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Sample records for stable continental crust

  1. From a collage of microplates to stable continental crust - an example from Precambrian Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Annakaisa

    2013-04-01

    Svecofennian orogen (2.0-1.7 Ga) comprises the oldest undispersed orogenic belt on Baltica and Eurasian plate. Svecofennian orogenic belt evolved from a series of short-lived terrane accretions around Baltica's Archean nucleus during the formation of the Precambrian Nuna supercontinent. Geological and geophysical datasets indicate W-SW growth of Baltica with NE-ward dipping subduction zones. The data suggest a long-lived retreating subduction system in the southwestern parts whereas in the northern and central parts the northeasterly transport of continental fragments or microplates towards the continental nucleus is also documented. The geotectonic environment resembles that of the early stages of the Alpine-Himalayan or Indonesian orogenic system, in which dispersed continental fragments, arcs and microplates have been attached to the Eurasian plate margin. Thus the Svecofennian orogeny can be viewed as proxy for the initial stages of an internal orogenic system. Svecofennian orogeny is a Paleoproterozoic analogue of an evolved orogenic system where terrane accretion is followed by lateral spreading or collapse induced by change in the plate architecture. The exposed parts are composed of granitoid intrusions as well as highly deformed supracrustal units. Supracrustal rocks have been metamorphosed in LP-HT conditions in either paleo-lower-upper crust or paleo-upper-middle crust. Large scale seismic reflection profiles (BABEL and FIRE) across Baltica image the crust as a collage of terranes suggesting that the bedrock has been formed and thickened in sequential accretions. The profiles also image three fold layering of the thickened crust (>55 km) to transect old terrane boundaries, suggesting that the over-thickened bedrock structures have been rearranged in post-collisional spreading and/or collapse processes. The middle crust displays typical large scale flow structures: herringbone and anticlinal ramps, rooted onto large scale listric surfaces also suggestive

  2. Palaeomagnetism and the continental crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, J.D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to palaeomagnetism offering treatment of theory and practice. It analyzes the palaeomagnetic record over the whole of geological time, from the Archaean to the Cenozoic, and goes on to examine the impact of past geometries and movements of the continental crust at each geological stage. Topics covered include theory of rock and mineral magnetism, field and laboratory methods, growth and consolidation of the continental crust in Archaean and Proterozoic times, Palaeozoic palaeomagnetism and the formation of Pangaea, the geomagnetic fields, continental movements, configurations and mantle convection.

  3. Age and isotope evidence for the evolution of continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorbath, S.

    1978-01-01

    Irreversible chemical differentiation of the mantle's essentially infinite reservoir for at least the past 3800 Ma has produced new continental, sialic crust during several relatively short (ca. 100-300 Ma) episodes which were widely separated in time and may have been of global extent. During each episode (termed 'accretion-differentiation superevent'), juvenile sial underwent profound igneous, metamorphic and geochemical differentiation, resulting in thick (ca. 25-40 km), stable, compositionally gradational, largely indestructible, continental crust exhibiting close grouping of isotopic ages of rock formation, as well as mantle-type initial Sr and Pb isotopic ratios for all major constituents. Isotopic evidence suggests that within most accretion-differentiation superevents - and especially during the earlier ones - continental growth predominated over reworking of older sialic crust. Reworking of older sialic crust can occur in several types of geological environment and appears to have become more prevalent with the passage of geological time. It is usually clearly distinguishable from continental growth, by application of appropriate age and isotope data. (author)

  4. A relatively reduced Hadean continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhi; Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Among the physical and chemical parameters used to characterize the Earth, oxidation state, as reflected by its prevailing oxygen fugacity (fO2), is a particularly important one. It controls many physicochemical properties and geological processes of the Earth's different reservoirs, and affects the partitioning of elements between coexisting phases and the speciation of degassed volatiles in melts. In the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted to document the evolution of mantle and atmospheric oxidation state with time and in particular the possible transition from an early reduced state to the present oxidized conditions. So far, it has been established that the oxidation state of the uppermost mantle is within ±2 log units of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer, probably back to ~4.4 billion years ago (Ga) based on trace-elements studies of mantle-derived komatiites, kimberlites, basalts, volcanics and zircons, and that the O2 levels of atmosphere were initially low and rose markedly ~2.3 Ga known as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), progressively reaching its present oxidation state of ~10 log units above QFM. In contrast, the secular evolution of oxidation state of the continental crust, an important boundary separating the underlying upper mantle from the surrounding atmosphere and buffering the exchanges and interactions between the Earth's interior and exterior, has rarely been addressed, although the presence of evolved crustal materials on the Earth can be traced back to ~4.4 Ga, e.g. by detrital zircons. Zircon is a common accessory mineral in nature, occurring in a wide variety of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, and is almost ubiquitous in crustal rocks. The physical and chemical durability of zircons makes them widely used in geochemical studies in terms of trace-elements, isotopes, ages and melt/mineral inclusions; in particular, zircons are persistent under most crustal conditions and can survive many secondary

  5. Formation of continental crust by intrusive magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G. J.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.; Gerya, T.

    2017-09-01

    How were the continents formed in the Earth? No global numerical simulation of our planet ever managed to generate continental material self-consistently. In the present study, we show that the latest developments of the convection code StagYY enable to estimate how to produce the early continents, more than 3 billion years ago. In our models, melting of pyrolitic rocks generates a basaltic melt and leaves behind a depleted solid residue (a harzburgite). The melt generated in the mantle is transported to the surface. Only basaltic rocks melting again can generate continental crust. Should the basaltic melt always reach the open air and cool down? Should the melt be intruded warm in the pre-existing crust? The present study shows that both processes have to be considered to produce continents. Indeed, granitoids can only be created in a tight window of pressure-temperature. If all basalt is quickly cooled by surface volcanism, the lithosphere will be too cold. If all basalt is intruded warm below the crust then the lithosphere will be too warm. The key is to have both volcanism and plutonism (intrusive magmatism) to reach the optimal temperature and form massive volumes of continental material.

  6. Deep Crustal Melting and the Survival of Continental Crust

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    Whitney, D.; Teyssier, C. P.; Rey, P. F.; Korchinski, M.

    2017-12-01

    Plate convergence involving continental lithosphere leads to crustal melting, which ultimately stabilizes the crust because it drives rapid upward flow of hot deep crust, followed by rapid cooling at shallow levels. Collision drives partial melting during crustal thickening (at 40-75 km) and/or continental subduction (at 75-100 km). These depths are not typically exceeded by crustal rocks that are exhumed in each setting because partial melting significantly decreases viscosity, facilitating upward flow of deep crust. Results from numerical models and nature indicate that deep crust moves laterally and then vertically, crystallizing at depths as shallow as 2 km. Deep crust flows en masse, without significant segregation of melt into magmatic bodies, over 10s of kms of vertical transport. This is a major mechanism by which deep crust is exhumed and is therefore a significant process of heat and mass transfer in continental evolution. The result of vertical flow of deep, partially molten crust is a migmatite dome. When lithosphere is under extension or transtension, the deep crust is solicited by faulting of the brittle upper crust, and the flow of deep crust in migmatite domes traverses nearly the entire thickness of orogenic crust in Recognition of the importance of migmatite (gneiss) domes as archives of orogenic deep crust is applicable to determining the chemical and physical properties of continental crust, as well as mechanisms and timescales of crustal differentiation.

  7. Density Sorting During the Evolution of Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Behn, M. D.; Hacker, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    We consider two settings - in addition to "delamination" of arc lower crust - in which dense, mafic eclogites founder into the convecting mantle while buoyant, felsic lithologies accumulate at the base of evolving continental crust. Arc processes play a central role in generating continental crust, but it remains uncertain how basaltic arc crust is transformed to andesitic continental crust. Dense, SiO2-poor products of fractionation may founder from the base of arc crust by "delamination", but lower arc crust after delamination has significantly different trace elements compared to lower continental crust (LCC). In an alternative model, buoyant magmatic rocks generated at arcs are first subducted, mainly via subduction erosion. Upon heating, these buoyant lithologies ascend through the mantle wedge or along a subduction channel, and are "relaminated" at
the base of overlying crust (e.g., Hacker et al EPSL 11, AREPS 15). Average buoyant lavas and plutons
for the Aleutians, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, Kohistan and Talkeetna arcs fall within the range of estimated LCC major and trace elements. Relamination is more efficient in generating continental crust than delamination. Himalayan cross-sections show Indian crust thrust beneath Tibetan crust, with no intervening mantle. There is a horizontal Moho at ca 80 km depth, extending from thickened Indian crust, across the region where Tibetan crust overlies Indian crust, into thickened Tibetan crust. About half the subducted Indian crust is present, whereas the other half is missing. Data (Vp/Vs; Miocene lavas formed by interaction of continental crust with mantle; xenolith thermometry) indicate 1000°C or more from ca 50 km depth to the Moho since the Miocene. We build on earlier studies (LePichon et al Tectonics 92, T'phys 97; Schulte-Pelkum et al Nature 05; Monsalve et al JGR 08) to advance the hypothesis that rapid growth of garnet occurs at 70-80 km and 1000°C within subducting Indian crust. Dense eclogites founder

  8. Influence of mid-crustal rheology on the deformation behavior of continental crust in the continental subduction zone

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    Li, Fucheng; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2018-06-01

    Although the presence of low-viscosity middle crustal layer in the continental crust has been detected by both geophysical and geochemical studies, its influence on the deformation behavior of continental crust during subduction remains poorly investigated. To illustrate the crustal deformation associated with layered crust during continental subduction, we conducted a suite of 2-D thermo-mechanical numerical studies with visco-brittle/plastic rheology based on finite-differences and marker-in-cell techniques. In the experiments, we established a three-layer crustal model with a quartz-rich middle crustal layer embedded between the upper and lower continental crust. Results show that the middle crustal layer determines the amount of the accreted upper crust, maximum subduction depth, and exhumation path of the subducted upper crust. By varying the initial effective viscosity and thickness of the middle crustal layer, the further effects can be summarized as: (1) a rheologically weaker and/or thicker middle crustal layer results in a larger percentage of the upper crust detaching from the underlying slab and accreting at the trench zone, thereby leading to more serious crustal deformation. The rest of the upper crust only subducts into the depths of high pressure (HP) conditions, causing the absence of ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks; (2) a rheologically stronger and/or thinner middle crustal layer favors the stable subduction of the continental crust, dragging the upper crust to a maximum depth of ∼100 km and forming UHP rocks; (3) the middle crustal layer flows in a ductile way and acts as an exhumation channel for the HP-UHP rocks in both situations. In addition, the higher convergence velocity decreases the amount of subducted upper crust. A detailed comparison of our modeling results with the Himalayan collisional belt are conducted. Our work suggests that the presence of low-viscosity middle crustal layer may be another possible mechanism for

  9. Effect of thicker oceanic crust in the Archaean on the growth of continental crust through time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Present crustal evolution models fail to account for the generation of the large volume of continental crust in the required time intervals. All Archaean plate tectonic models, whether invoking faster spreading rates, similar to today's spreading rates, or longer ridge lengths, essentially propose that continental crust has grown by island arc accretion due to the subduction of oceanic crust. The petrological differences that characterize the Archaean from later terrains result from the subduction of hotter oceanic crust into a hotter mantle. If the oceanic crust was appreciably thicker in the Archaean, as geothermal models would indicate, this thicker crust is surely going to have an effect on tectonic processes. A more valid approach is to compare the possible styles of convergence of thick oceanic crust with modern convergence zones. The best modern analog occurs where thick continental crust is colliding with thick continental crust. Oceanic crustal collision on the scale of the present-day Himalayan continental collision zone may have been a frequent occurrence in the Archaean, resulting in extensive partial melting of the hydrous underthrust oceanic crust to produce voluminous tonalite melts, leaving a depleted stabilized basic residuum. Present-day island arc accretion may not have been the dominant mechanism for the growth of the early Archaean crust

  10. Continental Growth and Recycling in Convergent Orogens with Large Turbidite Fans on Oceanic Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben D. Goscombe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Convergent plate margins where large turbidite fans with slivers of oceanic basement are accreted to continents represent important sites of continental crustal growth and recycling. Crust accreted in these settings is dominated by an upper layer of recycled crustal and arc detritus (turbidites underlain by a layer of tectonically imbricated upper oceanic crust and/or thinned continental crust. When oceanic crust is converted to lower continental crust it represents a juvenile addition to the continental growth budget. This two-tiered accreted crust is often the same thickness as average continental crustal and is isostatically balanced near sea level. The Paleozoic Lachlan Orogen of eastern Australia is the archetypical example of a tubidite-dominated accretionary orogeny. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Damaran Orogen of SW Africa is similar to the Lachlan Orogen except that it was incorporated into Gondwana via a continent-continent collision. The Mesozoic Rangitatan Orogen of New Zealand illustrates the transition of convergent margin from a Lachlan-type to more typical accretionary wedge type orogen. The spatial and temporal variations in deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism across these orogens illustrate how large volumes of turbidite and their relict oceanic basement eventually become stable continental crust. The timing of deformation and metamorphism recorded in these rocks reflects the crustal thickening phase, whereas post-tectonic magmatism constrains the timing of chemical maturation and cratonization. Cratonization of continental crust is fostered because turbidites represent fertile sources for felsic magmatism. Recognition of similar orogens in the Proterozoic and Archean is important for the evaluation of crustal growth models, particularly for those based on detrital zircon age patterns, because crustal growth by accretion of upper oceanic crust or mafic underplating does not readily result in the addition of voluminous zircon

  11. Growth of the continental crust: a planetary-mantle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The lack of earth rocks older than about 3.8 Ga is frequently interpreted as evidence that the earth formed little or no subduction-resistant continental crust during the first 700 My of its history. Such models obviously imply that the pre-3.8 Ga earth was covered entirely or almost entirely by smoothly subducting oceanic crust. On the other hand, the thermal regime of the early earth probably tended to cause the oceanic crust at this time to be comparatively thin and comparatively mafic. The present earth is covered by about 50 percent oceanic crust, averaging about 7 km in thickness, and 41 percent continental crust, averaging roughly 40 km in thickness. Thus continentless-early-earth models would seem to imply a total mass of crust less than 1/3 that of the present day earth. Possible explanations are examined

  12. Growth of the continental crust: constraints from radiogenic isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    Most models for evolution of continental crust are expressed in the form of a diagram illustrating the cumulative crustal mass (normalized relative to the present crustal mass) as a function of time. Thus, geochronological data inevitably play a major role in either constructing or testing crustal growth models. For all models, determining the start-time for effective crustal accretion is of vital importance. To this end, the continuing search for, and reliable characterization of, the most ancient crustal rock-units remains a worthy enterprise. Another important role for geochronology and radiogenic isotope geochemistry is to assess the status of major geological events as period either of new crust generation or of reworking of earlier formed continental crust. For age characterization of major geological provinces, using the critieria outined, the mass (or volume) of crust surviving to the present day should be determinable as a function of crust formation age. More recent developments, however, appear to set severe limitations on recycling of crust, at least by the process of sediment subduction. In modeling crustal growth without recycling, valuable constaints on growth rate variations through time can be provided if variations in the average age of the continental crust can be monitored through geological history. The question of the average age of the exposed continental crust was addressed by determining Sm-Nd crustal residence model ages (T-CR) for fine-grained sediment loads of many of the world's major rivers

  13. The extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles

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    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Collier, J. S.; Rümpker, G.

    2013-11-01

    The granitic islands of the Seychelles Plateau have long been recognised to overlie continental crust, isolated from Madagascar and India during the formation of the Indian Ocean. However, to date the extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles region remains unknown. This is particularly true beneath the Mascarene Basin between the Seychelles Plateau and Madagascar and beneath the Amirante Arc. Constraining the size and shape of the Seychelles continental fragment is needed for accurate plate reconstructions of the breakup of Gondwana and has implications for the processes of continental breakup in general. Here we present new estimates of crustal thickness and VP/VS from H-κ stacking of receiver functions from a year long deployment of seismic stations across the Seychelles covering the topographic plateau, the Amirante Ridge and the northern Mascarene Basin. These results, combined with gravity modelling of historical ship track data, confirm that continental crust is present beneath the Seychelles Plateau. This is ˜30-33 km thick, but with a relatively high velocity lower crustal layer. This layer thins southwards from ˜10 km to ˜1 km over a distance of ˜50 km, which is consistent with the Seychelles being at the edge of the Deccan plume prior to its separation from India. In contrast, the majority of the Seychelles Islands away from the topographic plateau show no direct evidence for continental crust. The exception to this is the island of Desroche on the northern Amirante Ridge, where thicker low density crust, consistent with a block of continental material is present. We suggest that the northern Amirantes are likely continental in nature and that small fragments of continental material are a common feature of plume affected continental breakup.

  14. The origin of continental crust: Outlines of a general theory

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    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The lower continental crust, formerly very poorly understood, has recently been investigated by various geological and geophysical techniques that are beginning to yield a generally agreed on though still vague model (Lowman, 1984). As typified by at least some exposed high grade terranes, such as the Scottish Scourian complex, the lower crust in areas not affected by Phanerozoic orogeny or crustal extension appears to consist of gently dipping granulite gneisses of intermediate bulk composition, formed from partly or largely supracrustal precursors. This model, to the degree that it is correct, has important implications for early crustal genesis and the origin of continental crust in general. Most important, it implies that except for areas of major overthrusting (which may of course be considerable) normal superposition relations prevail, and that since even the oldest exposed rocks are underlain by tens of kilometers of sial, true primordial crust may still survive in the lower crustal levels (of. Phinney, 1981).

  15. USArray Imaging of Continental Crust in the Conterminous United States

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    Ma, Xiaofei; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2017-12-01

    The thickness and bulk composition of continental crust provide important constraints on the evolution and dynamics of continents. Crustal mineralogy and thickness both may influence gravity anomalies, topographic elevation, and lithospheric strength, but prior to the inception of EarthScope's USArray, seismic measurements of crustal thickness and properties useful for inferring lithology are sparse. Here we improve upon a previously published methodology for joint inversion of Bouguer gravity anomalies and seismic receiver functions by using parameter space stacking of cross correlations of modeled synthetic and observed receiver functions instead of standard H-κ amplitude stacking. The new method is applied to estimation of thickness and bulk seismic velocity ratio, vP/vS, of continental crust in the conterminous United States using USArray and other broadband network data. Crustal thickness variations are reasonably consistent with those found in other studies and show interesting relationships to the history of North American continental formation. Seismic velocity ratios derived in this study are more robust than in other analyses and hint at large-scale variations in composition of continental crust. To interpret the results, we model the pressure-/temperature-dependent thermodynamics of mineral formation for various crustal chemistries, with and without volatile constituents. Our results suggest that hydration lowers bulk crustal vP/vS and density and releases heat in the shallow crust but absorbs heat in the lowermost crust (where plagioclase breaks down to pyroxene and garnet resulting in higher seismic velocity). Hence, vP/vS variations may provide a useful proxy for hydration state in the crust.

  16. Estimating the formation age distribution of continental crust by unmixing zircon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Continental crust provides first-order control on Earth's surface environment, enabling the presence of stable dry landmasses surrounded by deep oceans. The evolution of continental crust is important for atmospheric evolution, because continental crust is an essential component of deep carbon cycle and is likely to have played a critical role in the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Geochemical information stored in the mineral zircon, known for its resilience to diagenesis and metamorphism, has been central to ongoing debates on the genesis and evolution of continental crust. However, correction for crustal reworking, which is the most critical step when estimating original formation ages, has been incorrectly formulated, undermining the significance of previous estimates. Here I suggest a simple yet promising approach for reworking correction using the global compilation of zircon data. The present-day distribution of crustal formation age estimated by the new "unmixing" method serves as the lower bound to the true crustal growth, and large deviations from growth models based on mantle depletion imply the important role of crustal recycling through the Earth history.

  17. Growth of the lower continental crust via the relamination of arc magma

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    He, Yumei; Zheng, Tianyu; Ai, Yinshuang; Hou, Guangbing; Chen, Qi-Fu

    2018-01-01

    How does continental crust transition from basaltic mantle-derived magmas into an andesitic composition? The relamination hypothesis has been presented as an alternative dynamical mechanism to classical delamination theory to explain new crust generation and has been supported by petrological and geochemical studies as well as by thermomechanical numerical modeling. However, direct evidence of this process from detailed seismic velocity structures is lacking. Here, we imaged the three-dimensional (3D) velocity structures of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the geologically stable Ordos terrane of the North China Craton (NCC). We identify a region of continental crust that exhibits extreme growth using teleseismic data and an imaging technique that models the Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking profiles. Our results show an approximately 400 × 400 km2 wide growth zone that underlies the primitive crust at depths of 30-50 km and exhibits a gradual increase of velocity with depth. The upper layer of the growth zone has a shear wave velocity of 3.6-3.9 km/s (Vp = 6.2-6.8 km/s), indicating felsic material, and the lower layer has a shear wave velocity of 4.1-4.3 km/s (Vp = 7.2-7.5 km/s), which corresponds to mafic material. We suggest that this vertical evolution of the layered structure could be created by relamination and that the keel structure formed by relamination may be the root of the supernormal stability of the ancient Ordos terrane.

  18. On the dynamics and the geochemical mechanism of the evolution of the continental crust. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, K.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the isotopic composition of oxygen in the continental crust, in the oceans, in the oceanic crust and in the upper mantle shows the dynamics of plate tectonics and continental growthto be more or less constant during the last three or four aeons independent on the geochemical mechanism of continental growth. (author)

  19. Platinum stable isotopes in ferromanganese crust and nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Loretta; Seward, Terry; Handler, Monica R.

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crust and nodules are slow-growing chemical sediments that form by direct precipitation from seawater, resulting in a record of changing seawater chemistry. These sediments are the primary sink for platinum in the modern oxic marine environment, hosting well-documented enrichments over other platinum-group elements (PGEs): the Pt anomaly [1]. Platinum is a non-bio-essential, highly siderophile, transition metal with six stable isotopes (190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, and 198Pt) with several oxidation states (Pt0, Pt2+ and Pt4+). Platinum is generally considered to exist in the hydrosphere as Pt2+ although its behaviour in the marine environment is poorly constrained, and Pt4+may also be present. Variations in ocean redox state, together with changes in source fluxes to the oceans, may therefore lead to small variations (Leaching experiments conducted on platinum rich terrestrial materials underwent platinum stable isotopic measurement as an analogue for the Pt isotopic fractionation associated with continental weathering. [1] Hodge, V.F. et al. (1985) Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 72, 158-162. [2] Creech, J. et al. (2013) Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 28. 853-865.

  20. Deep observation and sampling of the earth's continental crust (DOSECC): Continental scientific drilling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Research summaries are presented of ongoing or proposed deep drilling programs to explore hydrothermal systems, buried astroblemes, continental crust, magma systems, mountain belt tectonics, subduction zones, and volcanoes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  1. Earth's oldest stable crust in the Pilbara Craton formed by cyclic gravitational overturns

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    Wiemer, Daniel; Schrank, Christoph E.; Murphy, David T.; Wenham, Lana; Allen, Charlotte M.

    2018-05-01

    During the early Archaean, the Earth was too hot to sustain rigid lithospheric plates subject to Wilson Cycle-style plate tectonics. Yet by that time, up to 50% of the present-day continental crust was generated. Preserved continental fragments from the early Archaean have distinct granite-dome/greenstone-keel crust that is interpreted to be the result of a gravitationally unstable stratification of felsic proto-crust overlain by denser mafic volcanic rocks, subject to reorganization by Rayleigh-Taylor flow. Here we provide age constraints on the duration of gravitational overturn in the East Pilbara Terrane. Our U-Pb ages indicate the emplacement of 3,600-3,460-million-year-old granitoid rocks, and their uplift during an overturn event ceasing about 3,413 million years ago. Exhumation and erosion of this felsic proto-crust accompanied crustal reorganization. Petrology and thermodynamic modelling suggest that the early felsic magmas were derived from the base of thick ( 43 km) basaltic proto-crust. Combining our data with regional geochronological studies unveils characteristic growth cycles on the order of 100 million years. We propose that maturation of the early crust over three of these cycles was required before a stable, differentiated continent emerged with sufficient rigidity for plate-like behaviour.

  2. Evaluating the influence of chemical weathering on the composition of the continental crust using lithium and its isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Liu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The continental crust has an "intermediate" bulk composition that is distinct from primary melts of peridotitic mantle (basalt or picrite). This mismatch between the "building blocks" and the "edifice" of the continental crust points to the operation of processes that preferentially remove mafic to ultramafic material from the continents. Such processes include lower crustal recycling (via density foundering or lower crustal subduction - e.g., relamination, Hacker et al., 2011, EPSL), generation of evolved melts via slab melting, and/or chemical weathering. Stable isotope systems document the influence of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition: the oxygen isotope composition of the bulk crust is distinctly heavier than that of primary, mantle-derived melts (Simon and Lecuyer, 2005, G-cubed) and the Li isotopic composition of the bulk crust is distinctly lighter than that of mantle-derive melts (Teng et al., 2004, GCA; 2008, Chem. Geol.). Both signatures mark the imprint of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition. Here, we use a simple mass balance model for lithium inputs and outputs from the continental crust to quantify the mass lost due to chemical weathering. We find that a minimum of 15%, a maximum of 60%, and a best estimate of ~40% of the original juvenile rock mass may have been lost via chemical weathering. The accumulated percentage of mass loss due to chemical weathering leads to an average global chemical weathering rate (CWR) of ~ 8×10^9 to 2×10^10 t/yr since 3.5 Ga, which is about an order of magnitude higher than the minimum estimates based on modern rivers (Gaillardet et al., 1999, Chem. Geol.). While we cannot constrain the exact portion of crustal mass loss via chemical weathering, given the uncertainties of the calculation, we can demonstrate that the weathering flux is non-zero. Therefore, chemical weathering must play a role in the evolution of the composition and mass of the continental crust.

  3. The Athabasca Granulite Terrane and Evidence for Dynamic Behavior of Lower Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumond, Gregory; Williams, Michael L.; Regan, Sean P.

    2018-05-01

    Deeply exhumed granulite terranes have long been considered nonrepresentative of lower continental crust largely because their bulk compositions do not match the lower crustal xenolith record. A paradigm shift in our understanding of deep crust has since occurred with new evidence for a more felsic and compositionally heterogeneous lower crust than previously recognized. The >20,000-km2 Athabasca granulite terrane locally provides a >700-Myr-old window into this type of lower crust, prior to being exhumed and uplifted to the surface between 1.9 and 1.7 Ga. We review over 20 years of research on this terrane with an emphasis on what these findings may tell us about the origin and behavior of lower continental crust, in general, in addition to placing constraints on the tectonic evolution of the western Canadian Shield between 2.6 and 1.7 Ga. The results reveal a dynamic lower continental crust that evolved compositionally and rheologically with time.

  4. Switching deformation mode and mechanisms during subduction of continental crust: a case study from Alpine Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Molli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The switching in deformation mode (from distributed to localized and mechanisms (viscous versus frictional represent a relevant issue in the frame of crustal deformation, being also connected with the concept of the brittle–ductile transition and seismogenesis. In a subduction environment, switching in deformation mode and mechanisms and scale of localization may be inferred along the subduction interface, in a transition zone between the highly coupled (seismogenic zone and decoupled deeper aseismic domain (stable slip. However, the role of brittle precursors in nucleating crystal-plastic shear zones has received more and more consideration being now recognized as fundamental in some cases for the localization of deformation and shear zone development, thus representing a case in which switching deformation mechanisms and scale and style of localization (deformation mode interact and relate to each other. This contribution analyses an example of a millimetre-scale shear zone localized by brittle precursor formed within a host granitic protomylonite. The studied structures, developed in ambient pressure–temperature (P–T conditions of low-grade blueschist facies (temperature T of ca. 300 °C and pressure P ≥ 0. 70 GPa during involvement of Corsican continental crust in the Alpine subduction. We used a multidisciplinary approach by combining detailed microstructural and petrographic analyses, crystallographic preferred orientation by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD, and palaeopiezometric studies on a selected sample to support an evolutionary model and deformation path for subducted continental crust. We infer that the studied structures, possibly formed by transient instability associated with fluctuations of pore fluid pressure and episodic strain rate variations, may be considered as a small-scale example of fault behaviour associated with a cycle of interseismic creep and coseismic rupture or a new analogue for

  5. Ages and Growth of the Continental Crust from Radiogenic Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchett, P. J.; Samson, S. D.

    2003-12-01

    The development and application of radiogenic isotopes to dating of geologic events, and to questions of growth, evolution, and recycling processes in the continental crust are mature areas of scientific inquiry. By this we understand that many of the approaches used to date rocks and constrain the evolution of the continents are well established, even routine, and that the scope of data available on age and evolution of continents is very large. This is not to say that new approaches have not been developed in recent years, or that new approaches and/or insights cannot be developed in the future. However, the science of continental crustal evolution is definitely a domain where many of the problems are well defined, the power of the techniques used to solve them are well known, and the limitations of field and laboratory databases, as well as the preserved geologic record, are understood.From the very early days of crustal evolution studies, it was innovations and improvements in laboratory techniques that drove the pace of discovery (e.g., Holmes, 1911; Nier, 1939). This remained true through all the increments in capability reviewed in this chapter, up to the present day. Thus, continental crustal evolution is an area of Earth science where a species of very laboratory-oriented investigator, the "radiogenic isotope geologist" or "geochronologist," has made major advances, even breakthroughs, in understanding. This is true in spite of the fact that many of the individuals of the species may have lacked field expertise, or even more than a primitive level of geologic background. Because design and building of instruments like radiation detectors or mass spectrometers requires a knowledge of physics, many of the early practitioners of rock dating were physicists, like Alfred Nier (cited above). Since the 1970s, essentially all mass spectrometers have been constructed by specialized commercial firms, and the level of physics expertise among isotope geologists has

  6. Large-scale subduction of continental crust implied by India-Asia mass-balance calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Miquela; Rowley, David B.; Currie, Brian; Colman, Albert S.

    2016-11-01

    Continental crust is buoyant compared with its oceanic counterpart and resists subduction into the mantle. When two continents collide, the mass balance for the continental crust is therefore assumed to be maintained. Here we use estimates of pre-collisional crustal thickness and convergence history derived from plate kinematic models to calculate the crustal mass balance in the India-Asia collisional system. Using the current best estimates for the timing of the diachronous onset of collision between India and Eurasia, we find that about 50% of the pre-collisional continental crustal mass cannot be accounted for in the crustal reservoir preserved at Earth's surface today--represented by the mass preserved in the thickened crust that makes up the Himalaya, Tibet and much of adjacent Asia, as well as southeast Asian tectonic escape and exported eroded sediments. This implies large-scale subduction of continental crust during the collision, with a mass equivalent to about 15% of the total oceanic crustal subduction flux since 56 million years ago. We suggest that similar contamination of the mantle by direct input of radiogenic continental crustal materials during past continent-continent collisions is reflected in some ocean crust and ocean island basalt geochemistry. The subduction of continental crust may therefore contribute significantly to the evolution of mantle geochemistry.

  7. The thermodynamic properties of the upper continental crust: Exergy, Gibbs free energy and enthalpy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Alicia; Valero, Antonio; Vieillard, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows a comprehensive database of the thermodynamic properties of the most abundant minerals of the upper continental crust. For those substances whose thermodynamic properties are not listed in the literature, their enthalpy and Gibbs free energy are calculated with 11 different estimation methods described in this study, with associated errors of up to 10% with respect to values published in the literature. Thanks to this procedure we have been able to make a first estimation of the enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and exergy of the bulk upper continental crust and of each of the nearly 300 most abundant minerals contained in it. Finally, the chemical exergy of the continental crust is compared to the exergy of the concentrated mineral resources. The numbers obtained indicate the huge chemical exergy wealth of the crust: 6 × 10 6 Gtoe. However, this study shows that approximately only 0.01% of that amount can be effectively used by man.

  8. Noble gases preserve history of retentive continental crust in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaye, Kiran J.; Smye, Andrew J.; Jordan, Jacob S.; Hesse, Marc A.

    2016-06-01

    Budgets of 4He and 40Ar provide constraints on the chemical evolution of the solid Earth and atmosphere. Although continental crust accounts for the majority of 4He and 40Ar degassed from the Earth, degassing mechanisms are subject to scholarly debate. Here we provide a constraint on crustal degassing by comparing the noble gases accumulated in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir, New Mexico USA, with the radiogenic production in the underlying crust. A detailed geological model of the reservoir is used to provide absolute abundances and geostatistical uncertainty of 4He, 40Ar, 21Ne, 20Ne, 36Ar, and 84Kr. The present-day production rate of crustal radiogenic 4He and 40Ar, henceforth referred to as 4He* and 40Ar*, is estimated using the basement composition, surface and mantle heat flow, and seismic estimates of crustal density. After subtracting mantle and atmospheric contributions, the reservoir contains less than 0.02% of the radiogenic production in the underlying crust. This shows unequivocally that radiogenic noble gases are effectively retained in cratonic continental crust over millennial timescales. This also requires that approximately 1.5 Gt of mantle derived CO2 migrated through the crust without mobilizing the crustally accumulated gases. This observation suggests transport along a localized fracture network. Therefore, the retention of noble gases in stable crystalline continental crust allows shallow accumulations of radiogenic gases to record tectonic history. At Bravo Dome, the crustal 4He*/40Ar* ratio is one fifth of the expected crustal production ratio, recording the preferential release of 4He during the Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogeny, 300 Ma.

  9. Intrusion of Magmatic Bodies Into the Continental Crust: 3-D Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, Weronika; Vogt, Katharina

    2018-03-01

    Magma intrusion is a major material transfer process in the Earth's continental crust. Yet the mechanical behavior of the intruding magma and its host are a matter of debate. In this study we present a series of numerical thermomechanical simulations on magma emplacement in 3-D. Our results demonstrate the response of the continental crust to magma intrusion. We observe change in intrusion geometries between dikes, cone sheets, sills, plutons, ponds, funnels, finger-shaped and stock-like intrusions, and injection time. The rheology and temperature of the host are the main controlling factors in the transition between these different modes of intrusion. Viscous deformation in the warm and deep crust favors host rock displacement and plutons at the crust-mantle boundary forming deep-seated plutons or magma ponds in the lower to middle crust. Brittle deformation in the cool and shallow crust induces cone-shaped fractures in the host rock and enables emplacement of finger- or stock-like intrusions at shallow or intermediate depth. Here the passage of magmatic and hydrothermal fluids from the intrusion through the fracture pattern may result in the formation of ore deposits. A combination of viscous and brittle deformation forms funnel-shaped intrusions in the middle crust. Intrusion of low-density magma may more over result in T-shaped intrusions in cross section with magma sheets at the surface.

  10. Self-Consistent Generation of Primordial Continental Crust in Global Mantle Convection Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, C.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present the generation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) using self-consistent and evolutionary thermochemical mantle convection models (Tackley, PEPI 2008). Numerical modelling commonly shows that mantle convection and continents have strong feedbacks on each other. However in most studies, continents are inserted a priori while basaltic (oceanic) crust is generated self-consistently in some models (Lourenco et al., EPSL 2016). Formation of primordial continental crust happened by fractional melting and crystallisation in episodes of relatively rapid growth from late Archean to late Proterozoic eras (3-1 Ga) (Hawkesworth & Kemp, Nature 2006) and it has also been linked to the onset of plate tectonics around 3 Ga. It takes several stages of differentiation to generate Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks or proto-continents. First, the basaltic magma is extracted from the pyrolitic mantle which is both erupted at the surface and intruded at the base of the crust. Second, it goes through eclogitic transformation and then partially melts to form TTGs (Rudnick, Nature 1995; Herzberg & Rudnick, Lithos 2012). TTGs account for the majority of the Archean continental crust. Based on the melting conditions proposed by Moyen (Lithos 2011), the feasibility of generating TTG rocks in numerical simulations has already been demonstrated by Rozel et al. (Nature, 2017). Here, we have developed the code further by parameterising TTG formation. We vary the ratio of intrusive (plutonic) and extrusive (volcanic) magmatism (Crisp, Volcanol. Geotherm. 1984) to study the relative volumes of three petrological TTG compositions as reported from field data (Moyen, Lithos 2011). Furthermore, we systematically vary parameters such as friction coefficient, initial core temperature and composition-dependent viscosity to investigate the global tectonic regime of early Earth. Continental crust can also be destroyed by subduction or delamination. We will investigate

  11. Precambrrian continental crust evolution of southeastern Sao Paulo state-Brazil: based on isotopico evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.; Campos Neto, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The focussed area comprises five major different tectonic terranes separated by faults, which are named Alto Rio Grande Belt, Socorro-Guaxupe Nappe, Sao Roque, Embu and Costeiro Domains. The geological and geochronological history of these terranes show that the metamorphic episodes of crust-forming occurred involving both mantle-derived magmas and reworking of continental material since 3.4 Ga until 600 Ma. The post-tectonic granitic activities occurred within 1000-500 Ma range and in general, the rocks are progressively younger from the Socorro-Guaxupe Nappe (1000-850 Ma) in the NW towards the Costeiro Domain (550 Ma) in the SE. The Sr and Pb isotopic evidences, together with geological and geophysical informations, suggest that the proportions of the rock-forming processes through the geological time are: Archean, 10%; Lower Proterozoic, 10%; Middle Proterozoic, 38%; Late Proterozaic, 42%. Although the Mid and Late Proterozoic time were a period of a large amount of rocks were formed, they were not a major crustforming period, because these rocks are mainly constituted by recycled continental crust material. In our view, at end of the Early Proterozoic time, at least 85% of continetal crust, in this area, has accreted and differentiate. During the Middle and Late Proterozoic the continental crust grew at small rate. (author) [pt

  12. The development of continental crust through geological time: the South African case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dia, A.; Allegre, C.J.; Erlank, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Nd isotopic compositions and 147 Sm/ 144 Nd ratios were measured in fifty-eight South African shales and greywackes with depositional ages ranging from 0.2 to 3.3 b.y. Elements such as the rare earths, which are poorly soluble in water and not fractionated during exogeneous processes, preserve the signature of the original crustal source. The 147 Sm/ 144 Nd ratios appear to be approximately constant throughout the time interval sampled. We calculated Nd model ages of crustal differentiation. Knowing that the shales represent a true blend of different continental areas we consider these model ages representative of the mean ages of their primitive continental sources. Then, using the inverse technique developed by Allegre and Rousseau in 1984, we computed a growth curve for the continental crust in South Africa. Two periods of important crustal genesis (Archaean and around 1.5 b.y.) can be compared with the observed geology and with other continental crust growth curves obtained in previous studies in southern Africa and in Australia. The observation of large variations in the MgO content and Ni, Cr, U and Th concentrations between Archaean South African shales and post-Archaean samples compared to the constancy of the 147 Sm/ 144 Nd ratios leads us to propose that the Archaean crust was composed of both granite (70.5%) and a mafic component (29.5%) which could have been komatiite. The small dispersion of 147 Sm/ 144 Nd ratios suggests that erosion and sedimentation processes yielded homogeneous Archaean shales. The present-day continental crust is much more heterogeneous, because it has undergone several episodes of recycling. Thus recent shales are characterized by more variable 147 Sm/ 144 Nd ratios. (orig.)

  13. Continental crust formation: Numerical modelling of chemical evolution and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, U.; Hendel, R.

    2017-05-01

    Oceanic plateaus develop by decompression melting of mantle plumes and have contributed to the growth of the continental crust throughout Earth's evolution. Occasional large-scale partial melting events of parts of the asthenosphere during the Archean produced large domains of precursor crustal material. The fractionation of arc-related crust during the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic contributed to the growth of continental crust. However, it remains unclear whether the continents or their precursors formed during episodic events or whether the gaps in zircon age records are a function of varying preservation potential. This study demonstrates that the formation of the continental crust was intrinsically tied to the thermoconvective evolution of the Earth's mantle. Our numerical solutions for the full set of physical balance equations of convection in a spherical shell mantle, combined with simplified equations of chemical continent-mantle differentiation, demonstrate that the actual rate of continental growth is not uniform through time. The kinetic energy of solid-state mantle creep (Ekin) slowly decreases with superposed episodic but not periodic maxima. In addition, laterally averaged surface heat flow (qob) behaves similarly but shows peaks that lag by 15-30 Ma compared with the Ekin peaks. Peak values of continental growth are delayed by 75-100 Ma relative to the qob maxima. The calculated present-day qob and total continental mass values agree well with observed values. Each episode of continental growth is separated from the next by an interval of quiescence that is not the result of variations in mantle creep velocity but instead reflects the fact that the peridotite solidus is not only a function of pressure but also of local water abundance. A period of differentiation results in a reduction in regional water concentrations, thereby increasing the temperature of the peridotite solidus and the regional viscosity of the mantle. By plausibly varying the

  14. Numerical simulations of thermo-compositional global convection with generation of proto-continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G.; Gerya, T.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    We study the creation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) employing fully self-consistent numerical models of thermo-chemical convection on a global scale at the Archean. We use realistic rheological parameters [1] in 2D spherical annulus geometry using the convection code StagYY [2] for a one billion years period. Starting from a pyrolytic composition and an initially warm core, our simulations first generate mafic crust and depleted mantle in the upper mantle. The basaltic material can be both erupted (cold) and/or intruded (warm) at the base of the crust following a predefined partitioning. At all times, water concentration is considered fully saturated in the top 10 km of the domain, and it simply advected with the deforming material elsewhere. We track the pressure-temperature conditions of the newly formed hydrated basalt and check if it matches the conditions necessary for the formation of proto-continental crust [3]. We systematically test the influence of volcanism (eruption, also called "heat pipe") and plutonism (intrusive magmatism) on the time-dependent geotherm in the lithosphere. We show that the "heat-pipe" model (assuming 100% eruption) suggested to be the main heat loss mechanism during the Archean epoch [4] is not able to produce continental crust since it forms a too cold lithosphere. We also systematically test various friction coefficients and show that an intrusion fraction higher than 60% (in agreement with [5]) combined with a friction coefficient larger than 0.1 produces the expected amount of the three main petrological TTG compositions previously reported [3]. This result seems robust as the amount of TTG rocks formed vary over orders of magnitude. A large eruption over intrusion ratio can result in up to 100 times less TTG felsic crust production than a case where plutonism dominates. This study represents a major step towards the production of self-consistent convection models able to generate the continental crust of the Earth

  15. Remnants of Eoarchean continental crust derived from a subducted proto-arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Rongfeng; Zhu, Wenbin; Wilde, Simon A; Wu, Hailin

    2018-02-01

    Eoarchean [3.6 to 4.0 billion years ago (Ga)] tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) is the major component of Earth's oldest remnant continental crust, thereby holding the key to understanding how continental crust originated and when plate tectonics started in the early Earth. TTGs are mostly generated by partial melting of hydrated mafic rocks at different depths, but whether this requires subduction remains enigmatic. Recent studies show that most Archean TTGs formed at relatively low pressures (≤1.5 GPa) and do not require subduction. We report a suite of newly discovered Eoarchean tonalitic gneisses dated at ~3.7 Ga from the Tarim Craton, northwestern China. These rocks are probably the oldest high-pressure TTGs so far documented worldwide. Thermodynamic and trace element modeling demonstrates that the parent magma may have been generated by water-fluxed partial melting of moderately enriched arc-like basalts at 1.8 to 1.9 GPa and 800° to 830°C, indicating an apparent geothermal gradient (400° to 450°C GPa -1 ) typical for hot subduction zones. They also locally record geochemical evidence for magma interaction with a mantle wedge. Accordingly, we propose that these high-pressure TTGs were generated by partial melting of a subducted proto-arc during arc accretion. Our model implies that modern-style plate tectonics was operative, at least locally, at ~3.7 Ga and was responsible for generating some of the oldest continental nuclei.

  16. Estimating susceptibility and magnetization within the Earth's continental crust: Petrophysical and Satellite approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purucker, M. E.; McEnroe, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic models (Xchaos) made from Champ and Orsted data are used to place constraints on the average magnetic susceptibility and its variability in the continental crust. Estimates of magnetic crustal thickness are made in a two-step process. The first step uses a recent seismic model (Crust1.0) to estimate the thickness of crystalline crust above the Moho, modified in the Andes and the Himalayas to account for the non-magnetic lower crust there. The second step calculates the magnetic field expected from such a layer of crystalline rock assuming the magnetization is solely induced in the earth's main field by rock of constant magnetic susceptibility, and modifies the starting crustal thickness to bring it into agreement with the Xchaos model. This global model removes spherical harmonic degrees less than 15 to account for the core field mask. We restrict our attention to the continental crust, in particular to Australia, western North America, and Scandinavia. Petrophysical and petrological data from Scandinavian rocks that have been deep in the crust help place limits on susceptibility values. Our simulations use two susceptibilities, 0.02 and 0.04 SI. The mean crystalline crustal thickness from the seismic model is 42 and 37 km in western North America and Australia, respectively, and the modification with the magnetic data makes little change to the mean crustal thickness, irrespective of whether the susceptibility is 0.02 or 0.04 SI. However, the modification with the magnetic data does make a significant difference to the standard deviation of the crustal thickness, increasing it by a factor of two in the case of a susceptibility of 0.04, and by a factor of four in the case of a susceptibility of 0.02. The changes to the standard deviation of the crustal thickness are also evident in the Scandinavian data, but the mean crystalline crustal thickness of 45 km is significantly larger than that found from either magnetic model (33 and 30 km). The differences

  17. Thallium isotope composition of the upper continental crust and rivers - An investigation of the continental sources of dissolved marine thallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S.G.; Rehkamper, M.; Porcelli, D.; Andersson, P.; Halliday, A.N.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Latkoczy, C.; Gunther, D.

    2005-01-01

    The thallium (Tl) concentrations and isotope compositions of various river and estuarine waters, suspended riverine particulates and loess have been determined. These data are used to evaluate whether weathering reactions are associated with significant Tl isotope fractionation and to estimate the average Tl isotope composition of the upper continental crust as well as the mean Tl concentration and isotope composition of river water. Such parameters provide key constraints on the dissolved Tl fluxes to the oceans from rivers and mineral aerosols. The Tl isotope data for loess and suspended riverine detritus are relatively uniform with a mean of ??205Tl = -2.0 ?? 0.3 (??205Tl represents the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from NIST SRM 997 Tl in parts per 104). For waters from four major and eight smaller rivers, the majority were found to have Tl concentrations between 1 and 7 ng/kg. Most have Tl isotope compositions very similar (within ??1.5 ??205Tl) to that deduced for the upper continental crust, which indicates that no significant Tl isotope fractionation occurs during weathering. Based on these results, it is estimated that rivers have a mean natural Tl concentration and isotope composition of 6 ?? 4 ng/kg and ??205Tl = -2.5 ?? 1.0, respectively. In the Amazon estuary, both additions and losses of Tl were observed, and these correlate with variations in Fe and Mn contents. The changes in Tl concentrations have much lower amplitudes, however, and are not associated with significant Tl isotope effects. In the Kalix estuary, the Tl concentrations and isotope compositions can be explained by two-component mixing between river water and a high-salinity end member that is enriched in Tl relative to seawater. These results indicate that Tl can display variable behavior in estuarine systems but large additions and losses of Tl were not observed in the present study. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The earthquakes of stable continental regions. Volume 2: Appendices A to E. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.C.; Kanter, L.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Cornell, C.A.

    1994-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop a comprehensive database of earthquakes in stable continental regions (SCRs) and to statistically examine use of the database for the assessment of large earthquake potential. We identified nine major and several minor SCRs worldwide and compiled a database of geologic characteristics of tectonic domains within each SCR. We examined all available earthquake data from SCRs, from historical accounts of events with no instrumental ground-motion data to present-day instrumentally recorded events. In all, 1,385 events were analyzed. Using moment magnitude 4.5 as the lower bound threshold for inclusion in the database, 870 were assigned to an SCR, 124 were found to be transitional to an SCR, and 391 were examined, but rejected. We then performed a seismotectonic analysis to determine what distinguishes seismic activity in SCRs from other types of crust, such as active plate margins or active continental regions. General observations are: (1) SCRs comprise nearly two-thirds of all continental crust of which 25% is considered to be extended (i.e., rifted); (2) the majority of seismic energy release and the largest earthquakes in SCRs have occurred in extended crust; and (3) active plate margins release seismic energy at a rate per unit area approximately 7,000 times the average for non-extended SCRs. Finally, results of a statistical examination of distributions of historical maximum earthquakes between different crustal domain types indicated that additional information is needed in order to adequately constrain estimates of maximum earthquakes for any given region. Thus, a Bayesian approach was developed in which statistical constraints from the database were used to develop a prior distribution, which may then be combined with source-specific information to constrain maximum magnitude assessments for use in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses

  19. Pliocene granodioritic knoll with continental crust affinities discovered in the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc: Syntectonic granitic crust formation during back-arc rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kenichiro; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Chang, Qing; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Shukuno, Hiroshi; Hirahara, Yuka; Ishizuka, Osamu; Arima, Makoto; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2015-08-01

    A widely held hypothesis is that modern continental crust of an intermediate (i.e. andesitic) bulk composition forms at intra-oceanic arcs through subduction zone magmatism. However, there is a critical paradox in this hypothesis: to date, the dominant granitic rocks discovered in these arcs are tonalite, rocks that are significantly depleted in incompatible (i.e. magma-preferred) elements and do not geochemically and petrographically represent those of the continents. Here we describe the discovery of a submarine knoll, the Daisan-West Sumisu Knoll, situated in the rear-arc region of the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. Remotely-operated vehicle surveys reveal that this knoll is made up entirely of a 2.6 million year old porphyritic to equigranular granodiorite intrusion with a geochemical signature typical of continental crust. We present a model of granodiorite magma formation that involves partial remelting of enriched mafic rear-arc crust during the initial phase of back-arc rifting, which is supported by the preservation of relic cores inherited from initial rear-arc source rocks within magmatic zircon crystals. The strong extensional tectonic regime at the time of intrusion may have allowed the granodioritic magma to be emplaced at an extremely shallow level, with later erosion of sediment and volcanic covers exposing the internal plutonic body. These findings suggest that rear-arc regions could be the potential sites of continental crust formation in intra-oceanic convergent margins.

  20. The roles of texture and microstructure for seismic properties and anisotropy of the continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, B. S. G.; Mainprice, D.

    2017-12-01

    New seismic methods provide images of the continental crust with improved resolution, carrying unique information on the structure and mass transfer regimes within the crust. At the intrinsic scale components contributing to these images are grains and the microfabric, which includes information on grain characteristics. At the extrinsic scale the presence of micro-cracks, fractures and layering are important in controlling seismic velocities. Although the wavelength of a seismic wave is orders of magnitude larger than the intrinsic scale the minerals and microstructures, the interpretations of seismic images are critically dependent on our understanding and quantification of these microscopic constituents. This contribution explores the role of texture and microstructure in governing seismic properties of rocks. We focus on prediction of seismic velocities based on calculations that take into account mineral composition and microfabric of rocks. Emphasis is placed on recent developments in modeling efforts and analytical techniques, which can consider microfabric parameters such as crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), grain shape, layering and elastic interaction among grains. Static schemes that use Christoffel's equation, and active/dynamic wave propagation methods provide the general techniques to predict seismic velocities. Single crystal elastic constants are essential in predicting seismic properties. However, the database is incomplete considering the variation of crustal mineralogy and lack of data at elevated pressure and temperature conditions occurring in the middle and lower crust. Finally, the method used to measure CPO and microstructure data has an influence on model predictions. Neutron and X-ray goniometry techniques enable investigation of CPO for large sample volumes, but lack other microstructural information. In contrast, electron backscatter diffraction provides data on both CPO and microstructure, but for a relatively small sample

  1. Sheared Layers in the Continental Crust: Nonlinear and Linearized inversion for Ps receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sheared Layers in the Continental Crust: Nonlinear and Linearized inversion for Ps receiver functions Jeffrey Park, Yale University The interpretation of seismic receiver functions (RFs) in terms of isotropic and anisotropic layered structure can be complex. The relationship between structure and body-wave scattering is nonlinear. The anisotropy can involve more parameters than the observations can readily constrain. Finally, reflectivity-predicted layer reverberations are often not prominent in data, so that nonlinear waveform inversion can search in vain to match ghost signals. Multiple-taper correlation (MTC) receiver functions have uncertainties in the frequency domain that follow Gaussian statistics [Park and Levin, 2016a], so grid-searches for the best-fitting collections of interfaces can be performed rapidly to minimize weighted misfit variance. Tests for layer-reverberations can be performed in the frequency domain without reflectivity calculations, allowing flexible modelling of weak, but nonzero, reverberations. Park and Levin [2016b] linearized the hybridization of P and S body waves in an anisotropic layer to predict first-order Ps conversion amplitudes at crust and mantle interfaces. In an anisotropic layer, the P wave acquires small SV and SH components. To ensure continuity of displacement and traction at the top and bottom boundaries of the layer, shear waves are generated. Assuming hexagonal symmetry with an arbitrary symmetry axis, theory confirms the empirical stacking trick of phase-shifting transverse RFs by 90 degrees in back-azimuth [Shiomi and Park, 2008; Schulte-Pelkum and Mahan, 2014] to enhance 2-lobed and 4-lobed harmonic variation. Ps scattering is generated by sharp interfaces, so that RFs resemble the first derivative of the model. MTC RFs in the frequency domain can be manipulated to obtain a first-order reconstruction of the layered anisotropy, under the above modeling constraints and neglecting reverberations. Examples from long

  2. Archean and proterozoic continental crust in South America: Main building events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A; Brito Neves, B.B; Pimentel, M.M

    2001-01-01

    Available geochronological data reveal that the first building blocks of the South American continental crust were set up in the early Paleoarchean, ca. 3.4-3.5 Ga ago, although the presence of components as old as 3.7 Ga is indicated by Nd TDM model ages. The oldest rocks so far recognized are exposed in northeast Brazil and Uruguay. In the Sao Jose do Campestre block, Rio Grande do Norte, 3.45 Ga old tonalite, migmatized and intruded by granitoids between 3.3 and 3.0 Ga, is part of the basement to the Borborema Province (Dantas et al. 1998). In Bahia 3.42 Ga old tonalitic grey gneisses of Sete Voltas, Boa Vista, and Mairi form the basement of the Gaviao block, within the core of the Sao Francisco Craton (Nutman and Cordani, 1993, Martin et al., 1997). The Paleoarchean TTG suites as well as greenstone remnants of unknown age were involved in crust accretion events between 3.1 and 3.3 Ga ago (Teixeira et al. 2000 and references therein), which are also recorded in Campo Belo and Uaua (Teixeira et al., 1998, Oliveira et al., 1999), as attested by TTG intrusions and the ca. 3.1 Ga Pium-hi greenstone belt of W Minas Gerais (Machado and Schrank 1989). Microcontinents then formed were involved in deformation, metamorphism, and migmatization around 2.8-3.0 Ga ago, probably during amalgamation events. Widespread granite-greenstone associations in the Quadrilatero Ferrifero and other areas represent new crust built during the very important Neoarchean Rio das Velhas cycle, ca. 2.7-2.8 Ga ago (Machado and Carneiro 1992, Machado et al. 1992). Layered mafic-ultramafic and granite intrusions ca. 2.5-2.7 Ga old are recorded all over the Sao Francisco Craton, including the high-grade terrain of southern Bahia, formed during the late Archean Jequie Cycle (Teixeira et al. 2000 and references therein). Similar intrusions are recorded in many basement areas within Neoproterozoic fold belts (au)

  3. What governs the enrichment of Pb in the continental crust? An answer from the Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Lagatta, A.; Langmuir, C. H.; Straub, S. M.; Martin-Del-Pozzo, A.

    2009-12-01

    One of Al Hofmann’s many important contributions to our understanding of geochemical cycling in the Earth is the observation that Pb behaves like the light rare earth elements Ce and Nd during melting to form oceanic basalts, but is enriched in the continental crust compared to the LREE by nearly an order of magnitude (Hofmann et al. 1986). This is unusual behavior, and has been called one of the Pb paradoxes, since in most cases, the ratios of elements are effectively the same in the continental crust and oceanic basalts if they show similar mantle melting behavior. One of several mechanisms suggested to mediate this special enrichment is hydrothermal circulation at ocean ridges, which preferentially transports Pb compared to the REE from the interior of the ocean crust to the surface. We confirm the importance of hydrothermal processes at the East Pacific to mediate Pb enrichment at the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB, through comparison of Pb isotope and Ce/Pb ratios of TMVB lavas with sediments from DSDP Site 487 near the Middle America trench. The lavas of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt include “high Nb” alkali basalts (HNAB), whose trace element patterns lack subduction signatures. The HNAB basalts and hydrothermally affected sediments from DSDP 487, form end-members that bound calcalkaline lavas from volcanoes Colima, Toluca, Popocatépetl, and Malinche in Ce/Pb versus Pb isotope space. The HNAB represent the high Ce/Pb and high Pb-isotope end-member. The hydrothermal sediments have Pb isotopes like Pacific MORB but Ce/Pb ratios typical of the arcs and the continental crust, and an order of magnitude lower than MORB. No analyzed calcalkaline lavas are have compositions outside of the bounds formed by the HNAB and the hydrothermal sediments. The Ce/Pb and Pb isotope ratios show that the calcalkaline lava compositions are inconsistent with contributions from HNAB and EPR MORB, rather the contributions are from HNAB upper mantle and subducted

  4. Interdisciplinary approach to exploit the tectonic memory in the continental crust of collisional belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosso, G.; Marotta, A. M.; Rebay, G.; Regorda, A.; Roda, M.; Spalla, M. I.; Zanoni, D.; Zucali, M.

    2015-12-01

    Collisional belts result by thoroughly competing thermo-mechanical disaggregation and coupling within both continental and oceanic lithospheric slices, during construction of tectono-metamorphic architectures. In multiply reworked metamorphics, tectonic units may be contoured nowadays on the base of coherent thermo-baric and structural time-sequences rather than simply relying on lithologic affinities. Sequences of equilibrium assemblages and related fabric imprints are an approach that appears as a more reliable procedure, that enables to define tectonic units as the volume of crustal slices that underwent corresponding variations during the dynamics of an active margin and takes into account a history of physical imprints. The dimensions of these tectonic units may have varied over time and must be reconstructed combining the tracers of structural and metamorphic changes of basement rocks, since such kind of tectono-metamorphic units (TMUs) is a realistic configuration of the discrete portions of orogenic crust that experienced a coherent sequence of metamorphic and textural variations. Their translational trajectories, and bulk shape changes during deformation, cannot simply be derived from the analysis of the geometries and kinematics of tectonic units, but are to be obtained by adding the reconstruction of quantitative P-T-d-t paths making full use of fossil mineral equilibria. The joint TMU field-and-laboratory definition is an investigation procedure that bears a distinct thermo-tectonic connotation, that, through modelling, offers the opportunity to test the physical compatibilities of plate-scale interconnected variables, such as density, viscosity, and heat transfer, with respect to what current interpretative geologic histories may imply. Comparison between predictions from numerical modelling and natural data obtained by this analytical approach can help to solve ambiguities on geodynamic significance of structural and thermal signatures, also as a

  5. Observations at convergent margins concerning sediment subduction, subduction erosion, and the growth of continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Scholl, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    At ocean margins where two plates converge, the oceanic plate sinks or is subducted beneath an upper one topped by a layer of terrestrial crust. This crust is constructed of continental or island arc material. The subduction process either builds juvenile masses of terrestrial crust through arc volcanism or new areas of crust through the piling up of accretionary masses (prisms) of sedimentary deposits and fragments of thicker crustal bodies scraped off the subducting lower plate. At convergent margins, terrestrial material can also bypass the accretionary prism as a result of sediment subduction, and terrestrial matter can be removed from the upper plate by processes of subduction erosion. Sediment subduction occurs where sediment remains attached to the subducting oceanic plate and underthrusts the seaward position of the upper plate's resistive buttress (backstop) of consolidated sediment and rock. Sediment subduction occurs at two types of convergent margins: type 1 margins where accretionary prisms form and type 2 margins where little net accretion takes place. At type 2 margins (???19,000 km in global length), effectively all incoming sediment is subducted beneath the massif of basement or framework rocks forming the landward trench slope. At accreting or type 1 margins, sediment subduction begins at the seaward position of an active buttress of consolidated accretionary material that accumulated in front of a starting or core buttress of framework rocks. Where small-to-mediumsized prisms have formed (???16,300 km), approximately 20% of the incoming sediment is skimmed off a detachment surface or decollement and frontally accreted to the active buttress. The remaining 80% subducts beneath the buttress and may either underplate older parts of the frontal body or bypass the prism entirely and underthrust the leading edge of the margin's rock framework. At margins bordered by large prisms (???8,200 km), roughly 70% of the incoming trench floor section is

  6. Making Earth's earliest continental crust - an analogue from voluminous Neogene silicic volcanism in NE-Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Riishuus, Morten S.; Deegan, Frances M.; Harris, Chris; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2014-05-01

    Borgarfjörður Eystri in NE-Iceland represents the second-most voluminous exposure of silicic eruptive rocks in Iceland and is a superb example of bimodal volcanism (Bunsen-Daly gap), which represents a long-standing controversy that touches on the problem of crustal growth in early Earth. The silicic rocks in NE-Iceland approach 25 % of the exposed rock mass in the region (Gústafsson et al., 1989), thus they significantly exceed the usual ≤ 12 % in Iceland as a whole (e.g. Walker, 1966; Jonasson, 2007). The origin, significance, and duration of the voluminous (> 300 km3) and dominantly explosive silicic activity in Borgarfjörður Eystri is not yet constrained (c.f. Gústafsson, 1992), leaving us unclear as to what causes silicic volcanism in otherwise basaltic provinces. Here we report SIMS zircon U-Pb ages and δ18O values from the region, which record the commencement of silicic igneous activity with rhyolite lavas at 13.5 to 12.8 Ma, closely followed by large caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions from the Breiðavik and Dyrfjöll central volcanoes (12.4 Ma). Silicic activity ended abruptly with dacite lava at 12.1 Ma, defining a ≤ 1 Myr long window of silicic volcanism. Magma δ18O values estimated from zircon range from 3.1 to 5.5 (± 0.3; n = 170) and indicate up to 45 % assimilation of a low-δ18O component (e.g. typically δ18O = 0 ‰, Bindeman et al., 2012). A Neogene rift relocation (Martin et al., 2011) or the birth of an off-rift zone to the east of the mature rift associated with a thermal/chemical pulse in the Iceland plume (Óskarsson & Riishuus, 2013), likely brought mantle-derived magma into contact with fertile hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. The resulting interaction triggered large-scale crustal melting and generated mixed-origin silicic melts. Such rapid formation of silicic magmas from sustained basaltic volcanism may serve as an analogue for generating continental crust in a subduction-free early Earth (e.g. ≥ 3 Ga, Kamber et

  7. Making mushy magma chambers in the lower continental crust: Cold storage and compositional bimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew; Blundy, Jon; Sparks, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Increasing geological and geophysical evidence suggests that crustal magma reservoirs are normally low melt fraction 'mushes' rather than high melt fraction 'magma chambers'. Yet high melt fractions must form within these mush reservoirs to explain the observed flow and eruption of low crystallinity magmas. In many models, crystallinity is linked directly to temperature, with higher temperature corresponding to lower crystallinity (higher melt fraction). However, increasing temperature yields less evolved (silicic) melt composition for a given starting material. If mobile, low crystallinity magmas require high temperature, it is difficult to explain how they can have evolved composition. Here we use numerical modelling to show that reactive melt flow in a porous and permeable mush reservoir formed by the intrusion of numerous basaltic sills into the lower continental crust produces magma in high melt fraction (> 0.5) layers akin to conventional magma chambers. These magma-chamber-like layers contain evolved (silicic) melt compositions and form at low (close to solidus) temperatures near the top of the mush reservoir. Evolved magma is therefore kept in 'cold storage' at low temperature, but also at low crystallinity so the magma is mobile and can leave the mush reservoir. Buoyancy-driven reactive flow and accumulation of melt in the mush reservoir controls the temperature and composition of magma that can leave the reservoir. The modelling also shows that processes in lower crustal mush reservoirs produce mobile magmas that contain melt of either silicic or mafic composition. Intermediate melt compositions are present but are not within mobile magmas. Silicic melt compositions are found at high melt fraction within the magma-chamber like layers near the top of the mush reservoir. Mafic melt compositions are found at high melt fraction within the cooling sills. Melt elsewhere in the reservoir has intermediate composition, but remains trapped in the reservoir because

  8. Continental basalts record the crust-mantle interaction in oceanic subduction channel: A geochemical case study from eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2017-09-01

    Continental basalts, erupted in either flood or rift mode, usually show oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like geochemical compositions. Although their depletion in Sr-Nd isotope compositions is normally ascribed to contributions from the asthenospheric mantle, their enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) is generally associated with variable enrichments in the Sr-Nd isotope compositions. This indicates significant contributions from crustal components such as igneous oceanic crust, lower continental crust and seafloor sediment. Nevertheless, these crustal components were not incorporated into the mantle sources of continental basalts in the form of solidus rocks. Instead they were processed into metasomatic agents through low-degree partial melting in order to have the geochemical fractionation of the largest extent to achieve the enrichment of LILE and LREE in the metasomatic agents. Therefore, the mantle sources of continental basalts were generated by metasomatic reaction of the depleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) mantle with hydrous felsic melts. Nevertheless, mass balance considerations indicate differential contributions from the mantle and crustal components to the basalts. While the depleted MORB mantle predominates the budget of major elements, the crustal components predominate the budget of melt-mobile incompatible trace elements and their pertinent radiogenic isotopes. These considerations are verified by model calculations that are composed of four steps in an ancient oceanic subduction channel: (1) dehydration of the subducting crustal rocks at subarc depths, (2) anataxis of the dehydrated rocks at postarc depths, (3) metasomatic reaction of the depleted MORB mantle peridotite with the felsic melts to generate ultramafic metasomatites in the lower part of the mantle wedge, and (4) partial melting of the metasomatites for basaltic magmatism. The composition of metasomatites is quantitatively dictated by

  9. Uranium-series growth history of a Quaternary phosphatic crust from the Peruvian continental margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kee Hyun; Burnett, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    A 20-mm-thick oriented phosphatic crust recovered together with its overlying (14 cm) and underlying (4 cm) associated sediment from the Peruvian sea floor has been analyzed in detail for uranium-series radionuclides in an attempt to determine its rate and direction of growth. Growth curves based upon 226 Ra and 230 Th ages show that this crust grew upward toward the sediment-water interface. Calculated growth rates in the range of 12-13 mm ka -1 are slightly higher but comparable to values previously reported. Crystallographical analyses of this phosphatic crust show a trend of decreasing unit-cell dimension a with sample age. The upward growth of a buried crust toward the sediment-water interface is consistent with results from recent pore-water studies of fluoride and phosphate in Peru shelf sediments. (orig.)

  10. Transformation of juvenile Izu-Bonin-Mariana oceanic arc into mature continental crust: An example from the Neogene Izu collision zone granitoid plutons, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoshi; Tani, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    Granitic rocks (sensulato) are major constituents of upper continental crust. Recent reviews reveal that the average composition of Phanerozoic upper continental crust is granodioritic. Although oceanic arcs are regarded as a site producing continental crust material in an oceanic setting, intermediate to felsic igneous rocks occurring in modern oceanic arcs are dominantly tonalitic to trondhjemitic in composition and have lower incompatible element contents than the average upper continental crust. Therefore, juvenile oceanic arcs require additional processes in order to get transformed into mature continental crust enriched in incompatible elements. Neogene granitoid plutons are widely exposed in the Izu Collision Zone in central Japan, where the northern end of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc (juvenile oceanic arc) has been colliding with the Honshu arc (mature island arc) since Middle Miocene. The plutons in this area are composed of various types of granitoids ranging from tonalite to trondhjemite, granodiorite, monzogranite and granite. Three main granitoid plutons are distributed in this area: Tanzawa plutonic complex, Kofu granitic complex, and Kaikomagatake granitoid pluton. Tanzawa plutonic complex is dominantly composed of tonalite and trondhjemite and characterized by low concentration of incompatible elements and shows geochemical similarity with modern juvenile oceanic arcs. In contrast, Kofu granitic complex and Kaikomagatake granitoid pluton consists mainly of granodiorite, monzogranite and granite and their incompatible element abundances are comparable to the average upper continental crust. Previous petrogenetic studies on these plutons suggested that (1) the Tanzawa plutonic complex formed by lower crustal anatexis of juvenile basaltic rocks occurring in the IBM arc, (2) the Kofu granitic complex formed by anatexis of 'hybrid lower crust' comprising of both basaltic rocks of the IBM arc and metasedimentary rocks of the Honshu arc, and (3) the

  11. Syn-collisional felsic magmatism and continental crust growth: A case study from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Niu, Yaoling; Xue, Qiqi

    2018-05-01

    The abundant syn-collisional granitoids produced and preserved at the northern Tibetan Plateau margin provide a prime case for studying the felsic magmatism as well as continental crust growth in response to continental collision. Here we present the results from a systematic study of the syn-collisional granitoids and their mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) in the Laohushan (LHS) and Machangshan (MCS) plutons from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt (NQOB). Two types of MMEs from the LHS pluton exhibit identical crystallization age ( 430 Ma) and bulk-rock isotopic compositions to their host granitoids, indicating their genetic link. The phase equilibrium constraints and pressure estimates for amphiboles from the LHS pluton together with the whole rock data suggest that the two types of MMEs represent two evolution products of the same hydrous andesitic magmas. In combination with the data on NQOB syn-collisional granitoids elsewhere, we suggest that the syn-collisional granitoids in the NQOB are material evidence of melting of ocean crust and sediment. The remarkable compositional similarity between the LHS granitoids and the model bulk continental crust in terms of major elements, trace elements, and some key element ratios indicates that the syn-collisional magmatism in the NQOB contributes to net continental crust growth, and that the way of continental crust growth in the Phanerozoic through syn-collisional felsic magmatism (production and preservation) is a straightforward process without the need of petrologically and physically complex processes.

  12. Growth of continental crust: Clues from Nd isotopes and Nb-Th relationships in mantle-derived magmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, N.T.; Chauvel, C.; Jochum, K.P.; Gruau, G.; Hofmann, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope and trace element geochemistry of Precambrian mantle derived rocks and implications for the formation of the continental crust is discussed. Epsilon Nd values of Archean komatiites are variable, but range up to at least +5, suggesting that the Archean mantle was heterogeneous and, in part, very depleted as far back as 3.4 to 3.5 Ga. This may be taken as evidence for separation of continental crust very early in Earth history. If these komatiite sources were allowed to evolve in a closed system, they would produce modern day reservoirs with much higher epsilon Nd values than is observed. This implies recycling of some sort of enriched material, perhaps subducted sediments, although other possibilities exist. Archean volcanics show lower Nb/Th than modern volcanics, suggesting a more primitive mantle source than that observed nowadays. However, Cretaceous komatiites from Gorgona island have similar Nb/Th to Archean volcanics, indicating either the Archean mantle source was indeed more primitive, or Archean magmas were derived from a deep ocean island source like that proposed for Gorgona

  13. Growth of continental crust: Clues from Nd isotopes and Nb-Th relationships in mantle-derived magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, N. T.; Chauvel, C.; Jochum, K.-P.; Gruau, G.; Hofmann, A. W.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope and trace element geochemistry of Precambrian mantle derived rocks and implications for the formation of the continental crust is discussed. Epsilon Nd values of Archean komatiites are variable, but range up to at least +5, suggesting that the Archean mantle was heterogeneous and, in part, very depleted as far back as 3.4 to 3.5 Ga. This may be taken as evidence for separation of continental crust very early in Earth history. If these komatiite sources were allowed to evolve in a closed system, they would produce modern day reservoirs with much higher epsilon Nd values than is observed. This implies recycling of some sort of enriched material, perhaps subducted sediments, although other possibilities exist. Archean volcanics show lower Nb/Th than modern volcanics, suggesting a more primitive mantle source than that observed nowadays. However, Cretaceous komatiites from Gorgona island have similar Nb/Th to Archean volcanics, indicating either the Archean mantle source was indeed more primitive, or Archean magmas were derived from a deep ocean island source like that proposed for Gorgona.

  14. Growth of continental crust: Clues from Nd isotopes and Nb-Th relationships in mantle-derived magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, N. T.; Chauvel, C.; Jochum, K.-P.; Gruau, G.; Hofmann, A. W.

    Isotope and trace element geochemistry of Precambrian mantle derived rocks and implications for the formation of the continental crust is discussed. Epsilon Nd values of Archean komatiites are variable, but range up to at least +5, suggesting that the Archean mantle was heterogeneous and, in part, very depleted as far back as 3.4 to 3.5 Ga. This may be taken as evidence for separation of continental crust very early in Earth history. If these komatiite sources were allowed to evolve in a closed system, they would produce modern day reservoirs with much higher epsilon Nd values than is observed. This implies recycling of some sort of enriched material, perhaps subducted sediments, although other possibilities exist. Archean volcanics show lower Nb/Th than modern volcanics, suggesting a more primitive mantle source than that observed nowadays. However, Cretaceous komatiites from Gorgona island have similar Nb/Th to Archean volcanics, indicating either the Archean mantle source was indeed more primitive, or Archean magmas were derived from a deep ocean island source like that proposed for Gorgona.

  15. Temporal Evolution of the Upper Continental Crust: Implications for the Mode of Crustal Growth and the Evolution of the Hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Li, S.; Tang, M.; Qiu, L.; Valley, J. W.; Zurkowski, C.; McDonough, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    The upper continental crust (UCC), the interface between the atmosphere and solid Earth, is the site of weathering that produces sedimentary rocks, influences ocean chemistry through runoff of soluble elements, and affects climate through CO2 draw-down. The UCC also contains more than 50% of the crust's highly incompatible element budget (including K, Th, and U). Therefore, understanding its composition and evolution provides insight into how continents have formed, evolved, and interacted with the hydrosphere. New major and trace element compositions of >100 glacial diamictites and >100 Archean shales, plus δ7Li and δ18O for a subset of these samples, combined with data from the literature, show that the average composition of the UCC has changed through time, reflecting both the rise of atmospheric oxygen and its attendant effects on weathering, as well as the mode of crust formation and differentiation. Some changes that occur as a step function near the Archean/Proterozoic boundary (increased Th/U, decreased Mo/Pr, V/Lu) reflect the rise of oxygen at the great oxidation event (GOE) and its influence on chemical weathering signatures in the UCC. Other changes are more gradual with time (e.g., higher Th/Sc and δ18O, lower Ni/Co, La/Nb, Eu/Eu* and transition metal abundances) and reflect an UCC that has transitioned from a more mafic to a more felsic bulk composition, and which experienced increased interaction with the hydrosphere with time. The gradual nature of these compositional changes likely reflects the waning heat production of the Earth, rather than an abrupt change in tectonics or style of crust formation. These more gradual changes in crust composition, which contrast with the abrupt changes associated with the GOE, suggest that a fundamental change in the nature of crust differentiation is unlikely to be responsible for the rise of atmospheric oxygen (cf. Keller and Schoene, 2012). Indeed, it appears that the opposite may be true: that the rise of

  16. Evaluating the importance of metamorphism in the foundering of continental crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Timothy; Clarke, Geoffrey L; Piazolo, Sandra; Daczko, Nathan R

    2017-10-12

    The metamorphic conditions and mechanisms required to induce foundering in deep arc crust are assessed using an example of representative lower crust in SW New Zealand. Composite plutons of Cretaceous monzodiorite and gabbro were emplaced at ~1.2 and 1.8 GPa are parts of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO); examples of the plutons are tectonically juxtaposed along a structure that excised ~25 km of crust. The 1.8 GPa Breaksea Orthogneiss includes suitably dense minor components (e.g. eclogite) capable of foundering at peak conditions. As the eclogite facies boundary has a positive dP/dT, cooling from supra-solidus conditions (T > 950 ºC) at high-P should be accompanied by omphacite and garnet growth. However, a high monzodioritic proportion and inefficient metamorphism in the Breaksea Orthogneiss resulted in its positive buoyancy and preservation. Metamorphic inefficiency and compositional relationships in the 1.2 GPa Malaspina Pluton meant it was never likely to have developed densities sufficiently high to founder. These relationships suggest that the deep arc crust must have primarily involved significant igneous accumulation of garnet-clinopyroxene (in proportions >75%). Crustal dismemberment with or without the development of extensional shear zones is proposed to have induced foundering of excised cumulate material at P > 1.2 GPa.

  17. Fluid-driven metamorphism of the continental crust governed by nanoscale fluid flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Liu, Yang; Malthe-Sorenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    The transport of fluids through the Earth’s crust controls the redistribution of elements to form mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, the release and sequestration of greenhouse gases, and facilitates metamorphic reactions that influence lithospheric rheology. In permeable systems with a

  18. Resolving the crustal composition paradox by 3.8 billion years of slab failure magmatism and collisional recycling of continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert S.; Whalen, Joseph B.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2018-06-01

    In the standard paradigm, continental crust is formed mainly by arc magmatism, but because the compositions of magma rising from the mantle are basaltic and continental crust is estimated to contain about 60% SiO2 and much less MgO than basalt, the two do not match. To resolve this paradox, most researchers argue that large amounts of magmatic fractionation produce residual cumulates at the base of the crust, which because arcs are inferred to have magmatically thickened crust, form eclogites that ultimately founder and sink into the mantle. Not only are there problems with the contrasting bulk compositions, but the standard model also fails because prior to collision most modern arcs do not have thick crust, as documented by their eruption close to sea level, and in cases of ancient arc sequences, their intercalation with marine sedimentary rocks. Our study of Cretaceous batholiths in the North American Cordillera resolves the crustal composition paradox because we find that most are not arc-derived as commonly believed; but instead formed during the waning stages of collision and consequent slab failure. Because the batholiths typically have silica contents >60% and are derived directly from the mantle, we argue that they are the missing link in the formation of continental crust. Slab failure magmas worldwide are compositionally similar to tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite suites as old as 3.8 Ga, which points to their collective formation by slab failure and long-lived plate tectonics. Our model also provides (1) an alternative solution to interpret compiled detrital zircon arrays, because episodic peaks that coincide with periods of supercontinent amalgamation are easily interpreted to represent collisions with formation of new crust by slab failure; and (2) that models of early whole-earth differentiation are more reasonable than those invoking progressive growth of continental crust.

  19. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  20. Paleoseismicity of two historically quiescent faults in Australia: Implications for fault behavior in stable continental regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, A.J.; De Martini, P. M.; Machette, M.M.; Okumura, K.; Prescott, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies of two historically aseismic Quaternary faults in Australia confirm that cratonic faults in stable continental regions (SCR) typically have a long-term behavior characterized by episodes of activity separated by quiescent intervals of at least 10,000 and commonly 100,000 years or more. Studies of the approximately 30-km-long Roopena fault in South Australia and the approximately 30-km-long Hyden fault in Western Australia document multiple Quaternary surface-faulting events that are unevenly spaced in time. The episodic clustering of events on cratonic SCR faults may be related to temporal fluctuations of fault-zone fluid pore pressures in a volume of strained crust. The long-term slip rate on cratonic SCR faults is extremely low, so the geomorphic expression of many cratonic SCR faults is subtle, and scarps may be difficult to detect because they are poorly preserved. Both the Roopena and Hyden faults are in areas of limited or no significant seismicity; these and other faults that we have studied indicate that many potentially hazardous SCR faults cannot be recognized solely on the basis of instrumental data or historical earthquakes. Although cratonic SCR faults may appear to be nonhazardous because they have been historically aseismic, those that are favorably oriented for movement in the current stress field can and have produced unexpected damaging earthquakes. Paleoseismic studies of modern and prehistoric SCR faulting events provide the basis for understanding of the long-term behavior of these faults and ultimately contribute to better seismic-hazard assessments.

  1. Structure and Geochemistry of the Continental-Oceanic Crust Boundary of the Red Sea and the Rifted Margin of Western Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Y.; Furnes, H.; Schoenberg, R.

    2009-12-01

    The continental-oceanic crust boundary and an incipient oceanic crust of the Red Sea opening are exposed within the Arabian plate along a narrow zone of the Tihama Asir coastal plain in SW Saudi Arabia. Dike swarms, layered gabbros, granophyres and basalts of the 22 Ma Tihama Asir (TA) continental margin ophiolite represent products of magmatic differentiation formed during the initial stages of rifting between the African and Arabian plates. Nearly 4-km-wide zone of NW-trending sheeted dikes are the first products of mafic magmatism associated with incipient oceanic crust formation following the initial continental breakup. Gabbro intrusions are composed of cpx-ol-gabbro, cpx-gabbro, and norite/troctolite, and are crosscut by fine-grained basaltic dikes. Granophyre bodies intrude the sheeted dike swarms and are locally intrusive into the gabbros. Regional Bouger gravity anomalies suggest that the Miocene mafic crust represented by the TA complex extends westward beneath the coastal plain sedimentary rocks and the main trough of the Red Sea. The TA complex marks an incipient Red Sea oceanic crust that was accreted to the NE side of the newly formed continental rift in the earliest stages of seafloor spreading. Its basaltic to trachyandesitic lavas and dikes straddle the subalkaline-mildly alkaline boundary. Incompatible trace element relationships (e.g. Zr-Ti, Zr-P) indicate two distinct populations. The REE concentrations show an overall enrichment compared to N-MORB; light REEs are enriched over the heavy ones ((La/Yb)n > 1), pointing to an E-MORB influence. Nd-isotope data show ɛNd values ranging from +4 to +8, supporting an E-MORB melt source. The relatively large variations in ɛNd values also suggest various degrees of involvement of continental crust during ascent and emplacement, or by mixing of another mantle source.

  2. Porosity evolution at the brittle-ductile transition in the continental crust: Implications for deep hydro-geothermal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violay, M; Heap, M J; Acosta, M; Madonna, C

    2017-08-09

    Recently, projects have been proposed to engineer deep geothermal reservoirs in the ductile crust. To examine their feasibility, we performed high-temperature (up to 1000 °C), high-pressure (130 MPa) triaxial experiments on granite (initially-intact and shock-cooled samples) in which we measured the evolution of porosity during deformation. Mechanical data and post-mortem microstuctural characterisation (X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy) indicate that (1) the failure mode was brittle up to 900 °C (shear fracture formation) but ductile at 1000 °C (no strain localisation); (2) only deformation up to 800 °C was dilatant; (3) deformation at 900 °C was brittle but associated with net compaction due to an increase in the efficiency of crystal plastic processes; (4) ductile deformation at 1000 °C was compactant; (5) thermally-shocking the granite did not influence strength or failure mode. Our data show that, while brittle behaviour increases porosity, porosity loss is associated with both ductile behaviour and transitional behaviour as the failure mode evolves from brittle to ductile. Extrapolating our data to geological strain rates suggests that the brittle-ductile transition occurs at a temperature of 400 ± 100 °C, and is associated with the limit of fluid circulation in the deep continental crust.

  3. Using the magmatic record to constrain the growth of continental crust-The Eoarchean zircon Hf record of Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christopher M.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.

    2018-04-01

    Southern West Greenland contains some of the best-studied and best-preserved magmatic Eoarchean rocks on Earth, and these provide an excellent vantage point from which to view long-standing questions regarding the growth of the earliest continental crust. In order to address the questions surrounding early crustal growth and complementary mantle depletion, we present Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) analyses of the U-Pb and Hf isotope compositions of zircon from eleven samples of the least-altered meta-igneous rocks from the Itsaq (Amîtsoq) Gneisses of the Isukasia and Nuuk regions of southern West Greenland. This analytical technique allows a less ambiguous approach to determining the age and Hf isotope composition of complicated zircon. Results corroborate previous findings that Eoarchean zircon from the Itsaq Gneiss (∼3.85 Ga to ∼3.63 Ga) were derived from a broadly chondritic source. In contrast to the Sm-Nd whole rock isotope record for southern West Greenland, the zircon Lu-Hf isotope record provides no evidence for early mantle depletion, nor does it suggest the presence of crust older than ∼3.85 Ga in Greenland. Utilizing LASS U-Pb and Hf data from the Greenland zircons studied here, we demonstrate the importance of focusing on the magmatic (rather than detrital) zircon record to more confidently understand early crustal growth and mantle depletion. We compare the Greenland Hf isotope data with other Eoarchean magmatic complexes such as the Acasta Gneiss Complex, Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt, and the gneissic complexes of southern Africa, and all lack zircons with suprachondritic Hf isotope compositions. In total, these data suggest only a very modest volume of crust was produced during (or survived from) the Hadean and earliest Eoarchean. There remains no record of planet-scale early Earth mantle depletion in the Hf isotope record prior to 3.8 Ga.

  4. Meeting the Continental Crust: the Hidden Olivine Trauma in Subduction Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Reyes, P.; Ruprecht, P.; Rabbia, O. M.; Hernandez, L.

    2017-12-01

    In a conventional framework, olivine zonation represents concentric growth from an evolving liquid. Alternatively, it has been suggested (e.g. Welsch et al. 2014) that olivine develop dendritic textures and compositional discontinuities due to rapid growth and boundary layer effects, respectively, where any complex zoning is quickly erased through diffusive re-equilibration in the high temperature magmatic environment. In particular, olivine crystals from large volcanic centers in convergent margins rarely preserve such dendritic textures and complex zoning due prolonged magma residence. Small volume, mafic monogenetic vents may bypass such crustal re-equilibration and potentially record the otherwise elusive early olivine growth history. We selected tephra deposits from Los Hornitos, in the Andean arc of Central Chile (35.5˚S), that represents primitive magmas ( 15 wt.% MgO) and contain magnesian olivines (Fo>88) hosting quenched melt inclusions. We obtained detailed quantitative EPMA zoning profiles and measured volatile contents (H, C, S, Cl) in the co-existing melt inclusions. Furthermore, we analyzed mineral morphologies connecting compositional zoning with growth textures. We find that 40% of the olivine crystals retain dendritic shapes while the others are polyhedral with trapped melt inclusions and cavities. The polyhedral crystals are normally zoned (Fo92 to Fo88; Ni 4000 ppm to 1000 ppm), however an oscillatory zonation depicted by concentric -coupled Fo and Ni- enriched layers exist and therefore even those crystals still preserve also a more complete growth history. The related melt inclusions yield values of up to 6000 ppm of S. Such zonation may imply sudden growth during elevated degrees of undercooling (-ΔT > 60°C) as the magmas transit from the hot mantle to the cooler conditions in the crust. Moreover, the preservation of such Fo and Ni zonation requires limited time between crystal growth and eruption. The elevated S content in melt inclusions

  5. Field-based Constraints on Lower Crustal Flow From the World's Largest Exposure of Lower Continental Crust, Northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumond, G.; Gonclaves, P.; Williams, M. L.; Bowring, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    Predictions about the behavior and geometry of lower continental crust during orogenesis have included: it is rheologically weak; it flows under the influence of a tectonic or topographic load; and it is characterized by pervasive shallow fabrics produced by high-temperature deformation mechanisms. Arguably the world's largest exposure of lower continental crust that still preserves much of its deep crustal deformation history is the central portion of the Snowbird tectonic zone in the western Canadian Shield. Recent fieldwork along a ca. 100 km-long transect of this exposure is characterized by an early, penetrative shallow fabric. A 40 km-long segment of this transect, dominated by charnockite and granodiorite orthogneisses, is characterized by km-scale domains of shallow, granulite-grade gneissic foliation (S1) with a spectacular rodding lineation (L1) defined by: 1) discontinuous ribbons of recrystallized Pl + Qtz + Hb + Cpx + Opx, in addition to mm- to cm-scale core-and-mantle structure in Pl and Kfs, and 2) near-continuous, 10s of cm-long rods of compositional banding. Isoclinally-folded layering is locally preserved perpendicular to (L1). We interpret (L1) as a composite lineation with both intersection and extension components. Thermobarometric data, microstructural, and kinematic observations are compatible with high-grade (700-800°C) ductile, top-to-the-ESE flow during production of S1 at 1.0-1.1 GPa (30-40 km paleodepths in the Neoarchean. S1 is variably transposed into upright, open, shallowly-plunging F2 folds with sub-horizontal, NW-striking enveloping surfaces. The weakly folded S1 is locally overprinted by preserve Type 2 (mushroom-crescent) fold interference patterns resulting from superposition of upright F2 folds with sub-vertical NE-striking axial planes onto isoclinal, recumbent F1 folds. Metamorphic reactions that led to Grt-production during development of S1 were intrinsically syn-kinematic, with garnet growing in the Na-rich recrystallized

  6. Melting of subducted continental crust: Geochemical evidence from Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Chen, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Syn-collisional and postcollisional granitoids are common in collisional orogens, and they were primarily produced by partial melting of subducted continental crust. This is exemplified by Mesozoic granitoids from the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in east-central China. These granitoids were emplaced in small volumes in the Late Triassic (200-206 Ma) and the Late Jurassic (146-167 Ma) but massively in the Early Cretaceous (111-143 Ma). Nevertheless, all of them exhibit arc-like trace element distribution patterns and are enriched in Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions, indicating their origination from the ancient continental crust. They commonly contain relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages, respectively, consistent with the protolith and metamorphic ages for ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metaigneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt. Some granitoids show low zircon δ18O values, and SIMS in-situ O isotope analysis reveals that the relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages also commonly exhibit low δ18O values. Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages and low δ18O values are the two diagnostic features that distinguish the subducted South China Block from the obducted North China Block. Thus, the magma source of these Mesozoic granitoids has a genetic link to the subducted continental crust of the South China Block. On the other hand, these granitoids contain relict zircons with Paleoproterozoic and Archean U-Pb ages, which are present in both the South and North China Blocks. Taken together, the Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its hanging wall have their magma sources that are predominated by the continental crust of the South China Block with minor contributions from the continental crust of the North China Block. The Triassic continental collision between the South and North China Blocks brought the continental crust into the thickened orogen, where they underwent the three episodes of partial melting in the Late Triassic, Late

  7. Crustal seismicity and the earthquake catalog maximum moment magnitudes (Mcmax) in stable continental regions (SCRs): correlation with the seismic velocity of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Walter D.; Ritsema, Jeroen; Hwang, Yong Keun

    2012-01-01

    A joint analysis of global seismicity and seismic tomography indicates that the seismic potential of continental intraplate regions is correlated with the seismic properties of the lithosphere. Archean and Early Proterozoic cratons with cold, stable continental lithospheric roots have fewer crustal earthquakes and a lower maximum earthquake catalog moment magnitude (Mcmax). The geographic distribution of thick lithospheric roots is inferred from the global seismic model S40RTS that displays shear-velocity perturbations (δVS) relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). We compare δVS at a depth of 175 km with the locations and moment magnitudes (Mw) of intraplate earthquakes in the crust (Schulte and Mooney, 2005). Many intraplate earthquakes concentrate around the pronounced lateral gradients in lithospheric thickness that surround the cratons and few earthquakes occur within cratonic interiors. Globally, 27% of stable continental lithosphere is underlain by δVS≥3.0%, yet only 6.5% of crustal earthquakes with Mw>4.5 occur above these regions with thick lithosphere. No earthquakes in our catalog with Mw>6 have occurred above mantle lithosphere with δVS>3.5%, although such lithosphere comprises 19% of stable continental regions. Thus, for cratonic interiors with seismically determined thick lithosphere (1) there is a significant decrease in the number of crustal earthquakes, and (2) the maximum moment magnitude found in the earthquake catalog is Mcmax=6.0. We attribute these observations to higher lithospheric strength beneath cratonic interiors due to lower temperatures and dehydration in both the lower crust and the highly depleted lithospheric root.

  8. Crustal seismicity and the earthquake catalog maximum moment magnitude (Mcmax) in stable continental regions (SCRs): Correlation with the seismic velocity of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Walter D.; Ritsema, Jeroen; Hwang, Yong Keun

    2012-12-01

    A joint analysis of global seismicity and seismic tomography indicates that the seismic potential of continental intraplate regions is correlated with the seismic properties of the lithosphere. Archean and Early Proterozoic cratons with cold, stable continental lithospheric roots have fewer crustal earthquakes and a lower maximum earthquake catalog moment magnitude (Mcmax). The geographic distribution of thick lithospheric roots is inferred from the global seismic model S40RTS that displays shear-velocity perturbations (δVS) relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). We compare δVS at a depth of 175 km with the locations and moment magnitudes (Mw) of intraplate earthquakes in the crust (Schulte and Mooney, 2005). Many intraplate earthquakes concentrate around the pronounced lateral gradients in lithospheric thickness that surround the cratons and few earthquakes occur within cratonic interiors. Globally, 27% of stable continental lithosphere is underlain by δVS≥3.0%, yet only 6.5% of crustal earthquakes with Mw>4.5 occur above these regions with thick lithosphere. No earthquakes in our catalog with Mw>6 have occurred above mantle lithosphere with δVS>3.5%, although such lithosphere comprises 19% of stable continental regions. Thus, for cratonic interiors with seismically determined thick lithosphere (1) there is a significant decrease in the number of crustal earthquakes, and (2) the maximum moment magnitude found in the earthquake catalog is Mcmax=6.0. We attribute these observations to higher lithospheric strength beneath cratonic interiors due to lower temperatures and dehydration in both the lower crust and the highly depleted lithospheric root.

  9. The crust and upper mantle of central East Greenland - implications for continental accretion and rift evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, Niels; Ebbing, Jörg; Holm Jacobsen, Bo; Bom Nielsen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    The geological evolution of the North Atlantic Realm during the past 450 Myr, which has shaped the present-day topographic, crustal and upper mantle features, was dominated by the Caledonian orogeny and the formation of the North Atlantic and associated igneous activity. The distinct high altitude-low relief landscapes that accompany the North Atlantic rifted passive margins are the focus of a discussion of whether they are remnant and modified Caledonian features or, alternatively, recently uplifted peneplains. Teleseismic receiver function analysis of 11 broadband seismometers in the Central Fjord Region in East Greenland indicates the presence of a fossil subduction complex, including a slab of eclogitised mafic crust and an overlying wedge of hydrated mantle peridotite. This model is generally consistent with gravity and topography. It is shown that the entire structure including crustal thickness variations and sub-Moho heterogeneity gives a superior gravity and isostatic topographic fit compared to a model with a homogeneous lithospheric layer (1). The high topography of >1000 m in the western part of the area is supported by the c. 40 km thick crust. The eastern part requires buoyancy from the low velocity/low density mantle wedge. The geometry, velocities and densities are consistent with structures associated with a fossil subduction zone. The spatial relations with Caledonian structures suggest a Caledonian origin. The results indicate that topography is isostatically compensated by density variations within the lithosphere and that significant present-day dynamic topography seems not to be required. Further, this structure is suggested to be geophysically very similar to the Flannan reflector imaged north of Scotland, and that these are the remnants of the same fossil subduction zone, broken apart and separated during the formation of the North Atlantic in the early Cenozoic (2). 1) Schiffer, C., Jacobsen, B.H., Balling, N., Ebbing, J. and Nielsen, S

  10. Terrane-Scale Metastability in Subducted Himalayan Continental Crust as Revealed by Integrated Petrological and Geodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, R. M.; Reuber, G. S.; White, R. W.; Kaus, B. J. P.; Weller, O. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Tso Morari massif, northwest India, is one of only two regions in the Himalayan Range that exposes subduction-related ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. The tectonic evolution of the massif is strongly debated, however, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism range between 2.4 GPa and 4.8 GPa. Such ambiguity hinders effective lithospheric-scale modeling of the early stages of the orogen's evolution. We present the results of integrated petrological and geodynamic modeling (Palin et al., 2017, EPSL) that provide new quantitative constraints on the prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path, and predict the parageneses that felsic and mafic components of the massif crust should have formed under equilibrium conditions. Our model shows that peak P-T conditions of 2.6-2.8 GPa and 600-620 °C, representative of subduction to 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), were reached just 3 Myr after the onset of collision. These P-T-t constraints correlate well with those reported for similar UHP eclogite in the along-strike Kaghan Valley, Pakistan, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of a 400-km long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. The extremely high pressures (up to 4.8 GPa) for peak metamorphism reported by some workers are likely to be unreliable due to thermobarometry having been performed on minerals that did not represent equilibrium assemblages. Furthermore, key high-P minerals predicted to form in subducted Tso Morari continental crust (e.g. jadeite, Mg-rich garnet) are absent from natural samples in the region, reflecting the widespread metastable preservation of lower-pressure protolith assemblages during subduction and exhumation. This result questions the reliability of geodynamic simulations of orogenesis that are commonly predicated on equilibrium metamorphism operating continuously throughout tectonic cycles.

  11. 3D Numerical Examination of Continental Mantle Lithosphere Response to Lower Crust Eclogitization and Nearby Slab Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbakhsh, P.; Pysklywec, R.

    2017-12-01

    2D numerical modeling techniques have made great contribution to understanding geodynamic processes involved in crustal and lithospheric scale deformations for the past 20 years. The aim of this presentation is to expand the scope covered by previous researchers to 3 dimensions to address out-of-plane intrusion and extrusion of mantle material in and out of model space, and toroidal mantle wedge flows. In addition, 3D velocity boundary conditions can create more realistic models to replicate real case scenarios. 3D numerical experiments that will be presented are designed to investigate the density and viscosity effects of lower crustal eclogitization on the decoupling process of continental mantle lithosphere from the crust and its delamination. In addition, these models examine near-field effects of a subducting ocean lithosphere and a lithospheric scale fault zone on the evolution of the processes. The model solutions and predictions will also be compared against the Anatolian geology where subduction of Aegean and Arabian slabs, and the northern boundary with the North Anatolian Fault Zone are considered as two main contributing factors to anomalous crustal uplift, missing mantle lithosphere, and anomalous surface heat flux.

  12. Deformation of "stable" continental interiors by mantle convection: Implications for intraplate stress in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, A. M.; Moucha, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2011-12-01

    The enigmatic origin of large-magnitude earthquakes far from active plate boundaries, especially those occurring in so-called "stable" continental interiors, is a source of continuing controversy that has eluded a satisfactory explanation using past geophysical models of intraplate deformation and faulting. One outstanding case of such major intraplate earthquakes is the 1811-1812 series of events in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). We contend that the origin of some of these enigmatic intraplate events is due to regional variations in the pattern of tectonic stress generated by mantle convective flow acting on the overlying lithosphere and crust. Mantle convection affects the entire surface of the planet, irrespective of the current configuration of surface plate boundaries. In addition, it must be appreciated that plate tectonics is not a 2-D process, because the convective flow that drives the observed horizontal motions of the tectonic plates also drives vertical displacements of the crust across distances as great as 2 to 3 km. This dynamic topography is directly correlated with convection-driven stress field variations in the crust and lithosphere and these stresses can be locally focussed if the mantle rheology below the lithosphere is characterised by sufficiently low viscosities. We have developed global models of convection-driven mantle flow [Forte et al. 2009,2010] that are based on recent high-resolution 3-D tomography models derived from joint inversions of seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data [Simmons et al. 2007,2008,2010]. These tomography-based mantle convection models also include a full suite of surface geodynamic (postglacial rebound and convection) constraints on the depth-dependent average viscosity of the mantle [Mitrovica & Forte 2004]. Our latest tomography-based and geodynamically-constrained convection calculations reveal that mantle flow under the central US are driven by density anomalies within the lower mantle associated

  13. Chemical and oxygen isotope zonings in garnet from subducted continental crust record mineral replacement and metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vho, Alice; Rubatto, Daniela; Regis, Daniele; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Garnet is a key mineral in metamorphic petrology for constraining pressure, temperature and time paths. Garnet can preserve multiple growth stages due to its wide P-T stability field and the relatively slow diffusivity for major and trace elements at sub-solidus temperatures. Pressure-temperature-time-fluid paths of the host rock may be reconstructed by combining metamorphic petrology with microscale trace element and oxygen isotope measurements in garnet. Subduction zones represent relevant geological settings for geochemical investigation of element exchanges during aqueous fluid-rock interactions. The Sesia Zone consists of a complex continental sequence containing a variety of mono-metamorphic and poly-metamorphic lithologies such as metagranitoids, sediments and mafic boudins. The precursor Varisican-Permian amphibolite-facies basement (6-9 kbar 650-850°C; Lardeaux and Spalla, 1991; Robyr et al., 2013) experienced high pressure metamorphism (15-22 kbar 500-550°C; Regis, et al. 2014; Robyr et al., 2013) during Alpine subduction. In different lithologies of the Internal Complex (Eclogitic Micaschist Complex), including metabasites from the Ivozio Complex, Ti-rich metasediments from Val Malone and pre-Alpine Mn-quartzites associated to metagabbros from Cima Bonze, garnet is abundant and shows a variety of complex textures that cannot be reconciled with typical growth zoning, but indicate resorption and replacement processes and possible metasomatism. In-situ, microscale oxygen isotopes analysis of garnet zones was performed by ion microprobe with the SwissSIMS Cameca IMS 1280-HR at University of Lausanne and SHRIMP-SI at the Australian National University. Each sample has a distinct δ18O composition, and the δ18O values show different degrees of variation between domains. Homogeneously low values of < 5‰ are measured in the garnets from the Ivozio Complex metagabbro. Intragrain variations of up to 3.5‰ in the porphyroblasts from Val Malone metasediments

  14. Arc-continent collision and the formation of continental crust: A new geochemical and isotopic record from the Ordovician Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Schouten, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Collisions between oceanic island-arc terranes and passive continental margins are thought to have been important in the formation of continental crust throughout much of Earth's history. Magmatic evolution during this stage of the plate-tectonic cycle is evident in several areas of the Ordovician Grampian-Taconic orogen, as we demonstrate in the first detailed geochemical study of the Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland. New U-Pb zircon dating yields ages of 493 2 Ma from a primitive mafic intrusion, indicating intra-oceanic subduction in Tremadoc time, and 475 10 Ma from a light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched tonalite intrusion that incorporated Laurentian continental material by early Arenig time (Early Ordovician, Stage 2) during arc-continent collision. Notably, LREE enrichment in volcanism and silicic intrusions of the Tyrone Igneous Complex exceeds that of average Dalradian (Laurentian) continental material that would have been thrust under the colliding forearc and potentially recycled into arc magmatism. This implies that crystal fractionation, in addition to magmatic mixing and assimilation, was important to the formation of new crust in the Grampian-Taconic orogeny. Because similar super-enrichment of orogenic melts occurred elsewhere in the Caledonides in the British Isles and Newfoundland, the addition of new, highly enriched melt to this accreted arc terrane was apparently widespread spatially and temporally. Such super-enrichment of magmatism, especially if accompanied by loss of corresponding lower crustal residues, supports the theory that arc-continent collision plays an important role in altering bulk crustal composition toward typical values for ancient continental crust. ?? 2009 Geological Society of London.

  15. Recycling of the Archaean continental crust: the case study of the Gavião, State of Bahia, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M. Santos; Peucat, J. J.; Martin, H.; Sabaté, P.

    1998-09-01

    The Gavião block, located to the west of the São Francisco Craton (State of Bahia, NE Brazil), is the oldest crustal block so far recognised in South America—3.42 Ga. In its southern part, the Gavião block has been divided into three domains on the basis of 207Pb/ 206Pb dating on single zircons and monazites combined with Sr and Nd isotopic data and major and trace element geochemical modelling. These are: (1) an Archaean juvenile domain which consists of grey gneisses (Bernada massif) which evidence mantle extraction around 3.3 Ga; (2) an Archaean domain (3.24-3.16 Ga) either recycled, or juvenile with crustal contamination, consisting of trondhjemitic grey gneisses (Aracatu massif) and K-rich calc-alkaline granitic gneisses (Mariana and Serra do Eixo massifs); (3) a Paleoproterozoic recycled domain consisting mainly of the Umburanas granites, which yielded inherited zircons ages ranging from 3.1 to 2.8 Ga, whereas the monazite age is ca 2.0 Ga. The Aracatu and Mariana massifs are cut by granites at ca 2.0 Ga the same age of the Serra da Franga massif. The Gavião block is a type example of Archaean continental crust (3.2 Ga) that has been recycled through partial melting events mainly in Paleoproterozoic times during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.0-2.1 Ga). Brasiliano cooling ages are recorded by the Rb-Sr system of biotite-whole rock pairs ca 500 Ma.

  16. Linking the tectonic evolution with fluid history in magma-poor rifted margins: tracking mantle- and continental crust-related fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, V. H. G.; Manatschal, G.; Karpoff, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The thinning of the crust and the exhumation of subcontinental mantle is accompanied by a series of extensional detachment faults. Exhumation of mantle and crustal rocks is intimately related to percolation of fluids along detachment faults leading to changes in mineralogy and chemistry of the mantle, crustal and sedimentary rocks. Field observation, analytical methods, refraction/reflection and well-core data, allowed us to investigate the role of fluids in the Iberian margin and former Alpine Tethys distal margins and the Pyrenees rifted system. In the continental crust, fluid-rock interaction leads to saussuritization that produces Si and Ca enriched fluids found in forms of veins along the fault zone. In the zone of exhumed mantle, large amounts of water are absorbed in the first 5-6 km of serpentinized mantle, which has the counter-effect of depleting the mantle of elements (e.g., Si, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Cr) forming mantle-related fluids. Using Cr-Ni-V and Fe-Mn as tracers, we show that in the distal margin, mantle-related fluids used detachment faults as pathways and interacted with the overlying crust, the sedimentary basin and the seawater, while further inward parts of the margin, continental crust-related fluids enriched in Si and Ca impregnated the fault zone and may have affected the sedimentary basin. The overall observations and results enable us to show when, where and how these interactions occurred during the formation of the rifted margin. In a first stage, continental crust-related fluids dominated the rifted systems. During the second stage, mantle-related fluids affected the overlying syn-tectonic sediments through direct migration along detachment faults at the future distal margin. In a third stage, these fluids reached the seafloor, "polluted" the seawater and were absorbed by post-tectonic sediments. We conclude that a significant amount of serpentinization occurred underneath the thinned continental crust, that the mantle-related fluids

  17. Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Sedimentary Rocks of the 3.6 - 3.2 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt: No Evidence for Older Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabon, N.; Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.; Harrington, J.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal setting of early Archean greenstone belts and whether they formed on or associated with blocks of older continental crust or in more oceanic settings remains a major issue in Archean geology. We report detrital zircon U-Pb age data from sandstones of the 3.26-3.20 Ga Fig Tree and Moodies Groups and from 3.47 to 3.23 Ga meteorite impact-related deposits in the 3.55-3.20 Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa. The provenance signatures of these sediments are characterized by zircon age peaks at 3.54, 3.46, 3.40, 3.30, and 3.25 Ga. These clusters are coincident either with the ages of major episodes of felsic to intermediate igneous activity within and around the belt or with the ages of thin felsic tuffs reflecting distant volcanic activity. Only 15 of the reported 3410 grains (old zircons could represent felsic rocks in older, unexposed parts of the BGB sequence, but are too few to provide evidence for a continental source. This finding offers further evidence that the large, thick, high-standing, highly evolved blocks of continental crust with an andesitic bulk composition that characterize the Earth during younger geologic times were scarce in the early Archean.

  18. Report of the 8th International Symposium on the Observation of the Continental Crust Through Drilling; Dai 8 kai tairiku kagaku kussaku kokusai symposium ni sankashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K. [Super Deep Core Drilling Study Group, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-29

    This report relates to the 8th International Symposium on the Observation of the Continental Crust Through Drilling, convened at Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba City, on February 26, 1996. The symposium was represented by approximately 200 people from the U.S., Canada, Britain, Germany, France, Russia, China, and some others, who discussed active faults, drilling and logging, transfer of fluids and heat in the crust, history of the earth and climate, ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) and international cooperation under this program in the future, etc. In reference to ultradeep drilling in the world, drillings by Germany`s KTB (Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm)(9,101m deep) and Russia at Kola Peninsula (l2,261m) were reviewed. Concerning the efforts of U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program during the previous 11-year period, it was reported that it had cost a total of $84,000,000; that investigations had been made into volcanos and geotherm, fault tectonics, sedimentary basins, holes due to meteorites, and metal ore deposits; and that 61 holes (total length: 31,310m and maximum depth: 3,510m) had been drilled and investigated. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Geothermal modelling of faulted metamorphic crystalline crust: a new model of the Continental Deep Drilling Site KTB (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalaiová, Eva; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Marquart, Gabriele; Vogt, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The area of the 9.1-km-deep Continental Deep Drillhole (KTB) in Germany is used as a case study for a geothermal reservoir situated in folded and faulted metamorphic crystalline crust. The presented approach is based on the analysis of 3-D seismic reflection data combined with borehole data and hydrothermal numerical modelling. The KTB location exemplarily contains all elements that make seismic prospecting in crystalline environment often more difficult than in sedimentary units, basically complicated tectonics and fracturing and low-coherent strata. In a first step major rock units including two known nearly parallel fault zones are identified down to a depth of 12 km. These units form the basis of a gridded 3-D numerical model for investigating temperature and fluid flow. Conductive and advective heat transport takes place mainly in a metamorphic block composed of gneisses and metabasites that show considerable differences in thermal conductivity and heat production. Therefore, in a second step, the structure of this unit is investigated by seismic waveform modelling. The third step of interpretation consists of applying wavenumber filtering and log-Gabor-filtering for locating fractures. Since fracture networks are the major fluid pathways in the crystalline, we associate the fracture density distribution with distributions of relative porosity and permeability that can be calibrated by logging data and forward modelling of the temperature field. The resulting permeability distribution shows values between 10-16 and 10-19 m2 and does not correlate with particular rock units. Once thermohydraulic rock properties are attributed to the numerical model, the differential equations for heat and fluid transport in porous media are solved numerically based on a finite difference approach. The hydraulic potential caused by topography and a heat flux of 54 mW m-2 were applied as boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the model. Fluid flow is generally slow and

  20. Petrologic and chemical changes in ductile shear zones as a function of depth in the continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Yue

    Petrologic and geochemical changes in ductile shear zones are important for understanding deformational and geochemical processes of the continental crust. This study examines three shear zones that formed under conditions varying from lower greenschist facies to upper amphibolite facies in order to document the petrologic and geochemical changes of deformed rocks at various metamorphic grades. The studied shear zones include two greenschist facies shear zones in the southern Appalachians and an upper amphibolite facies shear zone in southern Ontario. The mylonitic gneisses and mylonites in the Roses Mill shear zone of central Virginia are derived from a ferrodiorite protolith and characterized by a lower greenschist facies mineral assemblage. Both pressure solution and recrystallization were operative deformation mechanisms during mylonitization in this shear zone. Strain-driven dissolution and solution transfer played an important role in the mobilization of felsic components (Si, Al, K, Na, and Ca). During mylonitization, 17% to 32% bulk rock volume losses of mylonites are mainly attributed to removal of these mobile felsic components by a fluid phase. Mafic components (Fe, Mg, Ti, Mn and P) and trace elements, REE, Y, V and Sc, were immobile. At Rosman, North Carolina, the Brevard shear zone (BSZ) shows a deformational transition from the coarse-grained Henderson augen gneiss (HAG) to proto-mylonite, mylonite and ultra-mylonite. The mylonites contain a retrograde mineral assemblage as a product of fluid-assisted chemical breakdown of K-feldspar and biotite at higher greenschist facies conditions. Recrystallization and intra-crystalline plastic deformation are major deformation mechanisms in the BSZ. Fluid-assisted mylonitization in the BSZ led to 6% to 23% bulk volume losses in mylonites. During mylonitization, both major felsic and mafic elements and trace elements, Rb, Sr, Zr, V, Sc, and LREE were mobile; however, the HREEs were likely immobile. A shear zone

  1. Formation of continental crust in a temporally linked arc magma system from 5 to 30 km depth: ~ 90 Ma plutonism in the Cascades Crystalline Core composite arc section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratschbacher, B. C.; Miller, J. S.; Kent, A. J.; Miller, R. B.; Anderson, J. L.; Paterson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Continental crust has an andesitic bulk composition with a mafic lower crust and a granodioritic upper crust. The formation of stratified continental crust in general and the vertical extent of processes active in arc crustal columns leading to the differentiation of primitive, mantle-derived melts entering the lower crust are highly debated. To investigate where in the crustal column magma mixing, fractionation, assimilation and crystal growth occur and to what extent, we study the ~ 90 Ma magmatic flare-up event of the Cascades arc, a magma plumbing system from ~ 5 to 30 km depth. We focus on three intrusive complexes, emplaced at different depths during major regional shortening in an exceptionally thick crust (≥ 55 km1) but which are temporally related: the upper crustal Black Peak intrusion (1-3 kbar at 3.7 to 11 km; ~ 86.8 to 91.7 Ma2), the mid-crustal Mt. Stuart intrusion (3.5-4.0 kbar at 13 to 15 km; 90.8 and 96.3 Ma3) and the deep crustal Tenpeak intrusion (7 to 10 kbar at 25 to 37 km; 89.7 to 92.3 Ma4). These intrusive complexes are well characterized by geochronology showing that they have been constructed incrementally by multiple magma batches over their lifespans and thus allow the monitoring and comparison of geochemical parameters over time at different depths. We use a combination of whole rock major and trace element data and isotopes combined with detailed investigation of amphibole, which has been recognized to be important in the generation of calc-alkaline rocks in arcs to test the following hypotheses: (a) compositional bimodality is produced in the lower crust, whereas upper crustal levels are dominated by mixing to form intermediate compositions, or (b) differentiation occurs throughout the crustal column with different crystallizing phases and their compositions controlling the bulk chemistry. 1. Miller et al. 2009: GSA Special Paper 456, p. 125-149 2. Shea 2014: PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 3. Anderson et al. 2012

  2. The influence of tectonic inheritance on crustal extension style following failed subduction of continental crust: applications to metamorphic core complexes in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemiller, J.; Ellis, S. M.; Little, T.; Mizera, M.; Wallace, L. M.; Lavier, L.

    2017-12-01

    The structural, mechanical and geometric evolution of rifted continental crust depends on the lithospheric conditions in the region prior to the onset of extension. In areas where tectonic activity preceded rift initiation, structural and physical properties of the previous tectonic regime may be inherited by the rift and influence its development. Many continental rifts form and exhume metamorphic core complexes (MCCs), coherent exposures of deep crustal rocks which typically surface as arched or domed structures. MCCs are exhumed in regions where the faulted upper crust is displaced laterally from upwelling ductile material along a weak detachment fault. Some MCCs form during extensional inversion of a subduction thrust following failed subduction of continental crust, but the degree to which lithospheric conditions inherited from the preceding subduction phase control the extensional style in these systems remains unclear. For example, the Dayman Dome in Southeastern Papua New Guinea exposes prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies rocks in a smooth 3 km-high dome exhumed with at least 24 km of slip along one main detachment normal fault, the Mai'iu Fault, which dips 21° at the surface. The extension driving this exhumation is associated with the cessation of northward subduction of Australian continental crust beneath the oceanic lithosphere of the Woodlark Plate. We use geodynamic models to explore the effect of pre-existing crustal structures inherited from the preceding subduction phase on the style of rifting. We show that different geometries and strengths of inherited subduction shear zones predict three distinct modes of subsequent rift development: 1) symmetric rifting by newly formed high-angle normal faults; 2) asymmetric rifting along a weak low-angle detachment fault extending from the surface to the brittle-ductile transition; and 3) extension along a rolling-hinge structure which exhumes deep crustal rocks in coherent rounded exposures. We

  3. Continental rupture and the creation of new crust in the Salton Trough rift, Southern California and northern Mexico: Results from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang; Hole, John A.; Stock, Joann M.; Fuis, Gary S.; Kell, Annie; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham M.; Harding, Alistair J.; Rymer, Michael J.; González-Fernández, Antonio; Lázaro-Mancilla, Octavio

    2016-10-01

    A refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic profile along the axis of the Salton Trough, California and Mexico, was analyzed to constrain crustal and upper mantle seismic velocity structure during active continental rifting. From the northern Salton Sea to the southern Imperial Valley, the crust is 17-18 km thick and approximately one-dimensional. The transition at depth from Colorado River sediment to underlying crystalline rock is gradual and is not a depositional surface. The crystalline rock from 3 to 8 km depth is interpreted as sediment metamorphosed by high heat flow. Deeper felsic crystalline rock could be stretched preexisting crust or higher-grade metamorphosed sediment. The lower crust below 12 km depth is interpreted to be gabbro emplaced by rift-related magmatic intrusion by underplating. Low upper mantle velocity indicates high temperature and partial melting. Under the Coachella Valley, sediment thins to the north and the underlying crystalline rock is interpreted as granitic basement. Mafic rock does not exist at 12-18 km depth as it does to the south, and a weak reflection suggests Moho at 28 km depth. Structure in adjacent Mexico has slower midcrustal velocity, and rocks with mantle velocity must be much deeper than in the Imperial Valley. Slower velocity and thicker crust in the Coachella and Mexicali valleys define the rift zone between them to be >100 km wide in the direction of plate motion. North American lithosphere in the central Salton Trough has been rifted apart and is being replaced by new crust created by magmatism, sedimentation, and metamorphism.

  4. Continental rupture and the creation of new crust in the Salton Trough rift, southern California and northern Mexico: Results from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang; Hole, John A.; Stock, Joann M.; Fuis, Gary S.; Kell, Annie; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham M.; Rymer, Michael J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Antonio; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    A refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic profile along the axis of the Salton Trough, California and Mexico, was analyzed to constrain crustal and upper mantle seismic velocity structure during active continental rifting. From the northern Salton Sea to the southern Imperial Valley, the crust is 17-18 km thick and approximately one-dimensional. The transition at depth from Colorado River sediment to underlying crystalline rock is gradual and is not a depositional surface. The crystalline rock from ~3 to ~8 km depth is interpreted as sediment metamorphosed by high heat flow. Deeper felsic crystalline rock could be stretched pre-existing crust or higher grade metamorphosed sediment. The lower crust below ~12 km depth is interpreted to be gabbro emplaced by rift-related magmatic intrusion by underplating. Low upper-mantle velocity indicates high temperature and partial melting. Under the Coachella Valley, sediment thins to the north and the underlying crystalline rock is interpreted as granitic basement. Mafic rock does not exist at 12-18 depth as it does to the south, and a weak reflection suggests Moho at ~28 km depth. Structure in adjacent Mexico has slower mid-crustal velocity and rocks with mantle velocity must be much deeper than in the Imperial Valley. Slower velocity and thicker crust in the Coachella and Mexicali valleys define the rift zone between them to be >100 km wide in the direction of plate motion. North American lithosphere in the central Salton Trough has been rifted apart and is being replaced by new crust created by magmatism, sedimentation, and metamorphism.

  5. Evaluating Complex Magma Mixing via Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA in the Papagayo Tuff, Northern Costa Rica: Processes that Form Continental Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Alvarado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, research has revealed the importance of magma mixing as a trigger for volcanic eruptions, as well as its role in creating the diversity of magma compositions in arcs. Sensitive isotopic and microchemical techniques can reveal subtle evidence of magma mixing in igneous rocks, but more robust statistical techniques for bulk chemical data can help evaluate complex mixing relationships. Polytopic vector analysis (PVA is a multivariate technique that can be used to evaluate suites of samples that are produced by mixing of two or more magma batches. The Papagayo Tuff of the Miocene-Pleistocene Bagaces Formation in northern Costa Rica is associated with a segment of the Central American Volcanic Arc. While this segment of the arc is located on oceanic plateau, recent (<8 Ma ignimbrites bear the chemical signatures of upper continental crust, marking the transition from oceanic to continental crust. The Papagayo Tuff contains banded pumice fragments consistent with one or more episodes of mixing/mingling to produce a single volcanic deposit. The PVA solution for the sample set is consistent with observations from bulk chemistry, microchemistry and petrographic data from the rocks. However, without PVA, the unequivocal identification of the three end-member solution would not have been possible.

  6. The Taitao Granites: I-type granites formed by subduction of the Chile Ridge and its implication in growth of continental crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anma, Ryo

    2016-04-01

    Late Miocene to Early Pliocene granite plutons are exposed at the tip of the Taitao peninsula, the westernmost promontory of the Chilean coast, together with a contemporaneous ophiolite with a Penrose-type stratigraphy. Namely, the Taitao granites and the Taitao ohiolite, respectively, are located at ~30 km southeast of the Chile triple junction, where a spreading center of the Chile ridge system is subducting underneath the South America plate. This unique tectonic setting provides an excellent opportunity to study the generation processes of granitic magmas at a ridge subduction environment, and the complex magmatic interactions between the subducting ridge, overlying crust and sediments, and mantle. This paper reviews previous studies on the Taitao ophiolite/granite complex and use geochemical data and U-Pb age distributions of zircons separated from igneous and sedimentary rocks from the area to discuss the mechanism that formed juvenile magma of calc-alkaline I-type granites during ridge subduction. Our model implies that the magmas of the Taitao granites formed mainly due to partial melting of hot oceanic crust adjacent to the subducting mid-oceanic ridge that has been under influence of deep crustal contamination and/or metasomatized sub-arc mantle through slab window. The partial melting took place under garnet-free-amphibolite conditions. The juvenile magmas then incorporated a different amount of subducted sediments to form the I-type granites with various compositions. The Taitao granites provide an ideal case study field that shows the processes to develop continental crusts out of oceanic crusts through ridge subduction.

  7. Continental crust melting induced by subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean: Insight from the Latest Devonian granitic magmatism in the southern Yili Block, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zihe; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wan, Bo; Wang, Yannan; Wang, Xiangsong; Xia, Xiaoping

    2018-03-01

    The Tianshan belt of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt was generated by Paleozoic multi-stage subduction and final closure of several extinct oceans, including the South Tianshan Ocean between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim blocks. However, the subduction initiation and polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean remain issues of highly debated. This study presents new zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotopes, as well as zircon Hf isotopic data of the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous granitic rocks in the Wusun Mountain of the Yili Paleozoic convergent margin, which, together with the spatial-temporal distributions of regional magmatic rocks, are applied to elucidate their petrogenesis and tectonic linkage to the northward subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean. Our zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that these granites were emplaced at the time interval of 362.0 ± 1.2-360.3 ± 1.9 Ma, suggesting a marked partial melting event of the continental crust in the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous. These granites, based on their mineral compositions and textures, can be categorized as monzogranites and K-feldspar granites. Geochemically, both monzogranites and K-feldspar granites have characters of I-type granites with high K2O contents (4.64-4.83 wt.%), and the K-feldspar granites are highly fractionated I-type granites, while the monzogranites have features of unfractionated I-type granites. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic modeling results suggest that ca. 20-40% mantle-derived magmas may be involved in magma mixing with continental crust partial melts to generate the parental magmas of the granites. The mantle-derived basaltic magmas was inferred not only to be a major component of magma mixture but also as an important heat source to fuse the continental crust in an extensional setting, which is evidenced by the high zircon saturation temperatures (713-727 °C and 760-782 °C) of the studied granites. The Latest Devonian to

  8. Nature of the crust in the Laxmi Basin (14°-20°N), western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Sar, D.

    for determining the crust below the shelf, Laxmi Basin and Western Basin. 3. Crustal structure ? associated gravity and magnetic anomalies In the present study we have integrated the new datasets with published geophysical data: Conrad 1707 profiles (Naini..., 1980), SK- 12, 22, 50, 64 and 79 profiles (Bhattacharya et al., 1994a; Chaubey et al., 2002) and twelve long-range sonobuoy refraction stations (Naini and Talwani, 1983) (Figure 1) for carrying out integrated interpretation of the data. 3.1 Previous...

  9. Common Pb isotope mapping of UHP metamorphic zones in Dabie orogen, Central China: Implication for Pb isotopic structure of subducted continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji; Wang, Ying; Li, Shu-Guang

    2014-10-01

    We report Pb isotopic compositions for feldspars separated from 57 orthogneisses and 2 paragneisses from three exhumed UHPM slices representing the North Dabie zone, the Central Dabie zone and the South Dabie zone of the Dabie orogen, central-east China. The feldspars from the gneisses were recrystallized during Triassic continental subduction and UHP metamorphism. Precursors of the orthogneisses are products of Neoproterozoic bimodal magmatic events, those in north Dabie zone emplaced into the lower crust and those in central and south Dabie zones into middle or upper crust, respectively. On a 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram, almost all orthogneisses data lie to the left of the 0.23 Ga paleogeochron and plot along the model mantle evolution curve with the major portion of the data plotting below it. On a 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram the most of data of north Dabie zone extend in elongate arrays along the lower crustal curve and others extend between the lower crustal curve to near the mantle evolution curve for the plumbotectonics model. This pattern demonstrates that the Pb isotopic evolution of the feldspars essentially ended at 0.23 Ga and the orthogneiss protoliths were principally dominated by reworking of ancient lower crust with some addition of juvenile mantle in the Neoproterozoic rifting tectonic zone. According to geological evolution history of the locally Dabie orogen, a four-stage Pb isotope evolution model including a long time evolution between 2.0 and 0.8 Ga with a lower crust type U/Pb ratio (μ = 5-6) suggests that magmatic emplacement levels of the protoliths of the orthogneisses in the Dabie orogen at 0.8 Ga also play an important role in the Pb evolution of the exhumed UHPM slices, corresponding to their respective Pb characters at ca. 0.8-0.23 Ga. For example, north Dabie zone requires low μ values (3.4-9.6), while central and south Dabie zones require high μ values (10.9-17.2). On the other hand, Pb isotopic mixing between

  10. Coupling of Oceanic and Continental Crust During Eocene Eclogite-Facies Metamorphism: Evidence From the Monte Rosa Nappe, Western Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapen, T. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Skora, S.; Mahlen, N. J.; Beard, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    Subduction of continental crust to HP-UHP metamorphic conditions requires overcoming density contrasts that are unfavorable to deep burial, whereas exhumation of these rocks can be reasonably explained through buoyancy-assisted transport in the subduction channel to more shallow depths. In the western Alps, both continental and oceanic lithosphere has been subducted to eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. The burial and exhumation histories of these sections of lithosphere bear directly on the dynamics of subduction and the stacking of units within the subduction channel. We address the burial history of the continental crust with high precision U-Pb rutile and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the eclogite-facies Monte Rosa nappe (MR), western Alps, Italy. U-Pb rutile ages from quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the MR, Gressoney Valley, Italy, indicate that it was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 +/- 0.6 Ma. The sample area (Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz, 2001) consists of eclogite boudins that are surrounded by micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480-570°C, >1.3-1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. Lu-Hf geochronology of garnet from a chloritoid-talc-garnet-phengite-quartz-calcite-pyrite - chalcopyrite bearing boudin within talc-chloritoid whiteschists of the MR, Val d'Ayas, Italy (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Pawlig, 2001) yields an age of 40.54 +/- 0.36 Ma. The talc-chloritoid whiteschists from the area record pressures and temperatures of 1.6-2.4 GPa and 500-530°C (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Le Bayon et al., 2006) indicating near UHP metamorphic conditions. Based on the age, P-T, and textural

  11. Crustal basement controls granitoid magmatism, and implications for generation of continental crust in subduction zones: A Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic study from the Paleozoic Tongbai orogen, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Yang, Jin-Hui; Qin, Zheng-Wei; Duan, Rui-Chun; Zhou, Lian; Yang, Sai-Hong

    2017-06-01

    Ascertaining the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks in subduction zones holds the key for understanding the processes of how continental crust is produced. The synchronous Taoyuan and Huanggang plutons occur in two different geological units of the Paleozoic Tongbai orogen of central China. They provide an optimal opportunity for a study to address the role of the crustal basement in generating voluminous granitoid magmatism in subduction zones. The Taoyuan and Huanggang plutons have identical U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of 440-444 Ma, which are temporally related to northward subduction of the Paleotethyan Ocean. The Taoyuan samples show high SiO2 (73.36-79.16%) and low Al2O3 (12.00-13.45%) contents, Mg numbers (20.6-38.2), and Sr/Y (2.04-10.1) and (La/Yb)N (2.34-7.32) ratios with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.33-0.93). They yielded positive εNd(t) (+ 3.0 to + 6.7) and εHf(t) (+ 11.8 to + 13.2) values, elevated initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.7040-0.7057) and relatively low zircon δ18O values of 4.62-5.39‰. These suggest that they were produced through partial melting of hydrothermally altered lower crust of the accreted Erlangping oceanic arc. In contrast, the Huanggang samples exhibit variable whole-rock geochemical and isotopic compositions with SiO2 contents of 57.01-64.42 wt.%, initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7065-0.7078, and εNd(t) values of - 5.7 to - 9.4. Additionally, they have high zircon δ18O values of 7.57-8.45‰ and strongly negative zircon εHf(t) values of - 14.4 to - 10.5. They were suggested to have been mainly derived from ancient continental crust of the Kuanping crustal unit with the addition of 20-40% juvenile, mantle-derived material. Accordingly, the granitoids in both oceanic and continental arcs are likely to be mainly derived from intracrustal melting of their crustal basement. It is revealed by the Huanggang pluton that little net continental crust growth occurs in continental arcs, and addition of new volume of continental

  12. Implications of Nb/U, Th/U and Sm/Nd in plume magmas for the relationship between continental and oceanic crust formation and the development of the depleted mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian H.

    2002-05-01

    The Nb/U and Th/U of the primitive mantle are 34 and 4.04 respectively, which compare with 9.7 and 3.96 for the continental crust. Extraction of continental crust from the mantle therefore has a profound influence on its Nb/U but little influence on its Th/U. Conversely, extraction of midocean ridge-type basalts lowers the Th/U of the mantle residue but has little influence on its Nb/U. As a consequence, variations in Th/U and Nb/U with Sm/Nd can be used to evaluate the relative importance of continental and basaltic crust extraction in the formation of the depleted (Sm/Nd enriched) mantle reservoir. This study evaluates Nb/U, Th/U, and Sm/Nd variations in suites of komatiites, picrites, and their associated basalts, of various ages, to determine whether basalt and/or continental crust have been extracted from their source region. Emphasis is placed on komatiites and picrites because they formed at high degrees of partial melting and are expected to have Nb/U, Th/U, and Sm/Nd that are essentially the same as the mantle that melted to produce them. The results show that all of the studied suites, with the exception of the Barberton, have had both continental crust and basaltic crust extracted from their mantle source region. The high Sm/Nd of the Gorgona and Munro komatiites require the elevated ratios seen in these suites to be due primarily to extraction of basaltic crust from their source regions, whereas basaltic and continental crust extraction are of subequal importance in the source regions of the Yilgarn and Belingwe komatiites. The Sm/Nd of modern midocean ridge basalts lies above the crustal extraction curve on a plot of Sm/Nd against Nb/U, which requires the upper mantle to have had both basaltic and continental crust extracted from it. It is suggested that the extraction of the basaltic reservoir from the mantle occurs at midocean ridges and that the basaltic crust, together with its complementary depleted mantle residue, is subducted to the core

  13. A prolonged granitoid formation in Saglek Block, Labrador: Zonal growth and crustal reworking of continental crust in the Eoarchean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Komiya

    2017-03-01

    We made a detailed sketch of a small outcrop in St. John's Harbour South (SJHS area, and classified the orthogneisses and mafic enclaves into seven generations based on the geologic occurrence. The first and second generations comprise mafic rocks and lack magmatic zircons. We conducted CL imaging and U-Pb dating of zircons from the third, sixth and seventh generation of the orthogneisses to estimate the protolith ages at 3902 ± 25, 3892 ± 33 and 3897 ± 33 Ma for each, supporting the presence of the over 3.9 Ga Iqaluk Gneiss. The geological occurrence that the mafic rocks occur as enclaves within the 3.9 Ga Iqaluk Gneiss indicates that they are the oldest supracrustal rocks in the world. Our geochronological and geological studies show the Uivak Gneiss is quite varied in lithology and age from 3.6 to >3.9 Ga, and tentatively classified into six groups based on their ages. The oldest Uivak Gneiss components including the Iqaluk Gneiss are present around the SJHS area, and the orthogneisses become young as it is away. The lines of evidence of overprinting of younger granitoid on older granitoid in small outcrops and geological-map scale as well as presence of inherited zircons even in the oldest suite suggests that crustal reworking played an important role on erasing the ancient crusts.

  14. Role of deep-Earth water cycling in the growth and evolution of continental crust: Constraints from Cretaceous magmatism in southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Liang; Li, Wu-Xian; Yang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    The late Mesozoic igneous province in southeast China provides an excellent opportunity to understand the processes that controlled the growth and evolution of Phanerozoic continental crust. Here we report petrological, whole-rock geochemical and isotopic data, and in situ zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic data from granitoids and associated gabbros in the Pingtan and Tong'an complexes, southeast China. Through combining the new results with published datasets in southeast China, we show that the Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks are dominated by juvenile Nd-Hf isotopic compositions, whereas the Late Cretaceous ones display less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotope signatures. Furthermore, Nd-Hf isotope systematics are coupled with decreasing abundance of hydrous minerals and an increase of zircon saturation temperatures. Compiled zircon Hf-O data indicates that the 117-116 Ma granites have zircon δ18O values ranging from mantle values (close to 5.3‰) to as low as 3.9‰, but with dominantly positive initial epsilon Hf (εHf(t)) values. Zircon grains from 105 to 98 Ma rocks have δ18O values plotting within the mantle-like range (6.5‰ - 4.5‰), but mainly with negative εHf(t) values. Zircon grains from ca. 87 Ma rocks have positive εHf(t) values (+ 9.8 to + 0.7) and a large range of δ18O values (6.3‰ - 3.5‰). The variations in Hf-Nd-O isotopic compositions are correlated with decreasing abundance of magma water contents, presenting a case that water-fluxed melting generated large-scale granitic magmatism. Deep-Earth water cycling provides an alternative or additional mechanism to supply volatiles (e.g., H2O) for hydrous basaltic underplating, continental crustal melting, and magmatic differentiation.

  15. Stable isotope distribution in continental Maastrichtian vertebrates from the Haţeg Basin, South Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Csiki, Zoltan; Grigorescu, Dan

    2010-05-01

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of biogenic apatite from crocodiles, turtles and dinosaurs, and their relationship to climate and physiology have been evidenced by several studies (Barrick and Showers, 1995; Kolodny et al., 1996; Barrick et al., 1999; Fricke and Rogers, 2000; Stoskopf et al., 2001; Straight et al., 2004; Amiot et al., 2007). To date, few attempts have been made to correlate the enamel d13C to dietary resources of dinosaurs (Bocherens et al., 1988; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004; Fricke and Pearson, 2008; Fricke, et al., 2008). One additional complication is that for dinosaurs, the d18O of enamel phosphate depends on both body water and variations in body temperature. Several studies addressed the issue of endothermy vs. ectothermy of fossil vertebrates by studying inter- and intra-bone and enamel isotopic variability (Barrick and Showers, 1994, 1995; Barrick et al., 1996; 1998; Fricke and Rogers, 2000). More recent investigations provided evidence for inter-tooth temporal variations and related them to seasonality and/or changes in physiology (Straight et al., 2004; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004). The main objectives of this study are to extract palaeoclimatic information considering, beside lithofacial characteristics and the isotopic distribution of carbonates formed in paleosols, the stable isotope composition of vertebrate remains from the Haţeg Basin. We also sampled several teeth along their growth axis in order to get further information about growth rates and the amplitude of isotopic variation. Located in the South Carpathians in Romania, the Haţeg Basin contains a thick sequence of Maastrichtian continental deposits yielding a rich dinosaur and mammalian fauna. Stable isotope analyses of both calcretes and dinosaur, crocodilian and turtle remains from two localities (Tuştea and Sibişel) were integrated in order to reconstruct environmental conditions during the Maastrichtian time and to gain further insights into the metabolism

  16. Devonian granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves in the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: crust-mantle interaction in a continental arc setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2016-04-01

    Granitoids are a major component in the upper continental crust and hold key information on how did the continental crust grow and differentiate. This study focuses on the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The association of granitoids and mafic enclaves can provide important clues on the source nature, petrogenetic processes and geodynamic setting of the Yaloman intrusive complex, which in turn will shed light on the crustal evolution in the northwestern CAOB. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the granitoids, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, were emplaced in ca. 389-387 Ma. The moderate Na2O + K2O contents and low A/CNK values indicate that these rocks belong to the sub-alkaline series with metaluminous to weakly peraluminous compositions. The granitoids yield two-stage zircon Hf model ages of ca. 0.79-1.07 Ga and whole-rock Nd model ages of ca. 0.90-0.99 Ga, respectively, implying that they were mainly sourced from Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal materials. The mafic enclaves show an almost identical crystallization age of ca. 389 Ma. The identification of coarse-grained xenocrysts and acicular apatites, together with the fine-grained texture, makes us infer that these enclaves are likely to represent magmatic globules commingled with the host magmas. The low SiO2 and high MgO contents of the mafic enclaves further suggest that substantial mantle-derived mafic melts were probably involved in their formation. Importantly, the SiO2 contents of the granitoids and mafic enclaves are well correlated with other major elements and most of the trace elements. Also a broadly negative correlation exists between the SiO2 contents and whole-rock epsilon Nd (390 Ma) values of the granitoids. Given the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases within the granitoids and the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves, we propose that magma mixing probably played an important role in the formation

  17. Petrogenesis of Early Cretaceous dioritic dikes in the Shanyang-Zhashui area, South Qinling, central China: Evidence for partial melting of thickened lower continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Zongqi; Wang, Kunming

    2018-06-01

    The dioritic dikes distributed in the Shanyang-Zhashui area of the South Qinling region play an important role in understanding the deep magmatic processes and tectonic evolution during the orogenic process. The zircon Usbnd Pb ages of the dioritic dikes indicate that they were emplaced at ∼144 Ma and therefore postdate the dikes that formed in the intracontinental orogenic background after the continental collision between the North China Block (NCB) and the South China Block (SCB). The dioritic dikes have SiO2 contents of 56.86-64.93 wt%; K2O contents of 1.65-3.21 wt%; low MgO (1.50-2.66 wt%), Y (14.4-25.5 ppm) and heavy rare earth element (HREE) contents; low Mg# values (39.9-49); high Sr contents (528-4833 ppm); and high Sr/Y ratios (32.8-189). They exhibit highly fractionated REE and flat HREE patterns, strong enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Ba, and U) and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs) (e.g., Nb), as well as positive Sr and negative Ti anomalies. Furthermore, these dioritic dikes exhibit (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios ranging from 0.7048 to 0.7083, εNd(t) values ranging from -3.3 to -1.4, and εHf(t) values ranging from -4.1 to 1.6. The geochemical patterns of the dioritic dikes indicate that they possess adakitic characteristics. Moreover, the low MgO contents, Mg# values, Ni contents, Th/Ce ratios, and Srsbnd Ndsbnd Hf isotopic features all indicate that these dioritic dikes were generated by the partial melting of thickened mafic lower crust. The high La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios, low Y and Yb contents, absence of significant Eu anomalies, flat HREE patterns, and low Nb/Ta ratios of these rocks suggest that the adakitic melts were derived from the melting of garnet-bearing amphibolite. The geochronologic, elemental and isotopic evidence suggests that the dioritic dikes may have formed in a locally extensional environment within an overall N-S compressional setting or during the transition from compressional to extensional

  18. Evolution of supercritical fluid in deeply subducted continental crust: a case study of composite granite-quartz veins in the Sulu belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Wang, L.; Brown, M.

    2016-12-01

    crystallized as the composite veins. Thus, these vein systems provide information critical to understanding the evolution of supercritical fluid during exhumation and the partitioning of elements between hydrous granite and aqueous fluid. These data inform our understanding of crust-mantle interactions in continental subduction zones.

  19. Characterising the continental crust factory: new insights into the roots of an island arc from Hf isotopes in rutile (Kohistan complex, Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tanya; Müntener, Othmar; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    Island arcs are one of the primary sites of generation of new continental crust. As such, a question of fundamental importance to models of continental growth is to what extent island arc magmas are strictly juvenile melts derived directly from the mantle, versus potentially incorporating a significant recycled continental component, for example from subducted sediment. The Kohistan complex (northeastern Pakistan) preserves a remarkably complete ˜50 km thick cross-section through an exhumed Jurassic-Cretaceous island arc. It affords a rare opportunity to study the evolution of island arc magmatism from subduction initiation, through intra-oceanic subduction, to arc-continent collision. In this study, we investigate the ultramafic-mafic Jijal Complex, which preserves part of the plutonic roots of the Kohistan complex formed over ˜20 Ma of intra-oceanic subduction. The Jijal Complex is volumetrically dominated by ultramafic rocks and garnet-bearing gabbros whose petrogenesis is controversial. Garnet formation has variously been attributed a prograde metamorphic origin1, a magmatic origin recording crystallisation at high pressures2,3, or a restitic origin following partial melting4. We have characterised the source of the Jijal Complex using in situ LA-MC-ICPMS determination of the Hf isotope composition of rutile from garnet gabbros, which are zircon-free. This work exploits the superior sensitivity of the Neptune Plus, coupled with an improved analytical protocol, to improve precision of this novel technique and permit in situ analysis of rutile with only ˜10-30 ppm Hf. Rutile occurs included in early-formed minerals such as clinopyroxene and garnet, indicating crystallisation at high pressures and temperatures. Rutile from all samples, collected across ˜3 km of former crustal depth, has indistinguishable Hf isotope compositions close to depleted mantle values. Integrating the new Hf isotope data for rutile with previously published whole rock Nd-Sr isotope

  20. Age and composition of the UHP garnet peridotites in the Dabie orogenic belt (central China) record complex crust-mantle interaction in continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Dabie-Sulu UHP belt was created by the collision between the North and South China cratons in Middle Triassic time (240-225 Ma). There are lots of garnet-bearing ultramafic body occurs as a lens in the belt. Age and composition of the Maowu garnet peridotites in the Dabie orogenic belt are reported. The garnet harzburgites are main moderately refractory (Mg#Ol=92) and minor fertile (Mg#Ol=88) with high Ni (2344-2603 ppm) and low Al2O3 (0.35-0.54 wt.%), CaO (0.76-2.19 wt.%) and TiO2 (˜0.01 wt.%). Zircons in the harzburgites mainly document metamorphism at 230 ± 2 Ma, 275 ± 5 Ma, 357 ± 4 Ma, and complex minor populations of ages including: 1.8 Ga, 1.3 Ga, and Neoproterozic-early Paleozoic ages (901-420 Ma). The early Meszosic and late Paleozoic zircons have similar trace-element patterns and ranges in ɛHf(t) (+0.6 to +3.4), Th/U ratio (0.2-0.7) and Hf depleted-mantle model ages (TDM ) mainly cluster in the interval 1.2-0.9 Ga. In contrast, the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic zircons have negative ɛHf(t) (-24.9 to -2.7) and oldest Hf TDM = 3.4Ga. Zircons of Neoproterozic-early Paleozoic have a wide range of Hf depleted-mantle model ages (2.4-0.7Ga) and ɛHf(t) (-15.3 to +9.5). Above of the all, we suggest that the Maowu garnet harzburgites are interpreted as a fragment of the metasomatized ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the southern margin of the North China Craton. They experienced the Proterozoic thermal event (1.9-1.8Ga), which is coeval with the assembly of the supercontinent Columbia. And then 1.3Ga mantle metasomatism with asthenospheric materials resulted in the final breakup of the Columbia supercontinent. Neoproterozic-early Paleozoic (901-420 Ma), deep parts of the south margin of the craton were metasomatized during the assembly and breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. Then, the southern margin of the craton occurred oceanic crust subduction ( 357 Ma), subsequent continental deep subduction and final continent-continent collision in Triassic.

  1. Molybdenum isotope variations in calc-alkaline lavas from the Banda arc, Indonesia: Assessing the effect of crystal fractionation in creating isotopically heavy continental crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wille, Martin; Nebel, Oliver; Pettke, Thomas; Vroon, Pieter Z.; König, Stephan; Schoenberg, Ronny

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies report a large Mo isotope variability of up to 1‰ (expressed in δ98/95MoNIST3134) in convergent margin lavas. These isotopic variations have been associated with subduction zone processes and ultimately may account for heavy and variable isotope signatures in evolved continental

  2. Major boundaries in the continental mantle lithosphere detected by seismic anisotropy and their role in accumulation of metals in the crust

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, 1/4 (2003), s. 79-83 ISSN 0163-3171 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV205/98/K004; GA ČR GA205/01/1154 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : seismic anisotropy * continental mantle lithosphere * seismic waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  3. Deep continental margin reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  4. Seismic risk control of nuclear power plants using seismic protection systems in stable continental regions: The UK case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medel-Vera, Carlos, E-mail: cbmedel@uc.cl; Ji, Tianjian, E-mail: tianjian.ji@manchester.ac.uk

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Strategies to reduce seismic risk for nuclear power stations in the UK are analysed. • Efficiency of devices to reduce risk: viscous-based higher than hysteretic-based. • Scenario-based incremental dynamic analysis is introduced for use in nuclear stations. • Surfaces of seismic unacceptable performance for nuclear stations are proposed. - Abstract: This article analyses three different strategies on the use of seismic protection systems (SPS) for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the UK. Such strategies are based on the experience reported elsewhere of seismically protected nuclear reactor buildings in other stable continental regions. Analyses are conducted using an example of application based on a 1000 MW Pressurised Water Reactor building located in a representative UK nuclear site. The efficiency of the SPS is probabilistically assessed to achieve possible risk reduction for both rock and soil sites in comparison with conventionally constructed NPPs. Further analyses are conducted to study how the reduction of risk changes when all controlling scenarios of the site are included. This is done by introducing a scenario-based incremental dynamic analysis aimed at the generation of surfaces for unacceptable performance of NPPs as a function of earthquake magnitude (M{sub w}) and distance-to-site (R{sub epi}). General guidelines are proposed to potentially use SPS in future NPPs in the UK. Such recommendations can be used by the British nuclear industry in the future development of 12 new reactors to be built in the next two decades to generate 16 GWe of new nuclear capacity.

  5. Partial delamination of continental mantle lithosphere, uplift-related crust mantle decoupling, volcanism and basin formation: a new model for the Pliocene Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalot-Prat, F.; Girbacea, R.

    2000-11-01

    A geodynamic model is proposed for the Mid-Miocene to Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians in order to explain the relationships between shallow and deep geological phenomena that occurred synchronously during late-collision tectonics. In this area, an active volcanic zone cross-cuts since 2 My the suture between the overriding Tisza-Dacia and subducting European continental plates. Mafic calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas (south Harghita and Persani volcanoes) erupted contemporaneously. These magmas were supplied by partial melting of the mantle lithosphere of the subducting, and not of the overriding, plate. In an effort to decipher this geodynamically a-typical setting of magma generation, the spatial and temporal distribution of shallow and deep phenomena was successively examined in order to establish the degree of their interdependence. Our model indicates that intra-mantle delamination of the subducting European plate is the principal cause of a succession of events. It caused upwelling of the hot asthenosphere below a thinned continental lithosphere of the Carpathians, inducing the uplift of the lithosphere and its internal decoupling at the Moho level by isostatic and mostly thermal effects. During this uplift, the crust deformed flexurally whilst the mantle deformed in a ductile way. This triggered decompressional partial melting of the uppermost mantle lithosphere. Flexural deformation of the crust induced its fracturing, allowing for the rapid ascent of magmas to the surface, as well as reactivation of an older detachment horizon at the base of the Carpathian nappe stack above which the Brasov, Ciuc and Gheorghieni hinterland basins formed by extension and gravity spreading. The rapid subsidence of the Focsani foreland basin is controlled by the load exerted on the lithosphere by the delaminated mantle slab that is still attached to it. In this model, crust-mantle decoupling, magma genesis and volcanism, local near-surface hinterland

  6. Enrichments of the mantle sources beneath the Southern Volcanic Zone (Andes) by fluids and melts derived from abraded upper continental crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Søager, Nina; Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup

    2014-01-01

    Mafic basaltic-andesitic volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) exhibit a northward increase in crustal components in primitive arc magmas from the Central through the Transitional and Northern SVZ segments. New elemental and Sr–Nd-high-precision Pb isotope data from the Quat......Mafic basaltic-andesitic volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) exhibit a northward increase in crustal components in primitive arc magmas from the Central through the Transitional and Northern SVZ segments. New elemental and Sr–Nd-high-precision Pb isotope data from...... mantle by means of subduction erosion in response to the northward increasingly strong coupling of the converging plates. Both types of enrichment had the same Pb isotope composition in the TSVZ with no significant component derived from the subducting oceanic crust. Pb–Sr–Nd isotopes indicate a major...

  7. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic relations and ages of the Brasiliano granitic magmatism of the eastern region of the Dom Feliciano belt in the Rio Grande do Sul State, South region Brazil: evidences of the reworking of a paleoproterozoic continental crust, South region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantz, Jose Carlos; Koester, Edinei; Teixeira, Roberto Santos; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Potrel, Alan

    1999-01-01

    The granitoids belonging to the brasiliano cycle from the eastern region at the Dom Feliciano Belt in the Rio Grande do Sul state have had Rb-Sr data that indicated bodies which were intruded between 800 and 585 Ma. The T DM ages are suggesting the participation of an older source in their generation. This source could be represented by a long period enriched mantle, much than would be expected during the evolution of the magmatic arcs, or could be represented by the interaction between an older continental crust and mantle during a continental collision regime. The tectonic evolution of this area., the existence of a long period of time between the granitic intrusions associated to the tangential regime and to the transpressive regime and to the transpressive regime ones, the isotopic relations between Sr and nd and the very low negative values of ε N dt are suggesting a strong participation of an older continental crust. This older continental crust, may be constituted by gneissic protoliths of paleoproterozoic ages and generated during the evolution of the Transamazonic Cycle, has participated in the formation of the sources of the granitic magmatism of this part of the belt. The variations of the T DM ages and of the Nd ratios in the calc-alkaline granitoids are suggesting different proportions of mixture between and older continental crust and mantle or different homogenization grades in the magmas sources. For the peraluminous granites, that have be resulted from continental crustal melt, there are indications of different sources to the different bodies. (author)

  8. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as ‘cratonization’, is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons.

  9. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as 'cratonization', is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. The majority of magmatic zircons from the main magmatic cycles have Hf isotopic compositions that are generally more evolved than CHUR, forming vertical arrays that extend to moderately radiogenic compositions. Complimentary O isotope data, also show a significant variation in composition. However, combined, these data define not only the source components from which the magmas were derived, but also a range of physio-chemical processes that operated during magma transport and emplacement. These data also identify a previously unknown crustal reservoir in the Capricorn Orogen.

  10. The Lost South Gobi Microcontinent: Protolith Studies of Metamorphic Tectonites and Implications for the Evolution of Continental Crust in Southeastern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Heumann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian Orogenic Belt, or Altaids, is an amalgamation of volcanic arcs and microcontinent blocks that records a complex late Precambrian–Mesozoic accretionary history. Although microcontinents cored by Precambrian basement are proposed to play an integral role in the accretion process, a lack of isotopic data hampers volume estimates of newly produced arc-derived versus old-cratonic crust in southeastern Mongolia. This study investigates metamorphic tectonites in southern Mongolia that have been mapped as Precambrian in age, largely on the basis of their high metamorphic grade and high strain. Here we present results from microstructural analyses and U-Pb zircon geochronology on samples from Tavan Har (44.05° N, 109.55° E and the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex (41.89° N, 104.24° E. Our results show no compelling evidence for Precambrian basement in southeastern Mongolia. Rather, the protoliths to all tectonites examined are Paleozoic–Mesozoic age rocks, formed during Devonian–Carboniferous arc magmatism and subsequent Permian–Triassic orogenesis during collision of the South Mongolia arc with the northern margin of China. These results yield important insights into the Paleozoic accretionary history of southern Mongolia, including the genesis of metamorphic and igneous basement during the Paleozoic, as well as implications for subsequent intracontinental reactivation.

  11. What drives the Tibetan crust to the South East Asia? Role of upper mantle density discontinuities as inferred from the continental geoid anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Himalaya-Tibet orogen formed as a result of the northward convergence of India into the Asia over the past 55 Ma had caused the north south crustal shortening and Cenozoic upliftment of the Tibetan plateau, which significantly affected the tectonic and climatic framework of the Asia. Geodetic measurements have also shown eastward crustal extrusion of Tibet, especially along major east-southeast strike slip faults at a slip rate of 15-20 mm a-1 and around 40 mm a-1. Such continental scale deformations have been modeled as block rotation by fault boundary stresses developed due to the India-Eurasia collision. However, the Thin Sheet model explained the crustal deformation mechanism by considering varying gravitational potential energy arise out of varying crustal thickness of the viscous lithosphere. The Channel Flow model, which also suggests extrusion is a boundary fault guided flow along the shallow crustal brittle-ductile regime. Although many models have proposed, but no consensus in these models to explain the dynamics of measured surface geodetic deformation of the Tibetan plateau. But what remains conspicuous is the origin of driving forces that cause the observed Tibetan crustal flow towards the South East Asia. Is the crustal flow originated only because of the differential stresses that developed in the shallow crustal brittle-ductile regime? Or should the stress transfer to the shallow crustal layers as a result of gravitational potential energy gradient driven upper mantle flow also to be accounted. In this work, I examine the role of latter in the light of depth distribution of continental geoid anomalies beneath the Himalaya-Tibet across major upper mantle density discontinuities. These discontinuity surfaces in the upper mantle are susceptible to hold the plastic deformation that may occur as a result of the density gradient driven flow. The distribution of geoid anomalies across these density discontinuities at 220, 410 and 660 km depth in the

  12. Serpentinization and carbonation of pristine continental ultramafic rocks and applications to the oceanic crust; H2O-CO2 alteration of dunites and re-distribution of Ni-Cu-PGE in sulphide deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Thomas; McEnroe, Suzanne; Eske Sørensen, Bjørn; Larsen, Rune; Pastore, Zeudia; Rune Grannes, Kim; Nikolaisen, Even

    2017-04-01

    Here, we document carbonation and serpentinization within a suite of ultramafic rocks from a continental setting. These ultramafic rocks vary from pristine dunites to varying degrees of serpentinization which locally penetrates the ultramafic complex. Hence, it allows us to observe a number of delicate serpentinization and carbonation reactions, otherwise lost during more extensive alteration or tectonic events. We use a multi-disciplinary approach using petrographic, EPMA, thermodynamic modelling and geophysical data to reveal how the initial stages of serpentization and carbonation in dunites affects the distribution of economic to sub-economic deposits of Ni-Cu and PGE. The data can then be applied to oceanic crust. The samples are dunites and poikilitic wehrlites from the Reinfjord Ultramafic complex, Seiland Igneous Province Northern Norway. The complex formed through crystallization of picritic melts in the lower continental crust. The dunites contain small amounts of interstitial clinopyroxene, sulphides and spinel, with local enrichments in Ni, Cu and PGE. Late magmatic CO2-H2O-S fluids reacted with the dunite forming clots of amphibole + dolomite + sulphides + enstatite, reaction rims of enstatite + dolomite, and inclusions trails of dolomite + enstatite + magnetite + CO2 fluid. Thermodynamic modelling reveals that these textures formed at pressures of >12 kbar and temperatures 850-950 °C, which would be consistent with the late magmatic history of the Reinfjord complex. The clots and reactions have local association with enrichments in gold-rich PGMs. A second stage of alteration involved H2O-dominated fluids. These formed predominantly lizardite serpentinization, as is often concentrated within highly localized fracture zones. Thermodynamic modelling shows that these formed serpentinization interacted with the earlier formed carbonate bearing assemblages leading to the formation of serpentinite, native copper and symplectites of brucite + calcite. The

  13. Petrography and stable isotope geochemistry of Oligocene-Miocene continental carbonates in south Texas: Implications for paleoclimate and paleoenvironment near sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Conan; Fan, Majie; Jesmok, Greg; Upadhyay, Deepshikha; Tripati, Aradhna

    2018-05-01

    Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the southern Texas Gulf Coastal Plains contain abundant continental carbonates that are useful for reconstructing terrestrial paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in a region near sea-level. Our field observations and thin section characterizations of the Oligocene and Miocene continental carbonates in south Texas identified three types of pedogenic carbonates, including rhizoliths, carbonate nodules, and platy horizons, and two types of groundwater carbonates, including carbonate-cemented beds and carbonate concretions, with distinctive macromorphologic and micromorphologic features. Based on preservations of authigenic microfabrics and variations of carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions, we suggest these carbonates experienced minimal diagenesis, and their stable isotopic compositions reflect paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in south Texas. Our Oligocene and Miocene carbonate clumped isotope temperatures (T(Δ47)) are 23-28 °C, slightly less than or comparable to the range of modern mean annual and mean warm season air temperature (21-27 °C) in the study area. These T(Δ47) values do not show any dependency on carbonate-type, or trends through time suggesting that groundwater carbonates were formed at shallow depths. These data could indicate that air temperature in south Texas was relatively stable since the early Oligocene. The reconstructed paleo-surface water δ18O values are similar to modern surface water which could indicate that meteoric water δ18O values also remained stable since the early Oligocene. Mean pedogenic carbonate δ13C values increased - 4.6‰ during the late Miocene, most likely reflecting an expansion of C4 grassland in south Texas. This study provides the first mid- and late Cenozoic continental records of paleoclimate and paleoecology in a low-latitude, near sea-level region.

  14. Constraints on continental crustal mass loss via chemical weathering using lithium and its isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Liu, X. M.

    2012-04-01

    The continental crust has an "intermediate" bulk composition that is distinct from primary melts of peridotitic mantle (basalt or picrite). This mismatch between the "building blocks" and the "edifice" that is the continental crust points to the operation of processes that preferentially remove mafic to ultramafic material from the continents. Such processes include lower crustal recycling (via density foundering or lower crustal subduction - e.g., relamination, Hacker et al., 2011, EPSL), generation of evolved melts via slab melting, and/or chemical weathering. Stable isotope systems point to the influence of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition: the oxygen isotope composition of the bulk crust is distinctly heavier than that of primary, mantle-derived melts (Simon and Lecuyer, 2005, G-cubed) and the Li isotopic composition of the bulk crust is distinctly lighter than that of mantle-derive melts (Teng et al., 2004, GCA; 2008, Chem. Geol.). Both signatures mark the imprint of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition. Here, we use a simple mass balance model for lithium inputs and outputs from the continental crust to quantify the mass lost due to chemical weathering. We find that a minimum of 15%, a maximum of 60%, and a best estimate of ~40% of the original juvenile rock mass may have been lost via chemical weathering. The accumulated percentage of mass loss due to chemical weathering leads to an average global chemical weathering rate (CWR) of ~ 1×10^10 to 2×10^10 t/yr since 3.5 Ga, which is about an order of magnitude higher than the minimum estimates based on modern rivers (Gaillardet et al., 1999, Chem. Geol.). While we cannot constrain the exact portion of crustal mass loss via chemical weathering, given the uncertainties of the calculation, we can demonstrate that the weathering flux is non-zero. Therefore, chemical weathering must play a role in the evolution of the composition and mass of the continental crust.

  15. Fatigue properties for the fracture strength of columnar accessory minerals embedded within metamorphic tectonites: implications for stress magnitude in continental crust at the depth of the brittle-plastic transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, N.; Iwashita, N.; Masuda, T.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction Previous studies have compiled yield-strength profiles of continental lithosphere based on the results of laboratory measurements and numerical calculations; however, yield-strength values remain poorly constrained, especially at depths below the brittle-plastic transition zone. Recent studies by the authors have refined the microboudin technique for estimating palaeostress magnitude in the deep crust (> 10 km depth). This technique has the potential to provide important information on stress levels in the deep continental crust, an environment to which available in situ stress measurements and palaeopiezometric methods cannot be applied. In applying the microboudinage technique, obtaining an estimate of the palaeostress magnitude requires knowledge of the fracture strength of columnar accessory minerals (e.g., tourmaline, amphibole, and epidote) that are subjected to brittle fracturing during plastic deformation of the surrounding matrix minerals. The absolute magnitude of fracture strength is known to show a marked reduction in the case of fatigue fracture. Fatigue fracture falls into two categories: static fatigue and cyclic fatigue. In the field of experimental rock deformation, stress corrosion by water molecules (static fatigue) is commonly invoked as the mechanism of fatigue fracture; however, evidence of both static and cyclic fatigue has been reported from studies of natural geological samples. The present study focused on the fatigue properties of columnar accessory minerals at high temperatures, with the aim of improving the accuracy of estimates of natural palaeostress magnitude at depth in the crust. 2. Constant stress-rate test A constant stress-rate test was performed to determine the influence of static fatigue on the strength of columnar accessory minerals. The test was conducted under three-point bending with a span distance of 10 mm. Temperature conditions and the crosshead speed were set in the ranges of ambient to 600°C, and 0

  16. Anthropogenic origin of salt crusts on sandstone sculptures of Prague's Charles Bridge (Czech Republic): Evidence of mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, R.; Svobodová, J.; Žák, K.; Hradil, David

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2004), s. 609-617 ISSN 0935-1221 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : sandstones * sulphate crusts * XRD study Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2004

  17. Evolution of the Archean continental crust in the nucleus of the Yangtze block: Evidence from geochemistry of 3.0 Ga TTG gneisses in the Kongling high-grade metamorphic terrane, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-Fei; Ling, Wen-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Shan-Song; Jiang, Tuo; Wei, Yun-Xu; Peng, Lian-Hong; Tan, Juan-Juan

    2018-04-01

    Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks are scattered within the Kongling high-grade metamorphic terrane (KHMT) in the northern South China block. A comprehensive geochronological and geochemical study is carried out on the Taoyuan granitic gneisses, a newly recognized TTG suite in the northwestern KHMT. This suite has long been regarded as a Mesoproterozoic magmatic pluton, but U-Pb zircon ages of 2994 ± 22 Ma and 2970 ± 15 Ma are obtained by LA-ICP-MS method in this study. The Taoyuan gneiss suite is trondhjemitic in composition, and has high SiO2 (67.80-74.93 wt.%), Na2O (5.11-5.81 wt.%) contents with Na2O/K2O ratios greater than unity, and low Ni (2.56-7.61 ppm), Cr (1.26-7.67 ppm), Yb (0.32-0.82 ppm) and Y (4.48-11.5 ppm) contents. Plots show large variation in La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios and pronounced depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti in the primitive mantle-normalized spiderdiagram. The gneiss suite also displays two-stage Nd model ages close to its crystallization age with corresponding εNd(t) values of -2.5 to +3.5. It is thus suggested that the Taoyuan gneisses, in fact, is part of the Archean Kongling basement complex. Geochemical evidence implies that the TTG rocks may be derived from partial melting of subducted oceanic crust from a garnetiferous amphibolite source with residual assemblage of garnet + amphibole + plagioclase. Our study further indicates that the nucleus of the Yangtze block might experience a juvenile continental crustal growth during Mesoarchean. We also suggest that the Yangtze block may have its own crustal evolutionary history independent from the North China craton and the Tarim block before Paleoproterozoic.

  18. Trace element characteristics of mafic and ultramafic meta-igneous rocks from the 3.5 Ga. Warrawoona group: evidence for plume-lithosphere interaction beneath Archaean continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolhar, R.; Hergt, J.; Woodhead, J.

    1999-01-01

    compositionally similar volcanic greenstones in the Superior Province (Canada). However, this concept is problematic for two reasons: (1) Modern oceanic crust is typically associated with overlying terrigenous/ pelagic sediments, both of which are introduced into the mantle via subduction. Mixing with mantle and subsequent partial melting invariably produces compositions with HFSE depletion and LREE enrichment at low to moderate degrees of melting. (2) Mixing of subduction-modified lithosphere into the mantle followed by melting should be detectable in volcanic rocks with strong depletions in elements such as Nb and Ti, but increased abundances in the LILE and LREE (La/Sm pm >> 1). Compositionally, the Warrawoona meta-igneous rocks resemble compositions found in modern oceanic plateaus (e.g. Broken Ridge) which incorporated variable amounts of continental lithospheric mantle (CLM). Variability in trace element ratios (e.g. Nb/Ta, Ce/Pb, and Nb/U) may reflect source heterogeneity or the coexistence of tectonically accreted oceanic fragments with differing petrogenetic histories. However, well-defined co-variations in major and trace elements of samples from all three major stratigraphic units point to a common magmatic origin. In an attempt to link Archaean rocks to present day analogues, we conclude that the spatial association of ultramafic and mafic volcanics and crustally contaminated high-Mg, Fe rocks most resembles melting of a plume head with incorporation of CLM-components and volcanic outpouring within a (rifted?) continental environment. Support for the existence of pre-existing continental crust comes from published studies which report on xenocrystic zircons in basalts, underlying granitoids and sediments of pre-Warrawoona age and mafic inclusions within granitoid bodies. Temporal decreases in La/Sm pm and Nb/Th pm ratios, along with unfractionated HREE may be interpreted as adiabatic upwelling of plume material and a decreasing influence of the lithospheric component

  19. Patterns in stable isotope values of nitrogen and carbon in particulate matter from the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn Oczkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope measurements of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N, δ13C are often used to characterize estuarine, nearshore, and open ocean ecosystems. Reliable information about the spatial distribution of base-level stable isotope values, often represented by primary producers, is critical to interpreting values in these ecosystems. While base-level isotope data are generally readily available for estuaries, nearshore coastal waters, and the open ocean, the continental shelf is less studied. To address this, and as a first step towards developing a surrogate for base-level isotopic signature in this region, we collected surface and deep water samples from the United States’ eastern continental shelf in the Western Atlantic Ocean, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, periodically between 2000 and 2013. During the study, particulate matter δ15N values ranged from 0.8 to 17.4 ‰, and δ13C values from -26.4 to -15.6 ‰ over the region. We used spatial autocorrelation analysis and random forest modeling to examine the spatial trends and potential environmental drivers of the stable isotope values. We observed general trends towards lower values for both nitrogen and carbon isotopes at the seaward edge of the shelf. Conversely, higher δ15N and δ13C values were observed on the landward edge of the shelf, in particular in the southern portion of the sampling area. Across all sites, the magnitude of the difference between the δ15N of subsurface and surface particulate matter (PM significantly increased with water depth (r2 = 0.41, df = 35, p < 0.001, while δ13C values did not change. There were significant positive correlation between δ15N and δ13C values for surface PM in each of the three marine ecoregions that make up the study area. Stable isotope dynamics on the shelf can inform both nearshore and open ocean research efforts, reflecting regional productivity patterns and, even possibly, large-scale climate fluctuations.

  20. Continental growth and mantle hydration as intertwined feedback cycles in the thermal evolution of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, Dennis; Spohn, Tilman

    2016-06-01

    A model of Earth's continental coverage and mantle water budget is discussed along with its thermal evolution. The model links a thermal evolution model based on parameterized mantle convection with a model of a generic subduction zone that includes the oceanic crust and a sedimentary layer as carriers of water. Part of the subducted water is used to produce continental crust while the remainder is subducted into the mantle. The total length of the subduction zones is calculated from the total surface area of continental crust assuming randomly distributed continents. The mantle viscosity is dependent of temperature and the water concentration. Sediments are generated by continental crust erosion, and water outgassing at mid-oceanic ridges closes the water cycle. We discuss the strongly coupled, non-linear model using a phase plane defined by the continental coverage and mantle water concentration. Fixed points are found in the phase plane at which the rates of change of both variables are zero. These fixed points evolve with time, but in many cases, three fixed points emerge of which two are stable and an intermediate point is unstable with respect to continental coverage. With initial conditions from a Monte-Carlo scheme we calculate evolution paths in the phase plane and find a large spread of final states that all have a mostly balanced water budget. The present day observed 40% continental surface coverage is found near the unstable fixed point. Our evolution model suggests that Earth's continental coverage formed early and has been stable for at least 1.5 Gyr. The effect of mantle water regassing (and mantle viscosity depending on water concentration) is found to lower the present day mantle temperature by about 120 K, but the present day mantle viscosity is affected little. The water cycle thus complements the well-known thermostat effect of viscosity and mantle temperature. Our results further suggest that the biosphere could impact the feedback cycles by

  1. The behavior of iron and zinc stable isotopes accompanying the subduction of mafic oceanic crust: A case study from Western Alpine ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Edward C.; Debret, Baptiste; Burton, Kevin W.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Pons, Marie-Laure; Dale, Christopher W.; Bouilhol, Pierre; Cooper, Matthew; Nowell, Geoff M.; McCoy-West, Alex J.; Williams, Helen M.

    2017-07-01

    Arc lavas display elevated Fe3+/ΣFe ratios relative to MORB. One mechanism to explain this is the mobilization and transfer of oxidized or oxidizing components from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge. Here we use iron and zinc isotopes, which are fractionated upon complexation by sulfide, chloride, and carbonate ligands, to remark on the chemistry and oxidation state of fluids released during prograde metamorphism of subducted oceanic crust. We present data for metagabbros and metabasalts from the Chenaillet massif, Queyras complex, and the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite (Western European Alps), which have been metamorphosed at typical subduction zone P-T conditions and preserve their prograde metamorphic history. There is no systematic, detectable fractionation of either Fe or Zn isotopes across metamorphic facies, rather the isotope composition of the eclogites overlaps with published data for MORB. The lack of resolvable Fe isotope fractionation with increasing prograde metamorphism likely reflects the mass balance of the system, and in this scenario Fe mobility is not traceable with Fe isotopes. Given that Zn isotopes are fractionated by S-bearing and C-bearing fluids, this suggests that relatively small amounts of Zn are mobilized from the mafic lithologies in within these types of dehydration fluids. Conversely, metagabbros from the Queyras that are in proximity to metasediments display a significant Fe isotope fractionation. The covariation of δ56Fe of these samples with selected fluid mobile elements suggests the infiltration of sediment derived fluids with an isotopically light signature during subduction.

  2. Continental basinal origin of ore fluids from southwestern Massif central fluorite veins (Albigeois, France): evidence from fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M.; Boyce, A.J.; Courjault-Rade, P.; Fallick, A.E.; Tollon, F.

    1999-01-01

    The most important fluorspar mining district in France is located in the Palaeozoic basement of the Albigeois in southwestern French Massif Central. The massive fluorite is hosted within large E-W striking fractures, crosscutting Cambro-Ordovician clastics, associated with large zones of hypersilicified tectonic breccia which form the wall of the mined deposits. Fluid inclusion data for pre-fluorite and fluorite stage fluids have salinities between 20-26 wt% NaCl equiv., with homogenisation temperatures between 85-170C. Furthermore, low first ice melting temperatures (around -50C) indicates the presence of significant CaCl 2 and possibly MgCl 2 together with NaCl. Calculated fluid δ 18 O for pre-fluorite quartz ranges from -9.1per thousand to -5.2per thousand, with δD between -55per thousand to -64per thousand, placing the data directly on the present day meteoric water line. Fluorite stage fluids have δ 18 O between +0.1per thousand to +3.2per thousand, and δD ranging from -53per thousand to -75per thousand, indicating an interacted meteoric fluid origin. Combining the fluid inclusion and stable isotope data illustrates that the main fluorite depositing fluid has characteristics typical of a basinal brine. The authors have no evidence that a magmatic system was involved in the deposit genesis. The proposed model highlights that mineralisation was related to major Mesozoic extensional events coinciding with the gradual opening of the Atlantic and Tethys oceans. In order to account for the chemistry of the fluids, and the siting of the deposits, the authors postulate a genetic relationship with local, continental, evaporite-bearing basins coincident with, and controlled by the E-W fractures. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Thermal models pertaining to continental growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, P.; Ashwal, L.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal models are important to understanding continental growth as the genesis, stabilization, and possible recycling of continental crust are closely related to the tectonic processes of the earth which are driven primarily by heat. The thermal energy budget of the earth was slowly decreasing since core formation, and thus the energy driving the terrestrial tectonic engine was decreasing. This fundamental observation was used to develop a logic tree defining the options for continental growth throughout earth history

  4. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of fine mode aerosols (PM2.5 over the Bay of Bengal: impact of continental sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Bikkina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on stable carbon (δ13CTC and nitrogen (δ15NTN isotopic composition of total carbon and nitrogen (TC and TN in the fine mode aerosols (PM2.5; N=31 collected over the Bay of Bengal (BoB. The samples represent two distinct wind regimes during the cruise (27 December 2008–28 January 2009; one from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (referred as IGP-outflow and another from Southeast Asia (SEA-outflow. The PM2.5 samples from the IGP-outflow show higher δ13CTC (−25.0 to −22.8 ‰; −23.8±0.6 ‰ than those from the SEA-outflow (−27.4 to −24.7 ‰; −25.3±0.9 ‰. Similarly, δ15NTN varied from +11.8 to +30.6 ‰ (+20.4±5.4 ‰ and +10.4 to +31.7 ‰ (+19.4±6.1 ‰ for IGP- and SEA-outflows, respectively. Based on the literature data, MODIS-derived fire hotspots and back trajectories, we infer that higher δ13CTC in the IGP-outflow is predominantly associated with fossil fuel and biofuel combustion. In contrast, contribution of primary organic aerosols from the combustion of C3 plants or secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from biomass/biofuel-burning emissions (BBEs can explain the lower δ13CTC values in the SEA-outflow. This inference is based on the significant linear correlations among δ13CTC, water-soluble organic carbon and non-sea-salt potassium (nss-K+, a proxy for BBEs in the SEA-outflow. A significant linear relationship of δ15N with and equivalent mass ratio of / is evident in both the continental outflows. Since abundance dominates the TN over the BoB (>90 %, atmospheric processes affecting its concentration in fine mode aerosols can explain the observed large variability of δ15NTN.

  5. Radiogenic isotopes: the case for crustal recycling on a near-steady-state no-continental-growth Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The proposition that continental crust is recycled into the mantle and that the Earth is in a near-steady state with essentially constant volumes of oceans and crust through geological time is defended. Constancy of continental freeboard and uniformity of thickness of stable continental crust with age are the only two quantitative measures of crustal volume through time and these imply negligible crustal growth since 2.9 Ga B.P. Planetary analogies, Pb isotopes, atmospheric evolution, and palaeomagnetism also argue for early terrestrial differentiation. Rates of crustal growth and recycling are sufficient to reach a near-steady state over the first 1 Ga of Earth history, before widespread cratonization. Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of igneous rocks from the mantle are explainable in terms of a near-steady-state model. The recycling process can be observed on the Earth today. The observed escape of primordial 3 He from the mantle is not evidence for continuing continental differentiation or against early differentiation of the Earth. Even if nearly complete equilibrium chemical differentiation occurred at 4.6 Ga B.P., some 3 He would remain dissolved in the interior and would escape as recycling continued. (U.K.)

  6. Oceanic-type accretion may begin before complete continental break-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, L.; Zalan, P. V.; Viana, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanic accretion is thought to be the process of oceanic crust (and lithosphere) edification through adiabatic melting of shallow convecting mantle at oceanic spreading ridges. It is usually considered as a post-breakup diagnostic process following continents rupturing. However, this is not always correct. The structure of volcanic passive margins (representing more than 50% of passive continental margins) outlines that the continental lithosphere is progressively changed into oceanic-type lithosphere during the stage of continental extension. This is clear at least, at crustal level. The continental crust is 'changed' from the earliest stages of extension into a typical -however thicker- oceanic crust with the typical oceanic magmatic layers (from top to bottom: lava flows/tuffs, sheeted dyke complexes, dominantly (sill-like) mafic intrusions in the lower crust). The Q-rich continental crust is highly extended and increases in volume (due to the magma) during the extensional process. At the continent-ocean transition there is, finally, no seismic difference between this highly transformed continental crust and the oceanic crust. Using a large range of data (including deep seismic reflection profiles), we discuss the mantle mechanisms that governs the process of mantle-assisted continental extension. We outline the large similarity between those mantle processes and those acting at purely-oceanic spreading axis and discuss the effects of the inherited continental lithosphere in the pattern of new mafic crust edification.

  7. Moho and magmatic underplating in continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina M.

    2013-01-01

    interacts with the surrounding crustal rocks which leads to smearing of geophysical signals from the underplated material. In terms of processes, there is no direct discriminator between the traditional concept of underplated material and lower crustal magmatic intrusions in the form of batholiths and sill......Underplating was originally proposed as the process of magma ponding at the base of the crust and was inferred from petrologic considerations. This process not only may add high density material to the deep crust, but also may contribute low density material to the upper parts of the crust by magma...... fractionation during cooling and solidification in the lower crust. Separation of the low density material from the high-density residue may be a main process of formation of continental crust with its characteristic low average density, also during the early evolution of the Earth. Despite the assumed...

  8. Molybdenum Cycling During Crust Formation and Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, A. T.; Rudnick, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum geochemistry has become an important tool for tracking the redox state of the early atmosphere and oceans as well as the emergence and sustainability of Mo-cofactored enzymes. However, in order for Mo to be enriched in the oceans, it must first be weathered out of the crust. Sulfides that weather in the presence of atmospheric O2have historically been deemed the predominant crustal source of Mo. Here, we test this assumption by determining the mineralogical hosts of Mo in Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic upper crustal rocks, using LA-ICP-MS. We also investigate Mo behavior during igneous differentiation and continental crust formation. We find that molybdenite, MoS2, is a weatherable sulfide source of Mo, but common igneous sulfides are not because their Mo concentrations are too low. However, molybdenite is uncommon in the upper continental crust. By contrast, volcanic glass is much more abundant and is a significant weatherable source of Mo that readily breaks down to release oxidized, soluble Mo whether or not atmospheric O2is present. Other common crustal mineral hosts of Mo are Ti-bearing phases like titanite, ilmenite, magnetite, and rutile that are resistant to weathering. Significant Mo depletion (relative to Ce and Pr) is observed in nearly every granitic rock analyzed in our study, but is not observed in OIB or MORB (Jenner and O'Neill, 2012). There are two possible reasons for this: 1) Mo is removed from cooling plutons during fluid expulsion, or 2) Mo is fractionated during igneous differentiation. The first scenario is a likely explanation given the solubility of oxidized Mo. However, correlations between Mo/Ce and Nb/La in several plutonic suites suggest a fractionating phase like rutile may sequester Mo in the lower crust. Additionally, a correlation between Mo/Ce and inferred tectonic setting (enrichments observed in rift-related plutons) suggest an overall tectonic influence on the availability of Mo in the upper crust.

  9. Petrologic evolution of Miocene-Pliocene mafic volcanism in the Kangal and Gürün basins (Sivas-Malatya), central east Anatolia: Evidence for Miocene anorogenic magmas contaminated by continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaarslan, Ayça; Ersoy, E. Yalçın

    2018-06-01

    in the region was derived from subduction-modified mantle sources in response to subduction of the Arabian Plate under the Anatolian Plate. This hypothesis further implies that either delamination of the sub-continental lithosphere or slab break-off processes beneath the central to eastern Anatolia might took place well before the Miocene, thus allowing upwelling unaltered mantle to provide the source of the Miocene to Pliocene volcanic rocks.

  10. Crust-mantle contribution to Andean magmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J; Hildreth, W; Chesley, J

    2001-01-01

    There has long been great interest in quantifying the contributions of the continental crust to continental arc magmas, such as those of the Andes using osmium isotopes (Alves et al., 1999; Borg et al., 2000; Brandon et al., 1996; McInnes et al., 1999). In general, Andean volcanic rocks of all compositions show relatively low Sr-isotope ratios and positive to mildly negative epsilon Nd values. Nonetheless, in the Southern Volcanic Zone of central Chile, basalt-andesite-dacite volcanoes along the Quaternary volcanic front were shown (by Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988) to have latitudinally systematic chemical variations, as well as a monotonic increase in 87Sr/Sr86 from ca. 0.7035 to 0.7055 and a decrease in epsilon Nd values from ca. +3 to -1. The isotopic variations correlate with basement elevation of the volcanic edifices and with Bouguer gravity anomalies, both of which are thought to reflect along-arc variations in thickness and average age of the underlying crust. Volcanoes with the most evolved isotopic signatures were fed through the thickest crust. Correlation of chemical and isotopic variations with crustal thickness was interpreted to be caused by Melting (of deep-crustal host rocks), Assimilation, Storage, and Homogenization (MASH) of mantle-derived magmas in long-lived lower-crustal reservoirs beneath each center prior to eruption. We have now determined Os-isotope ratios for a sample suite from these volcanoes (33-36 S lat.), representing a range of crustal thickness from ca. 60-35 km. The samples range in MgO from ca. 8-4% and in SiO2 from 51-57%. The most evolved eruptive products occur above the thickest crust and have 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7054 and epsilon Nd values of -1.5. The 187Os/188Os ratios correlate with the other isotopic systems and with crustal thickness. Volcanoes on the thinnest crust have 187Os/188Os ratios of 0.18-0.21. Those on the thickest crust have 187Os/188Os ratios as high as 0.64. All the Os values are much too radiogenic to

  11. Eocene deep crust at Ama Drime, Tibet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellett, Dawn; Cottle, John; Smit, Matthijs Arjen

    2014-01-01

    Granulitized eclogite-facies rocks exposed in the Ama Drime Massif, south Tibet, were dated by Lu-Hf garnet geochronology. Garnet from the three samples analyzed yielded Lu-Hf ages of 37.5 ± 0.8 Ma, 36.0 ± 1.9 Ma, and 33.9 ± 0.8 Ma. Eclogitic garnet growth is estimated at ca. 38 Ma, the oldest age...... burial and exhumation of a cold subducted slab. The rocks instead resulted from crustal thickening during the early stages of continental collision, and resided in the lower-middle crust for >20 m.y. before they were exhumed and reheated. These new data provide solid evidence for the Indian crust having...

  12. Moho vs crust-mantle boundary: Evolution of an idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Griffin, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    The concept that the Mohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho) does not necessarily coincide with the base of the continental crust as defined by rock-type compositions was introduced in the early 1980s. This had an important impact on understanding the nature of the crust-mantle boundary using information from seismology and from deep-seated samples brought to the surface as xenoliths in magmas, or as tectonic terranes. The use of empirically-constrained P-T estimates to plot the locus of temperature vs depth for xenoliths defined a variety of geotherms depending on tectonic environment. The xenolith geotherms provided a framework for constructing lithological sections through the deep lithosphere, and revealed that the crust-mantle boundary in off-craton regions commonly is transitional over a depth range of about 5-20 km. Early seismic-reflection data showed common layering near the Moho, correlating with the petrological observation of multiple episodes of basaltic intrusion around the crust-mantle boundary. Developments in seismology, petrophysics and experimental petrology have refined interpretation of lithospheric domains. The expansion of in situ geochronology (especially zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-isotopes; Os isotopes of mantle sulfides) has defined tectonic events that affected whole crust-mantle sections, and revealed that the crust-mantle boundary can change in depth through time. However, the nature of the crust-mantle boundary in cratonic regions remains enigmatic, mainly due to lack of key xenoliths or exposed sections. The observation that the Moho may lie significantly deeper than the crust-mantle boundary has important implications for modeling the volume of the crust. Mapping the crust using seismic techniques alone, without consideration of the petrological problems, may lead to an overestimation of crustal thickness by 15-30%. This will propagate to large uncertainties in the calculation of elemental mass balances relevant to crust-formation processes

  13. Biological Soil Crust Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    www.soilcrust.org Crust 101 Advanced Gallery References CCERS site Links Biological Soil Crusts Textbook Corrections Level of Development Index Biological soil crusts are the community of organisms , mosses, liverworts and lichens. A Field Guide to Biological Soil Crusts of Western U.S. Drylands: Common

  14. Crustal Stretching Style and Lower Crust Flow of the South China Sea Northern Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Dong, D.; Runlin, D.

    2017-12-01

    There is a controversy about crustal stretching style of the South China Sea (SCS) northern margin mainly due to considerable uncertainty of stretching factor estimation, for example, as much as 40% of upper crust extension (Walsh et al., 1991) would be lost by seismic profiles due to poor resolution. To discover and understand crustal stretching style and lower crustal flow on the whole, we map the Moho and Conrad geometries based on gravity inversion constrained by deep seismic profiles, then according to the assumption of upper and lower crust initial thickness, upper and lower crust stretching factors are estimated. According to the comparison between upper and lower crust stretching factors, the SCS northern margin could be segmented into three parts, (1) sediment basins where upper crust is stretched more than lower crust, (2) COT regions where lower crust is stretched more than upper crust, (3) other regions where the two layers have similar stretching factors. Stretching factor map shows that lower crust flow happened in both of COT and sediment basin regions where upper crust decouples with lower crust due to high temperature. Pressure contrast by sediment loading in basins and erosion in sediment-source regions will lead to lower crust flow away from sediment sink to source. Decoupled and fractured upper crust is stretched further by sediment loading and the following compensation would result in relatively thick lower crust than upper crust. In COT regions with thin sediment coverage, low-viscosity lower crust is easier to thin in extensional environment, also the lower crust tends to flow away induced by magma upwelling. Therefore, continental crust on the margin is not stretching in a constant way but varies with the tectonic setting changes. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41506055, 41476042) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities China (No.17CX02003A).

  15. Corium crust strength measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov; Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: farmer@anl.gov

    2009-11-15

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  16. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Jaupart, C.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1985-01-01

    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  17. The Mafic Lower Crust of Neoproterozoic age beneath Western Arabia: Implications for Understanding African Lower Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Mooney, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    We review evidence that the lower crust of Arabia - and by implication, that beneath much of Africa was formed at the same time as the upper crust, rather than being a product of Cenozoic magmatic underplating. Arabia is a recent orphan of Africa, separated by opening of the Red Sea ~20 Ma, so our understanding of its lower crust provides insights into that of Africa. Arabian Shield (exposed in W. Arabia) is mostly Neoproterozoic (880-540 Ma) reflecting a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth due to amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs welded together by granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Seismic refraction studies of SW Arabia (Mooney et al., 1985) reveal two layers, each ~20 km thick, separated by a well-defined Conrad discontinuity. The upper crust has average Vp ~6.3 km/sec whereas the lower crust has average Vp ~7.0 km/sec, corresponding to a granitic upper crust and gabbroic lower crust. Neogene (<30 ma) lava fields in Arabia (harrats) extend over 2500 km, from Yemen to Syria. Many of these lavas contain xenoliths, providing a remarkable glimpse of the lower-crustal and upper-mantle lithosphere beneath W. Arabia. Lower crustal xenoliths brought up in 8 harrats in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria are mostly 2-pyroxene granulites of igneous (gabbroic, anorthositic, and dioritic) origin. They contain plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene, and a few contain garnet and rare amphibole and yield mineral-equilibrium temperatures of 700-900°C. Pyroxene-rich and plagioclase-rich suites have mean Al2O3 contents of 13% and 19%, respectively: otherwise the two groups have similar elemental compositions, with ~50% SiO2 and ~1% TiO2, with low K2O (<0.5%) and Na2O (1-3%). Both groups show tholeiitic affinities, unrelated to their alkali basalt hosts. Mean pyroxene-rich and plagioclase-rich suites show distinct mean MgO contents (11% vs. 7%), Mg# (67 vs. 55), and contents of compatible elements Ni (169 vs. 66 ppm

  18. Intra-annual variability of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in suspended organic matter in waters of the western continental shelf of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Maya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-annual variations of δ13C and δ15N of water-column suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM have been investigated to understand the biogeochemical cycling of C and N in the Western Continental Shelf of India (WCSI. The key issues being addressed are: how the δ15N of SPOM is affected by seasonally varying processes of organic matter production and respiration and how it relates to the δ15N of sedimentary organic matter that appears to show a decreasing trend despite an apparent intensification of seasonal oxygen deficiency over the past few decades? A secondary objective was to evaluate the sources of organic carbon. Elemental carbon and nitrogen concentrations, C/N ratios in SPOM, along with ancillary chemical and biological variables including phytoplankton pigment abundance were also determined on a seasonal basis (from March 2007 to September 2008, with the partial exception of the southwest (SW monsoon period. The results reveal significant shifts in isotopic signatures, especially δ15N, of SPOM before and after the onset of SW monsoon. Very low δ15N values, reaching a minimum of −4.17 ‰, are found during the pre-monsoon period. Our results provide the first direct evidence for the addition of substantial amounts of isotopically light nitrogen by the diazotrophs, especially Trichodesmium, in the region. The δ15N of SPOM is generally lower than the mean value (7.38 ‰ for surficial sediments, presumably because of diagenetic enrichment. The results support the view that sedimentary δ15N may not necessarily reflect denitrification intensity in the overlying waters due to diverse sources of nitrogen and variability of its isotopic composition. The observed intra-annual variability of δ13C of SPOM during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods is generally small. Phytoplankton production and probably species

  19. Precambrian continental crustal evolution of Southeastern Sao Paulo state - Brazil: based on isotopic evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The isotopic studies on granitic intrusions, orthogneissic rocks and migmatitic terranes in the Southeastern Sao Paulo are presented, indicating the age and the geochemical nature of the continental crust of this area. Approximately 300 Ar, Sr and Pb isotopic age determinations are included in this paper, categorized as to their reliability and significance. Looking for the continental crust growth related to the geological time, at the end of the lower Proterozoic, at least 85% of the continental crust has already accreted and differentiated. (C.G.C.)

  20. Water-fluxed melting of the continental crust: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinberg, R. F.; Hasalová, Pavlína

    212-215, January (2015), s. 158-188 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : aqueous fluids * crustal anatexis * granites * silicate melts * water-fluxed melting Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2015

  1. Tracking the thermal properties of the lower continental crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, Labani; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Förster, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bulk thermal conductivity (TC) of 26 rock samples representing different types of granulite-facies rocks, i.e., felsic, intermediate and mafic granulites, from the Southern Granulite Province, India, is measured at dry and saturated conditions with the optical-scanning method. ...

  2. Thermochemical structure of the Earth's mantle and continental crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerri, Mattia

    A detailed knowledge of the Earth's thermal structure and chemical composition is fundamental in order to understand the processes driving the planet ormation and evolution. The inaccessibility of most of the Earth's interior makes the determination of its thermo-chemical conditions a challenging...

  3. Natural Pu-traces within the continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, M.; Barth, H.; Fuest, M.; Molzahn, D.; Brandt, R.

    1991-01-01

    Pu-traces are observed in the environmental all over the world, 'man made'-Pu as well as 'natural' Pu ( 239 Pu). 239 Pu occurs within a range of about 10 -12 g Pu/g sample in pitchblende. In the FRG, the deep-drilling project 'KTB, Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm', was started with the aim to obtain a very deep hole (14 km). We wanted to establish upper concentration limits for plutonium in samples from KTB. For a first investigation, we obtained a 400 g sample of granite from a pre-drill of KTB. Its Pu-concentration was ≤ (4.5 ± 2.5)x10 -16 g 239 Pu/g sample. To compare this result to the Pu-content in geological brines, we obtained a sample from a borehole at the Salton Sea Geothermal field (Southeastern California). In this sample we found an upper concentration limit of (2.1 ± 1.0)x10 -16 g 239 Pu/g sample. (orig.)

  4. Continental Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  5. The continental lithosphere: a geochemical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkesworth, C.J.; Person, G.; Turner, S.P.; Calsteren, P. Van; Gallagher, K.

    1993-01-01

    The lithosphere is the cool strong outler layer of the Earth that is effectively a boundary layer to the convecting interior. The evidence from mantle xenoliths and continental basalts is that the lower continental crust and uppermost mantle are different beneath Archaen and proterozoic areas. Mantle xenoliths from Archaen terrains, principally the Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa, are significantly depleted in Fe and other major elements which are concentrated in basalts. Nd and Os isotope data on inclusions in diamonds and peridoties respectively, indicate that such mantle is as old as the overlying Archaen crust. Since it appears to have been coupled to the overlying crust, and to have been isolated from the homogenising effects of convection for long periods of time, it is inferred to be within the continental lithosphere. The mantle lithosphere beneath Proterozoic and younger areas is less depleted in major elements, and so it is more fertile, less buoyant, and therefore thinner, than the Archaen mantle lithosphere. (author). 136 refs, 14 figs

  6. Continental divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The historical precedents to the idea of continent-wide diversion of water in North America are reviewed, starting from early perceptions of continental drainage and the era of canal building that reached its peak in the mid-1800s. The attitude that natural landscapes can be rearranged to suit human needs has persisted from that era with the proposal for continent-wide water diversion megaprojects, many involving the movement of water from Canada to the southwestern USA. Over 50 water diversions exist in Canada, with a total diverted flow of 4,400 m 3 /s. The density of interconnected and almost-connected lakes and rivers has favored such diversions. Of these diversions, 95% of their storage capacity and 96% of their flow is for hydroelectric power generation. The number of diversions in the USA is similar but water volumes are only a sixth of those in Canada, and the water is mainly used for irrigation or water supply. Experience in both countries shows that diversions are contained by political boundaries. No large-scale diversion of fresh water across the international boundary has received any government support, and no significant change in this policy is anticipated. In the water-short areas of the USA, conservation and reallocation of water resources are receiving priority. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Considering bioactivity in modelling continental growth and the Earth's evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2013-09-01

    The complexity of planetary evolution increases with the number of interacting reservoirs. On Earth, even the biosphere is speculated to interact with the interior. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. Through plate tectonics, the surface biosphere can impact deep subduction zone processes and the interior of the Earth. Subducted sediments are particularly important, because they influence the Earth's interior in several ways, and in turn are strongly influenced by the Earth's biosphere. In our model, we use the assumption that a thick sedimentary layer of low permeability on top of the subducting oceanic crust, caused by a biologically enhanced weathering rate, can suppress shallow dewatering. This in turn leads to greater vailability of water in the source region of andesitic partial melt, resulting in an enhanced rate of continental production and regassing rate into the mantle. Our model includes (i) mantle convection, (ii) continental erosion and production, and (iii) mantle water degassing at mid-ocean ridges and regassing at subduction zones. The mantle viscosity of our model depends on (i) the mantle water concentration and (ii) the mantle temperature, whose time dependency is given by radioactive decay of isotopes in the Earth's mantle. Boundary layer theory yields the speed of convection and the water outgassing rate of the Earth's mantle. Our results indicate that present day values of continental surface area and water content of the Earth's mantle represent an attractor in a phase plane spanned by both parameters. We show that the biologic enhancement of the continental erosion rate is important for the system to reach this fixed point. An abiotic Earth tends to reach an alternative stable fixed point with a smaller

  8. A Thermal Evolution Model of the Earth Including the Biosphere, Continental Growth and Mantle Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2014-12-01

    By harvesting solar energy and converting it to chemical energy, photosynthetic life plays an important role in the energy budget of Earth [2]. This leads to alterations of chemical reservoirs eventually affecting the Earth's interior [4]. It further has been speculated [3] that the formation of continents may be a consequence of the evolution life. A steady state model [1] suggests that the Earth without its biosphere would evolve to a steady state with a smaller continent coverage and a dryer mantle than is observed today. We present a model including (i) parameterized thermal evolution, (ii) continental growth and destruction, and (iii) mantle water regassing and outgassing. The biosphere enhances the production rate of sediments which eventually are subducted. These sediments are assumed to (i) carry water to depth bound in stable mineral phases and (ii) have the potential to suppress shallow dewatering of the underlying sediments and crust due to their low permeability. We run a Monte Carlo simulation for various initial conditions and treat all those parameter combinations as success which result in the fraction of continental crust coverage observed for present day Earth. Finally, we simulate the evolution of an abiotic Earth using the same set of parameters but a reduced rate of continental weathering and erosion. Our results suggest that the origin and evolution of life could have stabilized the large continental surface area of the Earth and its wet mantle, leading to the relatively low mantle viscosity we observe at present. Without photosynthetic life on our planet, the Earth would be geodynamical less active due to a dryer mantle, and would have a smaller fraction of continental coverage than observed today. References[1] Höning, D., Hansen-Goos, H., Airo, A., Spohn, T., 2014. Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: A model for mantle hydration and continental coverage. Planetary and Space Science 98, 5-13. [2] Kleidon, A., 2010. Life, hierarchy, and the

  9. Mobility of partially molten crust, heat and mass transfer, and the stabilization of continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna L.; Rey, Patrice F.

    2017-04-01

    The core of orogens typically consists of migmatite terrains and associated crustal-derived granite bodies (typically leucogranite) that represent former partially molten crust. Metamorphic investigations indicate that migmatites crystallize at low pressure (cordierite stability) but also contain inclusions of refractory material (mafic, aluminous) that preserve evidence of crystallization at high pressure (HP), including HP granulite and eclogite (1.0-1.5 GPa), and in some cases ultrahigh pressure (2.5-3.0 GPa) when the continental crust was subducted (i.e. Norwegian Caledonides). These observations indicate that the partially molten crust originates in the deep crust or at mantle depths, traverses the entire orogenic crust, and crystallizes at shallow depth, in some cases at the near-surface ( 2 km depth) based on low-T thermochronology. Metamorphic assemblages generally show that this nearly isothermal decompression is rapid based on disequilibrium textures (symplectites). Therefore, the mobility of partially molten crust results in one of the most significant heat and mass transfer mechanisms in orogens. Field relations also indicate that emplacement of partially molten crust is the youngest major event in orogeny, and tectonic activity essentially ceases after the partially molten crust is exhumed. This suggests that flow and emplacement of partially molten crust stabilize the orogenic crust and signal the end of orogeny. Numerical modeling (open source software Underworld; Moresi et al., 2007, PEPI 163) provides useful insight into the mechanisms of exhumation of partially molten crust. For example, extension of thickened crust with T-dependent viscosity shows that extension of the shallow crust initially drives the mobility of the lowest viscosity crust (T>700°C), which begins to flow in a channel toward the zone of extension. This convergent flow generates channel collision and the formation of a double-dome of foliation (two subdomes separated by a steep

  10. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamel Nicolas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  11. Fractal behavior in continental crustal heat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vedanti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of crustal heat production, which is the most important component in the elucidation of continental thermal structure, still remains a theoretical assumption. In general the heat production values must decrease with depth, but the form of decrease of heat production in the crust is not well understood. The commonly used heat production models are: "block model", in which heat production is constant from the surface to a given depth and the "exponential model", in which heat production diminishes as an exponential function of depth. The exponential model is more widely used wherein sources of the errors are heterogeneity of rock and long wavelength changes due to changes in lithology and tectonic elements, and as such exponential distribution does not work satisfactorily for the entire crust. In the present study, we analyze for the first time, deep crustal heat production data of six global areas namely Dharwar craton (India, Kaapvaal craton (South Africa, Baltic shield (Kola, Russia, Hidaka metamorphic belt (Japan, Nissho pluton (Japan and Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB, Germany. The power spectrum of all the studied data sets exhibits power law behaviour. This would mean slower decay of heat production with depth, which conforms to the known geologic composition of the crust. Minimum value of the scaling exponent has been found for the KTB borehole, which is apparently related to higher heat production of gneisses, however for other study areas, scaling exponent is almost similar. We also found that the lower values of scaling exponents are related to higher heat production in the crust as is the case in KTB. Present finding has a direct relevance in computation of temperature-depth profiles in continental regions.

  12. Fractal behavior in continental crustal heat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanti, N.; Srivastava, R. P.; Pandey, O. P.; Dimri, V. P.

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of crustal heat production, which is the most important component in the elucidation of continental thermal structure, still remains a theoretical assumption. In general the heat production values must decrease with depth, but the form of decrease of heat production in the crust is not well understood. The commonly used heat production models are: "block model", in which heat production is constant from the surface to a given depth and the "exponential model", in which heat production diminishes as an exponential function of depth. The exponential model is more widely used wherein sources of the errors are heterogeneity of rock and long wavelength changes due to changes in lithology and tectonic elements, and as such exponential distribution does not work satisfactorily for the entire crust. In the present study, we analyze for the first time, deep crustal heat production data of six global areas namely Dharwar craton (India), Kaapvaal craton (South Africa), Baltic shield (Kola, Russia), Hidaka metamorphic belt (Japan), Nissho pluton (Japan) and Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB, Germany). The power spectrum of all the studied data sets exhibits power law behaviour. This would mean slower decay of heat production with depth, which conforms to the known geologic composition of the crust. Minimum value of the scaling exponent has been found for the KTB borehole, which is apparently related to higher heat production of gneisses, however for other study areas, scaling exponent is almost similar. We also found that the lower values of scaling exponents are related to higher heat production in the crust as is the case in KTB. Present finding has a direct relevance in computation of temperature-depth profiles in continental regions.

  13. Joint Inversion Of Local And Teleseismic Data For The Crust And Mantle Structure Of The Chinese Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Zhao, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Chinese Capital (Beijing) region is located in the intersection of the Yanshan and Taihangshan uplifts in North China. It is one of the regions with the strongest continental earthquakes in the world such as the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.8) which killed 240,000 people. Hence the determination of the crust and mantle structure of this region is very important for understanding the regional tectonics and for the reduction of earthquake hazards. Since October 2001 a new digital seismic network with 107 stations has been installed in this region, which is the most advanced and densest regional digital seismic network in mainland China. In this study we used 48750 P-wave arrival times from 2973 local events and 12249 travel time residuals from 234 teleseismic events recorded by this new digital seismic network. We adopted the local and teleseismic joint inversion approach by Zhao et al. [1994] and obtained a high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model of the crust and mantle down to a depth of 1000 km. The resolution is 50 km in the horizontal direction, and in depth it is 4-17 km in the crust and 30-50 km in the mantle. The complex morphology of the Conrad and Moho discontinuities was taken into account in the tomographic inversions. Our 3-D velocity model provides new insights into the geological structure and tectonics of this region. The velocity images of the upper crust reflect well the surface geological, topographic and lithological features. In the North China Basin, the depression and uplift areas are imaged as slow and fast velocity belts oriented in NE-SW direction. The trend of velocity anomalies is the same as that of major faults and tectonics. Paleozoic strata and Pre-Cambrian basement rocks outcrop widely in the Taihangshan and Yanshan uplift areas, which exhibit strong and broad high-velocity(high-V) anomalies in our tomographic images, while the Quaternary intermountain basins show up as small low-velocity(low-V) anomalies

  14. Structure of the crust beneath the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Lili; Rondenay, S.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    Southeastern Tibet marks the site of presumed clockwise rotation of the crust due to the India-Eurasian collision and abutment against the stable Sichuan basin and South China block. Knowing the structure of the crust is a key to better understanding crustal deformation and seismicity in this

  15. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang

    2015-07-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  16. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang; Lavier, Luc L.; Choi, Eunseo

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  17. Potentially exploitable supercritical geothermal resources in the ductile crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noriaki; Numakura, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Kiyotoshi; Saishu, Hanae; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that the brittle–ductile transition (BDT) drastically reduces permeability implies that potentially exploitable geothermal resources (permeability >10−16 m2) consisting of supercritical water could occur only in rocks with unusually high transition temperatures such as basalt. However, tensile fracturing is possible even in ductile rocks, and some permeability–depth relations proposed for the continental crust show no drastic permeability reduction at the BDT. Here we present experimental results suggesting that the BDT is not the first-order control on rock permeability, and that potentially exploitable resources may occur in rocks with much lower BDT temperatures, such as the granitic rocks that comprise the bulk of the continental crust. We find that permeability behaviour for fractured granite samples at 350–500 °C under effective confining stress is characterized by a transition from a weakly stress-dependent and reversible behaviour to a strongly stress-dependent and irreversible behaviour at a specific, temperature-dependent effective confining stress level. This transition is induced by onset of plastic normal deformation of the fracture surface (elastic–plastic transition) and, importantly, causes no ‘jump’ in the permeability. Empirical equations for this permeability behaviour suggest that potentially exploitable resources exceeding 450 °C may form at depths of 2–6 km even in the nominally ductile crust.

  18. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  19. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  20. Origin and significance of high-grade phosphorite in a sediment core from the continental slope off Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rao, Ch.M.; Thamban, M.; Natarajan, R.; Rao, B.R.

    A phosphorite crust was found at 380-390 cm depth interval of a sediment core collected from the topographic high occurring on the continental slope off Goa. This crust is fragile and grey to light brown in colour. Carbonate fluorapatite...

  1. CHIC - Coupling Habitability, Interior and Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Labbe, Francois; Boiveau, Thomas; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2014-05-01

    We present a new code developed for simulating convection in terrestrial planets and icy moons. The code CHIC is written in Fortran and employs the finite volume method and finite difference method for solving energy, mass and momentum equations in either silicate or icy mantles. The code uses either Cartesian (2D and 3D box) or spherical coordinates (2D cylinder or annulus). It furthermore contains a 1D parametrised model to obtain temperature profiles in specific regions, for example in the iron core or in the silicate mantle (solving only the energy equation). The 2D/3D convection model uses the same input parameters as the 1D model, which allows for comparison of the different models and adaptation of the 1D model, if needed. The code has already been benchmarked for the following aspects: - viscosity-dependent rheology (Blankenbach et al., 1989) - pseudo-plastic deformation (Tosi et al., in preparation phase) - subduction mechanism and plastic deformation (Quinquis et al., in preparation phase) New features that are currently developed and benchmarked include: - compressibility (following King et al., 2009 and Leng and Zhong, 2008) - different melt modules (Plesa et al., in preparation phase) - freezing of an inner core (comparison with GAIA code, Huettig and Stemmer, 2008) - build-up of oceanic and continental crust (Noack et al., in preparation phase) The code represents a useful tool to couple the interior with the surface of a planet (e.g. via build-up and erosion of crust) and it's atmosphere (via outgassing on the one hand and subduction of hydrated crust and carbonates back into the mantle). It will be applied to investigate several factors that might influence the habitability of a terrestrial planet, and will also be used to simulate icy bodies with high-pressure ice phases. References: Blankenbach et al. (1989). A benchmark comparison for mantle convection codes. GJI 98, 23-38. Huettig and Stemmer (2008). Finite volume discretization for dynamic

  2. Stress analysis and scaling studies of corium crusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Z.; Engelstad, R.L.; Lovell, E.G.; Corradini, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of a severe accident in a LWR, water may be input to cool the molten mixture of fuel and concrete. A number of structural models are developed and used to predict whether a crust will be formed and remain stable between the melt and water. Bending stresses and membrane stresses due to pressure loadings and the temperature differential are considered in the analyses to investigate the stability of the crust as a function of the time, thickness and span. The results from parametric studies show the conditions under which a crust could develop, and how such structural models could be used to determine scaling effects and provide correlations to prototypic accident situations. (orig.)

  3. Numerical model of the transition from continental rifting to oceanization: the case study of the Ligure-Piemontese ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, M.; Marotta, A. M.; Conte, K.; Spalla, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The transition from continental rifting to oceanization has been investigated by mean of a 2D thermo-mechanical numerical model in which the formation of oceanic crust by mantle serpentinization, due to the hydration of the uprising peridotite, as been implemented. Model predictions have been compared with natural data related to the Permian-Triassic thinning affecting the continental lithosphere of the Alpine domain, in order to identify which portions of the present Alpine-Apennine system, preserving the imprints of Permian-Triassic high temperature (HT) metamorphism, is compatible, in terms of lithostratigraphy and tectono-metamorphic evolution, with a lithospheric extension preceding the opening of the Ligure-Piemontese oceanic basin. At this purpose age, petrological and structural data from the Alpine and Apennine ophiolite complexes are compared with model predictions from the oceanization stage. Our comparative analysis supports the thesis that the lithospheric extension preceding the opening of the Alpine Tethys did not start on a stable continental lithosphere, but developed by recycling part of the old Variscan collisional suture. The HT Permian-Triassic metamorphic re-equilibration overprints an inherited tectonic and metamorphic setting consequent to the Variscan subduction and collision, making the Alps a key case history to explore mechanisms responsible for the re-activation of orogenic scars.

  4. COMPLEX GEOLOGICAL–GEOPHYSICAL 3D MODEL OF THE CRUST IN THE SOUTHEASTERN FENNOSCANDIAN SHIELD: NATURE OF DENSITY LAYERING OF THE CRUST AND THE CRUST–MANTLE BOUNDARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Glaznev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex geophysical 3D model of the Earth's crust and the upper mantle is created for the Archaean Karelian Craton and the Late Palaeoproterozoic accretionary Svecofennian Orogen of the southeastern Fennoscandian Shield with the use of methods of complex inversion of geophysical data based on stochastic description of interrelations of physical properties of the medium (density, P-wave velocity, and heat generation. To develop the model, we use results of deep seismic studies, gravity and surficial heat flow data on the studied region. Numerical solutions of 3D problems are obtained in the spherical setting with an allowance for the Earth's surface topography. The geophysical model is correlated with the regional geological data on the surface and results of seismic CMP studies along 4B, FIRE-1 and FIRE-3-3A profiles. Based on results of complex geophysical simulation and geological interpretation of the 3D model, the following conclusions are drawn. (1 The nearly horizontal density layering of the continental crust is superimposed on the previously formed geological structure; rock differentiation by density is decreasing with depth; the density layering is controlled by the recent and near-recent state of the crust, but can be disturbed by the latest deformations. (2 Temperature variations at the Moho are partially determined by local variations of heat generation in the mantle, which, in turn, are related to local features of its origin and transformation. (3 The concept of the lower continental crust being a reflectivity zone and the concept of the lower continental crust being a layer of high density and velocity are not equivalent: the lower crust is the deepest, high-density element of near-horizontal layering, whereas the seismic image of the reflectivity zone is primarily related to transformation of the crust as a result of magmatic under- and intraplating under conditions of extension and mantle-plume activity. (4 At certain

  5. Atlantic continental margin of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, John A.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Palmer, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this Decade of North American Geology (D-NAG) volume will be to focus on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin, including the onshore coastal plain, related onshore Triassic-Jurassic rift grabens, and the offshore basins and platforms. Following multiple compressional tectonic episodes between Africa and North America during the Paleozoic Era that formed the Appalachian Mountains, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras were dominated by tensional tectonic processes that separated Africa and North America. Extensional rifting during Triassic and Early Jurassic times resulted in numerous tensional grabens both onshore and offshore, which filled with nonmarine continental red beds, lacustrine deposits, and volcanic flows and debris. The final stage of this breakup between Africa and North America occurred beneath the present outer continental shelf and continental slope during Early or Middle Jurassic time when sea-floor spreading began to form new oceanic crust and lithosophere between the two continents as they drifted apart. Postrift subsidence of the marginal basins continued in response to cooling of the lithosphere and sedimentary loading.Geophysical surveys and oil-exploration drilling along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin during the past 5 years are beginning to answer many questions concerning its deep structure and stratigraphy and how it evolved during the rifting and early sea-floor-spreading stages of the separation of this region from Africa. Earlier geophysical studies of the U.S. continental margin used marine refraction and submarine gravity measurements. Single-channel seismic-reflection, marine magnetic, aeromagnetic, and continuous gravity measurements became available during the 1960s.

  6. MODELING OF MOVING DEFORMABLE CONTINENTS BY ACTIVE TRACERS: CLOSING AND OPENING OF OCEANS, RECIRCULATION OF OCEANIC CRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bobrov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the ‘mantle – moving deformable continents’ system has been studied by numerical experiments. The continents move self-consistently with the mantle flows of thermo-compositional convection. Our model (two-dimensional mantle convection, non-Newtonian rheology, the presence of deformable continents demonstrates the main features of global geodynamics: convergence and divergence of continents; appearance and disappearance of subduction zones; backrolling of subduction zones; restructuring of mantle flows; stretching, breakup and divergence of continents; opening and closing of oceans; oceanic crust recirculation in the mantle, and overriding of hot mantle plumes by continents. In our study, the continental crust is modeled by active markers which transfer additional viscosity and buoyancy, while the continental lithosphere is marked only by increased viscosity with neutral buoyancy. The oceanic crust, in its turn, is modeled by active markers that have only an additional buoyancy. The principal result of our modeling is a consistency between the numerical calculations and the bimodal dynamics of the real Earth: the oceanic crust, despite its positive buoyancy near the surface, submerges in subduction zones and sinks deep into the mantle. (Some part of the oceanic crust remains attached to the continental margins for a long time. In contrast to the oceanic crust, the continental crust does not sink in subduction zones. The continental lithosphere, despite its neutral buoyancy, also remains on the surface due to its viscosity and coupling with the continental crust. It should be noted that when a continent overrides a subduction zone, the subduction zone disappears, and the flows in the mantle are locally reorganized. The effect of basalt-eclogite transition in the oceanic crust on the mantle flow pattern and on the motion of continents has been studied. Our numerical experiments show that the inclusion of this effect in the

  7. Neotectonism - An offshore evidence from eastern continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, K.M.; Raju, Y.S.N.

    tremor provide evidence of Neo-tectonic activity in this regio. The epicentral region falls in a shallow marine environment ideal for generating a geophysical database for stable continental region earthquakes....

  8. Statistics of Magnetar Crusts Magnetoemission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratyev V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft repeating gamma-ray (SGR bursts are considered as magnetoemission of crusts of magnetars (ultranamagnetized neutron stars. It is shown that all the SGR burst observations can be described and systematized within randomly jumping interacting moments model including quantum fluctuations and internuclear magnetic interaction in an inhomogeneous crusty nuclear matter.

  9. Cold-seep carbonates of the middle and lower continental slope, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Harry H.; Feng, Dong; Joye, Samantha B.

    2010-11-01

    Authigenic carbonates from cold seeps on the middle and lower continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) exhibit a wide range of mineralogical and stable isotopic compositions. These carbonates consist of concretions and nodules in surface sediments, hardgrounds of crusts and isolated slabs, and mounded buildups of blocks and slabs of up to over 10 meters in relief above the surrounding seafloor. Mineralogically, the carbonates are dominated by high-Mg calcite (HMC) and aragonite. However, low levels (oil, seawater CO2, and 13C-enriched residual CO2 from methanogenesis. A similarly large variability in δ18O values (2.5 to 6.7‰ PDB) demonstrates the geochemical complexity of the slope, with some samples pointing toward an 18O-enriched oxygen source that is possibly related to advection of 18O-enriched formation water and/or to the decomposition of gas hydrate. A considerable range of mineralogical and isotopic variations in cold-seep carbonate composition was noted even within individual study sites. However, common trends occur across multiple geographic areas. This situation suggests that local controls on fluid and gas flux, types of seep hydrocarbons, the presence or absence of gas hydrate in the near-surface sediment, and chemosynthetic communities, as well as the temporal evolution of the local hydrocarbon reservoir, all may play a part in determining carbonate mineralogy and isotope geochemistry. The carbon isotope data clearly indicate that between-site variation is greater than within-site variation. Seep carbonates formed on the middle and lower continental slope of the GOM do not appear to be substantially different from those found on the upper slope (<1000-m water depth). The highly variable fluids and gases that leave their geochemical imprints on seep carbonate of the middle and lower continental slope are similar to their outer shelf and upper slope counterparts.

  10. Chronology of early lunar crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasch, E.J.; Nyquist, L.E.; Ryder, G.

    1988-01-01

    The chronology of lunar rocks is summarized. The oldest pristine (i.e., lacking meteoritic contamination of admixed components) lunar rock, recently dated with Sm-Nd by Lugmair, is a ferroan anorthosite, with an age of 4.44 + 0.02 Ga. Ages of Mg-suite rocks (4.1 to 4.5 Ga) have large uncertainties, so that age differences between lunar plutonic rock suites cannot yet be resolved. Most mare basalts crystallized between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. The vast bulk of the lunar crust, therefore, formed before the oldest preserved terrestrial rocks. If the Moon accreted at 4.56 Ga, then 120 Ma may have elapsed before lunar crust was formed

  11. The helium flux from the continents and ubiquity of low-3He/4He recycled crust and lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James M. D.; Barry, Peter H.; Hilton, David R.; Burgess, Ray; Pearson, D. Graham; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2015-03-01

    New helium isotope and trace-element abundance data are reported for pyroxenites and eclogites from South Africa, Siberia, and the Beni Bousera Massif, Morocco that are widely interpreted to form from recycled oceanic crustal protoliths. The first He isotope data are also presented for Archaean peridotites from the Kaapvaal (South Africa), Slave (Canada), and Siberian cratons, along with recently emplaced off-craton peridotite xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole, San Carlos (USA) and Vitim (Siberia), to complement existing 3He/4He values obtained for continental and oceanic peridotites. Helium isotope compositions of peridotite xenoliths vary from 7.3 to 9.6 RA in recently (volcanics that contain a contribution from asthenospheric sources. Using the new He isotope data for cratonic peridotites and assuming that significant portions (>50%) of the Archaean and Proterozoic continental lithospheric mantle are stable and unaffected by melt or fluid infiltration on geological timescales (>0.1 Ga), and that U and Th contents vary between cratonic lithosphere and non-cratonic lithosphere, calculations yield a 3He flux of 0.25-2.2 atoms/s/cm2 for the continental lithospheric mantle. These estimates differ by a factor of ten from non-cratonic lithospheric mantle and are closer to the observed 3He flux from the continents (<1 atoms/s/cm2). Pyroxenites and eclogites from the continental regions are all characterized by 3He/4He (0.03-5.6 RA) less than the depleted upper mantle, and relatively high U and Th contents. Together with oceanic and continental lithospheric peridotites, these materials represent reservoirs with low time-integrated 3He/(U + Th) in the mantle. Pyroxenites and eclogites are also characterized by higher Fe/Mg, more radiogenic Os-Pb isotope compositions, and more variable δ18O values (∼3‰ to 7‰), compared with peridotitic mantle. These xenoliths are widely interpreted to be the metamorphic/metasomatic equivalents of recycled oceanic crustal protoliths. The

  12. Physics of the earth crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauterbach, R.

    1977-01-01

    This book deals in 12 chapters, amongst other things, with the subjects: Structure of the crust and the upper earth mantle, geology and geophysics of sea beds, satellite and aero-methods of geophysics, state of the art of geothermal research, geophysical potential fields and their anomalies, applied seismology, electrical methods of geophysics, geophysics in engineering and rock engineering, borehole geophysics, petrophysics, and geochemistry. (RW) [de

  13. Detachment folding of partially molten crust in accretionary orogens: A new magma-enhanced vertical mass and heat transfer mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehmann, J.; Schulmann, K.; Lexa, O.; Závada, Prokop; Štípská, P.; Hasalová, Pavlína; Belyanin, G.; Corsini, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2017), s. 889-909 ISSN 1941-8264 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : continental crust * shear-zone * gneiss domes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.662, year: 2016

  14. Magnetotelluric imaging of anisotropic crust near Fort McMurray, Alberta: implications for engineered geothermal system development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liddell, M.; Unsworth, M.; Pek, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 3 (2016), s. 1365-1381 ISSN 0956-540X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : electrical anisotropy * composition of the continental crust * magnetotellurics * North America Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2016

  15. Modelling the Impact of Life on Continental Growth - Mechanisms and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of planetary evolution increases with the number of interacting reservoirs. On Earth, even the biosphere is speculated to interact with the interior. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. Through plate tectonics, the surface biosphere can impact deep subduction zone processes and the interior of the Earth. Subducted sediments are particularly important, because they influence the Earth's interior in several ways, and in turn are strongly influenced by the Earth's biosphere. In our model, we use the assumption that a thick sedimentary layer of low permeability on top of the subducting oceanic crust, caused by a biologically enhanced weathering rate, can suppress shallow dewatering. This in turn leads to greater availability of water in the source region of andesitic partial melt, resulting in an enhanced rate of continental production and regassing rate into the mantle. Our model includes (i) mantle convection, (ii) continental erosion and production, and (iii) mantle water degassing at mid-ocean ridges and regassing at subduction zones. The mantle viscosity of our model depends on (i) the mantle water concentration and (ii) the mantle temperature, whose time dependency is given by radioactive decay of isotopes in the Earth's mantle. Boundary layer theory yields the speed of convection and the water outgassing rate of the Earth's mantle. Our results indicate that present day values of continental surface area and water content of the Earth's mantle represent an attractor in a phase plane spanned by both parameters. We show that the biologic enhancement of the continental erosion rate is important for the system to reach this fixed point. An abiotic Earth tends to reach an alternative stable fixed point with a smaller

  16. Seismic velocity structure of the crust in NW Namibia: Impact of rifting and mantle plume activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K.; Heit, B.; Muksin, U.; Yuan, X.

    2017-12-01

    The continental crust in northwestern Namibiamainly was formed during to the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana. The collision of old African and South American cratonic coressuch as the Congo, Kalahari and Rio de la Plata cratons led tothe development of the Pan-African Damara orogen. The fold systemconsists of an intracratonic branch in northern central Namibia (named Damara Belt), and two coast-parallel branches, the Kaoko Belt in northern Namibia and the Gariep Belt in the border region between Namibia and theRepublic of South Africa. During the Early Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic ocean, the crust in NW Namibia was prominently affected by the Tristan da Cunha mantle plume, as evidenced by the emplacement of the Etendeka continental flood basalts.A local earthquake tomography was carried out in NW Namibia to investigateif and to what degree the deeper continental crust was modified by the magmaticactivity during rifting and the impingement of the Tristan da Cunhamantle plume. We analyzed data from 28 onshore stations of the temporaryWALPASS seismic network. Stations were covering the continental marginaround the landfall of the Walvis Ridge, parts of the Kaoko Belt and Damara Belt,and marginally the southwestern edges of the Congo craton.First arrivals of P and S waves were identified and travel times werepicked manually. 1D inversion was carried out with VELEST to derivestarting models and the initial seismicity distribution, and SIMUL2000was used for the subsequent 3D tomographic inversion. The resultingseismicity distribution mainly follows the structures of the Pan-Africanorogenic belts. The majority of events was localized in the upper crust,but additional seismicity was also found in the deeper crust.An anomaly of increased P velocities is revealed in the deep crust under the Etendekaflood basalt province. Increased P velocities can be explained by mafic and ultra-maficmaterial which intruded in the lower crust. The anomaly appears to be rather

  17. Magma-poor vs. magma-rich continental rifting and breakup in the Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouiza, M.; Paton, D.

    2017-12-01

    Magma-poor and magma-rich rifted margins show distinct structural and stratigraphic geometries during the rift to breakup period. In magma-poor margins, crustal stretching is accommodated mainly by brittle faulting and the formation of wide rift basins shaped by numerous graben and half-graben structures. Continental breakup and oceanic crust accretion are often preceded by a localised phase of (hyper-) extension where the upper mantle is embrittled, serpentinized, and exhumed to the surface. In magma-rich margins, the rift basin is narrow and extension is accompanied by a large magmatic supply. Continental breakup and oceanic crust accretion is preceded by the emplacement of a thick volcanic crust juxtaposing and underplating a moderately thinned continental crust. Both magma-poor and magma-rich rifting occur in response to lithospheric extension but the driving forces and processes are believed to be different. In the former extension is assumed to be driven by plate boundary forces, while in the latter extension is supposed to be controlled by sublithospheric mantle dynamics. However, this view fails in explaining observations from many Atlantic conjugate margins where magma-poor and magma-rich segments alternate in a relatively abrupt fashion. This is the case of the Labrador margin where the northern segment shows major magmatic supply during most of the syn-rift phase which culminate in the emplacement of a thick volcanic crust in the transitional domain along with high density bodies underplating the thinned continental crust; while the southern segment is characterized mainly by brittle extension, mantle seprentinization and exhumation prior to continental breakup. In this work, we use seismic and potential field data to describe the crustal and structural architectures of the Labrador margin, and investigate the tectonic and mechanical processes of rifting that may have controlled the magmatic supply in the different segments of the margin.

  18. A Model of Continental Growth and Mantle Degassing Comparing Biotic and Abiotic Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, D.; Hansen-Goos, H.; Spohn, T.

    2012-12-01

    While examples for interaction of the biosphere with the atmosphere can be easily cited (e.g., production and consumption of O2), interaction between the biosphere and the solid planet and its interior is much less established. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. We present an interaction model that includes mantle convection, mantle water vapor degassing at mid-oceanic ridges and regassing through subduction zones, continental crust formation and erosion and water storage and transport in a porous oceanic crust that includes hydrous mineral phases. The mantle viscosity in this model depends on the water concentration in the mantle. We use boundary layer theory of mantle convection to parameterize the mantle convection flow rate and assume that the plate speed equals the mantle flow rate. The biosphere enters the calculation through the assumption that the continental erosion rate is enhanced by a factor of several through bioactivity and through an assumed reduction of the kinetic barrier to diagenetic and metamorphic reactions (e.g., Kim et al. 2004) in the sedimentary basins in subduction zones that would lead to increased water storage capacities. We further include a stochastic model of continent-to-continent interactions that limits the effective total length of subduction zones. We use present day parameters of the Earth and explore a phase plane spanned by the percentage of surface coverage of the Earth by continents and the total water content of the mantle. We vary the ratio of the erosion rate in a postulated abiotic Earth to the present Earth, as well as the activation barrier to diagenetic and metamorphic reactions that affect the water storage capacity of the subducting crust. We find stable and unstable fixed points in

  19. Symmetry energy, unstable nuclei and neutron star crusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Kei [Kochi University, Department of Natural Science, Kochi (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Aichi Shukutoku University, Department of Human Informatics, Aichi (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The phenomenological approach to inhomogeneous nuclear matter is useful to describe fundamental properties of atomic nuclei and neutron star crusts in terms of the equation of state of uniform nuclear matter. We review a series of researches that we have developed by following this approach. We start with more than 200 equations of state that are consistent with empirical masses and charge radii of stable nuclei and then apply them to describe matter radii and masses of unstable nuclei, proton elastic scattering and total reaction cross sections off unstable nuclei, and nuclei in neutron star crusts including nuclear pasta. We finally discuss the possibility of constraining the density dependence of the symmetry energy from experiments on unstable nuclei and even observations of quasi-periodic oscillations in giant flares of soft gamma-ray repeaters. (orig.)

  20. Continental rift architecture and patterns of magma migration: a dynamic analysis based on centrifuge models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corti, G.; Bonini, M.; Sokoutis, D.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Mulugeta, G.

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale centrifuge models were used to investigate the role of continental rift structure in controlling patterns of magma migration and emplacement. Experiments considered the reactivation of weakness zones in the lower crust and the presence of magma at Moho depths. Results suggest that

  1. Crustal volumes of the continents and of oceanic and continental submarine plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Sandwell, D.

    1989-01-01

    Using global topographic data and the assumption of Airy isostasy, it is estimated that the crustal volume of the continents is 7182 X 10 to the 6th cu km. The crustal volumes of the oceanic and continental submarine plateaus are calculated at 369 X 10 to the 6th cu km and 242 X 10 to the 6th cu km, respectively. The total continental crustal volume is found to be 7581 X 10 to the 6th cu km, 3.2 percent of which is comprised of continental submarine plateaus on the seafloor. An upper bound on the contintental crust addition rate by the accretion of oceanic plateaus is set at 3.7 cu km/yr. Subduction of continental submarine plateaus with the oceanic lithosphere on a 100 Myr time scale yields an upper bound to the continental crustal subtraction rate of 2.4 cu km/yr.

  2. Emergence of silicic continents as the lower crust peels off on a hot plate-tectonic Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Priyadarshi; Gerya, Taras; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2017-09-01

    The rock record and geochemical evidence indicate that continental recycling has been occurring since the early history of the Earth. The stabilization of felsic continents in place of Earth's early mafic crust about 3.0 to 2.0 billion years ago, perhaps due to the initiation of plate tectonics, implies widespread destruction of mafic crust during this time interval. However, the physical mechanisms of such intense recycling on a hotter, (late) Archaean and presumably plate-tectonic Earth remain largely unknown. Here we use thermomechanical modelling to show that extensive recycling via lower crustal peeling-off (delamination but not eclogitic dripping) during continent-continent convergence was near ubiquitous during the late Archaean to early Proterozoic. We propose that such destruction of the early mafic crust, together with felsic magmatism, may have caused both the emergence of silicic continents and their subsequent isostatic rise, possibly above the sea level. Such changes in the continental character have been proposed to influence the Great Oxidation Event and, therefore, peeling-off plate tectonics could be the geodynamic trigger for this event. A transition to the slab break-off controlled syn-orogenic recycling occurred as the Earth aged and cooled, leading to reduced recycling and enhanced preservation of the continental crust of present-day composition.

  3. Continental Mathematics League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartararo, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Continental Mathematics League, which offers a series of meets for children in grades 3 though 9. In addition, a Calculus League and a Computer Contest are offered. The league allows schools to participate by mail so that rural schools can participate. (CR)

  4. Sedimentation on continental margins: An integrated program for innovative studies during the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrourer, Charles A.; Coleman, James M.; Rouge, Baton; Flood, Roger D.; Ginsburg, Robert N.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Hine, Albert C.; Sternberg, Richard W.; Swift, Donald J. P.; Wright, L. Donelson

    Continental margins are of great scientific interest, and they represent the focus of human interaction with the ocean. Their deep structure forms the transition from continental to oceanic crust, and their surface expression extends from coastal environments of estuaries and shorelines across the continental shelf and slope to either the base of a continental rise or a marginal trough. Modern continental margins represent natural laboratories for investigation of complex relationships between physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, which are sensitive to environmental conditions both on the land and in the ocean. The history of these conditions is preserved within the sedimentary deposits of continental margins. The deposits form repositories for much of the particulate material transported off the world's land masses and produced from dissolved components in the world ocean. Past deposits of continental margins have been uplifted to form many mountain ranges and sedimentary terrains of the world, which record details of Earth history and contain valuable natural resources, such as petroleum and natural gas. Modern deposits of continental margins record the more recent events that have influenced Earth and also contain natural resources (for instance, minerals, sand, and gravel), as well as anthropogenic pollutants (for example, heavy metals and pesticides). The fates of many materials beneficial and deleterious to humans are dependent on the pathways followed by sedimentary particles on continental margins.

  5. Petrology and tectonics of Phanerozoic continent formation: From island arcs to accretion and continental arc magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.-T.A.; Morton, D.M.; Kistler, R.W.; Baird, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mesozoic continental arcs in the North American Cordillera were examined here to establish a baseline model for Phanerozoic continent formation. We combine new trace-element data on lower crustal xenoliths from the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada Batholith with an extensive grid-based geochemical map of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, the southern equivalent of the Sierras. Collectively, these observations give a three-dimensional view of the crust, which permits the petrogenesis and tectonics of Phanerozoic crust formation to be linked in space and time. Subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America during the Triassic to early Cretaceous was characterized by trench retreat and slab rollback because old and cold oceanic lithosphere was being subducted. This generated an extensional subduction zone, which created fringing island arcs just off the Paleozoic continental margin. However, as the age of the Farallon plate at the time of subduction decreased, the extensional environment waned, allowing the fringing island arc to accrete onto the continental margin. With continued subduction, a continental arc was born and a progressively more compressional environment developed as the age of subducting slab continued to young. Refinement into a felsic crust occurred after accretion, that is, during the continental arc stage, wherein a thickened crustal and lithospheric column permitted a longer differentiation column. New basaltic arc magmas underplate and intrude the accreted terrane, suture, and former continental margin. Interaction of these basaltic magmas with pre-existing crust and lithospheric mantle created garnet pyroxenitic mafic cumulates by fractional crystallization at depth as well as gabbroic and garnet pyroxenitic restites at shallower levels by melting of pre-existing lower crust. The complementary felsic plutons formed by these deep-seated differentiation processes rose into the upper crust, stitching together the accreted terrane, suture and former

  6. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  7. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  8. Initiation of continental accretion: metamorphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Conand; Frederic, Mouthereau; Gianreto, Manatschal; Adbeltif, Lahfid

    2017-04-01

    The physical processes involved at the beginning of the continental collision are largely unknown because they are transient and therefore hardly identifiable from the rock record. Despite the importance of key parameters for understanding mountain building processes, especially the formation of deep mountain roots and their impacts on earthquakes nucleation, rock/fluid transfers and oil/gas resources in the continental crust, observations from the earliest collision stages remain fragmentary. Here, we focus on the example of Taiwan, a young and active mountain belt where the transition from oceanic subduction, accretion of the first continental margin to mature collision can be followed in space and time. We present preliminary results and provide key questions regarding the reconstruction of time-pressure-temperature paths of rocks & fluids to allow discriminating between rift-related thermal/rheological inheritance and burial/heating phases during convergence. Previous studies have focused on peak temperatures analyzed by Raman Spectrometry of Carbonaceous Matter from the deeper structural layers exposed in the Central Range of Taiwan. In the pre-rift sediments, these studies reported a positive gradient from West to Est, and values from geothermal gradients (up to 60°C/km) known in the region, and higher temperature closer to the pre-rift units. Cross sections and maps with high resolution peak temperatures are in process as well as pressure estimations to determine how the sediments were metamorphosed. In addition to this work, we report a few inherited temperatures in the 390-570 °C range, indicating recycling of organic matter from metasediments that recorded HT events, likely originated from higher grade metamorphic units of mainland China, which have been eroded and deposited in the post-rift sediments.

  9. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  10. Continental crustal formation and recycling: Evidence from oceanic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A. D.; Tarney, J.; Norry, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the wealth of geochemical data for subduction-related magma types, and the clear importance of such magmas in the creation of continental crust, there is still no concensus about the relative magnitudes of crustal creation versus crustal destruction (i.e., recycling of crust into the mantle). The role of subducted sediment in the formation of the arc magmas is now well documented; but what proportion of sediment is taken into the deeper mantle? Integrated isotopic and trace element studies of magmas erupted far from presently active subduction zones, in particular basaltic rocks erupted in the ocean basins, are providing important information about the role of crustal recycling. By identifying potential chemical tracers, it is impossible to monitor the effects of crustal recycling, and produce models predicting the mass of material recycled into the mantle throughout long periods of geological time.

  11. Isotopic analyses of food crusts on pottery: Implications for dating and palaeocuisine reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ13C and δ15N, can be used to roughly reconstruct the former content of Stone Age cooking vessels. This was supported by measurements on experimental food crusts. The reconstruction of the ingredients used in the vessels is not only...

  12. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    reveal a minimum of 18 m thick strata of modern muds (Fig. 2g). At the outer boundary of the Gulf of Myanmar Continental Shelf 8 Martaban (15oN Latitude), brown muds overlie coarse sands indicating that modern deltaic sediments... on the Myeik Bank (Rodolfo, 1969a). Modern sediments on the Ayeyarwady shelf General composition, Texture and Grain-size: The distribution and sediment texture on the Ayeyarwady shelf shows fine-grained sediments comprising silty-clay and clayey...

  13. Impacts of continental arcs on global carbon cycling and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. T.; Jiang, H.; Carter, L.; Dasgupta, R.; Cao, W.; Lackey, J. S.; Lenardic, A.; Barnes, J.; McKenzie, R.

    2017-12-01

    On myr timescales, climatic variability is tied to variations in atmospheric CO2, which in turn is driven by geologic sources of CO2 and modulated by the efficiency of chemical weathering and carbonate precipitation (sinks). Long-term variability in CO2 has largely been attributed to changes in mid-ocean ridge inputs or the efficiency of global weathering. For example, the Cretaceous greenhouse is thought to be related to enhanced oceanic crust production, while the late Cenozoic icehouse is attributed to enhanced chemical weathering associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Here, we show that continental arcs may play a more important role in controlling climate, both in terms of sources and sinks. Continental arcs differ from island arcs and mid-ocean ridges in that the continental plate through which arc magmas pass may contain large amounts of sedimentary carbonate, accumulated over the history of the continent. Interaction of arc magmas with crustal carbonates via assimilation, reaction or heating can significantly add to the mantle-sourced CO2 flux. Detrital zircons and global mapping of basement rocks shows that the length of continental arcs in the Cretaceous was more than twice that in the mid-Cenozoic; maps also show many of these arcs intersected crustal carbonates. The increased length of continental arc magmatism coincided with increased oceanic spreading rates, placing convergent margins into compression, which favors continental arcs. Around 50 Ma, however, nearly all the continental arcs in Eurasia and North America terminated as India collided with Eurasia and the western Pacific rolled back, initiating the Marianas-Tonga-Kermadec intra-oceanic subduction complex and possibly leading to a decrease in global CO2 production. Meanwhile, extinct continental arcs continued to erode, resulting in regionally enhanced chemical weathering unsupported by magmatic fluxes of CO2. Continental arcs, during their magmatic lifetimes, are thus a source of CO2, driving

  14. Rifting-to-drifting transition of the South China Sea: Moho reflection characteristics in continental-ocean transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Dispute remains on the process of continental rifting to subsequent seafloor spreading in the South China Sea (SCS). Several crust-scale multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired in the continent-ocean transition zone (COT) of the SCS provide a detailed overview of Moho and deep crustal reflectors and give key information on rifting-to-drifting transition of the area. Moho has strong but discontinuous seismic reflection in COT. These discontinuities are mainly located in the landward side of continent-ocean boundary (COB), and may own to upwelling of lower crustal materials during initial continental extension, leading to numerous volcanic edifices and volcanic ridges. The continental crust in COT shows discontinuous Moho reflections at 11-8.5 s in two-way travel time (twtt), and thins from 18-20.5 km under the uppermost slope to 6-7 km under the lower slope, assuming an average crustal velocity of 6.0 km/s. The oceanic crust has Moho reflections of moderate to high continuity mostly at 1.8-2.2 s twtt below the top of the igneous basement, which means that the crustal thickness excluding sediment layer in COT is 5.4-6.6 km. Subhorizontal Moho reflections are often abruptly interrupted by large seaward dipping normal faults in southern COT but are more continuous compared with the fluctuant and very discontinuous Moho reflections in northern COT. The thickness of thinned continental crust (4.2-4.8 km) is smaller than that of oceanic crust (5.4-6.0 km) near southern COB, indicating that the continental crust has experienced a long period of rifting before seafloor spreading started. The smaller width of northern COT (0-40 km) than in southern COT (0-60 km), and thinner continental crust in southern COT, all indicate that the continental margin rifting and extension was asymmetric. The COT width in the SCS is narrower than that found in other magma-poor continental margins, indicating a swift transition from the final stage of rifting to the inception of

  15. Metamorphic core complex formation by density inversion and lower-crust extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F; Goodliffe, A M; Taylor, B

    2001-06-21

    Metamorphic core complexes are domal uplifts of metamorphic and plutonic rocks bounded by shear zones that separate them from unmetamorphosed cover rocks. Interpretations of how these features form are varied and controversial, and include models involving extension on low-angle normal faults, plutonic intrusions and flexural rotation of initially high-angle normal faults. The D'Entrecasteaux islands of Papua New Guinea are actively forming metamorphic core complexes located within a continental rift that laterally evolves to sea-floor spreading. The continental rifting is recent (since approximately 6 Myr ago), seismogenic and occurring at a rapid rate ( approximately 25 mm yr-1). Here we present evidence-based on isostatic modelling, geological data and heat-flow measurements-that the D'Entrecasteaux core complexes accommodate extension through the vertical extrusion of ductile lower-crust material, driven by a crustal density inversion. Although buoyant extrusion is accentuated in this region by the geological structure present-which consists of dense ophiolite overlaying less-dense continental crust-this mechanism may be generally applicable to regions where thermal expansion lowers crustal density with depth.

  16. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  17. Cyanobacterial crust induction using two non-previously tested cyanobacterial inoculants: crusting capability and role of EPSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Gianmarco; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The use of cyanobacteria as soil improvers and bio-conditioners (a technique often referred to as algalization) has been studied for decades. Several studies proved that cyanobacteria are feasible eco-friendly candidates to trigger soil fertilization and enrichment from agricultural to arid and hyper-arid systems. This approach can be successful to achieve stabilization and rehabilitation of degraded environments. Much of the effectiveness of algalization is due to the productivity and the characteristics of extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) which, among their features, embed soil particles and promote the development of a first stable organo-mineral layer (cyanobacterial crusts). In natural settings, cyanobacterial crust induction represents a first step of a succession that may lead to the formation of mature biological soil crusts (Lan et al., 2014). The aim of this research was to investigate the crusting capabilities, and the characteristics of excreted EPSs by two newly tested non-heterocystous cyanobacterial inoculants, in microcosm experiments carried out using oligothrophic sand collected from sand dunes in Negev Desert, Israel. The cyanobacteria tested were Schizothrix AMPL1601, originally isolated from biocrusts collected in Hobq Desert, Inner Mongolia (China) and Leptolyngbia ohadii, originally isolated from biocrusts collected in Negev Desert, Israel. Inoculated microcosms were maintained at 30 °C in a growth chamber under continuous illumination and minimal water availability. Under such stressing conditions, and for a three-months incubation time, the growth and the colonization of the strains in the microcosms were monitored. At the same time, EPSs production and their chemical and macromolecular characteristics were determined by applying a methodology optimized for the purpose. Notably, EPSs were analyzed in two operationally-defined fractions, one more dispersed in the crust matrix (loosely bound EPSs, LB-EPSs) and one more condensed and

  18. The structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriampenomanana, Fenitra; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Wysession, Michael E.; Durrheim, Raymond J.; Tilmann, Frederik; Julià, Jordi; Pratt, Martin J.; Rambolamanana, Gérard; Aleqabi, Ghassan; Shore, Patrick J.; Rakotondraibe, Tsiriandrimanana

    2017-09-01

    The lithosphere of Madagascar was initially amalgamated during the Pan-African events in the Neoproterozoic. It has subsequently been reshaped by extensional processes associated with the separation from Africa and India in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, respectively, and been subjected to several magmatic events in the late Cretaceous and the Cenozoic. In this study, the crust and uppermost mantle have been investigated to gain insights into the present-day structure and tectonic evolution of Madagascar. We analysed receiver functions, computed from data recorded on 37 broad-band seismic stations, using the H-κ stacking method and a joint inversion with Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity measurements. The thickness of the Malagasy crust ranges between 18 and 46 km. It is generally thick beneath the spine of mountains in the centre part (up to 46 km thick) and decreases in thickness towards the edges of the island. The shallowest Moho is found beneath the western sedimentary basins (18 km thick), which formed during both the Permo-Triassic Karro rifting in Gondwana and the Jurassic rifting of Madagascar from eastern Africa. The crust below the sedimentary basin thickens towards the north and east, reflecting the progressive development of the basins. In contrast, in the east there was no major rifting episode. Instead, the slight thinning of the crust along the east coast (31-36 km thick) may have been caused by crustal uplift and erosion when Madagascar moved over the Marion hotspot and India broke away from it. The parameters describing the crustal structure of Archean and Proterozoic terranes, including average thickness (40 km versus 35 km), Poisson's ratio (0.25 versus 0.26), average shear-wave velocity (both 3.7 km s-1), and thickness of mafic lower crust (7 km versus 4 km), show weak evidence of secular variation. The uppermost mantle beneath Madagascar is generally characterized by shear-wave velocities typical of stable lithosphere (∼4.5 km s-1). However

  19. Evidence of synsedimentary microbial activity and iron deposition in ferruginous crusts of the Late Cenomanian Utrillas Formation (Iberian Basin, central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hidalgo, José F.; Elorza, Javier; Gil-Gil, Javier; Herrero, José M.; Segura, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Ferruginous sandstones and crusts are prominent sedimentary features throughout the continental (braided)-coastal siliciclastic (estuarine-tidal) wedges of the Late Cenomanian Utrillas Formation in the Iberian Basin. Crust types recognized are: Ferruginous sandy crusts (Fsc) with oxides-oxyhydroxides (hematite and goethite) concentrated on sandstone tops presenting a fibro-radial internal structure reminding organic structures that penetrate different mineral phases, suggesting the existence of bacterial activity in crust development; Ferruginous muddy crusts (Fmc) consisting of wavy, laminated, microbial mats, being composed mainly of hematite. On the other hand, a more dispersed and broader mineralization included as Ferruginous sandstones with iron oxides and oxyhydroxides (hematite and goethite) representing a limited cement phase on these sediments. The presence of microbial remains, ferruginous minerals, Microbially-induced sedimentary structures, microbial laminites and vertebrate tracks preserved due to the presence of biofilms suggest firstly a direct evidence of syn-depositional microbial activity in these sediments; and, secondly, that iron accumulation and ferruginous crusts development occurred immediately after deposition of the host, still soft sediments. Ferruginous crusts cap sedimentary cycles and they represent the gradual development of hard substrate conditions, and the development of a discontinuity surface at the top of the parasequence sets, related to very low sedimentary rates; the overlying sediments record subsequent flooding of underlying shallower environments; crusts are, consequently, interpreted as boundaries for these higher-order cycles in the Iberian Basin.

  20. In-situ detection of microbial life in the deep biosphere in igneous ocean crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Cosio Salas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in-situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 105 cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  1. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Everett C; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F; Reid, Ray D; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 10(5) cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  2. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  3. Transdomes sampling of lower and middle crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssier, C. P.; Whitney, D. L.; Roger, F.; Rey, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    Migmatite transdomes are formed by lateral and upward flow of partially molten crust in transtension zones (pull-apart structures). In order to understand the flow leading to this type of domes, 3D numerical models were set-up to simulate the general case of an extensional domain located between two strike-slip faults (pull-apart or dilational bridge). Results show that upper crust extension induces flow of the deep, low-viscosity crust, with rapid upward movement of transdome material when extension becomes localized. At this point a rolling hinge detachment allows rapid removal of upper crust. The internal structure of transdomes includes a subvertical high strain zone located beneath the zone of localized upper crust extension; this shear zone separates two elongate subdomes of foliation that show refolded/sheath folds. Lineation tends to be oriented dominantly subhorizontal when the amount of strike-slip motion is greater than the amount of upward flow of dome rocks. Models also predict nearly isothermal decompression of transdome material and rapid transfer of ~50 km deep rocks to the near surface. These model results are compared to the structural and metamorphic history of several transdomes, and in particular the Variscan Montagne Noire dome (French Massif Central) that consists of two domes separated by a complex high strain zone. The Montagne Noire dome contains ~315 Ma eclogite bodies (U-Pb zircon age) that record 1.4 GPa peak pressure. The eclogite bodies are wrapped in highly sheared migmatite that yield 314-310 Ma monazite ages interpreted as the metamorphism and deformation age. Based on these relations we conclude that the Montagne Noire transdome developed a channel of partially molten crust that likely entrained eclogite bodies from the deep crust (~50 km) before ascending to the near-surface. One implication of this work is that the flowing crust was deeply seated in the orogen although it remained a poor recorder of peak pressure of metamorphism

  4. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  5. Sediment underthrusting within a continental magmatic arc: Coast Mountains batholith, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David M.; MacLeod, Douglas R.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Gehrels, George E.; Jonathan Patchett, P.

    2017-10-01

    Though continental magmatic arcs are factories for new continental crust, a significant proportion of continental arc magmas are recycled from supracrustal material. To evaluate the relative contributions of retroarc underthrusting and trench side partial sediment subduction for introducing supracrustal rocks to the middle and lower crust of continental magmatic arcs, we present results from the deeply exposed country rocks of the Coast Mountains batholith of western British Columbia. Prior work demonstrates that these rocks underwent widespread partial melting that contributed to the Coast Mountains batholith. We utilize U-Pb zircon geochronology, Sm-Nd thermochronology, and field-based studies to document the protoliths and early burial history of amphibolite and granulite-facies metasedimentary rocks in the Central Gneiss Complex. U-Pb detrital zircon data from the structurally highest sample localities yielded 190 Ma unimodal age peaks and suggest that retroarc rocks of the Stikine terrane constitute a substantial portion of the Central Gneiss Complex. These supracrustal rocks underwent thrust-related burial and metamorphism at >25 km depths prior to 80 Ma. These rocks may also be underlain at the deepest exposed structural levels by Upper Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks, which may have been emplaced as a result of trench side underplating or intraarc burial. These results further our understanding of the mechanisms of material transport within the continental lithosphere along Cordilleran subduction margins.

  6. New Insight Into the Crustal Structure of the Continental Margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Behain, D.; Meyer, H.

    2002-12-01

    The continental margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo (Malaysia) has been investigated with reflection and refraction seismics, magnetics, and gravity during the recent cruise BGR01-POPSCOMS. A total of 4000 km of geophysical profiles has been acquired, thereof 2900 km with reflection seismics. The focus of investigations was on the deep water areas. The margin looks like a typical accretionary margin and was presumably formed during the subduction of a proto South China Sea. Presently, no horizontal movements between the two plates are being observed. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere which is characterised by a pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and a carbonate platform of Early Oligocene to Early Miocene age. We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the Sabah Trough and the adjacent continental slope, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The tectonic pattern of the Dangerous Grounds' extended continental crust can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate. The magnetic anomalies which are dominated by the magnetic signatures of relatively young volcanic features also continue under the continental slope. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anomalies. Based on the new data we propose the following scenario for the development of the NW Sabah continental margin: Seafloor spreading in the present South China Sea started at about 30 Ma in the Late Oligocene. The spreading process separated the Dangerous Grounds area from the SE Asian continent and ceased in late Early Miocene when the oceanic crust of the proto South China Sea was fully subducted in eastward direction along the Borneo-Palawan Trough. During Lower and/or Middle Miocene, Borneo rotated counterclockwise and was

  7. Magmatic intrusions in the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, C.; Thorey, C.

    2015-10-01

    The lunar highlands are very old, with ages covering a timespan between 4.5 to 4.2 Gyr, and probably formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean. The lunar crust provides thus an invaluable evidence of the geological and magmatic processes occurring in the first times of the terrestrial planets history. According to the last estimates from the GRAIL mission, the lunar primary crust is particularly light and relatively thick [1] This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the dense primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basin: at least part of the crust must have been removed for the magma to reach the surface. However, the trajectory of the magma from the mantle to the surface is unknown. Using a model of magma emplacement below an elastic overlying layer with a flexural wavelength Λ, we characterize the surface deformations induced by the presence of shallow magmatic intrusions. We demonstrate that, depending on its size, the intrusion can show two different shapes: a bell shape when its radius is smaller than 4 times Λ or a flat top with small bended edges if its radius is larger than 4 times Λ[2]. These characteristic shapes for the intrusion result in characteristic deformations at the surface that also depend on the topography of the layer overlying the intrusion [3].Using this model we provide evidence of the presence of intrusions within the crust of the Moon as surface deformations in the form of low-slope lunar domes and floor-fractured craters. All these geological features have morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. Further more,at floor-fractured craters, the deformation is contained within the crater interior, suggesting that the overpressure at the origin of magma ascent and intrusion was less than the pressure due to the weight of the crust removed by

  8. U-Pb thermochronology of the lower crust: producing a long-term record of craton thermal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, T.; Bowring, S. A.; Mahan, K. H.; Perron, T.; Schoene, B.; Dudas, F. O.

    2010-12-01

    The EarthScope initiative is focused on providing an enhanced view of the North American lithosphere and the present day stress field of the North American continent. Of key interest is the interaction between convecting asthenosphere and the conducting lithospheric mantle that underlie the continents, especially the cold ‘keels’ that underlie Archean domains. Cratonic regions are in general characterized by minimal erosion and or sediment accumulation. The Integration of seismic tomography, and mantle xenolith studies reveal a keel of seismically fast and relatively buoyant and viscous mantle; physical properties that are intimately linked with the long-term stability and topographic expression of the region. Missing from this model of the continental lithosphere is the 4th dimension--time--and along with it our understanding of the long-term evolution of these stable continental interiors. Here we present a thermal record from the North American craton using U-Pb thermochronology of lower crustal xenoliths. The use of temperature sensitive dates on lower crustal samples can produce a unique time-temperature record for a well-insulated and slowly cooling lithosphere. The base of the crust is insulated enough to remain unperturbed by any plausible changes to surface topography, yet unlike the subadjacent lithospheric mantle, contains accessory phases amenable to U-Pb dating (rutile, apatite, titanite). With near steady state temperatures in the lower crust between 400-600 °C, U-Pb thermochronometers with similar average closure temperatures for Pb are perfectly suited to record the long-term cooling of the lithosphere. Xenoliths from multiple depths, and across the craton yield time-temperature paths produced from U-Pb thermochronometers that record extremely slow cooling (<0.25 °C/Ma) over time scales of billions of years. Combining these data with numerical thermal modeling allow constraints to be placed on the dominant heat transfer mechanisms operating

  9. Layer dividing and zone dividing of physical property of crust and deep structure in Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhua; Yang Yaxin; Gong Yuling; Huang Linping

    2001-01-01

    On the base of summing experiences both at home and abroad, the Bugar gravitative anomalies are studied by major means of data processing. According to the anomalous character, three layer crust models (surface layer, middle layer in region and material layer under crust) are built up, depth of upper and bottom surfaces for every layer is calculated quantitatively, their varied characters of depth are studied and deep geological tectonics are outlined. The 'density' and 'mass' of every layer are calculated, and according to these two parameters, the shallow geological tectonics are researched. The relation-factor R between the surface altitude and Bugar gravitative anomalies are calculated and the stable or unstable crust zones are divided. The favorable mine zones for uranium deposit in Jiangxi Province are outlined

  10. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element systematics of the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J.M.D.; Walker, R.J.; James, O.B.; Puchtel, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    Coupled 187Os/188Os and highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re) abundance data are reported for pristine lunar crustal rocks 60025, 62255, 65315 (ferroan anorthosites, FAN) and 76535, 78235, 77215 and a norite clast in 15455 (magnesian-suite rocks, MGS). Osmium isotopes permit more refined discrimination than previously possible of samples that have been contaminated by meteoritic additions and the new results show that some rocks, previously identified as pristine, contain meteorite-derived HSE. Low HSE abundances in FAN and MGS rocks are consistent with derivation from a strongly HSE-depleted lunar mantle. At the time of formation, the lunar floatation crust, represented by FAN, had 1.4 ?? 0.3 pg g- 1 Os, 1.5 ?? 0.6 pg g- 1 Ir, 6.8 ?? 2.7 pg g- 1 Ru, 16 ?? 15 pg g- 1 Pt, 33 ?? 30 pg g- 1 Pd and 0.29 ?? 0.10 pg g- 1 Re (??? 0.00002 ?? CI) and Re/Os ratios that were modestly elevated (187Re/188Os = 0.6 to 1.7) relative to CI chondrites. MGS samples are, on average, characterised by more elevated HSE abundances (??? 0.00007 ?? CI) compared with FAN. This either reflects contrasting mantle-source HSE characteristics of FAN and MGS rocks, or different mantle-crust HSE fractionation behaviour during production of these lithologies. Previous studies of lunar impact-melt rocks have identified possible elevated Ru and Pd in lunar crustal target rocks. The new results provide no supporting evidence for such enrichments. If maximum estimates for HSE in the lunar mantle are compared with FAN and MGS averages, crust-mantle concentration ratios (D-values) must be ??? 0.3. Such D-values are broadly similar to those estimated for partitioning between the terrestrial crust and upper mantle, with the notable exception of Re. Given the presumably completely different mode of origin for the primary lunar floatation crust and tertiary terrestrial continental crust, the potential similarities in crust-mantle HSE partitioning for the Earth and Moon are somewhat

  11. Biogeochemical signals from deep microbial life in terrestrial crust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohey Suzuki

    Full Text Available In contrast to the deep subseafloor biosphere, a volumetrically vast and stable habitat for microbial life in the terrestrial crust remains poorly explored. For the long-term sustainability of a crustal biome, high-energy fluxes derived from hydrothermal circulation and water radiolysis in uranium-enriched rocks are seemingly essential. However, the crustal habitability depending on a low supply of energy is unknown. We present multi-isotopic evidence of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in a granitic aquifer, a representative of the terrestrial crust habitat. Deep meteoric groundwater was collected from underground boreholes drilled into Cretaceous Toki granite (central Japan. A large sulfur isotopic fractionation of 20-60‰ diagnostic to microbial sulfate reduction is associated with the investigated groundwater containing sulfate below 0.2 mM. In contrast, a small carbon isotopic fractionation (<30‰ is not indicative of methanogenesis. Except for 2011, the concentrations of H2 ranged mostly from 1 to 5 nM, which is also consistent with an aquifer where a terminal electron accepting process is dominantly controlled by ongoing sulfate reduction. High isotopic ratios of mantle-derived 3He relative to radiogenic 4He in groundwater and the flux of H2 along adjacent faults suggest that, in addition to low concentrations of organic matter (<70 µM, H2 from deeper sources might partly fuel metabolic activities. Our results demonstrate that the deep biosphere in the terrestrial crust is metabolically active and playing a crucial role in the formation of reducing groundwater even under low-energy fluxes.

  12. DaMaSCUS-CRUST: Dark Matter Simulation Code for Underground Scatterings - Crust Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris

    2018-03-01

    DaMaSCUS-CRUST determines the critical cross-section for strongly interacting DM for various direct detection experiments systematically and precisely using Monte Carlo simulations of DM trajectories inside the Earth's crust, atmosphere, or any kind of shielding. Above a critical dark matter-nucleus scattering cross section, any terrestrial direct detection experiment loses sensitivity to dark matter, since the Earth crust, atmosphere, and potential shielding layers start to block off the dark matter particles. This critical cross section is commonly determined by describing the average energy loss of the dark matter particles analytically. However, this treatment overestimates the stopping power of the Earth crust; therefore, the obtained bounds should be considered as conservative. DaMaSCUS-CRUST is a modified version of DaMaSCUS (ascl:1706.003) that accounts for shielding effects and returns a precise exclusion band.

  13. A Geochemical View on the Interplay Between Earth's Mantle and Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Over most of Earth history, oceanic and continental crust was created and destroyed. The formation of both types of crust involves the crystallization and differentiation of magmas producing by mantle melting. Their destruction proceeds by mechanical erosion and weathering above sea level, chemical alteration on the seafloor, and bulk recycling in subduction zones. All these processes enrich of some chemical element and deplete others but each process has its own effect on chemical elements. While the flux of material from mantle to crust is well understood, the return flux is much more complex. In contrast to mantle processes, erosion, weathering, chemical alteration and sedimentary processes strongly decouple elements such as the rare earths and high-field strength elements due to their different solubilities in surface fluids and mineralogical sorting during transport. Soluble elements such as strontium or uranium are quantitatively transported to the ocean by rivers and decoupled from less soluble elements. Over geological time, such decoupling significantly influences the extent to which chemical elements remain at the Earth's surface or find their way back to the mantle through subduction zones. For example, elements like Hf or Nd are retained in heavy minerals on continents whereas U and Sr are transported to the oceans and then in subduction zones to the mantle. The consequence is that different radiogenic isotopic systems give disparate age estimates for the continental crust; e.g, Hf ages could be too old. In subduction zones, chemical elements are also decoupled, due to contrasting behavior during dehydration or melting in subducting slabs. The material sent back into the mantle is generally enriched in non-soluble elements while most fluid-mobile elements return to the crust. This, in turn, affects the relationship between the Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf and U-Th-Pb isotopic systems and creates correlations unlike those based on magmatic processes. By

  14. The continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle...... are consistent with modern geophysical data. In the lithospheric mantle of the continents, seismic velocity variations of a non-thermal origin (calculated from global Vs seismic tomography data [Grand S.P., 2002. Mantle shear-wave tomography and the fate of subducted slabs. Philosophical Transactions...... and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 16387–16414.] show strong correlation with tectono-thermal ages and with regional variations in lithospheric thickness constrained by surface heat flow data and seismic velocities. In agreement with xenolith data...

  15. Microbial Response to UV Exposure and Nitrogen Limitation in Desert Soil Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. M.; Van Mooy, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Microbiotic soil crusts have diverse biomarker distributions and C and N stable isotopic compositions that covary with soil type. Sparse plant cover and the relative lack of soil disturbance in arid/semi-arid landscapes allows populations of soil cyanobacteria to develop along with fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. Microbial communities in this extreme environment depend in part on the production of scytonemin, a UV protective pigment, by cyanobacteria near the top of the crust. N limitation of microbial growth also affects soil crust population dynamics, increasing the requirement of N2fixation by diazotrophic cyanobacteria. We collected 56 soil crust samples from 27 locations throughout the Great Salt Lake Desert, including four transects spanning high-elevation, erosion-dominated soils to lower elevation soils dominated by silt-accumulation. Erosion-dominated soil surfaces included rounded gravel and cobbles; in the interstices there were poorly-developed microbiotic crusts on sandy loam with low δ15N values near 0‰ that point toward microbial growth dependent on cyanobacterial N2 fixation. Nutrients regenerated by heterotrophic bacteria may have been eroded from the system, providing a positive feedback for N2 fixation. High scytonemin:chlorophyll a ratios suggest that cyanobacteria required enhanced protection from UV damage in these crusts. A similar increase in scytonemin:chlorophyll a ratio during soil crust rehydration experiments also points toward the importance of UV protection. Glycolipid:phospholipid ratios were lowest where N2 fixation was favored, however, suggesting that the cyanobacterial population was relatively small, possibly because of the metabolic cost of N2fixation. Microbiotic crusts on silt loam soils, on the other hand, had higher δ15N values between 3.5 and 7.8‰, consistent with heterotrophic growth and nutrient recycling. Lower scytonemin:chlorophyll a ratios suggest that relatively high photosynthetic activity was supported in

  16. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.

    2010-06-30

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  17. Study of stellar objects with strange quark matter crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hothi, N.; Bisht, S.

    2012-01-01

    The absolute stability of strange quark matter is a viable possibility and immensely effects physics at the astrophysical scale. Relativistic heavy-ion reactions offer a stage to produce this exotic state of matter and the enhanced production of strange particles during these reactions can be studied within the framework of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We have tried to investigate the role of strangeness under the compact star phenomenology. Emphasis is laid upon the possibility of existence of a third family of strange quark stars and its study help in revealing a number of unexplored features of the cosmos. Bag model parameters have been used to determine some integral parameters for a sequence of strange stars with crust and strange dwarfs constructed out of strange quark matter crust. A comparative analysis is performed between the strange and neutron stars and the strange and white dwarfs based upon these intrinsic parameters and paramount differences are observed. The intimacy between astrophysics and strange quarks depends strongly upon the strange quark matter hypothesis. It states that for a collection of more than a few hundred u, d and s quarks, the energy per baryon E/A of strange quark matter (SQM) can be well below the energy per baryon of the most stable atomic nuclei

  18. Development of a carbonate crust on alkaline nuclear waste sludge at the Hanford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jason S; Reynolds, Jacob G; Ely, Tom M; Cooke, Gary A

    2018-01-15

    Hard crusts on aging plutonium production waste have hindered the remediation of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington, USA. In this study, samples were analyzed to determine the cause of a hard crust that developed on the highly radioactive sludge during 20 years of inactivity in one of the underground tanks (tank 241-C-105). Samples recently taken from the crust were compared with those acquired before the crust appeared. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that aluminum and uranium phases at the surface had converted from (hydr)oxides (gibbsite and clarkeite) into carbonates (dawsonite and cejkaite) and identified trona as the cementing phase, a bicarbonate that formed at the expense of thermonatrite. Since trona is more stable at lower pH values than thermonatrite, the pH of the surface decreased over time, suggesting that CO 2 from the atmosphere lowered the pH. Thus, a likely cause of crust formation was the absorption of CO 2 from the air, leading to a reduction of the pH and carbonation of the waste surface. The results presented here help establish a model for how nuclear process waste can age and can be used to aid future remediation and retrieval activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 3D numerical simulations of multiphase continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naliboff, J.; Glerum, A.; Brune, S.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of rifted margin architecture suggest continental breakup occurs through multiple phases of extension with distinct styles of deformation. The initial rifting stages are often characterized by slow extension rates and distributed normal faulting in the upper crust decoupled from deformation in the lower crust and mantle lithosphere. Further rifting marks a transition to higher extension rates and coupling between the crust and mantle lithosphere, with deformation typically focused along large-scale detachment faults. Significantly, recent detailed reconstructions and high-resolution 2D numerical simulations suggest that rather than remaining focused on a single long-lived detachment fault, deformation in this phase may progress toward lithospheric breakup through a complex process of fault interaction and development. The numerical simulations also suggest that an initial phase of distributed normal faulting can play a key role in the development of these complex fault networks and the resulting finite deformation patterns. Motivated by these findings, we will present 3D numerical simulations of continental rifting that examine the role of temporal increases in extension velocity on rifted margin structure. The numerical simulations are developed with the massively parallel finite-element code ASPECT. While originally designed to model mantle convection using advanced solvers and adaptive mesh refinement techniques, ASPECT has been extended to model visco-plastic deformation that combines a Drucker Prager yield criterion with non-linear dislocation and diffusion creep. To promote deformation localization, the internal friction angle and cohesion weaken as a function of accumulated plastic strain. Rather than prescribing a single zone of weakness to initiate deformation, an initial random perturbation of the plastic strain field combined with rapid strain weakening produces distributed normal faulting at relatively slow rates of extension in both 2D and

  20. Crustal structure variations along the NW-African continental margin: A comparison of new and existing models from wide-angle and reflection seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Biari, Youssef; Sahabi, Mohamed; Aslanian, Daniel; Schnabel, Michael; Matias, Luis; Benabdellouahed, Massinissa; Funck, Thomas; Gutscher, Marc-André; Reichert, Christian; Austin, James A.

    2016-04-01

    Deep seismic data represent a key to understand the geometry and mechanism of continental rifting. The passive continental margin of NW-Africa is one of the oldest on earth, formed during the Upper Triassic-Lower Liassic rifting of the central Atlantic Ocean over 200 Ma. We present new and existing wide-angle and reflection seismic data from four study regions along the margin located in the south offshore DAKHLA, on the central continental margin offshore Safi, in the northern Moroccan salt basin, and in the Gulf of Cadiz. The thickness of unthinned continental crust decreases from 36 km in the North to about 27 km in the South. Crustal thinning takes place over a region of 150 km in the north and only 70 km in the south. The North Moroccan Basin is underlain by highly thinned continental crust of only 6-8 km thickness. The ocean-continent transition zone shows a variable width between 40 and 70 km and is characterized by seismic velocities in between those of typical oceanic and thinned continental crust. The neighbouring oceanic crust is characterized by a thickness of 7-8 km along the complete margin. Relatively high velocities of up to 7.5 km/s have been imaged between magnetic anomalies S1 and M25, and are probably related to changes in the spreading velocities at the time of the Kimmeridgian/Tithonian plate reorganization. Volcanic activity seems to be mostly confined to the region next to the Canary Islands, and is thus not related to the initial opening of the ocean, which was associated to only weak volcanism. Comparison with the conjugate margin off Nova Scotia shows comparable continental crustal structures, but 2-3 km thinner oceanic crust on the American side than on the African margin.

  1. Assessing the Nature of Crust in the Central Red Sea Using Potential Fields and Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W.; Mitchell, N. C.; Kalnins, L. M.; A Y, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Red Sea is considered an important example of a rifted continental shield proceeding to a seafloor spreading stage of development, and the transition of crustal types there from stretched continental to oceanic should mark the onset of significant mantle melting. However, whether the crust in the central Red Sea is continental or oceanic has been controversial. To contribute to this debate, we assessed the geometry of the basement from potential fields and seismic reflection data. Prior interpretations of basement in deep seismic reflection profiles were first verified using Werner deconvolution of marine magnetic data. The seismic depths were then used to reconstruct basement depth corrected for evaporite and other sediment loading. We found that the basement deepening with distance is similar to that of oceanic crust near mantle plumes such as the Reykjanes Ridge. In both cases, the data show a 35-80 km wide axial plateau followed by a steep 0.4-1.7 km deepening over 30-50 km distance. It has also been suggested that the variability of free-air anomalies observed in lines parallel to the axis is due to crossing oceanic short-offset fracture zones. We assessed this idea by inverting the gravity anomalies for basement relief. Using densities appropriate for oceanic crust and a modified slab formula, we found values for root-mean square (RMS) relief that are comparable to those of weakly sedimented regions of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Forward calculations using 2D modelling revealed that the errors in RMS basement relief caused by the slab approximation are 30%, leaving true RMS basement relief still within the range of values for oceanic crust. While these observations by themselves do not rule out an extremely extended continental crust interpretation, combined with previous analysis of refraction velocities, which are oceanic-like, they are supportive of an oceanic crustal interpretation. Additionally, the RMS values and the cross-axis basement relief both

  2. Crustal structure variations along the NW-African continental margin: a comparison of new and existing models from wide angle and reflection seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biari, Y.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Sahabi, M.; Aslanian, D.; Philippe, S.; Louden, K. E.; Berglar, K.; Moulin, M.; Mehdi, K.; Graindorge, D.; Evain, M.; Benabellouahed, M.; Reichert, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Deep seismic data represent a key to understand the geometry and mechanism of continental rifting. The passive continental margin of NW-Africa is one of the oldest on earth, formed during the Upper Triassic-Lower Liassic rifting of the central Atlantic Ocean over 200 Ma. We present new and existing wide-angle and reflection seismic data from three study regions along the margin located in the North Moroccan salt basin, on the central continental margin offshore Safi and in the south, offshore Dakhla. In each of the study areas several combined wide-angle and reflection seismic profiles perpendicular and parallel to the margin have been acquired and forward modelled using comparable methods. The thickness of unthinned continental crust decreases from 36 km in the North to about 27 km in the South. In the North Moroccan Basin continental crust thins from originally 36 km to about 8 km in a 150 km wide zone. The basin itself is underlain by highly thinned continental crust. Offshore safi thinning of the continental crust is confined to a 130 km wide zone with no neighboring sedimentary basin underlain by continental crust. In both areas the zone of crustal thinning is characterised by the presence of large blocks and abundant salt diapirs. In the south crustal thinning is more rapid in a zone of 90 km and asymmetric with the upper crust thinning more closely to the continent than the lower crust, probably due to depth-dependent stretching and the presence of the precambrian Reguibat Ridge on land. Oceanic crust is characterised by a thickness of 7-8 km along the complete margin. Relatively high velocities of up to 7.5 km/s have been imaged between magnetic anomalies S1 and M25, and are probably related to changes in the spreading velocities at the time of the Kimmeridgian/Tithonian plate reorganisation. Volcanic activity seems to be confined to the region next to the Canary Islands, and is thus not related to the initial opening of the oceanic, which was related to no

  3. Crust and upper mantle structure in the Caribbean region by group velocity tomography and regionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, Gonzalez; Alvarez, L.; Chimera, G.; Panza, G.F.

    2004-04-01

    An overview of the crust and upper mantle structure of the Central America and Caribbean region is presented as a result of the processing of more than 200 seismograms recorded by digital broadband stations from SSSN and GSN seismic networks. By FTAN analysis of the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh waves, group velocity dispersion curves are obtained in the period range from 10 s to 40 s; the error of these measurements varies from 0.06 and 0.10 km/s. From the dispersion curves, seven tomographic maps at different periods and with average spatial resolution of 500 km are obtained. Using the logical combinatorial classification techniques, eight main groups of dispersion curves are determined from the tomographic maps and eleven main regions, each one characterized by one kind of dispersion curves, are identified. The average dispersion curves obtained for each region are extended to 150 s by adding data from the tomographic study of and inverted using a non-linear procedure. As a result of the inversion process, a set of models of the S-wave velocity vs. depth in the crust and upper mantle are found. In six regions, we identify a typically oceanic crust and upper mantle structure, while in the other two the models are consistent with the presence of a continental structure. Two regions, located over the major geological zones of the accretionary crust of the Caribbean region, are characterized by a peculiar crust and upper mantle structure, indicating the presence of lithospheric roots reaching, at least, about 200 km of depth. (author)

  4. Hafnium isotope stratigraphy of ferromanganese crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee; Halliday; Hein; Burton; Christensen; Gunther

    1999-08-13

    A Cenozoic record of hafnium isotopic compositions of central Pacific deep water has been obtained from two ferromanganese crusts. The crusts are separated by more than 3000 kilometers but display similar secular variations. Significant fluctuations in hafnium isotopic composition occurred in the Eocene and Oligocene, possibly related to direct advection from the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Hafnium isotopic compositions have remained approximately uniform for the past 20 million years, probably reflecting increased isolation of the central Pacific. The mechanisms responsible for the increase in (87)Sr/(86)Sr in seawater through the Cenozoic apparently had no effect on central Pacific deep-water hafnium.

  5. The effects of thick sediment upon continental breakup: seismic imaging and thermal modeling of the Salton Trough, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L.; Hole, J. A.; Lowell, R. P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kell, A. M.; Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lázaro-Mancilla, O.

    2015-12-01

    Continental rifting ultimately creates a deep accommodation space for sediment. When a major river flows into a late-stage rift, thick deltaic sediment can change the thermal regime and alter the mechanisms of extension and continental breakup. The Salton Trough, the northernmost rift segment of the Gulf of California plate boundary, has experienced the same extension as the rest of the Gulf, but is filled to sea level by sediment from the Colorado River. Unlike the southern Gulf, seafloor spreading has not initiated. Instead, seismicity, high heat flow, and minor volcanoes attest to ongoing rifting of thin, transitional crust. Recently acquired controlled-source seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection data in the Salton Trough provide constraints upon crustal architecture and active rift processes. The crust in the central Salton Trough is only 17-18 km thick, with a strongly layered but relatively one-dimensional structure for ~100 km in the direction of plate motion. The upper crust includes 2-4 km of Colorado River sediment. Crystalline rock below the sediment is interpreted to be similar sediment metamorphosed by the high heat flow and geothermal activity. Meta-sediment extends to at least 9 km depth. A 4-5 km thick layer in the middle crust is either additional meta-sediment or stretched pre-existing continental crust. The lowermost 4-5 km of the crust is rift-related mafic magmatic intrusion or underplating from partial melting in the hot upper mantle. North American lithosphere in the Salton Trough has been almost or completely rifted apart. The gap has been filled by ~100 km of new transitional crust created by magmatism from below and sedimentation from above. These processes create strong lithologic, thermal, and rheologic layering. While heat flow in the rift is very high, rapid sedimentation cools the upper crust as compared to a linear geotherm. Brittle extension occurs within new meta-sedimentary rock. The lower crust, in comparison, is

  6. Convergent tectonics and coastal upwelling: a history of the Peru continental margin ( Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Suess, E.; Emeis, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Late in 1986, scientists on the ODP drillship JOIDES Resolution confirmed that the upper slope of the Peruvian margin consists of continental crust whereas the lower slope comprises an accretionary complex. An intricate history of horizontal and vertical movements can be detected, and the locations of ancient centers of upwelling appear to have varied, partly due to tectonic movements of the margin. In this review of Leg 112, the 3 scientific leaders on this cruise discuss their results. -from Journal Editor

  7. Crust growth and gas retention in synthetic Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of the work described here is to examine the principal contributing factors leading to slurry growth and gas retention within waste from a particular high-level waste tanks on the Hanford Site. Laboratory studies of aged synthetic waste have shown that the waste retains gases in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles. This attachment phenomenon is related to the presence of organic constituents (HEDTA, EDTA, and citrate) added to the waste matrix. The mechanism for bubble attachment is related to the hydrophobic surface produced by the organic complexant. The formation of a stable gas bubble/solid interaction is believed to be responsible for crust flotation and gas retention in the synthetic waste used here

  8. Anomalous heat flow belt along the continental margin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Valiya M.; Vieira, Fabio P.; Silva, Raquel T. A.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of thermal gradient and heat flow data was carried out for sedimentary basins situated in the continental margin of Brazil (CMB). The results point to the existence of a narrow belt within CMB, where temperature gradients are higher than 30 °C/km and the heat flow is in excess of 70 mW/m2. This anomalous geothermal belt is confined between zones of relatively low to normal heat flow in the adjacent continental and oceanic regions. The width of the belt is somewhat variable, but most of it falls within the range of 100-300 km. The spatial extent is relatively large in the southern (in the basins of Pelotas, Santos and Campos) and northern (in the basins of Potiguar and Ceará) parts, when compared with those in the central parts (in the basins of South Bahia, Sergipe and Alagoas). The characteristics of heat flow anomalies appear to be compatible with those produced by thermal sources at depths in the lower crust. Hence, magma emplacement at the transition zone between lower crust and upper mantle is considered the likely mechanism producing such anomalies. Seismicity within the belt is relatively weak, with focal depths less than 10 km for most of the events. Such observations imply that "tectonic bonding" between continental and oceanic segments, at the transition zone of CMB, is relatively weak. Hence, it is proposed that passive margins like CMB be considered as constituting a type of plate boundary that is aseismic at sub-crustal levels, but allows for escape of significant amounts of earth's internal heat at shallow depths.

  9. Using 81Kr-age of groundwater in the Guarani Aquifer, Brazil, to constrain estimates of continental degassing flux of 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Matsumoto, T.; Sturchio, N. C.; Chang, H. K.; Gastmans, D.; Lu, Z.; Jiang, W.; Müller, P.; Yokochi, R.; Han, L.; Klaus, P.; Torgersen, T.

    2013-12-01

    Continental degassing flux of helium is the dominant component of dissolved helium in deep groundwater together with that produced in-situ in the aquifer. A reliable estimate of the degassing flux is critical to the use of 4He as a dating tool in groundwater studies. The degassing flux is also important for understanding fluid and heat transport in the mantle and the rust. An independent tracer of groundwater age is required in order to deconvolute the two signals of the external, degassing flux and in situ production. Estimates of degassing flux mostly have relied upon shorter-lived radionuclides such as 14C and tritium and the resulting flux estimates have a significant variability (Torgersen, 2010). In the Guarani Aquifer in Brazil, an effective crustal 4He degassing flux into the aquifer was estimated from 81Kr ages ranging from about 70 Ka to 570 Ka. We then used the model framework of Toregesen and Ivey (1985), modified to include a diffusive reduction of originally uniform crustal helium flux from basement rocks through a thick sedimentary layer beneath the aquifer, to calculate a distribution of radiogenic 4He within the aquifer. With this framework, we obtain 4He ages that are consistent with ages based on 81Kr and 14C, and with a crustal degassing flux equivalent to that estimated from U and Th contents in the crust. The model framework for the Guarani Aquifer is also applied to data from other deep aquifers in Africa and Australia and our results suggest that the continental flux of 4He may be uniform, at least in stable continental areas. Additionally, a reliable estimate of the 4He degassing flux also helps to constrain the surficial discharge of deep groundwater.

  10. Detachments of the subducted Indian continental lithosphere based on 3D finite-frequency tomographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X.; Tian, X.; Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Indian plate collided with Eurasian plate at 60 Ma and there are about 3000 km crustal shortening since the continental-continental collision. At least one third of the total amount of crustal shortening between Indian and Eurasian plates could not be accounted by thickened Tibetan crust and surface erosion. It will need a combination of possible transfer of lower crust to the mantle by eclogitization and lateral extrusion. Based on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary images beneath the Tibetan plateau, there is also at least the same amount deficit for lithospheric mantle subducted into upper/lower mantle or lateral extrusion with the crust. We have to recover a detailed Indian continental lithosphere image beneath the plateau in order to explain this deficit of mass budget. Combining the new teleseismic body waves recorded by SANDWICH passive seismic array with waveforms from several previous temporary seismic arrays, we carried out finite-frequency tomographic inversions to image three-dimensional velocity structures beneath southern and central Tibetan plateau to examine the possible image of subducted Indian lithosphere in the Tibetan upper mantle. We have recovered a continuous high velocity body in upper mantle and piece-wised high velocity anomalies in the mantle transition zone. Based on their geometry and relative locations, we interpreted these high velocity anomalies as the subducted and detached Indian lithosphere at different episodes of the plateau evolution. Detachments of the subducted Indian lithosphere should have a crucial impact on the volcanism activities and uplift history of the plateau.

  11. Ductile extension of syn-magmatic lower crusts, with application to volcanic passive margins: the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidault, Marie; Geoffroy, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Aubourg, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Deep seismic reflection profiles of present-day volcanic passive margins often show a 2-layered lower crust, from top to bottom: an apparently ductile 12 km-thick middle-lower layer (LC1) of strong folded reflectors and a 4 km-thick supra-Moho layer (LC2) of horizontal and parallel reflectors. Those layers appear to be structurally disconnected and to develop at the early stages of margins evolution. A magmatic origin has been suggested by several studies to explain those strong reflectors, favoring mafic sills intrusion hypothesis. Overlying mafic and acidic extrusives (Seaward Dipping Reflectors sequences) are bounded by continentward-dipping detachment faults rooting in, and co-structurated with, the ductile part of the lower crust (LC1). Consequently the syn-rift to post-rift evolution of volcanic passive margins (and passive margins in general) largely depends on the nature and the properties of the lower crust, yet poorly understood. We propose to investigate the properties and rheology of a magma-injected extensional lower crust with a field analogue, the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy). The Ivrea Zone displays a complete back-thrusted section of a Variscan continental lower crust that first underwent gravitational collapse, and then lithospheric extension. This Late Paleozoic extension was apparently associated with the continuous intrusion of a large volume of mafic to acid magma. Both the magma timing and volume, and the structure of the Ivrea lower crust suggest that this section represents an adequate analogue of a syn-magmatic in-extension mafic rift zone which aborted at the end of the Permian. Notably, we may recognize the 2 layers LC1 and LC2. From a number of tectonic observations, we reconstitute the whole tectonic history of the area, focusing on the strain field evolution with time, in connection with mafic magma injection. We compare those results with available data from extensional mafic lower crusts at rifts and margins.

  12. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  13. Dew formation and activity of biological crusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veste, M.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Breckle, S.W.; Littmann, T.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are prominent in many drylands and can be found in diverse parts of the globe including the Atacama desert, Chile, the Namib desert, Namibia, the Succulent-Karoo desert, South Africa, and the Negev desert, Israel. Because precipitation can be negligible in deserts ¿ the

  14. Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushikubo, Takayuki; Kita, Noriko T.; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Valley, John W.

    2008-08-01

    In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60 ppm) are commonly over 10,000 times higher than in zircons crystallized from mantle-derived magmas and in mantle-derived zircon megacrysts (typically Jack Hills zircons also have fractionated lithium isotope ratios ( δ7Li = - 19 to + 13‰) about five times more variable than those recorded in primitive ocean floor basalts (2 to 8‰), but similar to continental crust and its weathering products. Values of δ7Li below - 10‰ are found in zircons that formed as early as 4300 Ma. The high Li compositions indicate that primitive magmas were not the source of Jack Hills zircons and the fractionated values of δ7Li suggest that highly weathered regolith was sampled by these early Archean magmas. These new Li data provide evidence that the parent magmas of ancient zircons from Jack Hills incorporated materials from the surface of the Earth that interacted at low temperature with liquid water. These data support the hypothesis that continental-type crust and oceans existed by 4300 Ma, within 250 million years of the formation of Earth and the low values of δ7Li suggest that weathering was extensive in the early Archean.

  15. Characterization of Carbonate Crust from Deep-sea Methane Seeps on the Northern US Atlantic Margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabitov, R. I.; Borrelli, C.; Buettner, J.; Testa, M.; Garner, B.; Weremeichik, J.; Thomas, J. B.; Wahidi, M.; Thirumalai, R. V. K. G.; Kirkland, B. L.; Skarke, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Authigenic carbonate minerals widely occur at the seafloor as carbonate crusts and are often directly linked to microbial activity, about which promotion of carbonate crystal growth and geochemistry are not entirely understood. To evaluate a potential metabolic contribution, studies were conducted on carbonate crust collected from a methane seep and on precipitation experiments which produced inorganic aragonite crystallized at high pressure. Among the samples collected during a NSF sponsored cruise to the North Atlantic Continental Margin of the United States (off of New England) in July-August 2016, we analyzed one carbonate crust sample (AD4835 BB-4522) collected at 39.805860; -69.592593 and at a depth of 1419.6 m. In this crust sample, two textural types of aragonite were identified: 1) groundmass consisting of fine grey crystals (100 µm, 24.9 wt%), feldspar (5.6 wt%), and dolomite (3.6 wt%), and trace amount of troilite were identified using XRD, SEM, and optical microscopy. The sample was cut into slabs parallel to crust growth assuming the crust grew in a downward direction. Concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Sr, Zr, Ba, and U were measured in the direction parallel to growth of the crust using LA-ICP-MS. Proportions of Si, Al, (Na+K), Mg, S, and Fe in the groundmass suggest the occurrence of sub-micron inclusions of alkali feldspar, and potentially pyroxene, Fe oxide, and Fe sulfide, which were impossible to avoid with the instrument's spatial resolution. The occurrence of micro non-carbonate inclusions causes high elemental concentrations compared to the values expected for aragonite crystallized from seawater. White aragonite acicular crystals were free of silicate and sulfide inclusions, and therefore, yielded lower concentrations of all measured elements except Sr compared to the groundmass. Analyzed Mg and Sr are consistent with published data for deep-sea corals. Also, Sr is similar to experimental data on inorganic aragonite. Mg

  16. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  17. Lead isotope evolution across the Neoproterozoic boundary between craton and juvenile crust, Bayuda Desert, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evuk, David; Lucassen, Friedrich; Franz, Gerhard

    2017-11-01

    Metaigneous mafic and ultramafic rocks from the juvenile Neoproterozoic Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) and the Proterozoic, reworked Saharan Metacraton (SMC) have been analysed for major- and trace elements and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes. Most of the rocks are amphibolites metamorphosed at amphibolite facies conditions, some with relicts of a granulite facies stage. The other rocks are metapyroxenites, metagabbros, and some ultramafic rocks. Trace element compositions of the metabasaltic (dominantly tholeiitic) rocks resemble the patterns of island arcs and primitive lavas from continental arcs. Variable Sr and Nd isotope ratios indicate depleted mantle dominance for most of the samples. 207Pb/204Pb signatures distinguish between the influence of high 207Pb/204Pb old SMC crust and depleted mantle signatures of the juvenile ANS crust. The Pb isotope signatures for most metabasaltic rocks, metapyroxenites and metagabbros from SMC indicate an autochthonous formation. The interpretation of the new data together with published evidence from mafic xenoliths on SMC and ophiolite from ANS allows an extrapolation of mantle evolution in time. There are two lines of evolution in the regional mantle, one, which incorporates potential upper crust material during Neoproterozoic, and a second one with a depleted mantle signature since pre-Neoproterozoic that still is present in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden spreading centres.

  18. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  19. Orogenic inheritance and continental breakup: Wilson Cycle-control on rift and passive margin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, C.; Petersen, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Rifts often develop along suture zones between previously collided continents, as part of the Wilson cycle. The North Atlantic is such an example, formed where Pangaea broke apart along Caledonian and Variscan sutures. Dipping upper mantle structures in E. Greenland and Scotland, have been interpreted as fossil subduction zones and the seismic signature indicates the presence of eclogite and serpentinite. We speculate that this orogenic material may impose a rheological control upon post-orogenic extension and we use thermo-mechanical modelling to explore such effects. Our model includes the following features: 1) Crustal thickness anomalies, 2) Eclogitised mafic crust emplaced in the mantle lithosphere, and 3) Hydrated mantle peridotite (serpentinite) formed in a pre-rift subduction setting. Our models indicate that the inherited structures control the location and the structural and magmatic evolution of the rift. Rifting of thin initial crust allows for relatively large amounts of serpentinite to be preserved within the uppermost mantle. This facilitates rapid continental breakup and serpentinite exhumation. Magmatism does not occur before continental breakup. Rifts in thicker crust preserve little or no serpentinite and thinning is more focused in the mantle lithosphere, rather than in the crust. Continental breakup is therefore preceded by magmatism. This implies that pre-rift orogenic properties may determine whether magma-poor or magma-rich conjugate margins are formed. Our models show that inherited orogenic eclogite and serpentinite are deformed and partially emplaced either as dipping structures within the lithospheric mantle or at the base of the thinned continental crust. The former is consistent with dipping sub-Moho reflectors often observed in passive margins. The latter provides an alternative interpretation of `lower crustal bodies' which are often regarded as igneous bodies. An additional implication of our models is that serpentinite, often

  20. Petrologic Constraints on Iceland's Lower Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Leftwich, T. E.; Barton, M.

    2005-05-01

    Iceland is an area of relatively thick ocean crust that straddles the spreading MAR. Iceland was created by seafloor spreading originating about 55 Ma above abnormally hot mantle. The high temperatures resulted in greater melt volumes that enhanced crustal thickening. Geophysical investigations provide fundamental insight on crustal features, but results are contradictory. Early seismic, magneto-telluric, and resistivity studies predicted thin crust with partial melt regions at depths of 10-15 km beneath the neovolcanic zones. Reinterpretations based on recent seismic studies suggest thicker and cooler crust. These studies have shown magma lenses at shallow depths beneath volcanic centers, but cannot confirm their presence in the lower crust. Knowledge of the depth of magma chambers is critical to constrain the geothermal gradients in Icelandic crust and to resolve discrepancies in interpretation of geophysical data. Analyses of glasses in Icelandic lavas erupted from 11 volcanic centers throughout the rift zones have been compiled. The pressures of equilibration of these liquids with ol, high-Ca pyx, and plag were estimated qualitatively from projections into the pseudoternary system Ol-Di-Qtz. The results (ca. 0.6 GPa) indicate crystallization in magma chambers located at about 20 km depth. Equilibrium pressures also have been calculated quantitatively. These results (0.6±0.2 GPa) indicate magma chambers at 19.8±6.5 km depth beneath the volcanic centers. Magma chamber at these depths are located in the lower crust inferring that it must be relatively warm. Geothermal gradients have been calculated using the depths of the sourcing magma chambers and any shallow seismically detected magma chambers at each location. An average crustal composition has been calculated from the compiled geochemical data and was used to calculate density variations and seismic velocities along the geotherms. The distribution of sample locations in this study provides sufficient data

  1. New Insight Into The Crustal Structure of The Continental Margin Off NW Sabah/borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Behain, D.; Meyer, H.

    The continental margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo (Malaysia) has been investigated with reflection and refraction seismics, magnetics, and gravity during the recent cruise BGR01-POPSCOMS. A total of 4000 km of geophysical profiles has been acquired, thereof 2900 km with reflection seismics. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere. We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the continental slope land- ward of the Trough, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The characteristic pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and the carbon- ates which are observed all over the Dangerous Grounds can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate. The magnetic anomalies which are dominated by the magnetic signatures of relatively young volcanic features also continue under the continental slope. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anoma- lies. We suspect that the volcanic activity coincided with the collision of Borneo and the Dangerous Grounds in middle or late Miocene time. The emplacement of an al- lochtonous terrane on top of the extended continental lithosphere could be explained by overthrusting as a result of the collision or it could be related to gravity sliding following a broad uplift of NW Borneo at the same time.

  2. Characteristics and management options of crusting soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to control the crusting. The relationship between crust thickness and soil physical and chemical properties and management practices were assessed using stepwise regression analysis. Soil crusting was largely related to soil aggregation, infiltration, fine sand fraction, cotton monocropping and crop residue incorporation.

  3. Influence of substrate rocks on Fe-Mn crust composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Morgan, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Principal Component and other statistical analyses of chemical and mineralogical data of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide crusts and their underlying rock substrates in the central Pacific indicate that substrate rocks do not influence crust composition. Two ridges near Johnston Atoll were dredged repetitively and up to seven substrate rock types were recovered from small areas of similar water depths. Crusts were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for 24 elements, and substrates were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for the 10 major oxides. Compositions of crusts on phosphatized substrates are distinctly different from crusts on substrates containing no phosphorite. However, that relationship only indicates that the episodes of phosphatization that mineralized the substrate rocks also mineralized the crusts that grew on them. A two-fold increase in copper contents in crusts that grew on phosphatized clastic substrate rocks, relative to crusts on other substrate rock types, is also associated with phosphatization and must have resulted from chemical reorganization during diagenesis. Phosphatized crusts show increases in Sr, Zn, Ca, Ba, Cu, Ce, V, and Mo contents and decreases in Fe, Si, and As contents relative to non-phosphatized crusts. Our statistical results support previous studies which show that crust compositions reflect predominantly direct precipitation from seawater (hydrogenetic), and to lesser extents reflect detrital input and diagenetic replacement of parts of the older crust generation by carbonate fluorapatite.

  4. Permeability of crust is key to crispness retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirte, A.; Hamer, R.J.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Primo-Martin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Bread loses crispness rapidly after baking because water originating from the wet crumb accumulates in the dry crust. This water accumulation might be increased by the dense and low permeable character of the bread crust. Our objective was to investigate the influence of permeability of the crust on

  5. Continental Subduction: Mass Fluxes and Interactions with the Wider Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Substantial parts of ultra-high pressure (UHP) terrains probably represent subducted passive continental margins (PCM). This contribution reviews and synthesises research on processes operating in such systems and their implication for the wider Earth system. PCM sediments are large repositories of volatiles including hydrates, nitrogen species, carbonates and hydrocarbons. Sediments and upper/ mid-crustal basement are rich in incompatible elements and are fertile for melting. Lower crust may be more mafic and refractory. Juvenile rift-related mafic rocks also have the potential to generate substantial volumes of granitoid melts, especially if they have been hydrated. Exposed UHP terrains demonstrate the return of continental crust from mantle depths, show evidence for substantial fluxes of aqueous fluid, anatexis and, in entrained orogenic peridotites, metasomatism of mantle rocks by crust- derived C-O-H fluids. However, substantial bodies of continental material may never return to the surface as coherent masses of rock, but remain sequestered in the mantle where they melt or become entrained in the deeper mantle circulation. Hence during subduction, PCM's become partitioned by a range of mechanisms. Mechanical partitioning strips away weaker sediment and middle/upper crust, which circulate back up the subduction channel, while denser, stronger transitional pro-crust and lower crust may "stall" near the base of the lithosphere or be irreversibly subducted to join the global mantle circulation. Under certain conditions sediment and upper crustal basement may reach depths for UHPM. Further partitioning takes place by anatexis, which either aids stripping and exhumation of the more melt-prone rock-masses through mechanical softening, or separates melt from residuum so that melt escapes and is accreted to the upper plate leading to "undercrusting", late-orogenic magmatism and further refinement of the crust. Melt that traverses sections of mantle will interact with

  6. The strontium isotopic composition of seawater, and seawater-oceanic crust interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, E.T.C.

    1976-01-01

    The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater strontium (0.7091) is less than the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of dissolved strontium delivered to the oceans by continental run-off (approximately 0.716). Isotope exchange with strontium isotopically lighter oceanic crust during hydrothermal convection within spreading oceanic ridges can explain this observation. In quantitative terms, the current 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater (0.7091) may be maintained by balancing the continental run-off flux of strontium (0.59 x 10 12 g/yr) against a hydrothermal recirculation flux of 3.6 x 10 12 g/yr, during which the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater drops by 0.0011. A concomitant mean increase in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the upper 4.5 km of oceanic crust of 0.0010 (0.7029-0.7039) should be produced. This required 87 Sr enrichment has been observed in hydrothermally metamorphosed ophiolitic rocks from the Troodos Massif, Cyprus. The post-Upper Cretaceous increase in the strontium isotopic composition of seawater (approximately 0.7075-0.7091) covaries smoothly with inferred increase in land area. This suggests that during this period the main factor which has caused variability in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater strontium could have been variation in the magnitude of the continental run-off flux caused by variation in land area. Variations in land area may themselves have been partly a consequence of variations in global mean sea-floor spreading rate. (Auth.)

  7. The Origin of Silicic Arc Crust - Insights from the Northern Pacific Volcanic Arcs through Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, S. M.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    The remarkable compositional similarities of andesitic crust at modern convergent margins and the continental crust has long evoked the hypothesis of similar origins. Key to understanding either genesis is understanding the mode of silica enrichment. Silicic crust cannot be directly extracted from the upper mantle. Hence, in modern arcs, numerous studies - observant of the pervasive and irrefutable evidence of melt mixing - proposed that arc andesites formed by mixing of mantle-derived basaltic melts and fusible silicic material from the overlying crust. Mass balance requires the amount of silicic crust in such hybrid andesites to be on the order to tens of percent, implying that their composition to be perceptibly influenced by the various crustal basements. In order to test this hypothesis, major and trace element compositions of mafic and silicic arc magmas with arc-typical low Ce/PbMexico) were combined with Pb isotope ratios. Pb isotope ratios are considered highly sensitive to crustal contamination, and hence should reflect the variable composition of the oceanic and continental basement on which these arcs are constructed. In particular, in thick-crust continental arcs where the basement is isotopically different from the mantle and crustal assimilation thought to be most prevalent, silicic magmas must be expected to be distinct from those of the associated mafic melts. However, in a given arc, the Pb isotope ratios are constant with increasing melt silica regardless of the nature of the basement. This observation argues against a melt origin of silicic melts from the crustal basement and suggest them to be controlled by the same slab flux as their co-eval mafic counterparts. This inference is validated by the spatial and temporal pattern of arc Pb isotope ratios along the Northern Pacific margins and throughout the 50 million years of Cenozoic evolution of the Izu Bonin Mariana arc/trench system that are can be related to with systematic, `real

  8. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruester, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

  9. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  10. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  11. Seismic imaging of lithospheric discontinuities and continental evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M. G.

    1999-09-01

    Discontinuities in physical properties within the continental lithosphere reflect a range of processes that have contributed to craton stabilization and evolution. A survey of recent seismological studies concerning lithospheric discontinuities is made in an attempt to document their essential characteristics. Results from long-period seismology are inconsistent with the presence of continuous, laterally invariant, isotropic boundaries within the upper mantle at the global scale. At regional scales, two well-defined interfaces termed H (˜60 km depth) and L (˜200 km depth) of continental affinity are identified, with the latter boundary generally exhibiting an anisotropic character. Long-range refraction profiles are frequently characterized by subcontinental mantle that exhibits a complex stratification within the top 200 km. The shallow layering of this package can behave as an imperfect waveguide giving rise to the so-called teleseismic Pn phase, while the L-discontinuity may define its lower base as the culmination of a low velocity zone. High-resolution, seismic reflection profiling provides sufficient detail in a number of cases to document the merging of mantle interfaces into lower continental crust below former collisional sutures and magmatic arcs, thus unambiguously identifying some lithospheric discontinuities with thrust faults and subducted oceanic lithosphere. Collectively, these and other seismic observations point to a continental lithosphere whose internal structure is dominated by a laterally variable, subhorizontal layering. This stratigraphy appears to be more pronounced at shallower lithospheric levels, includes dense, anisotropic layers of order 10 km in thickness, and exhibits horizontal correlation lengths comparable to the lateral dimensions of overlying crustal blocks. A model of craton evolution which relies on shallow subduction as a principal agent of craton stabilization is shown to be broadly compatible with these characteristics.

  12. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  13. CENOZOIC CONTINENTAL RIFTING SYMPOSIUM DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF ACADEMICIAN N.A. LOGATCHEV, IRKUTSK, RUSSIA, JUNE 7–11, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene V. Sklyarov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The information on the «Cenozoic Continental Rifting» Symposium dedicated to the memory of Academician N.A. Logachev is presented. It was held on June 7–11, 2010 at the Institute of the Earth’s Crust, Irkutsk. The scope of conference is presented.

  14. [Biological soil crust nitrogenase activity and its responses to hydro-thermic factors in different erosion regions on the Loess Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jiao; Zhao, Yun-Ge; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Li-Na; Wang, Ai-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Based on field survey, the biological soil crusts at their stable development stage were collected from the water erosion region, water-wind erosion region, and wind erosion region on the Loess Plateau, aimed to study the effects of the variations of moisture and temperature on the crusts nitrogenase activity (NA). The NA of the crusts in the erosion regions decreased in the order of water erosion region (127.7 micromol x m(-2) x h(-1)) > water-wind erosion region (34.6 micromol x m(-2) x h(-1)) > wind erosion region (6.0 micromol x m(-2) x h(-1)), and the optimal temperature for the crust nitrogen fixation was 35 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 15 degrees C, respectively. At the optimal temperature and 100% -40% field water-holding capacity, the NA of the crusts from the water erosion and water-wind erosion regions had no significant difference. The NA of the crusts from the wind erosion region was more sensitive to the variation of moisture, showing a dramatic decline when the moisture decreased to 80% field water-holding capacity, and totally lost when the moisture decreased to 20% field water-holding capacity. The differences in the NA of the crusts from the three erosion regions and the responses of the NA to the variations of moisture and temperature were likely associated with the climate, environment, and the crust species composition.

  15. Measurement of dinitrogen fixation by Biological soil crust (BSC) from the Sahelian zone: an isotopic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, F.; Alavoine, G.; Bertrand, I.

    2012-04-01

    Amongst the described ecological roles of Biological Soil Crust, N fixation is of importance for soil fertility, especially in arid and semi-arid ecosystems with low inputs. In BSC, the quantification of N fixation fluxes using an indirect method is widespread, usually with the Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) which consists in measuring the nitrogenase activity through the process of acetylene reduction into ethylene. A converting factor, still discussed in the literature and greatly depending of the constitutive organisms of the BSC, is the tool used to convert the amount of reduced ethylene into quantitative fixed Nitrogen. The aim of this poster is to describe an isotopic direct method to quantify the atmospheric dinitrogen fixation fluxes in BSC, while minimizing the variability due to manipulations. Nine different BSC from the Sahelian zone were selected and placed in an incubation room at 28° C in dark and light conditions during three days, while moisture equivalent to pF=2 was regularly adjusted using the gravimetric method with needles and deionized water, in order to activate and reach a dynamic stability of their metabolisms. Subsequently, each crust was placed into a gas-tight glass vial for incubation with a reconstituted 15N2 enriched atmosphere (31.61 % atom 15N, while the proportion of each main gas present in the air was conserved, i.e. 78% N2, 21% O2 and 0.04% CO2). Principal difficulties are to guarantee the airtighness of the system, to avoid crust desiccation and to keep the crust metabolically active under stable conditions for six hours. Several tests were performed to determine the optimum time for 15N2 incubation. Three replicated control samples per crust were also stabilized for three days and then dried at 105° C, without any incubation with 15N2 enriched atmosphere. Total N and 15N were then measured in the grounded (80μm) and dried (105° C) crust, using a Flash EA elemental analyzer (Eurovector, Milan, Italy) coupled to a Delta

  16. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Crustal Growth at Active Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Active margins are important sites of new continental crust formation by magmatic processes related to the subduction of oceanic plates. We investigate these phenomena using a three-dimensional coupled petrological-geochemical-thermomechanical numerical model, which combines a finite-difference flow solver with a non-diffusive marker-in-cell technique for advection (I3ELVIS code, Gerya and Yuen, PEPI,2007). The model includes mantle flow associated with the subducting plate, water release from the slab, fluid propagation that triggers partial melting at the slab surface, melt extraction and the resulting volcanic crustal growth at the surface. The model also accounts for variations in physical properties (mainly density and viscosity) of both fluids and rocks as a function of local conditions in temperature, pressure, deformation, nature of the rocks, and chemical exchanges. Our results show different patterns of crustal growth and surface topography, which are comparable to nature, during subduction at active continental margins. Often, two trench-parallel lines of magmatic activity, which reflect two maxima of melt production atop the slab, are formed on the surface. The melt extraction rate controls the patterns of new crust at different ages. Moving free water reflects the path of fluids, and the velocity of free water shows the trend of two parallel lines of magmatic activity. The formation of new crust in particular time intervals is distributed in finger-like shapes, corresponding to finger-like and ridge-like cold plumes developed atop the subducting slabs (Zhu et al., G-cubed,2009; PEPI,2011). Most of the new crust is basaltic, formed from peridotitic mantle. Granitic crust extracted from melted sediment and upper crust forms in a line closer to the trench, and its distribution reflects the finger-like cold plumes. Dacitic crust extracted from the melted lower crust forms in a line farther away from the trench, and its distribution is anticorrelated with

  17. Crustal structure of the North Iberian continental margin from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and geodynamics of the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay have been investigated from a set of 11 multichannel seismic reflection profiles, recorded also at wide angle offsets in an onshore-offshore network of 24 OBS/OBH and 46 land sites. This contribution focuses on the analysis of the wide-angle reflection/refraction data along representative profiles. The results document strong lateral variations of the crustal structure along the margin and provide an extensive test of the crustal models previously proposed for the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore, the crust has a typical continental structure in the eastern tip of the bay, which disappears smoothly towards the NW to reach crustal thickness close to 10 km at the edge of the studied area ( 45°N, 6°W). The analysis of the velocity-depth profiles, altogether with additional information provided by the multichannel seismic data and magnetic surveys, led to the conclusion that the crust in this part of the bay should be interpreted as transitional from continental to oceanic. Typical oceanic crust has not been imaged in the investigated area. Onshore, the new results are in good agreement with previous results and document the indentation of the Bay of Biscay crust into the Iberian crust, forcing its subduction to the North. The interpreted profiles show that the extent of the southward indentation is not uniform, with an Alpine root less developed in the central and western sector of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. N-S to NE-SW transfer structures seem to control those variations in the indentation degree.

  18. Study on the regional crust stability of Beishan area, Gansu province, NW China-the preselected area for China's high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Xu Guoqing; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Weiming; Guo Yonghai; Yang Tianxiao

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the crust stability of the Beishan area, Gansu province, NW China-the preselected area for China's high level radioactive waste repository. The studies include regional tectonic structure and its evolution, regional geophysical field, crust structure, regional deep-rooted faults, regional seismological activity, regional neo-tectonics, regional modern stress field and its numerical simulation, geological interpretation of TM satellite and its application in the study of crust stability, and the evaluation on crust stability. The research in the past years indicates that the west part of Gansu province (the area we studied) can be divided into 8 parts with different crust stability: (1) Beishan stable area; (2) East Huahai stable area; (3) Huahai sub-stable area; (4) Yumenzheng sub-unstable area; (5) Yumenshi sub-unstable area; (6) Daxueshan sub-unstable area; (7) Jiayuguan unstable area; and (8) Beiqilian unstable area. Among those parts, the Beishan area possess the best conditions, its crust stability accords with the demands on candidate site for HLW repositories, which are described in the International atomic energy agency's safety series No.111-G-4.1 Guidelines. Therefore, the Beishan area is suitable region for further work. (author)

  19. Structures within the oceanic crust of the central South China Sea basin and their implications for oceanic accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weiwei; Sun, Zhen; Dadd, Kelsie; Fang, Yinxia; Li, Jiabiao

    2018-04-01

    Internal structures in mature oceanic crust can elucidate understanding of the processes and mechanism of crustal accretion. In this study, we present two multi-channel seismic (MCS) transects across the northern flank of the South China Sea basin to reveal the internal structures related to Cenozoic tectono-magmatic processes during seafloor spreading. Bright reflectors within the oceanic crust, including the Moho, upper crustal reflectors, and lower crustal reflectors, are clearly imaged in these two transects. The Moho reflection displays varied character in continuity, shape and amplitude from the continental slope area to the abyssal basin, and becomes absent in the central part of the basin where abundant seamounts and seamount chains formed after the cessation of seafloor spreading. Dipping reflectors are distinct in most parts of the MCS data but generally confined to the lower crust above the Moho reflection. These lower crustal reflectors merge downward into the Moho without offsetting it, probably arising from shear zones between the crust and mantle characterized by interstitial melt, although we cannot exclude other possibilities such as brittle faulting or magmatic layering in the local area. A notable feature of these lower crustal reflector events is their opposite inclinations. We suggest the two groups of conjugate lower crustal reflector events observed between magnetic anomalies C11 and C8 were associated with two unusual accretionary processes arising from plate reorganizations with southward ridge jumps.

  20. Low-pressure evolution of arc magmas in thickened crust: The San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain, Central Andes, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Benigno; Wörner, Gerhard; Kojima, Shoji; Aguilera, Felipe; Simon, Klaus; Hartmann, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Magmatism at Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), or Central Andes, is strongly influenced by differentiation and assimilation at high pressures that occurred at lower levels of the thick continental crust. This is typically shown by high light to heavy rare earth element ratios (LREE/HREE) of the erupted lavas at this volcanic zone. Increase of these ratios with time is interpreted as a change to magma evolution in the presence of garnet during evolution of Central Andes. Such geochemical signals could be introduced into the magmas be high-pressure fractionation with garnet on the liquidus and/or assimilation from crustal rocks with a garnet-bearing residue. However, lavas erupted at San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain show no evidence of garnet fractionation in their trace element patterns. This volcanic chain is located in the active volcanic arc, between 22°00‧S and 22°30‧S, over a continental crust ˜70 km thick. Sampled lavas show Sr/Y and Sm/Yb ratios Chile. We relate our geochemical observations to shallow crustal evolution of primitive magmas involving a high degree of assimilation of upper continental crust. We emphasize that low pressure AFC- (Assimilation Fractional Crystallization) type evolution of the San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain reflects storage, fractionation, and contamination of mantle-derived magmas at the upper felsic crust (<40 km depth). The ascent of mantle-derived magmas to mid-crustal levels is related with the extensional regime that has existed in this zone of arc-front offset since Late-Miocene age, and the relatively thin portion of mafic lower crust observed below the volcanic chain.

  1. On causal links between flood basalts and continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, V.; Jaupart, C.; Manighetti, I.; Tapponnier, P.; Besse, J.

    1999-03-01

    Temporal coincidence between continental flood basalts and breakup has been noted for almost three decades. Eight major continental flood basalts have been produced over the last 300 Ma. The most recent, the Ethiopian traps, erupted in about 1 Myr at 30 Ma. Rifting in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and possibly East African rift started at about the same time. A second trap-like episode occurred around 2 Ma and formation of true oceanic crust is due in the next few Myr. We find similar relationships for the 60 Ma Greenland traps and opening of the North Atlantic, 65 Ma Deccan traps and opening of the NW Indian Ocean, 132 Ma Parana traps and South Atlantic, 184 Ma Karoo traps and SW Indian Ocean, and 200 Ma Central Atlantic Margin flood basalts and opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. The 250 Ma Siberian and 258 Ma Emeishan traps seem to correlate with major, if aborted, phases of rifting. Rifting asymmetry, apparent triple junctions and rift propagation (towards the flood basalt area) are common features that may, together with the relative timings of flood basalt, seaward dipping reflector and oceanic crust production, depend on a number of plume- and lithosphere- related factors. We propose a mixed scenario of `active/passive' rifting to account for these observations. In all cases, an active component (a plume and resulting flood basalt) is a pre-requisite for the breakup of a major oceanic basin. But rifting must be allowed by plate-boundary forces and is influenced by pre-existing heterogeneities in lithospheric structure. The best example is the Atlantic Ocean, whose large-scale geometry with three large basins was imposed by the impact points of three mantle plumes.

  2. Continental Delamination of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians: A Lower Crustal Origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillerup, M. A.; Knapp, J. H.; Knapp, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Two lithosphere-scale, explosive-source seismic reflection profiles (DRACULA I and DACIA PLAN), inclusive of the hinterland and foreland of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, provide new evidence for the geodynamic origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of Romania. These data, collected to evaluate existing subduction-related and delamination geodynamic models proposed to explain the intermediate depth seismicity associated with the Vrancea zone, show evidence of continental crust extending continuously above the VSZ from the Carpathian foreland well into the Transylvanian hinterland. Crustal thicknesses inferred from these data based on reflectivity show a 40-45 km crust below the Transylvanian basin abruptly shallowing to 32 km for ~120 km beneath the fold and thrust belt of the main Carpathian orogen and thickening again to 38-42 km crust in the foreland. This thinned crust outlines an apparent lower crustal sub-orogenic cavity that is overlain by a relatively subhorizontal reflective fabric absent of dipping reflectivity. The northwest dipping Vrancea seismogenic body, a 30x70x200 km volume of intermediate depth earthquakes, is located on the eastern flank of the apparently thin crust beneath the Carpathian orogen. Amplitude decay curves show penetration of seismic energy to a depth of ~60 km in the vicinity of the sub-orogenic cavity, implying this non- reflective zone is a geologic signature. Rotation of the VSZ about a hinge beneath the foreland basin at a depth of ~50 km restores to fill the lower-crustal cavity under the orogen, suggesting the VSZ represents a portion of brittle lower crust delaminated during continental lithospheric delamination which may have caused regional uplift of the Transylvanian basin. The lack of through-going, dipping crustal-scale boundaries along this composite lithospheric transect would appear to preclude subduction as an explanation for seismicity in the VSZ, consistent with abundant surface geologic data. These

  3. Continental breakup by oblique extension: the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, J.; Axen, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    We address two aspects of oblique extension: 1) the evolution of pull-apart basins, and how/when they may evolve into seafloor spreading segments; and 2) the formation of microcontinents. The Gulf of California formed by oblique extension. Breakup resulted in oceanic crust generation in the southern and central parts, while in the northern Gulf/Salton Trough a thick layer of (meta-)sediments overlies thinned continental crust. We propose a simple mechanism to explain this N-S variation. We assume that oblique rifting of the proto-Gulf province resulted in pull-apart basins, and use numerical models to show that such pull-apart basins do not develop into seafloor spreading segments when their length-to-width ratios are small, as is the case in the northern Gulf. In the central and southern Gulf the length-to-width ratios were larger, promoting continent rupture. The mechanisms behind this fate of pull-apart basins will be discussed in the presentation. In the southern Gulf, potential field models show that the Tamayo Bank in the southern Gulf is likely a microcontinent, separated from the main continent by the Tamayo trough. The thickness of the ocean crust in the Tamayo trough is anomalously small, suggesting that initial seafloor spreading was magma-starved and unsuccessful, causing the location of rifting and seafloor spreading to jump. As a consequence a sliver of continent broke off, forming the microcontinent. We suggest that worldwide this may be a common process for microcontinent formation.

  4. Opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean: Implications for Geometric Rifting and Asymmetric Initial Seafloor Spreading after Continental Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Biari, Y.; Sahabi, M.; Funck, T.; Benabdellouahed, M.; Schnabel, M.; Reichert, C. J.; Gutscher, M. A.; Bronner, A.; Austin, J. A., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of conjugate passive margins provides information about rifting styles, the initial phases of the opening of an ocean and the formation of its associated sedimentary basins. The study of the deep structure of conjugate passive continental margins combined with precise plate kinematic reconstructions can provide constraints on the mechanisms of rifting and formation of initial oceanic crust. In this study the Central Atlantic conjugate margins are compared, based on compilation of wide-angle seismic profiles from the NW-Africa Nova Scotian and US passive margins. Plate cinematic reconstructions were used to place the profiles in the position at opening and at the M25 magnetic anomaly. The patterns of volcanism, crustal thickness, geometry, and seismic velocities in the transition zone. suggest symmetric rifting followed by asymmetric oceanic crustal accretion. Conjugate profiles in the southern Central Atlantic image differences in the continental crustal thickness. While profiles on the eastern US margin are characterized by thick layers of magmatic underplating, no such underplate was imaged along the NW-African continental margin. It has been proposed that these volcanic products form part of the CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province). In the north, two wide-angle seismic profiles acquired in exactly conjugate positions show that the crustal geometry of the unthinned continental crust and the necking zone are nearly symmetric. A region including seismic velocities too high to be explained by either continental or oceanic crust is imaged along the Nova Scotia margin off Eastern Canada, corresponding on the African side to an oceanic crust with slightly elevated velocities. These might result from asymmetric spreading creating seafloor by faulting the existing lithosphere on the Canadian side and the emplacement of magmatic oceanic crust including pockets of serpentinite on the Moroccan margin. A slightly elevated crustal thickness along the

  5. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with realistic continental shelf-slope-rise structures

    OpenAIRE

    A. Goswami; P. L. Olson; L. A. Hinnov; A. Gnanadesikan

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that uses a plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere, the age distribution of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to reconstruct realistic ocean bathymetry based on parameterized relationships of present-day variables that can be applied to global oceans in th...

  6. Development of continental margins of the Atlantic Ocean and successive breakup of the Pangaea-3 supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melankholina, E. N.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative tectonic analysis of passive margins of the Atlantic Ocean has been performed. Tectonotypes of both volcanic and nonvolcanic margins are described, and their comparison with other passive Atlantic margins is given. The structural features of margins, peculiarities of magmatism, its sources and reasons for geochemical enrichment of melts are discussed. The important role of melting of the continental lithosphere in the development of magmatism is demonstrated. Enriched EM I and EM II sources are determined for the lower parts of the volcanic section, and a depleted or poorly enriched source is determined for the upper parts of the volcanic section based on isotope data. The conclusions of the paper relate to tectonic settings of the initial occurrence of magmatism and rifting and breakup during the period of opening of the Mesozoic Ocean. It was found out that breakup and magmatism at proximal margins led only to insignificant structural transformations and reduction of the thickness of the ancient continental crust, while very important magmatic events happened later in the distal zone. New growth of magmatic crust at the stage of continental breakup is determined as a typical feature of distal zones of the margins under study. The relationship of development of margins with the impact of deep plumes as the source of magmatic material or a heat source only is discussed. Progradation of the zone of extension and breakup into the areas of cold lithosphere of the Atlantic and the formation of a single tectonomagmatic system of the ocean are under consideration.

  7. Kinetics of the crust thickness development of bread during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, Alireza; Jafary, A; Rafiee, Sh

    2014-11-01

    The development of crust thickness of bread during baking is an important aspect of bread quality and shelf-life. Computer vision system was used for measuring the crust thickness via colorimetric properties of bread surface during baking process. Crust thickness had a negative and positive relationship with Lightness (L (*) ) and total color change (E (*) ) of bread surface, respectively. A linear negative trend was found between crust thickness and moisture ratio of bread samples. A simple mathematical model was proposed to predict the development of crust thickness of bread during baking, where the crust thickness was depended on moisture ratio that was described by the Page moisture losing model. The independent variables of the model were baking conditions, i.e. oven temperature and air velocity, and baking time. Consequently, the proposed model had well prediction ability, as the mean absolute estimation error of the model was 7.93 %.

  8. On the conditions of magma mixing and its bearing on andesite production in the crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Champallier, Rémi; Andujar, Joan; Arbaret, Laurent

    2014-12-15

    Mixing between magmas is thought to affect a variety of processes, from the growth of continental crust to the triggering of volcanic eruptions, but its thermophysical viability remains unclear. Here, by using high-pressure mixing experiments and thermal calculations, we show that hybridization during single-intrusive events requires injection of high proportions of the replenishing magma during short periods, producing magmas with 55-58 wt% SiO2 when the mafic end-member is basaltic. High strain rates and gas-rich conditions may produce more felsic hybrids. The incremental growth of crustal reservoirs limits the production of hybrids to the waning stage of pluton assembly and to small portions of it. Large-scale mixing appears to be more efficient at lower crustal conditions, but requires higher proportions of mafic melt, producing more mafic hybrids than in shallow reservoirs. Altogether, our results show that hybrid arc magmas correspond to periods of enhanced magma production at depth.

  9. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  10. Biological Soil Crusts: Webs of Life in the Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne

    2001-01-01

    Although the soil surface may look like dirt to you, it is full of living organisms that are a vital part of desert ecosystems. This veneer of life is called a biological soil crust. These crusts are found throughout the world, from hot deserts to polar regions. Crusts generally cover all soil spaces not occupied by green plants. In many areas, they comprise over 70% of the living ground cover and are key in reducing erosion, increasing water retention, and increasing soil fertility. In most dry regions, these crusts are dominated by cyanobacteria (previously called blue-green algae), which are one of the oldest known life forms. Communities of soil crusts also include lichens, mosses, microfungi, bacteria, and green algae. These living organisms and their by-products create a continuous crust on the soil surface. The general color, surface appearance, and amount of coverage of these crusts vary depending on climate and disturbance patterns. Immature crusts are generally flat and the color of the soil, which makes them difficult to distinguish from bare ground. Mature crusts, in contrast, are usually bumpy and dark-colored due to the presence of lichens, mosses, and high densities of cyanobacteria and other organisms.

  11. Using crustal thickness and subsidence history on the Iberia-Newfoundland margins to constrain lithosphere deformation modes during continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, Ludovic; Kusznir, Nick; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mohn, Geoffroy

    2014-05-01

    Observations at magma-poor rifted margins such as Iberia-Newfoundland show a complex lithosphere deformation history during continental breakup and seafloor spreading initiation leading to complex OCT architecture with hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, exhumed mantle and scattered embryonic oceanic crust and continental slivers. Initiation of seafloor spreading requires both the rupture of the continental crust and lithospheric mantle, and the onset of decompressional melting. Their relative timing controls when mantle exhumation may occur; the presence or absence of exhumed mantle provides useful information on the timing of these events and constraints on lithosphere deformation modes. A single lithosphere deformation mode leading to continental breakup and sea-floor spreading cannot explain observations. We have determined the sequence of lithosphere deformation events for two profiles across the present-day conjugate Iberia-Newfoundland margins, using forward modelling of continental breakup and seafloor spreading initiation calibrated against observations of crustal basement thickness and subsidence. Flow fields, representing a sequence of lithosphere deformation modes, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FeMargin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FeMargin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the upper 15-20 km of the lithosphere inducing passive upwelling beneath that layer; extensional faulting and magmatic intrusions deform the topmost upper lithosphere, consistent with observations of deformation processes occurring at slow spreading ocean ridges (Cannat, 1996). Buoyancy enhanced upwelling, as predicted by Braun et al. (2000) is also kinematically included in the lithosphere deformation model. Melt generation by decompressional melting is predicted using the parameterization and methodology of Katz et al. (2003). The distribution of lithosphere deformation, the

  12. Lipid Composition of methane-derived Carbonate Crusts and Sediments from Mud Volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Baas, M.; Hopmans, E.; van Weering, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the distributions and d13C values of bacterial and archaeal lipids in four carbonate crusts and hosting sediments collected from three mud volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough during the 11th Training Through Research expedition in 2001. The lipid extract from carbonate crusts contains abundant archaeal and bacterial biomarkers such as pentamethylicosane (PMI), unsaturated PMIs, archaeol, hydroxyarchaeols (sn-2 and sn-3 isomers), diphytanyl glycerol diethers (DGDs). Hosting sediments also contain a diversity of bacterial and archaeal lipids, but their concentrations are significantly lower then those observed in the crusts. The stable isotopic signature of these compounds have established their biosynthesis by consortia of microorganisms performing anaerobic methanotrophy. Quantitatively, the most predominant group of archaeal core membrane lipids in the crusts and in the sediments is the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Besides, two carbonate crusts contained two archaeal core membrane macrocyclic diether lipids which have not been reported previously. These macrocyclic diethers are structurally related to GDGTs with one and two cyclopentane rings. Cyclopentane-bearing GDGTs are well known for different archaeal species thriving in different environments, while a macrocyclic diether was found only in the thermophilic methanogen Methanococcus jannaschi. Therefore, the molecular structure of novel macrocyclic DGDs unites ecologically contrasting archaeal groups. Strongly depleted carbon isotopic values of these diethers indicate that these diethers derived from archaea acting within anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia in cold-water environments.

  13. Seismic evidence for overpressured subducted oceanic crust and megathrust fault sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Pascal; Bostock, Michael G; Christensen, Nikolas I; Peacock, Simon M

    2009-01-01

    Water and hydrous minerals play a key part in geodynamic processes at subduction zones by weakening the plate boundary, aiding slip and permitting subduction-and indeed plate tectonics-to occur. The seismological signature of water within the forearc mantle wedge is evident in anomalies with low seismic shear velocity marking serpentinization. However, seismological observations bearing on the presence of water within the subducting plate itself are less well documented. Here we use converted teleseismic waves to obtain observations of anomalously high Poisson's ratios within the subducted oceanic crust from the Cascadia continental margin to its intersection with forearc mantle. On the basis of pressure, temperature and compositional considerations, the elevated Poisson's ratios indicate that water is pervasively present in fluid form at pore pressures near lithostatic values. Combined with observations of a strong negative velocity contrast at the top of the oceanic crust, our results imply that the megathrust is a low-permeability boundary. The transition from a low- to high-permeability plate interface downdip into the mantle wedge is explained by hydrofracturing of the seal by volume changes across the interface caused by the onset of crustal eclogitization and mantle serpentinization. These results may have important implications for our understanding of seismogenesis, subduction zone structure and the mechanism of episodic tremor and slip.

  14. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    ; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...... report of a burned patient with CS in the English language literature. CS is also highly contagious and may lead to a nosocomial outbreak. Furthermore, CS seems to have a detrimental impact on the burned patient's course of treatment. A scabicide treatment is necessary to guarantee successful treatment...

  15. Crusting susceptibility in some allic Colombian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Dora M; Madero E E; Amezquita E

    2001-01-01

    Many lab methods were used: dry and water soil aggregates stability, instability index and erosion index and their results were related with soil characteristics like texture, Fe and Al oxides and organic matter. Soil samples collected within 0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm of the soil surface came from terrains with many kinds of both forest and savanna intervened systems. Those results were analyzed like a completely randomized designed. It was found that significative changes in oxides content could increase soil-crusting susceptibility unless soil humus was up to was up to 4%. In this sense, pastures or its rotation with rice and leguminous offer a best alternative for intervening these natural systems. Intensive land husbandry or monocultures with low stubble soil incorporation caused an increase in physical instability at the top of soil. Dry soil stability test and instability index were most adequate for these soils

  16. Analysis of reactor material experiments investigating oxide fuel crust stability and heat transfer in jet impingement flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the crust stability and heat transfer behavior in the CSTI-1, CSTI-3, and CWTI-11 reactor material experiments in which a jet of molten oxide fuel at approx. 160 0 K above its freezing temperature was impinged normally upon stainless steel plates initially at 300 and 385 K. The major issue is the existence of nonexistence of a stable solidified layer of fuel, or crust, interstitial to the flowing hot fuel and the steel substrate, tending to insulate the steel from the hot molten fuel. A computer model was developed to predict the heatup of thermocouples imbedded immediately beneath the surface of the plate for both of the cases in which a stable crust is assumed to be either present or absent during the impingement phase. Comparison of the model calculations with the measured thermocouple temperatures indicates that a protective crust was present over nearly all of the plate surface area throughout the impingement process precluding major melting of the plate steel. However, the experiments also show evidence for very localized and isolated steel melting as revealed by localized and isolated pitting of the steel surface and the response of thermocouples located within the pitted region

  17. Oxygen isotopes in garnet and accessory minerals to constrain fluids in subducted crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Gauthiez-Putallaz, Laure; Regis, Daniele; Rosa Scicchitano, Maria; Vho, Alice; Williams, Morgan

    2017-04-01

    Fluids are considered a fundamental agent for chemical exchanges between different rock types in the subduction system. Constraints on the sources and pathways of subduction fluids thus provide crucial information to reconstruct subduction processes. Garnet and U-Pb accessory minerals constitute some of the most robust and ubiquitous minerals in subducted crust and can preserve multiple growth zones that track the metamorphic evolution of the sample they are hosted in. Microbeam investigation of the chemical (major and trace elements) and isotopic composition (oxygen and U-Pb) of garnet and accessory minerals is used to track significant fluid-rock interaction at different stages of the subduction system. This approach requires consideration of the diffusivity of oxygen isotopes particularly in garnet, which has been investigated experimentally. The nature of the protolith and ocean floor alteration is preserved in relict accessory phases within eclogites that have been fully modified at HP conditions (e.g. Monviso and Dora Maira units in the Western Alps). Minerals in the lawsonite-blueschists of the Tavsanli zone in Turkey record pervasive fluid exchange between mafic and sedimentary blocks at the early stage of subduction. High pressure shear zones and lithological boundaries show evidence of intense fluid metasomatism at depth along discontinuities in Monviso and Corsica. In the UHP oceanic crust of the Zermatt-Saas Zone, garnet oxygen isotopes and tourmaline boron isotopes indicate multistage fluid infiltration during prograde metamorphism. Localized exchanges of aqueous fluids are also observed in the subducted continental crust of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone. In most cases analyses of distinct mineral zones enable identification of multiple pulses of fluids during the rock evolution.

  18. Mid-ocean ridges produced thicker crust in the Jurassic than in Recent times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Avendonk, H. J.; Harding, J.; Davis, J. K.; Lawver, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a compilation of published marine seismic refraction data to show that oceanic crust was 1.7 km thicker on average in the mid-Jurassic (170 Ma) than along the present-day mid-ocean ridge system. Plate reconstructions in a fixed hotspot framework show that the thickness of oceanic crust does not correlate with proximity to mantle hotspots, so it is likely that mid-plate volcanism is not the cause of this global trend. We propose that more melt was extracted from the upper mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges in the Jurassic than in recent times. Numerical studies show that temperature increase of 1 degree C in the mantle can lead to approximately 50-70 m thicker crust, so the upper mantle may have cooled 15-20 degrees C/100 Myr since 170 Ma. This average temperature decrease is larger than the secular cooling rate of the Earth's mantle, which is roughly 10 degrees C/100 Myr since the Archean. Apparently, the present-day configuration and dynamics of continental and oceanic plates removes heat more efficiently from the Earth's mantle than in its earlier history. The increase of ocean crustal thickness with plate age is also stronger in the Indian and Atlantic oceans than in the Pacific Ocean basin. This confirms that thermal insulation by the supercontinent Pangaea raised the temperature of the underlying asthenospheric mantle, which in turn led to more magmatic output at the Jurassic mid-ocean ridges of the Indian and Atlantic oceans.

  19. Interrelation between rifting, faulting, sedimentation, and mantle serpentinization during continental margin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupke, L.; Schmid, D. W.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Hartz, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the conditions under which mantle serpentinization may take place during continental rifting with 2D thermotectonostratigraphic basin models. The basic concept follows the idea that the entire extending continental crust has to be brittle for crustal scale faulting and mantle serpentinization to occur. The new model tracks the rheological evolution of the continental crust and allows for kinetically controlled mantle serpentinization processes. The isostatic and latent heat effects of the reaction are fully coupled to the structural and thermal solutions. A systematic parameter study shows that a critical stretching factor exists for which complete crustal embrittlement and serpentinization occurs. Sedimentation shifts this critical stretching factor to higher values as both deeper burial and the low thermal conductivity of sediments lead to higher crustal temperatures. Serpentinization reactions are therefore only likely in settings with low sedimentation rates and high stretching factors. In addition, we find that the rate of sediment supply has first order controls on the rheology of the lower crust, which may control the overall margin geometry. We further test these concepts in ideas in a case study for the Norwegian margin. In particular, we evaluate whether the inner lower crustal bodies (LCB) imaged beneath the More and Voring margin could be serpentinized mantle. For this purpose we reconstruct multiple 2D transects through a 3D data set. This reconstruction of the Norwegian margin shows that serpentinization reactions are indeed possible and likely during the Jurassic rift phase. Predicted present-day thicknesses and locations of partially serpentinized mantle rocks fit well to information on LCBs from seismic and gravity data. We conclude that some of the inner LCBs beneath the Norwegian margin may, in fact, be partially serpentinized mantle.

  20. GRAVITY ANOMALIES OF THE CRUST AND UPPER MANTLE FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Senachin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the density of both the crust and mantle is one of the topical problems in modern geophysics. Gravity modeling in combination with seismic tomography is an important tool for detecting density inhomogeneities in the crust and mantle, which can cause stresses and thus significantly impact the regional tectonics [Pogorelov, Baranov, 2010], especially in zones wherein continental margins actively interact with subducting oceanic plates and the entire depth of the tectonosphere is subject to stresses. Associated processes lead to considerable horizontal and vertical stresses that often cause catastrophic events on a global scale. The challenge of studying the global tectonic processes in the Earth’s tectonosphere can be addressed by gravity modeling in combination with seismic surveying.Data from previous studies. I.L. Nersesov et al. [1975] pioneered in calculating the spatial pattern of mantle density inhomogeneities in Central Asia. Although the accuracy of their estimations was not high due to the limited database, their study yielded significant results considering the structure of the crust. Numerous subsequent geophysical projects have researched the crust to a level sufficient to develop regional models, that can give quite adequate information on the depths of external and internal boundaries of the crust and suggest the distribution patterns of seismic velocities and density values. With reference to such data, mantle density inhomogeneities can be studied with higher accuracy.This paper reports on the estimations of gravity anomalies in the crust and upper mantle in Central and South Asia. The study region represents the full range of crust thicknesses and ages, as well a variety of crust formation types [Christensen, Mooney, 1995]. We used the 3D gravity modeling software package 3SGravity developed by Senachin [2015a, 2015b] that considers the spherical shape of the Earth's surface, and estimated gravitional anomalies using

  1. Earth's first stable continents did not form by subduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tim E; Brown, Michael; Gardiner, Nicholas J; Kirkland, Christopher L; Smithies, R Hugh

    2017-03-09

    The geodynamic environment in which Earth's first continents formed and were stabilized remains controversial. Most exposed continental crust that can be dated back to the Archaean eon (4 billion to 2.5 billion years ago) comprises tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite rocks (TTGs) that were formed through partial melting of hydrated low-magnesium basaltic rocks; notably, these TTGs have 'arc-like' signatures of trace elements and thus resemble the continental crust produced in modern subduction settings. In the East Pilbara Terrane, Western Australia, low-magnesium basalts of the Coucal Formation at the base of the Pilbara Supergroup have trace-element compositions that are consistent with these being source rocks for TTGs. These basalts may be the remnants of a thick (more than 35 kilometres thick), ancient (more than 3.5 billion years old) basaltic crust that is predicted to have existed if Archaean mantle temperatures were much hotter than today's. Here, using phase equilibria modelling of the Coucal basalts, we confirm their suitability as TTG 'parents', and suggest that TTGs were produced by around 20 per cent to 30 per cent melting of the Coucal basalts along high geothermal gradients (of more than 700 degrees Celsius per gigapascal). We also analyse the trace-element composition of the Coucal basalts, and propose that these rocks were themselves derived from an earlier generation of high-magnesium basaltic rocks, suggesting that the arc-like signature in Archaean TTGs was inherited from an ancestral source lineage. This protracted, multistage process for the production and stabilization of the first continents-coupled with the high geothermal gradients-is incompatible with modern-style plate tectonics, and favours instead the formation of TTGs near the base of thick, plateau-like basaltic crust. Thus subduction was not required to produce TTGs in the early Archaean eon.

  2. Distribution of lithium in agricultural and grazing land soils at European continental scale (GEMAS project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, Philippe; Reimann, Clemens; Ladenberger, Anna; Birke, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    The environmental chemistry of Li has received attention because Li has been shown to have numerous and important implications for human health and agriculture and the stable isotope composition of lithium is a powerful geochemical tool that provides quantitative information about Earth processes such as sediment recycling, global chemical weathering and its role in the carbon cycle, hydrothermal alteration, and groundwater evolution. However, the role of bedrock sources, weathering and climate changes in the repartition of Li at the continental scale has been scarcely investigated. Agricultural soil (Ap-horizon, 0-20 cm) and grazing land soil (Gr-horizon, 0-10 cm) samples were collected from a large part of Europe (33 countries, 5.6 million km2) as a part of the GEMAS (GEochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soil) soil mapping project. GEMAS soil data have been used to provide a general view of element mobility and source rocks at the continental scale, either by reference to average crustal abundances or to normalized patterns of element mobility during weathering processes. The survey area includes a diverse group of soil parent materials with varying geological history, a wide range of climate zones and landscapes. The concentrations of Li in European soil were determined by ICP-MS after a hot aqua regia extraction, and their spatial distribution patterns generated by means of a GIS software. Due to the partial nature of the aqua regia extraction, the mean concentration of Li in the European agricultural soil (ca 11.4 mg/kg in Ap and Gr soils) is about four times lower than in the Earth's upper continental crust (UCC = 41 mg/kg). The combined plot histogram - density trace one- dimensional scattergram - boxplot of the aqua regia data displays the univariate data distribution of Li. The one-dimensional scattergram and boxplot highlight the existence of many outliers at the lower end of the Li distribution and very few at the upper end. Though the

  3. Spatial dynamic of mobile dunes, soil crusting and Yobe's bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the fluvio-deltaic area of Kadzell, the soil crusting and the Yobe River retreat remain the major damages. The crusting area has been multiplied by more than two while the lateral migration of the Yobe bank reached near of 3 m.yr-1. This study highlights the key role of man in the process of degradation related to climate ...

  4. Soil Characteristics of Crusted outside and Subcanopy Areas of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results on compaction, salinity, pH, water holding capacity, respiration and organic carbon supported the model. The crust:shrub ratio is crucial for the functioning and sustained productivity of the system. Keywords: Soil characteristics; shrub subcanopy; crust; sink-source, Negev desert [IJARD Vol.3 2002: 162-170] ...

  5. Increasing cotton stand establishment in soils prone to soil crusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many factors can contribute to poor cotton stand establishment, and cotton is notorious for its weak seedling vigor. Soil crusting can be a major factor hindering cotton seedling emergence in many of the cotton production regions of the US and the world. Crusting is mainly an issue in silty soils ...

  6. Magnetic field effects on the crust structure of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzon, B.; Negreiros, R.; Schramm, S.

    2017-12-01

    We study the effects of high magnetic fields on the structure and on the geometry of the crust in neutron stars. We find that the crust geometry is substantially modified by the magnetic field inside the star. We build stationary and axis-symmetric magnetized stellar models by using well-known equations of state to describe the neutron star crust, namely, the Skyrme model for the inner crust and the Baym-Pethick-Sutherland equation of state for the outer crust. We show that the magnetic field has a dual role, contributing to the crust deformation via the electromagnetic interaction (manifested in this case as the Lorentz force) and by contributing to curvature due to the energy stored in it. We also study a direct consequence of the crust deformation due to the magnetic field: the thermal relaxation time. This quantity, which is of great importance to the thermal evolution of neutron stars, is sensitive to the crust properties, and, as such, we show that it may be strongly affected by the magnetic field.

  7. Magnetic anomalies across the transitional crust of the passive conjugate margins of the North Atlantic: Iberian Abyssal Plain/Northern Newfoundland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.; Sibuet, J.; Manatschal, G.

    2005-12-01

    The magma starved Iberia Abyssal Plain (IAP) margin off Iberia is probably one of the most studied non-volcanic continental margin in the world. Numerous multi-channel seismic cruises, detailed refraction surveys, and ODP drilling (Legs 149 and 173) have been carried out across it. Yet serious disagreement exists about the nature and mode of emplacement of the transitional crust which lies between true continental and true oceanic crusts in this region. One group regards this crust to be excessively thinned continental crust through which mantle was exhumed while the other group regards it to be oceanic crust, a mixture of basalt and mantle material, formed during ultraslow seafloor spreading. However, neither the drilling, which was carried out only on the basement highs and recovered serpentinized peridotites together with some gabbroic material, nor the detailed refraction measurements have been of much help in solving this dispute because the velocity values in this region neither correspond to true volcanic materials nor to true continental rocks. Similarly the magnetic anomalies in this region have been also interpreted differently by the two groups. One group negates the existence of any seafloor spreading type anomalies over the transition zone. On the other hand, examination of surface and deep-tow magnetic data from conjugate sections of the margins across this part of the North Atlantic shows a good correlation between them. The prime reason for such differences in the interpretation of magnetic data lies in the low amplitude of the surface magnetic anomalies forming the M sequence anomalies in this region compared to those of similar age present in the Central Atlantic. We demonstrate here that the symmetrical magnetic anomalies identified within the transitional zones between Iberia and North America, and across passive margins in general where separation between plates has been very slow, are caused by the serpentinization of the exhumed mantle rocks

  8. Geodynamic control of the chemical composition of Tertiary continental arc magmas of Ecuador?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaradia, M.; Fontbote, L

    2001-01-01

    Whereas an abundant literature has been produced on the Tertiary magmatism of the Central Andes, no comparable studies exist for the Tertiary continental magmatism of the Northern Andes in general and of Ecuador in particular. In this contribution we present the first extensive data on lead and strontium isotopes of Paleocene to Pliocene magmatic rocks of Ecuador together with their major, trace and rare earth element geochemistry. The main interest of carrying out a geochemical and isotopic investigation on the magmatism of Ecuador is that, different from the Central Andes, Ecuador consists of several accreted terranes both of continental and oceanic affinity. The fragmented nature of the recently assembled crust of Ecuador, composed of lithologies such as Paleozoic schists, Triassic anatexites, and Jurassic metabasalts, could have variably affected the chemistry of the Ecuadorian magmas (au)

  9. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  10. Dynamic cyanobacterial response to hydration and dehydration in a desert biological soil crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Lara; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; Klitgord, Niels; Luning, Eric G; Fortney, Julian; Axen, Seth D; Shih, Patrick M; Bouskill, Nicholas J; Bowen, Benjamin P; Kerfeld, Cheryl A; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Brodie, Eoin L; Northen, Trent R; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2013-11-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover extensive portions of the earth's deserts. In order to survive desiccation cycles and utilize short periods of activity during infrequent precipitation, crust microorganisms must rely on the unique capabilities of vegetative cells to enter a dormant state and be poised for rapid resuscitation upon wetting. To elucidate the key events involved in the exit from dormancy, we performed a wetting experiment of a BSC and followed the response of the dominant cyanobacterium, Microcoleus vaginatus, in situ using a whole-genome transcriptional time course that included two diel cycles. Immediate, but transient, induction of DNA repair and regulatory genes signaled the hydration event. Recovery of photosynthesis occurred within 1 h, accompanied by upregulation of anabolic pathways. Onset of desiccation was characterized by the induction of genes for oxidative and photo-oxidative stress responses, osmotic stress response and the synthesis of C and N storage polymers. Early expression of genes for the production of exopolysaccharides, additional storage molecules and genes for membrane unsaturation occurred before drying and hints at preparedness for desiccation. We also observed signatures of preparation for future precipitation, notably the expression of genes for anaplerotic reactions in drying crusts, and the stable maintenance of mRNA through dormancy. These data shed light on possible synchronization between this cyanobacterium and its environment, and provides key mechanistic insights into its metabolism in situ that may be used to predict its response to climate, and or, land-use driven perturbations.

  11. Numerical analysis of crust formation in molten core-concrete interaction using MPS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiichi, Koshizuka; Shoji, Matsuura; Mizue, Sekine; Yoshiaki, Oka

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional code is developed for molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) based on Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method. Heat transfer is calculated without any specific correlations. A particle can be changed to a moving (fluid) or fixed (solid) particle corresponding to its enthalpy, which provide the phase change model for particles. The phase change model is verified by one-dimensional test calculations. Nucleate boiling and radiation heat transfers are considered between the core debris and the water pool. The developed code is applied to SWISS-2 experiment in which stainless steel is used as the melt material. Calculated heat flux to the water pool agrees well with the experiment, though the ablation speed in the concrete is a little slower. A stable crust is formed in a short time after water is poured in and the heat flux to the water pool rapidly decreases. MACE-M0 using corium is also analyzed. The ablation speed of concrete is slower than that of SWISS-2 because of low heat conduction in corium. An unlimited geometry is analyzed by setting the cyclic boundary condition on the sides. When the crust is broken by the decomposition gas, heat transfer to the water pool is kept high for a longer time because the crust re-formation is delayed. (author)

  12. The contribution of the Precambrian continental lithosphere to global H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Onstott, T C; Lacrampe-Couloume, G; Ballentine, C J

    2014-12-18

    Microbial ecosystems can be sustained by hydrogen gas (H2)-producing water-rock interactions in the Earth's subsurface and at deep ocean vents. Current estimates of global H2 production from the marine lithosphere by water-rock reactions (hydration) are in the range of 10(11) moles per year. Recent explorations of saline fracture waters in the Precambrian continental subsurface have identified environments as rich in H2 as hydrothermal vents and seafloor-spreading centres and have suggested a link between dissolved H2 and the radiolytic dissociation of water. However, extrapolation of a regional H2 flux based on the deep gold mines of the Witwatersrand basin in South Africa yields a contribution of the Precambrian lithosphere to global H2 production that was thought to be negligible (0.009 × 10(11) moles per year). Here we present a global compilation of published and new H2 concentration data obtained from Precambrian rocks and find that the H2 production potential of the Precambrian continental lithosphere has been underestimated. We suggest that this can be explained by a lack of consideration of additional H2-producing reactions, such as serpentinization, and the absence of appropriate scaling of H2 measurements from these environments to account for the fact that Precambrian crust represents over 70 per cent of global continental crust surface area. If H2 production via both radiolysis and hydration reactions is taken into account, our estimate of H2 production rates from the Precambrian continental lithosphere of 0.36-2.27 × 10(11) moles per year is comparable to estimates from marine systems.

  13. Lithospheric thickness jumps at the S-Atlantic continental margins from satellite gravity data and modelled isostatic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Meysam; Schmeling, Harro; Haas, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Isostatic equilibrium is a good approximation for passive continental margins. In these regions, geoid anomalies are proportional to the local dipole moment of density-depth distributions, which can be used to constrain the amount of oceanic to continental lithospheric thickening (lithospheric jumps). We consider a five- or three-layer 1D model for the oceanic and continental lithosphere, respectively, composed of water, a sediment layer (both for the oceanic case), the crust, the mantle lithosphere and the asthenosphere. The mantle lithosphere is defined by a mantle density, which is a function of temperature and composition, due to melt depletion. In addition, a depth-dependent sediment density associated with compaction and ocean floor variation is adopted. We analyzed satellite derived geoid data and, after filtering, extracted typical averaged profiles across the Western and Eastern passive margins of the South Atlantic. They show geoid jumps of 8.1 m and 7.0 m for the Argentinian and African sides, respectively. Together with topography data and an averaged crustal density at the conjugate margins these jumps are interpreted as isostatic geoid anomalies and yield best-fitting crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. In a grid search approach five parameters are systematically varied, namely the thicknesses of the sediment layer, the oceanic and continental crusts and the oceanic and the continental mantle lithosphere. The set of successful models reveals a clear asymmetry between the South Africa and Argentine lithospheres by 15 km. Preferred models predict a sediment layer at the Argentine margin of 3-6 km and at the South Africa margin of 1-2.5 km. Moreover, we derived a linear relationship between, oceanic lithosphere, sediment thickness and lithospheric jumps at the South Atlantic margins. It suggests that the continental lithospheres on the western and eastern South Atlantic are thicker by 45-70 and 60-80 km than the oceanic lithospheres, respectively.

  14. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the lassen volcanic center, California: Resolving crustal and mantle contributions to continental Arc magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, T.C.; Clynne, M.A.; Winer, G.S.; Grice, W.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports oxygen isotope ratios determined by laser fluorination of mineral separates (mainly plagioclase) from basaltic andesitic to rhyolitic composition volcanic rocks erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC), northern California. Plagioclase separates from nearly all rocks have ??18O values (6.1-8.4%) higher than expected for production of the magmas by partial melting of little evolved basaltic lavas erupted in the arc front and back-arc regions of the southernmost Cascades during the late Cenozoic. Most LVC magmas must therefore contain high 18O crustal material. In this regard, the ??18O values of the volcanic rocks show strong spatial patterns, particularly for young rhyodacitic rocks that best represent unmodified partial melts of the continental crust. Rhyodacitic magmas erupted from vents located within 3.5 km of the inferred center of the LVC have consistently lower ??18 O values (average 6.3% ?? 0.1%) at given SiO2 contents relative to rocks erupted from distal vents (>7.0 km; average 7.1% ?? 0.1%). Further, magmas erupted from vents situated at transitional distances have intermediate values and span a larger range (average 6.8% ?? 0.2%). Basaltic andesitic to andesitic composition rocks show similar spatial variations, although as a group the ??18O values of these rocks are more variable and extend to higher values than the rhyodacitic rocks. These features are interpreted to reflect assimilation of heterogeneous lower continental crust by mafic magmas, followed by mixing or mingling with silicic magmas formed by partial melting of initially high 18O continental crust (??? 9.0%) increasingly hybridized by lower ??18O (???6.0%) mantle-derived basaltic magmas toward the center of the system. Mixing calculations using estimated endmember source ??18O values imply that LVC magmas contain on a molar oxygen basis approximately 42 to 4% isotopically heavy continental crust, with proportions declining in a broadly regular fashion toward the

  15. Zircon evidence for incorporation of terrigenous sediments into the magma source of continental basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2018-01-09

    Crustal components may be incorporated into continental basalts by either shallow contamination or deep mixing. While the former proceeds at crustal depths with common preservation of refractory minerals, the latter occurs at mantle depths with rare survival of relict minerals. Discrimination between the two mechanisms has great bearing to subcontinental mantle geochemistry. Here we report the occurrence of relict zircons in Cenozoic continental basalts from eastern China. A combined study of zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry indicates that detrital zircons were carried by terrigenous sediments into a subcontinental subduction zone, where the zircon were transferred by fluids into the magma sources of continental basalts. The basalts were sampled from three petrotectonic units with distinct differences in their magmatic and metamorphic ages, making the crustal contamination discernible. The terrigenous sediments were carried by the subducting oceanic crust into the asthenospheric mantle, producing both soluble and insoluble materials at the slab-mantle interface. These materials were served as metasomatic agents to react with the overlying mantle wedge peridotite, generating a kind of ultramafic metasomatites that contain the relict zircons. Therefore, the occurrence of relict zircons in continental basalts indicates that this refractory mineral can survive extreme temperature-pressure conditions in the asthenospheric mantle.

  16. Crust-mantle branch of the global carbon cycle and origin of deep-seated hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokhtin N. O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The processes of multi-stage and polycyclic transformation and transfer of carbon in the crust and mantle have been described. The sediments drawn in the plate underthrust zones break down, become transformed and altered by metamorphic events, and part of the newly formed carbon compounds is transferred by the mantle convective currents to rift zones of the mid-oceanic ridges and carried up to the surface as hydrocarbons of various composition and carbon dioxide. This material becomes re-deposited on the sea floor as sediments forming carbonaceous and carbon-bearing units. As a result of multi-stage mechanism of physical and chemical transformations in the crust-mantle areas of the Earth hydrocarbon compounds acquire features of abiogenic origin remaining, in fact, exogenic. The revealed crust-mantle carbon cycle represents part of a global process for the cyclic carbon transfer from the atmosphere to the mantle and back. The scale of its manifestation is likely not so wide, and numerous small (mm and portions of millimeters particles of exogenic substance and dispersed carbon drawn in the plate underthrust zones form a stable geochemical tail of the crustal direction in the mantle propagating in the plane of convective currents motion. The scale of this process may be indirectly suggested by the volumes of hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide de-gassing and hydrogen in the rift systems of the Earth crust. The amount of generated hydrocarbon gases with deep-seated origin cannot form large gas and oil-and-gas fields since their significant part is transferred to the atmosphere. Just some portion of compounds may be deposited in oceanic sediments and generate gas-hydrate pools.

  17. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  18. A thin, dense crust for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sori, Michael M.

    2018-05-01

    Crustal thickness is a crucial geophysical parameter in understanding the geology and geochemistry of terrestrial planets. Recent development of mathematical techniques suggests that previous studies based on assumptions of isostasy overestimated crustal thickness on some of the solid bodies of the solar system, leading to a need to revisit those analyses. Here, I apply these techniques to Mercury. Using MESSENGER-derived elemental abundances, I calculate a map of grain density (average 2974 ± 89 kg/m3) which shows that Pratt isostasy is unlikely to be a major compensation mechanism of Mercury's topography. Assuming Airy isostasy, I find the best fit value for Mercury's mean crustal thickness is 26 ± 11 km, 25% lower than the most recently reported and previously thinnest number. Several geological implications follow from this relatively low value for crustal thickness, including showing that the largest impacts very likely excavated mantle material onto Mercury's surface. The new results also show that Mercury and the Moon have a similar proportion of their rocky silicates composing their crusts, and thus Mercury is not uniquely efficient at crustal production amongst terrestrial bodies. Higher resolution topography and gravity data, especially for the southern hemisphere, will be necessary to refine Mercury's crustal parameters further.

  19. Clay minerals trap hydrogen in the Earth's crust: Evidence from the Cigar Lake uranium deposit, Athabasca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truche, Laurent; Joubert, Gilles; Dargent, Maxime; Martz, Pierre; Cathelineau, Michel; Rigaudier, Thomas; Quirt, David

    2018-07-01

    Hydrogen (H2)-rich fluids are observed in a wide variety of geologic settings including gas seeps in serpentinized ultramafic rocks, sub-seafloor hydrothermal vents, fracture networks in crystalline rocks from continental and oceanic crust, and volcanic gases. Natural hydrogen sources can sustain deep microbial ecosystems, induce abiotic hydrocarbons synthesis and trigger the formation of prebiotic organic compounds. However, due to its extreme mobility and small size, hydrogen is not easily trapped in the crust. If not rapidly consumed by redox reactions mediated by bacteria or suitable mineral catalysts it diffuses through the rocks and migrates toward the surface. Therefore, H2 is not supposed to accumulate in the crust. We challenge this view by demonstrating that significant amount of H2 may be adsorbed by clay minerals and remain trapped beneath the surface. Here, we report for the first time H2 content in clay-rich rocks, mainly composed of illite, chlorite, and kaolinite from the Cigar Lake uranium ore deposit (northern Saskatchewan, Canada). Thermal desorption measurements reveal that H2 is enriched up to 500 ppm (i.e. 0.25 mol kg-1 of rock) in these water-saturated rocks having a very low total organic content (reported elsewhere for pure clay minerals or shales. Sudoite (Al-Mg di-trioctahedral chlorite) is probably the main mineral responsible for H2 adsorption in the present case. The presence of multiple binding sites in interlinked nanopores between crystal layers of illite-chlorite particles offers the ideal conditions for hydrogen sorption. We demonstrate that 4 to 17% of H2 produced by water radiolysis over the 1.4-Ga-lifetime of the Cigar Lake uranium ore deposit has been trapped in the surrounding clay alteration haloes. As a result, sorption processes on layered silicates must not be overlooked as they may exert an important control on the fate and mobility of H2 in the crust. Furthermore, the high capacity of clay minerals to sorb molecular

  20. Subduction and exhumation of a continental margin in the Scandinavian Caledonides: Insights from ultrahigh pressure metamorphism, late orogenic basins and 3D numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Scandinavian Caledonides (SC) represents a plate collision zone of Himalayan style and scale. Three fundamental characteristics of this orogen are: (1) early foreland-directed, tectonic transport and stacking of nappes; (2) late, wholesale reversal of tectonic transport; (3) ultrahigh pressure metamorphism of felsic crust derived from the underthrusting plate at several levels in the orogenic wedge and below the main thrust surface, indicating subduction of continental crust into the mantle. The significance of this for crustal evolution is the profound remodeling of continental crust, direct geochemical interaction of such crust and the mantle and the opening of accommodation space trapping large volumes of clastic detritus within the orogen. The orogenic wedge of the SC was derived from the upper crust of the Baltica continental margin (a hyper-extended passive margin), plus terranes derived from an assemblage of outboard arcs and intra-oceanic basins and, at the highest structural level, elements of the Laurentian margin. Nappe emplacement was driven by Scandian ( 430Ma) collision of Baltica with Laurentia, but emerging Middle Ordovician ages for diamond-facies metamorphism for the most outboard (or rifted) elements of Baltica suggest prior collision with an arc or microcontinent. Nappes derived from Baltica continental crust were subducted, in some cases to depths sufficient to form diamond. These then detached from the upper part of the down-going plate along major thrust faults, at which time they ceased to descend and possibly rose along the subduction channel. Subduction of the remaining continental margin continued below these nappes, possibly driven by slab-pull of the previously subducted Iapetus oceanic lithosphere and metamorphic densification of subducted felsic continental margin. 3D numerical modelling based upon a Caledonide-like plate scenario shows that if a continental corner or promontory enters the subduction zone, the continental margin

  1. Crust and uppermost-mantle structure of Greenland and the Northwest Atlantic from Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Fiona A.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Joyal, Guillaume

    2018-03-01

    The Greenland landmass preserves ˜4 billion years of tectonic history, but much of the continent is inaccessible to geological study due to the extensive inland ice cap. We map out, for the first time, the 3-D crustal structure of Greenland and the NW Atlantic ocean, using Rayleigh wave anisotropic group velocity tomography, in the period range 10-80 s, from regional earthquakes and the ongoing GLATIS/GLISN seismograph networks. 1-D inversion gives a pseudo-3-D model of shear wave velocity structure to depths of ˜100 km with a horizontal resolution of ˜200 km. Crustal thickness across mainland Greenland ranges from ˜25 km to over 50 km, and the velocity structure shows considerable heterogeneity. The large sedimentary basins on the continental shelf are clearly visible as low velocities in the upper ˜5-15 km. Within the upper continental basement, velocities are systematically lower in northern Greenland than in the south, and exhibit a broadly NW-SE trend. The thinning of the crust at the continental margins is also clearly imaged. Upper-mantle velocities show a clear distinction between typical fast cratonic lithosphere (Vs ≥4.6 km s-1) beneath Greenland and its NE margin and anomalously slow oceanic mantle (Vs ˜4.3-4.4 km s-1) beneath the NW Atlantic. We do not observe any sign of pervasive lithospheric modification across Greenland in the regions associated with the presumed Iceland hotspot track, though the average crustal velocity in this region is higher than that of areas to the north and south. Crustal anisotropy beneath Greenland is strong and complex, likely reflecting numerous episodes of tectonic deformation. Beneath the North Atlantic and Baffin Bay, the dominant anisotropy directions are perpendicular to the active and extinct spreading centres. Anisotropy in the subcontinental lithosphere is weaker than that of the crust, but still significant, consistent with cratonic lithosphere worldwide.

  2. Development of continental lithospheric mantle as reflected in the chemistry of the Mesozoic Appalachian Tholeiites, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegram, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of dikes, sills, and volcanic rocks of the Meoszoic Appalachian Tholeiite (MAT) Province of the easternmost United States provide evidence that continental tholeiites are derived from continental lithospheric mantle sources that are genetically and geochronologically related to the overlying continental crust. Nineteen olivine tholeiites and sixteen quartz tholeiites from the length of this province, associated in space and time with the last opening of the Atlantic, display significant isotopic heterogeneity: initial ε Nd = +3.8 to -5.7; initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7044-0.7072; 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 17.49-19.14; 207 Pb/ 204 Pb = 15.55-15.65; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 37.24-39.11. In Pb-Pb space, the MAT define a linear array displaced above the field for MORB and thus resemble oceanic basalts with DUPAL Pb isotopic traits. A regression of this array yields a secondary Pb-Pb isochron age of ≅ 1000 Ma (μ 1 = 8.26), similar to Sm/Nd isochrons from the southern half of the province and to the radiometric age of the Grenville crust underlying easternmost North America. The MAT exhibit significant trace element ratio heterogeneity (e.g., Sm/Nd = 0.226-0.327) and have trace element traits similar to convergent margin magmas [e.g., depletions of Nb and Ti relative to the rare earth elements on normalized trace element incompatibility diagrams, Ba/Nb ratios (19-75) that are significantly greater than those of MORB, and low TiO 2 (0.39-0.69%)]. Geochemical and geological considerations were strongly suggest that the MAT were not significantly contaminated during ascent through the continental crust. Further, isotope and trace element variations are not consistent with the involvement of contemporaneous MORB or OIB components. Rather, the materials that control the MAT incompatible element chemistry were derived from subcontinental lithospheric mantle. (orig./WB)

  3. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  4. Microbial dolomite crusts from the carbonate platform off western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Krumbein, W.E.; Krajewski, K.P.; Schneider, R.J.

    Association of Sedimentologists, Sedimentology, 50, 819-830 Microbial dolomite crusts off western India 821 dolomite crusts [2 x 2·5 em to 3 x 0'5 em) and pebbles occur within these sediments. METHODS Thin sections of the crusts were studied petro graphically....E. (19S7) Holocene dolomitization Df supr

  5. Enrichment mechanisms of tellurium in ferromanganese crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Usui, A.; Takahashi, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Marine ferromanganese crusts (FMCs) consist of iron (Fe) hydroxides and manganese (Mn) oxides with various minor and trace elements. Especially for tellurium (Te), which is recognized as one of the rare metals, it has been reported that this element is concentrated about 105 times in FMCs compared with earth's crust, and the host phase might be Fe (oxy)hydroxide (Hein et al., 2003). Actually, in our previous study, the high concentration of Te in very surface layers of FMCs was found from the top to halfway down of a seamount in the Pacific Ocean. However, the concentration of Te in surface layers through the seamount showed good correlation with that of Mn instead of Fe. In this study, we attempted to clarify the enrichment mechanism of Te in FMCs with some methods including X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique for synthesised /natural samples. Seventeen FMC samples were collected from the Takuyo-Daigo seamount, from 950 m (summit) to 3000 m in water depth, with hyper-dolphin (remotely operated vehicle) equipped with live video camera and manipulators. The growth rates of all FMC samples were estimated to be about 3 mm/Ma. Very surface layer (less than 1 mm) of all FMC was analyzed with XRD and XAFS to confirm the mineral composition and speciation of Te. Furthermore, to serve as an aid to clarify the adsorption mechanism of Te on FMCs, distribution coefficients (Kd) and oxidation states were determined through the adsorption experiments of Te(IV) and Te(VI) on ferrihydrite and δ-MnO2. In all the experiments, pH and ionic strength were adjusted to pH 7.5 and 0.7 M, respectively. The oxidation state of Te in water phase was determined with HPLC-ICP-MS. As for the analysis of oxidation and adsorption states on the solid phase, XAFS was employed. The major mineral composition of Fe and Mn had no significant variation through the water depth of Takuyo-Daigo seamount. The oxidation state of Te in all samples showed hexavalent, and there was no significant

  6. Multiple crust reworking in the French Armorican Variscan belt: implication for the genesis of uranium-fertile leucogranites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballouard, C.; Poujol, M.; Zeh, A.

    2018-03-01

    Muscovite peraluminous granites (MPGs) form by partial melting of the continental crust and can be related to metalliferous deposits such as tin, tungsten, and uranium (U). Metal enrichment in MPGs commonly results from fractional crystallization, but the metal contents of the source play a major role for their fertility. Between ca. 320 and 300 Ma (Late Carboniferous), the French Armorican Variscan belt was intruded by numerous U-fertile MPGs that contain inherited zircon grains with a wide range of ages from Archean-to-Carboniferous. U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of zircon grains from Brioverian-to-Carboniferous sediments, Cambrian-to-Early Carboniferous granitoids, and Late Carboniferous MPGs indicate that the crust of the Armorican Massif is made up by detritus mainly derived from the West African craton (3500-1600 Ma; T DM = 3.8-2.3 Ga), Grenvillian belt (1200-900 Ma; T DM = 2.7-1.2 Ga), and Avalonian-Cadomian belt (800-550 Ma; T DM = 2.5-0.8 Ga) and that the crust was affected by magmatic events at 510-470 Ma (T DM = 1.6-0.6 Ga), 410-330 Ma (T DM = 1.6-1 Ga), and 320-300 Ma. Furthermore, they reveal that the Late Carboniferous MPGs were mainly formed by partial melting of Brioverian sediments with Cambro-Ordovician and Devonian-Carboniferous granitoids, which are all genetically linked with each other and characterized by Th/U < 4. The new data suggest that the U-fertile MPGs result from multiple reworking of U-rich Brioverian sediments, deposited ca. 550 Ma ago on the northern margin of Gondwana, and partially molten during several Paleozoic events, causing a successive increase in U content in the middle-upper crust.

  7. Crustal structure of an exhumed IntraCONtinental Sag (ICONS): the Mekele Basin in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, T. B.; Abdelsalam, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekele Sedimentary Basin (MSB) in Ethiopia is a Paleozoic-Mesozoic IntraCONtinental Sag (ICONS) exposed due to Cenozoic domal and rift flank uplift associated with the Afar mantle plume and Afar Depression (AD). ICONS are formed over stable lithosphere, and in contrast to rift and foreland basins, show circular-elliptical shape in map view, saucer shaped in cross section, and concentric gravity minima. Surface geological features of the MSB have been shown to exhibit geologic characteristics similar to those of other ICONS. We used the World Gravity Map (WGM 2012) data to investigate subsurface-crustal structure of the MSB. We also used 2D power spectrum analysis and inversion of the gravity field to estimate the Moho depth. Our results show the Bouguer anomalies of the WGM 2012 ranges between 130 mGal and - 110 mGal with the highest values within the AD. Despite the effect of the AD on the gravity anomalies, the MSB is characterized by the presence of gravity low anomaly that reaches in places -110 mGal, especially in its western part. The Moho depth estimates, from both spectral analysis and inversion of the gravity data, is between 36 and 40 km depth over most of the western and southern margins of the MSB. However, as the AD is approached, in the eastern margins of the MSB, crustal thickness estimates are highly affected by the anomalously thin and magmatic segment of the AD, and the Moho depth range between 30 and 25 km. Our results are consistent with that of seismic studies in areas far from the MSB, but within the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau where the MSB is located. Those studies have reported an abrupt decrease in Moho depth from 40 km beneath the Northwestern plateau, to 20 km in the adjacent AD. Though the MSB is small (100 kmX100 km) compared to other ICONS, and affected by the neighboring AD, it is characterized by elliptical gravity minima and a relatively thicker crust that gradually thickens away from the rift. In addition, seismic imaging

  8. Archean crust-mantle geochemical differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G. R.

    Isotope measurements on carbonatite complexes and komatiites can provide information on the geochemical character and geochemical evolution of the mantle, including the sub-continental mantle. Measurements on young samples establish the validity of the method. These are based on Sr, Nd and Pb data from the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Sr and Pb data from the Cretaceous Oka carbonatite complex. In both cases the data describe a LIL element-depleted source similar to that observed presently in MORB. Carbonatite data have been used to study the mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield one billion years (1 AE) ago. The framework for this investigation was established by Bell et al., who showed that large areas of the province appear to be underlain by LIL element-depleted mantle (Sr-85/Sr-86=0.7028) at 1 AE ago. Additionally Bell et al. found four complexes to have higher initial Sr ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86=0.7038), which they correlated with less depleted (bulk earth?) mantle sources, or possibly crustal contamination. Pb isotope relationships in four of the complexes have been studied by Bell et al.

  9. Archean crust-mantle geochemical differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope measurements on carbonatite complexes and komatiites can provide information on the geochemical character and geochemical evolution of the mantle, including the sub-continental mantle. Measurements on young samples establish the validity of the method. These are based on Sr, Nd and Pb data from the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Sr and Pb data from the Cretaceous Oka carbonatite complex. In both cases the data describe a LIL element-depleted source similar to that observed presently in MORB. Carbonatite data have been used to study the mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield one billion years (1 AE) ago. The framework for this investigation was established by Bell et al., who showed that large areas of the province appear to be underlain by LIL element-depleted mantle (Sr-85/Sr-86=0.7028) at 1 AE ago. Additionally Bell et al. found four complexes to have higher initial Sr ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86=0.7038), which they correlated with less depleted (bulk earth?) mantle sources, or possibly crustal contamination. Pb isotope relationships in four of the complexes have been studied by Bell et al.

  10. Continental transform margins : state of art and future milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Transform faults were defined 45 years ago as ‘a new class of fault' (Wilson, 1965), and transform margins were consequently individualized as a new class of continental margins. While transform margins represent 20 to 25 % of the total length of continent-ocean transitions, they were poorly studied, especially when compared with the amount of data, interpretations, models and conceptual progress accumulated on divergent or convergent continental margins. The best studied examples of transform margins are located in the northern part of Norway, south of South Africa, in the gulf of California and on both sides of the Equatorial Atlantic. Here is located the Côte d'Ivoire - Ghana margin, where the more complete data set was acquired, based on numerous geological and geophysical cruises, including ODP Leg 159. The first models that encompassed the structure and evolution of transform margins were mainly driven by plate kinematic reconstructions, and evidenced the diachronic end of tectonic activity and the non-cylindrical character of these margins, with a decreasing strike-slip deformation from the convex to the concave divergent-transform intersections. Further thermo-mechanical models were more specifically designed to explain the vertical displacements along transform margins, and especially the occurrence of high-standing marginal ridges. These thermo-mechanical models involved either heat transfer from oceanic to continental lithospheres across the transform faults or tectonically- or gravity-driven mass transfer in the upper crust. These models were far from fully fit observations, and were frequently dedicated to specific example, and not easily generalizable. Future work on transform continental margins may be expected to fill some scientific gaps, and the definition of working directions can benefit from the studies dedicated to other types of margins. At regional scale the structural and sedimentological variability of transform continental margins has

  11. Numerical modeling of continental lithospheric weak zone over plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepechko, Y. V.; Sorokin, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    The work is devoted to the development of magmatic systems in the continental lithosphere over diffluent mantle plumes. The areas of tension originating over them are accompanied by appearance of fault zones, and the formation of permeable channels, which are distributed magmatic melts. The numerical simulation of the dynamics of deformation fields in the lithosphere due to convection currents in the upper mantle, and the formation of weakened zones that extend up to the upper crust and create the necessary conditions for the formation of intermediate magma chambers has been carried out. Thermodynamically consistent non-isothermal model simulates the processes of heat and mass transfer of a wide class of magmatic systems, as well as the process of strain localization in the lithosphere and their influence on the formation of high permeability zones in the lower crust. The substance of the lithosphere is a rheologic heterophase medium, which is described by a two-velocity hydrodynamics. This makes it possible to take into account the process of penetration of the melt from the asthenosphere into the weakened zone. The energy dissipation occurs mainly due to interfacial friction and inelastic relaxation of shear stresses. The results of calculation reveal a nonlinear process of the formation of porous channels and demonstrate the diversity of emerging dissipative structures which are determined by properties of both heterogeneous lithosphere and overlying crust. Mutual effect of a permeable channel and the corresponding filtration process of the melt on the mantle convection and the dynamics of the asthenosphere have been studied. The formation of dissipative structures in heterogeneous lithosphere above mantle plumes occurs in accordance with the following scenario: initially, the elastic behavior of heterophase lithosphere leads to the formation of the narrow weakened zone, though sufficiently extensive, with higher porosity. Further, the increase in the width of

  12. Characteristics and management options of crusting soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water infiltration and accelerated soil erosion resulting from soil crusting ... in a smallholder farming area of the Zambezi metamorphic belt in northern Zimbabwe ...... beans (Ricinus communi L.) in the northeastern region of Brazil. Soil and ...

  13. Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys, dataset DSI-9808, contains routine snow surveys that run throughout the cold season every 10 days (every five...

  14. Reduction of acrylamide content in bread crust by starch coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiaojie; Man, Yong; Liu, Yawei

    2018-01-01

    A technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was proposed. Bread was prepared in accordance with a conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking. Corn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for the outer and inner crust, respectively. The decrease caused by the potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively. Starch coating reduced asparagine content significantly (43.4-82.9%; P coating, which effectively shortened the time span (4-8 min) over which acrylamide could form and accumulate. The present study demonstrates that starch coating could be a simple, effective and practical application for reducing acrylamide levels in bread crust without changing the texture and crust color of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Biosignatures of Hypersaline Environments (Salt Crusts) an Analog for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. D.; Duncan, A. G.; Davilla, A. F.; McKay, C. P.

    2016-05-01

    Halophilic ecosystems are models for life in extreme environments including planetary surfaces such as Mars. Our research focuses on biosignatures in a salt crusts and the detection of these biomarkers by ground and orbital assests.

  16. Strange Stars: Can Their Crust Reach the Neutron Drip Density?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Fu; Yong-Feng Huang

    2003-01-01

    The electrostatic potential of electrons near the surface of static strange stars at zero temperature is studied within the frame of the MIT bag model. We find that for QCD parameters within rather wide ranges, if the nuclear crust on the strange star is at a density leading to neutron drip, then the electrostatic potential will be insufficient to establish an outwardly directed electric field, which is crucial for the survival of such a crust. If a minimum gap width of 200 fm is brought in as a more stringent constraint, then our calculations will completely rule out the possibility of such crusts. Therefore, our results argue against the existence of neutron-drip crusts in nature.

  17. Water sorption and transport in dry crispy bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B.J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Tromp, R.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2010-01-01

    Water sorption and dynamical properties of bread crust have been studied using gravimetric sorption experiments. Water uptake and loss were followed while relative humidity (RH) was stepwise in- or decreased (isotherm experiment) or varied between two adjusted values (oscillatory experiment).

  18. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng; Shin, Hosung; Santamarina, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  19. Yellow sorediate crusts called Caloplaca citrina in England

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Powell, M.; Vondrák, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 110 (2012), s. 20-24 ISSN 0300-4562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * crytic species * sorediate crusts Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  20. Breaking strain of neutron star crust and gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, C J; Kadau, Kai

    2009-05-15

    Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of the neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Because of the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gravitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large-scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in magnetar giant flares and microflares.

  1. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-14

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  2. The evolution of Mercury's crust: a global perspective from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W; Robinson, Mark S; Solomon, Sean C; Murchie, Scott L; Blewett, David T; Domingue, Deborah L; McCoy, Timothy J; Ernst, Carolyn M; Head, James W; Watters, Thomas R; Chabot, Nancy L

    2009-05-01

    Mapping the distribution and extent of major terrain types on a planet's surface helps to constrain the origin and evolution of its crust. Together, MESSENGER and Mariner 10 observations of Mercury now provide a near-global look at the planet, revealing lateral and vertical heterogeneities in the color and thus composition of Mercury's crust. Smooth plains cover approximately 40% of the surface, and evidence for the volcanic origin of large expanses of plains suggests that a substantial portion of the crust originated volcanically. A low-reflectance, relatively blue component affects at least 15% of the surface and is concentrated in crater and basin ejecta. Its spectral characteristics and likely origin at depth are consistent with its apparent excavation from a lower crust or upper mantle enriched in iron- and titanium-bearing oxides.

  3. Variability in Rock Thermal Properties in the Late Archean Crust of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone and Implications for its Thermal Structure and Metamorphic History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, J. D.; Whittington, A. G.; Hofmeister, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal properties of rocks such as internal heat production and thermal diffusivity (α) play a key role in determining the thermal structure of the lithosphere, and consequently, the rates and styles of metamorphism within the crust. Over the last decade, measurements of α using the method laser flash analysis have shown the ability of a rock to conduct heat can vary by as much as a factor of 5 between common rock types, and decrease by up to a factor of 10 for the same rock between 25-1000°C. Here we present a preliminary model for the variability in rock throughout the crust based on measurements of the α of a suite of 100 samples from late Archean crust exposed in and around the Kapuskasing Structural Zone in Ontario, Canada. Preliminary results suggest that α is controlled primarily by mineralogy, and can vary not only between different rock types as described above, but also within the same rock by a factor of 1.5 (or more). Thermal diffusivity results were combined with heat producing element concentrations measured with ICP-MS to create a thermal model of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone prior its uplift and exposure. To provide additional constraints for P-T conditions within the pre-uplift KSZ crust, a combination of trace-element and pseudosection thermobarometry was used to estimate metamorphic temperatures during an extended period of crustal stability at the end of the Archean. Preliminary results were compared to finite-difference numerical models of the steady-state geothermal gradient using heat production back-calculated to 2.6 Ga. Results suggest a minimum thickness of the continental lithosphere during the late Archean of at least 150 km. To test the response of the crust to the effects of large thermal events such as pluton emplacement, we also performed time-dependent models of the thermal structure of the pre-uplift KSZ crust. These models suggest that heat from thermal events in the upper and middle crust result in a more insulating

  4. Black manganese-rich crusts on a Gothic cathedral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macholdt, Dorothea S.; Herrmann, Siegfried; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Laubscher, Thomas; Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Schwager, Beate; Weber, Bettina; Weigand, Markus; Domke, Katrin F.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2017-12-01

    Black manganese-rich crusts are found worldwide on the façades of historical buildings. In this study, they were studied exemplarily on the façade of the Freiburger Münster (Freiburg Minster), Germany, and measured in-situ by portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The XRF was calibrated to allow the conversion from apparent mass fractions to Mn surface density (Mn mass per area), to compensate for the fact that portable XRF mass fraction measurements from thin layers violate the assumption of a homogeneous measurement volume. Additionally, 200-nm femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (fs LA-ICP-MS) measurements, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy-near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS), Raman spectroscopy, and imaging by light microscopy were conducted to obtain further insight into the crust material, such as potential biogenic contributions, element distributions, trace element compositions, and organic functional groups. While black crusts of various types are present at many places on the minster's facade, crusts rich in Mn (with a Mn surface density >150 μg cm-2) are restricted to a maximum height of about 7 m. The only exceptions are those developed on the Renaissance-Vorhalle (Renaissance Portico) at a height of about 8 m. This part of the façade had been cleaned and treated with a silicon resin as recently as 2003. These crusts thus accumulated over a period of only 12 years. Yet, they are exceptionally Mn-rich with a surface density of 1200 μg cm-2, and therefore require an accumulation rate of about 100 μg cm-2 Mn per year. Trace element analyses support the theory that vehicle emissions are responsible for most of the Mn supply. Lead, barium, and zinc correlate with manganese, indicating that tire material, brake pads, and resuspended road dust are likely to be the element sources. Microscopic investigations show no organisms on or in the Mn-rich crusts. In contrast, Mn-free black

  5. Formation and Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Halite Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-12-01

    Efflorescent salt crusts form as groundwater evaporates from capillary updraw of brine through sediment. Salts precipitate at the surface, coating and cementing the upper few layers of sediment. If enough brine is present to completely saturate and pond on top of the surface, halite will precipitate at the surface of the brine and settle out as layers of crystalline salt on top of the sediment. In playa environments, salts such as sulfates, carbonates and halides, and forms such crusts. In remote sensing studies of such surfaces, it is important to understand how the presence of salt crusts affects the spectral features of the surrounding sediment. This is especially true when the crusts form from a non-absorbing salt such as halite. Halite has been observed to exhibit unusual spectral properties in the thermal infrared. Specifically, granular mixtures of minerals with halite produced spectra in which the spectral features inverted form reflectivity, shifted to shorter wavelengths and the spectral contrast increased near absorption bands. However, in crusted surfaces, in which the halite cements, coats or overlays the mineral grains, the presence of halite has a different affect on the spectra. This work will examine the precipitation of halite and the formation of salt crusts for several sediment and brine mixtures. Laboratory measurements of thermal emission spectra for the crusts will be compared to previous studies for particulate mixtures of halite with minerals and well as to natural surface crusts. Detailed knowledge of such surfaces will allow for their discrimination and identification in terrestrial playa settings as well as in paleo-environments on Mars.

  6. Continental lithosphere of the Arabian Plate: A geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robert J.; Johnson, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The Arabian Plate originated ˜ 25 Ma ago by rifting of NE Africa to form the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is one of the smaller and younger of the Earth's lithospheric plates. The upper part of its crust consists of crystalline Precambrian basement, Phanerozoic sedimentary cover as much as 10 km thick, and Cenozoic flood basalt (harrat). The distribution of these rocks and variations in elevation across the Plate cause a pronounced geologic and topographic asymmetry, with extensive basement exposures (the Arabian Shield) and elevations of as much as 3000 m in the west, and a Phanerozoic succession (Arabian Platform) that thickens, and a surface that descends to sea level, eastward between the Shield and the northeastern margin of the Plate. This tilt in the Plate is partly the result of marginal uplift during rifting in the south and west, and loading during collision with, and subduction beneath, the Eurasian Plate in the northeast. But a variety of evidence suggests that the asymmetry also reflects a fundamental crustal and mantle heterogeneity in the Plate that dates from Neoproterozoic time when the crust formed. The bulk of the Plate's upper crystalline crust is Neoproterozoic in age (1000-540 Ma) reflecting, in the west, a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth between ˜ 850 and 550 Ma represented by amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs, post-amalgamation sedimentary and volcanic basins, and granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Locally, Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks are structurally intercalated with the juvenile Neoproterozoic rocks in the southern and eastern parts of the Shield. The geologic dataset for the age, composition, and origin of the upper crust of the Plate in the east is smaller than the database for the Shield, and conclusions made about the crust in the east are correspondingly less definitive. In the absence of exposures, furthermore, nothing is known by direct observation about the

  7. A Facies Model for Temperate Continental Glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Gail Mowry

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the presence and dynamics of continental glaciers in the domination of the physical processes of erosion and deposition in the mid-latitudes during the Pleistocene period. Describes the use of a sedimentary facies model as a guide to recognizing ancient temperate continental glacial deposits. (TW)

  8. How Continental Bank outsourced its "crown jewels.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R L

    1993-01-01

    No industry relies more on information than banking does, yet Continental, one of America's largest banks, outsources its information technology. Why? Because that's the best way to service the customers that form the core of the bank's business, says vice chairman Dick Huber. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Continental participated heavily with Penn Square Bank in energy investments. When falling energy prices burst Penn Square's bubble in 1982, Continental was stuck with more than $1 billion in bad loans. Eight years later when Dick Huber came on board, Continental was working hard to restore its once solid reputation. Executives had made many tough decisions already, altering the bank's focus from retail to business banking and laying off thousands of employees. Yet management still needed to cut costs and improve services to stay afloat. Regulators, investors, and analysts were watching every step. Continental executives, eager to focus on the bank's core mission of serving business customers, decided to outsource one after another in-house service--from cafeteria services to information technology. While conventional wisdom holds that banks must retain complete internal control of IT, Continental bucked this argument when it entered into a ten-year, multimillion-dollar contract with Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation. Continental is already reaping benefits from outsourcing IT. Most important, Continental staffers today focus on their true core competencies: intimate knowledge of customers' needs and relationships with customers.

  9. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces and man-made tritium. (author)

  10. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces. Some comments on man made tritium are given. (author)

  11. The role of mechanical heterogeneities during continental breakup: a 3D lithospheric-scale modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclaux, Guillaume; Huismans, Ritske S.; May, Dave

    2015-04-01

    How and why do continents break? More than two decades of analogue and 2D plane-strain numerical experiments have shown that despite the origin of the forces driving extension, the geometry of continental rifts falls into three categories - or modes: narrow rift, wide rift, or core complex. The mode of extension itself is strongly influenced by the rheology (and rheological behaviour) of the modelled layered system. In every model, an initial thermal or mechanical heterogeneity, such as a weak seed or a notch, is imposed to help localise the deformation and avoid uniform stretching of the lithosphere by pure shear. While it is widely accepted that structural inheritance is a key parameter for controlling rift localisation - as implied by the Wilson Cycle - modelling the effect of lithospheric heterogeneities on the long-term tectonic evolution of an extending plate in full 3D remains challenging. Recent progress in finite-element methods applied to computational tectonics along with the improved accessibility to high performance computers, now enable to switch from plane strain thermo-mechanical experiments to full 3D high-resolution experiments. Here we investigate the role of mechanical heterogeneities on rift opening, linkage and propagation during extension of a layered lithospheric systems with pTatin3d, a geodynamics modeling package utilising the material-point-method for tracking material composition, combined with a multigrid finite-element method to solve heterogeneous, incompressible visco-plastic Stokes problems. The initial model setup consists in a box of 1200 km horizontally by 250 km deep. It includes a 35 km layer of continental crust, underlaid by 85 km of sub-continental lithospheric mantle, and an asthenospheric mantle. Crust and mantle have visco-plastic rheologies with a pressure dependent yielding, which includes strain weakening, and a temperature, stress, strain-rate-dependent viscosity based on wet quartzite rheology for the crust, and wet

  12. Finite element simulation of earthquake cycle dynamics for continental listric fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, T.; Shen, Z. K.

    2017-12-01

    We simulate stress/strain evolution through earthquake cycles for a continental listric fault system using the finite element method. A 2-D lithosphere model is developed, with the upper crust composed of plasto-elastic materials and the lower crust/upper mantle composed of visco-elastic materials respectively. The media is sliced by a listric fault, which is soled into the visco-elastic lower crust at its downdip end. The system is driven laterally by constant tectonic loading. Slip on fault is controlled by rate-state friction. We start with a simple static/dynamic friction law, and drive the system through multiple earthquake cycles. Our preliminary results show that: (a) periodicity of the earthquake cycles is strongly modulated by the static/dynamic friction, with longer period correlated with higher static friction and lower dynamic friction; (b) periodicity of earthquake is a function of fault depth, with less frequent events of greater magnitudes occurring at shallower depth; and (c) rupture on fault cannot release all the tectonic stress in the system, residual stress is accumulated in the hanging wall block at shallow depth close to the fault, which has to be released either by conjugate faulting or inelastic folding. We are in a process of exploring different rheologic structure and friction laws and examining their effects on earthquake behavior and deformation pattern. The results will be applied to specific earthquakes and fault zones such as the 2008 great Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan fault system.

  13. Plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange, central Japan: Fragments of middle to lower crust of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, Yuji; Ito, Hisatoshi; Hokanishi, Natsumi; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji

    2017-06-01

    A Paleogene accretionary complex, the Mineoka-Setogawa Belt, is distributed around the Izu Collision Zone, central Japan. Plutonic rocks of gabbro, diorite and tonalite compositions are included as fragments and dykes in an ophiolitic mélange in this belt. Zircon U-Pb dating of the plutonic rocks indicates that they were formed at ca. 35 Ma simultaneously. These ages are consistent with Eocene-Oligocene tholeiite and calc-alkaline arc magmatism in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc and exclude several previous models for the origin of the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic rocks. The geochemical characteristics of these plutonic rocks are similar to those of the Eocene-Oligocene IBM tholeiite and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks as well as to the accreted middle crust of the IBM Arc, the Tanzawa Plutonic Complex. Moreover, their lithology is consistent with those of the middle and lower crust of the IBM Arc estimated from the seismic velocity structure. These lines of evidence strongly indicate that the plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange are fragments of the middle to lower crust of the IBM Arc. Additionally, the presence of the Mineoka-Setogawa intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks supports the hypothesis that intermediate magma can form continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs.

  14. High-resolution and Deep Crustal Imaging Across The North Sicily Continental Margin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agate, M.; Bertotti, G.; Catalano, R.; Pepe, F.; Sulli, A.

    Three multichannel seismic reflection profiles across the North Sicily continental mar- gin have been reprocessed and interpreted. Data consist of an unpublished high pene- tration seismic profile (deep crust Italian CROP Project) and a high-resolution seismic line. These lines run in the NNE-SSW direction, from the Sicilian continental shelf to the Tyrrhenian abyssal plain (Marsili area), and are tied by a third, high penetration seismic line MS104 crossing the Sisifo High. The North Sicily continental margin represents the inner sector of the Sicilian-Maghrebian chain that is collapsed as con- sequence of extensional tectonics. The chain is formed by a tectonic wedge (12-15 km thick. It includes basinal Meso-Cenozoic carbonate units overthrusting carbonate platform rock units (Catalano et al., 2000). Presently, main culmination (e.g. Monte Solunto) and a number of tectonic depressions (e.g. Cefalù basin), filled by >1000 m thick Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary wedge, are observed along the investigated tran- sect. Seismic attributes and reflector pattern depicts a complex crustal structure. Be- tween the coast and the M. Solunto high, a transparent to diffractive band (assigned to the upper crust) is recognised above low frequency reflective layers (occurring be- tween 9 and 11 s/TWT) that dips towards the North. Their bottom can be correlated to the seismological (African?) Moho discontinuity which is (26 km deep in the Sicilian shelf (Scarascia et al., 1994). Beneath the Monte Solunto ridge, strongly deformed re- flectors occurring between 8 to 9.5 s/TWT (European lower crust?) overly the African (?) lower crust. The resulting geometry suggests underplating of the African crust respect to the European crust (?). The already deformed crustal edifice is dissected by a number of N-dipping normal faults that open extensional basins and are associ- ated with crustal thinning. The Plio-Pleistocene fill of the Cefalù basin can be subdi- vided into three subunits by

  15. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with generalized continental shelf-slope-rise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P. L.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that combines a standard plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere based on the age of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus generalized shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to develop a methodology for reconstructing ocean bathymetry in the geologic past that includes heterogeneous continental margins in addition to abyssal ocean floor. First, the plate cooling model is applied to maps of ocean crustal age to calculate depth to basement. To the depth to basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A three-parameter continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Parameters of the shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are determined from modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and central Atlantic, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth to basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  16. Processes accompanying of mantle plume emplacement into continental lithosphere: Evidence from NW Arabian plate, Western Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Lower crustal xenoliths occurred in the Middle Cretaceous lamprophyre diatremes in Jabel Ansaria (Western Syria) (Sharkov et al., 1992). They are represented mainly garnet granulites and eclogite-like rocks, which underwent by deformations and retrograde metamorphism, and younger fresh pegmatoid garnet-kaersutite-clinopyroxene (Al-Ti augite) rocks; mantle peridotites are absent in these populations. According to mineralogical geothermobarometers, forming of garnet-granulite suite rocks occurred under pressure 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths 45-54 kn) and temperature 965-1115oC. At the same time, among populations of mantle xenoliths in the Late Cenozoic platobasalts of the region, quite the contrary, lower crustal xenoliths are absent, however, predominated spinel lherzolites (fragments of upper cooled rim of a plume head), derived from the close depths (30-40 km: Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2015). From this follows that ancient continental crust was existed here even in the Middle Cretaceous, but in the Late Cenozoic was removed by extended mantle plume head; at that upper sialic crust was not involved in geomechanic processes, because Precambrian metamorphic rocks survived as a basement for Cambrian to Cenozoic sedimentary cover of Arabian platform. In other words, though cardinal rebuilding of deep-seated structure of the region occurred in the Late Cenozoic but it did not affect on the upper shell of the ancient lithosphere. Because composition of mantle xenolithis in basalts is practically similar worldwide, we suggest that deep-seated processes are analogous also. As emplacement of the mantle plume heads accompanied by powerful basaltic magmatism, very likely that range of lower (mafic) continental crust existence is very convenient for extension of plume heads and their adiabatic melting. If such level, because of whatever reasons, was not reached, melting was limited but appeared excess of volatile matters which led to forming of lamprophyre or even kimberlite.

  17. A Comparison of Continental Extension Estimates Across the Margins of the Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazlim, B.; Goodliffe, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that depth dependent extension is commonly observed across rifted margins. This has resulted in a discrepancy between the estimates of extension made through whole lithosphere/crust vs fault heave calculations (for example northwest Australia, South China Sea, Galicia). In the Woodlark Basin, the amount of extension estimated from observed subsidence and brittle extension also do not match. Taking into account sub-seismic resolution and poly-phase faulting reduces this mismatch. In the Woodlark Basin continental extension can also be estimated by extending Euler pole kinematics from the oceanic domain. Previous studies show that this predicts almost double the extension calculated from subsidence and brittle extension. Extension in the Woodlark Basin began at 8.4 Ma and transitioned to sea-floor spreading in the east at 6 Ma. The basin is an ideal place to study the extension discrepancy because of its young age and thin sediments. Seismic reflection easily images basement and fault structures. High resolution bathymetry permits tracing of major faults on the seafloor. A previous study focused on the extension discrepancy at the rifting to spreading transition. This study will focus on the discrepancy further east where seafloor spreading began just after 2 Ma and opening rates are faster. Data used in this study include bathymetry, magnetics, gravity, and low-fold 2-D seismic reflection data. Using the available data, extension estimates have been calculated through brittle extension and subsidence. Euler pole derived extension rates from previous studies were used for comparison. Results indicate that Euler pole kinematics predict far more extension than estimates calculated through subsidence and brittle extension. This provides important insights into processes in the low crust and supports earlier hypotheses that the mantle lithosphere and upper crust may be moving at different rates prior to continental breakup.

  18. Microbial Life of North Pacific Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Koos, R.; Manz, W.; Reitner, J.

    2003-12-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Drilling into 45-Ma oceanic basaltic crust in a deepwater environment during ODP Leg 200 provided a promising opportunity to explore the abundance, diversity and activity of micro-organisms. The combined use of culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses and enrichment culture techniques is an advantageous approach in investigating subsurface microbial ecosystems. Enrichment culture methods allow the evaluation of potential activities and functions. Microbiological investigations revealed few aerobic cultivable, in part hitherto unknown, micro-organisms in deep submarine sediments and basaltic lava flows. 16S rDNA sequencing of isolates from sediment revealed the next relatives to be members of the genera Halomonas, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus. Within the Pseudomonadaceae the closest relative is Acinetobacter sp., which was isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The next phylogenetical relatives within the Halomonadaceae are bacteria typically isolated from Soda lakes, which are considered as model of early life conditions. Interestingly, not only sediment bacteria could be obtained in pure culture. Aerobic strains could also be successfully isolated from the massive tholeiitic basalt layer at a depth of 76.16 mbsf (46 m below the sediment/basement contact). These particular isolates are gram-positive with low G+C content of DNA, phylogenetically affiliated to the phylum Firmicutes. The closest neighbors are e.g. a marine Bacillus isolated from the Gulf of Mexico and a low G+C gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the microbial flora in the deepest sea mud of the Mariana Trench, isolated from a depth of 10,897 m. Based on the similarity values, the isolates represent hitherto undescribed species of the deep

  19. Using crustal thickness, subsidence and P-T-t history on the Iberia-Newfoundland & Alpine Tethys margins to constrain lithosphere deformation modes during continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Manatschal, G.; Mohn, G.; Beltrando, M.

    2013-12-01

    Observations at magma-poor rifted margins such as Iberia-Newfoundland show a complex lithosphere deformation history and OCT architecture, resulting in hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, exhumed mantle and scattered embryonic oceanic crust before continental breakup and seafloor spreading. Initiation of seafloor spreading requires both the rupture of the continental crust and lithospheric mantle, and the onset of decompressional melting. Their relative timing controls when mantle exhumation may occur; the presence or absence of exhumed mantle provides useful information on the timing of these events and constraints on lithosphere deformation modes. A single kinematic lithosphere deformation mode leading to continental breakup and sea-floor spreading cannot explain observations. We have determined the sequence of lithosphere deformation events, using forward modelling of crustal thickness, subsidence and P-T-t history calibrated against observations on the present-day Iberia-Newfoundland and the fossil analogue Alpine Tethys margins. Lithosphere deformation modes, represented by flow fields, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FeMargin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FeMargin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the topmost upper lithosphere inducing passive upwelling beneath that layer; the upper lithosphere is assumed to deform by extensional faulting and magmatic intrusions, consistent with observations of deformation processes occurring at slow spreading ocean ridges (Cannat, 1996). Buoyancy enhanced upwelling is also included in the kinematic model as predicted by Braun et al (2000). We predict melt generation by decompressional melting using the parameterization and methodology of Katz et al., 2003. We use a series of numerical experiments, tested and calibrated against crustal thicknesses and subsidence observations, to determine the distribution of lithosphere

  20. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  1. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  2. From continental to oceanic rifting in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luca; Bonini, Marco; Martín, Arturo

    2017-11-01

    The continental margin of northwestern Mexico is the youngest example of the transition from a convergent plate boundary to an oblique divergent margin that formed the Gulf of California rift. Subduction of the Farallon oceanic plate during the Cenozoic progressively brought the East Pacific Rise (EPR) toward the North America trench. In this process increasingly younger and buoyant oceanic lithosphere entered the subduction zone until subduction ended just before most of the EPR could collide with the North America continental lithosphere. The EPR segments bounding the unsubducted parts of the Farallón plate remnants (Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates) also ceased spreading (Lonsdale, 1991) and a belt of the North American plate (California and Baja California Peninsula) became coupled with the Pacific Plate and started moving northwestward forming the modern Gulf of California oblique rift (Nicholson et al., 1994; Bohannon and Parsons, 1995). The timing of the change from plate convergence to oblique divergence off western Mexico has been constrained at the middle Miocene (15-12.5 Ma) by ocean floor morphology and magnetic anomalies as well as plate tectonic reconstructions (Atwater and Severinghaus, 1989; Stock and Hodges, 1989; Lonsdale, 1991), although the onset of transtensional deformation and the amount of right lateral displacement within the Gulf region are still being studied (Oskin et al., 2001; Fletcher et al., 2007; Bennett and Oskin, 2014). Other aspects of the formation of the Gulf of California remain not well understood. At present the Gulf of California straddles the transition from continental transtension in the north to oceanic spreading in the south. Seismic reflection-refraction data indicate asymmetric continent-ocean transition across conjugate margins of rift segments (González-Fernández et al., 2005; Lizarralde et al., 2007; Miller and Lizarralde, 2013; Martín-Barajas et al., 2013). The asymmetry may be related to crustal

  3. Normal-Faulting in Madagascar: Another Round of Continental Rifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Pratt, M. J.; Tsiriandrimanana, R.; Andriampenomanana Ny Ony, F. S. T.; Nyblade, A.; Durrheim, R. J.; Tilmann, F. J.; Rumpker, G.; Rambolamanana, G.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Shore, P.

    2017-12-01

    Analyses of seismicity and seismic structure within Madagascar suggest the current occurrence of crustal extension, which may be related to continental rifting associated with a diffuse boundary between the Somalia and Lwandle tectonic plates. Madagascar has participated in two major rifting events as part of the break-up of Gondwana: the break-away of Greater India (Madagascar, India, the Seychelles) away from mainland Africa during the Jurassic and the break-away of India from Madagascar during the Cretaceous. Seismic activity and the structures obtained from it, using data from the 2-year (2011-2013) MACOMO project, suggest that this break-up may not be finished, and that continental rifts may be developing again. There are fairly high levels of intraplate seismicity within Madagascar: over 800 events located during the 22 months of the deployment. For comparison, a 2-year deployment of seismometers within the upper Midwest of the U.S. yielded just 12 intraplate earthquakes. While the Madagascar seismicity occurs across the island, it is strongly concentrated in the central region, where Cenozoic volcanism has occurred through the Holocene, and earthquakes align along N-S-trending lineations associated with N-S-trending pull-apart graben structures. The thickness of the crust is still >40 km in this region, but it is underlain by a large low-velocity structure within the lithosphere and asthenosphere that is observed in our studies of surface-wave, body-wave, and Pn-phase tomography. Normal faulting is not observed everywhere on the island, however; seismicity in the north is largely strike-slip, and seismicity in the south appears to be largely reverse faulting. Several studies have suggested that the diffuse boundary between the Somalia and Lwandle plates runs roughly E-W across Madagascar. Extensional faulting seems to predominate only within central Madagascar, likely associated with the current volcanic activity, which also appears to be associated with the

  4. Calorimetric studies of cryptogamic crust metabolism in response to temperature, water vapor, and liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorothy A. Stradling; Tonya Thygerson; Bruce N. Smith; Lee D. Hansen; Richard S. Criddle; Rosemary L. Pendleton

    2001-01-01

    Cryptogamic crusts are communities composed of lichens, cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, and fungi. These integrated soil crusts are susceptible to disturbance, but if intact, appear to play a role in providing nutrients, especially nitrogen, to higher plants. It is not known how or under what conditions desert crusts can grow. Crust samples from localities on the...

  5. Effects of crust and cracks on simulated catchment discharge and soil loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Roo, de A.P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Sealing, crusting and cracking of crusts of the soil surface has been observed in many parts of the world in areas with sandy, silty and loamy soils. Sealing and crust formation occurs under the influence of rain storm and drying weather. With prolonged drying, surface crusts might crack, leading to

  6. Thallium isotope variations in an ore-bearing continental igneous setting: Collahuasi Formation, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. G. A.; Rehkämper, M.; Ihlenfeld, C.; Oates, C. J.; Coggon, R.

    2010-08-01

    Thallium is a highly incompatible element and a large fraction of the bulk silicate Earth Tl budget is, therefore, expected to reside in the continental crust. Nonetheless, the Tl isotope systematics of continental rocks are essentially unexplored at present. Here, we present new Tl isotope composition and concentration data for a suite of 36 intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks from the vicinity of porphyry Cu deposits in the Collahuasi Formation of the Central Andes in northern Chile. The igneous lithologies of the rocks are variably affected by the hydrothermal alteration that accompanied the formation of the Cu deposits. The samples display Tl concentrations that vary by more than an order of magnitude, from 0.1 to 3.2 μg/g, whilst ɛ 205Tl ranges between -5.1 and +0.1 (ɛ 205Tl is the deviation of the 205Tl/ 203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from a standard in parts per 10 4). These variations are primarily thought to be a consequence of hydrothermal alteration processes, including metasomatic transport of Tl, and formation/breakdown of Tl-bearing minerals, which are associated with small but significant Tl isotope effects. The Tl abundances show excellent correlations with both K and Rb concentrations but no co-variation with Cu. This demonstrates that Tl displays only limited chalcophile affinity in the continental crust of the Collahuasi Formation, but behaves as a lithophile element with a distribution that is primarily governed by partitioning of Tl + into K +-bearing phases. Collahuasi samples with propylitic alteration features, which are derived from the marginal parts of the hydrothermal systems, have, on average, slightly lighter Tl isotope compositions than rocks from the more central sericitic and argillic alteration zones. This small but statistically significant difference most likely reflects preferential retention of isotopically heavy Tl in alteration phases, such as white micas and clays, which formed during sericitic and argillic alteration.

  7. Snow and Ice Crust Changes over Northern Eurasia since 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, O.; Groisman, P. Y.; Razuvaev, V.; Radionov, V.

    2009-12-01

    When temperature of snow cover reaches zero Celsius first time since its establishment, snowmelt starts. In many parts of the world this process can be lengthy. The initial amount of heat that “arrives” to the snowpack might be insufficient for complete snowmelt, during the colder nights re-freeze of the melted snow may occur (thus creating the ice crust layers), and a new cold front (or the departure of the warm front that initiated melt) can decrease temperatures below the freezing point again and stop the snowmelt completely. It well can be that first such snowmelt occurs in winter (thaw day) and for several months thereafter snowpack stays on the ground. However, even the first such melt initiates a process of snow metamorphosis on its surface changing snow albedo and generating snow crust as well as on its bottom generating ice crust. Once emerged, the crusts will not disappear until the complete snowmelt. Furthermore, these crusts have numerous pathways of impact on the wild birds and animals in the Arctic environment as well as on domesticated reindeers. In extreme cases, the crusts may kill some wild species and prevent reindeers’ migration and feeding. Ongoing warming in high latitudes created situations when in the western half of Eurasian continent days with thaw became more frequent. Keeping in mind potential detrimental impacts of winter thaws and associated with them snow/ice crust development, it is worthwhile to study directly what are the major features of snow and ice crust over Eurasia and what is their dynamics. For the purpose of this study, we employed the national snow survey data set archived at the Russian Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. The dataset has routine snow surveys run throughout the cold season each decade (during the intense snowmelt, each 5 days) at all meteorological stations of the former USSR, thereafter, in Russia since 1966. Prior to 1966 snow surveys are also available but the methodology of

  8. Tectonic evolution of the continental crust of South America and its importance in the characterization of uraniferous provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordani, U.G.

    1981-01-01

    The tectonic evolution of the South American Continent and its relationship with uranium mineralization is discussed. During the Phanerozoic at least three phases are identified as related to the Andean chain, namely, in the lower Palaeozoic, in the upper Palaeozoic and in the Meso-Cenozoic. Recent systematic age dating of the Precambrian indicates the period of 450-700 million years (m.y.) (Brazilian Cycle) as one of the most important tectonic events in South America. Another age-dating cluster corresponds to the 1700-2100 m.y. interval (Transamazonic Cycle). An even older event within the Archean is identified with datings older than 2600 m.y. in Venezuela (Estado Bolivar), Surinam and Brazil (Bahia, Santa Catarina, Goias). All the Brazilian uranium deposits related to the Brazilian platform, such as Amorinopolis, are located on the eastern border of the platform where the Brazilian tectonic cycle is dominant. The uranium source rocks are of alkaline granitic nature. Other deposits (Itataia, Campos Belos) are associated with polycyclic rocks belonging to the basement of the Brazilian Cycle but were affected by the 450-700 m.y. tectonic event; these amphibolitic facies rocks show alkaline metamorphism and magmatization processes which indicate large geochemical mobility during which important uranium mobilization has taken place. Finally, the Pocos de Caldas deposit is excellent evidence of the important relationship of tectonic reactivations and uranium enrichments within the Brazilian platform. (author)

  9. A reconnaissance view of tungsten reservoirs in some crustal and mantle rocks: Implications for interpreting W isotopic compositions and crust-mantle W cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingao; Pearson, D. Graham; Chacko, Thomas; Luo, Yan

    2018-02-01

    their significance for crust-mantle HFSE and siderophile element budgets - to be tested in future studies. The significant concentration of W, as well as Nb and Ta hosted in rutile and titanite has interesting implications for the budget of W during crust-mantle recycling. Crust-mantle recycling models invoking the recycling of rutile-bearing eclogites to satisfy the mantle Nb/Ta ratio carry the penalty that the very high W/U and W/Th ratios of these rocks results in a concomitant large deviation from the primitive mantle-like ratios estimated for bulk continental crust. Similarly, data from the single amphibolite sample investigated in this study are inconsistent with models implicating the partial melting of amphibolite-bearing subducted slabs as a major process for formation of continental crust in the Earth's early history. Either the current widely accepted estimates for bulk continental crust W/U and W/Th ratios are in error, or partial melting or other processes lowers the W/U or W/Th of melt residues during their return to the mantle. The present small dataset cannot properly evaluate this, requiring further investigation. Finally, the lithospheric mantle has the potential to store substantial amounts of W, for example via infiltration by W-rich melts/fluids, and thus may act as a source for W mineralization in the crust.

  10. Ophiolitic basement to the Great Valley forearc basin, California, from seismic and gravity data: Implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, N.J.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Klemperer, S.L.; Levander, A.; Luetgert, J.; Meltzer, A.; Mooney, W.; Tréhu, A.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of the Great Valley basement, whether oceanic or continental, has long been a source of controversy. A velocity model (derived from a 200-km-long east-west reflection-refraction profile collected south of the Mendocino triple junction, northern California, in 1993), further constrained by density and magnetic models, reveals an ophiolite underlying the Great Valley (Great Valley ophiolite), which in turn is underlain by a westward extension of lower-density continental crust (Sierran affinity material). We used an integrated modeling philosophy, first modeling the seismic-refraction data to obtain a final velocity model, and then modeling the long-wavelength features of the gravity data to obtain a final density model that is constrained in the upper crust by our velocity model. The crustal section of Great Valley ophiolite is 7-8 km thick, and the Great Valley ophiolite relict oceanic Moho is at 11-16 km depth. The Great Valley ophiolite does not extend west beneath the Coast Ranges, but only as far as the western margin of the Great Valley, where the 5-7-km-thick Great Valley ophiolite mantle section dips west into the present-day mantle. There are 16-18 km of lower-density Sierran affinity material beneath the Great Valley ophiolite mantle section, such that a second, deeper, "present-day" continental Moho is at about 34 km depth. At mid-crustal depths, the boundary between the eastern extent of the Great Valley ophiolite and the western extent of Sierran affinity material is a near-vertical velocity and density discontinuity about 80 km east of the western margin of the Great Valley. Our model has important implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin. We suggest that a thick ophiolite sequence was obducted onto continental material, probably during the Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, so that the Great Valley basement is oceanic crust above oceanic mantle vertically stacked above continental crust and continental mantle.

  11. Using mineral thermal diffusivities measured with Laser-Flash Analysis to redefine the continental geotherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branlund, J. M.; Hofmeister, A.; Merriman, J. D.; Nabelek, P. I.; Whittington, A. G.

    2010-12-01

    We've created a new model for the average continental geotherm by incorporating accurate thermal conductivity values into Fourier's law. Previous geotherm models used thermal conductivities (k) with systematic errors: (1) Pores and microcracks in polycrystalline samples provide artificially low k compared to buried rocks, (2) conventional measurement techniques involve contact losses between thermocouples and samples, especially at high temperature, and/or (3) many techniques inadequately remove ballistic radiative transfer, which does not represent true heat transfer in the earth. To provide k values appropriate for Earth’s interior, we measured thermal diffusivity and its temperature derivatives using laser-flash analysis (LFA) for common rock-forming minerals. To avoid problems of pores and microcracks artificially lowering measured k values, we mathematically mixed mineral data to create synthetic rocks representative of the upper and lower crust and mantle, and checked our values against measurements of rocks least contaminated. Compared to previous models using k of rocks measured with non-LFA methods, our mixture models give higher k of crustal rocks at room temperature, but lower values at higher temperatures. Calculating a geotherm with these revised thermal conductivity values gives a lower temperature throughout the lower crust and mantle lithosphere. Altering the composition of the crust will change the geotherm; crust with more quartz, olivine and/or pyroxene has higher k and a lower geothermal gradient. Adding calcic plagioclase lowers k and steepens the geotherm. The new constraints on k allow us to set bounds on the steady-state geotherm based on ranges of possible mineralogy, chemistry, and radiogenic contents.

  12. Seismic Discontinuities within the Crust and Mantle Beneath Indonesia as Inferred from P Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelbern, I.; Rumpker, G.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia is situated at the southern margin of SE Asia, which comprises an assemblage of Gondwana-derived continental terranes, suture zones and volcanic arcs. The formation of SE Asia is believed to have started in Early Devonian. Its complex history involves the opening and closure of three distinct Tethys oceans, each accompanied by the rifting of continental fragments. We apply the receiver function technique to data of the temporary MERAMEX network operated in Central Java from May to October 2004 by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. The network consisted of 112 mobile stations with a spacing of about 10 km covering the full width of the island between the southern and northern coast lines. The tectonic history is reflected in a complex crustal structure of Central Java exhibiting strong topography of the Moho discontinuity related to different tectonic units. A discontinuity of negative impedance contrast is observed throughout the mid-crust interpreted as the top of a low-velocity layer which shows no depth correlation with the Moho interface. Converted phases generated at greater depth beneath Indonesia indicate the existence of multiple seismic discontinuities within the upper mantle and even below. The strongest signal originates from the base of the mantle transition zone, i.e. the 660 km discontinuity. The phase related to the 410 km discontinuity is less pronounced, but clearly identifiable as well. The derived thickness of the mantle-transition zone is in good agreement with the IASP91 velocity model. Additional phases are observed at roughly 33 s and 90 s relative to the P onset, corresponding to about 300 km and 920 km, respectively. A signal of reversed polarity indicates the top of a low velocity layer at about 370 km depth overlying the mantle transition zone.

  13. Linking biological soil crust diversity to ecological functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Karin; Borchhardt, Nadine; Schulz, Karoline; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Baumann, Karen; Leinweber, Peter; Ulf, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an association of different microorganisms and soil particles in the top millimeters of the soil. They are formed by algae, cyanobacteria, microfungi, bacteria, bryophytes and lichens in various compositions. Our aim was to determine and compare the biodiversity of all occurring organisms in biogeographically different habitats, ranging from polar (both Arctic and Antarctic), subpolar (Scandinavia), temperate (Germany) to dry regions (Chile). The combination of microscopy and molecular techniques (next-generation sequencing) revealed highly diverse crust communities, whose composition clustered by region and correlates with habitat characteristics such as water content. The BSC biodiversity was then linked to the ecological function of the crusts. The functional role of the BSCs in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous is evaluated using an array of state of the art soil chemistry methods including Py-FIMS (pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry) and XANES (x-ray absorbance near edge structure). Total P as well as P fractions were quantified in all BSCs, adjacent soil underneath and comparable nearby soil of BSC-free areas revealing a remarkable accumulation of total phosphorous and a distinct pattern of P fractions in the crust. Further, we observed an indication of a different P-speciation composition in the crust compared with BSC-free soil. The data allow answering the question whether BSCs act as sink or source for these compounds, and how biodiversity controls the biogeochemical function of BSCs.

  14. Microenvironments and microscale productivity of cyanobacterial desert crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pichel, F.; Belnap, Jayne

    1996-01-01

    We used microsensors to characterize physicochemical microenvironments and photosynthesis occurring immediately after water saturation in two desert soil crusts from southeastern Utah, which were formed by the cyanobacteria Microcoleus vaginatus Gomont, Nostoc spp., and Scytonema sp. The light fields within the crusts presented steep vertical gradients in magnitude and spectral composition. Near-surface light-trapping zones were formed due to the scattering nature of the sand particles, but strong light attenuation resulted in euphotic zones only ca. 1 mm deep, which were progressively enriched in longer wavelengths with depth. Rates of gross photosynthesis (3.4a??9.4 mmol O2A?ma??2A?ha??1) and dark respiration (0.81a??3.1 mmol Oa??2A?ma??2A?ha??1) occurring within 1 to several mm from the surface were high enough to drive the formation of marked oxygen microenvironments that ranged from oxygen supersaturation to anoxia. The photosynthetic activity also resulted in localized pH values in excess of 10, 2a??3 units above the soil pH. Differences in metabolic parameters and community structure between two types of crusts were consistent with a successional pattern, which could be partially explained on the basis of the microenvironments. We discuss the significance of high metabolic rates and the formation of microenvironments for the ecology of desert crusts, as well as the advantages and limitations of microsensor-based methods for crust investigation.

  15. Video Tutorial of Continental Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Juwaedah, A.; Mahmudatussa'adah, A.

    2018-02-01

    This research is motivated by the belief in the importance of media in a learning process. Media as an intermediary serves to focus on the attention of learners. Selection of appropriate learning media is very influential on the success of the delivery of information itself both in terms of cognitive, affective and skills. Continental food is a course that studies food that comes from Europe and is very complex. To reduce verbalism and provide more real learning, then the tutorial media is needed. Media tutorials that are audio visual can provide a more concrete learning experience. The purpose of this research is to develop tutorial media in the form of video. The method used is the development method with the stages of analyzing the learning objectives, creating a story board, validating the story board, revising the story board and making video tutorial media. The results show that the making of storyboards should be very thorough, and detailed in accordance with the learning objectives to reduce errors in video capture so as to save time, cost and effort. In video capturing, lighting, shooting angles, and soundproofing make an excellent contribution to the quality of tutorial video produced. In shooting should focus more on tools, materials, and processing. Video tutorials should be interactive and two-way.

  16. Continental energy plan. Canadian perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The 'continental energy plan' was first mentioned by US President George Bush during his election campaign, and relates to the adjustment of energy resources development in Canada and Mexico. The US energy policy aims to reduce US dependence on middle east oil supplies, increase US energy production, increase regional integration of energy supplies throughout North America, increase US refining capacity, reduce regulatory barriers, increase use of alternative energies, and to increase support for research and development. Under the Canada/US FTA (Free Trade Agreement) and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), not less than 50% of Canadian crude oil and natural gas are imported to the US market. As for Mexico, it exempted most portions of its energy sector from the agreement during the NAFTA negotiations. Now that Mexico itself is facing energy shortage, however, it is anticipated that under President Vincente Fox it will adopt a policy like that of Canada and start development by introducing foreign money into the fields of oil, gas, and electricity. (NEDO)

  17. Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Ho; Li, Xin Rong; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Rong Liang; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-01-01

    Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutrient supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), respectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were enhanced by 50-100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions.

  18. Fission track dating of authigenic quartz in red weathering crusts of carbonate rocks in Guizhou province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiuming; Wang Shijie; Zhang Feng

    2004-01-01

    The Cenozoic evolution history of Guizhou Province, which is located on the southeastern flank of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is unclear because of the lack of sedimentation records. The red weathering crusts widespread on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau may bear critical information about their evolution history. This work firstly determined the ages of four red weathering crusts in eastern, central and northern Guizhou. The material used in fission track dating is well-crystallized quartz occurring in many in-situ weathering crusts of carbonate rocks. The results showed that the fission track ages of quartz vary over a wide range from 1 Ma to 25 Ma in the four profiles, significantly younger than the ages of Triassic and Cambrian parent rocks. In combination with the regionally geological evolution history during the period from 25 Ma to 1 Ma, the ages of quartz can exclude the possibility that the origin of quartz has nothing to do with primary clastic minerals in parent rocks, authigenesis during diagenesis and hydrothermal precipitation or replacement by volcanic activities. It is deduced that the well-crystallized quartz was precipitated from Si-rich weathering fluids during weathering processes of carbonate rocks. The recorded ages of quartz from the four profiles are consistent with the episodes of planation surfaces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the stages of red soil in the tropics of South China, the tectonically stable periods in Guizhou, and the ages of weathering in other parts of the world during the Cenozoic era. That is to say, the ages of authigenic quartz dated by the fission track method are well feasible and credible. (authors)

  19. Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Ho Park

    Full Text Available Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7, which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutrient supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC, respectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY. Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were enhanced by 50-100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions.

  20. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  1. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  2. Continental Arcs as Both Carbon Source and Sink in Regulating Long Term Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Lee, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    The long-term variability of atmospheric pCO2 is determined by the balance between the rate of geologic inputs of CO­­2 (e.g., magmatic/metamorphic degassing, carbonate weathering) and the rate of carbonate precipitation driven by silicate weathering. The Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic was characterized by elevated atmospheric pCO2 and greenhouse climate, likely due to increased magmatic flux from mid-ocean ridges and, in particular, continental arcs. However, it has been suggested that continental arc magmatism is accompanied by rapid uplift and erosion due to magmatic/tectonic thickening of the crust, thus continental arcs likely enhance the chemical weathering flux, in turn increasing the carbon sink. To assess the contribution of continental arcs to global carbon inputs and sinks, we conducted a case study in the Cretaceous Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB) and associated forearc basin in southern California, USA, representing one segment of the Cretaceous Cordillera arc-forearc system. Arc magmatism occurred between 170-85 Ma, peaking at 100 Ma, but erosion of the arc continues into the early Eocene, with forearc sediments representing this protracted arc unroofing. During magmatism, we estimate the CO2 degassing flux from the PRB was at least 5-25*105 mol·km-2·yr-1. By calculating the depletion of Ca and Mg in the forearc sediments relative to their arc protoliths, we estimate the silicate weathering/carbonate precipitation flux to be 106 mol·km-2·yr-1 during Late Cretaceous magmatism, decreasing to 105 mol·km-2·yr-1 by the Early Eocene. We show that during active continental arc magmatism, the CO2 degassing flux is comparable to CO2 consumption driven by silicate weathering in the arc. However, after magmatism ends, a regional imbalance arises in which the arc no longer contributes to CO2 inputs but continued silicate weathering of the arc drives carbonate precipitation such that the arc indirectly becomes CO2 sink. We propose that the development of

  3. Intensive Ammonia and Methane Oxidation in Organic Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and are known to accumulate nitrite and nitrate, indicating the presence of ammonia oxidizers (AOB). We have surveyed six manure tanks with organic covers to investigate the prevalence of MOB and AOB and to link the potential activity with physical and chemical aspects...... characterized with respect to O2 availability by in situ profiling with electrochemical microsensors. Results show that oxygen penetration increased from few micrometers up to several centimetres with crust age. AOB and ammonium oxidation are ubiquitously present in well-developed manure crusts whereas MOB were...... also CH4 emission mitigation, an organic surface crust can be effective if populations of MOB and AOB are allowed to build up....

  4. Entrainment in the inner crust of a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamel, N.

    2004-01-01

    The inner crust of a neutron star, which is composed of a solid Coulomb lattice of nuclei immersed in a neutron super-fluid, is studied from both a macroscopic and a microscopic level. In the first part, we develop a non-relativistic but 4-dimensionally covariant formulation of the hydrodynamics of a perfect fluid mixture based on a variational principle. This formalism is applied to the description of neutron star crust as 2-fluid model, a neutron super-fluid and a plasma of nuclei and electrons coupled via non dissipative entrainment effects, whose microscopic evaluation is studied in a second part. Applying mean field methods beyond the Wigner-Seitz approximation, the Bragg scattering of dripped neutrons upon crustal nuclei lead to a 'mesoscopic' effective neutron mass, which unlike the 'microscopic' effective mass, takes very large values compared to the bare mass in the middle layers of the crust. (author)

  5. Fast Radio Bursts from the Collapse of Strange Star Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Geng, Jin-Jun; Huang, Yong-Feng

    2018-05-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are transient radio sources at cosmological distances. No counterparts in other bands have been observed for non-repeating FRBs. Here we suggest the collapse of strange star (SS) crusts as a possible origin for FRBs. SSs, which are composed of almost equal numbers of u, d, and s quarks, may be encapsulated by a thin crust of normal hadronic matter. When a SS accretes matter from its environment, the crust becomes heavier and heavier. It may finally collapse, leading to the release of a large amount of magnetic energy and plenty of electron/positron pairs on a very short timescale. Electron/positron pairs in the polar cap region of the SS can be accelerated to relativistic velocities, streaming along the magnetic field lines to form a thin shell. FRBs are produced by coherent emission from these electrons when the shell is expanding. Basic characteristics of observed FRBs can be explained in our model.

  6. Phosphatization Associated Features of Ferromanganese Crusts at Lemkein Seamount, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Lee, I.; Park, B. K.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Old layers of ferromanganese crusts, especially in the Pacific Ocean, have been affected by phosphatization. Ferromanganese crusts on Lemkein seamount in Marshall Islands also are phosphatized (3.3 to 4.2 wt % of P concentration). Furthermore, they have characteristic features that are different from other ferromanganese crusts. These features occur near the phosphorite, which were thought to fill the pore spaces of ferromanganese crusts. Inside the features, ferromanganese crusts are botryoidally precipitated from the round-boundary. The features of the phosphatized lower crusts of Lemkein seamount are observed using microscope and SEM. Elemental compositions of the selected samples were analyzed by SEM-EDS. Based on the observation and analysis of samples, three characteristic structures are identified: (1) phosphate-filled circles, (2) tongue-shaped framboidal crust, and (3) massive framboidal crust. The phosphate-filled circles are mostly composed of phosphorite, and they include trace fossils such as foraminifera. Phosphatized ferromanganese crusts exist at the boundary of this structure. The tongue-shaped crust is connected with the lips downward, and ferromanganese crusts inside the tongue show distinct growth rim. The massive framboidal crust is located below the tongue. Ferromanganese crusts in the massive framboidal crust are enveloped by phosphate, and some of the crusts are phosphatized. Around the structures, Mn oxide phase is concentrated as a shape of corona on BSE image. All of the structures are in the phosphatized crusts that show columnar growth of ferromanganese crusts and have sub-parallel lamination. These observation and chemical analysis of the ferromanganese crusts can provide a clue of diagenetic processes during the formation of ferromanganese crusts.

  7. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florenskiy, K.P.; Nikolayeva, O.V.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H 2 0, CO 2 , etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes

  8. Exploration of the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Vora, K.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    impetus from sponsored surveys of other organizations, chiefly the oil industry, ports and harbours as well as industries disposing of their effluents in the marine environment. By now the entire western continental shelf and a large part...

  9. Continental Contributions to Philosophy of Science

    OpenAIRE

    REGINE KATHER

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews the book Continental Philosophy of Science, edited by Gary Gutting. Introductory remarks about the historical relationship between philosophy and science are followed by a presentation and discussion of different philosophies of science and commentaries on the eleven German and French authors whose texts are found in this volume. In addition to her assessment of Guttings’s collection, the author’s overall conclusion is that one characteristic trait of the Continental philos...

  10. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  11. Crust and mantle of the gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G.W.

    1972-01-01

    A SEEMING paradox has puzzled investigators of the crustal structure of the Gulf of Mexico since Ewing et al.1 calculated that a unit area of the rather thick crust in the gulf contains less mass than does a combination of the crust and enough of the upper mantle to make a comparable thickness in the Atlantic Ocean. They also noted that the free-air gravity of the gulf is essentially normal and fails by a large factor to be low enough to reflect the mass difference that they calculated. We propose a solution to this problem. ?? 1972 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. The Continental Market Seen from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, Michel

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation, the Chairman of a French gas company (Elf) comments on the evolution of the Continental gas market from a British point of view. He first discusses the differences between the US, British and Continental gas markets, recalls the provisions of the European Gas Directive and states why a fully competitive system is a long-term prospect in Continental Europe. Seen from the UK, the provisions of the EU directive may appear modest. Due to the long transportation, British gas companies may find it hard to compete on the gas market of Continental Europe. When Inter connector, the gas pipeline connecting the gas markets in UK and the Continent, begins operation, there will be a flow of gas from the UK to the Continent according to already signed contracts. But there may be contractual flows both ways. Gas prices will level off between the UK and Northern Europe, at least for the industry. The continental markets will change gradually, the Gas Directive and the Inter connector will help the move towards a more competitive gas industry, but the fundamentals will not change: low gas prices for the next few years, competition between the big three exporters to Continental Europe, and long-term contracts that will extend beyond 2005

  13. Formation of the Archean crust of the ancient Vodlozero domain (Baltic shield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arestova, N. A.; Chekulaev, V. P.; Lobach-Zhuchenko, S. B.; Kucherovskii, G. A.

    2015-03-01

    .8 Ga, which includes arenite quartzite and graywackes and polymictic conglomerates developed in the Lake Oster area in addition to volcanics. These rocks indicate a stable tectonic regime, which resulted in deep erosion of the crust. The emplacement of sanukitoids (2.73-2.74 Ga) as well as subsequent two-feldspar granites (2.68-2.70 Ga) and basite dikes (2.61-2.65 Ga) may be considered as resulting from the plume influence on the relatively stabilized sialic crust of the Baltic shield.

  14. Thermal history of Hawaiian pāhoehoe lava crusts at the glass transition: implications for flow rheology and emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsmann, Joachim; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2004-12-01

    We have investigated the thermal history of glassy pāhoehoe crusts across their glass transition. Ten different samples obtained between 1993 and 2003 from the active flow field of the Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption on Hawaii (USA) have been analysed using relaxation geospeedometry. This method employs differential scanning calorimetry to quantify the enthalpic relaxation of the glass to monitor the natural time-temperature (t-T) path followed by the melt during cooling across its glass transition. Cooling rates across the glass transition interval (at 1000- 900 K) have been found to vary between 8 and 140 K/min. The associated glass transition temperatures are up to 400 K, lower than previously anticipated by others. Melt viscosities at the glass transition for these crusts range from 10 9.4 to 10 10.7 Pa s. We have compared the t-T paths quantified via relaxation geospeedometry with those obtained from direct measurements on the active flow field. The calorimetrically determined cooling rates are consistent with either simple cooling from eruption temperatures to temperatures below the glass transition or more complex cooling paths, including periods of reheating and short-term annealing within the glass transition interval. By quantifying the relaxation times associated with these contrasting cooling histories, we show that secondary vesiculation of pāhoehoe flow crusts may be favoured by complex, nonlinear t-T paths within the glass transition. These constraints also allow us to evaluate the time scales associated with the crystallisation and inflation of flow lobes at the glass transition for different pāhoehoe lava flow types. Our results provide important quantifications of rheological parameters at the lower temperature range of viscoelastic deformation in basaltic lava flows. As such, the results may be helpful in refining models for the generation of continental flood basalt flows, as well as models of basaltic lava flow propagation for hazard

  15. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with realistic continental shelf-slope-rise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P. L.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-04-01

    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that uses a plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere, the age distribution of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to reconstruct realistic ocean bathymetry based on parameterized relationships of present-day variables that can be applied to global oceans in the geologic past, and to isolate locations where anomalous processes such as mantle convection may affect bathymetry. Parameters of the plate cooling model are combined with ocean crustal age to calculate depth-to-basement. To the depth-to-basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are parameterized using modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and Central Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth-to-basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  16. Paleoenvironmental Evolution of Continental Carbonates in West-Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIANO C. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a sedimentological and stratigraphical study of Quaternary (Middle to Late Pleistocene/Holocene continental carbonates outcrops inside Pantanal Basin and its surroundings, especially in Serra da Bodoquena, Pantanal do Miranda and Corumbá/Ladário plateau, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, as well as in Serra das Araras, in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim is to understand the depositional paleoenvironments and analyse climate and tectonic influences in their genesis and evolution. The results show that the deposition of these continental carbonates started in the Middle to Late Pleistocene and have continued, with some interruptions, until the present days. Sedimentary successions were identified in the different areas, without complete correlation. Two sedimentary successions separated by an erosional surface were described in Serra da Bodoquena and Serra das Araras. In Corumbá and Pantanal do Miranda, only one succession was described. These successions were deposited in elongated lakes parallel to fault planes; small lakes, related plains and plateaus; springs related to cliffs produced by faulting; rivers conditioned by topographic variation. The climatic interpretation, without proper temporal resolution, obtained by the stable-isotope composition and stratigraphic interpretation, indicates alternation of dry and wet periods. The Neoproterozoic faults with their neotectonics and the subsidence of the Pantanal Basin, are the major control for carbonated water flow and development of depositional areas, gradually turning plateaus into slight tilted areas, allowing the evolution of depositional systems from lakes to rivers.

  17. The Porcupine Basin: from rifting to continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reston, Timothy; Gaw, Viola; Klaeschen, Dirk; McDermott, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Southwest of Ireland, the Porcupine Basin is characterized by axial stretching factors that increase southward to values greater than six and typical of rifted margins. As such, the basin can be regarded as a natural laboratory to investigate the evolution and symmetry of rifting leading towards continental separation and breakup, and in particular the processes of mantle serpentinisation, and the onset of detachment faulting. We have processed through to prestack depth migration a series of E-W profiles crossing the basin at different axial stretching factors and linked by a N-S profile running close to the rift axis. Our results constrain the structure of the basin and have implications for the evolution of rifted margins. In the north at a latitude of 52.25N, no clear detachment is imaged, although faults do appear to cut down into the mantle, so that serpentinisation may have started. Further south (51.75N), a bright reflection (here named P) cuts down to the west from the base of the sedimentary section, is overlain by small fault blocks and appears to represent a detachment fault. P may in part follow the top of partially serpentinized mantle: this interpretation is consistent with gravity modelling, with numerical models of crustal embrittlement and mantle serpentinization during extension and with wide-angle data (see posters of Prada and of Watremez). Furthermore, P closely resembles the S reflection west of Iberia, where such serpentinites are well documented. P develops where the crust was thinned to less than 3 km during rifting, again similar to S. Although overall the basin remains symmetrical, the consistent westward structural dip of the detachment implies that, at high stretching factors, extension became asymmetric. Analysis of the depth sections suggests that the detachment may have been active as a rolling hinge rooting at low-angle beneath the Porcupine Bank, consistent with the presence of a footwall of serpentinites. This requires very weak

  18. Western Continental Margin of India - Re-look using potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, M.; S P, A.

    2008-05-01

    The Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI) evolved as a result of rifting between India and Madagascar that took place during mid Cretaceous (~88Ma).The WCMI is equally important in terms of natural resources as well as research point of view. The major tectonic elements in the western offshore includes the Laxmi and Chagos- Laccadive ridge dividing the WCMI and the adjoining Arabian sea into two basins, Pratap Ridge, Alleppey platform etc. Different theories have been proposed for the evolution of each of these tectonic elements. In the current paper we look at geopotential data on the west coast of India and the western off-shore. The data sets utilized include Satellite derived High Resolution Free Air Gravity data over the off-shore, Bouguer data onland, Champ Satellite Magnetic data, published Marine Magnetic data collected by ONGC, NIO, ground magnetic data over west cost collected by IIG and available aeromagnetic data. From the free air gravity anomaly the structural details of the western offshore can be delineated. The Euler depths of FAG depict deep solutions associated with Pratap Ridge, Comorin Ridge, the west coast fault and the Laxmi Ridge. These may be associated with continental margin and continental fragments. From the aeromagnetic and marine magnetic data it is evident that the West Coast Fault is dissected at several places. The shallow circular feature associated with Bombay High is evident both on the FAG and the analytic signal derived from satellite Magnetic data. The crustal magnetic thickness from MF5 lithospheric model of the Champ appears to suggest that the continental crust extends up to the Chagos- Laccadive ridge. Based on the analysis of these geopotential data sets the various theories for the evolution of the WCMI will be evaluated and these results will be presented.

  19. Crusted scabies in a chid with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurimar C.F. Wanke

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A child with systemic lupus erythematosus who has been treated with prednisone for three years, developed crusted scabies. Scrapings from lesions revealed Sarcoptes scabiei adult mites mad eggs. The patient died with septicemia and renal failure soon after starting topical 20% sulfur. A marked improvement was observed in the cutaneous lesions.

  20. Rainfall intensity effects on crusting and mode of seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicted changes in rainfall intensity due to climate change are likely to influence key soil health parameters, especially structural attributes and crop growth. Variations in rainfall intensity will impact crop ... and growth in these soils. Keywords: climate change, crusting, mineralogy, penetration resistance, soil organic matter ...

  1. Tillage and Farmyard Manure Effects on Crusting and Compacting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal rainwater losses through increased runoff volumes reduce soil moisture and hence result in agricultural drought. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrological effects of two tillage practices with and without farmyard manure on surface runoff and soil loss of crusting and compacting soils under field ...

  2. Effects of termites on infiltration in crusted soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Brussaard, L.

    1996-01-01

    In northern Burkina Faso (West Africa), a study was undertaken to explore the possibilities of restoring the infiltration capacity of crusted soils through the stimulation of termite activity. Treatments consisted of the application of a mulch of a mixture of wood and straw without insecticides

  3. Magnetization of the oceanic crust: TRM or CRM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Labrecque, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    A model was proposed in which chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) acquired within the first 20 Ma of crustal evolution may account for 80% of the bulk natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of older basalts. The CRM of the crust is acquired as the original thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) is lost through low temperature alteration. The CRM intensity and direction are controlled by the post-emplacement polarity history. This model explains several independent observations concerning the magnetization of the oceanic crust. The model accounts for amplitude and skewness discrepancies observed in both the intermediate wavelength satellite field and the short wavelength sea surface magnetic anomaly pattern. It also explains the decay of magnetization away from the spreading axis, and the enhanced magnetization of the Cretaceous Quiet Zones while predicting other systematic variations with age in the bulk magnetization of the oceanic crust. The model also explains discrepancies in the anomaly skewness parameter observed for anomalies of Cretaceous age. Further studies indicate varying rates of TRM decay in very young crust which depicts the advance of low temperature alteration through the magnetized layer.

  4. Fracture behaviour of bread crust: Effect of ingredient modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Beukelaer, H. de; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the formulation on the crispness of bread crust was studied. Crispness is a relevant sensory attribute that depends on several factors particularly the plasticizer content (water), the mechanical properties of the solid matrix and the morphological architecture of the bread. Enzymes

  5. Pristine Igneous Rocks and the Genesis of Early Planetary Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Our studies are highly interdisciplinary, but are focused on the processes and products of early planetary and asteroidal differentiation, especially the genesis of the ancient lunar crust. The compositional diversity that we explore is the residue of process diversity, which has strong relevance for comparative planetology.

  6. Compositional variation and genesis of ferromanganese crusts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    incorporation of various metals in the Fe–Mn crusts ... shown to readily oxidize to their higher oxidation state on adsorption to ... metal species are those of the transition group com- ...... Banakar V K 1990 Uranium–thorium isotopes and tran-.

  7. Magma Transport from Deep to Shallow Crust and Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. S.; Greenfield, T. S.; Green, R. G.; Brandsdottir, B.; Hudson, T.; Woods, J.; Donaldson, C.; Ágústsdóttir, T.

    2016-12-01

    We have mapped magma transport paths from the deep (20 km) to the shallow (6 km) crust and in two cases to eventual surface eruption under several Icelandic volcanoes (Askja, Bardarbunga, Eyjafjallajokull, Upptyppingar). We use microearthquakes caused by brittle fracture to map magma on the move and tomographic seismic studies of velocity perturbations beneath volcanoes to map the magma storage regions. High-frequency brittle failure earthquakes with magnitudes of typically 0-2 occur where melt is forcing its way through the country rock, or where previously frozen melt is repeatedly re-broken in conduits and dykes. The Icelandic crust on the rift zones where these earthquakes occur is ductile at depths greater than 7 km beneath the surface, so the occurrence of brittle failure seismicity at depths as great as 20 km is indicative of high strain rates, for which magma movement is the most likely explanation. We suggest that high volatile pressures caused by the exsolution of carbon dioxide in the deep crust is driving the magma movement and seismicity at depths of 15-20 km. Eruptions from shallow crustal storage areas are likewise driven by volatile exsolution, though additional volatiles, and in particular water are also involved in the shallow crust.

  8. Geoelectrical and geological structure of the crust in Western Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezák, V.; Pek, Josef; Vozár, J.; Bielik, M.; Vozár, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2014), s. 473-488 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * MT15 profile * Western Carpathians * applied geophysics * Earth ’s crust Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  9. Thin sheet numerical modelling of continental collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Munt, I.; Garcia-Gastellanos, D.; Fernandez, M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the effects of incorporating surface mass transport and the gravitational potential energy of both crust and lithospheric mantle to the viscous thin sheet approach. Recent 2D (cross-section) numerical models show that surface erosion and sediment transport can play a major role in shaping

  10. Evolution of Fractal Parameters through Development Stage of Soil Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Abelardo; Florentino, Adriana; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Soil surface characteristics are subjected to changes driven by several interactions between water, air, biotic and abiotic components. One of the examples of such interactions is provided through biological soil crusts (BSC) in arid and semi-arid environments. BSC are communities composed of cyanobacteria, fungi, mosses, lichens, algae and liverworts covering the soil surface and play an important role in ecosystem functioning. The characteristics and formation of these BSC influence the soil hydrological balance, control the mass of eroded sediment, increase stability of soil surface, and influence plant productivity through the modification of nitrogen and carbon cycle. The site of this work is located at Quibor and Ojo de Agua (Lara state, Venezuela). The Quibor Depression in Venezuela is a major agricultural area being at semi-arid conditions and limited drainage favor the natural process of salinization. Additionally, the extension and intensification of agriculture has led to over-exploitation of groundwater in the past 30 years (Méndoza et al., 2013). The soil microbial crust develops initially on physical crusts which are mainly generated since wetting and drying, being a recurrent feature in the Quíbor arid zone. The microbiotic crust is organic, composed of macro organisms (bryophytes and lichens) and microorganisms (cyanobacteria, fungi algae, etc.); growing on the ground, forming a thickness no greater than 3 mm. For further details see Toledo and Florentino (2009). This study focus on characterize the development stage of the BSC based on image analysis. To this end, grayscale images of different types of biological soil crust at different stages where taken, each image corresponding to an area of 12.96 cm2 with a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels (Ospina et al., 2015). For each image lacunarity and fractal dimension through the differential box counting method were calculated. These were made with the software ImageJ/Fraclac (Karperien, 2013

  11. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  12. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  13. Ocean-Continent Transition Structure of the Pelotas Magma-Rich Continental Margin, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Caroline; Kusznir, Nick; Roberts, Alan; Manatschal, Gianreto; McDermott, Ken

    2017-04-01

    Rifted continental margins in the southern South Atlantic are magma-rich showing well developed volcanic extrusives known as seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs). Here we examine the magma-rich continental rifted margin of the Pelotas Basin, offshore Brazil. Deep seismic reflection data displays a large package of seaward dipping reflectors with an approximate width of 200 km and a varying thickness of 10 km to 17 km that have previously been interpreted as volcanic SDRs. We examine these SDRs to explore if they are composed predominantly of basaltic or sedimentary-volcaniclastic material. We also study the thickness of the crustal basement beneath the SDRs. Additionally we investigate if these SDRs are underlain by thin 'hyper-extended' continental crust or if they have been deposited on new magmatic basement. The answers to these questions are important in understanding the structure and formation processes of magma-rich continental margins. We use gravity inversion to investigate SDR composition by varying the proportion of basalt to sediments-volcaniclastics (basalt fraction) which determines the SDR densities in the gravity inversion. By matching the Moho depth and two-way travel time from gravity inversion and deep seismic reflection data, we determine the lateral variation in basalt fraction of the SDRs. Our analysis suggests: 1) There is an overall pattern of SDR basalt fraction and bulk density decreasing oceanward. This could be due to increasing sediment content oceanward or it could result from the change in basalt flows to hyaloclastites as water depth increases. 2) The SDR package can be split into two distinct sub packages based on the basalt fraction results, where the proximal side of each package has a higher basalt fraction and density. 3) The inner SDR package contains reflectors that bear a resemblance to the SDRs described by Hinz (1981) corresponding to syn-tectonic volcanic eruptions into an extensional basin, while the outer SDR package has

  14. Seismic investigation on the Littoral Faults Zone in the northern continental margin of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Xu, H.; Xia, S.; Cao, J.; Wan, K.

    2017-12-01

    The continental margin of the northern South China Sea (SCS) had experienced continuous evolution from an active continental margin in the late Mesozoic to a passive continental margin in the Cenozoic. The 1200km-long Littoral Faults Zone (LFZ) off the mainland South China was suggested to represent one of the sub-plate boundaries and play a key role during the evolution. Besides, four devastating earthquakes with magnitude over 7 and another 11 destructive events with M>6 were documented to have occurred along the LFZ. However, its approximity to the shoreline, the shallow water depth, and the heavy fishing activities make it hard to conduct a marine seismic investigation. As a result, understandings about the LFZ before 2000 were relatively poor and mostly descriptive. After two experiments of joint onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic surveys in the 1st decade of this century, several cruses aiming to unveil the deep structure of the LFZ were performed in the past few years, with five joint onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic survey profiles completed. Each of these profiles is perpendicular to the shoreline, with four to five seismometers of campaign mode deployed on the landside and over ten Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) spacing at 20km deployed on the seaside. Meanwhile, multi-channel seismic (MCS) data along these profiles were obtained simultaneously. Based on these data, velocity models from both forward modeling and inversion were obtained. According to these models, the LFZ was imaged to be a low-velocity fractured zone dipping to the SSE-SE at a high-angle and cutting through the thinned continental crust at some locations. Width of the fractured zone varies from 6km to more than 10km from site to site. With these results, it is suggested that the LFZ accommodates the stresses from both the east side, where the Eurasia/Philippine Sea plate converging and mountain building is ongoing, and the west side, where a strike-slip between the Indochina

  15. Formation and stability of crust in molten pools. Technical progress report, February 1, 1977--October 1, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Ganguli, A.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the research is to study the formation and stability of a freezing-melting process under well-defined hydrodynamic and thermal boundary conditions simulating LMFBR HCDA phenomena. A hot liquid, such as molten UO 2 , comes into contact with a cold solid, such as stainless steel forming a solid crust at the interface, possibly accompanied by the simultaneous formation of a melt layer. The stability and rate of growth of the crust and underlying melt layer are thus of concern. A steady flowpast an initially flat slab of the cold solid is considered. The experimental apparatus consists of a horizontal rectangular test section in which a frozen slab of n-decane 18-in. long and 4-in. wide, supported on a refrigerated copper block, is exposed to a flowing stream of cold water. Temperature profiles in the decane will be measured, as well as the rate of liquid decane collection, and the ice crust and melt layer profiles, if stable. These will be compared with theoretical predictions, following an integral boundary layer method. Current efforts are focussed on improving the mold release properties and other debugging operations

  16. 3-D Numerical Modelling of Oblique Continental Collisions with ASPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatun, L.; Pysklywec, R.

    2017-12-01

    Among the fundamental types of tectonic plate boundaries, continent-continent collision is least well understood. Deformation of the upper and middle crustal layers can be inferred from surface structures and geophysical imaging, but the fate of lower crustal rocks and mantle lithosphere is not well resolved. Previous research suggests that shortening of mantle lithosphere generally may be occurring by either: 1) a distributed thickening with a formation of a Raleigh-Tailor (RT) type instability (possibly accompanied with lithospheric folding); or 2) plate-like subduction, which can be one- or two-sided, with or without delamination and slab break-off; a combination of both could be taking place too. 3-D features of the orogens such as along-trench material transfer, bounding subduction zones can influence the evolution of the collision zone significantly. The current study was inspired by South Island of New Zealand - a young collision system where a block of continental crust is being shortened by the relative Australian-Pacific plate motion. The collision segment of the plate boundary is relatively small ( 800 km), and is bounded by oppositely verging subduction zones to the North and South. Here, we present results of 3-D forward numerical modelling of continental collision to investigate some of these processes. To conduct the simulations, we used ASPECT - a highly parallel community-developed code based on the Finite Element method. Model setup for three different sets of models featured 2-D vertical across strike, 3-D with periodic front and back walls, and 3-D with open front and back walls, with velocities prescribed on the left and right faces. We explored the importance of values of convergent velocity, strike-slip velocity and their ratio, which defines the resulting velocity direction relative to the plate boundary (obliquity). We found that higher strike-slip motion promotes strain localization, weakens the lithosphere close to the plate boundary and

  17. Testing Predictions of Continental Insulation using Oceanic Crustal Thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Mark; Shorttle, Oliver; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The thermal blanketing effect of continental crust has been predicted to lead to elevated temperatures within the upper mantle beneath supercontinents. Initial break-up is associated with increased magmatism and the generation of flood basalts. Continued rifting and sea-floor spreading lead to a steady reduction of this thermal anomaly. Recently, evidence in support of this behaviour has come from the major element geochemistry of mid-ocean ridge basalts, which suggest excess rifting temperatures of ˜ 150 °C that decay over ˜ 100 Ma. We have collated a global inventory of ˜ 1000 seismic reflection profiles and ˜ 500 wide-angle refraction experiments from the oceanic realm. Data are predominantly located along passive margins, but there are also multiple surveys in the centres of the major oceanic basins. Oceanic crustal thickness has been mapped, taking care to avoid areas of secondary magmatic thickening near seamounts or later thinning such as across transform faults. These crustal thicknesses are a proxy for mantle potential temperature at the time of melt formation beneath a mid-ocean ridge system, allowing us to quantify the amplitude and duration of thermal anomalies generated beneath supercontinents. The Jurassic break-up of the Central Atlantic and the Cretaceous rifting that formed the South Atlantic Ocean are both associated with excess temperatures of ˜ 50 °C that have e-folding times of ˜ 50 Ma. In addition to this background trend, excess temperatures reach > 150 °C around the region of the Rio Grande Rise, associated with the present-day Tristan hotspot. The e-folding time of this more local event is ˜ 10 Ma, which mirrors results obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland. In contrast, crustal thicknesses from the Pacific Ocean reveal approximately constant potential temperature through time. This observation is in agreement with predictions, as the western Pacific was formed by rifting of an oceanic plate. In summary

  18. The Continental Margin of East Asia: a collage of multiple plates formed by convergence and extension from multiple directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Wang, T.; Ludington, S.; Qiu, Z.; Li, Z.

    2017-12-01

    East Asia is one of the most complex regions in the world. Its margin was divided into 4 parts: Northeast Asia, North China, South China and Southeast Asia. During the Phanerozoic, continental plates of East Asia have interacted successively with a) the Paleo Tethyan Ocean, b) the Tethyan and Paleo Pacific Oceans and c) the Pacific and Indian. In the Early Mesozoic, the Indosinian orogeny is characterized by the convergence and extension within multiple continental plates, whereas the Late Mesozoic Yanshanian orogeny is characterized by both convergence and compression due to oceanic subduction and by widespread extension. We propose this combination as "East Asia Continental Margin type." Except in Northeast Asia, where Jurassic and Cretaeous accretionary complexes are common, most magmatic rocks are the result of reworking of ancient margins of small continental plates; and oceanic island arc basalts and continental margin arc andesites are largely absent. Because South China is adjacent to the western margin of the Pacific Plate, some effects of its westward subduction must be unavoidable, but juvenile arc-related crust has not been identified. The East Asian Continental Margin is characterized by magmatic rocks that are the result of post-convergent tectonics, which differs markedly from the active continental margins of both South and North America. In summary, the chief characteristics of the East Asian Continental Margin are: 1) In Mesozoic, the periphery of multiple blocks experienced magmatism caused by lithospheric delamination and thinning in response to extension punctuated by shorter periods of convergence. 2) The main mechanism of magma generation was the partial melting of crustal rocks, due to underplating by upwelling mafic magma associated with the collapse of orogenic belts and both extension and compression between small continental blocks. 3) During orogeny, mostly high Sr/Y arc-related granitoids formed, whereas during post-orogenic times, A

  19. Ferromanganese crusts as indicators for paleoceanographic events in the NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschinsky, A.; Halbach, P.; Hein, J. R.; Mangini, A.

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts reflect the chemical conditions of the seawater from which they formed. Fine-scale geochemical analysis of crust layers in combination with age determinations can therefore be used to investigate paleoceanographic changes which are recorded in geochemical gradients in the crusts. At Tropic seamount (off northwest Africa), uniform crust growth influenced by terrigenous input from the African continent occurred during approximately the past 12Ma. Phosphatization of these crusts is minor. In contrast, crusts from Lion seamount, located between Madeira and the Portuguese coast, display a much more variable growth history. A pronounced increase in Ni, Cu, and Zn is observed in some intervals of the crusts, which probably reflects increased surface productivity. A thick older phosphatized generation occurs in many samples. Hydrographic profiles indicate that Mediterranean outflow water (MOW) may play an important role in the composition of these crusts. 10Be dating of one sample confirms that the interruption of the MOW during the Messinian salinity crisis (6.2-5Ma ago) resulted in changes in element composition. Sr-isotope dating of the apatite phase of the old crust generation has been carried out to obtain a minimum age for the older generation of Atlantic crusts and to determine whether crust phosphatization in the Atlantic can be related to phosphatization episodes recorded in Pacific crusts. The preliminary data show that the old phosphatized crust generation might be as old as approximately 30-40Ma.

  20. [Effects of soil crusts on surface hydrology in the semiarid Loess hilly area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wen, Zhi; Chen, Li-Ding; Chen, Jin; Wu, Dong-Ping

    2012-11-01

    Soil crusts are distributed extensively in the Chinese Loess Plateau and play key roles in surface hydrological processes. In this study, a typical loess hilly region in Anjiagou catchment, Dingxi city, Gansu province was selected as the study region, and soil crusts in the catchment were investigated. Then, the hydrological effect of soil crusts was studied by using multi-sampling and hydrological monitoring experiments. Several key results were shown as follows. Firstly, compared with bared soil without crust cover, soil crusts can greatly reduce the bulk density, improve the porosity of soil, and raise the holding capacity of soil moisture which ranges from 1.4 to 1.9 times of that of bared soil. Secondly, the role of soil crust on rainfall interception was very significant. Moss crust was found to be strongest on rainfall interception, followed by synantectic crusts and lichen crusts. Bared soil without covering crusts was poorest in resisting rainfall splash. Thirdly, hydrological simulation experiments indicate that soil crusts play a certain positive role in promoting the water infiltration capacity, and the mean infiltration rate of the crusted soil was 2 times higher than that of the no-crust covered soils. While the accumulated infiltrated water amounts was also far higher than that of the bared soil.

  1. Thick deltaic sedimentation and detachment faulting delay the onset of continental rupture in the Northern Gulf of California: Analysis of seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.; González-Escobar, M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Pacheco, M.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The transition from distributed continental extension to the rupture of continental lithosphere is imaged in the northern Gulf of California across the obliquely conjugate Tiburón-Upper Delfín basin segment. Structural mapping on a 5-20 km grid of seismic reflection lines of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) demonstrates that ~1000% extension is accommodated on a series of NNE-striking listric-normal faults that merge at depth into a detachment fault. The detachment juxtaposes a late-Neogene marine sequence over thinned continental crust and contains an intrabasinal divide due to footwall uplift. Two northwest striking, dextral-oblique faults bound both ends of the detachment and shear the continental crust parallel to the tectonic transport. A regional unconformity in the upper 0.5 seconds (TWTT) and crest erosion of rollover anticlines above the detachment indicates inversion and footwall uplift during the lithospheric rupture in the Upper Delfin and Lower Delfin basins. The maximum length of new crust in both Delfin basins is less than 40 km based on the lack of an acoustic basement and the absence of a lower sedimentary sequence beneath a wedge shaped upper sequence that reaches >5 km in thickness. A fundamental difference exists between the Tiburón-Delfin segment and the Guaymas segment to the south in terms of presence of low angle normal faults and amount of new oceanic lithosphere, which we attribute to thermal insulation, diffuse upper-plate extension, and slip on low angle normal faults engendered by a thick sedimentary lid.

  2. Exposure to natural radiation from the earth's crust, atmosphere and outer space - the natural radioactivity of the earth's crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Any conclusions to be drawn from the geochemical distribution pattern of radioactive elements for one's own conduct require to study their distribution in soil, earth crust, magmatic differentiation, rock disintegration zone and biosphere. The author notes that high activities in soils and rocks are contrasted by relatively low radiation dose levels absorbed by the human body. This is different for incorporated radiation. (DG) [de

  3. Variation of stable silicon isotopes. Analytical developments and applications in Precambrian geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    likely source of silica for the silicification process. Calculations show that classical water-rock interaction can not influence the silicon isotope variation due to the very low concentration of Si in seawater (49 ppm). The data are consistent with a two end-member component mixture between basalt and chert. The secular increase in chert isotope composition through time is confirmed by the present data. Possible factors that could account for different gradients of δ 30 Si vs. δ 18 O are changes of seawater isotope signature, the water temperature or secondary alteration. The last section describes potential changes in the source of Granitoids in the Archaean: the Si isotope perspective. Sodic tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) intrusive units make up large components of the Archaean crust. In contrast, today's continental crust is more potassic in composition (GMS group: granite-monzonite-syenite). Processes that lead to this changeover from ''sodic'' to ''potassic'' crust are the subject of this section. Silicon isotope measurements were combined with major and trace element analyses on different generations of TTG and GMS group intrusive units from 3.55 to 3.10 Ga from the study area. δ 30 Si-values show a slight temporal increase during different pluton generations, with sodic intrusive units demonstrating the lowest Si-isotope composition. The small increase in silicon isotope composition with time might be due to different temperature conditions in the source of granitoids, with Na-rich, light δ 30 Si granitoids emerging at higher temperatures. A similarity in δ 30 Si between Archaean K-rich plutons and Phanerozoic K-rich plutons is confirmed.

  4. Variation of stable silicon isotopes. Analytical developments and applications in Precambrian geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Kathrin

    2010-05-28

    regarded as the most likely source of silica for the silicification process. Calculations show that classical water-rock interaction can not influence the silicon isotope variation due to the very low concentration of Si in seawater (49 ppm). The data are consistent with a two end-member component mixture between basalt and chert. The secular increase in chert isotope composition through time is confirmed by the present data. Possible factors that could account for different gradients of δ{sup 30}Si vs. δ{sup 18}O are changes of seawater isotope signature, the water temperature or secondary alteration. The last section describes potential changes in the source of Granitoids in the Archaean: the Si isotope perspective. Sodic tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) intrusive units make up large components of the Archaean crust. In contrast, today's continental crust is more potassic in composition (GMS group: granite-monzonite-syenite). Processes that lead to this changeover from ''sodic'' to ''potassic'' crust are the subject of this section. Silicon isotope measurements were combined with major and trace element analyses on different generations of TTG and GMS group intrusive units from 3.55 to 3.10 Ga from the study area. δ{sup 30}Si-values show a slight temporal increase during different pluton generations, with sodic intrusive units demonstrating the lowest Si-isotope composition. The small increase in silicon isotope composition with time might be due to different temperature conditions in the source of granitoids, with Na-rich, light δ{sup 30}Si granitoids emerging at higher temperatures. A similarity in δ{sup 30}Si between Archaean K-rich plutons and Phanerozoic K-rich plutons is confirmed.

  5. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Characterizing the Response of the Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrate Reservoir to Bottom Water Warming Along the Upper Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Evan A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnson, H. Paul [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Salmi, Marie [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Whorley, Theresa [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-11-10

    samples were extracted from the gravity cores, and the pore water was analyzed for a comprehensive suite of solutes, gases, and stable isotope ratios. This comprehensive geochemical dataset was used to characterize the fluid and gas source(s) at each of the seep sites surveyed. The primary results of this project are: 1) Bottom simulating reflector-derived heat flow values decrease from 95 mW/m2 10 km east of the deformation front to ~60 mW/m2 60 km landward of the deformation front, with anomalously low values of ~25 mW/m2 on a prominent mid-margin terrace off central Washington. 2) The temperature of the incoming sediment/ocean crust interface at the deformation front ranges between 164-179 oC off central Washington, and the 350 oC isotherm at the top of the subducting ocean crust occurs 95 km landward of the deformation front. Differences between BSR-derived heat flow and modeled conductive heat flow suggest mean upward fluid flow rates of 0.4 cm/yr across the margin, with local regions (e.g. fault zones) exhibiting fluid flow rates up to 3.5 cm/yr. 3) A compilation of 2122 high-resolution CTD, glider, and Argo float temperature profiles spanning the upper continental slope of the Washington margin from the years 1968 to 2013 show a long-term warming trend that ranges from 0.006-0.008 oC/yr. Based on this long-term bottom water warming, we developed a 2-D thermal model to simulate the change in sediment temperature distribution over this period, along with the downslope retreat of the methane hydrate stability field. Over the 43 years of the simulation, the thermal disturbance propagated 30 m into the sediment column, causing the base of the methane hydrate stability field to shoal ~13 m and to move ~1 km downslope. 4) A preliminary analysis of seafloor observations and mid-water column acoustic data to detect bubble plumes was used to characterize the depth distribution of seeps along the Cascadia margin. These results indicate high bubble plume densities along the

  6. Compositional variation and genesis of ferromanganese crusts of the Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajani, R.P.; Banakar, V.K.; Parthiban, G.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Chodankar, A.R.

    Eight ferromanganese crusts (Fe-Mn crusts) with igneous and sedimentary substrates collected at different water depths from the Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamount are studied for their bulk major, minor and rare earth element composition. The Mn/Fe ratios...

  7. Himalayan sedimentary pulses recorded by silicate detritus within a ferromanganese crust from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Galy, A.; Sukumaran, N.P.; Parthiban, G.; Volvaiker, A.Y.

    A Central Indian Ocean deep-water seamount hydrogenous ferromanganese crust (SS663-Crust) contains variable (7-23%) amounts of detrital material (silicate-detritus). Taking into account the growth rate of the authigenic component, the accumulation...

  8. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  10. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  11. The potential roles of biological soil crusts in dryland hydrologic cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are the dominant living cover in many drylands of the world. They possess many features that can influence different aspects of local hydrologic cycles, including soil porosity, absorptivity, roughness, aggregate stability, texture, pore formation, and water retention. The influence of biological soil crusts on these factors depends on their internal and external structure, which varies with climate, soil, and disturbance history. This paper presents the different types of biological soil crusts, discusses how crust type likely influences various aspects of the hydrologic cycle, and reviews what is known and not known about the influence of biological crusts on sediment production and water infiltration versus runoff in various drylands around the world. Most studies examining the effect of biological soil crusts on local hydrology are done by comparing undisturbed sites with those recently disturbed by the researchers. Unfortunately, this greatly complicates interpretation of the results. Applied disturbances alter many soil features such as soil texture, roughness, aggregate stability, physical crusting, porosity, and bulk density in ways that would not necessarily be the same if crusts were not naturally present. Combined, these studies show little agreement on how biological crusts affect water infiltration or runoff. However, when studies are separated by biological crust type and utilize naturally occurring differences among these types, results indicate that biological crusts in hyperarid regions reduce infiltration and increase runoff, have mixed effects in and regions, and increase infiltration and reduce runoff in semiarid cool and cold drylands. However, more studies are needed before broad generalizations can be made on how biological crusts affect infiltration and runoff. We especially need studies that control for sub-surface soil features such as bulk density, micro- and macropores, and biological crust structure. Unlike

  12. Depths of Magma Chambers in the Icelandic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Kapostasy, D. D.; Barton, M.

    2004-05-01

    There is considerable interest in the structure and thermal state of the crust in Iceland, which lies across the Mid Atlantic Ridge. However, interpretations of seismic and gravity data yield conflicting views of the nature of the lower crust. Some interpretations prefer a model in which the lower crust (15-25 km) is relatively cool and solid, whereas other interpretations, based largely on gravity data, prefer a model in which the lower crust is relatively warm and possibly partially molten. Knowledge of the depth of magma chambers is critical to constrain the geothermal gradient in Icelandic crust and to resolve discrepancies in interpretation of geophysical data. Analyses of aphyric lavas and of glasses in Icelandic lavas erupted from 11 volcanic centers have been compiled. The compositions are picritic and basaltic with SiO2 - 47 to 50 wt%, MgO - 6 to 15wt%, FeO - 8 to 14wt%, to, Na2O - 1.3 to 3.3 wt%, and K2O - 0.03-46 wt%. The pressures of equilibration of these liquids with ol, high-Ca pyx and plag were estimated qualitatively from projections into the pseudoternary system Ol-Di-Silica using methods described by Walker and coworkers and Grove and coworkers. The results (ca. 0.5 GPa) indicate crystallization in magma chambers located at about 16 km depth. Equilibration pressures were also calculated using the method described by Yang and coworkers and by a modified version of this method. Calculated pressures (0.45±0.15 GPa) indicate magma chambers located at 15±4 km depth. Equilibration pressures for Rekjanes Ridge glasses determined using the same techniques are 0.2±0.1 GPa, corresponding to depths of 7.6±3 km. The results indicate the presence of magma chambers in the deep Icelandic crust and that the latter is relatively warm. Shallower chambers (3-7 km) have been identified from seismic studies suggesting a complex magma plumbing system. The results also confirm that magma chambers beneath Iceland are located at greater depths than those beneath the

  13. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  14. Imaging Crustal Structure of East Central United States using receiver function and implications for the accretion of juvenile crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S.; Levander, A.

    2017-12-01

    Almost half of the North American continental plate is formed by the juvenile terrane accretion between 1.8-1.0 Ga, therefore, the suturing process of juvenile crust in East Central United States, not receiving as much attention probably due to low station coverage before the deployment of US transportable array, is of great importance to better understand the evolution of North American Plate. The Yavapai province is formed by the accretion of juvenile crust during 1.8-1.7 Ga. The northeastern part of Yavapai province is accreted to the Superior province along the Spirit Lake Tectonic Zone (SLTZ). During the period of 1.7-1.6 Ga, the Mazatzal Province, bounded the south of Yavapai Province, was added to Laurentia. The previous research mainly focuses on the southwestern Yavapai-Mazatzal boundary (Karlstrom et.al 2002, Magnani et.al 2004) but less in the northeastern area that we are interested in. The Granite-Rhyolite province is the product of the suturing event of juvenile arc crust reoccurring along the southeast margin of Laurentia between 1.55-1.35 Ga, which has been proved by the Nd model age (Whitmeyer et.al 2007). Here we will select the Mw>=5.5 teleseismic events with epicenter distance between 35 and 90 recorded by 300 available seismic stations in our study region. The receiver functions will be calculated by the water-level deconvolution in frequency domain (Langston 1979) and iterative deconvolution in time domain (Ligorria et.al 1999). The common conversion point (CCP) stacking method will then be applied to the receiver functions to create the 3-D image volume by imaging the conversion points in space from the time domain signals (Levander and Miller 2012). The preliminary results show that the accretion process of the tectonic provinces may have different models. The profiles of CCP image volume will inform us the seismic evidence to model the suturing process of juvenile Yavapai, Mozatzal and Granite-Rhyolite crust, hence providing great

  15. Don’t bust the biological soil crust: Preserving and restoring an important desert resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Miller; Steve Warren; Larry St. Clair

    2017-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are a complex of microscopic organisms growing on the soil surface in many arid and semi-arid ecosystems. These crusts perform the important role of stabilizing soil and reducing or eliminating water and wind erosion. One of the largest threats to biological soil crusts in the arid and semi-arid areas of the western United States is mechanical...

  16. Oxygen Distribution and Potential Ammonia Oxidation in Floating, Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

     availability. In old natural crusts total potential NH3 oxidation rates were similar to reported fluxes of NH3 from slurry without surface crust. These results indicate that old, natural surface crusts may develop into a porous matrix with high O2 availability that harbors an active population of aerobic...

  17. A New Device for Studying Deep-Frying Behavior of Batters and Resulting Crust Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.E.; Beukelaer, de H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2008-01-01

    The formation and properties of a crust during and after deep frying are difficult to study. Batter pickup (the amount of batter adhering to a product) and core properties affect crust formation and properties of the crust in such way that it is difficult to compare batters of different viscosity or

  18. Electromagnetic signals produced by elastic waves in the Earth's crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrigna, V.; Buzzi, A.; Conti, L.; Guglielmi, A. V.; Pokhotelov, O. A.

    2004-03-01

    The paper describes the excitation of geoelectromagnetic-field oscillations caused by elastic waves propagating in the Earth's crust and generated by natural and anthropogenic phenomena, such as earthquakes, explosions, etc. Two mechanisms of electromagnetic signal generation, i.e. induction and electrokinetics ones, are considered and a comparative analysis between them is carried out. The first mechanism is associated with the induction of Foucault currents due to movements of the Earth's crust in the core geomagnetic field. The second mechanism is connected with movements of liquids filling pores and cracks of rocks. An equation is derived for describing in a uniform way these two manifestations of seismomagnetism. The equation is solved for body and surface waves. The study shows that a magnetic precursor signal is moving in the front of elastic waves.

  19. Marine biominerals: perspectives and challenges for polymetallic nodules and crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-06-01

    Deep sea minerals in polymetallic nodules, crusts and hydrothermal vents are not only formed by mineralization but also by biologically driven processes involving microorganisms (biomineralization). Within the nodules, free-living and biofilm-forming bacteria provide the matrix for manganese deposition, and in cobalt-rich crusts, coccolithophores represent the dominant organisms that act as bio-seeds for an initial manganese deposition. These (bio)minerals are economically important: manganese is an important alloying component and cobalt forms part of special steels in addition to being used, along with other rare metals, in plasma screens, hard-disk magnets and hybrid car motors. Recent progress in our understanding of the participation of the organic matrices in the enrichment of these metals might provide the basis for feasibility studies of biotechnological applications.

  20. Crusted piloleiomyoma with mental retardation: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamboj Sangeeta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Piloleiomyoma is an uncommon benign smooth muscle neoplasm arising from arrector pili muscle. It is clinically defined by the presence of solitary or multiple reddish brown, dome-shaped, smooth papules or nodules, ranging in size from a few millimeters to a centimeter. The patients are otherwise healthy; but mental retardation developing in some patients with multiple Piloleiomyomas has been emerging as an intriguing matter for analysis by the scientists. In this case report, a mentally retarded patient with Piloleiomyoma is described, who, besides the characteristic smooth and dome-shaped lesions on the anterolateral aspect of the dorsum of the right foot, had developed crusting on one of the largest lesions. The histopathological features were consistent with Piloleiomyoma. The occurrence of Piloleiomyoma in a mentally retarded child and its unusual crusted nature has been rarely reported. The association between Piloleiomyoma and mental retardation is further stressed in this case report.

  1. Geoelectromagnetic investigation of the earth’s crust and mantle

    CERN Document Server

    Rokityansky, Igor I

    1982-01-01

    Electrical conductivity is a parameter which characterizes composition and physical state of the Earth's interior. Studies of the state equations of solids at high temperature and pressure indicate that there is a close relation be­ tween the electrical conductivity of rocks and temperature. Therefore, measurements of deep conductivity can provide knowledge of the present state and temperature of the Earth's crust and upper mantle matter. Infor­ mation about the temperature of the Earth's interior in the remote past is derived from heat flow data. Experimental investigation of water-containing rocks has revealed a pronounced increase of electrical conductivity in the temperature range D from 500 to 700 DC which may be attributed to the beginning of fractional melting. Hence, anomalies of electrical conductivity may be helpful in identitying zones of melting and dehydration. The studies of these zones are perspective in the scientific research of the mobile areas of the Earth's crust and upper mantle where t...

  2. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  3. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  4. Biological soil crusts as an integral component of desert environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Weber, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    The biology and ecology of biological soil crusts, a soil surface community of mosses, lichens, cyanobacteria, green algae, fungi, and bacteria, have only recently been a topic of research. Most efforts began in the western U.S. (Cameron, Harper, Rushforth, and St. Clair), Australia (Rogers), and Israel (Friedmann, Evenari, and Lange) in the late 1960s and 1970s (e.g., Friedmann et al. 1967; Evenari 1985reviewed in Harper and Marble 1988). However, these groups worked independently of each other and, in fact, were often not aware of each other’s work. In addition, biological soil crust communities were seen as more a novelty than a critical component of dryland ecosystems. Since then, researchers have investigated many different aspects of these communities and have shown that although small to microscopic, biological soil crusts are critical in many ecological processes of deserts. They often cover most of desert soil surfaces and substantially mediate inputs and outputs from desert soils (Belnap et al. 2003). They can be a large source of biodiversity for deserts, as they can contain more species than the surrounding vascular plant community (Rosentreter 1986). These communities are important in reducing soil erosion and increasing soil fertility through the capture of dust and the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and carbon into forms available to other life forms (Elbert et al. 2012). Because of their many effects on soil characteristics, such as external and internal morphological characteristics, aggregate stability, soil moisture, and permeability, they also affect seed germination and establishment and local hydrological cycles. Covering up to 70% of the surface area in many arid and semi-arid regions around the world (Belnap and Lange 2003), biological soil crusts are a key component within desert environments.

  5. Processes of formation of ferromanganese manganese nodules and crusts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    oceanic cycling assume importance in view of the fact that it is the tenth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. It occurs in two valency states whose stability lies within the limits of the natural importance. Oxides of manganese also have high... cations. Thus, both can migrate under the influence of redox gradients. Fractionation between this pair can probably occur in anoxic and high temperature conditions. In balancing the Mn between different oceanic reservoirs, Goldschmidt in 1954 has...

  6. Rock mechanics observations pertinent to the rheology of the continental lithosphere and the localization of strain along shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Emphasized in this paper are the deformation processes and rheologies of rocks at high temperatures and high effective pressures, conditions that are presumably appropriate to the lower crust and upper mantle in continental collision zones. Much recent progress has been made in understanding the flexure of the oceanic lithosphere using rock-mechanics-based yield criteria for the inelastic deformations at the top and base. At mid-plate depths, stresses are likely to be supported elastically because bending strains and elastic stresses are low. The collisional tectonic regime, however, is far more complex because very large permanent strains are sustained at mid-plate depths and this requires us to include the broad transition between brittle and ductile flow. Moreover, important changes in the ductile flow mechanisms occur at the intermediate temperatures found at mid-plate depths. Two specific contributions of laboratory rock rheology research are considered in this paper. First, the high-temperature steady-state flow mechanisms and rheology of mafic and ultramafic rocks are reviewed with special emphasis on olivine and crystalline rocks. Rock strength decreases very markedly with increases in temperature and it is the onset of flow by high temperature ductile mechanisms that defines the base of the lithosphere. The thickness of the continental lithosphere can therefore be defined by the depth to a particular isotherm Tc above which (at geologic strain rates) the high-temperature ductile strength falls below some arbitrary strength isobar (e.g., 100 MPa). For olivine Tc is about 700??-800??C but for other crustal silicates, Tc may be as low as 400??-600??C, suggesting that substantial decoupling may take place within thick continental crust and that strength may increase with depth at the Moho, as suggested by a number of workers on independent grounds. Put another way, the Moho is a rheological discontinuity. A second class of laboratory observations pertains to

  7. The Role of Carbon in Exotic Crust Formation on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.

    2018-01-01

    The terrestrial planets that comprise our inner Solar System, including the Moon, are all rocky bodies that have differentiated into a crust, mantle, and core. Furthermore, all of these bodies have undergone various igneous processes since their time of primary crust formation. These processes have resurfaced each of these bodies, at least in part, resulting in the production of a secondary crust, to which Mercury is no exception. From its first flyby encounter with Mercury on January 14, 2008, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft collected data on the structure, chemical makeup, and density of the planet among other important characteristics. The X-Ray Spectrometer on board MESSENGER measured elevated abundances of sulfur and low abundances of iron, suggesting the planets oxygen fugacity (fO2) is several log10 units below the Iron-Wustite buffer. Similar to the role of other volatiles (e.g. sulfur) on highly reducing planetary bodies, carbon is expected to behave differently in an oxygen starved environment than it does in an oxygen enriched environment (e.g., Earth).

  8. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  9. Hafnium isotope evidence for a transition in the dynamics of continental growth 3.2 Gyr ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næraa, T; Scherstén, A; Rosing, M T; Kemp, A I S; Hoffmann, J E; Kokfelt, T F; Whitehouse, M J

    2012-05-30

    Earth's lithosphere probably experienced an evolution towards the modern plate tectonic regime, owing to secular changes in mantle temperature. Radiogenic isotope variations are interpreted as evidence for the declining rates of continental crustal growth over time, with some estimates suggesting that over 70% of the present continental crustal reservoir was extracted by the end of the Archaean eon. Patterns of crustal growth and reworking in rocks younger than three billion years (Gyr) are thought to reflect the assembly and break-up of supercontinents by Wilson cycle processes and mark an important change in lithosphere dynamics. In southern West Greenland numerous studies have, however, argued for subduction settings and crust growth by arc accretion back to 3.8 Gyr ago, suggesting that modern-day tectonic regimes operated during the formation of the earliest crustal rock record. Here we report in situ uranium-lead, hafnium and oxygen isotope data from zircons of basement rocks in southern West Greenland across the critical time period during which modern-like tectonic regimes could have initiated. Our data show pronounced differences in the hafnium isotope-time patterns across this interval, requiring changes in the characteristics of the magmatic protolith. The observations suggest that 3.9-3.5-Gyr-old rocks differentiated from a >3.9-Gyr-old source reservoir with a chondritic to slightly depleted hafnium isotope composition. In contrast, rocks formed after 3.2 Gyr ago register the first additions of juvenile depleted material (that is, new mantle-derived crust) since 3.9 Gyr ago, and are characterized by striking shifts in hafnium isotope ratios similar to those shown by Phanerozoic subduction-related orogens. These data suggest a transitional period 3.5-3.2 Gyr ago from an ancient (3.9-3.5 Gyr old) crustal evolutionary regime unlike that of modern plate tectonics to a geodynamic setting after 3.2 Gyr ago that involved juvenile crust generation by plate

  10. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  11. New constraints on the age and style of continental breakup in the South Atlantic from magnetic anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Jenny S.; McDermott, Carl; Warner, George; Gyori, Noemi; Schnabel, Michael; McDermott, Ken; Horn, Brian W.

    2017-11-01

    We present new constraints on the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean from a joint interpretation of marine magnetic anomaly grids and forward modelling of conjugate profiles. We use 45,000 km of recently collected commercial ship track data combined with 561,000 km of publically available data. The new data cover the critical ocean-continental transition zones and allow us to identify and downgrade some poorly navigated older ship tracks relied upon in earlier compilations. Within the final grids the mean cross-over error is 14 nT computed from 8,227 ship track intersections. The forward modelling used uniformly magnetised bodies whose shapes were constrained from coincident deep-seismic reflection data. We find the oldest magnetic anomalies to date from M10r (134.2 Ma, late Valanginian) north of the Falkland-Agulhas Fracture Zone and M3 (129.3 Ma, Barremian) south of the Rio Grande Fracture Zone. Hence, assuming the GPTS used is correct, continental breakup was contemporaneous with the Parana and Etendeka continental flood basalts. Many of the landward linear anomalies overlap seismically mapped Seaward Dipping Reflectors (SDRs). We interpret this to mean that a significant portion of the SDRs overlay crust formed by subaerial seafloor spreading. Here crustal accretion is envisaged to be similar to that at mid-ocean ridges, but sheet lava flows (that later form the SDRs) rather than pillow basalts form the extrusive component. Segmentation of the linear anomalies generated implies that this stage of continental breakup is organised and parallels the seafloor spreading centre that follows. Our results call into question the common assumption that at volcanic continental margins the first linear magnetic anomalies represent the start of conventional (submarine) oceanic crustal generation.

  12. Basement tectonics and flexural subsidence along western continental margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Pandey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene-recent post-rift subsidence history recorded in the Mumbai Offshore Basin off western continental margin of India is examined. Results obtained through 2-D flexural backstripping modelling of new seismic data reveal considerable thermo-tectonic subsidence over last ca. 56 Myr. Reverse post-rift subsidence modelling with variable β stretching factor predicts residual topography of ca. 2000 m to the west of Shelf Margin Basin and fails to restore late Paleocene horizon and the underlying igneous basement to the sea level. This potentially implies that: (1 either the igneous basement formed during the late Cretaceous was emplaced under open marine environs; or (2 a laterally varying cumulative subsidence occurred within Mumbai Offshore Basin (MOB during ca. 68 to ca. 56 Ma. Pre-depositional topographic variations at ca. 56 Ma across the basin could be attributed to the extensional processes such as varied lower crustal underplating along Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI. Investigations about basement tectonics after unroofing of sediments since late Paleocene from this region support a transitional and heavily stretched nature of crust with high to very high β factors. Computations of past sediment accumulation rates show that the basin sedimentation peaked during late Miocene concurrently with uplift of Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau and intensification of Indian monsoon system. Results from basin subsidence modelling presented here may have significant implications for further studies attempting to explore tectono–climatic interactions in Asia.

  13. Atmospheric residence times of continental aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkanski, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    The global atmospheric distributions of Rn-222 are simulated with a three-dimensional model of atmospheric transport based on the meteorology of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model. The short-lived radioactive gas Rn-222 (half-life = 3.8d) is emitted almost exclusively from land, at a relatively uniform rate; hence it is an excellent tracer of continental influences. Lead-210 is produced by decay of Rn-222 and immediately condenses to preexisting aerosol surfaces. It provides an excellent measure of aerosol residence times in the atmosphere because its source is accurately defined by the Rn-222 distribution. Results from the three-dimensional model are compared to measurements of Rn-222 and Pb-210 atmospheric concentrations to evaluate model's long-range transport over oceanic regions and to study the deposition mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols. Model results for Rn-222 are used to examine the long-range transport of continental air over two selected oceanic regions, the subantarctic Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. It is shown that the fast transport of air from southern Africa causes substantial continental pollution at southern mid-latitudes, a region usually regarded as pristine. Air over the North Pacific is heavily impacted by continental influences year round, but the altitude at which the transport occurs varies seasonally. Observations of aerosols at island sites, which are commonly used as diagnostics of continental influences, may be misleading because they do not account for influences at high altitude and because aerosols are efficiently scavenged by deposition during transport. The study of Pb-210 focuses on defining the residence times of submicron aerosols in the troposphere. Scavenging in wet convective updrafts is found to provide the dominant sink on a global scale

  14. Relation between the continental TCZ and the TCZ over Equatorial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    So the relationship between the continental and oceanic TCZ is complex. On the one hand, the oceanic TCZ maintains the continental TCZ by propagations, on the other it tries to suppress it by competition.

  15. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  16. Biological soil crusts in Chile along the precipitation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolov, Elena; Glaser, Karin; Baumann, Karen; Leinweber, Peter; Jung, Patrick; Büdel, Burkhard; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Karsten, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    Biological soil crusts in Chile along a precipitation gradient Elena Samolov* (1), Karin Glaser (1), Karen Baumann (2), Peter Leinweber (2), Patrick Jung (3), Burkhard Büdel (3), Tatiana Mikhailyuk (4) and Ulf Karsten (1) (1) Institute of Biological Sciences - Applied Ecology and Phycology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany, (2) Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Soil Sciences, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany (3) University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany (4) M.H. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine * elena.samolov@uni-rostock.de Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an association of different microorganisms and soil particles in the top millimeters of the soil. They are formed by algae, cyanobacteria, microfungi, bacteria, bryophytes and lichens in various compositions; together with their by-products they create a micro-ecosystem that performs important ecological functions, e.g. primary production, nitrogen fixation, mineralization and stabilization of soils. These top-soil assemblages are almost unstudied in South America (Büdel et al. 2016). Therefore, our aim is to investigate for the first time biodiversity of the key photosynthetic organisms, green algae and cyanobacteria following a precipitation gradient along the west coast of Chile. We are applying polyphasic approach - a combination of microscopy, culture dependent (16S and 18S rRNA, ITS) and culture independent molecular techniques (NGS). First results, based on culturing and light microscopy, showed high diversity of eukaryotic algae in biocrusts from humid regions, followed by semi-arid regions. Lichen dominated biocrusts from arid regions were characterized by a high diversity of green algae, while cyanobacteria were scarcely present. The functional role of the BSCs in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorous (P) was evaluated using state of the art analytical methods including 31P-NMR (nuclear magnetic

  17. Energy conservation in the earth's crust and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yao; Mu, Xinzhi

    2013-02-01

    Among various matters which make up the earth's crust, the thermal conductivity of coal, oil, and oil-gas, which are formed over a long period of geological time, is extremely low. This is significant to prevent transferring the internal heat of the earth to the thermal insulation of the surface, cooling the surface of the earth, stimulating biological evolution, and maintaining natural ecological balance as well. Fossil energy is thermal insulating layer in the earth's crust. Just like the function of the thermal isolation of subcutaneous fatty tissue under the dermis of human skin, it keeps the internal heat within the organism so it won't be transferred to the skin's surface and be lost maintaining body temperature at low temperatures. Coal, oil, oil-gas, and fat belong to the same hydrocarbons, and the functions of their thermal insulation are exactly the same. That is to say, coal, oil, and oil-gas are just like the earth's "subcutaneous fatty tissue" and objectively formed the insulation protection on earth's surface. This paper argues that the human large-scale extraction of fossil energy leads to damage of the earth's crust heat-resistant sealing, increasing terrestrial heat flow, or the heat flow as it is called, transferring the internal heat of the earth to Earth's surface excessively, and causing geotemperature and sea temperature to rise, thus giving rise to global warming. The reason for climate warming is not due to the expansion of greenhouse gases but to the wide exploitation of fossil energy, which destroyed the heat insulation of the earth's crust, making more heat from the interior of the earth be released to the atmosphere. Based on the energy conservation principle, the measurement of the increase of the average global temperature that was caused by the increase of terrestrial heat flow since the Industrial Revolution is consistent with practical data. This paper illustrates "pathogenesis" of climate change using medical knowledge. The

  18. Frequent fire promotes diversity and cover of biological soil crusts in a derived temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Katharine E; Prober, Suzanne Mary; Lunt, Ian D; Eldridge, David J

    2009-04-01

    The intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) predicts that species diversity is maximized at moderate disturbance levels. This model is often applied to grassy ecosystems, where disturbance can be important for maintaining vascular plant composition and diversity. However, effects of disturbance type and frequency on cover and diversity of non-vascular plants comprising biological soil crusts are poorly known, despite their potentially important role in ecosystem function. We established replicated disturbance regimes of different type (fire vs. mowing) and frequency (2, 4, 8 yearly and unburnt) in a high-quality, representative Themeda australis-Poa sieberiana derived grassland in south-eastern Australia. Effects on soil crust bryophytes and lichens (hereafter cryptogams) were measured after 12 years. Consistent with expectations under IDH, cryptogam richness and abundance declined under no disturbance, likely due to competitive exclusion by vascular plants as well as high soil turnover by soil invertebrates beneath thick grass. Disturbance type was also significant, with burning enhancing richness and abundance more than mowing. Contrary to expectations, however, cryptogam richness increased most dramatically under our most frequent and recent (2 year) burning regime, even when changes in abundance were accounted for by rarefaction analysis. Thus, from the perspective of cryptogams, 2-year burning was not an adequately severe disturbance regime to reduce diversity, highlighting the difficulty associated with expression of disturbance gradients in the application of IDH. Indeed, significant correlations with grassland structure suggest that cryptogam abundance and diversity in this relatively mesic (600 mm annual rainfall) grassland is maximised by frequent fires that reduce vegetation and litter cover, providing light, open areas and stable soil surfaces for colonisation. This contrasts with detrimental effects of 2-year burning on native perennial grasses

  19. Initiation of Extension in South China Continental Margin during the Active-Passive Margin Transition: Thermochronological and Kinematic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, X.; Chan, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    The South China continental margin is characterized by a widespread magmatic belt, prominent NE-striking faults and numerous rifted basins filled by Cretaceous-Eocene sediments. The geology denotes a transition from active to passive margin, which led to rapid modifications of crustal stress configuration and reactivation of older faults in this area. Our zircon fission-track data in this region show two episodes of exhumation: The first episode, occurring during 170-120Ma, affected local parts of the Nanling Range. The second episode, a more regional exhumation event, occurred during 115-70Ma, including the Yunkai Terrane and the Nanling Range. Numerical geodynamic modeling was conducted to simulate the subduction between the paleo-Pacific plate and the South China Block. The modeling results could explain the fact that exhumation of the granite-dominant Nanling Range occurred earlier than that of the gneiss-dominant Yunkai Terrane. In addition to the difference in rock types, the heat from Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatism in Nanling may have softened the upper crust, causing the area to exhume more readily than Yunkai. Numerical modeling results also indicate that (1) high lithospheric geothermal gradient, high slab dip angle and low convergence velocity favor the reversal of crustal stress state from compression to extension in the upper continental plate; (2) late Mesozoic magmatism in South China was probably caused by a slab roll-back; and (3) crustal extension could have occurred prior to the cessation of plate subduction. The inversion of stress regime in the continental crust from compression to crustal extension imply that the Late Cretaceous-early Paleogene red-bed basins in South China could have formed during the late stage of the subduction, accounting for the occurrence of volcanic events in some sedimentary basins. We propose that the rifting started as early as Late Cretaceous, probably before the cessation of subduction process.

  20. Preliminary three-dimensional model of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continental lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2010-06-01

    Characteristic tectonic structures such as young orogenic belts and suture zones in a continent are expected to be mechanically weaker than the stable part of the continental lithosphere with the cratonic root (or cratonic lithosphere) and yield lateral viscosity variations in the continental lithosphere. In the present-day Earth's lithosphere, the pre-existing, mechanically weak zones emerge as a diffuse plate boundary. However, the dynamic role of a weak (low-viscosity) continental margin (WCM) in the stability of continental lithosphere has not been understood in terms of geophysics. Here, a new numerical simulation model of mantle convection with a compositionally and rheologically heterogeneous, deformable, mobile continental lithosphere is presented for the first time by using three-dimensional regional spherical-shell geometry. A compositionally buoyant and highly viscous continental assemblage with pre-existing WCMs, analogous to the past supercontinent, is modeled and imposed on well-developed mantle convection whose vigor of convection, internal heating rate, and rheological parameters are appropriate for the Earth's mantle. The visco-plastic oceanic lithosphere and the associated subduction of oceanic plates are incorporated. The time integration of the advection of continental materials with zero chemical diffusion is performed by a tracer particle method. The time evolution of mantle convection after setting the model supercontinent is followed over 800 Myr. Earth-like continental drift is successfully reproduced, and the characteristic thermal interaction between the mantle and the continent/supercontinent is observed in my new numerical model. Results reveal that the WCM protects the cratonic lithosphere from being stretched by the convecting mantle and may play a significant role in the stability of the cratonic lithosphere during the geological timescale because it acts as a buffer that prevents the cratonic lithosphere from undergoing global

  1. Adakite-like volcanism of Ecuador: lower crust magmatic evolution and recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Müntener, Othmar; Beate, Bernardo; Fontignie, Denis

    2009-11-01

    In the Northern Andes of Ecuador, a broad Quaternary volcanic arc with significant across-arc geochemical changes sits upon continental crust consisting of accreted oceanic and continental terranes. Quaternary volcanic centers occur, from west to east, along the Western Cordillera (frontal arc), in the Inter-Andean Depression and along the Eastern Cordillera (main arc), and in the Sub-Andean Zone (back-arc). The adakite-like signatures of the frontal and main arc volcanoes have been interpreted either as the result of slab melting plus subsequent slab melt-mantle interactions or of lower crustal melting, fractional crystallization, and assimilation processes. In this paper, we present petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) data on dominantly andesitic to dacitic volcanic rocks as well as crustal xenolith and cumulate samples from five volcanic centers (Pululagua, Pichincha, Ilalo, Chacana, Sumaco) forming a NW-SE transect at about 0° latitude and encompassing the frontal (Pululagua, Pichincha), main (Ilalo, Chacana), and back-arc (Sumaco) chains. All rocks display typical subduction-related geochemical signatures, such as Nb and Ta negative anomalies and LILE enrichment. They show a relative depletion of fluid-mobile elements and a general increase in incompatible elements from the front to the back-arc suggesting derivation from progressively lower degrees of partial melting of the mantle wedge induced by decreasing amounts of fluids released from the slab. We observe widespread petrographic evidence of interaction of primary melts with mafic xenoliths as well as with clinopyroxene- and/or amphibole-bearing cumulates and of magma mixing at all frontal and main arc volcanic centers. Within each volcanic center, rocks display correlations between evolution indices and radiogenic isotopes, although absolute variations of radiogenic isotopes are small and their values are overall rather primitive (e.g., ɛNd = +1.5 to +6, 87Sr/86Sr = 0

  2. Continental lithospheric evolution: Constraints from the geochemistry of felsic volcanic rocks in the Dharwar Craton, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikyamba, C.; Ganguly, Sohini; Saha, Abhishek; Santosh, M.; Rajanikanta Singh, M.; Subba Rao, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Felsic magmatism associated with ocean-ocean and ocean-continent subduction processes provide important evidence for distinct episodes of crust-generation and continental lithospheric evolution. Rhyolites constitute an integral component of the tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalt-andesite-dacite-rhyolite (BADR) association and contribute to crustal growth processes at convergent plate margins. The evolution of the Dharwar Craton of southern peninsular India during Meso- to Neoarchean times was marked by extensive development of greenstone belts. These granite-greenstone terranes have distinct volcano-sedimentary associations consistent with their geodynamic setting. The present study deals with geochemistry of rhyolites from the Chitradurga-Shimoga greenstone belts of western (WDC) and the Gadwal-Kadiri greenstone belts of eastern (EDC) sectors of Dharwar Craton to compare and evaluate their petrogenesis and geodynamic setting and their control on the continental lithospheric evolution of the Dharwar Craton. At a similar range of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, the rhyolites of WDC are more potassic, whereas the EDC rhyolites are more sodic and less magnesian with slight increase in TiO2. Minor increase in MgO content of WDC rhyolites reflects their ferromagnesian trace elements which are comparatively lower in the rhyolites of EDC. The relative enrichment in LILE (K, Rb) and depletion in HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf) marked by negative Nb-Ta, Zr-Hf and Ti anomalies endorse the convergent margin processes for the generation of rhyolites of both the sectors of Dharwar Craton. The high silica potassic rhyolites of Shimoga and Chitradurga greenstone belts of WDC showing prominent negative Eu and Ti anomalies, flat HREE patterns correspond to Type 3 rhyolites and clearly point towards their generation and emplacement in an active continental margin environment. The geochemical characteristics of Gadwal and Kadiri rhyolites from eastern Dharwar Craton marked by aluminous compositions with

  3. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  4. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  5. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  6. The effects of post-accretion sedimentation on the magnetization of oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Granot, R.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of marine magnetic anomalies related to seafloor spreading is often considered a key evidence to locate the continent-ocean boundary (COB) at passive margins. Conversely, thermal demagnetization is also advocated to explain the poor shape of such oceanic anomalies under thick sedimentary cover. To investigate the effects of post-accretion sedimentation on marine magnetic anomalies, we focus our study on two conjugate regions of the southern South Atlantic Ocean (Anomalies M4 to M0) that, although formed at the same time and along the same spreading segments, reveal contrasting characters. The anomalies exhibit strong amplitudes (>400 nT) and a well-marked shape off South Africa, where the sediments are less than 3 km-thick, but become weaker ( 200 nT) and much smoother off northern Argentina, where the sedimentary cover is thicker than 5 km. We interpret this observation as reflecting thermal demagnetization of the extrusive layer and its low Curie temperature titanomagnetite. We perform a series of thermo-magnetic models (Dyment and Arkani-Hamed, Geophys. J. Int., 1995, modified to include the sedimentary cover) to simulate the acquisition and loss of remanent magnetization in the oceanic lithosphere. We assume that most of the sediments accumulated shortly after crustal accretion. We investigate a range of possible thermal demagnetization temperatures for the extrusive layer and find that 200°C to 280ºC best explains the observations, in reasonable agreement with Curie temperatures of titanomagnetite, suggesting that most of the extrusive layer may be demagnetized under sediments thicker than 5 km. Thermal demagnetization should therefore be considered while interpreting marine magnetic anomalies for the age and nature of the crust (i.e., continental versus oceanic) in regions with thick sedimentary cover.

  7. Biological soil crusts accelerate the nitrogen cycle through large NO and HONO emissions in drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Wu, Dianming; Tamm, Alexandra; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Elbert, Wolfgang; Behrendt, Thomas; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul J; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2015-12-15

    Reactive nitrogen species have a strong influence on atmospheric chemistry and climate, tightly coupling the Earth's nitrogen cycle with microbial activity in the biosphere. Their sources, however, are not well constrained, especially in dryland regions accounting for a major fraction of the global land surface. Here, we show that biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are emitters of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO). Largest fluxes are obtained by dark cyanobacteria-dominated biocrusts, being ∼20 times higher than those of neighboring uncrusted soils. Based on laboratory, field, and satellite measurement data, we obtain a best estimate of ∼1.7 Tg per year for the global emission of reactive nitrogen from biocrusts (1.1 Tg a(-1) of NO-N and 0.6 Tg a(-1) of HONO-N), corresponding to ∼20% of global nitrogen oxide emissions from soils under natural vegetation. On continental scales, emissions are highest in Africa and South America and lowest in Europe. Our results suggest that dryland emissions of reactive nitrogen are largely driven by biocrusts rather than the underlying soil. They help to explain enigmatic discrepancies between measurement and modeling approaches of global reactive nitrogen emissions. As the emissions of biocrusts strongly depend on precipitation events, climate change affecting the distribution and frequency of precipitation may have a strong impact on terrestrial emissions of reactive nitrogen and related climate feedback effects. Because biocrusts also account for a large fraction of global terrestrial biological nitrogen fixation, their impacts should be further quantified and included in regional and global models of air chemistry, biogeochemistry, and climate.

  8. Continental Extensional Tectonics in the Basins and Ranges and Aegean Regions: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemen, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Basins and Ranges of North America and the Aegean Region of Eastern Europe and Asia Minor have been long considered as the two best developed examples of continental extension. The two regions contain well-developed normal faults which were considered almost vertical in the 1950s and 1960s. By the mid 1980s, however, overwhelming field evidence emerged to conclude that the dip angle normal faults in the two regions may range from almost vertical to almost horizontal. This led to the discovery that high-grade metamorphic rocks could be brought to surface by the exhumation of mid-crustal rocks along major low-angle normal faults (detachment faults) which were previously either mapped as thrust faults or unconformity. Within the last three decades, our understanding of continental extensional tectonics in the Basins and Ranges and the Aegean Region have improved substantially based on fieldwork, geochemical analysis, analog and computer modeling, detailed radiometric age determinations and thermokinematic modelling. It is now widely accepted that a) Basin and Range extension is controlled by the movement along the San Andreas fault zone as the North American plate moved southeastward with respect to the northwestward movement of the Pacific plate; b) Aegean extension is controlled by subduction roll-back associated with the Hellenic subduction zone; and c) the two regions contain best examples of detachment faulting, extensional folding, and extensional basins. However, there are still many important questions of continental extensional tectonics in the two regions that remain poorly understood. These include determining a) precise amount and percentage of cumulative extension; b) role of strike-slip faulting in the extensional processes; c) exhumation history along detachment surfaces using multimethod geochronology; d) geometry and nature of extensional features in the middle and lower crust; e) the nature of upper mantle and asthenospheric flow; f) evolutions

  9. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Description of background samples in the continental margin of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    This study provide data concerning of the background sediments of the continental margin of Uruguay. There were carried out different works with witnesses in order to extract various sediment samples from the continental shelf

  10. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  11. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  12. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  13. The composition and structure of volcanic rifted continental margins in the North Atlantic: Further insight from shear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Jennifer D.; White, Robert S.; Christie, Philip A. F.

    2011-07-01

    Imaging challenges caused by highly attenuative flood basalt sequences have resulted in the understanding of volcanic rifted continental margins lagging behind that of non-volcanic rifted and convergent margins. Massive volcanism occurred during break-up at 70% of the passive margins bordering the Atlantic Ocean, the causes and dynamics of which are still debated. This paper shows results from traveltime tomography of compressional and converted shear wave arrivals recorded on 170 four-component ocean bottom seismometers along two North Atlantic continental margin profiles. This traveltime tomography was performed using two different approaches. The first, a flexible layer-based parameterisation, enables the quality control of traveltime picks and investigation of the crustal structure. The second, with a regularised grid-based parameterisation, requires correction of converted shear wave traveltimes to effective symmetric raypaths and allows exploration of the model space via Monte Carlo analyses. The velocity models indicate high lower-crustal velocities and sharp transitions in both velocity and Vp/Vs ratios across the continent-ocean transition. The velocities are consistent with established mixing trends between felsic continental crust and high magnesium mafic rock on both margins. Interpretation of the high quality seismic reflection profile on the Faroes margin confirms that this mixing is through crustal intrusion. Converted shear wave data also provide constraints on the sub-basalt lithology on the Faroes margin, which is interpreted as a pre-break-up Mesozoic to Paleocene sedimentary system intruded by sills.

  14. Geochronology and geochemistry of deep-seated crustal xenoliths in the northern North China Craton: Implications for the evolution and structure of the lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuping; Zheng, Jianping; Griffin, William L.; Huang, Yan; Wei, Ying; Ping, Xianquan

    2017-11-01

    The age and composition of the lower crust are critical in understanding the processes of continental formation and evolution, and deep-seated granulite xenoliths can offer direct information on the lower crust. Here, we report mineral chemistry, whole-rock major and trace elements, Sr-Nd isotopes and zircon U-Pb-Hf results for a suite of deep-seated crustal xenoliths, recently discovered in the Cenozoic basalts of the Nangaoya area in the northern part of the North China Craton (NCC). Based on the P-T estimates, these xenoliths including mafic, intermediate and felsic granulites and hornblendites were sampled from different levels of the lower crust. While a hornblendite has a flat REE pattern, all other xenoliths display LREE enrichment and depletion of Nb, Ta, Th and Ti. The mafic granulite xenolith has relatively high whole-rock εNd(t) value of - 13.37, and yields Mesozoic (188-59 Ma) zircons ages with high εHf(t) values from - 15.3 to - 9.2. The garnet-bearing intermediate granulite-facies rocks show low εNd(t) values from - 16.92 to - 17.48, and reveal both Paleoproterozoic (1948 Ma) and Mesozoic (222-63 Ma) zircon U-Pb ages. Their Mesozoic zircons have lower εHf(t) values (from - 18.4 to - 13.8) than those from the mafic xenolith. The remaining intermediate to felsic xenoliths show Paleoproterozoic zircon ages, and the lowest εNd(t) values (from - 20.78 to - 24.03). The mafic-intermediate granulites with Mesozoic zircons originated from the interaction of lower crust-derived magmas with mantle melts, with higher proportions of mantle magmas involved in the generation of mafic granulite, whereas intermediate to felsic xenoliths without Mesozoic zircons represent ancient Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean deep crust. These deep-seated xenoliths reveal complicated crustal evolution processes, including crustal growth during Neoarchean (2.5-2.7 Ga), middle Paleoproterozoic (2.2-2.1 Ga) and Mesozoic, and reworking during early Paleoproterozoic, late

  15. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  16. Root zone of a continental rift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Moritz; Svenningsen, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    melt are considered to account for the compositional range exhibited by the KIC igneous rocks. U/Pb SIMS geochronological data from zircon rims yield an emplacement age of 578 ± 9 Ma. The KIC is thus younger and more depleted than coeval mafic rocks found in the Seve Nappe, and is interpreted...... to represent a high-level magma plumbing system in a late-stage continental rift. The composition and volume of rift-related igneous rocks in the Seve Nappes are inconsistent with a mantle plume origin, but are thought to record progressive lithospheric thinning and increasing involvement of an asthenospheric......Mafic magmatic rocks formed between ca. 615 and 560 Ma along the Neoproterozoic margins of Baltica and Laurentia are classically attributed to continental rifting heralding the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. We report new data for the Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex (KIC) exposed in the Seve Nappes...

  17. Deep structure of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin (the Vøring and Møre basins) according to 3-D density and magnetic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy Petrovich; Gernigon, Laurent; Nasuti, Aziz; Olesen, Odleiv

    2018-03-01

    A lithosphere-scale 3-D density/magnetic structural model of the Møre and Vøring segments of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin and the adjacent areas of the Norwegian mainland has been constructed by using both published, publically available data sets and confidential data, validated by the 3-D density and magnetic modelling. The obtained Moho topography clearly correlates with the major tectonic units of the study area where a deep Moho corresponds to the base of the Precambrian continental crust and the shallower one is located in close proximity to the younger oceanic lithospheric domain. The 3-D density modelling agrees with previous studies which indicate the presence of a high-density/high-velocity lower-crustal layer beneath the Mid-Norwegian continental margin. The broad Jan Mayen Corridor gravity low is partially related to the decreasing density of the sedimentary layers within the Jan Mayen Corridor and also has to be considered in relation to a possible low-density composition- and/or temperature-related zone in the lithospheric mantle. According to the results of the 3-D magnetic modelling, the absence of a strong magnetic anomaly over the Utgard High indicates that the uplifted crystalline rocks are not so magnetic there, supporting a suggestion that the entire crystalline crust has a low magnetization beneath the greater part of the Vøring Basin and the northern part of the Møre Basin. On the contrary, the crystalline crust is much more magnetic beneath the Trøndelag Platform, the southern part of the Møre Basin and within the mainland, reaching a culmination at the Frøya High where the most intensive magnetic anomaly is observed within the study area.

  18. Reconstruction of food webs in biological soil crusts using metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Richard; Brodie, Eoin L.; Mayberry-Lewis, Jazmine; Nunes Da Rocha, Ulisses; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Karaoz, Ulas; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Northen, Trent R.

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are communities of organisms inhabiting the upper layer of soil in arid environments. BSCs persist in a dessicated dormant state for extended periods of time and experience pulsed periods of activity facilitated by infrequent rainfall. Microcoleus vaginatus, a non-diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium, is the key primary producer in BSCs in the Colorado Plateau and is an early pioneer in colonizing arid environments. Over decades, BSCs proceed through developmental stages with increasing complexity of constituent microorganisms and macroscopic properties. Metabolic interactions among BSC microorganisms probably play a key role in determining the community dynamics and cycling of carbon and nitrogen. However, these metabolic interactions have not been studied systematically. Towards this goal, exometabolomic analysis was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry on biological soil crust pore water and spent media of key soil bacterial isolates. Comparison of spent vs. fresh media was used to determine uptake or release of metabolites by specific microbes. To link pore water experiments with isolate studies, metabolite extracts of authentic soil were used as supplements for isolate exometabolomic profiling. Our soil metabolomics methods detected hundreds of metabolites from soils including many novel compounds. Overall, Microcoleus vaginatus was found to release and utilize a broad range of metabolites. Many of these metabolites were also taken up by heterotrophs but there were surprisingly few metabolites uptaken by all isolates. This points to a competition for a small set of central metabolites and specialization of individual heterotrophs towards a diverse pool of available organic nutrients. Overall, these data suggest that understanding the substrate specialization of biological soil crust bacteria can help link community structure to nutrient cycling.

  19. The age and emplacement of obducted oceanic crust in the Urals from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.L.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Urals contain a 2000 km belt of mafic-ultramafic bodies. The Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systematics of two of these bodies, the Kempersai Massif in the South Ural Mountains and the Voykar-Syninsky Ophiolite Complex in the Polar Ural Mountains have been examined. These data confirm the hypothesis that these bodies represent fragments of pre-collision oceanic crust and establish constraints on the nature and timing of events in the Uralian Orogeny. Two Kempersai gabbros define Sm-Nd internal isochrons of 397 +- 20 My and 396 +- 33 My with epsilonsub(Nd)(T) = +8.7 -+ 0.6 and +8.4 -+ 1.3, respectively. Whole rock samples of pillow basalt, diabase, gabbros, troctolite, and a metasediment give Sm-Nd values which lie on this isochron indicating that these rocks are genetically related and have an igneous crystallization age of 397 My. Whole rock samples of Voykar-Syninsky diabase, gabbros, and clinopyroxenite give Sm-Nd values which lie on or within proportional 1 epsilon-unit of this isochron indicating an age and epsilonsub(Nd)(T) virtually identical to those of Kempersai. epsilonsub(Nd)(T) for the Kempersai and Voykar-Syninsky mafic samples range from +7.3 to +9.0 with an average value of +8.4. This indicates that the Urals ophiolites are derived from an ancient depleted mantle source and are most plausibly pieces of the oceanic crust and lithosphere. The fact that a metasediment has the same epsilonsub(Nd)(397 My) as the other samples indicates derivation from an oceanic source with negligible continental input. epsilonsub(Nd)(T) for the massifs is proportional 1.5 epsilon-units lower than the average for modern MORBs. (orig./HSI)

  20. Observations of Quasi-Love Waves in Tibet Indicates Coherent Deformation of the Crust and Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Park, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The high uplift of the Tibet area is caused by the continental collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The style of deformation along with the collision is still being debated, particularly whether the deformation is vertically coherent or not, i.e., whether the upper mantle deforms coherently with the crust. In this work, we have used quasi-Love (QL) waves to constrain the anisotropy pattern around the Tibet region. The existence of anisotropy gradients has been identified with the observations of QL waves, which is a converted Rayleigh-wave motion that follows the arrival of the Love wave. Further, the locations of the anisotropy gradients have been pinned with the delay time between the Love wave and the QL wave, which is determined from cross-correlation. Our results show that the frequency content of Tibetan QL wave is centered around 10 mHz, indicating the depth range of anisotropy should be in the asthenosphere. Most of the scatterers of QL wave that we can detect lie outside the Tibet Plateau. Their distribution correlates well with the boundary of the Persia-Tibet- Burma orogeny, which has been identified from surface geologic data. This correlation, between surface geology and upper mantle anisotropy inferred from QL observations at the orogenic boundary, suggests that the crust and upper mantle of the orogeny are deforming coherently. Other scatterers that are off the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogenic boundary mostly cluster in two locations, the Tarim Basin, and the Bangong-Nujiang Suture, where there could exist contrasting anisotropy patterns in the upper mantle. The deformation in the Tibet region is complicated, yet our research suggests a vertically coherent deformation style of the upper mantle in Tibet.