at 186 MHz in the VHF band and capable of continuous wave operation while still delivering the high accelerating fields at the cathode required for the high brightness performance. The VHF-gun was fabricated and successfully commissioned in the framework of the Advanced Photo-injector EXperiment, an injector built at LBNL to demonstrate the capability of the gun to deliver the required beam quality. The basis for the selection of the VHF-gun technology, novel design features, and fabrication techniques are described.

  6. Continuous-wave laser operation at 743 and 753 nm based on a diode-pumped c-cut Pr:YAlO3 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuji; Huang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Bin; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Dongzhen; Liu, Jian; Xu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    We report on blue-diode-pumped continuous-wave Pr:YAlO3 (YAP) crystal lasers. Using a b-cut sample, a maximum output power of 181 mW is achieved at ∼747 nm with slope efficiency of 12.7% with respect to the absorbed power. Using a c-cut sample, a dual-wavelength laser at ∼743 and ∼753 nm is obtained with a total maximum output power of 72 mW by using the blue diode pumping, for the first time to our knowledge. These laser emissions are all linearly polarized and M2 factors of these output laser beams are also measured. YAP is experimentally verified to be one of effective oxide hosts for Pr-doped visible laser operation besides its fluoride counterparts.

  7. Compact lidar system using laser diode, binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode-based receiver controlled by a digital signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, Antoni; Comerón, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the practical limits of a lidar system based on the use of a laser diode, random binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode (APD)-based photereceiver, combined with the control and computing power of the digital signal processors (DSP) currently available. The target is to design a compact portable lidar system made all in semiconductor technology, with a low-power demand and an easy configuration of the system, allowing change in some of its features through software. Unlike many prior works, we emphasize the use of APDs instead of photomultiplier tubes to detect the return signal and the application of the system to measure not only hard targets, but also medium-range aerosols and clouds. We have developed an experimental prototype to evaluate the behavior of the system under different environmental conditions. Experimental results provided by the prototype are presented and discussed.

  8. Continuous-wave operation and 10-Gb/s direct modulation of InAsP/InP sub-wavelength nanowire laser on silicon photonic crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Takiguchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated sub-wavelength (∼111 nm diameter single nanowire (NW continuous wave (CW lasers on silicon photonic crystal in the telecom-band with direct modulation at 10 Gb/s by optical pumping at cryogenic temperatures. To estimate the small signal response and pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS modulation of our CW lasers, we employed a new signal detection technique that employs a superconducting single photon detector and a time-correlated single photon counting module. The results showed that our NW laser was unambiguously modulated at above 10 Gb/s and an open eye pattern was obtained. This is the first demonstration of a telecom-band CW NW laser with high-speed PRBS modulation.

  9. 303 nm continuous wave ultraviolet laser generated by intracavity frequency-doubling of diode-pumped Pr3+:LiYF4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengfei; Zhang, Chaomin; Zhu, Kun; Ping, Yunxia; Song, Pei; Sun, Xiaohui; Wang, Fuxin; Yao, Yi

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate an efficient and compact ultraviolet laser at 303 nm generated by intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave (CW) laser diode-pumped Pr3+:YLiF4 laser at 607 nm. A cesium lithium borate (CLBO) crystal, cut for critical type I phase matching at room temperature, is used for second-harmonic generation (SHG) of the fundamental laser. By using an InGaN laser diode array emitting at 444.3 nm with a maximum incident power of 10 W, as high as 68 mW of CW output power at 303 nm is achieved. The output power stability in 4 h is better than 2.85%. To the best of our knowledge, this is high efficient UV laser generated by frequency doubling of an InGaN laser diode array pumped Pr3+:YLiF4 laser.

  10. Diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 lasers at 1406, 1415 and 1423 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haifeng; Zhu, Wenzhang; Xiong, Feibing; Ruan, Jianjian

    2018-05-01

    We report a diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) laser operating at 1.4 μm spectral region. A dual-wavelength laser at 1423 and 1406 nm is achieved with output power of about 2.59 W at absorbed pump power of 13.4 W. Further increasing the pump power, simultaneous tri-wavelength laser at 1423, 1415 and 1406 nm is also obtained with a maximum output power of 3.96 W at absorbed pump power of 18.9 W. Single-wavelength lasing is also realized at the three emission lines using an intracavity etalon. The laser result is believed to be the highest output power achieved in Nd:GGG crystal, at present, to the best of our knowledge.

  11. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation in the telecom wavelength range of GaSb-based lasers monolithically grown on Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castellano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on electrically pumped GaSb-based laser diodes monolithically grown on Si and operating in a continuous wave (cw in the telecom wavelength range. The laser structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on 6°-off (001 substrates. The devices were processed in coplanar contact geometry. 100 μm × 1 mm laser diodes exhibited a threshold current density of 1 kA/cm−2 measured under pulsed operation at 20 °C. CW operation was achieved up to 35 °C with 10 μm × 1 mm diodes. The output power at 20 °C was around 3 mW/uncoated facet, and the cw emission wavelength 1.59 μm, in the C/L-band of telecom systems.

  12. Passive coherent discriminator using phase diversity for the simultaneous measurement of frequency noise and intensity noise of a continuous-wave laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud-Belleau, V.; Bergeron, H.; Light, P. S.; Hébert, N. B.; Deschênes, J. D.; Luiten, A. N.; Genest, J.

    2016-10-01

    The frequency noise and intensity noise of a laser set the performance limits in many modern photonics applications and, consequently, must often be characterized. As lasers continue to improve, the measurement of these noises however becomes increasingly challenging. Current approaches for the characterization of very high-performance lasers often call for a second laser with equal or higher performance to the one that is to be measured, an incoherent interferometer having an extremely long delay-arm, or an interferometer that relies on an active device. These instrumental features can be impractical or problematic under certain experimental conditions. As an alternative, this paper presents an entirely passive coherent interferometer that employs an optical 90° hybrid coupler to perform in-phase and quadrature detection. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the frequency noise power spectral density of a highly-stable 192 THz (1560 nm) fiber laser over five frequency decades. Simultaneously, we are able to measure its relative intensity noise power spectral density and characterize the correlation between its amplitude noise and phase noise. We correct some common misconceptions through a detailed theoretical analysis and demonstrate the necessity to account for normal imperfections of the optical 90° hybrid coupler. We finally conclude that this passive coherent discriminator is suitable for reliable and simple noise characterization of highly-stable lasers, with bandwidth and dynamic range benefits but susceptibility to additive noise contamination.

  13. Galileo Probe Doppler Residuals as the Wave-Dynamical Signature of Weakly Stable, Downward-Increasing Stratification in Jupiter's Deep Wind Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Michael; Atkinson, David H.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Doppler radio tracking of the Galileo probe-to-orbiter relay, previously analyzed for its in situ measure of Jupiter's zonal wind at the equatorial entry site, also shows a record of significant residual fluctuations apparently indicative of varying vertical motions. Regular oscillations over pressure depth in the residual Doppler measurements of roughly 1-8 Hz (increasing upward), as filtered over a 134 sec window, are most plausibly interpreted as gravity waves, and imply a weak, but downward increasing static stability within the 5 - 20 bar region of Jupiter's atmosphere. A matched extension to deeper levels of an independent inertial stability constraint from the measured vertical wind shear at 1 - 4 bars is roughly consistent with a static stability of approximately 0.5 K/km near the 20 bar level, as independently detected by the probe Atmospheric Structure Instrument.

  14. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  15. Optogenetically Blocking Sharp Wave Ripple Events in Sleep Does Not Interfere with the Formation of Stable Spatial Representation in the CA1 Area of the Hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztián A Kovács

    Full Text Available During hippocampal sharp wave/ripple (SWR events, previously occurring, sensory input-driven neuronal firing patterns are replayed. Such replay is thought to be important for plasticity-related processes and consolidation of memory traces. It has previously been shown that the electrical stimulation-induced disruption of SWR events interferes with learning in rodents in different experimental paradigms. On the other hand, the cognitive map theory posits that the plastic changes of the firing of hippocampal place cells constitute the electrophysiological counterpart of the spatial learning, observable at the behavioral level. Therefore, we tested whether intact SWR events occurring during the sleep/rest session after the first exploration of a novel environment are needed for the stabilization of the CA1 code, which process requires plasticity. We found that the newly-formed representation in the CA1 has the same level of stability with optogenetic SWR blockade as with a control manipulation that delivered the same amount of light into the brain. Therefore our results suggest that at least in the case of passive exploratory behavior, SWR-related plasticity is dispensable for the stability of CA1 ensembles.

  16. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  17. Predicting location-specific extreme coastal floods in the future climate by introducing a probabilistic method to calculate maximum elevation of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of water level variations and wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijala, Ulpu; Björkqvist, Jan-Victor; Johansson, Milla M.; Pellikka, Havu

    2017-04-01

    Future coastal management continuously strives for more location-exact and precise methods to investigate possible extreme sea level events and to face flooding hazards in the most appropriate way. Evaluating future flooding risks by understanding the behaviour of the joint effect of sea level variations and wind waves is one of the means to make more comprehensive flooding hazard analysis, and may at first seem like a straightforward task to solve. Nevertheless, challenges and limitations such as availability of time series of the sea level and wave height components, the quality of data, significant locational variability of coastal wave height, as well as assumptions to be made depending on the study location, make the task more complicated. In this study, we present a statistical method for combining location-specific probability distributions of water level variations (including local sea level observations and global mean sea level rise) and wave run-up (based on wave buoy measurements). The goal of our method is to obtain a more accurate way to account for the waves when making flooding hazard analysis on the coast compared to the approach of adding a separate fixed wave action height on top of sea level -based flood risk estimates. As a result of our new method, we gain maximum elevation heights with different return periods of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of both phenomena, "the green water". We also introduce a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the properties and functioning of our method. The sensitivity test is based on using theoretical wave distributions representing different alternatives of wave behaviour in relation to sea level variations. As these wave distributions are merged with the sea level distribution, we get information on how the different wave height conditions and shape of the wave height distribution influence the joint results. Our method presented here can be used as an advanced tool to minimize over- and

  18. Photobiomodulation with Pulsed and Continuous Wave Near-Infrared Laser (810 nm, Al-Ga-As Augments Dermal Wound Healing in Immunosuppressed Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav K Keshri

    Full Text Available Chronic non-healing cutaneous wounds are often vulnerable in one or more repair phases that prevent normal healing and pose challenges to the use of conventional wound care modalities. In immunosuppressed subject, the sequential stages of healing get hampered, which may be the consequences of dysregulated or stagnant wound inflammation. Photobiomodulation (PBM or low-level laser (light therapy (LLLT emerges as a promising drug-free, non-invasive biophysical approach for promoting wound healing, reduction of inflammation, pain and restoration of functions. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the photobiomodulatory effects of 810 nm diode laser (40 mW/cm2; 22.6 J/cm2 with pulsed (10 and 100 Hz, 50% duty cycle and continuous wave on full-thickness excision-type dermal wound healing in hydrocortisone-induced immunosuppressed rats. Results clearly delineated that 810 nm PBM at 10 Hz was more effective over continuous and 100 Hz frequency in accelerating wound healing by attenuating the pro-inflammatory markers (NF-kB, TNF-α, augmenting wound contraction (α-SM actin, enhancing cellular proliferation, ECM deposition, neovascularization (HIF-1α, VEGF, re-epithelialization along with up-regulated protein expression of FGFR-1, Fibronectin, HSP-90 and TGF-β2 as compared to the non-irradiated controls. Additionally, 810 nm laser irradiation significantly increased CCO activity and cellular ATP contents. Overall, the findings from this study might broaden the current biological mechanism that could be responsible for photobiomodulatory effect mediated through pulsed NIR 810 nm laser (10 Hz for promoting dermal wound healing in immunosuppressed subjects.

  19. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  20. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  1. Crystal growth, optical properties, and continuous-wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped Lu2SiO5 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D Z; Xu, X D; Zhou, D H; Xia, C T; Wu, F; Xu, J; Cong, Z H; Zhang, J; Tang, D Y

    2011-01-01

    High quality Nd 3+ -doped Lu 2 SiO 5 (Nd:LSO) crystal has been grown by the Czochralski technique. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Room temperature absorption and fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime of the Nd:LSO crystal were measured and analyzed. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω 2,4,6 were obtained to be 2.59, 4.90, and 5.96×10 -20 cm 2 , respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and the branching ratios were calculated. The peak emission cross section is 5.8 and 6.6×10 -20 cm 2 at 1075 and 1079 nm, respectively, with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2.8 and 5.1 nm in turn. Pumped by a laser diode, a maximum 2.54 W continuous-wave laser output has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 32%. All the results show that this crystal is a promising laser material

  2. Crystal growth, optical properties, and continuous-wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped Lu2SiO5 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. Z.; Xu, X. D.; Zhou, D. H.; Xia, C. T.; Wu, F.; Xu, J.; Cong, Z. H.; Zhang, J.; Tang, D. Y.

    2011-01-01

    High quality Nd3+-doped Lu2SiO5 (Nd:LSO) crystal has been grown by the Czochralski technique. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Room temperature absorption and fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime of the Nd:LSO crystal were measured and analyzed. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω2,4,6 were obtained to be 2.59, 4.90, and 5.96×10-20 cm2, respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and the branching ratios were calculated. The peak emission cross section is 5.8 and 6.6×10-20 cm2 at 1075 and 1079 nm, respectively, with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2.8 and 5.1 nm in turn. Pumped by a laser diode, a maximum 2.54 W continuous-wave laser output has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 32%. All the results show that this crystal is a promising laser material.

  3. Detection of undistorted continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra with non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) of the magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Camenisch, Theodore G.; Ratke, Joseph J.; Sidabras, Jason W.; Hyde, James S.

    2011-01-01

    A continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum is typically displayed as the first harmonic response to the application of 100 kHz magnetic field modulation, which is used to enhance sensitivity by reducing the level of 1/f noise. However, magnetic field modulation of any amplitude causes spectral broadening and sacrifices EPR spectral intensity by at least a factor of two. In the work presented here, a CW rapid-scan spectroscopic technique that avoids these compromises and also provides a means of avoiding 1/f noise is developed. This technique, termed non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR, consists of repetitively sweeping the polarizing magnetic field in a linear manner over a spectral fragment with a small coil at a repetition rate that is sufficiently high that receiver noise, microwave phase noise, and environmental microphonics, each of which has 1/f characteristics, are overcome. Nevertheless, the rate of sweep is sufficiently slow that adiabatic responses are avoided and the spin system is always close to thermal equilibrium. The repetitively acquired spectra from the spectral fragment are averaged. Under these conditions, undistorted pure absorption spectra are obtained without broadening or loss of signal intensity. A digital filter such as a moving average is applied to remove high frequency noise, which is approximately equivalent in bandwidth to use of an integrating time constant in conventional field modulation with lock-in detection. Nitroxide spectra at L- and X-band are presented. PMID:21741868

  4. Reduced dimer production in solar-simulator-pumped continuous wave iodine lasers based on model simulations and scaling and pumping studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costen, Robert C.; Heinbockel, John H.; Miner, Gilda A.; Meador, Willard E., Jr.; Tabibi, Bagher M.; Lee, Ja H.; Williams, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical rate equation model for a continuous wave iodine laser with longitudinally flowing gaseous lasant is validated by approximating two experiments that compare the perfluoroalkyl iodine lasants n-C3F7I and t-C4F9I. The salient feature of the simulations is that the production rate of the dimer (C4F9)2 is reduced by one order of magnitude relative to the dimer (C3F7)2. The model is then used to investigate the kinetic effects of this reduced dimer production, especially how it improves output power. Related parametric and scaling studies are also presented. When dimer production is reduced, more monomer radicals (t-C4F9) are available to combine with iodine ions, thus enhancing depletion of the laser lower level and reducing buildup of the principal quencher, molecular iodine. Fewer iodine molecules result in fewer downward transitions from quenching and more transitions from stimulated emission of lasing photons. Enhanced depletion of the lower level reduces the absorption of lasing photons. The combined result is more lasing photons and proportionally increased output power.

  5. Diode-pumped continuous-wave and passively Q-switched 1066 nm Nd:GYNbO4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Peng, Zhenfang; He, Ying; Li, Xudong; Yan, Renpeng; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Qingli; Ding, Shoujun; Sun, Dunlu

    2017-08-01

    A diode-pumped passively Q-switched 1066 nm laser with a novel Nd:Gd0.69Y0.3NbO4 mixed crystal was demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the continuous-wave (CW) operation, optimization selection of output couplers was carried out, and a maximum output power of 2.13 W was obtained when the plane mirror with transmission of 25% was chosen and the absorbed pump power was 10.5 W. The Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:Gd0.69Y0.3NbO4 laser performance was investigated. At an absorbed pump power of 10.5 W, using Cr4+:YAG with initial transmission of 80%, the obtained minimum pulse width was 7.2 ns with the pulse repetition rate of 19 kHz. The single pulse energy and peak power were estimated to be 26.7 µJ and 3.7 kW, respectively.

  6. Continuous wave and AO Q-switch operation Tm,Ho:YAP laser pumped by a laser diode of 798 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L J; Yao, B Q; Song, C W; Wang, Y Z; Wang, Z G

    2009-01-01

    Continuous wave (CW) and acousto-optical (AO) Q-switch operation of Tm (5 at.%), Ho (0.3 at.%):YAP laser at 2.13 μm wavelength were reported in this paper. The Tm,Ho:YAP crystal was cooled by liquid nitrogen and double-end-pumped by a 14.2 W fiber-coupled laser diode at 798 nm. Different resonator lengths and output couplers for the pump power were tried. A maximum conversion efficiency of 31.3% and a maximum slope efficiency of 35.2% were acquired with CW output power of 4.45 W. Average power of 4.21 W was obtained at pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 15 kHz, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 29.6% and a slope efficiency of 32.4%. The energy per pulse of 2.3 mJ in 64 ns was achieved at 1.5 kHz with the peak power of 35.8 kW

  7. 1.9 W continuous-wave single transverse mode emission from 1060 nm edge-emitting lasers with vertically extended lasing area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. J., E-mail: jarez.miah@tu-berlin.de; Posilovic, K.; Kalosha, V. P.; Rosales, R.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kettler, T. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); PBC Lasers GmbH, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Skoczowsky, D. [PBC Lasers GmbH, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Pohl, J.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-10-13

    High-brightness edge-emitting semiconductor lasers having a vertically extended waveguide structure emitting in the 1060 nm range are investigated. Ridge waveguide (RW) lasers with 9 μm stripe width and 2.64 mm cavity length yield highest to date single transverse mode output power for RW lasers in the 1060 nm range. The lasers provide 1.9 W single transverse mode optical power under continuous-wave (cw) operation with narrow beam divergences of 9° in lateral and 14° (full width at half maximum) in vertical direction. The beam quality factor M{sup 2} is less than 1.9 up to 1.9 W optical power. A maximum brightness of 72 MWcm{sup −2}sr{sup −1} is obtained. 100 μm wide and 3 mm long unpassivated broad area lasers provide more than 9 W optical power in cw operation.

  8. Growth of micro-crystals in solution by in-situ heating via continuous wave infrared laser light and an absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shashank; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Mathur, Deepak; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on growth of micro-crystals such as sodium chloride (NaCl), copper sulphate (CuSO4), potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in solution by in-situ heating using continuous wave Nd:YVO4 laser light. Crystals are grown by adding single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The SWNTs absorb 1064 nm light and act as an in-situ heat source that vaporizes the solvent producing microcrystals. The temporal dynamics of micro-crystal growth is investigated by varying experimental parameters such as SWNT bundle size and incident laser power. We also report crystal growth without SWNT in an absorbing medium: copper sulphate in water. Even though the growth dynamics with SWNT and copper sulphate are significantly different, our results indicate that bubble formation is necessary for nucleation. Our simple method may open up new vistas for rapid growth of seed crystals especially for examining the crystallizability of inorganic and organic materials.

  9. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS): studies of honey bees exposed to 2. 45 GHz continuous-wave electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, N E; Westerdahl, B B

    1980-12-01

    A system for small animal exposure was developed for treating honey bees, Apis mellifera L., in brood and adult stages, with 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at selected power densities and exposure times. Post-treatment brood development was normal and teratological effects were not detected at exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment survival, longevity, orientation, navigation, and memory of adult bees were also normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment longevity of confined bees in the laboratory was normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 24 hours. Thermoregulation of brood nest, foraging activity, brood rearing, and social interaction were not affected by chronic exposure to 1 mw/cm/sup 2/ during 28 days. In dynamic behavioral bioassays the frequency of entry and duration of activity of unrestrained, foraging adult bees was identical in microwave-exposed (5 to 40 mw/cm/sup 2/) areas versus control areas.

  10. Diode-pumped continuous-wave blue laser operation of Nd:GGG at 467.0, 467.7, and 468.5 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, B; Camy, P; Doualan, J L; Braud, A; Moncorgé, R; Cai, Z P; Brenier, A

    2012-01-01

    Intra-cavity frequency doubling of continuous-wave (CW) laser emission on the quasi-three level ( 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 9/2 ) laser transition of Nd 3+ in Nd:GGG is reported by using a three-mirror folded resonator. The thermal lens experienced by the optically-pumped Nd:GGG laser crystal is measured as a function of the absorbed pump power and compared to that found, in the same conditions, in the case of Nd:YAG. Results are interpreted by using a simple model accounting for the absorbed pump power and the thermo-mechanical properties of each laser crystal. Diode-pumped blue laser operation is achieved, for the first time, at 467.0 and 468.5 nm with output powers of 230 and 450 mW, respectively. Simultaneous laser operation resulting both from frequency-doubling and frequency summing at the three 467.1, 467.7, and 468.1 nm laser wavelengths is also obtained with a total output power of 60 mW

  11. Nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography with continuous-wave lights for both congruent and near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yan; Zhang Guoquan; Fu Bo; Xu Qingjun; Xu Jingjun

    2004-01-01

    We have studied theoretically the steady-state nonvolatile two-step, two-color holographic recording performance for both the congruent and the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe based on the two-center model (the deep-trap and the shallow-trap centers are Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ , respectively). The results show that the direct electron exchange between the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ centers and the Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ centers due to the tunneling effect dominates the charge-transfer process during the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography and determines the two-step, two-color holography performance in LiNbO 3 :Fe. We have further studied the effects of the crystal stoichiometry on the performance of the two-step, two-color holography. It is shown that, as far as the total space-charge field is considered, the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography performance in the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe is much better than that in the congruent LiNbO 3 :Fe within the intensity range reachable by the continuous-wave lights

  12. Theoretical evaluation of a continues-wave Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser with mid-infrared emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Kepeng; Cai, He; An, Guofei; Han, Juhong; Yu, Hang; Wang, Shunyan; Yu, Qiang; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, You

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we build a theoretical model to study a continues-wave (CW) Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser by considering both energy transfer up-conversion (ETU) and cross relaxation (CR) processes. The influences of the pump power, reflectance of an output coupler (OC), and crystal length on the output features are systematically analyzed for an end-pumped configuration, respectively. We also investigate how the processes of ETU and CR in the energy-level system affect the output of a Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser by use of the kinetic evaluation. The simulation results show that the optical-to-optical efficiency can be promoted by adjusting the parameters such as the reflectance of an output coupler, crystal length, and pump power. It has been theoretically demonstrated that the threshold of a Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser is very high for the lasing operation in a CW mode.

  13. Single-mode electrically pumped GaSb-based VCSELs emitting continuous-wave at 2.4 and 2.6 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Alexander; Arafin, Shamsul; Kashani-Shirazi, Kaveh

    2009-01-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are perfect light sources for spectroscopic applications, where properties such as continuous-wave (cw) operation, single-mode emission, high lifetime and often low power consumption are crucial. For applications such as tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), there is a growing interest in laser devices emitting in the near- to mid-infrared wavelength range, where many environmentally and technologically important gases show strong absorption lines. The (AlGaIn)(AsSb) material system based on GaSb is the material of choice for covering the 2.0-3.3 μm range. In this paper, we report on electrically pumped single-mode VCSELs with emission wavelengths of 2.4 and 2.6 μm, operating cw at room temperature and beyond. By (electro-) thermal tuning, the emission wavelength can be tuned mode-hop free over a range of several nanometers. In addition, low threshold currents of several milliamperes promise mobile application. In the devices, a structured buried tunnel junction with subsequent overgrowth has been used in order to achieve efficient current confinement, reduced optical losses and increased electrical conductivity. Furthermore, strong optical confinement is introduced in the lasers due to laterally differing cavity lengths.

  14. Continuous wave vertical cavity surface emitting lasers at 2.5 μm with InP-based type-II quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprengel, S.; Andrejew, A.; Federer, F.; Veerabathran, G. K.; Boehm, G.; Amann, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    A concept for electrically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) for emission wavelength beyond 2 μm is presented. This concept integrates type-II quantum wells into InP-based VCSELs with a buried tunnel junction as current aperture. The W-shaped quantum wells are based on the type-II band alignment between GaInAs and GaAsSb. The structure includes an epitaxial GaInAs/InP and an amorphous AlF 3 /ZnS distributed Bragg reflector as bottom and top (outcoupling) mirror, respectively. Continuous-wave operation up to 10 °C at a wavelength of 2.49 μm and a peak output power of 400 μW at −18 °C has been achieved. Single-mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB for mesa diameters up to 14 μm is presented. The long emission wavelength and current tunability over a wavelength range of more than 5 nm combined with its single-mode operation makes this device ideally suited for spectroscopy applications

  15. Nitrogen ligation to manganese in the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex: Continuous-wave and pulsed EPR studies of Photosystem II particles containing 14N or 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRose, V.J.; Yachandra, V.K.; McDermott, A.E.; Britt, R.D.; Sauer, K.; Klein, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of nitrogen ligation to the Mn in the oxygen-evolving complex from photosystem II was investigated with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies using 14 N- and 15 N-labeled preparations. Oxygen-evolving preparations were isolated from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp., grown on a medium containing either 14 NO 3 - or 15 NO - 3 as the sole source of nitrogen. The substructure on the multiline EPR signal, which arises from Mn in the S 2 state of the enzyme, was measured with continuous-wave EPR. No changes were detected in the substructure peak positions upon substitution of 15 N for 14 N, indicating that this substructure is not due to superhyperfine coupling from nitrogen ligands. To detect potential nitrogen ligands with superhyperfine couplings of lesser magnitude than could be observed with conventional EPR methods, electron spin-echo envelope modulation experiments were also performed on the multiline EPR signal. The Fourier transform of the light-minus-dark time domain ESEEM data shows a peak at 4.8 MHz in 14 N samples which is absent upon substitution with 15 N. This gives unambiguous evidence for weak hyperfine coupling of nitrogen to the Mn of the oxygen-evolving complex. Possible origins of this nitrogen interaction are discussed

  16. Pulsed versus continuous wave low-level light therapy on osteoarticular signs and symptoms in limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome): a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barolet, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) was formerly known as CREST syndrome in reference to the associated clinical features: calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasias. The transforming growth factor beta has been identified as a major player in the pathogenic process, where low-level light therapy (LLLT) has been shown to modulate this cytokine superfamily. This case study was conducted to assess the efficacy of 940 nm using millisecond pulsing and continuous wave (CW) modes on osteoarticular signs and symptoms associated with lcSSc. The patient was treated two to three times a week for 13 weeks using a sequential pulsing mode on one elbow and a CW mode on the other. Efficacy assessments included inflammation, symptoms, pain, health scales, patient satisfaction, clinical global impression, and adverse effects monitoring. Considerable functional and morphologic improvements were observed after LLLT, with the best results seen with the pulsing mode. No adverse effects were noted. Pulsed LLLT represents a treatment alternative for osteoarticular signs and symptoms in limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome).

  17. In-vivo quantitative measurement of tissue oxygen saturation of human webbing using a transmission type continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizimu, Tuerxun; Adachi, Makoto; Nakano, Kazuya; Ohnishi, Takashi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Takahashi, Nozomi; Nakada, Taka-aki; Oda, Shigeto; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method for monitoring tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). Many commercial NIRS devices are presently available. However, the precision of those devices is relatively poor because they are using the reflectance-model with which it is difficult to obtain the blood volume and other unchanged components of the tissue. Human webbing is a thin part of the hand and suitable to measure spectral transmittance. In this paper, we present a method for measuring StO2 of human webbing from a transmissive continuous-wave nearinfrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) data. The method is based on the modified Beer-Lambert law (MBL) and it consists of two steps. In the first step, we give a pressure to the upstream region of the measurement point to perturb the concentration of deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin as remaining the other components and measure the spectral signals. From the measured data, spectral absorbance due to the components other than hemoglobin is calculated. In the second step, spectral measurement is performed at arbitrary time instance and the spectral absorbance obtained in the step 1 is subtracted from the measured absorbance. The tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) is estimated from the remained data. The method was evaluated on an arterial occlusion test (AOT) and a venous occlusion test (VOT). In the evaluation experiment, we confirmed that reasonable values of StO2 were obtained by the proposed method.

  18. Tunable, continuous-wave, ultraviolet source based on intracavity sum-frequency-generation in an optical parametric oscillator using BiB₃O₆.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kavita; Kumar, S Chaitanya; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2013-10-21

    We report a continuous-wave (cw) source of tunable radiation across 333-345 nm in the ultraviolet (UV) using bismuth triborate, BiB₃O₆ (BIBO) as the nonlinear gain material. The source is based on internal sum-frequency-generation (SFG) in a cw singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped at 532 nm. The compact tunable source employs a 30-mm-long MgO:sPPLT crystal as the OPO gain medium and a 5-mm-long BIBO crystal for intracavity SFG of the signal and pump, providing up to 21.6 mW of UV power at 339.7 nm, with >15 mW over 64% of the SFG tuning range. The cw OPO is also tunable across 1158-1312 nm in the idler, delivering as much as 1.7 W at 1247 nm, with >1W over 65% of the tuning range. The UV output at maximum power exhibits passive power stability better than 3.4% rms and frequency stability of 193 GHz over more than one minute.

  19. Dark current studies on a normal-conducting high-brightness very-high-frequency electron gun operating in continuous wave mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements and analysis of a field-emitted electron current in the very-high-frequency (VHF gun, a room temperature rf gun operating at high field and continuous wave (CW mode at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. The VHF gun is the core of the Advanced Photo-injector Experiment (APEX at LBNL, geared toward the development of an injector for driving the next generation of high average power x-ray free electron lasers. High accelerating fields at the cathode are necessary for the high-brightness performance of an electron gun. When coupled with CW operation, such fields can generate a significant amount of field-emitted electrons that can be transported downstream the accelerator forming the so-called “dark current.” Elevated levels of a dark current can cause radiation damage, increase the heat load in the downstream cryogenic systems, and ultimately limit the overall performance and reliability of the facility. We performed systematic measurements that allowed us to characterize the field emission from the VHF gun, determine the location of the main emitters, and define an effective strategy to reduce and control the level of dark current at APEX. Furthermore, the energy spectra of isolated sources have been measured. A simple model for energy data analysis was developed that allows one to extract information on the emitter from a single energy distribution measurement.

  20. Noninvasive, low-noise, fast imaging of blood volume and deoxygenation changes in muscles using light-emitting diode continuous-wave imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanqing; Lech, Gwen; Nioka, Shoko; Intes, Xavier; Chance, Britton

    2002-08-01

    This article focuses on optimizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a three-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) near-infrared continuous-wave (cw) imager and its application to in vivo muscle metabolism measurement. The shot-noise limited SNR is derived and calculated to be 2 x104 for the physiological blood concentrations of muscle. Aiming at shot-noise limited SNR performance and fast imaging, we utilize sample and hold circuits to reduce high-frequency noise. These circuits have also been designed to be parallel integrating, through which SNR of 2 x103 and 2 Hz imaging acquisition rate have been achieved when the probe is placed on a muscle model. The noise corresponds to 2 x10-4 optical density error, which suggests an in vitro resolution of 15. 4 nM blood volume and 46.8 nM deoxygenation changes. A 48 dB digital gain control circuit with 256 steps is employed to enlarge the dynamic range of the imager. We utilize cuff ischemia as a living model demonstration and its results are reported. The instrument is applied during exercise to measure the changes of blood volume and deoxygenation, which provides important information about muscle metabolism. We find that the primary source of noise encountered during exercise experiment is from the random motion of muscle. The results demonstrate that the LED cw imager is ideal for the noninvasive study of muscle metabolism.

  1. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  2. 205 nm continuous-wave laser: application to the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen; Laser continu a 205 nm: application a la mesure du deplacement de lamb dans l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourzeix, S

    1995-01-15

    The subject of this thesis is the construction of an experimental set-up, and in particular of a tunable continuous-wave laser at 205 nm, for the measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen. Chapter 1 deals with the Lamb shift from a historical point of view, and with the interest of its measurement, for metrology and test of quantum electrodynamics. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theory of the hydrogen atom. The principle of the experiment is based on the comparison of two frequencies which are in a ratio of 4: those of the two-photon transitions of 2S-6S or 2S-6D and 1S-3S. Chapter 3 describes the experimental set-up used to measure the 2S-6D transition which is excited by a titanium-sapphire laser at 820 nm. The 205 nm light required to excite the 1S-3S transition is generated by two frequency-doubling of the titanium-sapphire laser, made in non-linear crystals placed in enhancement cavities. Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to the frequency-doubling. After a recall of non-linear optics, the enhancement cavities are described in detail, as well as the results we achieved. At last chapter 5 describes the research for a signal on the 1S-3S transition: the construction of a ground state atomic beam, and the development of the detection system. This work has led to a preliminary measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen: L(1S) = 8172.850 (174) MHz whose result is in very good agreement with both the previous measurements and the most recent theoretical results. (author)

  3. Modeling the effect of the seismic wave propagation in buried continuous pipelines; Modelacion del efecto de propagacion de ondas sismicas en tuberias continuas enterradas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchor Garcia, Nicolas Ageo

    2005-02-15

    This work presents the state of art of the behavior of buried pipelines facing the effect of the propagation of seismic waves. Special attention has been given to the modeling of the soil-piping system. Some analytical models are presented and discussed in great detail. The purpose of this is to contribute, in particular, to the following aspects: First, it attempts to be a reference work for the geotechnical engineers facing problems related to the seismic wave propagation phenomenon in buried structures, since within the consulted literature there are many of the principles presented in here, that are related with the seismic engineering, the reaction module, as well as expressions or investigations performed in piles. Second, a cuasi-static numerical model is presented that analyzes the continuous piping through a stress vector of sinusoidal type. The analysis of the stresses and deformations that the ground transmits to the pipe is made using a ground-to-pipe interaction model. For a low level of deformations an elastic behavior of transference in the interface is considered in the inter-phase ground-piping. In the case of greater deformations it is assumed that sliding is presented because the surrounding ground presents fault by shearing stress in the surrounding ground. The analysis covers solely the case with axial deformations in straight sections. Finally, it intends to give a series of recommendations for future research works on the modeling of buried pipelines. In this work, the influence of several aspects on the response of the pipelines to the propagation of seismic waves is analyzed and discussed; such as the conditions of topography, geology, ground stratigraphy and the rigidity changes in the surrounding ground of the pipe. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta el estado del arte sobre el comportamiento de tuberias enterradas ante efecto de programacion de ondas sismicas. Una especial atencion ha sido dada a la modelacion del sistema suelo

  4. Atmospheric CO2 Column Measurements with an Airborne Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave 1.57-micron Fiber Laser Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Jeremy T.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Browell, Edward V.; Lin, Bing; McGregor, Doug; Kooi, Susan; Choi, Yonghoon; Ismail, Syed

    2013-01-01

    The 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space recommended Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as a mid-term, Tier II, NASA space mission. ITT Exelis, formerly ITT Corp., and NASA Langley Research Center have been working together since 2004 to develop and demonstrate a prototype Laser Absorption Spectrometer for making high-precision, column CO2 mixing ratio measurements needed for the ASCENDS mission. This instrument, called the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), operates in an intensity-modulated, continuous-wave mode in the 1.57- micron CO2 absorption band. Flight experiments have been conducted with the MFLL on a Lear-25, UC-12, and DC-8 aircraft over a variety of different surfaces and under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Very high-precision CO2 column measurements resulting from high signal-to-noise (great than 1300) column optical depth measurements for a 10-s (approximately 1 km) averaging interval have been achieved. In situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 profiles were used to derive the expected CO2 column values, and when compared to the MFLL measurements over desert and vegetated surfaces, the MFLL measurements were found to agree with the in situ-derived CO2 columns to within an average of 0.17% or approximately 0.65 ppmv with a standard deviation of 0.44% or approximately 1.7 ppmv. Initial results demonstrating ranging capability using a swept modulation technique are also presented.

  5. BeZnCdSe quantum-well ridge-waveguide laser diodes under low threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jijun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System (Ministry of Education), School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093 (China); Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Akimoto, Ryoichi, E-mail: r-akimoto@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2015-10-19

    Low threshold current ridge-waveguide BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) have been developed by completely etching away the top p-type BeMgZnSe/ZnSe:N short-period superlattice cladding layer, which can suppress the leakage current that flows laterally outside of the electrode. The waveguide LDs are covered with a thick SiO{sub 2} layer and planarized with chemical-mechanical polishing and a reactive ion etching process. Room-temperature lasing under continuous-wave condition is achieved with the laser cavity formed by the cleaved waveguide facets coated with high-reflectivity dielectric films. For a 4 μm-wide green LD lasing around a wavelength of 535 nm, threshold current and voltage of 7.07 mA and 7.89 V are achieved for a cavity length of 300 μm, and the internal differential quantum efficiency, internal absorption loss, gain constant, and nominal transparency current density are estimated to be 27%, 4.09 cm{sup −1}, 29.92 (cm × μm)/kA and 6.35 kA/(cm{sup 2 }× μm), respectively. This compact device can realize a significantly improved performance with much lower threshold power consumption, which would benefit the potential application for ZnSe-based green LDs as light sources in full-color display and projector devices installed in consumer products such as pocket projectors.

  6. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Backscatter and Earth Surface Targets By Use of An Airborne Focused Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Over Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar systems are used to determine wind velocity and to measure aerosol or cloud backscatter variability. Atmospheric aerosols, being affected by local and regional sources, show tremendous variability. Continuous wave (cw) lidar can obtain detailed aerosol loading with unprecedented high resolution (3 sec) and sensitivity (1 mg/cubic meter) as was done during the 1995 NASA Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission over western North America and the Pacific Ocean. Backscatter variability was measured at a 9.1 micron wavelength cw focused CO2 Doppler lidar for approximately 52 flight hours, covering an equivalent horizontal distance of approximately 30,000 km in the troposphere. Some quasi-vertical backscatter profiles were also obtained during various ascents and descents at altitudes that ranged from approximately 0.1 to 12 km. Similarities and differences for aerosol loading over land and ocean were observed. Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode was approximately 6 x 10(exp -11)/ms/r, consistent with previous lidar datasets. While these atmospheric measurements were made, the lidar also retrieved a distinct backscatter signal from the Earth's surface from the unfocused part of the focused cw lidar beam during aircraft rolls. Atmospheric backscatter can be highly variable both spatially and temporally, whereas, Earth-surface backscatter is relatively much less variant and can be quite predictable. Therefore, routine atmospheric backscatter measurements by an airborne lidar also give Earth surface backscatter which can allow for investigating the Earth terrain. In the case where the Earth's surface backscatter is coming from a well-known and fairly uniform region, then it can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities during flight. These Earth surface measurements over varying Californian terrain during the mission were compared with laboratory backscatter measurements using the same lidar of various

  7. Nonadiabatic dynamics in intense continuous wave laser fields and real-time observation of the associated wavepacket bifurcation in terms of spectrogram of induced photon emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuta; Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2016-11-14

    We propose a theoretical principle to directly monitor the bifurcation of quantum wavepackets passing through nonadiabatic regions of a molecule that is placed in intense continuous wave (CW) laser fields. This idea makes use of the phenomenon of laser-driven photon emission from molecules that can undergo nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and covalent potential energy surfaces like Li + F - and LiF. The resultant photon emission spectra are of anomalous yet characteristic frequency and intensity, if pumped to an energy level in which the nonadiabatic region is accessible and placed in a CW laser field. The proposed method is designed to take the time-frequency spectrogram with an appropriate time-window from this photon emission to detect the time evolution of the frequency and intensity, which depends on the dynamics and location of the relevant nuclear wavepackets. This method is specifically designed for the study of dynamics in intense CW laser fields and is rather limited in scope than other techniques for femtosecond chemical dynamics in vacuum. The following characteristic features of dynamics can be mapped onto the spectrogram: (1) the period of driven vibrational motion (temporally confined vibrational states in otherwise dissociative channels, the period and other states of which dramatically vary depending on the CW driving lasers applied), (2) the existence of multiple nuclear wavepackets running individually on the field-dressed potential energy surfaces, (3) the time scale of coherent interaction between the nuclear wavepackets running on ionic and covalent electronic states after their branching (the so-called coherence time in the terminology of the theory of nonadiabatic interaction), and so on.

  8. Nanoshell-mediated targeted photothermal therapy of HER2 human breast cancer cells using pulsed and continuous wave lasers: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Mohammad E; Hassannejad, Zahra; Firouzi, Masoumeh; Arshi, Ahmad R

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we report the apoptosis induction in HER2 overexpressed breast cancer cells using pulsed, continuous wave lasers and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized magneto-plasmonic nanoshells (PVP-MPNS) delivered by immunoliposomes. The immunoliposomes containing PVP-MPNS were fabricated and characterized. Heating efficiency of the synthesized nanostructures was calculated. The effect of functionalization on cellular uptake of nanoparticles was assessed using two cell lines of BT-474 and Calu-6. The best uptake result was achieved by functionalized liposome (MPNS-LAb) and BT-474. Also, the interaction of 514 nm argon (Ar) and Nd/YAG second harmonic 532-nm lasers with nanoparticles was investigated based on the temperature rise of the nanoshell suspension and the release value of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) from CF/MPNS-loaded liposomes. The temperature increase of the suspensions after ten consecutive pulses of 532 nm and 5 min of irradiation by Ar laser were measured approximately 2 and 12 °C, respectively. The irradiation of CF/MPNS-loaded liposomes by Ar laser for 3 min resulted in 24.3 % release of CF, and in the case of 532 nm laser, the release was laser energy dependent. Furthermore, the comparison of CF release showed a higher efficiency for the Ar laser than by direct heating of nanoshell suspension using circulating water. The percentage of cell apoptosis after irradiation by Ar and 532 nm lasers were 44.6 and 42.6 %, respectively. The obtained results suggest that controlling the NP-laser interaction using optical properties of nanoshells and the laser parameters can be used to develop a new cancer therapy modality via targeted nanoshell and drug delivery.

  9. Imaging of active faults with the step continuous wave radar system. In case of Senzan faults in Awaji-island; Step shiki renzokuha chichu radar tansaho ni yoru katsudanso no imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, K; Hara, H; Kasai, H; Ito, M [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Validity of continuous wave radar exploration was verified when the said technique and some other probing methods were investigated at the Senzan Faults in Awaji Island. The signal transmitted by a continuous wave exploration system is a collection of sinusoidal waves different in frequency, and the frequencies are so controlled that they form steps relative to the sweep time. Exploration into great depths is carried out by prolonging the transmission signal sweep time, where high resolution is maintained by use of widened transmission frequency bandwidths. On-site measurements were made using a triplicated multichannel method, and electromagnetic wave propagation velocities required for depth conversion of the reflected cross section were determined in compliance with the wide angle method. On the basis of the analytical cross section using the profiles obtained by continuous radar reflection exploration conducted from the ground surface, interpretation was made of the geological structure. The presence and position and the geological development of the Senzan Faults were identified by the study of discontinuities in reflective structures such as the strata. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Recent results from a continuous wave stepped frequency GPR system using a new ground-coupled multi-element antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Neil; Linford, Paul; Payne, Andy

    2016-04-01

    The recent availability of multi-channel GPR instrumentation has allowed high-speed acquisition of densely sampled data sets over unprecedented areas of coverage. Such instrumentation has been of particular interest for the mapping of near-surface archaeological remains where the ability to collect GPR data at very close sample spacings (<0.1m) can provide a unique insight to both image and assess the survival of historic assets at a landscape scale. This paper reviews initial results obtained with a 3d-Radar GeoScope MkIV continuous wave stepped frequency (CWSF) GPR system utilising both initial prototypes and production versions of a newly introduced ground coupled antenna array. Whilst this system originally utilised an air-coupled antenna array there remained some debate over the suitability of an air-coupled antenna for all site conditions, particularly where a conductive surface layer, typical of many archaeological sites in the UK, may impede the transfer of energy into the ground. Encouraging results obtained from an initial prototype ground-coupled antenna array led to the introduction of a full width 22 channel G1922 version in March 2014 for use with the MkIV GeoScope console, offering faster acquisition across a wider frequency bandwidth (60MHz to 3GHz) with a cross-line 0.075m spacing between the individual elements in the array. Field tests over the Roman remains at Silchester corroborated the results from the earlier prototype, demonstrating an increased depth of penetration at the site compared to the previous air-coupled array. Further field tests were conducted with the G1922 over a range of sites, including Roman villa sites, formal post-medieval garden remains and a medieval farmstead to assess the response of the ground-coupled antenna to more challenging site conditions, particularly through water saturated soils. A full production DXG1820 version of the antenna became available for field work in 2015 offering optimisation of the individual

  11. Comparing and Merging Observation Data from Ka-Band Cloud Radar, C-Band Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave Radar and Ceilometer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment in South China was undertaken to improve understanding of cloud and precipitation properties. Measurements of the vertical structures of non-precipitating and precipitating clouds were obtained using passive and active remote sensing equipment: a Ka-band cloud radar (CR system, a C-band frequency modulated continuous wave vertical pointing radar (CVPR, a microwave radiometer and a laser ceilometer (CEIL. CR plays a key role in high-level cloud observation, whereas CVPR is important for observing low- and mid-level clouds and heavy precipitation. CEIL helps us diminish the effects of “clear-sky” in the planetary boundary layer. The experiment took place in Longmen, Guangdong Province, China from May to September of 2016. This study focuses on evaluating the ability of the two radars to deliver consistent observation data and develops an algorithm to merge the CR, CVPR and CEIL data. Cloud echo base, thickness, frequency of observed cloud types and reflectivity vertical distributions are analyzed in the radar data. Comparisons between the collocated data sets show that reflectivity biases between the CR three operating modes are less than 2 dB. The averaged difference between CR and CVPR reflectivity can be reduced with attenuation correction to 3.57 dB from the original 4.82 dB. No systemic biases were observed between velocity data collected in the three CR modes and CVPR. The corrected CR reflectivity and velocity data were then merged with the CVPR data and CEIL data to fill in the gaps during the heavy precipitation periods and reduce the effects of Bragg scattering and fog on cloud observations in the boundary layer. Meanwhile, the merging of velocity data with different Nyquist velocities and resolutions diminishes velocity folding to provide fine-grain information about cloud and precipitation dynamics. The three daily periods in which low-level clouds tended to occur were at sunrise, noon and sunset and large

  12. Results of the deepest all-sky survey for continuous gravitational waves on LIGO S6 data running on the Einstein@Home volunteer distributed computing project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acemese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwa, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Arker, Bd.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Be, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitoss, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Boutfanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, O.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, C.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreyer, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Egizenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholel, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, O.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Far, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.M.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, J. -D; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritsche, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garuti, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gi, K.; Glaetke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Granta, A.; Gras, S.; Cray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonsta, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howel, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, O.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Lyer, B. R.; Fzumi, K.; Jaccimin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Wads, k; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keh, M. S.; Keite, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kimbre, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kisse, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringe, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Liick, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ivia, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; Maclnnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magafia-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magafia; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Manse, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matiehard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mende, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Miche, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecehia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Hang, S.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Ram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, . J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powel, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, .; Punturo, M.; Purrer, PuppoM.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, RosiliskaS.; Ruggi, RiidigerP.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabe, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schonbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Sielleez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazus, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sunil, Suns; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepariczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tomasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Tome, C.; Tot, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifire, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozz, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Valente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bake, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; Van Heilningen, J. V.; Van Vegge, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vaslith, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Vvang, G.; Wang, O.; Wang, X.; Wiang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Wiarner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weliels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; WilIke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Whinkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; De Witte, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S.J.; Zhu, X.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the S6 LIGO science run. The search was possible thanks to the computing power provided by the volunteers of the Einstein@Home distributed computing project. We find no significant

  13. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  14. Propagation of gravity waves and spread F in the low-latitude ionosphere over Tucumán, Argentina, by continuous Doppler sounding: First results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chum, Jaroslav; Bonomi, F. A. M.; Fišer, Jiří; Cabrera, M. A.; Ezquer, R. G.; Burešová, Dalia; Laštovička, Jan; Baše, Jiří; Hruška, František; Molina, M. G.; Ise, J. E.; Cangemi, J. I.; Šindelářová, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 8 (2014), s. 6954-6965 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440; GA ČR GP13-09778P Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : low latitude ionosphere * Ionospheric irregularities * equatorial spread F * gravity waves * scintillation * remote sensing * Doppler sounding Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020184/abstract

  15. Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Cano-Torres, J. M.; Cascales, C.; Esteban-Betegón, F.; Serrano, M. D.; Volkov, V.; Zaldo, C.; Rico, M.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.

    2005-03-01

    Single crystals of disordered NaLa(WO4)2 and NaLa(MoO4)2 doped with Yb3+ are grown by the Czochralski method from the melt. Continuous-wave laser operation with Ti:sapphire laser pumping is demonstrated at room temperature without special cooling. Tunability from 1017 to 1057 nm and from 1015 to 1053 nm is achieved for Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb:NaLa(MoO4)2, respectively. A maximum output power of 205 mW is obtained with Yb:NaLa(WO4)2.

  16. Generation of a continuous-wave squeezed vacuum state at 1.3 μm by employing a home-made all-solid-state laser as pump source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yao-Hui; Wu Zhi-Qiang; Huo Mei-Ru; Zhou Hai-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We present a continuous-wave squeezed vacuum generation system at a telecommunication wavelength of 1.3 μm. By employing a home-made single-frequency Nd:YVO 4 laser with dual wavelength outputs as the pump source, via an optical parameter oscillator based on periodically poled KTP, a squeezed vacuum of 6.1 dB±0.1 dB below the shot noise limit at 1342 nm is experimentally measured. This system could be utilized for demonstrating practical quantum information networks. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  17. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  18. Suppression of Spiral Wave in Modified Orengonator Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jun; Wang Chunni; Jin Wuyin; Yi Ming

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial perturbation scheme is proposed to suppress the spiral wave in the modified Orengonator model, which is used to describe the chemical reaction in the light-sensitive media. The controllable external illumination Φ is perturbed with a spatial linear function. In our numerical simulation, the scheme is investigated by imposing the external controllable illumination on the space continuously and/or intermittently. The numerical simulation results confirm that the stable rotating spiral wave still can be removed with the scheme proposed in this paper even if the controllable Φ changed vs. time and space synchronously. Then the scheme is also used to control the spiral wave and turbulence in the modified Fitzhugh-Nagumo model. It is found that the scheme is effective to remove the sable rotating and meandering spiral wave but it costs long transient period and intensity of the gradient parameter to eliminate the spiral turbulence

  19. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)

  20. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  1. Continuity and innovation in the data collection protocols of the second Wave of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Angela; O'Doherty, Katie; Colicchia, Michael; Satorius, Jennifer; McPhillips, Jane; Czaplewski, Meredith; Imhof, Laurie; Smith, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The second Wave (W2) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of older adults now between the ages of 62 and 90, conducted approximately 3,400 interviews. Selected coresidential romantic partners as well as W1 panel nonrespondents were selected for W2. Data collection included in-person questionnaires, up to 15 biomeasures, and a post-interview questionnaire. A proxy questionnaire also collected data on respondents that were deceased or in too poor health to participate in W2. Biomeasure collection included height, weight, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, and preventricular contraction, timed walk and chair stands, smell, saliva collection using a Salivette (cortisol), saliva passive drool in a tube (dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone), dried blood spots (Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein), whole blood in a microtainer (cytokines), urine (creatinine, vasopressin, oxytocin), Oragene (genotype), respondent-administered vaginal swabs (bacterial vaginosis,yeast, and vaginal cell cytology), and Actiwatch (sleep patterns and activity). Measures, such as response and cooperation rates, are also provided to evaluate design and implementation. This article describes both innovation in the development and implementation of W2 as well as fidelity to W1 study design and data collection procedures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. High power and spectral purity continuous-wave photonic THz source tunable from 1 to 4.5 THz for nonlinear molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, J.; Breunig, I.; Schunemann, P. G.; Buse, K.; Vodopyanov, K. L.

    2013-10-01

    We report a diffraction-limited photonic terahertz (THz) source with linewidth OP) gallium arsenide (GaAs) via intracavity frequency mixing between the two closely spaced resonating signal and idler waves of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) operating near λ = 2 μm. The doubly resonant type II OPO is based on a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) pumped by a single-frequency Yb:YAG disc laser at 1030 nm. We take advantage of the enhancement of both optical fields inside a high-finesse OPO cavity: with 10 W of 1030 nm pump, 100 W of intracavity power near 2 μm was attained with GaAs inside cavity. This allows dramatic improvement in terms of generated THz power, as compared to the state-of-the art CW methods. We achieved >25 μW of single-frequency tunable CW THz output power scalable to >1 mW with proper choice of pump laser wavelength.

  3. Synchrony, waves and ripple in spatially coupled Kuramoto oscillators with Mexican hat connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Stewart; Ermentrout, G Bard

    2015-06-01

    Spatiotemporal waves of synchronized activity are known to arise in oscillatory neural networks with lateral inhibitory coupling. How such patterns respond to dynamic changes in coupling strength is largely unexplored. The present study uses analysis and simulation to investigate the evolution of wave patterns when the strength of lateral inhibition is varied dynamically. Neural synchronization was modeled by a spatial ring of Kuramoto oscillators with Mexican hat lateral coupling. Broad bands of coexisting stable wave solutions were observed at all levels of inhibition. The stability of these waves was formally analyzed in both the infinite ring and the finite ring. The broad range of multi-stability predicted hysteresis in transitions between neighboring wave solutions when inhibition is slowly varied. Numerical simulation confirmed the predicted transitions when inhibition was ramped down from a high initial value. However, non-wave solutions emerged from the uniform solution when inhibition was ramped upward from zero. These solutions correspond to spatially periodic deviations of phase that we call ripple states. Numerical continuation showed that stable ripple states emerge from synchrony via a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. The normal form of this bifurcation was derived analytically, and its predictions compared against the numerical results. Ripple states were also found to bifurcate from wave solutions, but these were locally unstable. Simulation also confirmed the existence of hysteresis and ripple states in two spatial dimensions. Our findings show that spatial synchronization patterns can remain structurally stable despite substantial changes in network connectivity.

  4. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  5. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  6. High-Efficiency Intracavity Continuous-Wave Green-Light Generation by Quasiphase Matching in a Bulk Periodically Poled MgO:LiNbO3 Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Chu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 908 mW of green light at 532 nm were generated by intracavity quasiphase matching in a bulk periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 (PPMgLN crystal. A maximum optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 33.5% was obtained from a 0.5 mm thick, 10 mm long, and 5 mol% MgO:LiNbO3 crystal with an end-pump power of 2.7 W at 808 nm. The temperature bandwidth between the intracavity and single-pass frequency doubling was found to be different for the PPMgLN. Reliability and stability of the green laser were evaluated. It was found that for continuous operation of 100 hours, the output stability was better than 97.5% and no optical damage was observed.

  7. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  8. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  9. On the joint statistics of stable random processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E

    2011-01-01

    A utilitarian continuous bi-variate random process whose first-order probability density function is a stable random variable is constructed. Results paralleling some of those familiar from the theory of Gaussian noise are derived. In addition to the joint-probability density for the process, these include fractional moments and structure functions. Although the correlation functions for stable processes other than Gaussian do not exist, we show that there is coherence between values adopted by the process at different times, which identifies a characteristic evolution with time. The distribution of the derivative of the process, and the joint-density function of the value of the process and its derivative measured at the same time are evaluated. These enable properties to be calculated analytically such as level crossing statistics and those related to the random telegraph wave. When the stable process is fractal, the proportion of time it spends at zero is finite and some properties of this quantity are evaluated, an optical interpretation for which is provided. (paper)

  10. Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Rico, M.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.; Cano-Torres, J.M.; Cascales, C.; Esteban-Betegon, F.; Serrano, M.D.; Volkov, V.; Zaldo, C.

    2005-01-01

    Single crystals of disordered NaLa(WO 4 ) 2 and NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 doped with Yb 3+ are grown by the Czochralski method from the melt. Continuous-wave laser operation with Ti:sapphire laser pumping is demonstrated at room temperature without special cooling. Tunability from 1017 to 1057 nm and from 1015 to 1053 nm is achieved for Yb:NaLa(WO 4 ) 2 and Yb:NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 , respectively. A maximum output power of 205 mW is obtained with Yb:NaLa(WO 4 ) 2 . (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. An efficient continuous-wave 591 nm light source based on sum-frequency mixing of a diode pumped Nd:GdVO4–Nd:CNGG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y D; Liu, J H

    2013-01-01

    We report a laser architecture to obtain continuous-wave (CW) yellow-orange light sources at the 591 nm wavelength. An 808 nm diode pumped a Nd:GdVO 4 crystal emitting at 1063 nm. A part of the pump power was then absorbed by the Nd:CNGG crystal. The remaining pump power was used to pump a Nd:CNGG crystal emitting at 1329 nm. Intracavity sum-frequency mixing at 1063 and 1329 nm was then realized in a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) crystal to reach the yellow-orange radiation. We obtained a CW output power of 494 mW at 591 nm with a pump laser diode emitting 17.8 W at 808 nm. (paper)

  12. Continuous-wave yellow-green laser at 0.56  μm based on frequency doubling of a diode-end-pumped ceramic Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenming; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Long; Li, Jiang; Tian, Yubing; Ma, Yufei; Wu, Xiaodong; Ma, Gangfei; Yang, Jianming; Pan, Yubai; Dai, Xianjin

    2015-06-20

    We present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on yellow-green laser generation based on the frequency doubling of the 1.1 μm transitions in Nd:YAG ceramics. By employing an 885 nm diode laser as the end-pumping source and a lithium triborate crystal as the frequency doubler, the highest continuous wave output powers of 1.4, 0.5, and 1.1 W at 556, 558, and 561 nm are achieved, respectively. These result in optical-to-optical efficiencies of 6.9%, 2.5%, and 5.4% with respect to the absorbed pump power, respectively.

  13. A continuous high-resolution record of western South Island environmental change over the last 31,000 years from stable isotope analyses of two north-west Nelson speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstrom, J.; McCulloch, M.; Stone, J.

    1997-01-01

    Core samples were taken through large sheets of calcite flowstone growing in two cave systems, Nettlebed, and Exhaleair, in north-west Nelson, New Zealand. The sampled flowstones are at elevations of 400 m asl and 600 m asl, and are both located 200m below the surface. Ten high-precision U-series dates, measured by thermal ionisation mass spectroemtry, indicate the Nettlebed flowstone grew continuously over the last 31 ka. The Exhaleair flowstone grew continuously over the last 16 ka, following a 50 ka hiatus in deposition. The speleothems from both caves show similar records of oxygen isotope variation over the last 16 ka. The carbon isotope record from Nettlebed shows considerable variation, of almost 10 per thousand from the last glacial maximum to the early Holocene. It is anticipated that these well-dated speleothem records will enable more accurate constraints to be placed on the timing of glacial advances and vegetation changes in the western South Island than are possible using the available radiocarbon ages alone. (author)

  14. O Wave Interactions: Explosive Resonant Triads and Critical Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Daniel J.

    This thesis considers the phenomenon of explosive resonant triads in weakly nonlinear, dispersive wave systems. These are nearly linear waves with slowly varying amplitudes which become unbounded in finite time. It is shown that such interactions are much stronger than previously thought. These waves can be thought of as a nonlinear instability, in the sense that a weakly nonlinear perturbation to some system grows to such magnitudes that the behavior of the system is governed by strongly nonlinear effects. This may occur for systems which are linearly or neutrally stable. This is contrasted with previous resolutions of this problem, which treated such perturbations as being large amplitude, nearly linear waves. Analytical and numerical evidence is presented to support these claims. These waves represent a potentially important effect in a variety of physical systems, most notably plasma physics. Attention here is turned to their occurrence in fluid mechanics. Here previous work is extended to include flow systems with continuously varying basic velocities and densities. Many of the problems encountered here will be found to be of a singular nature themselves, and the techniques for analyzing these difficulties will be developed. This will involve the concept of a critical layer in a fluid, a level at which a wave phase speed equals the unperturbed fluid velocity in the direction of propagation. Examples of such waves in this context will be presented. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

  15. Non-diffractive waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Figueroa, Hugo E; Recami, Erasmo

    2013-01-01

    This continuation and extension of the successful book ""Localized Waves"" by the same editors brings together leading researchers in non-diffractive waves to cover the most important results in their field and as such is the first to present the current state.The well-balanced presentation of theory and experiments guides readers through the background of different types of non-diffractive waves, their generation, propagation, and possible applications. The authors include a historical account of the development of the field, and cover different types of non-diffractive waves, including Airy

  16. Stable Caloric Intake and Continued Virologic Suppression for HIV-Positive Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced Women After Switching to a Single-Tablet Regimen of Emtricitabine, Rilpivirine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Prema; Mollan, Katie; Hoffman, Erin; Xie, Zimeng; Wills, Jennifer; Marcus, Cheryl; Rublein, John; Hudgens, Michael; Eron, Joseph J

    2018-05-02

    Benefits of switching to a single-tablet regimen (STR) of emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir (FTC/RPV/TDF) in virologically suppressed antiretroviral treatment (ART) experienced HIV-positive women include pregnancy category B rating and lack of clinically significant drug interactions between RPV and oral contraceptives. Unfortunately, studies involving switching to FTC/RPV/TDF enrolled fewer than 25% women. We undertook this 48-week study to assess the ability of virologically suppressed HIV-positive women switching to RPV STR to remain virologically suppressed and comply with the caloric intake requirement. HIV-positive women on ART with viral load phone calls on randomly chosen dates. For each 3-day food diary, the daily median caloric intake and median value for each macronutrient consumed concurrent with FTC/RPV/TDF were computed. Medication adherence was measured using a visual analog scale. We enrolled 33 women, 73% of whom were African American. At week 48, virologic suppression (HIV RNA phone call. Median kcal intake (food diary) did not change significantly from baseline (684 kcal) to week 48 (820 kcal); median change 102 kcal, p = .15. Women who reported noncompliance with a ≥400 kcal meal did not experience virologic failure. Significant concordance between caloric adherence and virologic suppression was not detected. Our study demonstrated that HIV-positive women who switched to STR FTC/RPV/TDF continued to experience virologic suppression and were readily able to comply with the recommended caloric intake requirement.

  17. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of the In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum-dot VCSELs for the 1.3 µm optical-fibre communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dawei; Tong Cunzhu; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Fan Weijun; Zhang, Dao Hua; Wasiak, Michał; Piskorski, Łukasz; Gutowski, Krzysztof; Sarzała, Robert P; Nakwaski, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Efficient room-temperature (RT) continuous-wave (CW) lasing operation of the 1.3 µm MBE (molecular-beam epitaxy) In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum-dot (QD) top-emitting oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers (VCSELs) for the second-generation optical-fibre communication has been achieved. In their design, a concept of a QD inside a quantum well (QW) has been utilized. The proposed In(Ga)As/GaAs QD active region is composed of five groups of three 8 nm In 0.15 Ga 0.85 As QWs, each containing one InAs QD sheet layer. In each group located close to successive anti-node positions of the optical standing wave within the 3λ cavity, QWs are separated by 32 nm GaAs barriers. Besides, at both active-region edges, additional single InGaAs QWs are located containing single QD layers. For the 10 µm diameter QD VCSELs, the RT CW threshold current of only 6.2 mA (7.9 kA cm −2 ), differential efficiency of 0.11 W A −1 and the maximal output power of 0.85 mW have been recorded. The experimental characteristics are in excellent agreement with theoretical ones obtained using the optical-electrical-thermal-recombination self-consistent computer model. According to this, for the 10 µm devices, the fundamental linearly polarized LP 01 mode remains the dominating one up to the current of 9.1 mA. The lowest RT CW lasing threshold below 5 mA is expected for 6 µm devices

  18. Waves and compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ockendon, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications.  New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises.  Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science.   Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...

  19. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  20. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  1. Solar pumped continuous wave carbon dioxide laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, O.; Christiansen, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar pumped laser concept, gain has been measured in a CO2-He laser medium optically pumped by blackbody radiation. Various gas mixtures of CO2 and He have been pumped by blackbody radiation emitted from an electrically heated oven. Using a CO2 laser as a probe, an optical gain coefficient of 1.8 x 10 to the -3rd/cm has been measured at 10.6 microns for a 9:1 CO2-He mixture at an oven temperature of about 1500 K, a gas temperature of about 400 K and a pressure of about 1 torr. This corresponds to a small signal gain coefficient when allowance is made for saturation effects due to the probe beam, in reasonable agreement with a theoretical value.

  2. Modulational instability of coupled waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinstrie, C.J.; Bingham, R.

    1989-01-01

    The collinear propagation of an arbitrary number of finite-amplitude waves is modeled by a system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations; one equation for each complex wave amplitude. In general, the waves are modulationally unstable with a maximal growth rate larger than the modulational growth rate of any wave alone. Moreover, waves that are modulationally stable by themselves can be driven unstable by the nonlinear coupling. The general theory is then applied to the relativistic modulational instability of two laser beams in a beat-wave accelerator. For parameters typical of a proposed beat-wave accelerator, this instability can seriously distort the incident laser pulse shapes on the particle-acceleration time scale, with detrimental consequences for particle acceleration

  3. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  4. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  5. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  6. Combination of highly nonlinear fiber, an optical bandpass filter, and a Fabry-Perot filter to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of a supercontinuum continuous-wave optical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yinbo; Huo, Li; Lou, Caiyun

    2005-05-20

    We present a theoretical study of a supercontinuum (SC) continuous-wave (cw) optical source generation in highly nonlinear fiber and its noise properties through numerical simulations based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Fluctuations of pump pulses generate substructures between the longitudinal modes that result in the generation of white noise and then in degradation of coherence and in a decrease of the modulation depths and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A scheme for improvement of the SNR of a multiwavelength cw optical source based on a SC by use of the combination of a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), an optical bandpass filter, and a Fabry-Perot (FP) filter is presented. Numerical simulations show that the improvement in modulation depth is relative to the HNLF's length, the 3-dB bandwidth of the optical bandpass filter, and the reflection ratio of the FP filter and that the average improvement in modulation depth is 13.7 dB under specified conditions.

  7. Diode laser in-band pumped, efficient 1645 nm continuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YLuAG lasers with near-diffraction-limited beam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Yang, SuHui; He, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-like Er:YLuAG laser rods were tested for continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switched operation. Two narrow-band laser diodes emitting at 1532 nm were used as pump sources. The pump power was confined in the laser rods via total internal reflection. In CW mode, a maximum output power of 7.2 W was measured from a 30 mm long Er:YLuAG laser rod, corresponding to an optical–optical efficiency of 26% and a slope efficiency of 78%. Er:YLuAG and Er:YAG lasers were compared experimentally and exhibited comparable performance, while the measured central wavelength of the Er:YLuAG laser was 1644.75 nm, slightly longer than the central wavelength of the Er:YAG laser in the same experimental circumstances. In Q-switched mode, an output energy of 3.5 mJ was obtained from a 25 mm Er:YLuAG laser rod with a pulse duration of 100 ns and a pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz. The pulsed output had near-diffraction-limited beam quality with M 2 values of 1.13 and 1.11 in the x and y directions, respectively. (letter)

  8. Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 202¯1¯ GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehari, Shlomo; Cohen, Daniel A; Becerra, Daniel L; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P

    2018-01-22

    The benefits of utilizing transparent conductive oxide on top of a thin p-GaN layer for continuous-wave (CW) operation of blue laser diodes (LDs) were investigated. A very low operating voltage of 5.35 V at 10 kA/cm 2 was obtained for LDs with 250 nm thick p-GaN compared to 7.3 V for LDs with conventional 650 nm thick p-GaN. An improved thermal performance was also observed for the thin p-GaN samples resulting in a 40% increase in peak light output power and a 32% decrease in surface temperature. Finally, a tradeoff was demonstrated between low operating voltage and increased optical modal loss in the indium tin oxide (ITO) with thinner p-GaN. LDs lasing at 445 nm with 150 nm thick p-GaN had an excess modal loss while LDs with an optimal 250 nm thick p-GaN resulted in optical output power of 1.1 W per facet without facet coatings and a wall-plug efficiency of 15%.

  9. Efficient continuous-wave and passively Q-switched pulse laser operations in a diffusion-bonded sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4/sapphire composite crystal around 1.55 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujin; Lin, Yanfu; Huang, Jianhua; Gong, Xinghong; Luo, Zundu; Huang, Yidong

    2018-01-08

    A composite crystal consisting of a 1.5-mm-thick Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal between two 1.2-mm-thick sapphire crystals was fabricated by the thermal diffusion bonding technique. Compared with a lone Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal measured under the identical experimental conditions, higher laser performances were demonstrated in the sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 /sapphire composite crystal due to the reduction of the thermal effects. End-pumped by a 976 nm laser diode in a hemispherical cavity, a 1.55 μm continuous-wave laser with a maximum output power of 1.75 W and a slope efficiency of 36% was obtained in the composite crystal when the incident pump power was 6.54 W. Passively Q-switched by a Co 2+ :MgAl 2 O 4 crystal, a 1.52 μm pulse laser with energy of 10 μJ and repetition frequency of 105 kHz was also realized in the composite crystal. Pulse width was 315 ns. The results show that the sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 /sapphire composite crystal is an excellent active element for 1.55 μm laser.

  10. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  11. Nonlinear modulation of ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharuthram, R.; Shukla, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    The quasistatic plasma slow response to coherent ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma is considered. A multidimensional cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived. It is found that the ion acoustic waves remain modulationally stable against oblique perturbations

  12. Some Stiffly Stable Second Derivative Continuous Linear Multistep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Grace Nwachukwu

    G. C. Nwachukwu, Department of Mathematics, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria ...... perform better than Enright's method when applied to the linear problem. ... author is grateful to Dr. R. I. Okuonghae for benefiting from his Ph.D. Thesis.

  13. Linear electrostatic waves in a three-component electron-positron-ion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugemana, A., E-mail: mugemanaa@gmail.com; Moolla, S. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Lazarus, I. J. [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2014-12-15

    Analytical linear electrostatic waves in a magnetized three-component electron-positron-ion plasma are studied in the low-frequency limit. By using the continuity and momentum equations with Poisson's equation, the dispersion relation for the electron-positron-ion plasma consisting of cool ions, and hot Boltzmann electrons and positrons is derived. In the linear regime, the propagation of two possible modes and their evolution are studied. In the cases of parallel and perpendicular propagation, it is shown that these two possible modes are always stable. The present investigation contributes to nonlinear propagation of electrostatic waves in space and the laboratory.

  14. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  15. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  16. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  17. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  18. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Sleep Continuity and Slow Wave Sleep as Predictors of Cognition, Mood, and Subjective Sleep Quality in Healthy Men and Women, Aged 20–84 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro della Monica

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its sub-states are assumed to be important for brain function across the lifespan but which aspects of sleep associate with various aspects of cognition, mood and self-reported sleep quality has not yet been established in detail. Sleep was quantified by polysomnography, quantitative Electroencephalogram (EEG analysis and self-report in 206 healthy men and women, aged 20–84 years, without sleep complaints. Waking brain function was quantified by five assessments scheduled across the day covering objectively assessed performance across cognitive domains including sustained attention and arousal, decision and response time, motor and sequence control, working memory, and executive function as well as self-reports of alertness, mood and affect. Controlled for age and sex, self-reported sleep quality was negatively associated with number of awakenings and positively associated with the duration of Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep, but no significant associations with Slow Wave Sleep (SWS measures were observed. Controlling only for age showed that associations between objective and subjective sleep quality were much stronger in women than in men. Analysis of 51 performance measures demonstrated that, after controlling for age and sex, fewer awakenings and more REM sleep were associated significantly with better performance on the Goal Neglect task, which is a test of executive function. Factor analysis of the individual performance measures identified four latent variables labeled Mood/Arousal, Response Time, Accuracy, and Visual Perceptual Sensitivity. Whereas Mood/Arousal improved with age, Response Times became slower, while Accuracy and Visual perceptual sensitivity showed little change with age. After controlling for sex and age, nominally significant association between sleep and factor scores were observed such that Response Times were faster with more SWS, and Accuracy was reduced where individuals woke more often or had less REM

  19. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  20. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  1. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  2. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  3. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  4. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  5. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  6. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  7. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  8. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  9. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  10. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies, co...

  11. Stable fiber interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmajlov, G.N.; Nikolaev, F.A.; Ozolin, V.V.; Grigor'yants, V.V.; Chamorovskij, Yu.K.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of construction the long-base Michelson interferometer for gravitational wave detection is discussed. Possible sources of noise and instability are considered. It is shown that evacuation of fiber interferometer, the winding of its arms on the glass ceramic bases, stabilization of radiation source frequency and seismic isolation of the base allow one to reduce its instability to the level, typical of mirror interferometer with the comparable optical base. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  12. Shear Alfven waves in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieras, C.E.

    1982-12-01

    Shear Alfven waves in an axisymmetric tokamak are examined within the framework of the linearized ideal MHD equations. Properties of the shear Alfven continuous spectrum are studied both analytically and numerically. Implications of these results in regards to low frequency rf heating of toroidally confined plasmas are discussed. The structure of the spatial singularities associated with these waves is determined. A reduced set of ideal MHD equations is derived to describe these waves in a very low beta plasma

  13. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  14. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  15. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  16. Wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)

  17. Business continuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunhoelder, Gert

    2002-01-01

    This presentation deals with the following keypoints: Information Technology (IT) Business Continuity and Recovery essential for any business; lessons learned after Sept. 11 event; Detailed planning, redundancy and testing being the key elements for probability estimation of disasters

  18. Continuous tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1978-04-01

    A tokamak configuration is proposed that permits the rapid replacement of a plasma discharge in a ''burn'' chamber by another one in a time scale much shorter than the elementary thermal time constant of the chamber first wall. With respect to the chamber, the effective duty cycle factor can thus be made arbitrarily close to unity minimizing the cyclic thermal stress in the first wall. At least one plasma discharge always exists in the new tokamak configuration, hence, a continuous tokamak. By incorporating adiabatic toroidal compression, configurations of continuous tokamak compressors are introduced. To operate continuous tokamaks, it is necessary to introduce the concept of mixed poloidal field coils, which spatially groups all the poloidal field coils into three sets, all contributing simultaneously to inducing the plasma current and maintaining the proper plasma shape and position. Preliminary numerical calculations of axisymmetric MHD equilibria in continuous tokamaks indicate the feasibility of their continued plasma operation. Advanced concepts of continuous tokamaks to reduce the topological complexity and to allow the burn plasma aspect ratio to decrease for increased beta are then suggested

  19. Collected papers on wave mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Schrödinger, Erwin

    1929-01-01

    Quantisation as a problem of proper values ; the continuous transition from micro- to macro-mechanics ; on the relation between the quantum mechanics of Heisenberg, Born, and Jordan, and that of Schrödinger ; the Compton effect ; the energy-momentum theorem for material waves ; the exchange of energy according to wave mechanics

  20. TAPCHAN Wave Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    The Tapered Channel Wave Power Plant (TAPCHAN) is based on a new method for wave energy conversion. The principle of operation can be explained by dividing the system into the following four sub-systems: Firstly, a collector which is designed to concentrate the water energy and optimize collection efficiency for a range of frequencies and directions. Secondly, the energy converter, in which the energy of the collected waves is transformed into potential energy in an on-shore water reservoir. This is the unique part of the power plant. It consists of a gradually narrowing channel with wall heights equal to the filling level of the reservoir (typical heights 3-7 m). The waves enter the wide end of the channel and as they propagate down the narrowing channel, the wave height is amplified until the wavecrests spill over the walls. Thirdly, a reservoir which provides a stable water supply for the turbines. Finally, the hydroelectric power plant, where well established techniques are used for the generation of electric power. The water turbine driving the electric generator is of a low head type, such as a Kaplan or a tubular turbine. It must be designed for salt water operation and should have good regulation capabilities. Power plants based on the principle described, are now offered on a commercial basis.