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Sample records for stable colloidal dispersions

  1. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-15

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes1, 2, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other2. Electrostatic stabilization3, 4 of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains2, 5. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  2. Statistical Physics of Colloidal Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, E.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis is concerned with the equilibrium statistical mechanics of colloidal dispersions which represent useful model systems for the study of condensed matter physics; namely, charge stabilized colloidal dispersions and polymer stabilized colloidal dispersions. A one-component macroparticle approach is adopted in order to treat the macroscopic and microscopic properties of these systems in a simple and comprehensive manner. The thesis opens with the description of the nature of the colloidal state before reviewing some basic definitions and theory in Chapter II. In Chapter III a variational theory of phase equilibria based on the Gibbs-Bogolyobov inequality is applied to sterically stabilized colloidal dispersions. Hard spheres are chosen as the reference system for the disordered phases while an Einstein model is used for the ordered phases. The new choice of pair potential, taken for mathematical convenience, is a superposition of two Yukawa functions. By matching a double Yukawa potential to the van der Waals attractive potential at different temperatures and introducing a purely temperature dependent coefficient to the repulsive part, a rich variety of observed phase separation phenomena is qualitatively described. The behaviour of the potential is found to be consistent with a small decrease of the polymer layer thickness with increasing temperature. Using the same concept of a collapse transition the non-monotonic second virial coefficient is also explained and quantified. It is shown that a reduction of the effective macroparticle diameter with increasing temperature can only be partially examined from the point of view of a (binary-) polymer solution theory. This chapter concludes with the description of the observed, reversible, depletion flocculation behaviour. This is accomplished by using the variational formalism and by invoking the double Yukawa potential to allow

  3. Nonlinear rheology of colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brader, J M

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal dispersions are commonly encountered in everyday life and represent an important class of complex fluid. Of particular significance for many commercial products and industrial processes is the ability to control and manipulate the macroscopic flow response of a dispersion by tuning the microscopic interactions between the constituents. An important step towards attaining this goal is the development of robust theoretical methods for predicting from first-principles the rheology and nonequilibrium microstructure of well defined model systems subject to external flow. In this review we give an overview of some promising theoretical approaches and the phenomena they seek to describe, focusing, for simplicity, on systems for which the colloidal particles interact via strongly repulsive, spherically symmetric interactions. In presenting the various theories, we will consider first low volume fraction systems, for which a number of exact results may be derived, before moving on to consider the intermediate and high volume fraction states which present both the most interesting physics and the most demanding technical challenges. In the high volume fraction regime particular emphasis will be given to the rheology of dynamically arrested states. (topical review)

  4. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds as gene carriers: development of stable colloidal dispersion for in vitro cellular uptake studies and siRNA delivery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwani, Saniya; Kaur, Randeep; Michel, Deborah; Chitanda, Jackson M; Verrall, Ronald E; Karunakaran, Chithra; Badea, Ildiko

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as an attractive tool for gene therapeutics. To reach their full potential for biological application, NDs should maintain their colloidal stability in biological milieu. This study describes the behavior of lysine-functionalized ND (lys-ND) in various dispersion media, with an aim to limit aggregation and improve the colloidal stability of ND-gene complexes called diamoplexes. Furthermore, cellular and macromolecular interactions of lys-NDs are also analyzed in vitro to establish the understanding of ND-mediated gene transfer in cells. lys-NDs were synthesized earlier through covalent conjugation of lysine amino acid to carboxylated NDs surface generated through re-oxidation in strong oxidizing acids. In this study, dispersions of lys-NDs were prepared in various media, and the degree of sedimentation was monitored for 72 hours. Particle size distributions and zeta potential measurements were performed for a period of 25 days to characterize the physicochemical stability of lys-NDs in the medium. The interaction profile of lys-NDs with fetal bovine serum showed formation of a protein corona, which was evaluated by size and charge distribution measurements. Uptake of lys-NDs in cervical cancer cells was analyzed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Cellular uptake of diamoplexes (complex of lys-NDs with small interfering RNA) was also analyzed using flow cytometry. Aqueous dispersion of lys-NDs showed minimum sedimentation and remained stable over a period of 25 days. Size distributions showed good stability, remaining under 100 nm throughout the testing period. A positive zeta potential of >+20 mV indicated a preservation of surface charges. Size distribution and zeta potential changed for lys-NDs after incubation with blood serum, suggesting an interaction with biomolecules, mainly proteins, and a possible formation of a protein corona. Cellular internalization of lys-NDs was confirmed

  5. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds as gene carriers: development of stable colloidal dispersion for in vitro cellular uptake studies and siRNA delivery application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwani S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Saniya Alwani,1 Randeep Kaur,1 Deborah Michel,1 Jackson M Chitanda,2 Ronald E Verrall,3 Chithra Karunakaran,4 Ildiko Badea1 1Drug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, 2Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 4Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Purpose: Nanodiamonds (NDs are emerging as an attractive tool for gene therapeutics. To reach their full potential for biological application, NDs should maintain their colloidal stability in biological milieu. This study describes the behavior of lysine-functionalized ND (lys-ND in various dispersion media, with an aim to limit aggregation and improve the colloidal stability of ND-gene complexes called diamoplexes. Furthermore, cellular and macromolecular interactions of lys-NDs are also analyzed in vitro to establish the understanding of ND-mediated gene transfer in cells. Methods: lys-NDs were synthesized earlier through covalent conjugation of lysine amino acid to carboxylated NDs surface generated through re-oxidation in strong oxidizing acids. In this study, dispersions of lys-NDs were prepared in various media, and the degree of sedimentation was monitored for 72 hours. Particle size distributions and zeta potential measurements were performed for a period of 25 days to characterize the physicochemical stability of lys-NDs in the medium. The interaction profile of lys-NDs with fetal bovine serum showed formation of a protein corona, which was evaluated by size and charge distribution measurements. Uptake of lys-NDs in cervical cancer cells was analyzed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Cellular uptake of diamoplexes (complex of lys-NDs with small interfering RNA was also analyzed using flow cytometry. Results: Aqueous dispersion of lys-NDs showed minimum sedimentation and remained stable over a period of 25 days. Size distributions showed

  6. Dipolar structures in colloidal magnetite dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klokkenburg, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Dipolar structures in liquid colloidal dispersions comprising well-defined magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with a permanent magnetic dipole moment are analyzed on a single-particle level by in situ cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (2D). Compared to conventional ferrofluids, these

  7. Coagulation and rheological behaviors of soy milk colloidal dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2017-04-01

    Coagulation and rheological behaviors of soy milk are reviewed from the viewpoint of colloidal dispersion system. From the results of relative viscosity in the range of small oil body volume fractions, oil bodies containing oleosin behave as rigid spheres. The Krieger-Dougherty equation was found to describe relative viscosities well under high oil body volume fraction. These results indicate that oil bodies in soy milk behave as though suspended matter. Cross-linking between colloid particles occurs when the coagulant is added, and bulky clusters are formed. The viscosity rises due to the hydrodynamic effects of these bulky clusters. A new viscosity equation that combines the Krieger-Dougherty equation and the effective volume fraction could describe the viscos behavior well for wide range of solid contents. Tofu is made by adding a coagulant to soy milk. For lipid concentrations of less than 2%, rupture stress increases depending on the lipid concentration, whereas at concentrations of more than 3%, rupture stress tends to decline. Kinugoshi tofu samples have a maximum value for rupture stress depending on lipid concentration. Digestion of oleosin in high-fat soy milk using papain treatment results in the centrifugal separation of soy milk cream easily. This result indicates that oleosin let oil bodies in soy milk stable. Therefore, it is important to control the state of soy milk colloidal dispersions.

  8. Small-angle neutron scattering from colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottewill, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A survey is given of recent work on the use of small-angle neutron scattering to examine colloidal dispersions. Particular attention is given to the determination of particle size and polydispersity, the determination of particle morphology and the behaviour of concentrated colloidal dispersions, both at rest and under the influence of an applied shear field. (orig.)

  9. Dispersion stability and electrokinetic properties of intrinsic plutonium colloids: implications for subsurface transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I; Zhou, Dongxu; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Tarimala, Sowmitri; Ware, S Doug; Keller, Arturo A

    2013-06-04

    Subsurface transport of plutonium (Pu) may be facilitated by the formation of intrinsic Pu colloids. While this colloid-facilitated transport is largely governed by the electrokinetic properties and dispersion stability (resistance to aggregation) of the colloids, reported experimental data is scarce. Here, we quantify the dependence of ζ-potential of intrinsic Pu(IV) colloids on pH and their aggregation rate on ionic strength. Results indicate an isoelectric point of pH 8.6 and a critical coagulation concentration of 0.1 M of 1:1 electrolyte at pH 11.4. The ζ-potential/pH dependence of the Pu(IV) colloids is similar to that of goethite and hematite colloids. Colloid interaction energy calculations using these values reveal an effective Hamaker constant of the intrinsic Pu(IV) colloids in water of 1.85 × 10(-19) J, corresponding to a relative permittivity of 6.21 and refractive index of 2.33, in agreement with first principles calculations. This relatively high Hamaker constant combined with the positive charge of Pu(IV) colloids under typical groundwater aquifer conditions led to two contradicting hypotheses: (a) the Pu(IV) colloids will exhibit significant aggregation and deposition, leading to a negligible subsurface transport or (b) the Pu(IV) colloids will associate with the relatively stable native groundwater colloids, leading to a considerable subsurface transport. Packed column transport experiments supported the second hypothesis.

  10. Microrheology of colloidal dispersions by Brownian dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpen, I.C.; Brady, John F.; Brady, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate active particle-tracking microrheology in a colloidal dispersion by Brownian dynamics simulations. A probe particle is dragged through the dispersion with an externally imposed force in order to access the nonlinear viscoelastic response of the medium. The probe’s motion is governed

  11. Probing Interfacial Water on Nanodiamonds in Colloidal Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Tristan; Yuzawa, Hayato; Nagasaka, Masanari; Yamanoi, Ryoko; Osawa, Eiji; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Aziz, Emad F

    2015-08-06

    The structure of interfacial water layers around nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous environment may have a significant impact on their reactivity and on their interaction with biological species. Using transmission soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid, we demonstrate that the unoccupied electronic states of oxygen atoms from water molecules in aqueous colloidal dispersions of nanodiamonds have a different signature than bulk water. X-ray absorption spectroscopy can thus probe interfacial water molecules in colloidal dispersions. The impacts of nanodiamond surface chemistry and concentration on interfacial water electronic signature are discussed.

  12. Overview of the phase diagram of ionic magnetic colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, F.; Dubois, E.; Cabuil, V.; Boue, F.; Perzynski, R.

    2001-01-01

    We study ionic magnetic colloidal dispersions, which are constituted of γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles dispersed in water, and stabilized with electrostatic interparticle repulsion. The phase diagram PV versus Φ (P: osmotic pressure, V: particle volume, Φ: particle volume fraction) is explored, especially in the range of high Π and high Φ. The osmotic pressure P of the colloidal dispersion is known either by a measurement either because it is imposed during the sample preparation by osmotic compression. The structure of the colloidal dispersion is determined from Small Angle Neutron Scattering. Two regimes can be distinguished. At high pressure, fluid and solid phases can exist. Their structure is governed by strong electrostatic repulsion, the range of which is here evaluated. At low pressure, gas, liquid and glassy solids can exist. Their structure results from a sticky hard sphere potential. (author)

  13. Axial dispersion via shear-enhanced diffusion in colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Griffiths, I. M.

    2012-03-01

    The familiar example of Taylor dispersion of molecular solutes is extended to describe colloidal suspensions, where the fluctuations that contribute to dispersion arise from hydrodynamic interactions. The generic scheme is illustrated for a suspension of particles in a pressure-driven pipe flow, with a concentration-dependent diffusivity that captures both the shear-induced and Brownian contributions. The effect of the cross-stream migration via shear-induced diffusion is shown to dramatically reduce the axial dispersion predicted by classical Taylor dispersion for a molecular solute. Analytic and numerical solutions are presented that illustrate the effect of the concentration dependence of this nonlinear hydrodynamic mechanism. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

  14. Normal-stress coefficients and rod climbing in colloidal dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, T. F. F.; Reinhardt, J.; Brader, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    We calculate tractable microscopic expressions for the low-shear normal-stress coefficients of colloidal dispersions. Although restricted to the low rate regime, the presented formulas are valid for all volume fractions below the glass transition and for any interaction potential. Numerical results are presented for a system of colloids interacting via a hard-core attractive Yukawa potential, for which we explore the interplay between attraction strength and volume fraction. We show that the normal-stress coefficients exhibit nontrivial features close to the critical point and at high volume fractions in the vicinity of the reentrant glass transition. Finally, we exploit our formulas to make predictions about rod-climbing effects in attractive colloidal dispersions.

  15. Structural deformations in liquid crystals with dispersed magnetic nano-colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shoarinejad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  The stable colloidal dispersions of magnetic nano-particles in nematic liquid crystals are called ferronematics. Their behaviour in magnetic fields depends on various parameters such as anchoring energy, magnetic anisotropy, and shape and volume fraction of the particles. In the present paper, the threshold field is obtained for these colloidal nematics. Then, the influence of magnetic anisotropy, cell thickness, magnetic moment, and volume fraction of the particles are discussed . It is found that due to the influence of some effective parameters, the threshold field changes when compared to pure nematic liquid crystals. The obtained results are consistent with the reported experimental results.

  16. Rhythmic cluster generation in strongly driven colloidal dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Wensink, H. H.; Löwen, H.

    2006-01-01

    We study the response of a nematic colloidal dispersion of rods to a driven probe particle which is dragged with high speed through the dispersion perpendicular to the nematic director. In front of the dragged particle, clusters of rods are generated which rhythmically grow and dissolve by rotational motion. We find evidence for a mesoscopic cluster-cluster correlation length, {\\em independent} of the imposed drag speed. Our results are based on non-equilibrium Brownian dynamics computer simu...

  17. Polyaniline. Thin films and colloidal dispersions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Sapurina, I.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2005), s. 815-826 ISSN 0033-4545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 539; GA AV ČR IAA4050313 Grant - others:IUPAC project 2002-019-1-400 Keywords : polyaniline * thin films * dispersions Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.679, year: 2005

  18. Colloidal polyaniline dispersions: antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and neutrophil oxidative burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucekova, Zdenka; Humpolicek, Petr; Kasparkova, Vera; Perecko, Tomas; Lehocký, Marián; Hauerlandová, Iva; Sáha, Petr; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-04-01

    Polyaniline colloids rank among promising application forms of this conducting polymer. Cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity, and neutrophil oxidative burst tests were performed on cells treated with colloidal polyaniline dispersions. The antibacterial effect of colloidal polyaniline against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was most pronounced for Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 3,500 μg mL(-1). The data recorded on human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and a mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell lines using an MTT assay and flow cytometry indicated a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of colloid, with the absence of cytotoxic effect at around 150 μg mL(-1). The neutrophil oxidative burst test then showed that colloidal polyaniline, in concentrations <150 μg mL(-1), was not able to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils and whole human blood. However, it worked efficiently as a scavenger of those already formed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis of zirconia colloidal dispersions by forced hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA P. MARKOVIC

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Different zirconia colloidal dispersions (sols were prepared from zirconyl oxynitrate and zirconyl oxychloride solutions by forced hydrolysis. Vigorously stirred acidic solutions of these salts were refluxed at 102 oC for 24 h. Characterization of the obtained sols (pH, solid phase content, crystal structure was performed by potentiometric, XRD, TGA/DTA and SEM measurements. The prepared sols contained almost spherical monoclinic hydrated zirconia particles 7–10 nm in diameter.

  20. Morphology of Colloidal Particles Dispersed in Nematic Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anupam; Mandal, Biplab Kumar; Mishra, Pankaj

    2016-10-01

    We have studied a system of spherical colloidal particles suspended in nematic liquid crystal confined to a two-dimensional plane. The dispersed colloidal particles pervert the uniform orientation of nematic resulting in topological defects. This small change in director field induces elastic interaction in the system. Considering the system exhibiting octopolar symmetry, the interaction of the particles can be described by octopole-octopole interaction potential which on some suitable scaling has the form, βu(r) ≈ Γ/r7, where Γ is dimensionless interaction strength parameter. We have calculated the pair correlation function and radial distribution function of the system by employing Roger-Young's integral equation theory, where the mixing parameter a, is obtained by demanding the consistency in pressure via virial and compressibility routs. With the increase in interaction strength, the system is found to become more ordered.

  1. Morphology of Colloidal Particles Dispersed in Nematic Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Anupam; Kumar Mandal, Biplab; Mishra, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    We have studied a system of spherical colloidal particles suspended in nematic liquid crystal confined to a two-dimensional plane. The dispersed colloidal particles pervert the uniform orientation of nematic resulting in topological defects. This small change in director field induces elastic interaction in the system. Considering the system exhibiting octopolar symmetry, the interaction of the particles can be described by octopole-octopole interaction potential which on some suitable scaling has the form, βu(r) ≈ Γ/r 7 , where Γ is dimensionless interaction strength parameter. We have calculated the pair correlation function and radial distribution function of the system by employing Roger-Young's integral equation theory, where the mixing parameter a, is obtained by demanding the consistency in pressure via virial and compressibility routs. With the increase in interaction strength, the system is found to become more ordered. (paper)

  2. Stability studies of colloidal silica dispersions in binary solvent mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, K H

    1997-01-01

    A series of monodispersed colloidal silica dispersions, of varying radii, has been prepared. These particles are hydrophilic in nature due to the presence of surface silanol groups. Some of the particles have been rendered hydrophobic by terminally grafting n-alkyl (C sub 1 sub 8) chains to the surface. The stability of dispersions of these various particles has been studied in binary mixtures of liquids, namely (i) ethanol and cyclohexane, and (ii) benzene and n-heptane. The ethanol - cyclohexane systems have been studied using a variety of techniques. Adsorption excess isotherms have been established and electrophoretic mobility measurements have been made. The predicted stability of the dispersions from D.V.L.O. calculations is compared to the observed stability. The hydrophilic silica particles behave as predicted by the calculations, with the zeta potential decreasing and the van der Waals attraction increasing with increasing cyclohexane concentration. The hydrophobic particles behave differently than e...

  3. Field-scale variation in colloid dispersibility and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Ferré, T. P. A.

    2014-01-01

    risk of colloid-facilitated transport. Subsequently, using multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses, soil dispersibility was predicted at all three sample scales from the 24 measured, geo-referenced parameters to produce sets of only a few promising indicator parameters for evaluating soil stability...... and particle mobilization on field scale. The MLR analyses at each scale were separated in predictions using all, only north, and only south locations in the field. We found that different independent variables were included in the regression models when the sample scale increased from aggregate to column...... level. Generally, the predictive power of the regression models was better on the 1-2 mm aggregate scale than on the intact 100 cm3 and 20 cm × 20 cm scales. Overall, results suggested that different drivers controlled soil dispersibility 1 at the three scales and the two sub-areas of the field...

  4. New polyelectrolyte complex particles as colloidal dispersions based on weak synthetic and/or natural polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evidence the formation of stable polyelectrolyte complex particles as colloidal dispersions using some weak polyelectrolytes: chitosan and poly(allylamine hydrochloride as polycations and poly(acrylic acid (PAA and poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid – co – acrylic acid (PAMPSAA as polyanions. Polyelectrolyte complex particles as colloidal dispersion were prepared by controlled mixing of the oppositely charged polymers, with a constant addition rate. The influences of the polyelectrolytes structure and the molar ratio between ionic charges on the morphology, size, and colloidal stability of the complex particles have been deeply investigated by turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. A strong influence of polyanion structure on the values of molar ratio n–/n+ when neutral complex particles were obtained has been noticed, which shifts from the theoretical value of 1.0, observed when PAA was used, to 0.7 for PAMPSAA based complexes. The polyions chain characteristics influenced the size and shape of the complexes, larger particles being obtained when chitosan was used, for the same polyanion, and when PAMPSAA was used, for the same polycation.

  5. Size dispersion and colloid mediated radionuclide transport in a synthetic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delos, A; Walther, C; Schäfer, T; Büchner, S

    2008-08-01

    Size dispersion effects during the migration of natural submicron bentonite colloids (model predictions and earlier findings with carboxylated polystyrene spheres. By addition of trace amounts of americium(III) and plutonium(IV), colloid mediated transport of these radionuclides is studied. The peak arrival times of Pu-244 and Am-241, as measured by ICP-MS, match the bentonite colloid breakthrough and occur significantly prior to the conservative tracer (HTO) indicating the colloid-borne migration of tri- and tetravalent radionuclides.

  6. Colloidal dispersions of maghemite nanoparticles produced by laser pyrolysis with application as NMR contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Morales, Maria del Puerto [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bomati-Miguel, Oscar [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bautista, Carmen [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Zhao, Xinqing [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bonville, Pierre [CEA, CE Saclay, DSM/DRECAM/SPEC, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Alejo, Rigoberto Perez de [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Unidad de RMN, Paseo Juan XXIII, 1, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Cabello, Jesus [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Unidad de RMN, Paseo Juan XXIII, 1, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santos, Martin [Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. C/San Martin de Porres 4, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Tendillo-Cortijo, Francisco J [Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. C/San Martin de Porres 4, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Ferreiros, Joaquin [Hospital Clinico de Madrid ' San Carlos' , Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-08-07

    Biocompatible magnetic dispersions have been prepared from {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (5 nm) synthesized by continuous laser pyrolysis of Fe(CO){sub 5} vapours. The feasibility of using these dispersions as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents has been analysed in terms of chemical structure, magnetic properties, {sup 1}H NMR relaxation times and biokinetics. The magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed in a strong alkaline solution in the presence of dextran, yielding stable colloids in a single step. The dispersions consist of particle-aggregates 25 nm in diameter measured using transmission electron microscope and a hydrodynamic diameter of 42 nm measured using photon correlation spectroscopy. The magnetic and relaxometric properties of the dispersions were of the same order of magnitude as those of commercial contrast agents produced using coprecipitation. However, these dispersions, when injected intravenously in rats at standard doses showed a mono-exponential blood clearance instead of a biexponential one, with a blood half-life of 7 {+-} 1 min. Furthermore, an important enhancement of the image contrast was observed after the injection, mainly located at the liver and the spleen of the rat. In conclusion, the laser pyrolysis technique seems to be a good alternative to the coprecipitation method for producing MRI contrast agents, with the advantage of being a continuous synthesis method that leads to very uniform particles capable of being dispersed and therefore transformed in a biocompatible magnetic liquid.

  7. Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun

    2014-06-08

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer promise in flexible electronics, light sensing and energy conversion. These applications rely on rectifying junctions that require the creation of high-quality CQD solids that are controllably n-type (electron-rich) or p-type (hole-rich). Unfortunately, n-type semiconductors made using soft matter are notoriously prone to oxidation within minutes of air exposure. Here we report high-performance, air-stable n-type CQD solids. Using density functional theory we identify inorganic passivants that bind strongly to the CQD surface and repel oxidative attack. A materials processing strategy that wards off strong protic attack by polar solvents enabled the synthesis of an air-stable n-type PbS CQD solid. This material was used to build an air-processed inverted quantum junction device, which shows the highest current density from any CQD solar cell and a solar power conversion efficiency as high as 8%. We also feature the n-type CQD solid in the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of atmospheric NO2. This work paves the way for new families of electronic devices that leverage air-stable quantum-tuned materials. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Stability studies of colloidal silica dispersions in binary solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Keith Howard

    1997-01-01

    A series of monodispersed colloidal silica dispersions, of varying radii, has been prepared. These particles are hydrophilic in nature due to the presence of surface silanol groups. Some of the particles have been rendered hydrophobic by terminally grafting n-alkyl (C 18 ) chains to the surface. The stability of dispersions of these various particles has been studied in binary mixtures of liquids, namely (i) ethanol and cyclohexane, and (ii) benzene and n-heptane. The ethanol - cyclohexane systems have been studied using a variety of techniques. Adsorption excess isotherms have been established and electrophoretic mobility measurements have been made. The predicted stability of the dispersions from D.V.L.O. calculations is compared to the observed stability. The hydrophilic silica particles behave as predicted by the calculations, with the zeta potential decreasing and the van der Waals attraction increasing with increasing cyclohexane concentration. The hydrophobic particles behave differently than expected, and the stability as a function of solvent mixture composition does not show a uniform trend. The effect of varying the coverage of C 18 chains on the surface and the effect of trace water in the systems has also been investigated. Organophilic silica dispersions in benzene - n-heptane solvent mixtures show weak aggregation and phase separation into a diffuse 'gas-like' phase and a more concentrated 'liquid-like' phase, analogous to molecular condensation processes. Calculations of the van der Waals potential as a function of solvent mixture composition show good agreement with the observed stability. Determination of the number of particles in each phase at equilibrium allows the energy of flocculation to be determined using a simple thermodynamic relationship. Finally, the addition of an AB block copolymer to organophilic silica particles in benzene n-heptane solvent mixtures has been shown to have a marked effect on the dispersion stability. This stability

  9. Nanocomposites from Stable Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymeric Matrices Using Dispersion Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Stable dispersions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymeric matrices include CNTs dispersed in a host polymer or copolymer whose monomers have delocalized electron orbitals, so that a dispersion interaction results between the host polymer or copolymer and the CNTs dispersed therein. Nanocomposite products, which are presented in bulk, or when fabricated as a film, fiber, foam, coating, adhesive, paste, or molding, are prepared by standard means from the present stable dispersions of CNTs in polymeric matrices, employing dispersion interactions, as presented hereinabove.

  10. Thermodynamically stable emulsions using Janus dumbbells as colloid surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Fuquan; Park, Bum Jun; Lee, Daeyeon

    2013-10-15

    One of the most important properties of emulsions is their stability. Most emulsions stabilized with molecular surfactants tend to lose their stability over time via different mechanisms. Although the stability of emulsions stabilized with homogeneous particles have been shown to be superior to that of surfactant-stabilized emulsions, these Pickering emulsions nevertheless are only kinetically stable and thus can undergo destabilization. Janus particles that have two opposite wetting surfaces have shown promise in imparting emulsions with long-term stability because of their strong attachment to the oil-water interface. In this theoretical study, we consider thermodynamics of emulsion stabilization using amphiphilic Janus dumbbells, which are nonspherical particles made of two partially fused spherical particles of opposite wettability. These amphiphilic dumbbells are attractive candidates as colloid surfactants for emulsion stabilization because highly uniform Janus dumbbells can be synthesized in large quantities; thus, their application in emulsion stabilization can become practical. Our theoretical calculation demonstrates that Janus dumbbells can indeed generate thermodynamically stable Pickering emulsions. In addition, we also find that there exists a total oil-water interfacial area that results in the lowest energy state in the system, which occurs when Janus dumbbells available in the system are completely consumed to fully cover the droplet interfaces. We show that the geometry of dumbbells as well as the composition of the emulsion mixtures has significant influences on the average size of dumbbell-stabilized emulsions. We also investigate the effect of asymmetry of Janus dumbbells on the average droplet radius. Our results clearly show that amphiphilic Janus dumbbells provide unique opportunities in stabilizing emulsions for various applications.

  11. Charge transport and contact resistance in coplanar devices based on colloidal polyaniline dispersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masillamani, A. M.; Peřinka, N.; Hajná, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Tondelier, D.; Bonnassieux, Y.; Vanel, J.-C.; Geffroy, B.; Mencaraglia, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 17 (2016), s. 1710-1716 ISSN 0887-6266 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : charge transport * colloidal dispersion * colloids Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2016

  12. Stress modeling in colloidal dispersions undergoing non-viscometric flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolata, Benjamin; Zia, Roseanna

    2017-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of the stress tensor for a colloidal dispersion undergoing non-viscometric flow. In such flows, the non-homogeneous suspension stress depends on not only the local average total stresslet-the sum of symmetric first moments of both the hydrodynamic traction and the interparticle force-but also on the average quadrupole, octupole, and higher-order moments. To compute the average moments, we formulate a six dimensional Smoluchowski equation governing the microstructural evolution of a suspension in an arbitrary fluid velocity field. Under the conditions of rheologically slow flow, where the Brownian relaxation of the particles is much faster than the spatiotemporal evolution of the flow, the Smoluchowski equation permits asymptotic solution, revealing a suspension stress that follows a second-order fluid constitutive model. We obtain a reciprocal theorem and utilize it to show that all constitutive parameters of the second-order fluid model may be obtained from two simpler linear-response problems: a suspension undergoing simple shear and a suspension undergoing isotropic expansion. The consequences of relaxing the assumption of rheologically slow flow, including the appearance of memory and microcontinuum behaviors, are discussed.

  13. Synthesis of colloids based on gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E. C. da; Silva, M. G. A. da; Meneghetti, S. M. P.; Machado, G.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Hickmann, J. M.; Meneghetti, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    New colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles (AuNP), using castor oil as a nontoxic organic dispersant agent, were prepared via three different methods. In all three cases, tetrachloroauric(III) acid was employed as the gold source. The colloids were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuNP produced by the three methods were quasispherical in shape, however with different average sizes. The individual characteristics of the nanoparticles presented in each colloidal system were also confirmed by observation of absorption maxima at different wavelengths of visible light. Each method of synthesis leads to colloids with different grades of stability with respect to particle agglomeration.

  14. Field Scale Variation in Water Dispersible Colloids from Aggregates and Intact Soil Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A

    . It is, however, difficult to quantify the amount of colloids ready available to participate in colloid-facilitated transport. In literature, the part of the colloidal fraction that readily disperses into suspension is referred to as water-dispersible clay (WDC). In this study we used two methods......Colloid-facilitated transport can play an important role in the transport of chemicals through the soil profile. The negative surface charge and large surface area makes colloids perfect carriers for strongly sorbing chemicals, like phosphorus and certain pesticides, in highly structured soils...... for measuring the amount of WDC (soil sampled from an agricultural 1.69 ha field in a 15 x 15 m grid (65 points). In method no. 1 laser diffraction was applied to continuously measure the particle size distribution of 1-2 mm intact soil aggregates at two initial moisture...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of stable aqueous dispersions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2.2b Preparation of aqueous graphene dispersion from graphite oxide: One hundred milligrams of the above pre- pared graphite oxide was dispersed in 100 ml of MilliQ water followed by sonication for 1 h. A clear brown coloured solution was obtained, which is the stable dispersion of GO in water. Subsequently, the pH of ...

  16. Copper distribution in water-dispersible colloids of swine manure and its transport through quartz sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qibei; Lin, Qi; Tian, Guangming; Wang, Guihao; Yu, Jian; Peng, Guiqun

    2011-02-28

    To demonstrate the potential risks associated with the application of solid agricultural wastes, we investigated Cu distribution in water-dispersible colloids derived from swine manure and its transport through quartz sand. Samples were sequentially centrifuged to obtain five colloid suspensions (colloid subsamples (1-10, 0.45-1, 0.2-0.45, and 0.02-0.2 μm). We observed that 2% of Cu in the swine manure was found in the 0.02-10 μm colloid fractions, while 18% was observed in the colloid suspension. The highest accumulation of Cu was found in the 0.02-0.2 μm fraction of colloids, in which organic carbon was the major component. The Cu in the 1-10 μm colloid fraction existed in both inorganic compounds and organic associations, whereas it mainly existed as organic complexes in colloids colloids (1-10 μm) of swine manure were partially filtered out as they passed through the sand particles, and fine colloids facilitated the transport of Cu. The formation of organic complexes was hypothesized to enhance the mobility of Cu. Further research is needed to incorporate our experimental findings into a realistic model of particle mobilization and transport through soil or groundwater aquifers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stable dispersions of polymer-coated graphitic nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Nguyen, Sonbinh T. (Inventor); Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of making a dispersion of reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets involves providing a dispersion of graphite oxide nanoplatelets and reducing the graphite oxide nanoplatelets in the dispersion in the presence of a reducing agent and a polymer. The reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets are reduced to an extent to provide a higher C/O ratio than graphite oxide. A stable dispersion having polymer-treated reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets dispersed in a dispersing medium, such as water or organic liquid is provided. The polymer-treated, reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets can be distributed in a polymer matrix to provide a composite material.

  18. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  19. One-pot synthesis of stable colloidal solutions of MFe2O4 nanoparticles using oleylamine as solvent and stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Mirabet, Leonardo; Solano, Eduardo; Martínez-Julián, Fernando; Guzmán, Roger; Arbiol, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier; Pomar, Alberto; Yáñez, Ramón; Ros, Josep; Ricart, Susagna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► One-pot synthesis of ferrite magnetic nanoparticles ( 3 and M(acac) 2 (M = Co, Mn, Cu and Zn) in oleylamine, which also acts as a capping ligand, by producing stable colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in non-polar solvents. The properties of the nanoparticles have been studied via different techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, which shows that nanoparticles are monocrystallines and a narrow dispersion in size; magnetic analyses have demonstrated that the resulting ferrite nanoparticles show high saturation values and superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature; X-ray diffraction has also been performed, and it confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles have a spinel structure. Complementarily, ligand exchange has been also carried out in order to produce dispersions of the synthesized nanoparticles in polar media

  20. Synthesis and characterization of stable aqueous dispersions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... A stable aqueous dispersion (5 mg ml−1) of graphene was synthesized by a simple protocol based on three-step reduction of graphene oxide (GO) dispersion synthesized using the modified version of Hummers and Offeman method. Reduction of GO was carried out using sodium borohydride, hydrazine ...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of stable aqueous dispersions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A stable aqueous dispersion (5 mg ml−1) of graphene was synthesized by a simple protocol based on three-step reduction of graphene oxide (GO) dispersion synthesized using the modified version of Hummers and Offeman method. Reduction of GO was carried out using sodium borohydride, hydrazine hydrate ...

  2. The chemical and colloidal stability of polyaniline dispersions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blinova, Natalia V.; Sapurina, I.; Klimovič, J.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2005), s. 428-434 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4050313; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * conducting polymer * colloids Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.749, year: 2005

  3. Rheology modification in mixed shape colloidal dispersions. Part II: mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, A.J.W.; Bailey, L.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159054885; Matiland, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive study of the rheological properties of a series of mixed colloid systems where the shape of one of the components has been varied systematically. Specifically we have measured the oscillatory, transient (creep) and continuous steady shear flow behaviour of a

  4. Stable, Fluorescent Polymethylmethacrylate Particles for the Long-Term Observation of Slow Colloidal Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodger, Thomas E; Lu, Peter J; Wiseman, G Reid; Weitz, David A

    2017-06-27

    Suspensions of solid micron-scale colloidal particles in liquid solvents are a foundational model system used to explore a wide range of phase transitions, including crystallization, gelation, spinodal decomposition, and the glass transition. One of the most commonly used systems for these investigations is the fluorescent spherical particles of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) suspended in a mixture of nonpolar solvents that match the density and the refractive index of the particles to minimize sedimentation and scattering. However, the particles can swell in these solvents, changing their size and density, and may leak the fluorescent dye over days to weeks; this constrains the exploration of slow and kinetically limited processes, such as near-boundary phase separation or the glass transition. In this paper, we produce PMMA colloidal particles that employ polymerizable and photostable cyanine-based fluorescent monomers spanning the range of visible wavelengths and a polymeric stabilizer prepared from polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS-graft-PMMA. Using microcalorimetry, we characterize the thermodynamics of an accelerated equilibration process for these dispersions in the buoyancy- and refractive-index-matching solvents. We use confocal differential dynamic microscopy to demonstrate that they behave as hard spheres. The suspended particles are stable for months to years, maintaining fixed particle size and density, and do not leak dye. Thus, these particles enable longer term experiments than may have been possible earlier; we demonstrate this by observing spinodal decomposition in a mixture of these particles with a depletant polymer in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station. Using fluorescence microscopy, we observe coarsening over several months and measure the growth of the characteristic length scale to be a fraction of a picometer per second; this rate is among the slowest observed in a phase-separating system. Our protocols should

  5. Surface treatment of silica nanoparticles for stable and charge-controlled colloidal silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to control the surface charge of colloidal silica nanoparticles with 20 nm and 100 nm diameters. Untreated silica nanoparticles were determined to be highly negatively charged and have stable hydrodynamic sizes in a wide pH range. To change the surface to a positively charged form, various coating agents, such as amine containing molecules, multivalent metal cation, or amino acids, were used to treat the colloidal silica nanoparticles. Molecules with chelating amine sites were determined to have high affinity with the silica surface to make agglomerations or gel-like networks. Amino acid coatings resulted in relatively stable silica colloids with a modified surface charge. Three amino acid moiety coatings (L-serine, L-histidine, and L-arginine) exhibited surface charge modifying efficacy of L-histidine > L-arginine > L-serine and hydrodynamic size preservation efficacy of L-serine > L-arginine > L-histidine. The time dependent change in L-arginine coated colloidal silica was investigated by measuring the pattern of the backscattered light in a Turbiscan™. The results indicated that both the 20 nm and 100 nm L-arginine coated silica samples were fairly stable in terms of colloidal homogeneity, showing only slight coalescence and sedimentation. PMID:25565824

  6. Organic-inorganic nanocomposite films made from polyurethane dispersions and colloidal silica particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Serkis, Magdalena; Špírková, Milena; Kredatusová, Jana; Hodan, Jiří; Bureš, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2016), s. 157-173 ISSN 0927-6440 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06700S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethane dispersion * colloidal silica * composites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.083, year: 2016

  7. Cell-compatible conducting polyaniline films prepared in colloidal dispersion mode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpárková, V.; Humpolíček, P.; Capáková, Z.; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Rejmontová, P.; Junkar, I.; Lehocký, M.; Mozetič, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 157, 1 September (2017), s. 309-316 ISSN 0927-7765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05095S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * conducting films * colloidal dispersions Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  8. Fabrication process of a rare earth compound colloidal dispersion in an aqueous medium and product obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, C.; Seon, F.

    1989-01-01

    A rare earth oxide is reacted with a controlled amount of a water soluble monovalent acid with a pK a between 2.5 and 5.0 then, the whole is heated. The invention is well suited for the preparation of yttric rare earth compound colloidal dispersion [fr

  9. Drying dynamics of a charged colloidal dispersion in a confined drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussert, Charles; Bouchaudy, Anne; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-12-01

    We perform a thorough investigation of the drying dynamics of a charged colloidal dispersion drop in a confined geometry. We develop an original methodology based on Raman microspectroscopy to measure spatially resolved colloids concentration profiles during the drying of the drop. These measurements lead to estimates of the collective diffusion coefficient of the dispersion over a wide range of concentration. The collective diffusion coefficient is one order of magnitude higher than the Stokes-Einstein estimate, showing the importance of the electrostatic interactions for the relaxation of concentration gradients. At the same time, we also perform fluorescence imaging of tracers embedded within the dispersion during the drying of the drop, which reveals two distinct regimes. At early stages, concentration gradients along the drop lead to buoyancy-induced flows. Strikingly, these flows do not influence the colloidal concentration gradients that generate them, as the mass transport remains dominated by diffusion. At longer time scales, the tracer trajectories reveal the formation of a gel that dries quasihomogeneously. For such a gel, we show using linear poroelastic modeling that the drying dynamics is still described by the same transport equations as for the liquid dispersion. However, the collective diffusion coefficient follows a modified generalized Stokes-Einstein relation, as also demonstrated in the context of unidirectional consolidation by Style and Peppin [Style and Peppin, Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions, Proc. R. Soc. A 467, 174 (2011), 10.1098/rspa.2010.0039].

  10. Surface self-assembly of fluorosurfactants during film formation of MMA/nBA colloidal dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, W R; Urban, M W

    2004-11-23

    These studies focus on the behavior of fluorosurfactants (FS) containing hydrophobic and ionic entities in the presence of methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate (MMA/nBA) colloidal dispersions stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The presence of FS significantly not only alters the mobility of SDS in MMA/nBA films, but their hydrophobic and ionic nature results in self-assembly near the film-air (F-A) interface leading to different surface morphologies. Spherical islands and rodlike morphologies are formed which diminish the kinetic coefficient of friction of films by at least 3 orders of magnitude, and the presence of dual hydrophobic tails and an anionic head appears to have the largest effect on the surface friction. Using internal reflection IR imaging, these studies show that structural and chemical features of FS are directly related to their ability to migrate to the F-A interface and self-assemble to form specific morphological features. While the anionic nature of FS allows for SDS migration to the F-A interface and the formation of stable domains across the surface, intermolecular cohesion of nonionic FS allows for the formation of rodlike structures due to inability to form mixed micelles with SDS. These studies also establish the relationship between surface morphologies, kinetic coefficient of friction, and structural features of surfactants in the complex environments.

  11. Magnetorheology of colloidal dispersion containing Fe nanoparticles synthesized by the arc-plasma method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Junichi; Abe, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Takehito; Furusho, Junji; Naito, Makio

    2010-01-01

    Spherical crystalline Fe nanoparticles, ∼100 nm in diameter, were synthesized under Ar-50% H 2 arc-plasma. These nanoparticles were dispersed in silicone oil after silane treatment on as-grown thin oxide layer (∼2 nm) to make their surfaces hydrophobic. The resulting Fe nanoparticles exhibited a high saturation magnetization of ∼190 emu/g at room temperature. The static magnetorheological behavior was measured for the colloidal dispersion (solid concentration: 15 vol%) at room temperature under magnetic flux densities of 0-0.3 T, using a parallel-plate-type commercial rheometer. The yield stress continuously increased with magnetic flux density, demonstrating the Bingham plastic behavior. Moreover, subjecting the sample to a magnetic flux density of 0.3 T increased the yield stress by ∼10 2 . Additionally, the colloidal dispersion exhibited good stability against sedimentation.

  12. Magnetorheology of colloidal dispersion containing Fe nanoparticles synthesized by the arc-plasma method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Junichi; Abe, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Takehito; Furusho, Junji; Naito, Makio

    2010-07-01

    Spherical crystalline Fe nanoparticles, ˜100 nm in diameter, were synthesized under Ar-50% H 2 arc-plasma. These nanoparticles were dispersed in silicone oil after silane treatment on as-grown thin oxide layer (˜2 nm) to make their surfaces hydrophobic. The resulting Fe nanoparticles exhibited a high saturation magnetization of ˜190 emu/g at room temperature. The static magnetorheological behavior was measured for the colloidal dispersion (solid concentration: 15 vol%) at room temperature under magnetic flux densities of 0-0.3 T, using a parallel-plate-type commercial rheometer. The yield stress continuously increased with magnetic flux density, demonstrating the Bingham plastic behavior. Moreover, subjecting the sample to a magnetic flux density of 0.3 T increased the yield stress by ˜10 2. Additionally, the colloidal dispersion exhibited good stability against sedimentation.

  13. Conjugated polymer shells on colloidal templates by seeded Suzuki–Miyaura dispersion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hove, Jan Bart; Appel, Jeroen; van den Broek, Johanna M; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Sprakel, Joris

    2014-03-12

    The self-assembly of colloidal conjugated polymers presents a versatile and powerful oute towards new functional optoelectronic materials and devices. However, this strategy relies on the existence of chemical protocols to prepare highly monodisperse colloids of conjugated polymers in high yields. Here, a recently developed Suzuki–Miyaura dispersion polymerization method is adopted to synthesize core–shell particles, in which a conjugated polymer shell is grown onto non-conjugated organic and inorganic colloidal templates. By chemically anchoring aryl halide groups at the particle surface, a conjugated polymer shell can be attached to a wide variety of organic and inorganic microparticles. In this way, both spherical and non-spherical hybrid conjugated polymer particles are prepared, and it is shown that the method can be applied to a variety of conjugated polymers. This new method offers independent control of the size, shape and photophysical properties of these novel conjugated polymer particles.

  14. Highly stable colloidal TiO2 nanocrystals with strong violet-blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, Morteza Sasani; Gaeeni, Mohammad Reza; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Improved sol–gel method has been applied to prepare highly stable colloidal TiO 2 nanocrystals. The synthesized titania nanocrystals exhibit strong emission in the violet-blue wavelength region. Very long evolution time was obtained by preventing the sol to gel conversion with reflux process. FTIR, XRD, UV–vis absorption, photoluminescence and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to study the optical properties, crystalline phase, morphology, shape and size of prepared TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals. HRTEM showed that the diameter of TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is about 5 nm. Although the PL spectra show similar spectral features upon excitation wavelengths at 280, 300 and 350 nm, but their emission intensities are significantly different from each other. Photoluminescence quantum yield for TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is estimated to be 49% with 280 nm excitation wavelength which is in agreement and better than reported before. Obtained results confirm that the prepared colloidal TiO 2 sample has enough potential for optoelectronics applications.

  15. Phase behaviour of charged colloidal sphere dispersions with added polymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortini, Andrea; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Tuinier, Remco

    2005-01-01

    We study the stability of mixtures of highly screened repulsive charged spheres and non-adsorbing ideal polymer chains in a common solvent using free volume theory. The effective interaction between charged colloids in an aqueous salt solution is described by a screened Coulomb pair potential, which supplements the pure hard-sphere interaction. The ideal polymer chains are treated as spheres that are excluded from the colloids by a hard-core interaction, whereas the interaction between two ideal chains is set to zero. In addition, we investigate the phase behaviour of charged colloid-polymer mixtures in computer simulations, using the two-body (Asakura-Oosawa pair potential) approximation to the effective one-component Hamiltonian of the charged colloids. Both our results obtained from simulations and from free volume theory show similar trends. We find that the screened Coulomb repulsion counteracts the effect of the effective polymer-mediated attraction. For mixtures of small polymers and relatively large charged colloidal spheres, the fluid-crystal transition shifts to significantly larger polymer concentrations with increasing range of the screened Coulomb repulsion. For relatively large polymers, the effect of the screened Coulomb repulsion is weaker. The resulting fluid-fluid binodal is only slightly shifted towards larger polymer concentrations upon increasing the range of the screened Coulomb repulsion. In conclusion, our results show that the miscibility of dispersions containing charged colloids and neutral non-adsorbing polymers increases upon increasing the range of the screened Coulomb repulsion, or upon lowering the salt concentration, especially when the polymers are small compared to the colloids

  16. Complex plasmas and colloidal dispersions particle-resolved studies of classical liquids and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, Alexei; Morfill, Gregor; Royall, C. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Complex plasmas and colloidal dispersions represent different states of soft matter. They are complementary in many ways, with the most important being that complex plasmas are virtually undamped at the particle timescales, whereas colloidal dispersions are overdamped and therefore can be brought into equilibrium in a very controlled manner. Otherwise, both fields have similar advantages: fully resolved 3D particle trajectories can easily be visualized, the pair interactions are tunable, and particles can be manipulated individually or collectively. These unique properties allow us to investigate generic processes occurring in liquids or solids at the most fundamental individual particle level. The principal research topics to be addressed in the book include: particle dynamics in liquids, with the emphasis on mesoscopic processes in the supercooled (glassy) state, e.g. dynamical heterogeneity, phase transitions in solids, with particular attention to the evolutionary paths of crystal structure development an...

  17. Biological properties of printable polyaniline and polyaniline-silver colloidal dispersions stabilized by gelatin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Humpolíček, P.; Syrový, T.; Capáková, Z.; Syrová, L.; Hromádková, Jiřina; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 232, October (2017), s. 52-59 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-05568P; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05095S; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * colloidal dispersion * hybrid composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  18. Self-diffusion and sedimentation of tracer spheres in (semi)dilute dispersions of rigid colloidal rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijtmans, S.G.J.M.; Koenderink, G.H.; Philipse, A.P.

    Long-time self-diffusion and sedimentation of fluorescent tracer spheres in electrostatically stabilized dispersions of rigid colloidal host rods have been measured in situ with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and gravitational and ultracentrifugal sedimentation. The dynamics of silica

  19. Viscosity scaling in concentrated dispersions and its impact on colloidal aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Lattuada, Marco; Lazzari, Stefano; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-10-07

    Gaining fundamental knowledge about diffusion in crowded environments is of great relevance in a variety of research fields, including reaction engineering, biology, pharmacy and colloid science. In this work, we determine the effective viscosity experienced by a spherical tracer particle immersed in a concentrated colloidal dispersion by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. We characterize how the effective viscosity increases from the solvent viscosity for small tracer particles to the macroscopic viscosity of the dispersion when large tracer particles are employed. Our results show that the crossover between these two regimes occurs at a tracer particle size comparable to the host particle size. In addition, it is found that data points obtained in various host dispersions collapse on one master curve when the normalized effective viscosity is plotted as a function of the ratio between the tracer particle size and the mean host particle size. In particular, this master curve was obtained by varying the volume fraction, the average size and the polydispersity of the host particle distribution. Finally, we extend these results to determine the size dependent effective viscosity experienced by a fractal cluster in a concentrated colloidal system undergoing aggregation. We include this scaling of the effective viscosity in classical aggregation kernels, and we quantify its impact on the kinetics of aggregate growth as well as on the shape of the aggregate distribution by means of population balance equation calculations.

  20. Feasibility Study on the Use of the Seeding Growth Technique in Producing a Highly Stable Gold Nanoparticle Colloidal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are synthesized successfully using a seeding growth technique. The size of the nanoparticles is determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and it is observed that the size of the nanoparticles ranges from 7 to 30 nm. The TEM images and optical absorption spectra of the Au NPs reveal that the suspension is well dispersed and consistent with the particle size. The feasibility of the seeding growth technique is investigated using Turbiscan Classic MA 2000 screening stability tester. Based on the peak thickness kinetics and mean value kinetics, the backscattered light profiles indicate that the suspension is highly stable without particle sedimentation as well as negligible agglomeration. In addition, the Au NPs are proven to remain stable over a period of 2 months. Particle sedimentation eventually occurs due to the weight of nanoparticles. It is concluded that the seeding growth technique is feasible in synthesizing stable Au NPs. Controlling the stability, size and shape of Au NPs are technologically important because of the strong correlation between these parameters and the optical, electrical, and catalytic properties of the nanoparticles.

  1. Water dispersible CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with improved colloidal stability for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munjal, Sandeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Khare, Neeraj, E-mail: nkhare@physics.iitd.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Nehate, Chetan; Koul, Veena [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Single phase cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CFO) nanoparticles of a controlled size (∼6 nm) exhibiting superparamagnetic properties have been synthesized by hydrothermal technique using oleic acid (OA) as surfactant. The oleic acid coated CFO nanoparticles are stable in non-polar organic media, such as hexane but are not well dispersible in water. The surface of these nanoparticles has been further modified by citric acid using ligand exchange process, which makes CFO nanoparticles more stable colloidal solution in water. Citric acid coated CFO nanoparticles exhibits high dispersibility in water, high zeta potential, very low coercivity and moderate saturation magnetization. Biocompatibility of these CFO nanoparticles is demonstrated through cytotoxicity test in L929 cell line. - Highlights: • Synthesis of uniform size (~6nm) CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) magnetic nano-particles, with a narrow size distribution using hydrothermal techniques with oleic acid as surfactant and convert the CFO nano-particles highly dispersible in water by modifying the surface of nanoparticles through ligand exchange process. • The bio-compatibility of these highly water dispersal citric acid coated CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was demonstrated with mouse fibroblast L929 cells lines, using a MTT cytotoxicity assay. • The surface of these oleic acid coated nanoparticles was modified with citric acid using ligand exchange method, that makes these nanoparticles water highly dispersible. • The biocompatibility of citric acid coated CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was demonstrated with mouse fibroblast L929 cells lines, using a MTT cytotoxicity assay.

  2. Stable Nafion-functionalized graphene dispersions for transparent conducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yangqiao; Gao Lian; Sun Jing; Wang Yan; Zhang Jing

    2009-01-01

    Nafion was used for the first time to aid in preparing stable graphene dispersions in mixed water/ethanol (1:1) solvents via the reduction of graphite oxide using hydrazine. The dispersion was characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential analysis, etc. It was found that for Nafion-to-graphene ratios higher than 5:1, graphene solutions with concentrations up to 1 mg ml -1 and stabilities of over three months were obtained. It was proposed that the Nafion adsorbed onto the graphene by the hydrophobic interaction of its fluoro-backbones with the graphene layer and imparted stability by an electrosteric mechanism. Furthermore, transparent and conductive films were prepared using these highly stable Nafion-stabilized graphene dispersions. The prepared Nafion-graphene films possess smooth and homogeneous surfaces and the sheet resistance was as low as 30 kΩ/sq for a transmittance of 80% at 550 nm, which was much lower than for other graphene films obtained by chemical reduction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the p-doping of the graphene by Nafion. It was expected that this p-doping effect, as well as the high dispersing ability of Nafion for graphene and the connection of the sp 2 domains by residual Nafion combined to produce good properties of the Nafion-graphene films.

  3. Stable Fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), Dispersal and Governing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Osbrink, Weste L A

    2015-01-01

    Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (fly movement occurs between host animals and resting sites to feed and mate, mainly at on-farm locations where herbivorous livestock regularly congregate. Small numbers emigrate from livestock congregation sites in search of other hosts and oviposition substrate, mostly within stable flies are active year-round in warm latitudes, cold winters in temperate areas result in substantial population and activity declines, limiting movement of any sort to warmer seasons. Long-distance dispersal (>13 km) is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one "lineage", the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  4. On the calculation of the structure of charge-stabilized colloidal dispersions using density-dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castañeda-Priego, R; Lobaskin, V; Mixteco-Sánchez, J C; Rojas-Ochoa, L F; Linse, P

    2012-01-01

    The structure of charge-stabilized colloidal dispersions has been studied through a one-component model using a Yukawa potential with density-dependent parameters examined with integral equation theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Partial thermodynamic consistency was guaranteed by considering the osmotic pressure of the dispersion from the approximate mean-field renormalized jellium and Poisson-Boltzmann cell models. The colloidal structures could be accurately described by the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the Rogers-Young closure by using the osmotic pressure from the renormalized jellium model. Although we explicitly show that the correct effective pair-potential obtained from the inverse Monte Carlo method deviates from the Yukawa shape, the osmotic pressure constraint allows us to have a good description of the colloidal structure without losing information on the system thermodynamics. Our findings are corroborated by primitive model simulations of salt-free colloidal dispersions. (paper)

  5. Glass-liquid-glass reentrance in mono-component colloidal dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Gonzalez, P E; Medina-Noyola, M [Instituto de Fisica ' Manuel Sandoval Vallarta' , Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Vizcarra-Rendon, A [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Paseo la Bufa y Calzada Solidaridad, 98600, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Guevara-Rodriguez, F de J [Coordinacion de IngenierIa Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2008-05-21

    The self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics is employed to describe the ergodic-non-ergodic transition in model mono-disperse colloidal dispersions whose particles interact through hard-sphere plus short-ranged attractive forces. The ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram in the temperature-concentration state space is determined for the hard-sphere plus attractive Yukawa model within the mean spherical approximation for the static structure factor by solving a remarkably simple equation for the localization length of the colloidal particles. Finite real values of this property signals non-ergodicity and determines the non-ergodic parameters f(k) and f{sub s}(k). The resulting phase diagram for this system, which involves the existence of reentrant (repulsive and attractive) glass states, is compared with the corresponding prediction of mode coupling theory. Although both theories coincide in the general features of this phase diagram, there are also clear qualitative differences. One of the most relevant is the SCGLE prediction that the ergodic-attractive glass transition does not preempt the gas-liquid phase transition, but always intersects the corresponding spinodal curve on its high-concentration side. We also calculate the ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram for the sticky hard-sphere model to illustrate the dependence of the predicted SCGLE dynamic phase diagram on the choice of one important constituent element of the SCGLE theory.

  6. Stability of nano-metric colloidal dispersions of titanium: effect of surface complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyre, Veronique

    1996-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the adsorption of small organic molecules at the surface of nano-particles of mineral oxides (zirconia), and of its effects on the stability of the colloidal dispersion. Adsorption has been quantified by adsorption isotherms and surface titrations. Processes and mechanisms are thus discussed with respect to pH. The influence of various protecting molecules (acetyl acetone, but also acetic acid, citric acid and diethanolamine) has been studied, and notably highlighted the role of the outer face of the complexing agent in the assessment of reactions between particles which govern the compression and re-dispersability properties of protected dispersions. This study is performed by osmotic pressure measurements and by X-ray diffusion at small angles, completed by statistical mechanics calculations [fr

  7. Mesoscopic dispersion of colloidal agglomerate in a complex fluid modelled by a hybrid fluid-particle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwinel, Witold; Yuen, David A

    2002-03-15

    The dispersion of the agglomerating fluid process involving colloids has been investigated at the mesoscale level by a discrete particle approach--the hybrid fluid-particle model (FPM). Dynamical processes occurring in the granulation of colloidal agglomerate in solvents are severely influenced by coupling between the dispersed microstructures and the global flow. On the mesoscale this coupling is further exacerbated by thermal fluctuations, particle-particle interactions between colloidal beds, and hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal beds and the solvent. Using the method of FPM, we have tackled the problem of dispersion of a colloidal slab being accelerated in a long box filled with a fluid. Our results show that the average size of the agglomerated fragments decreases with increasing shearing rate gamma, according to the power law A x gamma(k), where k is around 2. For larger values of gamma, the mean size of the agglomerate S(avg) increases slowly with gamma from the collisions between the aggregates and the longitudinal stretching induced by the flow. The proportionality constant A increases exponentially with the scaling factor of the attractive forces acting between the colloidal particles. The value of A shows a rather weak dependence on the solvent viscosity. But A increases proportionally with the scaling factor of the colloid-solvent dissipative interactions. Similar type of dependence can be found for the mixing induced by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities involving the colloidal agglomerate and the solvent. Three types of fragmentation structures can be identified, which are called rupture, erosion, and shatter. They generate very complex structures with multiresolution character. The aggregation of colloidal beds is formed by the collisions between aggregates, which are influenced by the flow or by the cohesive forces for small dispersion energies. These results may be applied to enhance our understanding concerning the nonlinear complex

  8. Francois Frenkiel Award Talk: Drying dynamics of confined drops of charged colloidal dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the drying dynamics of a charged colloidal dispersion drop in a confined geometry, using Raman spectroscopy to measure spatially-resolved colloids concentration profiles. These measurements lead to estimates of the collective diffusion coefficient of the dispersion over a wide range of concentration. This coefficient is one order of magnitude higher than the Stokes-Einstein estimate showing the importance of the electrostatic interactions for the relaxation of concentration gradients. At the same time, we also performed fluorescence imaging of tracers during the drying of the drop, which reveals two distinct regimes. At early stages, concentration gradients along the drop lead to buoyancy-induced flows. Strikingly, these flows do not influence the concentration gradients that generate them, as mass transport remains dominated by diffusion. At longer time scales, tracers reveal the formation of a gel which dries quasi homogeneously. For such a gel, we show using linear poro-elastic modeling, that the drying dynamics is still described by similar transport equations as for the liquid dispersion, but the collective diffusion coefficient follows a modified generalized Stokes-Einstein relation, as demonstrated in the context of unidirectional consolidation.

  9. Tunable and noncytotoxic PET/SPECT-MRI multimodality imaging probes using colloidally stable ligand-free superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham THN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available TH Nguyen Pham,1 Nigel A Lengkeek,2 Ivan Greguric,2 Byung J Kim,1 Paul A Pellegrini,2 Stephanie A Bickley,3 Marcel R Tanudji,3 Stephen K Jones,3 Brian S Hawkett,1 Binh TT Pham1 1Key Centre for Polymers and Colloids, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, 2Radioisotopes and Radiotracers, NSTLI, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney, 3Sirtex Medical Limited, North Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Physiologically stable multimodality imaging probes for positron emission tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography (PET/SPECT-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were synthesized using the superparamagnetic maghemite iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (SPIONs. The SPIONs were sterically stabilized with a finely tuned mixture of diblock copolymers with either methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG or primary amine NH2 end groups. The radioisotope for PET or SPECT imaging was incorporated with the SPIONs at high temperature. 57Co2+ ions with a long half-life of 270.9 days were used as a model for the radiotracer to study the kinetics of radiolabeling, characterization, and the stability of the radiolabeled SPIONs. Radioactive 67Ga3+ and Cu2+-labeled SPIONs were also produced successfully using the optimized conditions from the 57Co2+-labeling process. No free radioisotopes were detected in the aqueous phase for the radiolabeled SPIONs 1 week after dispersion in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. All labeled SPIONs were not only well dispersed and stable under physiological conditions but also noncytotoxic in vitro. The ability to design and produce physiologically stable radiolabeled magnetic nanoparticles with a finely controlled number of functionalizable end groups on the SPIONs enables the generation of a desirable and biologically compatible multimodality PET/SPECT-MRI agent on a single T2 contrast MRI probe. Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography

  10. Colloidal dispersions in external fields: from equilibrium to non-equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, Hartmut

    2010-03-01

    Dispersions of colloidal particles are excellent model systems of classical statistical mechanics in order to understand the principles of self-organization processes. Using an external field (e.g. electric or magnetic field) the effective interaction between the colloidal particles can be tailored and the system can be brought into non-equilibrium in a controlled way. Glass formation after an ultrafast quench in a two-dimensional superparamagnetic binary colloidal mixture [1,2] will be discussed as well as lane [3,4,5,6,7] and band [8] formation in mixtures of charged suspensions and dusty plasmas driven by an electric field. [4pt] References:[0pt] [1] L. Assoud, F. Ebert, P. Keim, R. Messina, G. Maret, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. Letters 102, 238301 (2009). [0pt] [2] L. Assoud, F. Ebert, P. Keim, R. Messina, G. Maret, H. Lowen, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 21, 464114 (2009). [0pt] [3] J. Dzubiella, G. P. Hoffmann, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (1-8) (2002). [0pt] [4] M. E. Leunissen, C. G. Christova, A. P. Hynninen, C. P. Royall, A. I. Campbell, A. Imhof, M. Dijkstra, R. van Roij, A. van Blaaderen, Nature 437, 235 (2005). [0pt] [5] M. Rex, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. E 75, 051402 (2007). [0pt] [6] M. Rex, C. P. Royall, A. van Blaaderen, H. Lowen, Lane formation in driven colloidal mixtures: is it continuous or discontinuous?, http://arxiv.org/abs/0812.0908 [0pt] [7] K. R. Sutterlin, A. Wysocki, A. V. Ivlev, C. Rath, H. M. Thomas, M. Rubin-Zuzic, W. J. Goedheer, V. E. Fortov, A. M. Lipaev, V. I. Molotkov, O. F. Petrov, G. E. Morfill, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. Letters 102, 085003 (2009). [0pt] [8] A. Wysocki, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. E 79, 041408 (2009).

  11. Electro-Optic Effects in Colloidal Dispersion of Metal Nano-Rods in Dielectric Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern transformation optics, one explores metamaterials with properties that vary from point to point in space and time, suitable for application in devices such as an “optical invisibility cloak” and an “optical black hole”. We propose an approach to construct spatially varying and switchable metamaterials that are based on colloidal dispersions of metal nano-rods (NRs in dielectric fluids, in which dielectrophoretic forces, originating in the electric field gradients, create spatially varying configurations of aligned NRs. The electric field controls orientation and concentration of NRs and thus modulates the optical properties of the medium. Using gold (Au NRs dispersed in toluene, we demonstrate electrically induced change in refractive index on the order of 0.1.

  12. Stable aqueous dispersions of optically and electronically active phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joohoon; Wells, Spencer A; Wood, Joshua D; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Liu, Xiaolong; Ryder, Christopher R; Zhu, Jian; Guest, Jeffrey R; Husko, Chad A; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-10-18

    Understanding and exploiting the remarkable optical and electronic properties of phosphorene require mass production methods that avoid chemical degradation. Although solution-based strategies have been developed for scalable exfoliation of black phosphorus, these techniques have thus far used anhydrous organic solvents in an effort to minimize exposure to known oxidants, but at the cost of limited exfoliation yield and flake size distribution. Here, we present an alternative phosphorene production method based on surfactant-assisted exfoliation and postprocessing of black phosphorus in deoxygenated water. From comprehensive microscopic and spectroscopic analysis, this approach is shown to yield phosphorene dispersions that are stable, highly concentrated, and comparable to micromechanically exfoliated phosphorene in structure and chemistry. Due to the high exfoliation efficiency of this process, the resulting phosphorene flakes are thinner than anhydrous organic solvent dispersions, thus allowing the observation of layer-dependent photoluminescence down to the monolayer limit. Furthermore, to demonstrate preservation of electronic properties following solution processing, the aqueous-exfoliated phosphorene flakes are used in field-effect transistors with high drive currents and current modulation ratios. Overall, this method enables the isolation and mass production of few-layer phosphorene, which will accelerate ongoing efforts to realize a diverse range of phosphorene-based applications.

  13. Sodium deoxycholate-decorated zein nanoparticles for a stable colloidal drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Agnese; Paolino, Donatella; Iannone, Michelangelo; Palma, Ernesto; Fresta, Massimo; Cosco, Donato

    2018-01-01

    The use of biopolymers is increasing in drug delivery, thanks to the peculiar properties of these compounds such as their biodegradability, availability, and the possibility of modulating their physico-chemical characteristics. In particular, protein-based systems such as albumin are able to interact with many active compounds, modulating their biopharmaceutical properties. Zein is a protein of 20-40 kDa made up of many hydrophobic amino acids, generally regarded as safe (GRAS) and used as a coating material. In this investigation, zein was combined with various surfactants in order to obtain stable nanosystems by means of the nanoprecipitation technique. Specific parameters, eg, temperature, pH value, Turbiscan Stability Index, serum stability, in vitro cytotoxicity and entrapment efficiency of various model compounds were investigated, in order to identify the nanoformulation most useful for a systemic drug delivery application. The use of non-ionic and ionic surfactants such as Tween 80, poloxamer 188, and sodium deoxycholate allowed us to obtain nanoparticles characterized by a mean diameter of 100-200 nm when a protein concentration of 2 mg/mL was used. The surface charge was modulated by means of the protein concentration and the nature of the stabilizer. The most suitable nanoparticle formulation to be proposed as a colloidal drug delivery system was obtained using sodium deoxycholate (1.25% w/v) because it was characterized by a narrow size distribution, a good storage stability after freeze-drying and significant feature of retaining lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds. The sodium deoxycholate-coated zein nanoparticles are stable biocompatible colloidal carriers to be used as useful drug delivery systems.

  14. Electrokinetics and behavior near the interface of colloidal particles in non-polar dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj; Strubbe, Filip; Beunis, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2017-08-23

    The electrokinetics and charging of nonpolar colloidal dispersions subjected to a voltage are investigated by electric current and optical measurements. From electric current measurements in response to an alternating triangular voltage with a peak value of a few hundred volts, we find that polystyrene toner particles are compacted near the electrodes and their charge increases by more than a factor of 20. The important increase of charge is interpreted by a mechanism in which counter charges, which are originally at the particle surface, are desorbed. Optical measurements performed under a dc voltage of the order of a few hundred volts demonstrate that the charge of the particles can again decrease or even be inverted. These phenomena are attributed to the movement of counter charged species from the interface layers onto the surface of the particles. The findings of this study are relevant for electrophoretic displays and liquid toner printing.

  15. Anomalous preasymptotic colloid transport by hydrodynamic dispersion in microfluidic capillary flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridjonsson, Einar Orn; Seymour, Joseph D; Codd, Sarah L

    2014-07-01

    The anomalous preasymptotic transport of colloids in a microfluidic capillary flow due to hydrodynamic dispersion is measured by noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The data indicate a reduced scaling of mean squared displacement with time from the 〈z(t)(2)〉(c) ∼ t(3) behavior for the interaction of a normal diffusion process with a simple shear flow. This nonequilibrium steady-state system is shown to be modeled by a continuous time random walk (CTRW) on a moving fluid. The full propagator of the motion is measured by NMR, providing verification of the assumption of Gaussian jump length distributions in the CTRW model. The connection of the data to microrheology measurements by NMR, in which every particle in a suspension contributes information, is established.

  16. Anomalous preasymptotic colloid transport by hydrodynamic dispersion in microfluidic capillary flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridjonsson, Einar Orn; Seymour, Joseph D.; Codd, Sarah L.

    2014-07-01

    The anomalous preasymptotic transport of colloids in a microfluidic capillary flow due to hydrodynamic dispersion is measured by noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The data indicate a reduced scaling of mean squared displacement with time from the c ˜t3 behavior for the interaction of a normal diffusion process with a simple shear flow. This nonequilibrium steady-state system is shown to be modeled by a continuous time random walk (CTRW) on a moving fluid. The full propagator of the motion is measured by NMR, providing verification of the assumption of Gaussian jump length distributions in the CTRW model. The connection of the data to microrheology measurements by NMR, in which every particle in a suspension contributes information, is established.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly water-dispersible anatase nanocrystals from transparent aqueous sols of titanate colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Takayuki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Ohya, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Transparent colloidal aqueous solutions of anatase nanocrystals were hydrothermally synthesized from aqueous transparent sols with tetramethylammonium titanate colloids, the surfaces of which were modified with citric acid, by structural conversion of the titanate to anatase. This modification hindered coalescence of the titanate colloids during the hydrothermal synthesis. Although the amount of citric acid adsorbed on the colloids was reduced during hydrothermal treatment, a small amount of citric acid was adsorbed on the resulting anatase nanocrystals. Moreover, the use of the titanate colloids as a precursor was compared with the use of a citrato Ti complex, tetramethylammonium citratotitanate. The hydrothermal treatment of the transparent aqueous solutions of the Ti complex yielded opaque solutions with large anatase colloids, suggesting that the titanate colloids were useful for preparing transparent anatase colloidal solutions. Because the shape and size of resulting colloids may be dependent on the size and shape of starting colloids, the use of titanate colloids as a precursor may make it easy to control size and shape of anatase colloids.

  18. Stable two-dimensional dispersion-managed soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, Fatkhulla Kh.; Baizakov, Bakhtiyor B.; Salerno, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The existence of a dispersion-managed soliton in two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation with periodically varying dispersion has been explored. The averaged equations for the soliton width and chirp are obtained which successfully describe the long time evolution of the soliton. The slow dynamics of the soliton around the fixed points for the width and chirp are investigated and the corresponding frequencies are calculated. Analytical predictions are confirmed by direct partial differential equation (PDE) and ordinary differential equation (ODE) simulations. Application to a Bose-Einstein condensate in optical lattice is discussed. The existence of a dispersion-managed matter-wave soliton in such system is shown

  19. Use of wide-angle X-ray diffraction to measure shape and size of dispersed colloidal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, S Junaid S; Rennie, Adrian R; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Vickers, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Laboratory X-ray diffraction is used to investigate the size and shape of dispersed plate-like and spherical colloidal particles. Analysis of the wide-angle diffraction data provides information about the size and shape of crystals from the width of the Bragg peaks according to the Debye-Scherrer formula. The measurements, data analysis, and evaluation are discussed. It is shown that X-ray diffraction with conventional laboratory equipment on dispersed particles is feasible as a tool to determine both particle size and shape. Data for two samples--gold colloids and nickel (II) hydroxide particles are presented. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. X-ray diffraction measurements that are made in combination with dynamic light scattering can be used to estimate the thickness of stabilizing layers of polymers.

  20. Cell-compatible conducting polyaniline films prepared in colloidal dispersion mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašpárková, Věra; Humpolíček, Petr; Capáková, Zdenka; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Rejmontová, Petra; Junkar, Ita; Lehocký, Marián; Mozetič, Miran

    2017-09-01

    Conducting polyaniline can be prepared and modified using several procedures, all of which can significantly influence its applicability in different fields of biomedicine or biotechnology. The modifications of surface properties are crucial with respect to the possible applications of this polymer in tissue engineering or as biosensors. Innovative technique for preparing polyaniline films via in-situ polymerization in colloidal dispersion mode using four stabilizers (poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone; sodium dodecylsulfate; Tween 20 and Pluronic F108) was developed. The surface energy, conductivity, spectroscopic features, and cell compatibility of thin polyaniline films were determined using contact-angle measurement, the van der Pauw method, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and assay conducted on mouse fibroblasts, respectively. The stabilizers significantly influenced not only the surface and electrical properties of the films but also their cell compatibility. Sodium dodecylsulfate seems preferentially to combine both the high conductivity and good cell compatibility. Moreover, the films with sodium dodecylsulfate were non-irritant for skin, which was confirmed by their in-vitro exposure to the 3D-reconstructed human tissue model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Conjugated polymer shells on colloidal templates by seeded Suzuki-Miyaura dispersion polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, ten J.B.; Appel, J.; Broek, van den J.J.M.; Kuehne, A.J.C.; Sprakel, J.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembly of colloidal conjugated polymers presents a versatile and powerful oute towards new functional optoelectronic materials and devices. However, this strategy relies on the existence of chemical protocols to prepare highly monodisperse colloids of conjugated polymers in high yields.

  2. One-pot synthesis of stable colloidal solutions of MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles using oleylamine as solvent and stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Mirabet, Leonardo [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Solano, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.solano@uab.cat [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Martínez-Julián, Fernando; Guzmán, Roger [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Arbiol, Jordi [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier; Pomar, Alberto [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Yáñez, Ramón; Ros, Josep [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ricart, Susagna [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► One-pot synthesis of ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (<10 nm) in non-polar media. ► Nanoparticles present high monocrystal quality and monodispersion. ► Superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. ► Nanoparticles transfer to polar media via ligand exchange. - Abstract: An easy, efficient, reproducible and scalable one-pot synthetic methodology to obtain magnetic spinel ferrite nanoparticles has been developed. This approach is based on one-pot thermal decomposition of Fe(acac){sub 3} and M(acac){sub 2} (M = Co, Mn, Cu and Zn) in oleylamine, which also acts as a capping ligand, by producing stable colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in non-polar solvents. The properties of the nanoparticles have been studied via different techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, which shows that nanoparticles are monocrystallines and a narrow dispersion in size; magnetic analyses have demonstrated that the resulting ferrite nanoparticles show high saturation values and superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature; X-ray diffraction has also been performed, and it confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles have a spinel structure. Complementarily, ligand exchange has been also carried out in order to produce dispersions of the synthesized nanoparticles in polar media.

  3. Orientational ordering of colloidal dispersions by application of time-dependent external forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, T. A.

    2013-08-01

    We discuss a method of organizing incoherent motion of a colloidal suspension to produce synchronized, coherent motion, extending the discussion of our recent Letter [Moths and Witten, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.110.028301 110, 028301 (2013)]. The method does not require interaction between the objects. Instead, the effect is controlled by the “twist matrix” which gives the angular velocity of an asymmetric object in a fluid resulting from a weak external force. We analyze the two types of forcing considered in the Letter: a force alternating between two directions and a continuously rotating force. For the alternating force, we justify the claim of the Letter that under appropriate forcing conditions, the orientational entropy of the objects decreases indefinitely with time, on average. We provide a bound on that rate in terms of the twist matrix. For the case of rotating force, we derive conditions for phased-locked motion of the objects to the force and prove that there is only one stable phase-locked orientation under these conditions. We find numerically that the fastest alignment typically occurs for tilt angles of order unity. We discuss how the alignment effect scales with the object size for external forcing caused by gravity or an electric field. Under practical forcing conditions we estimate that the alignment should persist despite rotational diffusion for objects larger than about 10 microns. Potential misalignment owing to hydrodynamic interaction of the objects is estimated to be negligible at volume fractions smaller than about 10-4.5 (10-3) when the forcing is gravitational (electrophoretic).

  4. Dispersion of radionuclides released into a stable planetary boundary layer using a Monte Carlo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, Abdul; Raza, S Shoaib; Irfan, Naseem

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a Monte Carlo model for describing the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides (represented by Lagrangian particles/neutral tracers) continuously released into a stable planetary boundary layer is presented. The effect of variation in release height and wind directional shear on plume dispersion is studied. The resultant plume concentration and dose rate at the ground is also calculated. The turbulent atmospheric parameters, like vertical profiles of fluctuating wind velocity components and eddy lifetime, were calculated using empirical relations for a stable atmosphere. The horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients calculated by a numerical Lagrangian model are compared with the original and modified Pasquill-Gifford and Briggs empirical σs. The comparison shows that the Monte Carlo model can successfully predict dispersion in a stable atmosphere using the empirical turbulent parameters. The predicted ground concentration and dose rate contours indicate a significant increase in the affected area when wind shear is accounted for in the calculations

  5. Non-equilibrium magnetic colloidal dispersions at liquid-air interfaces: dynamic patterns, magnetic order and self-assembled swimmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snezhko, Alexey

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal dispersions of interacting particles subjected to an external periodic forcing often develop nontrivial self-assembled patterns and complex collective behavior. A fundamental issue is how collective ordering in such non-equilibrium systems arises from the dynamics of discrete interacting components. In addition, from a practical viewpoint, by working in regimes far from equilibrium new self-organized structures which are generally not available through equilibrium thermodynamics can be created. In this review spontaneous self-assembly phenomena in magnetic colloidal dispersions suspended at liquid-air interfaces and driven out of equilibrium by an alternating magnetic field are presented. Experiments reveal a new type of nontrivially ordered self-assembled structures emerging in such systems in a certain range of excitation parameters. These dynamic structures emerge as a result of the competition between magnetic and hydrodynamic forces and have complex unconventional magnetic ordering. Nontrivial self-induced hydrodynamic fields accompany each out-of-equilibrium pattern. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of the self-induced surface flows leading to a formation of self-propelled microstructures has been discovered. Some features of the self-localized structures can be understood in the framework of the amplitude equation (Ginzburg-Landau type equation) for parametric waves coupled to the conservation law equation describing the evolution of the magnetic particle density and the Navier-Stokes equation for hydrodynamic flows. To understand the fundamental microscopic mechanisms governing self-assembly processes in magnetic colloidal dispersions at liquid-air interfaces a first-principle model for a non-equilibrium self-assembly is presented. The latter model allows us to capture in detail the entire process of out-of-equilibrium self-assembly in the system and reproduces most of the observed phenomenology. (topical review)

  6. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Ip, Alexander H.

    2013-12-23

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  7. Colloidal stabilization of cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) suspensions via rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Bentzen, Janet Jonna

    2015-01-01

    colloidally stable state. The method was applied to explore the ability of four commercial dispersants (acidic affine, neutral, basic affine, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) to disperse cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) in ethanol. Only the acidic affine and the PVP dispersants were found to efficiently disperse...

  8. Metal speciation dynamics in colloidal ligand dispersions. Part 3: Lability features of steady-state systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro, J.P.; Domingos, R.; Minor, M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2006-01-01

    A lability criterion is developed for dynamic metal binding by colloidal ligands with convective diffusion as the dominant mode of mass transport. Scanned stripping chronopotentiometric measurements of Pb(II) and Cd(II) binding by carboxylated latex core-shell particles were in good agreement with

  9. THE STUDYING OF COLLOIDAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAY MINERALS DISPERSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Tymchuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The element structure is studied, the microscopic analysis of fine-dispersed min­eral systems (ground sediments of a mouth of the river Danube is carried out. The sedimentation process of clay minerals dispersions in solutions of surfactants and macromolecular substances is studied. Concentration intervals of stabilization of investigating dispersions were defined.

  10. Directly deposited quantum dot solids using a colloidally stable nanoparticle ink

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Armin H.

    2013-08-12

    We develop a photovoltaic colloidal quantum dot ink that allows for lossless, single-step coating of large areas in a manufacturing-compatible process. Our materials strategy involves a solution-phase ligand exchange to transport compatible linkers that yield 1-thioglycerol-capped PbS quantum dots in dimethyl sulfoxide with a photoluminescence quantum yield of 24%. A proof-of-principle solar cell made from the ink exhibits 2.1% power conversion efficiency. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Uranium facilitated transport by water-dispersible colloids in field and soil columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crancon, P., E-mail: pierre.crancon@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Pili, E. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique (LGIT-OSUG), University of Grenoble-I, UMR5559-CNRS-UJF, BP53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2010-04-01

    The transport of uranium through a sandy podzolic soil has been investigated in the field and in column experiments. Field monitoring, numerous years after surface contamination by depleted uranium deposits, revealed a 20 cm deep uranium migration in soil. Uranium retention in soil is controlled by the < 50 {mu}m mixed humic and clayey coatings in the first 40 cm i.e. in the E horizon. Column experiments of uranium transport under various conditions were run using isotopic spiking. After 100 pore volumes elution, 60% of the total input uranium is retained in the first 2 cm of the column. Retardation factor of uranium on E horizon material ranges from 1300 (column) to 3000 (batch). In parallel to this slow uranium migration, we experimentally observed a fast elution related to humic colloids of about 1-5% of the total-uranium input, transferred at the mean porewater velocity through the soil column. In order to understand the effect of rain events, ionic strength of the input solution was sharply changed. Humic colloids are retarded when ionic strength increases, while a major mobilization of humic colloids and colloid-borne uranium occurs as ionic strength decreases. Isotopic spiking shows that both {sup 238}U initially present in the soil column and {sup 233}U brought by input solution are desorbed. The mobilization process observed experimentally after a drop of ionic strength may account for a rapid uranium migration in the field after a rainfall event, and for the significant uranium concentrations found in deep soil horizons and in groundwater, 1 km downstream from the pollution source.

  12. Uranium facilitated transport by water-dispersible colloids in field and soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crancon, P.; Pili, E.; Charlet, L.

    2010-01-01

    The transport of uranium through a sandy podsolic soil has been investigated in the field and in column experiments. Field monitoring, numerous years after surface contamination by depleted uranium deposits, revealed a 20 cm deep uranium migration in soil. Uranium retention in soil is controlled by the ≤ 50 μm mixed humic and clayey coatings in the first 40 cm i.e. in the E horizon. Column experiments of uranium transport under various conditions were run using isotopic spiking. After 100 pore volumes elution, 60% of the total input uranium is retained in the first 2 cm of the column. Retardation factor of uranium on E horizon material ranges from 1300 (column) to 3000 (batch). In parallel to this slow uranium migration, we experimentally observed a fast elution related to humic colloids of about 1-5% of the total-uranium input, transferred at the mean pore-water velocity through the soil column. In order to understand the effect of rain events, ionic strength of the input solution was sharply changed. Humic colloids are retarded when ionic strength increases, while a major mobilization of humic colloids and colloid-borne uranium occurs as ionic strength decreases. Isotopic spiking shows that both 238 U initially present in the soil column and 233 U brought by input solution are desorbed. The mobilization process observed experimentally after a drop of ionic strength may account for a rapid uranium migration in the field after a rainfall event, and for the significant uranium concentrations found in deep soil horizons and in groundwater, 1 km downstream from the pollution source. (authors)

  13. Facile and efficient one-pot solvothermal and microwave-assisted synthesis of stable colloidal solutions of MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Eduardo; Perez-Mirabet, Leonardo [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica (Spain); Martinez-Julian, Fernando; Guzman, Roger; Arbiol, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC (Spain); Yanez, Ramon [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica (Spain); Pomar, Alberto; Ricart, Susagna, E-mail: ricart@icmab.es [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC (Spain); Ros, Josep [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Well-defined synthesis conditions of high quality MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, and Cu) spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles, with diameters below 10 nm, have been described based on facile and efficient one-pot solvothermal or microwave-assisted heating procedures. Both methods are reproducible and scalable and allow forming concentrated stable colloidal solutions in polar solvents, but microwave-assisted heating allows reducing 15 times the required annealing time and leads to an enhanced monodispersity of the nanoparticles. Non-agglomerated nanoparticles dispersions have been achieved using a simple one-pot approach where a single compound, triethyleneglycol, behaves at the same time as solvent and capping ligand. A narrow nanoparticle size distribution and high quality crystallinity have been achieved through selected nucleation and growth conditions. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images and electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis confirm the expected structure and composition and show that similar crystal faceting has been formed in both synthetic approaches. The spinel nanoparticles behave as ferrimagnets with a high saturation magnetization and are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The influence of synthesis route on phase purity and unconventional magnetic properties is discussed in some particular cases such as CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  14. Facile and efficient one-pot solvothermal and microwave-assisted synthesis of stable colloidal solutions of MFe2O4 spinel magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Eduardo; Perez-Mirabet, Leonardo; Martinez-Julian, Fernando; Guzmán, Roger; Arbiol, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier; Yañez, Ramón; Pomar, Alberto; Ricart, Susagna; Ros, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Well-defined synthesis conditions of high quality MFe 2 O 4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, and Cu) spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles, with diameters below 10 nm, have been described based on facile and efficient one-pot solvothermal or microwave-assisted heating procedures. Both methods are reproducible and scalable and allow forming concentrated stable colloidal solutions in polar solvents, but microwave-assisted heating allows reducing 15 times the required annealing time and leads to an enhanced monodispersity of the nanoparticles. Non-agglomerated nanoparticles dispersions have been achieved using a simple one-pot approach where a single compound, triethyleneglycol, behaves at the same time as solvent and capping ligand. A narrow nanoparticle size distribution and high quality crystallinity have been achieved through selected nucleation and growth conditions. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images and electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis confirm the expected structure and composition and show that similar crystal faceting has been formed in both synthetic approaches. The spinel nanoparticles behave as ferrimagnets with a high saturation magnetization and are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The influence of synthesis route on phase purity and unconventional magnetic properties is discussed in some particular cases such as CuFe 2 O 4 , CoFe 2 O 4 , and ZnFe 2 O 4 .

  15. Effects of confinement and external fields on structure and transport in colloidal dispersions in reduced dimensionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, D; Virnau, P; Binder, K; Deutschländer, S; Siems, U; Franzrahe, K; Henseler, P; Keim, P; Schwierz, N; Maret, G; Nielaba, P

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we focus on low-dimensional colloidal model systems, via simulation studies and also some complementary experiments, in order to elucidate the interplay between phase behavior, geometric structures and transport properties. In particular, we try to investigate the (nonlinear!) response of these very soft colloidal systems to various perturbations: uniform and uniaxial pressure, laser fields, shear due to moving boundaries and randomly quenched disorder. We study ordering phenomena on surfaces or in monolayers by Monte Carlo computer simulations of binary hard-disk mixtures, the influence of a substrate being modeled by an external potential. Weak external fields allow a controlled tuning of the miscibility of the mixture. We discuss the laser induced de-mixing for the three different possible couplings to the external potential. The structural behavior of hard spheres interacting with repulsive screened Coulomb or dipolar interaction in 2D and 3D narrow constrictions is investigated using Brownian dynamics simulations. Due to misfits between multiples of the lattice parameter and the channel widths, a variety of ordered and disordered lattice structures have been observed. The resulting local lattice structures and defect probabilities are studied for various cross sections. The influence of a self-organized order within the system is reflected in the velocity of the particles and their diffusive behavior. Additionally, in an experimental system of dipolar colloidal particles confined by gravity on a solid substrate we investigate the effect of pinning on the dynamics of a two-dimensional colloidal liquid. This work contains sections reviewing previous work by the authors as well as new, unpublished results. Among the latter are detailed studies of the phase boundaries of the de-mixing regime in binary systems in external light fields, configurations for shear induced effects at structured walls, studies on the effect of confinement on the structures

  16. Particle morphology as a control of permeation in polymer films obtained from MMA/nBA colloidal dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestage, David J; Urban, Marek W

    2004-07-20

    The combination of precision-controlled weight loss measurements and spectroscopic surface FT-IR analysis allowed us to identify unique behaviors of poly(methyl methacrylate) (p-MMA). When MMA and n-butyl acrylate (nBA) are polymerized into p-MMA and p-nBA homopolymer blends, MMA/nBA random copolymers, and p-MMA/p-nBA core-shell morphologies, a controlled mobility and stratification of low molecular weight components occurs in films formed from coalesced colloidal dispersions. Due to different affinities toward water, p-MMA and p-nBA are capable of releasing water at different rates, depending upon particle morphological features of initial dispersions. As coalescence progresses, water molecules are released from the high free volume p-nBA particles, whereas p-MMA retains water molecules for the longest time due to its hydrophilic nature. As a result, water losses at extended coalescence times are relatively small for p-MMA. MMA/nBA copolymer and p-MMA/p-nBA blends follow the same trends, although the magnitudes of changes are not as pronounced. The p-MMA/p-nBA core-shell behavior resembles that of p-nBA homopolymer, which is attributed to significantly lower content of the p-MMA component in particles. Annealing of coalesced colloidal films at elevated temperatures causes migration of SDOSS to the F-A interface, but for films containing primarily p-nBA, reverse diffusion back into the bulk is observed. These studies illustrate that the combination of different particle morphologies and temperatures leads to controllable permeation processes through polymeric films. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  17. Dispersive-cavity actively mode-locked fiber laser for stable radio frequency delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yitang; Wang, Ruixin; Yin, Feifei; Xu, Kun; Li, Jianqiang; Lin, Jintong

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel technique for highly stable transfer of a radio frequency (RF) comb over long optical fiber link, which is highly dispersive and is a part of an actively mode-locked fiber laser. Phase fluctuation along the fiber link, which is mainly induced by physical vibration and temperature fluctuations, is automatically compensated by the self-adapted wavelength shifting. Without phase-locking loop or any tunable parts, stable radio frequency is transferred over a 2-km fiber link, with a time jitter suppression ratio larger than 110. (letter)

  18. Lateral Dispersion of Pollutants in a Very Stable Atmosphere - The Effect of Meandering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif; Jensen, Niels Otto; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1981-01-01

    A model based on single particle diffusion is introduced to account for the effect of “meandering” on lateral plume dispersion in a very stable atmosphere. It is assumed that small scale atmospheric turbulence is absent, so that only large horizontal eddies are effective. A formula for the lateral....... Meteorological data from Risø and the small island Sprogø have been analysed in order to identify all situations in which the atmosphere is so stable that small scale turbulence cannot exist. The purpose is to see in how many of these situations meandering is also absent. The results show that, as a rule...

  19. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of stable aqueous dispersion of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Asiri, Abdullah M; Al-Otaibi, Maha M

    2011-09-01

    A facile approach for the synthesis of stable aqueous dispersion of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using glucose as the reducing agent in water/micelles system, in which cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as capping agent (stabilizer) is described. The evolution of plasmon band of AgNPs was monitored under different conditions such as (a) concentration of sodium hydroxide, (b) concentration of glucose, (c) concentration of silver nitrate (d) concentration of CTAB, and (e) reaction time. AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescence spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results revealed an easy and viable strategy for obtaining stable aqueous dispersion of AgNPs with well controlled shape and size below 30 nm in diameter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Liquid crystal boojum-colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasinkevych, M; Silvestre, N M; Telo da Gama, M M

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal particles dispersed in a liquid crystal (LC) lead to distortions of the director field. The distortions are responsible for long-range effective colloidal interactions whose asymptotic behaviour is well understood. The short-distance behaviour depends on the structure and dynamics of the topological defects nucleated near the colloidal particles and a full nonlinear theory is required to describe it. Spherical colloidal particles with strong planar degenerate anchoring nucleate a pair of antipodal surface topological defects, known as boojums. We use the Landau-de Gennes theory to resolve the mesoscopic structure of the boojum cores and to determine the pairwise colloidal interactions. We compare the results in three (3D) and two (2D) spatial dimensions for spherical and disc-like colloidal particles, respectively. The corresponding free energy functionals are minimized numerically using finite elements with adaptive meshes. Boojums are always point-like in 2D, but acquire a rather complex structure in 3D, which depends on the combination of the anchoring potential, the radius of the colloid, the temperature and the LC elastic anisotropy. We identify three types of defect cores in 3D that we call single, double and split-core boojums, and investigate the associated structural transitions. The split-core structure is favoured by low temperatures, strong anchoring and small twist to splay or bend ratios. For sufficiently strong anchoring potentials characterized by a well-defined uniaxial minimum, the split-core boojums are the only stable configuration. In the presence of two colloidal particles, we observe substantial re-arrangements of the inner defects in both 3D and 2D. These re-arrangements lead to qualitative changes in the force-distance profile when compared to the asymptotic quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. In line with the experimental results, the presence of the defects prevents coalescence of the colloidal particles in 2D, but not in 3D

  1. Tunable and noncytotoxic PET/SPECT-MRI multimodality imaging probes using colloidally stable ligand-free superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, TH Nguyen; Lengkeek, Nigel A; Greguric, Ivan; Kim, Byung J; Pellegrini, Paul A; Bickley, Stephanie A; Tanudji, Marcel R; Jones, Stephen K; Hawkett, Brian S; Pham, Binh TT

    2017-01-01

    Physiologically stable multimodality imaging probes for positron emission tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography (PET/SPECT)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were synthesized using the superparamagnetic maghemite iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (SPIONs). The SPIONs were sterically stabilized with a finely tuned mixture of diblock copolymers with either methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) or primary amine NH2 end groups. The radioisotope for PET or SPECT imaging was incorporated with the SPIONs at high temperature. 57Co2+ ions with a long half-life of 270.9 days were used as a model for the radiotracer to study the kinetics of radiolabeling, characterization, and the stability of the radiolabeled SPIONs. Radioactive 67Ga3+ and Cu2+-labeled SPIONs were also produced successfully using the optimized conditions from the 57Co2+-labeling process. No free radioisotopes were detected in the aqueous phase for the radiolabeled SPIONs 1 week after dispersion in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All labeled SPIONs were not only well dispersed and stable under physiological conditions but also noncytotoxic in vitro. The ability to design and produce physiologically stable radiolabeled magnetic nanoparticles with a finely controlled number of functionalizable end groups on the SPIONs enables the generation of a desirable and biologically compatible multimodality PET/SPECT-MRI agent on a single T2 contrast MRI probe. PMID:28184160

  2. Enhanced thermal conductivity of nano-SiC dispersed water based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lored quasi-single phase medium comprising stable colloidal dispersion of ultra fine or nanometric (< 100 nm) .... a uniform and stable suspension (like a colloid), and pre- clude agglomeration or chemical change of ..... primarily responsible for phonon or heat transport from par- ticle to particle within the fluid than the atoms ...

  3. Poly(acrylic acid)-directed synthesis of colloidally stable single domain magnetite nanoparticles via partial oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Cem L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey); Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry & Soft Matter cryoTEM Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Gurten, Berna [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey); Sadza, Roel [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry & Soft Matter cryoTEM Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Yenigul, Elcin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey); Sommerdijk, Nico A.J.M., E-mail: n.sommerdijk@tue.nl [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry & Soft Matter cryoTEM Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Bucak, Seyda, E-mail: seyda@yeditepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey)

    2016-10-15

    Octahedral, single domain magnetite nanoparticles with average size of ~55 nm were synthesized through oxidative aging of a ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH){sub 2}) precursor at high pH in water. The synthesis was also carried out in the presence of the hydrophilic polymer poly(acrylic acid). Presence of the polymer changed the particle morphology from octahedral to spherical while average size decreased to 40–50 nm. Although these particles have a tendency to precipitate due to their high magnetic moment, dispersions of these particles were obtained in the presence of this particular polymer which made the particles stable in water for several days making them suitable for various biotechnological applications such as cell separation owing to their low toxicity. - Highlights: • Stable, single domain magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized via partial oxidation. • Particles are readily stabilized in water by a biocompatible polymer. • Steric barrier is essential for the stabilization of large magnetite nanoparticles.

  4. Preparation of stable dispersion of barium titanate nanoparticles: Potential applications in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofani, G; Danti, S; Moscato, S; Albertazzi, L; D'Alessandro, D; Dinucci, D; Chiellini, F; Petrini, M; Menciassi, A

    2010-04-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their extraordinary novel properties. Here we propose a study of cellular interactions with barium titanate nanoparticles, an interesting ceramic material that has received a lot of interest in the nanotechnology research, but without any attention about its biological potential. We introduced for the first time an efficient method for the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of barium titanate nanoparticles, characterized with FIB, TEM and AFM imaging, light scattering, Z-potential and UV/vis analysis. Finally, we presented a systematic study of short-term cytotoxicity of the prepared dispersion based both on quantitative (metabolism, proliferation) and qualitative (apoptosis, viability, differentiation) assays. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stable dispersion of nanodiamonds in oil and their tribological properties as lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Park, Jin-Ju; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang Kyu

    2017-09-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are innovative additives when a combination of mechanical, thermal, tribological, and dielectric properties are required. In this study, a surface modification with oleic acid (OA) is developed for the deaggregation and prolonged dispersion of NDs in oil, and the effect of the NDs as lubricant additives on the tribological properties of a steel substrate is investigated. The OA renders the ND surface hydrophobic and decreases the average particle size from 268.6 to 20.1 nm. The OA-treated NDs exhibit very stable dispersion in oil even after more than 10 days, compared with the untreated NDs. From the analyses of the friction coefficient, wear loss, and worn surfaces using a ball-on-disk wear test, it is concluded that a 0.05 wt% addition of OA-treated NDs in oil lubricant provides excellent friction and anti-wear properties with the friction coefficient being reduced by 23%.

  6. Synthesis of colloidal silica dumbbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick M; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2005-11-22

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of stable suspensions of monodisperse fluorescently labeled silica dumbbell particles. Pure dispersions of silica dumbbells with center-to-center lengths from 174 nm to 2.3 microm were produced with a variety of aspect ratios. Individual particles in concentrated dispersions of these particles could be imaged with confocal microscopy. These particles can be used as a colloidal model system for addressing fundamental questions about crystal and glass formation of low-aspect-ratio anisotropic particles. They also have potential in photonic applications and electro-optical devices.

  7. Colloid-electrospinning: fabrication of multicompartment nanofibers by the electrospinning of organic or/and inorganic dispersions and emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespy, Daniel; Friedemann, Kathrin; Popa, Ana-Maria

    2012-12-13

    Solution-, melt-, and co-axial electrospinning are well-known methods for producing nano- and microfibers. The electrospinning of colloids (or colloid-electrospinning) is a new field that offers the possibility to elaborate multicompartment nanomaterials. However, the presence of colloids in the electrospinning feed further complicates theoretical predictions in a system that is dependent on chemical, physical, and process parameters. Herein, we give a summary of recent important results and discuss the perspectives of electrospinning of colloids for the synthesis and characterization of multicompartment fibers. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Colloidal dispersions of monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles modified with poly(ethylene glycol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Carola; Herrera, Adriana P; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were synthesized using a silane functionalized PEG obtained by reacting 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane with carboxylic acid-methoxy PEG (mPEG-COOH) using amide reactions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential measurements show the particles are monodisperse (sigma(gv) approximately 0.2) and stable in water for pH of 3-9 and ionic strengths, up to 0.3 M NaCl. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with TEM and DLS indicates formation of a dense graft layer on the particle surface. An analysis of the interparticle interaction energy indicates that the particles are stabilized by strong steric repulsions between PEG chains on their surface.

  9. Array design considerations for exploitation of stable weakly dispersive modal pulses in the deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.

    2017-07-01

    Modal pulses are broadband contributions to an acoustic wave field with fixed mode number. Stable weakly dispersive modal pulses (SWDMPs) are special modal pulses that are characterized by weak dispersion and weak scattering-induced broadening and are thus suitable for communications applications. This paper investigates, using numerical simulations, receiver array requirements for recovering information carried by SWDMPs under various signal-to-noise ratio conditions without performing channel equalization. Two groups of weakly dispersive modal pulses are common in typical mid-latitude deep ocean environments: the lowest order modes (typically modes 1-3 at 75 Hz), and intermediate order modes whose waveguide invariant is near-zero (often around mode 20 at 75 Hz). Information loss is quantified by the bit error rate (BER) of a recovered binary phase-coded signal. With fixed receiver depths, low BERs (less than 1%) are achieved at ranges up to 400 km with three hydrophones for mode 1 with 90% probability and with 34 hydrophones for mode 20 with 80% probability. With optimal receiver depths, depending on propagation range, only a few, sometimes only two, hydrophones are often sufficient for low BERs, even with intermediate mode numbers. Full modal resolution is unnecessary to achieve low BERs. Thus, a flexible receiver array of autonomous vehicles can outperform a cabled array.

  10. Characterization and dispersibility of improved thermally stable amide functionalized graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Sumita [Electronic Science Department, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India); Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: kumarmukesh@gmail.com [Electronic Science Department, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India); Kumar, Rajiv [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India); Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Sumit [Electronic Science Department, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India); Singh, Gulshan [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Improved thermal stability and surface study of amide functionalized graphene oxide. - Highlights: • Amide functionalized graphene oxides (AGOs) were synthesized from aniline, 2-aminothiazole and 2-aminopyrimidine. • Achieved enhancement in thermal stability of AGOs as compare to GO. • AGOs are found to be highly dispersible in water, DMSO and DMF. • Dispersibility is stable for more than two and half months. - Abstract: Amidation of graphene oxide (GO) with aniline, 2-aminothiazole and 2-aminopyrimidine results in the synthesis of amide functionalized graphene oxides (AGOs). Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–vis and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the properties of AGOs. It was found that, contrary to GO, AGOs are soluble in water, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide and can be stabilized for months. TGA of AGOs shows the major weight loss above 670 °C as compared to GO in which significant weight loss occurs near 200 °C. Thus AGOs show strong improvement in thermal properties.

  11. Solute dispersion for stable density-driven flow in randomly heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Oca, Aronne; Riva, Monica; Carrera, Jesus; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation on the processes underpinning the reduced longitudinal spreading documented in stable variable density flows, as opposed to constant density settings, within heterogeneous porous media. We do so by decomposing velocity and pressure in terms of stationary and dynamic components. The former corresponds to the solution of the constant density flow problem, while the latter accounts for the effects induced by density variability. We focus on a stable flow configuration and analyze the longitudinal spread of saltwater injected from the bottom of a column formed by a heterogeneous porous medium initially fully saturated by freshwater. We adopt a perturbation expansion approach and derive the equations satisfied by section-averaged concentrations and their ensemble mean values. These formulations are respectively characterized by a single realization and an ensemble dispersive flux, which we determine through appropriate closure equations. The latter are solved via semi-analytical and numerical approaches. Our formulations and associated results enable us to discriminate the relative impact on the density-driven solute displacement of (a) covariance of the permeability of the porous medium, (b) cross-covariance between permeability and concentration, which is in turn linked to the coupling of flow and transport problems, and (c) cross-covariance between the dynamic and stationary velocities.

  12. Preface: Proceedings of the Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields II Conference (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 31 March 2 April 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwen, H.

    2008-10-01

    This special issue reflects the scientific programme of the International Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields Conference (CODEF II) that took place in Bonn-Bad Godesberg from 31 March-2 April 2008. This is the second conference in a series that started in 2004 when the first CODEF meeting was held. The proceedings of the first CODEF meeting were summarized in a previous special issue (Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 16 (issue 38)). The present issue represents recent progress in this rapidly developing field. The CODEF meeting series is held in conjunction with the German-Dutch Transregional Collaborative Research Centre SFB TR6 with the title Physics of Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields. Scientists working within this network as well as international invited guest speakers contributed to these meetings. The contributions in this issue are organized according to the type of different fields applied namely: bulk (no external field) shear flow electric field magnetic and laser-optical field confinement We would like to thank the CODEF II sponsors (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and MWFZ Mainz) for their financial support. Furthermore, we thank IOP Publishing for their willingness to publish the proceedings of this conference as a special issue. Participants O Alarcón-Waess (Puebla), M Allen (Coventry), J L Arauz-Lara (San Luis Potosi), L Assoud (Düsseldorf), G K Auernhammer (Mainz), R Backofen (Dresden), M Balbás-Gambra (Munich), J Bammert (Bayreuth), M Baptista (Mainz), J-L Barrat (Lyon), M Bier (Utrecht), K Binder (Mainz), R Blaak (Düsseldorf), V Blickle (Stuttgart), D Block (Kiel), S Böhm (Düsseldorf), V Botan (Mainz), J P Bouchaud (Paris), J Brader (Konstanz), G Brambilla (Montpellier), W J Briels (Enschede), M Brinkmann (Göttingen), C Brunet (Paris), H-J Butt (Mainz), M A Camargo Chaparro (Düsseldorf), R Castañeda Priego (Guanajuato), J J Cerdà Pino (Frankfurt), A Chatterji (Jülich), M Chavez Paez (San Luis Potosi), A Chremos

  13. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    fluid-fluid interface [2]. Together with Remco Tuinier, Henk has recently completed a book in this area which is to appear later this year. A major theme in Henk's research is that of phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals. Henk, together with Daan Frenkel and Alain Stroobants, realized in the 1980s that a smectic phase in dispersions of rod-like particles can be stable without the presence of attractive interactions, similar to nematic ordering as predicted earlier by Onsager [3]. Together with Gert-Jan Vroege he wrote a seminal review in this area [4]. Henk once said that 'one can only truly develop one colloidal model system in one's career' and in his case this must be that of gibbsite platelets. Initially Henk's group pursued another polymorph of aluminium hydroxide, boehmite, which forms rod-like particles [5], which already displayed nematic liquid crystal phases. The real breakthrough came when the same precursors treated the produced gibbsite platelets slightly differently. These reliably form a discotic nematic phase [6] and, despite the polydispersity in their diameter, a columnar phase [7]. A theme encompassing a wide range of soft matter systems is that of colloidal dynamics and phase transition kinetics. Many colloidal systems have a tendency to get stuck in metastable states, such as gels or glasses. This is a nuisance if one wishes to study phase transitions, but it is of great practical significance. Such issues feature in many of Henk's publications, and with Valerie Anderson he wrote a highly cited review in this area [8]. Henk Lekkerkerker has also invested significant effort into the promotion of synchrotron radiation studies of colloidal suspensions. He was one of the great supporters of the Dutch-Belgian beamline 'DUBBLE' project at the ESRF [9]. He attended one of the very first experiments in Grenoble in 1999, which led to a Nature publication [7]. He was strongly involved in many other experiments which followed and also has been a

  14. A scalable synthesis of highly stable and water dispersible Ag 44(SR)30 nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Lina G.

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of atomically monodisperse thiol-protected silver nanoclusters [Ag44(SR)30] m, (SR = 5-mercapto-2-nitrobenzoic acid) in which the product nanocluster is highly stable in contrast to previous preparation methods. The method is one-pot, scalable, and produces nanoclusters that are stable in aqueous solution for at least 9 months at room temperature under ambient conditions, with very little degradation to their unique UV-Vis optical absorption spectrum. The composition, size, and monodispersity were determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and analytical ultracentrifugation. The produced nanoclusters are likely to be in a superatom charge-state of m = 4-, due to the fact that their optical absorption spectrum shares most of the unique features of the intense and broadly absorbing nanoparticles identified as [Ag44(SR) 30]4- by Harkness et al. (Nanoscale, 2012, 4, 4269). A protocol to transfer the nanoclusters to organic solvents is also described. Using the disperse nanoclusters in organic media, we fabricated solid-state films of [Ag44(SR)30]m that retained all the distinct features of the optical absorption spectrum of the nanoclusters in solution. The films were studied by X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy in order to investigate their crystallinity, atomic composition and valence band structure. The stability, scalability, and the film fabrication method demonstrated in this work pave the way towards the crystallization of [Ag44(SR)30]m and its full structural determination by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover, due to their unique and attractive optical properties with multiple optical transitions, we anticipate these clusters to find practical applications in light-harvesting, such as photovoltaics and photocatalysis, which have been hindered so far by the instability of previous generations of the cluster. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Colloid chitin azure is a dispersible, low-cost substrate for chitinase measurements in a sensitive, fast, reproducible assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chia-Rui; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Yang, Ching-Jen; Chen, Jeen-Kuan; Liu, Chao-Lin

    2010-02-01

    Chitin and its derivatives are widely used as biomedical materials because of their versatility and biocompatibility. Chitinases are enzymes that produce chito-oligosaccharides from chitin. The assay of chitinase activity is difficult because few appropriate substrates are available. In this study, the authors developed an efficient and low-cost chitinase assay using colloidal chitin azure. The assay feasibility is evaluated and compared with traditional assays employing colloidal chitin and chitin azure. The authors found that the optimum pH for determining chitinase activity using colloid chitin azure was pH 5 or 8. The method was sensitive, and the assay was complete within 30 min. When the assay was used to measure chitinase activities produced by 2 strains of chitinolytic bacteria, BCTS (an Escherichia coli BL21 [DE3] expressing a secretory recombinant chitinase) and AS1 (a chitinolytic bacterium with low levels of chitinase), it was shown that cultivation in Bushnell-Haas selection medium caused AS1 to secrete a higher level of chitinase than was secreted when the bacterium grew in other media. In summary, colloid chitin azure is a sensitive, feasible, reproducible, and low-cost substrate for the assay of chitinase activity.

  16. Nematic Liquid-Crystal Colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muševič, Igor

    2017-12-25

    This article provides a concise review of a new state of colloidal matter called nematic liquid-crystal colloids. These colloids are obtained by dispersing microparticles of different shapes in a nematic liquid crystal that acts as a solvent for the dispersed particles. The microparticles induce a local deformation of the liquid crystal, which then generates topological defects and long-range forces between the neighboring particles. The colloidal forces in nematic colloids are much stronger than the forces in ordinary colloids in isotropic solvents, exceeding thousands of k B T per micrometer-sized particle. Of special interest are the topological defects in nematic colloids, which appear in many fascinating forms, such as singular points, closed loops, multitudes of interlinked and knotted loops or soliton-like structures. The richness of the topological phenomena and the possibility to design and control topological defects with laser tweezers make colloids in nematic liquid crystals an excellent playground for testing the basic theorems of topology.

  17. Colloid and Phosphorus Leaching From Undisturbed Soil Cores Sampled Along a Natural Clay Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2011-01-01

    was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus......The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... followed by lower and stable colloid and phosphorus concentrations. The mass of particles leached at first flush was independent of clay content and was attributed to the instant release of particles associated with the macropore walls and released upon contact with flowing water. Below a clay content of È...

  18. Analysis of colloid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, B.J.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The population balance methodology is described and applied to the transport and capture of polydispersed colloids in packed columns. The transient model includes particle growth, capture, convective transport, and dispersion. We also follow the dynamic accumulation of captured colloids on the solids. The multidimensional parabolic partial differential equation was solved by a recently enhanced method of characteristics technique. This computational technique minimized numerical dispersion and is computationally very fast. The FORTRAN 77 code ran on a VAX-780 in less than a minute and also runs on an IBM-AT using the Professional FORTRAN compiler. The code was extensively tested against various simplified cases and against analytical models. The packed column experiments by Saltelli et al. were re-analyzed incorporating the experimentally reported size distribution of the colloid feed material. Colloid capture was modeled using a linear size dependent filtration function. The effects of a colloid size dependent filtration factor and various initial colloid size distributions on colloid migration and capture were investigated. Also, we followed the changing colloid size distribution as a function of position in the column. Some simple arguments are made to assess the likelihood of colloid migration at a potential NTS Yucca Mountain waste disposal site. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Dispersion Polymerizations in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, J. M.; Maury, E. E.; Menceloglu, Y. Z.; McClain, J. B.; Romack, T. J.; Combes, J. R.

    1994-07-01

    Conventional heterogeneous dispersion polymerizations of unsaturated monomers are performed in either aqueous or organic dispersing media with the addition of interfacially active agents to stabilize the colloidal dispersion that forms. Successful stabilization of the polymer colloid during polymerization results in the formation of high molar mass polymers with high rates of polymerization. An environmentally responsible alternative to aqueous and organic dispersing media for heterogeneous dispersion polymerizations is described in which supercritical carbon dioxide (CO_2) is used in conjunction with molecularly engineered free radical initiators and amphipathic molecules that are specifically designed to be interfacially active in CO_2. Conventional lipophilic monomers, exemplified by methyl methacrylate, can be quantitatively (>90 percent) polymerized heterogeneously to very high degrees of polymerization (>3000) in supercritical CO_2 in the presence of an added stabilizer to form kinetically stable dispersions that result in micrometer-sized particles with a narrow size distribution.

  20. Three-dimensional patterning of solid microstructures through laser reduction of colloidal graphene oxide in liquid-crystalline dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyuk, Bohdan; Behabtu, Natnael; Martinez, Angel; Lee, Taewoo; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Tour, James M.; Pasquali, Matteo; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2015-05-01

    Graphene materials and structures have become an essential part of modern electronics and photovoltaics. However, despite many production methods, applications of graphene-based structures are hindered by high costs, lack of scalability and limitations in spatial patterning. Here we fabricate three-dimensional functional solid microstructures of reduced graphene oxide in a lyotropic nematic liquid crystal of graphene oxide flakes using a pulsed near-infrared laser. This reliable, scalable approach is mask-free, does not require special chemical reduction agents, and can be implemented at ambient conditions starting from aqueous graphene oxide flakes. Orientational ordering of graphene oxide flakes in self-assembled liquid-crystalline phases enables laser patterning of complex, three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide structures and colloidal particles, such as trefoil knots, with `frozen' orientational order of flakes. These structures and particles are mechanically rigid and range from hundreds of nanometres to millimetres in size, as needed for applications in colloids, electronics, photonics and display technology.

  1. Colloidal dispersions of conducting copolymers of aniline and p-phenylenediamine for films with enhanced conductometric sensitivity to temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Yu; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 7 (2017), s. 1668-1674 ISSN 2050-7526 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-05568P Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : colloids * polyaniline * poly(p-phenylenediamine) Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 5.256, year: 2016

  2. Synthesis of Highly Dispersed and Highly Stable Supported Au–Pt Bimetallic Catalysts by a Two-Step Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Haiyan; Wu, Tianpin; Liu, Yuzi; Liang, Xinhua

    2016-11-01

    Highly dispersed and highly stable supported bimetallic catalysts were prepared using a two-step process. Pt nanoparticles (NPs) were first deposited on porous γ-Al2O3 particles by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Au NPs were synthesized by using gold(III) chloride as the Au precursor, and then immobilized on ALD Pt/γ-Al2O3 particles. The Au–Pt bimetallic catalysts were highly active and highly stable in a vigorously stirred liquid phase reaction of glucose oxidation.

  3. Fabrication of Water Jet Resistant and Thermally Stable Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Spray Coating of Candle Soot Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qahtan, Talal F; Gondal, Mohammed A; Alade, Ibrahim O; Dastageer, Mohammed A

    2017-08-08

    A facile synthesis method for highly stable carbon nanoparticle (CNP) dispersion in acetone by incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame is presented. The synthesized CNP dispersion is the mixture of graphitic and amorphous carbon nanoparticles of the size range of 20-50 nm and manifested the mesoporosity with an average pore size of 7 nm and a BET surface area of 366 m 2 g -1 . As an application of this material, the carbon nanoparticle dispersion was spray coated (spray-based coating) on a glass surface to fabricate superhydrophobic (water contact angle > 150° and sliding angle fabricated from direct candle flame soot deposition (candle-based coating). This study proved that water jet resistant and thermally stable superhydrophobic surfaces can be easily fabricated by simple spray coating of CNP dispersion gathered from incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame and this technique can be used for different applications with the potential for the large scale fabrication.

  4. Concentration dependent transport of colloids in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A; Bettahar, Mehdi

    2006-01-05

    A series of column experiments was undertaken to explore the influence of colloid input concentration (2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 times a reference concentration), colloid size (negatively charged 3.2 and 1.0 microm carboxyl latex), and sand grain size (360, 240, and 150 microm quartz sands) on transport and deposition. A similar mass of stable mono-dispersed colloids was added to each column. For a given input concentration, decreasing the sand size and increasing the colloid size resulted in increased mass retention in the sand near the column inlet and lower relative concentrations in the effluent. For a given sand and colloid, increasing the input concentration produced less deposition and higher mass recovery in the effluent, especially for coarser sands and smaller colloids. Results of a time dependent attachment (blocking) and detachment model were not consistent with this behavior because the simulations predicted much less retention near the column inlet and a decreasing number of favorable attachment sites (mass of deposited colloids) with increasing input concentration in a given system (colloid and sand). A time dependent straining model (filling of straining sites) provided a better description of the effluent and deposition data, but still could not account for the observed concentration dependent mass recovery. Alternatively, the straining model was refined to include a liberation term that assumed that straining was hindered at higher concentrations (collision frequencies) due to repulsive colloid (aqueous phase)-colloid (strained) interactions. Simulations that included straining, liberation, attachment, and detachment significantly improved the description of the experimental data.

  5. Sustainable steric stabilization of colloidal titania nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif

    2017-07-01

    A route to produce a stable colloidal suspension is essential if mono-dispersed particles are to be successfully synthesized, isolated, and used in subsequent nanocomposite manufacture. Dispersing nanoparticles in fluids was found to be an important approach for avoiding poor dispersion characteristics. However, there is still a great tendency for colloidal nanoparticles to flocculate over time. Steric stabilization can prevent coagulation by introducing a thick adsorbed organic layer which constitutes a significant steric barrier that can prevent the particle surfaces from coming into direct contact. One of the main features of hydrothermal synthesis technique is that it offers novel approaches for sustainable nanoparticle surface modification. This manuscript reports on the sustainable steric stabilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Nanoparticle surface modification was performed via two main approaches including post-synthesis and in situ surface modification. The tuneable hydrothermal conditions (i.e. temperature, pressure, flow rates, and surfactant addition) were optimized to enable controlled steric stabilization in a continuous fashion. Effective post synthesis surface modification with organic ligand (dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA)) was achieved; the optimum surface coating temperature was reported to be 180-240 °C to ensure DDSA ring opening and binding to titania nanoparticles. Organic-modified titania demonstrated complete change in surface properties from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and exhibited phase transfer from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. Exclusive surface modification in the reactor was found to be an effective approach; it demonstrated surfactant loading level 2.2 times that of post synthesis surface modification. Titania was also stabilized in aqueous media using poly acrylic acid (PAA) as polar polymeric dispersant. PAA-titania nanoparticles demonstrated a durable amorphous polymeric layer of 2 nm thickness. This

  6. Long-distance Dispersal Patterns of Male Cerulean Warblers (Dendroica cerulea Measured by Stable-hydrogen Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Katherine. Girvan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fundamental role played by long-distance dispersal in population dynamics, the mechanisms promoting or inhibiting dispersal by migratory songbirds are poorly understood. We used stable-hydrogen isotopes (δD to evaluate several hypotheses related to long-distance dispersal in the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea, a migratory songbird at the center of considerable conservation attention. Feather samples were collected from 103 males throughout the breeding range. We assumed feathers were molted in late summer on the breeding grounds and thus δD values provided an estimate of breeding or hatching location for the previous year. We used a likelihood-based assignment test to estimate the origin of birds the previous year and derived expected δD values for the entire Cerulean Warbler breeding range from precipitation-based maps. Using Bayes' Rule, we also incorporated a prior probability of breeding origin based on estimated rates of site fidelity and survival between breeding seasons. We found that long-distance breeding dispersal by adult male Cerulean Warblers was a fairly common occurrence with 20 of 71 (28.2% individuals originating from a region other than the one they were sampled in. Surprisingly, long-distance natal dispersal was uncommon; only three of 32 (9.4% second-year birds were estimated to have hatched in a region outside their capture region. Young males may be using a form of post-fledging prospecting or conspecific attraction when selecting their first breeding habitats. Populations on the breeding range periphery, such as Ontario and Tennessee, tended to receive fewer long-distance dispersers than did other regions but produced more dispersing individuals than did core regions, suggesting that these areas could act as important sources for other regions. The tendency of a region to produce dispersing individuals was not significantly related to its relative abundance, implying that population abundance is not a

  7. Dynamic localization and shear-induced hopping of particles: A way to understand the rheology of dense colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tianying; Zukoski, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, attempts have been made to understand the formation of colloidal glasses and gels by linking suspension mechanics to particle properties where details of size, shape, and spatial dependencies of pair potentials present a bewildering array of variables that can be manipulated to achieve observed properties. Despite the range of variables that control suspension properties, one consistent observation is the remarkably similarity of flow properties observed as particle properties are varied. Understanding the underlying origins of the commonality in those behaviors (e.g., shear-thinning with increasing stress, diverging zero shear rate viscosity with increasing volume fraction, development of a dynamic yield stress plateau with increases in volume faction or strength of attraction, development of two characteristic relaxation times probed in linear viscoelasticity, the creation of a rubbery plateau modulus at high strain frequencies, and shear-thickening) remains a challenge. Recently, naïve mode coupling and dynamic localization theories have been developed to capture collective behavior giving rise to formation of colloidal glasses and gels. This approach characterizes suspension mechanics of strongly interacting particles in terms of sluggish long-range particle diffusion modulated by varying particle interactions and volume fraction. These theories capture the scaling of the modulus with the volume fraction and strength of interparticle attraction, the frequency dependence of the moduli at the onset of the gel/glass transition, together with the divergence of the zero shear rate viscosity and cessation of diffusivity for hard sphere systems as close packing is approached. In this study, we explore the generality of the predictions of dynamic localization theory for systems of particles composed of bimodal particle size distributions experiencing weak interactions. We find that the mechanical properties of these suspensions are well captured within

  8. Colloidal organization

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Tsuneo

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author's own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphas

  9. Influence of particle size on the low and high strain rate behavior of dense colloidal dispersions of nanosilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asija, Neelanchali; Chouhan, Hemant; Gebremeskel, Shishay Amare; Bhatnagar, Naresh, E-mail: nareshb@mech.iitd.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Mechanical Engineering Department (India)

    2017-01-15

    Shear thickening is a non-Newtonian flow behavior characterized by the increase in apparent viscosity with the increase in applied shear rate, particularly when the shear rate exceeds a critical value termed as the critical shear rate (CSR). Due to this remarkable property of shear-thickening fluids (STFs), they are extensively used in hip protection pads, protective gear for athletes, and more recently in body armor. The use of STFs in body armor has led to the development of the concept of liquid body armor. In this study, the effect of particle size is explored on the low and high strain rate behavior of nanosilica dispersions, so as to predict the efficacy of STF-aided personal protection systems (PPS), specifically for ballistic applications. The low strain rate study was conducted on cone and plate rheometer, whereas the high strain rate characterization of STF was conducted on in-house fabricated split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Spherical nanosilica particles of three different sizes (100, 300, and 500 nm) as well as fumed silica particles of four different specific surface areas (Aerosil A-90, A-130, A-150, and A-200), respectively, were used in this study. The test samples were prepared by dispersing nanosilica particles in polypropylene glycol (PPG) using ultrasonic homogenization method. The low strain rate studies aided in determining the CSR of the synthesized STF dispersions, whereas the high strain rate studies explored the impact-resisting ability of STFs in terms of the impact toughness and the peak stress attained during the impact loading of STF in SHPB testing.

  10. Influence of particle size on the low and high strain rate behavior of dense colloidal dispersions of nanosilica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asija, Neelanchali; Chouhan, Hemant; Gebremeskel, Shishay Amare; Bhatnagar, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Shear thickening is a non-Newtonian flow behavior characterized by the increase in apparent viscosity with the increase in applied shear rate, particularly when the shear rate exceeds a critical value termed as the critical shear rate (CSR). Due to this remarkable property of shear-thickening fluids (STFs), they are extensively used in hip protection pads, protective gear for athletes, and more recently in body armor. The use of STFs in body armor has led to the development of the concept of liquid body armor. In this study, the effect of particle size is explored on the low and high strain rate behavior of nanosilica dispersions, so as to predict the efficacy of STF-aided personal protection systems (PPS), specifically for ballistic applications. The low strain rate study was conducted on cone and plate rheometer, whereas the high strain rate characterization of STF was conducted on in-house fabricated split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Spherical nanosilica particles of three different sizes (100, 300, and 500 nm) as well as fumed silica particles of four different specific surface areas (Aerosil A-90, A-130, A-150, and A-200), respectively, were used in this study. The test samples were prepared by dispersing nanosilica particles in polypropylene glycol (PPG) using ultrasonic homogenization method. The low strain rate studies aided in determining the CSR of the synthesized STF dispersions, whereas the high strain rate studies explored the impact-resisting ability of STFs in terms of the impact toughness and the peak stress attained during the impact loading of STF in SHPB testing.

  11. Highly Luminescent Water-Dispersible NIR-Emitting Wurtzite CuInS2/ZnS Core/Shell Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenghui; Meeldijk, Johannes D; Gerritsen, Hans C; de Mello Donega, Celso

    2017-06-13

    Copper indium sulfide (CIS) quantum dots (QDs) are attractive as labels for biomedical imaging, since they have large absorption coefficients across a broad spectral range, size- and composition-tunable photoluminescence from the visible to the near-infrared, and low toxicity. However, the application of NIR-emitting CIS QDs is still hindered by large size and shape dispersions and low photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs). In this work, we develop an efficient pathway to synthesize highly luminescent NIR-emitting wurtzite CIS/ZnS QDs, starting from template Cu 2- x S nanocrystals (NCs), which are converted by topotactic partial Cu + for In 3+ exchange into CIS NCs. These NCs are subsequently used as cores for the overgrowth of ZnS shells (≤1 nm thick). The CIS/ZnS core/shell QDs exhibit PL tunability from the first to the second NIR window (750-1100 nm), with PLQYs ranging from 75% (at 820 nm) to 25% (at 1050 nm), and can be readily transferred to water upon exchange of the native ligands for mercaptoundecanoic acid. The resulting water-dispersible CIS/ZnS QDs possess good colloidal stability over at least 6 months and PLQYs ranging from 39% (at 820 nm) to 6% (at 1050 nm). These PLQYs are superior to those of commonly available water-soluble NIR-fluorophores (dyes and QDs), making the hydrophilic CIS/ZnS QDs developed in this work promising candidates for further application as NIR emitters in bioimaging. The hydrophobic CIS/ZnS QDs obtained immediately after the ZnS shelling are also attractive as fluorophores in luminescent solar concentrators.

  12. A study on amphiphilic fluorinated block copolymer in graphite exfoliation using supercritical CO2 for stable graphene dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hyun; Lee, Hyang Moo; Choi, Sung Wook; Cheong, In Woo

    2018-01-15

    In this study, poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PTFEMA-b-PVP) was synthesized by stepwise reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization for the preparation of graphene by the exfoliation of graphite nanoplatelets (GPs) in supercritical CO 2 (SCCO 2 ). Two different block copolymers (low and high molecular weights) were prepared with the same block ratio and used at different concentrations in the SCCO 2 process. The amount of PTFEMA-b-PVP adsorbed on the GPs and the electrical conductivity of the SCCO 2 -treated GP samples were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and four-point probe method, respectively. All GP samples treated with SCCO 2 were then dispersed in methanol and the dispersion stability was investigated using online turbidity measurements. The concentration and morphology of few-layer graphene stabilized with PTFEMA-b-PVP in the supernatant solution were investigated by gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Destabilization study of the graphene dispersions revealed that the longer block copolymer exhibited better affinity for graphene, resulting in a higher yield of stable graphene with minimal defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [The study of antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles in the form of a colloidal solution in the matrix of finely dispersed silica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchak, G I; Surmasheva, E V; Mikhienkova, A I; Nikonova, N A; Romanenko, L I; Oliĭnyk, Z A; Gorval', A K; Rosada, M A

    2012-01-01

    In the experimental study obtained with chemical method colloid solution of nanoparticles (NPs) of silver (Ag) and a composite on his base in the matrix of finely dispersed silica with particle size of 8-12 nm and NPs concentration in basic solution of 0,0016% (0,016 mg/cm3) were established to exhibit high antimicrobial activity against the test organisms: E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. Aureus and C. Albicans, which depended on a set of factors. Antibacterial properties of tissue impregnated with Ag-NPs were studied. As stabilizing substances a mixture of surface-active substance sodium dodecyl sulfate and polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone was used Before the beginning of the study effective neutralizer was tailored. Times of preservation of antimicrobial activity of test samples have been established, and also their stability throughout long term of supervision (24 months) has been shown. Effect of organic pollution on antimicrobal activity of the samples has been studied. Based on obtained results the algorithm of the study of antimicrobial properties of nanopreparations has been elaborated.

  14. Colloid Release From Differently Managed Loess Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2012-01-01

    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) in a soil can have a major impact on soil functions, such as permeability to water and air, and on soil strength, which can impair soil fertility and workability. In addition, the content of WDC in the soil may increase the risk of nutrient loss...... and of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. In the present study, soils from the Bad Lauchstadt long-term static fertilizer experiment with different management histories were investigated to relate basic soil properties to the content of WDC, the content of water-stable aggregates (WSA......), and aggregate tensile strength. Our studies were carried out on soils on identical parent material under controlled management conditions, enabling us to study the long-term effects on soil physical properties with few explanatory variables in play. The content of WDC and the amount of WSA were measured...

  15. Colloidal phytosterols: synthesis, characterization and bioaccessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.; Seijen ten Hoorn, J.W.M.; Melnikov, S.M.; Velikov, K.P.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of phytosterol colloidal particles using a simple food grade method based on antisolvent precipitation in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant. The resulting colloidal particles have a rod-like shape with some degree of crystallinity. The colloidal dispersions display

  16. Self-Assembly of Faceted Colloidal Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantapara, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    A colloidal dispersion consists of insoluble microscopic particles that are suspended in a solvent. Typically, a colloid is a particle for which at least one of its dimension is within the size range of a nanometer to a micron. Due to collisions with much smaller solvent molecules, colloids perform

  17. Synthesis of Colloidal Ruthenium Nanocatalyst by Chemical Reduction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Patharkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal ruthenium nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction of ruthenium trichloride (RuCl3 using sodium borohydrate (NaBH4 as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as a stabilizer. Size and size distribution of synthesized colloidal Ru nanoparticles were studied by varying different parameters such as molar ratio (MR of SDS/RuCl3, NaBH4/RuCl3, effects of different stabilizers, and reducing agents. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. Stability of colloidal nanoparticles was detected by Turbiscan. Stable Ru nanoparticles were dispersed on γ-Al2O3 to prepare Ru/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. This catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscope (TEM.

  18. Experimental and numerical study of atmospheric turbulence and dispersion in stable conditions and in near field at a complex site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    An experimental program has been designed in order to study pollutants dispersion at a complex site with a focus on stable conditions, which are still challenging for numerical modelling. This experimental program is being conducted at the SIRTA site in a southern suburb of Paris and consists in measuring, in near field, the turbulence and the pollutants dispersion. The aim of this program is to characterize the fine structure of turbulence and associated dispersion through high temporal and spatial resolution measurements. Then, these measurements allow to validate and improve the performance of CFD simulation for turbulence and dispersion in a heterogeneous field. The instrumental set up includes 12 ultrasonic anemometers measuring continuously wind velocity and temperature at 10 Hz, and 6 photo-ionization detectors (PIDs) measuring gas concentration at 50 Hz during tracer tests. Intensive observations periods (IOPs) with gas releases have been performed since March 2012.First of all, a detailed study of flow on the site is made, because it must be characterised and properly simulated before attempting to simulate the pollutants dispersion. This study is based on two years of continuous measurements and on measurements performed during IOPs. Turbulence strong anisotropy in the surface layer is characterized by calculating variances, integral length scales and power spectra of the three wind velocity components. Propagation of turbulent structures between sensors has been characterized with velocity correlations. Energy spectra show several slopes in different frequency regions. Also, data analyses show impact of terrain heterogeneity on the measurements. The forest to the north of experimental field modifies wind velocity and direction for a large northerly sector. It induces a strong directional wind shear and a wind deceleration below the forest height. Numerical simulations are carried out using the CFD code Code-Saturne in RANS mode with a standard κ

  19. Experimental and numerical study of atmospheric turbulence and dispersion in stable conditions and in near field at a complex site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    An experimental program has been designed in order to study pollutants dispersion at a complex site with a focus on stable conditions, which are still challenging for numerical modelling. This experimental program is being conducted at the SIRTA site in a southern suburb of Paris and consists in measuring, in near field, the turbulence and the pollutants dispersion. The aim of this program is to characterize the fine structure of turbulence and associated dispersion through high temporal and spatial resolution measurements. Then, these measurements allow to validate and improve the performance of CFD simulation for turbulence and dispersion in a heterogeneous field. The instrumental set up includes 12 ultrasonic anemometers measuring continuously wind velocity and temperature at 10 Hz, and 6 photo-ionization detectors (PIDs) measuring gas concentration at 50 Hz during tracer tests. Intensive observations periods (IOPs) with gas releases have been performed since March 2012. First of all, a detailed study of flow on the site is made, because it must be characterised and properly simulated before attempting to simulate the pollutants dispersion. This study is based on two years of continuous measurements and on measurements performed during IOPs. Turbulence strong anisotropy in the surface layer is characterized by calculating variances, integral length scales and power spectra of the three wind velocity components. Propagation of turbulent structures between sensors has been characterized with velocity correlations. Energy spectra show several slopes in different frequency regions. Also, data analyses show impact of terrain heterogeneity on the measurements. The forest to the north of the experimental field modifies wind velocity and direction for a large northerly sector. It induces a strong directional wind shear and a wind deceleration below the forest height. Numerical simulations are carried out using the CFD code, Code-Saturne, in RANS mode with a standard k

  20. Novel highly dispersible, thermally stable core/shell proppants for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childers, Ian M.; Endres, Mackenzie; Burns, Carolyne; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Liu, Jian; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Bonneville, Alain; Moore, Joseph; Leavy, Ian I.; Zhong, Lirong; Schaef, Herbert T.; Fu, Li; Wang, Hong-Fei; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2017-11-01

    The use of proppants during reservoir stimulation in tight oil and gas plays requires the introduction of highly viscous fluids to transport the proppants (µm–mm) with the fracturing fluid. The highly viscous fluids required result in increased pump loads and energy costs. Furthermore, although proppant deployment with fracturing fluids is a standard practice for unconventional oil and gas stimulation operations, there are only a few examples in the US of the applying proppant technology to geothermal energy production. This is due to proppant dissolution, proppant flowback and loss of permeability associated with the extreme temperatures found in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This work demonstrates proof-of-concept of a novel, CO2-responsive, lightweight sintered-bauxite/polymer core/shell proppant. The polymer shell has two main roles; 1) increase the stability of the proppant dispersion in water without the addition of rheology modifiers, and 2) once at the fracture network react with CO2 to promote particle aggregation and prop fractures open. In this work, both of these roles are demonstrated together with the thermal and chemical stability of the materials showing the potential of these CO2-responsive proppants as an alternative proppant technology for geothermal and unconventional oil/gas applications.

  1. Realization of stable and homogenous carbon nanotubes dispersion as ink for radio frequency identification applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougot, M Nicolas; Dung Dang, Thi My; Le, Nguyen Ngan; Dang, Mau Chien

    2013-01-01

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in radio frequency identification (RFID) applications offers a very large range of possibilities to exploit the incredible properties of CNTs. However, due to their entanglement state, their size and the different interacting forces between nanotubes bundles present at nanometric scale, CNTs debundling is very hard to achieve, requiring specific equipment and chemicals. Our purpose was to reduce as small as possible CNTs bundles, in order to realize ink to print on an RFID antenna. The size of the head printer nozzles required very small particles, about a few micrometers, in order to be able to print on the sensitive position of the antenna. To reduce the size of the bundles and stabilize the solution, an ultrasonic horn with an ultrasonic bath were combined as mechanical stress for CNT dispersion, and some chemicals such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)—a surfactant, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)—a solvent, or chitosan were used to meet our requirements. (paper)

  2. Stable aqueous dispersions of C60 fullerene by the use of a block copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountrichas, G; Pispas, S; Kamitsos, E I; Xenogiannopoulou, E; Couris, S

    2005-01-01

    Stable aqueous solutions of C 60 fullerene have been prepared by the use of a well defined block copolymer, namely poly(styrene-b-ethyleneoxide) (PS-b-PEO). The protocol that has been followed involves, in a first step, the co-dissolution of C 60 fullerene and diblock copolymer in toluene, a solvent where formation of micelles with the PEO as the core block is favored. In the second step evaporation of toluene at room temperature takes place. Finally re-dissolution of the formed film in water, with simultaneous inversion of the micellar structure (PS containing C 60 as the core), is achieved. The aggregates prepared in this way have been characterized by dynamic light scattering as well as scanning electron microscopy. All the applied techniques have indicated the formation of at least two kinds of aggregates, of different sizes, that enclose fullerenes in their cores. This protocol allows the preparation of micellar aggregates, with biocompatible coronas, containing C 60 in 1-20% by weight in respect to the PS component

  3. Fabrication of stable aqueous dispersions of graphene using gellan gum as a reducing and stabilizing agent and its nanohybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ding; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    An environment-friendly method for the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) was developed by utilizing the acid polysaccharide of gellan gum (GG) as both a reducing and a stabilizing agent. The reduction process of GO was monitored by UV–Vis spectroscopy and the factors that affect the reduction of GO, such as the molecular weight of GG, the weight ratio of GG/GO, pH and reaction temperature, were studied. A mechanism for reduction of GO with GG and the optimum reaction condition were proposed. The obtained reduced graphene oxide (RGO) that bears adsorbed GG (G-RGO) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Atomic force microscopy. The results showed that GG can efficiently reduce GO and adsorb onto the RGO nanosheets giving a stable G-RGO aqueous dispersion. Parameters affecting the stability of G-RGO aqueous dispersion, such as pH and ionic strength, were also studied. This work promised a new green strategy for large scale production of RGO with highlighting multiple functions of the natural, nontoxic and biodegradable macromolecule of GG. Moreover, GG was found to be able to promote reducing HAuCl 4 , AgNO 3 or H 2 PtCl 6 to Au, Ag or Pt nanoparticles respectively onto G-RGO surfaces providing noble metal nanoparticle-G-RGO nanohybrids that exhibit good electrochemical activities with potential applications in the fields of catalysis and energy storage. - Highlights: • A green method for preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was developed. • Gellan gum (GG) was used as both a reducing and a stabilizing agent. • RGO nanosheets can be dispersed stably in aqueous medium by adsorption of GG. • RGO containing GG can be used as a template to prepare noble metal nanohybrids. • These obtained nanohybrids exhibit good electrochemical activities

  4. Ni(0-CMC-Na Nickel Colloids in Sodium Carboxymethyl-Cellulose: Catalytic Evaluation in Hydrogenation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Karim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A recyclable catalyst, Ni(0-CMC-Na, composed of nickel colloids dispersed in a water soluble bioorganic polymer, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na, was synthesized by a simple procedure from readily available reagents. The catalyst thus obtained is stable and highly active in alkene hydrogenations.

  5. Structure and phase diagram of an adhesive colloidal dispersion under high pressure: a small angle neutron scattering, diffusing wave spectroscopy, and light scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrin, R; Kohlbrecher, J; Wilk, A; Ratajczyk, M; Lettinga, M P; Buitenhuis, J; Meier, G

    2009-04-21

    We have applied small angle neutron scattering (SANS), diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to investigate the phase diagram of a sterically stabilized colloidal system consisting of octadecyl grafted silica particles dispersed in toluene. This system is known to exhibit gas-liquid phase separation and percolation, depending on temperature T, pressure P, and concentration phi. We have determined by DLS the pressure dependence of the coexistence temperature and the spinodal temperature to be dP/dT=77 bar/K. The gel line or percolation limit was measured by DWS under high pressure using the condition that the system became nonergodic when crossing it and we determined the coexistence line at higher volume fractions from the DWS limit of turbid samples. From SANS measurements we determined the stickiness parameter tau(B)(P,T,phi) of the Baxter model, characterizing a polydisperse adhesive hard sphere, using a global fit routine on all curves in the homogenous regime at various temperatures, pressures, and concentrations. The phase coexistence and percolation line as predicted from tau(B)(P,T,phi) correspond with the determinations by DWS and were used to construct an experimental phase diagram for a polydisperse sticky hard sphere model system. A comparison with theory shows good agreement especially concerning the predictions for the percolation threshold. From the analysis of the forward scattering we find a critical scaling law for the susceptibility corresponding to mean field behavior. This finding is also supported by the critical scaling properties of the collective diffusion.

  6. Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kathryn S.

    Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals

  7. Non-iridescent structural colors from uniform-sized SiO2 colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Gökhan; Güner, Tuğrul; Demir, Mustafa M.

    2018-05-01

    Structural colors have recently attracted interest from diverse fields of research due to their ease of fabrication and eco-friendliness. These types of colors are, in principle, achieved by periodically arranged submicron-diameter colloidal particles. The interaction of light with a structure containing long-range ordered colloidal particles leads to coloration; this usually varies depending on the angle of observation (iridescence). However, the majority of the applications demand constant color that is independent of the viewing angle (non-iridescence). In this work, silica colloids were obtained using the Stöber method at different sizes from 150 to 300 nm in an alcoholic dispersion. The casting of the dispersion on a substrate leaves behind a photonic crystal showing a colorful iridescent film. However, centrifugation and redispersion of the SiO2 particles into fresh solvent may cause the formation of small, aggregated silica domains in the new dispersion. The casting of this dispersion allows for the development of photonic glass, presumably due to the accumulation of aggregates showing stable colloidal film independent of viewing angle. Moreover, depending on the size of the silica colloids, non-iridescent photonic glasses with various colors (violet, blue, green, and orange) are obtained.

  8. Developing a Stable Aqueous Enteric Coating Formulation with Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-MF) and Colloidal Silicon Dioxide as Anti-tacking Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Tanvi M; Quadir, Anisul; Obara, Sakae; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Hoag, Stephen W

    2018-02-16

    The purpose of this study was to use statistical design of experiments to develop a stable aqueous enteric coating formulation containing stabilizing excipients, such as polyethylene glycol that can minimize hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate aggregation and minimize spray-nozzle clogging at elevated processing temperatures. The mechanisms of stabilization (i.e. charge stabilization and molecular interactions) were studied by performing zeta potential and FTIR studies. Electrostatic stabilization by sodium lauryl sulfate and hydrogen bonding by polyethylene glycol provided dispersion stability and yielded a stable aqueous coating formulation that prevented spray-nozzle clogging. An enteric coated tablet with better gastric resistance was obtained by incorporating fumed silica (Aerosil ® R972) as the anti-tacking agent instead of talc. Dissolution testing on the riboflavin enteric coated tablets showed a good enteric release profile without releasing riboflavin in 0.1 N HCl, and completely disintegrating within 10 min in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Nematic Liquid-Crystal Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muševič, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a concise review of a new state of colloidal matter called nematic liquid-crystal colloids. These colloids are obtained by dispersing microparticles of different shapes in a nematic liquid crystal that acts as a solvent for the dispersed particles. The microparticles induce a local deformation of the liquid crystal, which then generates topological defects and long-range forces between the neighboring particles. The colloidal forces in nematic colloids are much stronger than the forces in ordinary colloids in isotropic solvents, exceeding thousands of kBT per micrometer-sized particle. Of special interest are the topological defects in nematic colloids, which appear in many fascinating forms, such as singular points, closed loops, multitudes of interlinked and knotted loops or soliton-like structures. The richness of the topological phenomena and the possibility to design and control topological defects with laser tweezers make colloids in nematic liquid crystals an excellent playground for testing the basic theorems of topology. PMID:29295574

  10. Nematic Liquid-Crystal Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Muševič

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a concise review of a new state of colloidal matter called nematic liquid-crystal colloids. These colloids are obtained by dispersing microparticles of different shapes in a nematic liquid crystal that acts as a solvent for the dispersed particles. The microparticles induce a local deformation of the liquid crystal, which then generates topological defects and long-range forces between the neighboring particles. The colloidal forces in nematic colloids are much stronger than the forces in ordinary colloids in isotropic solvents, exceeding thousands of kBT per micrometer-sized particle. Of special interest are the topological defects in nematic colloids, which appear in many fascinating forms, such as singular points, closed loops, multitudes of interlinked and knotted loops or soliton-like structures. The richness of the topological phenomena and the possibility to design and control topological defects with laser tweezers make colloids in nematic liquid crystals an excellent playground for testing the basic theorems of topology.

  11. Sustainable steric stabilization of colloidal titania nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbasuney, Sherif, E-mail: sherif_basuney2000@yahoo.com

    2017-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Controlled surface properties of titania nanoparticles via surface modification, flocculation from aqueous phase (a), stabilization in aqueous phase (b), extraction to organic phase (c). - Highlights: • Complete change in surface properties of titania nanoparticles from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. • Harvesting the formulated nanoparticles from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. • Exclusive surface modification in the reactor during nanoparticle synthesis. • Sustainable stabilization of titania nanoparticles in aqueous media with polar polymeric dispersant. - Abstract: A route to produce a stable colloidal suspension is essential if mono-dispersed particles are to be successfully synthesized, isolated, and used in subsequent nanocomposite manufacture. Dispersing nanoparticles in fluids was found to be an important approach for avoiding poor dispersion characteristics. However, there is still a great tendency for colloidal nanoparticles to flocculate over time. Steric stabilization can prevent coagulation by introducing a thick adsorbed organic layer which constitutes a significant steric barrier that can prevent the particle surfaces from coming into direct contact. One of the main features of hydrothermal synthesis technique is that it offers novel approaches for sustainable nanoparticle surface modification. This manuscript reports on the sustainable steric stabilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Nanoparticle surface modification was performed via two main approaches including post-synthesis and in situ surface modification. The tuneable hydrothermal conditions (i.e. temperature, pressure, flow rates, and surfactant addition) were optimized to enable controlled steric stabilization in a continuous fashion. Effective post synthesis surface modification with organic ligand (dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA)) was achieved; the optimum surface coating temperature was reported to be 180–240 °C to ensure DDSA ring opening

  12. Fluorescent porous film modified polymer optical fiber via "click" chemistry: stable dye dispersion and trace explosive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiajun; Lv, Ling; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin

    2015-01-14

    In this paper, we report a facile strategy to fabricate fluorescent porous thin film on the surface of U-bent poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber (U-bent POF) in situ via "click" polymerization for vapor phase sensing of explosives. Upon irradiation of evanescent UV light transmitting within the fiber under ambient condition, a porous film (POSS-thiol cross-linking film, PTCF) is synthesized on the side surface of the fiber by a thiol-ene "click" reaction of vinyl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS-V8) and alkane dithiols. When vinyl-functionalized porphyrin, containing four allyl substituents at the periphery, is added into precursors for the polymerization, fluorescence porphyrin can be covalently bonded into the cross-linked network of PTCF. This "fastened" way reduces the aggregation-induced fluorescence self-quenching of porphyrin and enhances the physicochemical stability of the porous film on the surface of U-bent POF. Fluorescent signals of the PTCF/U-bent POF probe made by this method exhibit high fluorescence quenching toward trace TNT and DNT vapor and the highest fluorescence quenching efficiency is observed for 1, 6-hexanedimercaptan-based film. In addition, because of the presence of POSS-V8 with multi cross-linkable groups, PTCF exhibits well-organized pore network and stable dye dispersion, which not only causes fast and sensitive fluorescence quenching against vapors of nitroaromatic compounds, but also provides a repeatability of the probing performance.

  13. Colloidal glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Colloidal glasses. Glassy state is attained when system fails to reach equilibrium due to crowding of constituent particles. In molecular glasses, glassy state is reached by rapidly lowering the temperature. In colloidal glasses, glassy state is reached by increasing the ...

  14. Ultracentrifugation of single-domain magnetite particles and the De Gennes-Pincus approach to ferromagnetic colloids in the dilute regime.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, K.L.; Klokkenburg, M.; Groenewold, J.; Philipse, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    We report an analytical ultracentrifugation study on sedimentation in dilute stable dispersions of uniform, magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) colloids. On increase of the dipolar coupling constant, tuned by the average particle size, the linear concentration dependence of the sedimentation velocity shows

  15. Assembly of open clusters of colloidal dumbbells via droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham Van, Hai; Fortini, Andrea; Schmidt, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the behavior of a mixture of asymmetric colloidal dumbbells and emulsion droplets by means of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The evaporation of the droplets and the competition between droplet-colloid attraction and colloid-colloid interactions lead to the formation of clusters built up of colloid aggregates with both closed and open structures. We find that stable packings and hence complex colloidal structures can be obtained by changing the relative size of the colloidal spheres and/or their interfacial tension with the droplets.

  16. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate ...

  17. Repeptization by dissolution in a colloidal system of iron(III) pyrophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Y Mikal; Velikov, Krassimir P; Kegel, Willem K

    2012-12-04

    Repeptization (redispersion) from an aggregated state is usually only possible in charge-stabilized colloidal systems if the system is either coagulated in the secondary minimum of the interaction potential or if the system cannot settle completely into the primary minimum. In this work, we analyze the zeta potential, conductivity, and long-term stability of colloidal systems of iron(III) pyrophosphate and surprisingly find that the system seems to defy conventional wisdom as it can be repeptized from its coagulated state regardless of aging time and background ions. Moreover, after having been stored for up to a month in 2 M NaCl, dialysis of iron pyrophosphate will yield a colloidal dispersion that is actually stable for a longer period of time than a fresh system with background electrolyte removed.

  18. Adsorption behavior of beryllium(II) on copper-oxide nanoparticles dispersed in water: A model for (7)Be colloid formation in the cooling water for electromagnets at high-energy accelerator facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Kotaro; Kanaya, Naoki; Shimada, Saki; Katsuta, Shoichi; Monjushiro, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of Be(II) on CuO nanoparticles dispersed in water was studied as a model for colloid formation of radioactive (7)Be nuclides in the cooling water used for electromagnets at high-energy proton accelerator facilities. An aqueous Be(II) solution and commercially available CuO nanoparticles were mixed, and the adsorption of Be(II) on CuO was quantitatively examined. From a detailed analysis of the adsorption data measured as a function of the pH, it was confirmed that Be(II) is adsorbed on the CuO nanoparticles by complex formation with the hydroxyl groups on the CuO surface (>S-OH) according to the following equation: n > S-OH + Be(2+) ⇔ (>S-O)n Be((2-n)+) + nH(+) (n = 2, 3) S : solid surface. The surface-complexation constants corresponding to the above equilibrium, β(s,2) and β(s,3), were determined for four types of CuO nanoparticles. The β(s,2) value was almost independent of the type of nanoparticle, whereas the β(s,3) values varied with the particle size. These complexation constants successfully explain (7)Be colloid formation in the cooling water used for electromagnets at the 12-GeV proton accelerator facility.

  19. Colloid release from soil aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils......, using laser diffraction, by agitating the samples using a wet-dispersion unit. This approach eliminated the need for long sedimentation times required by the more classical end-over-end shaking approach and provided information about the time-dependent release of WDC. The total clay content of the soils...... ranged from 0.1 to 0.44 kg kg−1. The WDC content was measured on air-dry and moist 1- to 2-mm aggregates. The WDC content at a reference time was highly correlated to the total clay content (r > 0.91, P soils. Only for two sites was the WDC content correlated to the content of clay...

  20. Radioactive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, L.

    1987-01-01

    Different techniques for the characterization of radioactive colloids, used in nuclear medicine, have been evaluated and compared. Several radioactive colloids have been characterized in vitro and in vivo and tested experimentally. Colloid biokinetics following interstitial or intravenous injection were evaluated with a scintillation camera technique. Lymphoscintigraphy with a Tc-99-labelled antimony sulphur colloid was performed in 32 patients with malignant melanoma in order to evaluate the technique. Based on the biokinetic results, absorbed doses in tissues and organs were calculated. The function of the reticuloendothelial system has been evaluated in rats after inoculation with tumour cells. Microfiltration and photon correlation spectroscopy were found to be suitable in determining activity-size and particle size distributions, respectively. Maximal lymph node uptake following subcutaneous injection was found to correspond to a colloid particle size between 10 and 50 nm. Lymphoscintigraphy was found to be useful in the study of lymphatic drainage from the primary tumour site in patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk. Quantitative analysis of ilio-inguinal lymph node uptake in patients with malignant melanoma on the lower extremities was, however, found to be of no value for the detection of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. High absorbed doses may be received in lymph nodes (up to 1 mGy/MBq) and at the injection site (about 10 mGy/MBq). In an experimental study it was found that the relative colloid uptake in bone marrow and spleen depended on the total number of intravenously injected particles. This may considerably affect the absorbed dose in these organs. (author)

  1. Colloidal nematostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Pergamenshchik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a review of the theory of large distance colloidal interaction via the nematic director field. The new area of nematic colloidal systems (or nematic emulsions has been guided by the analogy between the colloidal nematostatics and electrostatics. The elastic charge density representation of the colloidal nematostatics [V.M. Pergamenshchik, V.O. Uzunova, Eur. Phys. J. E, 2007, 23, 161; Phys. Rev. E, 2007, 76, 011707] develops this analogy at the level of charge density and Coulomb interaction. The analogy is shown to lie in common mathematics based on the solutions of Laplace equation. However, the 3d colloidal nematostatics substantially differs from electrostatics both in its mathematical structure and physical implications. The elastic charge is a vector fully determined by the torque exerted upon colloid, the role of Gauss' theorem is played by conservation of the torque components. Elastic multipoles consist of two tensors (dyads. Formulas for the elastic multipoles, the Coulomb-like, dipole-dipole, and quadrupole-quadrupole pair interaction potentials are derived and illustrated by particular examples. Based on the tensorial structure, we list possible types of elastic dipoles and quadrupoles. An elastic dipole is characterized by its isotropic strength, anisotropy, chirality, and its longitudinal component. An elastic quadrupole can be uniaxial and biaxial. Relation between the multipole type and its symmetry is discussed, sketches of some types of multipoles are given. Using the mirror image method of electrostatics as a guiding idea, we develop the mirror image method in nematostatics for arbitrary director tilt at the wall. The method is applied to the charge-wall and dipole-wall interaction.

  2. Preparation of stable dispersion of ZnO nanorods and its application on cotton fabric for functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, M.; Hussain, T.; Tabassum, M.; Javid, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this systematic study, we describe the influence of various surfactants and polymers on aggregation stability of ZnO nanorods. Triton X-100, PVP and PVA were used to disperse nanorods. The surfactant/polymer stabilizing effect was monitored using the sedimentation study and photographic methods based on the decrease in the height of the interface as a function of time. The dispersion of nanorods when applied to cotton fabric, it exhibited functional properties like antibacterial activity and UV protection. The morphologies of nanorods and functionalized cotton were characterized by using SEM.

  3. Direct Tracking and Compound-Specific Stable Isotope Analysis Identifies Dispersal Routes and Cryptic Latitudinal Trends in the Winter Distribution of Two Antarctic Penguin Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, M. J.; Houghton, L. A.; Hinke, J.; Thorrold, S.

    2016-02-01

    Animal dispersal behaviors have both ecological and evolutionary significance. However, due to the logistical challenges of tracking animals in the Antarctic marine environment little is known about the winter dispersal and migration of Antarctic marine predators. We used a combination of direct tracking (Geolocation sensors; GLS) and compound-specific stable isotope analysis of carbon in essential amino acids (CSIA-AA) to describe the winter distribution of two wide-ranging marine predators, the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) and chinstrap penguin (P. antarctica) along the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Arc. GLS and CSIA-AA identified two general migration strategies, with animals overwintering to the east or west of the Antarctic Peninsula, with CSIA-AA also being able to discriminate between ice-free vs. pack-ice habitats. In addition, CSIA-AA provided the ability to assign non GLS-tracked chinstrap penguins from multiple breeding sites across the Scotia Arc to specific over-wintering areas. This provided a first ever, regional-scale analyses of the winter movements and distributions of the species and identified a cryptic latitudinal trend that would have been otherwise undetectable. Breeding colonies farther north were more likely to have individuals dispersing eastwards relative to colonies further south where most individual dispersed westwards, possibly due to a combination of proximity and competition avoidance. Finally we highlight how CSIA-AA approaches can be applied to other studies of the distribution and ecology of marine top predators.

  4. Spray freeze drying to produce a stable Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol containing inulin-based solid dispersion powder suitable for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drooge, Dirk-Jan; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Dickhoff, Bastiaan H J; Elli, Marco N A; Visser, Marinella R; Zijlstra, Gerrit S; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether spray freeze drying produces an inhalable solid dispersion powder in which Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is stabilised. Solutions of THC and inulin in a mixture of tertiary butanol (TBA) and water were spray freeze dried. Drug loads varied

  5. Modeling of the geochemical behaviour and of the radionuclide transport in the presence of colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Lee, Jan

    1997-01-01

    CHESS, a complete geochemical model, especially developed for coupling purposes in a transparent manner with transport codes. The second topic concerns the development of a probabilistic theory for colloid retention, as well as for the kinetics involved in the reaction. The proposed theory seem to be robust, predicts correctly the impact of System parameters such as pH, ionic strength and colloid size, and is applicable to real Systems, at least at the scale of laboratory experiments. The thesis also presents the theory of adsorption kinetics. This theory is more rigorous than the theories available in the literature, and applies for porous as well as fractured media. A comparison with models provided by the literature and with experimental data seems to confirm the correctness of the theory. The third topic involves reactive transport modelling of chemical species and colloids and has lead to the development of a new transport model, HYTEC. This tool includes convective-diffusive-dispersive transport of colloids, aqueous species and gases, calculates the thermodynamic equilibrium state of the solution and incorporates the newly developed theory of colloid retention. As far as we know, this is the first model which integrates colloids as well as the complete geochemistry in a transport model. Resuming, this work shows the importance of the adsorption capacity of most of the natural colloids with respect to actinides, such as uranium, americium and europium. The complexation capacity of organic colloids is even greater than that of inorganic colloids, such as silica, clays and hydrous ferric oxide. This study also indicates that colloids are capable of keeping the radioactive load during their journey through the geological medium, even if the complexing affinity of the medium is much stronger than of the colloids. Accordingly, colloids may act as a very rapid transport vehicle for radionuclides, provided they are chemically and electrostatically stable in suspension

  6. Colloidal superballs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is organized in four parts as follows. Part 1 focuses on the synthetic aspects of the colloidal model systems that will be used throughout the work described in this thesis. In Chapter 2 we describe synthetic procedures for the preparation of polycrystalline hematite superballs and

  7. Colloidal polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armes, Steven P.; Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1990-01-01

    Processable electrically conductive latex polymer compositions including colloidal particles of an oxidized, polymerized amino-substituted aromatic monomer, a stabilizing effective amount of a random copolymer containing amino-benzene type moieties as side chain constituents, and dopant anions, and a method of preparing such polymer compositions are provided.

  8. Colloid characterization and quantification in groundwater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Stephen Kung

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for studying the groundwater colloids for the Yucca Mountain Project in conjunction with the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Colloidal particle size distributions and total particle concentration in groundwater samples are quantified and characterized. Colloid materials from cavity waters collected near underground nuclear explosion sites by HRMP field sampling personnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were quantified. Selected colloid samples were further characterized by electron microscope to evaluate the colloid shapes, elemental compositions, and mineral phases. The authors have evaluated the colloid size and concentration in the natural groundwater sample that was collected from the ER-20-5 well and stored in a 50-gallon (about 200-liter) barrel for several months. This groundwater sample was studied because HRMP personnel have identified trace levels of radionuclides in the water sample. Colloid results show that even though the water sample had filtered through a series of Millipore filters, high-colloid concentrations were identified in all unfiltered and filtered samples. They had studied the samples that were diluted with distilled water and found that diluted samples contained more colloids than the undiluted ones. These results imply that colloids are probably not stable during the storage conditions. Furthermore, results demonstrate that undesired colloids have been introduced into the samples during the storage, filtration, and dilution processes. They have evaluated possible sources of colloid contamination associated with sample collection, filtrating, storage, and analyses of natural groundwaters. The effects of container types and sample storage time on colloid size distribution and total concentration were studied to evaluate colloid stability by using J13 groundwater. The data suggests that groundwater samples

  9. Colloidal stability of Ni(OH){sub 2} in water and its dispersion into a ceramic matrix from the reaction media to obtain Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanas-Polo, S.; Ferrari, B.; Sanchez-Herencia, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites have been fabricated by slip casting of concentrated Ni(OH){sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} suspensions and subsequent in situ reduction to metallic nickel during sintering. For that, the synthesis assisted by ultrasound of both α- and β-Ni(OH){sub 2} polymorphs, as well as their colloidal stability, have been studied. The structural differences between both polymorphs have been thoroughly studied by means of XRD, FTIR, DTA-TG, SSA, SEM and TEM, in order to optimize the starting suspensions. This way, the IEP of both polymorphs have been established (9.7 y 12 for β- and α-Ni(OH){sub 2}, respectively), as well as the optimal content of an anionic dispersant (PAA) to stabilize the particles (0.8 wt. % for beta phase and 3.0 wt. % for alpha phase). Three different Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites, with a high dispersion degree of the metallic phase, have been obtained considering the potential vs. particles distance curve of the Ni(OH){sub 2}, and their structure has been discussed in terms of the strength of the agglomerates and/or aggregates of the Ni(OH){sub 2}. (Author)

  10. Colloid and ionic tracer migration within SRS sediments: Final summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Seaman, J.C.; Bertsch, P.M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States). Div. of Biogeochemistry; Miller, W.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Soil Science

    1996-04-09

    The generation of a stable colloidal suspension in geologic materials has a number of environmental implications. Mobile colloids may act as vectors for the transport of adsorbed contaminants through soils and within aquifers and can cause serious problems related to well monitoring and formation permeability in an injections well system. Colloid-facilitated transport has been implicated in the migration of contaminants from seepage basins on the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) at a rate greater than was predicted in two- phase transport models. From 1955 to 1988, seepage basins overlying the water-table aquifer received acidic wastes containing high levels of Na+ and nitric acid, as well as trace radionuclides and metals from the nuclear materials processing facilities. Numerical simulations predicted that metal contaminants would not reach the water table, but measurable quantities of these contaminants have been detected in monitoring wells down gradient from the basins. Lack of agreement between predicted and observed contaminant migration in this and other studies has been attributed to both local non equilibrium situation, preferential flow paths within the geologic material, and to transport of the contaminant in association with a mobile solid phase, i.e. dispersed colloids. Additionally, the association of contaminants with a mobile colloidal phase has important ramifications for groundwater sampling on SRS intended to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of a given contaminant. As part of the F- and H-Area reclamation project, the Department of Energy has proposed the capture and treatment of the contaminant plume followed by reinjection of the treated water into the water table and upper confined aquifers. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. Polypyrrole: FeOx·ZnO nanoparticle solar cells with breakthrough open-circuit voltage prepared from relatively stable liquid dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu

    2014-01-01

    Organic hybrid solar cells with a large open-circuit voltage, up to above that of 1.5 V standard battery voltage, were demonstrated using blends of polypyrrole: Fe2O3·ZnO nanoparticles as active-layers. The cell active-layers were readily coated in open air from relatively stable liquid dark-color polypyrrole-based dispersions, which were synthesized using appropriate surfactants during the in situ polymerization of pyrrole with FeCl3 or both H2O2 and FeCl3 as the oxidizers. The performance of the cells depends largely on the synthesized blend phase, which is determined by the surfactants, oxidizers, as well as the reactant ratio. Only the solar cells fabricated from the stable dispersions can produce both a high open-circuit voltage (>1.0 V) and short-circuit current (up to 7.5 mA cm-2) due to the relatively uniform porous network nanomorphology and higher shunt to series resistance ratio of the active-layers. The cells also display a relatively high power-conversion efficiency of up to ∼3.8%. This journal is

  12. Formation of Polyelectrolyte Complex Colloid Particles between Chitosan and Pectin with Different Degree of Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Sun, Hongyuan; He, Jieyu

    2017-12-01

    The effects of degree of esterification, pectin/chitosan ratio and pH on the formation of polyelectrolyte complex colloid particles between chitosan (CS) and pectin (PE) were investigated. Low methoxyl pectin (LPE) was achieved by de-esterifying high methoxyl pectin (HPE) with pectin methyl esterase. Turbidity titration and colorimetric method was used to determine the stability of complex colloid particles. The structure and morphology of complex particles were characterized by FTIR and TEM. When pectin solution was dropped into chitosan solution, complex colloidal dispersion was stable as PE/CS mass ratio was no more than 3:2. Colloidal particles of HPE-CS complex coagulated at larger ratio of PE/CS than LPE-CS. The maximum complex occurred at pH 6.1 for HPE-CS and pH 5.7 for LPE-CS, and decreasing pH leaded to the dissociation of complex particles. Electrostatic interactions between carboxyl groups on pectin and amino groups on chitosan were confirmed by FTIR. Colloidal particle sizes ranged from about 100 nm to 400 nm with spherical shape.

  13. Structure of Colloidal Flocs in relation to the Dynamic Properties of Unstable Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Adachi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behaviors of unstable colloidal dispersions are reviewed in terms of floc formation. Geometrical structure of flocs in terms of chemical conditions and formation mechanics is a key to predict macroscopic transportation properties. The rate of sedimentation and rheological properties can be described with the help of fractal dimension (D that is the function of the number of contacts between clusters (Nc. It is also well known that the application of water soluble polymers and polyelectrolytes, which are usually used as a conditioner or flocculants in colloidal dispersions, critically affects the process of flocculation. The resulted floc structure is also influenced by the application of polymer. In order to reveal the roles of the polymers, the elementary rate process of polymer reaching to colloidal interface and subsequent reconformation process into more stable adsorption state are needed to be analyzed. The properties of permeable flocs and adsorbed polymer (polyelectrolyte layers formed on the colloidal surfaces remain to be worked out in relation to inhomogeneous porous structure and electrokinetics in the future.

  14. Assessment of dissolved nutrients dispersal derived from offshore fish-farm using nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ 15N) in macroalgal bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, T.; Ruiz, J. M.; Pérez, M.; Ruiz, M.

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the dispersal of wastes from offshore fish farms was evaluated by analyzing nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ 15N) in macroalgae incubated in the water column at sites located at an increasing distance from the fish cages. Bioassays were performed at three fish farms situated in separate localities with different nutritional conditions (Canary Islands, Murcia and Catalonia) and varying in size, species of fish reared and annual production. Macroalgal bioassays were carried out in two different directions (DI and DII) and they were replicated at each distance in order to evaluate the effect of small-scale variability on the spatial extent of fish farm wastes. The results obtained with δ 15N contribute to a better understanding of the application of nitrogen stable isotopes ratios in macroalgae as an effective bioindicator for tracing the dispersion of offshore fish farm wastes, and demonstrate that fish farm wastes can be traced even over distances of some km from the pollution source. In the Canary Islands, the maximum distance obtained for detection of fish farm wastes was between 450 and 700 m. Of the three installations studied, Murcia presented the greatest distance for detection of fish farm waste influence, ranging from between 1550 and 2450 m, whilst in Catalonia this distance was less than 120 m. In Catalonia, the results were masked by the influence of other sources of nitrogen, and thus fish farm wastes were detected at more reduced distances than expected. These results confirm that fish farm wastes can be traced using the nitrogen stable isotope ratios of macroalgae and that this method can also be useful for identifying areas of potential risk to some sensitive ecosystems, and as an early signal that changes in the community structure might occur.

  15. Colloid transport in saturated porous media: Elimination of attachment efficiency in a new colloid transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landkamer, Lee L.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2013-01-01

    A colloid transport model is introduced that is conceptually simple yet captures the essential features of colloid transport and retention in saturated porous media when colloid retention is dominated by the secondary minimum because an electrostatic barrier inhibits substantial deposition in the primary minimum. This model is based on conventional colloid filtration theory (CFT) but eliminates the empirical concept of attachment efficiency. The colloid deposition rate is computed directly from CFT by assuming all predicted interceptions of colloids by collectors result in at least temporary deposition in the secondary minimum. Also, a new paradigm for colloid re-entrainment based on colloid population heterogeneity is introduced. To accomplish this, the initial colloid population is divided into two fractions. One fraction, by virtue of physiochemical characteristics (e.g., size and charge), will always be re-entrained after capture in a secondary minimum. The remaining fraction of colloids, again as a result of physiochemical characteristics, will be retained “irreversibly” when captured by a secondary minimum. Assuming the dispersion coefficient can be estimated from tracer behavior, this model has only two fitting parameters: (1) the fraction of the initial colloid population that will be retained “irreversibly” upon interception by a secondary minimum, and (2) the rate at which reversibly retained colloids leave the secondary minimum. These two parameters were correlated to the depth of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) secondary energy minimum and pore-water velocity, two physical forces that influence colloid transport. Given this correlation, the model serves as a heuristic tool for exploring the influence of physical parameters such as surface potential and fluid velocity on colloid transport.

  16. Development and characterization of biocompatible isotropic and anisotropic oil-in-water colloidal dispersions as a new delivery system for methyl dihydrojasmonate antitumor drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira; Scarpa, Maria Virginia; Rossanezi, Gustavo; do Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Microemulsions (MEs) are colloidal systems that can be used for drug-delivery and drug-targeting purposes. These systems are able to incorporate drugs modifying bioavailability and stability and reducing toxic effects. The jasmonate compounds belong to a group of plant stress hormones, and the jasmonic acid and its methyl ester derivative have been described as having anticancer activity. However, these compounds are very poorly water-soluble, not allowing administration by an intravenous route without an efficient nanostructured carrier system. In this work, biocompatible MEs of appropriate diameter size for intravenous route administration, loaded and unloaded with methyl dihydrojasmonate (MJ), were developed and described in a pseudo-ternary phase diagram. The compositions of the MEs were carefully selected from their own regions in the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. The formulations were analyzed by light scattering, polarized light microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Also, a study on rheological profile was performed. The results showed that the droplet size decreased with both MJ incorporation and oil phase/surfactant ratio. All compositions of the studied MEs showed rheological behavior of pseudoplastic fluid and amorphous structures. In the absence of MJ, most of the studied MEs had thixotropic characteristics, which became antithixotropic in the presence of the drug. Almost all MJ-unloaded MEs presented anisotropic characteristics, but some formulations became isotropic, especially in the presence of MJ. The results of this study support the conclusion that the studied system represents a promising vehicle for in vivo administration of the MJ antitumor drug. PMID:24596463

  17. Development of certain aspects of colloid chemistry and physical-chemical mechanics of disperse systems and materials in relation to stability of slopes and grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Plugin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the motive force of the movement the particles in dispersed systems, which include soils, when load is just sole weight of the array was investigated. It is shown that the shearing force of the weight of the soil and the specific cohesion which taken into account in calculating the stability of slopes of embankments and landslides on the slopes, much less than real. The calculations showed that the electrophoretic mechanism is a very real explanation of the observed sliding the upper part of the slope.

  18. Towards conducting inks: Polypyrrole–silver colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omastová, Mária; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Peřinka, Nikola; Kaplanová, Marie; Syrový, Tomáš; Hromádková, Jiřina; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Composite colloidal particles combining conducting polymer and metal have been prepared. • Conducting colloids are suitable for printing applications. • Polypyrrole/silver colloids are prepared in a single reaction step. • The conductivity control is discussed and still needs improvement. - Abstract: The oxidation of pyrrole with silver nitrate in the presence of suitable water-soluble polymers yields composite polypyrrole–silver colloids. The polypyrrole–silver nanoparticles stabilized with poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) have a typical size around 350 nm and polydispersity index 0.20, i.e. a moderate polydispersity in size. Similar results have been obtained with poly(vinyl alcohol) as stabilizer. The effect of stabilizer concentration on the particle size is marginal. In the present study, several types of stabilizers have been tested in addition to currently used poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). Transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy revealed the gemini morphology of polypyrrole and silver colloidal nanoparticles and confirmed their size and size-distribution determined by dynamic light scattering. The use of colloidal dispersions provides an efficient tool for the UV–vis and FT Raman spectroscopic characterization of polypyrrole, including the transition between polypyrrole salt and corresponding polypyrrole base. The dispersions were used for the preparation of coatings on polyethylene terephthalate foils, and the properties for polypyrrole–silver composites have been compared with those produced from polypyrrole colloids alone

  19. Colloid transport in dual-permeability media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leij, Feike J; Bradford, Scott A

    2013-07-01

    It has been widely reported that colloids can travel faster and over longer distances in natural structured porous media than in uniform structureless media used in laboratory studies. The presence of preferential pathways for colloids in the subsurface environment is of concern because of the increased risks for disease caused by microorganisms and colloid-associated contaminants. This study presents a model for colloid transport in dual-permeability media that includes reversible and irreversible retention of colloids and first-order exchange between the aqueous phases of the two regions. The model may also be used to describe transport of other reactive solutes in dual-permeability media. Analytical solutions for colloid concentrations in aqueous and solid phases were obtained using Laplace transformation and matrix decomposition. The solutions proved convenient to assess the effect of model parameters on the colloid distribution. The analytical model was used to describe effluent concentrations for a bromide tracer and 3.2- or 1-μm-colloids that were observed after transport through a composite 10-cm long porous medium made up of a cylindrical lens or core of sand and a surrounding matrix with sand of a different grain size. The tracer data were described very well and realistic estimates were obtained for the pore-water velocity in the two flow domains. An accurate description was also achieved for most colloid breakthrough curves. Dispersivity and retention parameters were typically greater for the larger 3.2-μm-colloids while both reversible and irreversible retention rates tended to be higher for the finer sands than the coarser sand. The relatively small sample size and the complex flow pattern in the composite medium made it difficult to reach definitive conclusions regarding transport parameters for colloid transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of the initial state of carbon nanotubes on their colloidal stability under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwyzer, Irene; Kaegi, Ralf; Sigg, Laura; Magrez, Arnaud; Nowack, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The colloidal stability of dry and suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the presence of amphiphilic compounds (i.e. natural organic matter or surfactants) at environmentally realistic concentrations was investigated over several days. The suspensions were analyzed for CNT concentration (UV-vis spectroscopy), particle size (nanoparticle tracking analysis), and CNT length and dispersion quality (TEM). When added in dry form, around 1% of the added CNTs remained suspended. Pre-dispersion in organic solvent or anionic detergent stabilized up to 65% of the added CNTs after 20 days of mild shaking and 5 days of settling. The initial state of the CNTs (dry vs. suspended) and the medium composition hence are critical determinants for the partitioning of CNTs between sediment and the water column. TEM analysis revealed that single suspended CNTs were present in all suspensions and that shaking and settling resulted in a fractionation of the CNTs with shorter CNTs remaining predominantly in suspension. - Highlights: → Individually suspended CNTs are present under environment relevant conditions. → The number of suspended CNTs varies depending on the medium composition. → Surfactants at environmental concentrations have no suspending effect on dry CNTs. → Pre-dispersed CNTs are more stable in suspension than dry CNTs. - The colloidal stability of CNTs varies a lot depending on the initial state of the CNTs (dry vs. pre-dispersed), the applied dispersant for pre-suspension, and the composition of the medium.

  1. Anisotropic Model Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kats, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The driving forces for fundamental research in colloid science are the ability to manage the material properties of colloids and to unravel the forces that play a role between colloids to be able to control and understand the processes where colloids play an important role. Therefore we are

  2. Transport coefficients and orientational distributions of dilute colloidal dispersions composed of hematite particles (for an external magnetic field parallel to the angular velocity vector of simple shear flow)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Akira; Hayasaka, Ryo; Majima, Tamotsu

    We have treated a dilute dispersion composed of ferromagnetic rodlike particles with a magnetic moment normal to the particle axis, such as hematites, to investigate the influences of the magnetic field strength, shear rate, and random forces on the orientational distribution of rodlike particles and also on transport coefficients, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient. In the present analysis, these rodlike particles are assumed to conduct the rotational Brownian motion in a simple shear flow as well as an external magnetic field. The results obtained here are summarized as follows. In the case of a strong magnetic field and a smaller shear rate, the rodlike particle can freely rotate in the xy-plane with the magnetic moment continuing to point the magnetic field direction. On the other hand, for a strong shear flow, the particle has a tendency to incline in the flow direction with the magnetic moment pointing to the magnetic field direction. In the case of the magnetic field applied normal to the direction of the sedimentation, the diffusion coefficient gives rise to smaller values than expected, since the rodlike particle sediments with the particle axis inclining toward directions normal to the movement direction and, of course, toward the direction along that direction.

  3. Facile synthesis and catalytic properties of silver colloidal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    obtained with high dispersion (2–3 nm), which has high catalytic activity on reduction of 4-nitrobenzoic acid to 4-aminobenzoic acid. Keywords. Silver colloidal nanoparticles; SDBS; catalytic reduction; 4-nitrobenzoic acid. 1. Introduction. Silver colloidal nanoparticles (AgCNPs) have been studied extensively in catalysis ...

  4. Control of mesogen configuration in colloids of liquid crystalline polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haseloh, S.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102140618; Zentel, R.

    2010-01-01

    We report on a method to chemically predetermine the surface anchoring of mesogens in liquid crystalline colloids formed by different types of dispersion polymerization, and hence to achieve control over the mesogen configuration in such colloids. The surface anchoring is controlled by the chemical

  5. Computer simulation of polymer-induced clustering of colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.J.; Frenkel, D.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a novel computational scheme that allows direct numerical simulation of polymer-colloid mixtures at constant osmotic pressure. Using this technique, we have studied the entropic attraction that is caused by ideal polymers dissolved in a simple (hard-sphere) colloidal dispersion. In

  6. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Hickmann, Jandir M. [Optics and Materials Group–OPTMA, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, CAIXA POSTAL 2051, 57061-970 Maceió (Brazil); Wender, Heberton [Brazilian Synchrotron National Laboratory (LNLS), CNPEM, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro 10.000, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Department of Physics, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, 79070-900, Campo Grande (Brazil); Teixeira, Sergio R. [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Dupont, Jairton [Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-11-14

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  7. Review on subsurface colloids and colloid-associated contaminant transport in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti Sen, Tushar; Khilar, Kartic C

    2006-02-28

    In this review article, the authors present up-to-date developments on experimental, modeling and field studies on the role of subsurface colloidal fines on contaminant transport in saturated porous media. It is a complex phenomenon in porous media involving several basic processes such as colloidal fines release, dispersion stabilization, migration and fines entrapment/plugging at the pore constrictions and adsorption at solid/liquid interface. The effects of these basic processes on the contaminant transport have been compiled. Here the authors first present the compilation on in situ colloidal fines sources, release, stabilization of colloidal dispersion and migration which are a function of physical and chemical conditions of subsurface environment and finally their role in inorganic and organic contaminants transport in porous media. The important aspects of this article are as follows: (i) it gives not only complete compilation on colloidal fines-facilitated contaminant transport but also reviews the new role of colloidal fines in contaminant retardation due to plugging of pore constrictions. This plugging phenomenon also depends on various factors such as concentration of colloidal fines, superficial velocity and bead-to-particle size ratio. This plugging-based contaminant transport can be used to develop containment technique in soil and groundwater remediation. (ii) It also presents the importance of critical salt concentration (CSC), critical ionic strength for mixed salt, critical shear stressor critical particle concentration (CPC) on in situ colloidal fines release and migration and consequently their role on contaminant transport in porous media. (iii) It also reviews another class of colloidal fines called biocolloids and their transport in porous media. Finally, the authors highlight the future research based on their critical review on colloid-associated contaminant transport in saturated porous media.

  8. Colloid suspension stability and transport through unsaturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, M.A.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1997-04-01

    Contaminant transport is traditionally modeled in a two-phase system: a mobile aqueous phase and an immobile solid phase. Over the last 15 years, there has been an increasing awareness of a third, mobile solid phase. This mobile solid phase, or mobile colloids, are organic or inorganic submicron-sized particles that move with groundwater flow. When colloids are present, the net effect on radionuclide transport is that radionuclides can move faster through the system. It is not known whether mobile colloids exist in the subsurface environment of the Hanford Site. Furthermore, it is not known if mobile colloids would likely exist in a plume emanating from a Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site. No attempt was made in this study to ascertain whether colloids would form. Instead, experiments and calculations were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that colloids, if formed, would remain in suspension and move through saturated and unsaturated sediments. The objectives of this study were to evaluate three aspects of colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides as they specifically relate to the LLW Performance Assessment. These objectives were: (1) determine if the chemical conditions likely to exist in the near and far field of the proposed disposal site are prone to induce flocculation (settling of colloids from suspension) or dispersion of naturally occurring Hanford colloids, (2) identify the important mechanisms likely involved in the removal of colloids from a Hanford sediment, and (3) determine if colloids can move through unsaturated porous media.

  9. Linear Optical Properties of Gold Colloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin XIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold colloid was prepared by reducing HAuCl4·4H2O with Na3C6H5O7·2H2O. The morphology, size of gold nanoparticles and the optical property of colloid were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. It shows that the gold nanoparticles are in the shape of spheres with diameters less than 8 nm, and the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak is located at about 438 nm. As the volume fraction of gold particles increases, the intensity of absorption peak strengthens. The optical property of gold colloid was analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett (MG effective medium theory in the company of Drude dispersion model. The results show that the matrix dielectric constant is a main factor, which influences the optical property of gold colloid.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9558

  10. Direct and inverted nematic dispersions for soft matter photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muševič, I; Skarabot, M; Humar, M

    2011-07-20

    General properties and recent developments in the field of nematic colloids and emulsions are discussed. The origin and nature of pair colloidal interactions in the nematic colloids are explained and an overview of the stable colloidal 2D crystalline structures and superstructures discovered so far is given. The nature and role of topological defects in the nematic colloids is discussed, with an emphasis on recently discovered entangled colloidal structures. Applications of inverted nematic emulsions and binding force mechanisms in nematic colloids for soft matter photonic devices are discussed.

  11. Stabilization through precipitation in a system of colloidal iron(III) pyrophosphate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Y Mikal; Velikov, Krassimir P; Kegel, Willem K

    2012-09-01

    The ionic strength of a solution decreases during the precipitation of an insoluble salt, which can cause an initially unstable colloidal system to stabilize during its formation. We show this effect in the precipitation and aging of colloidal iron(III) pyrophosphate, where we observe two distinct stages in the aggregation process. The first stage is the formation of nanoparticles that immediately aggregate into clusters with sizes on the order of 200 nm. In the second stage these clusters slowly grow in size but remain in dispersion for days, even months for dialyzed systems. Eventually these clusters become macroscopically large and sediment out of dispersion. Noting the clear instability of the nanoparticles, it is interesting to find two stages in their aggregation even without the use of additives such as surface active molecules. This is explained by accounting for the rapid decrease of ionic strength during precipitation, rendering the nanoparticles relatively stable when precipitation is complete. Calculating the interaction potentials for this scenario we find good agreement with the experimental observations. These results indicate that coupling of ionic strength to aggregation state can be significant and should be taken into account when considering colloidal stability of insoluble salts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Criterion for noise-induced synchronization: Application to colloidal alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jonah A.; Moths, Brian; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-09-01

    Colloidal bodies of irregular shape rotate as they descend under gravity in solution. This rotational response provides a means of bringing a dispersion of identical bodies into a synchronized rotation with the same orientation using programed forcing. We use the notion of statistical entropy to derive bounds on the rate of synchronization. These bounds apply generally to dynamical systems with stable periodic motion with a phase ϕ (t ) , when subjected to an impulsive perturbation. The impulse causes a change of phase expressible as a phase map ψ (ϕ ) . We derive an upper limit on the average change of entropy Δ H Δ H in terms of this phase map; when this limit is negative, alignment must occur. For systems that have achieved a low entropy, the approaches this upper limit.

  13. The colloid investigations conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wold, Susanna [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry] (eds.)

    2005-12-15

    In 2000, SKB decided to initiate an international colloid project at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The objectives of the colloid project are to: (i) study the role of bentonite as a colloid source, (ii) verify the background colloid concentration at Aespoe HRL and, (iii) investigate the potential for colloid formation/transport in natural groundwater concentrations. The experimental concepts for the colloid project are: laboratory experiments with bentonite, background field measurements of natural colloids, borehole specific bentonite colloid stability experiments and a fracture specific transport experiment. The activities concerning the laboratory experiments and background field measurements are described in this work; the other activities are ongoing or planned. The following conclusions were made: The bentonite colloid stability is strongly dependent on the groundwater ionic strength. Natural colloids are organic degradation products such as humic and fulvic acids, inorganic colloids (clay, calcite, iron hydroxide) and microbes. Microbes form few but large particles and their concentration increase with increasing organic carbon concentrations. The small organic colloids are present in very low concentrations in deep granitic groundwater. The concentrations can be rather high in shallow waters. The colloid concentration decreases with depth and salinity, since colloids are less stable in saline waters. The colloid content at Aespoe is less than 300 ppb. The colloid content at repository level is less than 50 ppb. The groundwater variability obtained in the boreholes reflects well the natural groundwater variability along the whole HRL tunnel.

  14. Colloid Transport and Retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Book Description: Colloidal science and technology is one of the fastest growing research and technology areas. This book explores the cutting edge research in colloidal science and technology that will be usefull in almost every aspect of modern society. This book has a depth of information...... related to historical prospective, synthesis, characterization, theoretical modeling and application of unique class of colloidal materials starting from colloidal gold to coated silica colloid and platinum, titania colloids. This book is unique in its design, content, providing depth of science about...... different colloidal materials and their applications in chemistry, physics, biological, medical sciences and environment. Graduate students, academic and industrial researchers and medical professionals will discover recently developed colloidal materials and their applications in many areas of human...

  15. Colloid and surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, Yun Hwan; Lee, Jeong Jung; Cho, Sun Chae; Ryeo, Su Dong

    1995-08-01

    This book consists of two parts about colloid and surfactant. The first parts has explanations colloid and surface science, which deal with creation and properties of colloidal particles, surfactant and micelle colloid, property of surfactant, membranes, absorption of surface science, electrokinetic phenomenon, emulsion, foam and rheology. The second part mentions surfactant on anionic surfactant with five types, amphoteric surface active agent, non-ionic surface active agent and use of surfactant.

  16. Preparation and characterization compatible pellets for immobilization of colloidal sulphur nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlim, M.; Zarlaida, F.; Khaldun, I.; Dewi, R.; Jamilah, M.

    2018-03-01

    Mercury pollution in atmosphere is dominated by mercury vapour release from coal burning and gold-amalgam separation in gold mining. The initial steps in formulating a compatible mercury absorbent for mercury stabilization was fabrication of pellet supported colloidal sulphur. Sulphur is used to stabilize mercury vapour by formation of metacinnabar that has much lower toxicity. The sulphur reactivity toward mercury vapour can be enhanced by using colloidal sulphur nanoparticles immobilized on compatible pellets. Clay pellets would have heat resistance but in fact, they were less stable in aqueous solution although their stability increased with inclusion of rice husk ash and sawdust or pineapple leaf fibre in the composite. Pellets made of rice husk ash and polyvinyl acetate were stable in water at least for 24 hours. Sulphur from thiosulfate precursor that immobilized onto surface of pellet using chitosan as the stabilizer and the binding agent gave lower sulphur content compared to sulphur from other precursors (sulphur powder and sulphur-CS2). Sulphur from thiosulfate precursor was in form of colloid, has nanosize, and disperse particles on the surface of rice husk ash pellets. Sulphur immobilization methods affect on sulphur particles exposure on the pellet surface.

  17. Colloid-Facilitated Cesium Transport in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Flury, M.; Harsh, J. B.

    2002-12-01

    Transport of 137Cs and colloids through a Hanford sediment column under unsaturated conditions was investigated. The movement of cesium and colloids followed the convective-dispersive solute transport equation and the mass transfer processes governing colloid-facilitated cesium transport were colloidal deposition, cesium sorption to the medium, and cesium sorption to colloids. It was found that cesium was strongly adsorbed to Hanford sediments and only colloid-bound cesium could breakthrough. Cesium experienced a greater facilitated transport at higher saturation than at low saturation and the migration of cesium was more a function of the behavior of colloids than of dissolved cesium. A two-region model was used in describing colloid-facilitated cesium migration and the influence of the system saturation was examined by relating to the variation of simulated model parameters. Hanford native colloids, i.e., \\textit{in-situ} colloids from the Hanford site, and modified colloids, i.e., \\textit{in-situ} colloids subject to chemical treatment, were used as model colloids to study facilitated cesium transport in this research. The results of this study will be of help in understanding the response of colloid-facilitated cesium migration to variation of saturation at the Hanford site. Key words: cesium; colloid; facilitated transport; saturation; and Hanford sediment.

  18. Modified colloidal primitive model as a homogeneous surface charge distribution: ζ-potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-Granados, Héctor M; Lozada-Cassou, Marcelo

    2013-10-03

    An integral equations theory is derived and applied to a modified colloidal primitive model (MCPM), for finite concentration colloidal dispersions. In MCPM, the charge on the colloidal particle is assumed to be smeared on its surface. We find important quantitative and qualitative differences of the ζ-potential, induced charge, and the colloid-colloid electric effective force, calculated in the MCPM, with those obtained from the colloidal primitive model (CPM), where the colloidal charge is assumed to be in the center of the particle, in spite of the fact that, due to Gauss's law, both models have the same particle distribution function. In particular, for the same parameters, while the ζ-potential is positive in MCPM, is negative in the CPM, implying opposite electrophoretic mobilities, μ. An inverse μ has been theoretically predicted in the past, for infinite dilution colloidal dispersions. The MCPM could be a better model for some colloidal particles. In both models, the CPM and the MCPM, it is found a very long-range colloid-colloid correlation, in accordance with previous Monte Carlo simulations. The electrostatic, as well as entropic, like-charged colloid-colloid forces are oscillatory, implying a long-range attraction.

  19. Electrochemical metal speciation in colloidal dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonders, J.H.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The term "heavy metals" is connected with toxicity. They form strong complexes with enzymes, other proteins and DNA in living organisms, which causes dysfunctioning and hence poisoning. In combination with the uptake mechanism of the organism, speciation of heavy metal determines the

  20. Size Segregation in Sheared Jammed Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbi, Armstrong; Blair, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    It is well known that granular materials can spontaneously size segregate when continuously driven. However, in jammed colloidal suspensions, this phenomenon is not well understood. Colloidal dispersions provide a unique system to study the structure and dynamics of jammed matter. In this talk, we present results of size segregation of a continuously sheared binary colloidal suspension well above point J. Our colloidal system is comprised of indexed-matched bi-disperse silica particles with diameters a = { 2 . 3 μm and 3 . 2 μm } and at ϕ 61 % , well above the colloidal glass transition. We apply a highly controlled shear at a constant shear rate through the use of a rheometer. By coupling our rheometer with a high-speed laser scanning confocal microscope, we directly image the structure and flow profiles of the suspension as it un-jams. We observe migration of the small and large species; large particles move to the top while the small particles move toward the bottom conserving the total volume fraction in all regions. Moreover, we find that an associating feature of segregation is a sustained shear band. Our results are consistent with a recently proposed void filling and squeeze expulsion mechanism. Funding is provided by NSF DMR #0847490.

  1. Observation of a microcrystalline gel in colloids with competing interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian Hui; Groenewold, Jan; Kegel, Willem K

    2009-12-14

    A stable short-range crystalline structure is observed in colloidal systems with competing short-range attractions and long-range repulsions. We term these structures "microcrystalline gels" as the microcrystals are embedded in a dense disordered network.

  2. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Viswanathan; P. Reimus

    2003-09-05

    Colloid retardation is influenced by the attachment and detachment of colloids from immobile surfaces. This analysis demonstrates the development of parameters necessary to estimate attachment and detachment of colloids and, hence, retardation in both fractured tuff and porous alluvium. Field and experimental data specific to fractured tuff are used for the analysis of colloid retardation in fractured tuff. Experimental data specific to colloid transport in alluvial material from Yucca Mountain as well as bacteriophage field studies in alluvial material, which are thought to be good analogs for colloid transport, are used to estimate attachment and detachment of colloids in the alluvial material. There are no alternative scientific approaches or technical methods for calculating these retardation factors.

  3. Comparison of different filtration techniques for the pre-concentration of natural colloidal dispersions for field-flow-fractionation (FFF); Vergleich verschiedener Filtrationstechniken zur Aufkonzentrierung natuerlicher kolloidaler Dispersionen fuer die Feld-Fluss-Fraktionierung (FFF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saal, C.; Kammer, F. v.d. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Arbeitsbereich Umweltschutztechnik, Hamburg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The objektive of this study was to compare different pre-treatment techniques (active and passive filtration techniques applying various membranes) for field-flow-fractionation (FFF) analysis of natural aquatic colloids. In most cases FFF of natural water samples requires a pre-concentration step prior to analysis. The used FFF-method with online multi-detector-analysis (MDA) is a versatile method to specify the size distribution of particles (> 10 nm) in aqueous systems. Coupling FFF with trace element analysis (e. g. ICP-MS or total reflextion X-ray fluorescence (TXRF)) is a possibility for the determination of element/ size distributions. Analysing natural water samples with FFF a sample pre-treatment is needed in most cases, which can be a coarse filtration (> 5 {mu}m) to separate algea from the sample and a preconcentration of the colloidal fraction. The pre-treatment of the sample has to assure a minimum loss of colloidal particulate matter (CPM) and no change of size distribution. The different pre-concentration techniques were tested with water extractable soil colloids. We have developed methods with concentration factors F < 50 showing minor effects on the colloidal composition of the sample, so that these methods can be used to concentrate CPM of natural waters for size- and trace metal analysis. (orig.)

  4. Colloid-Mediated Transport of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products through Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingna; Chen, Xijuan; Chen, Xin; Zhuang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter soils through reclaimed water irrigation and biosolid land applications. Colloids, such as clays, that are present in soil may interact with PPCPs and thus affect their fate and transport in the subsurface environment. This study addresses the influence of soil colloids on the sorption and transport behaviors of PPCPs through laboratory column experiments. Results show that the affinities of PPCPs for colloids vary with their molecular chemistry and solution ionic strength. The presence of colloids promotes the breakthrough of ciprofloxacin (over 90% sorbed on colloids) from ~4% to 30-40%, and the colloid-facilitated effect was larger at lower ionic strength (e.g., 2 mM). In comparison, the net effect of colloids on the transport of tetracycline (~50% sorbed on colloids) could be facilitation or inhibition, depending on solution chemistry. This dual effect of colloids is primarily due to the opposite response of migration of dissolved and colloid-bound tetracycline to the change in solution ionic strength. Colloids could also facilitate the transport of ibuprofen (~10% sorbed on colloids) by ~50% due likely to exclusion of dispersion pathways by colloid straining. This study suggests that colloids are significant carriers or transport promoters of some PPCPs in the subsurface environment and could affect their off-site environmental risks.

  5. Effects of hydrodynamic chromatography on colloid-facilitated migration of radionuclides in the fractured rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, C P; Li, S H

    2001-01-01

    The performance assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal has emphasized the role of colloids in the migration of radionuclides in the geosphere. Previous literature [Nagasaki S, Tanaka S, Suzuki A. Fast transport of colloidal particles through quartz-packed columns. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 1975;30(11):1136] indicates that owing to hydrodynamic chromatography the colloid velocity may not be equal to that of groundwater. Using hydrodynamic chromatography, this work investigates the effects of the size of colloidal particles on the radionuclide migration facilitated by colloids in a single fractured porous rock. Also, a methodology is proposed to develop a predictive model to assess transport within the fracture rock as well as various other phenomenological coefficients, particularly the size of colloidal particles. In addition, a fully developed concentration profile for non-reactive colloids in the fracture is developed to elucidate hydrodynamic chromatography of colloids in geological media. The external forces acting on colloidal particles hypothesized in the model proposed herein include inertial force, van der Waals attractive force, double layer force as well as gravitational force. The dispersion coefficient of colloids and the distribution coefficient for radionuclides with colloids are also considered as they pertain to the size of the colloid. In addition, the size distributions of colloids are utilized to investigate the effects of polydispersed colloids.

  6. Colloid-Mediated Transport of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products through Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingna; Chen, Xijuan; Chen, Xin; Zhuang, Jie

    2016-10-13

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter soils through reclaimed water irrigation and biosolid land applications. Colloids, such as clays, that are present in soil may interact with PPCPs and thus affect their fate and transport in the subsurface environment. This study addresses the influence of soil colloids on the sorption and transport behaviors of PPCPs through laboratory column experiments. Results show that the affinities of PPCPs for colloids vary with their molecular chemistry and solution ionic strength. The presence of colloids promotes the breakthrough of ciprofloxacin (over 90% sorbed on colloids) from ~4% to 30-40%, and the colloid-facilitated effect was larger at lower ionic strength (e.g., 2 mM). In comparison, the net effect of colloids on the transport of tetracycline (~50% sorbed on colloids) could be facilitation or inhibition, depending on solution chemistry. This dual effect of colloids is primarily due to the opposite response of migration of dissolved and colloid-bound tetracycline to the change in solution ionic strength. Colloids could also facilitate the transport of ibuprofen (~10% sorbed on colloids) by ~50% due likely to exclusion of dispersion pathways by colloid straining. This study suggests that colloids are significant carriers or transport promoters of some PPCPs in the subsurface environment and could affect their off-site environmental risks.

  7. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  8. Silica colloids and their effect on radionuclide sorption. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelttae, P.; Hakanen, M.

    2008-05-01

    Silica sol, commercial colloidal silica manufactured by Eka Chemicals in Bohus, Sweden is a promising inorganic grout material for sealing small fractures in low permeable rock. This literature review collects information about the use of silica sol as an injection grout material, the properties of inorganic, especially silica colloids, colloid contents in granitic groundwater conditions, essential characterization methods and colloid-mediated transport of radionuclides. Objective was to evaluate the release and mobility of silica sol colloids, the effect of the groundwater conditions, the amount of colloids compared with natural colloids in Olkiluoto conditions, radionuclide sorption on colloids and their contribution to radionuclide transport. Silica sol seems to be a feasible material to seal fractures with an aperture as small as 10 μm in low permeable rock. The silica sol gel is sufficiently stable to limit to water ingress during the operational phase, the requirement that the pH should be below 11 is fulfilled and the compatibility with Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials is expected to be good. No significant influence on the bentonite properties caused by the silica sol is expected when calcium chloride is used as an accelerator but the influence of sodium chloride has not been examined. No significant release of colloids is expected under prevailing groundwater conditions. The long-term (100 y) stability of silica sol gel has not yet been clearly demonstrated and a long-term release of silica colloids cannot be excluded. The question is the amount of colloids, how mobile they are and the influence of possible glacial melt waters. The bentonite buffer used in the EBS system is assumed to be a potential source of colloids. In a study in Olkiluoto, bentonite colloids were found only in low salinity groundwater. In general, low salinity water (total dissolved solids -1 ) favours colloid stability and bentonite colloids can remain stable over long

  9. Development of a model colloidal system for rheology simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Tallant, David Robert; Piech, Martin (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT); Bell, Nelson Simmons; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the experimental effort is to provide a model particle system that will enable modeling of the macroscopic rheology from the interfacial and environmental structure of the particles and solvent or melt as functions of applied shear and volume fraction of the solid particles. This chapter describes the choice of the model particle system, methods for synthesis and characterization, and results from characterization of colloidal dispersion, particle film formation, and the shear and oscillatory rheology in the system. Surface characterization of the grafted PDMS interface, dispersion characterization of the colloids, and rheological characterization of the dispersions as a function of volume fraction were conducted.

  10. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with improved aqueous colloidal stability and electrophoretic mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munjal, Sandeep; Khare, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized CoFe 2 O 4 (CFO) nanoparticles of size ∼ 12.2 nm by hydrothermal synthesis method. To control the size of these CFO nanoparticles, oleic acid was used as a surfactant. The inverse spinel phase of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction method. As synthesized oleic acid coated CFO (OA@CFO) nanoparticles has very less electrophoretic mobility in the water and are not water dispersible. These OA@CFO nanoparticles were successfully turned into water soluble phase with a better colloidal aqueous stability, through a chemical treatment using citric acid. The modified citric acid coated CFO (CA@CFO) nanoparticles were dispersible in water and form a stable aqueous solution with high electrophoretic mobility.

  11. Sodium meta-autunite colloids: Synthesis, characterization,stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    zzuoping@lbl.gov

    2004-04-10

    Waste forms of U such as those in the United States Department of Energy's Hanford Site often contain high concentrations of Na and P. Low solubility sodium uranyl phosphates such as sodium meta-autunite have the potential to form mobile colloids that can facilitate transport of this radionuclide. In order to understand the geochemical behavior of uranyl phosphate colloids, we synthesized sodiummeta-autunite colloids, and characterized their morphology, chemical composition, structure, dehydration, and surface charge. The stability of these synthetic plate-shaped colloids was tested with respect to time and pH. The highest aggregation rate was observed at pH 3, and the rate decreases as pH increases, indicating that higher stability of colloid dispersion under neutral and alkaline pH conditions. The synthetic colloids are all negatively charged and no isoelectric points were found over a pH range of 3 to 9. The zeta-potentials of the colloids in the phosphate solution show a strong pH-dependence in the more acidic range over time, but are relatively constant in the neutral and alkaline pH range. The geochemical behavior of the synthetic colloids can be interpreted using DLVO theory. The results suggest that formation of mobile sodium meta-autunite colloids can enhance the transport of U in some contaminated sediments.

  12. An agglomeration-based model for colloid filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Jaideep; Gupta, Santosh Kumar

    2009-05-15

    This paper develops a model for colloid filtration which accounts for the possibility of aggregation of the colloidal particles in the aqueous phase. Depth-wise variation of liquid-phase colloid concentration, C(x), is measured experimentally in the presence of monovalent cations at different concentrations and divalent cations, which confirm that log of C(x) deviates significantly from linearity for all of the above cases. It is also observed that in all systems showing significant removal, preaggregation of the colloids is observed, which confirms the correlation between aggregation of colloids with their retention in saturated porous media, which has been reported earlier. A new model for depth filtration which is based on material balances of the different sized aggregates, which could be present in the colloidal dispersion, is developed. This resulting model, based on differential deposition rates for different sized aggregates, shows good match with the experimentally observed variation of C(x) with depth, for all of the above conditions. A method for estimating model parameters from data is developed. This model remains independent of the actual deposition mechanism, which could be secondary minima attachment of these colloidal aggregates or the entrapment of these colloidal aggregates in regions of confined geometry. This model can be extended to predict the transport of colloids in groundwater.

  13. Graphical Synthesis of Colloid Transport Results on Quirk-Schofield Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, D. C.

    2008-05-01

    The degree of colloid dispersion, or conversely the degree of flocculation, is crucial for understanding colloid transport in natural porous media, since it determines whether colloids are mobile or immobile. Additionally, in porous media containing more than a few percent fines, the degree of colloid dispersion also influences the permeability, and consequently the practicality of fluid extraction or injection. Colloid dispersion is largely determined by the aqueous chemistry, specifically pH, ionic strength, and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). In the soil science literature, the effects of these three variables on colloid dispersion are commonly illustrated on Quirk-Schofield diagrams. In contrast, Quirk-Schofield diagrams appear to have been overlooked in the contaminant hydrology literature. This presentation will demonstrate the usefulness of Quirk-Schofield diagrams for presenting and interpreting a diversity of published colloid transport results, ranging from microbial pathogens to engineered nanoparticles to colloid-facilitated transport of metals. In particular, a quantitative analysis of published findings is presented using new Quirk-Schofield diagrams for kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, three clay minerals that are common in natural porous media. Additionally, because there is a relationship between colloid dispersion and permeability, this presentation will also show how Quirk-Schofield diagrams can provide insight into permeability changes, with applications to aquifer hydraulics and reservoir damage. The common aspects of all these results will be apparent, demonstrating that Quirk-Schofield diagrams are a simple, graphical technique that can be used to synthesize findings across the diverse applications where colloids play a central role. This study also suggests a framework for consistent reporting of colloid transport results: (1) measure the effects of pH, ionic strength, and SAR on colloid dispersion; (2) report results on Quirk

  14. Colloid and interface chemistry for nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Kralchevsky, Peter; Ravera, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Colloid and interface science dealt with nanoscale objects for nearly a century before the term nanotechnology was coined. An interdisciplinary field, it bridges the macroscopic world and the small world of atoms and molecules. Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology is a collection of manuscripts reflecting the activities of research teams that have been involved in the networking project Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology (2006-2011), Action D43, the European Science Foundation. The project was a part of the intergovernmental framework for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST), allowing the coordination of nationally funded research across Europe. With contributions by leading experts, this book covers a wide range of topics. Chapters are grouped into three sections: "Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization," "New Experimental Tools and Interpretation," and "Nanocolloidal Dispersions and Interfaces." The topics covered belong to six basic research areas: (1) The synthes...

  15. Energy transport velocity in bidispersed magnetic colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Hem; Patel, Rajesh; Mehta, R V

    2012-07-01

    Study of energy transport velocity of light is an effective background for slow, fast, and diffuse light and exhibits the photonic property of the material. We report a theoretical analysis of magnetic field dependent resonant behavior in forward-backward anisotropy factor, light diffusion constant, and energy transport velocity for bidispersed magnetic colloids. A bidispersed magnetic colloid is composed of micrometer size magnetic spheres dispersed in a magnetic nanofluid consisting of magnetic nanoparticles in a nonmagnetic liquid carrier. Magnetic Mie resonances and reduction in energy transport velocity accounts for the possible delay (longer dwell time) by field dependent resonant light transport. This resonant behavior of light in bidispersed magnetic colloids suggests a novel magnetophotonic material.

  16. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations

  17. Colloid process engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peukert, Wolfgang; Rehage, Heinz; Schuchmann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.

  18. The effect of ultrasonic frequency on the formation of colloidal gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, R.; Grieser, F.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Ultrasonic irradiation of aqueous solutions is known to produce hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals due to a process called acoustic cavitation. This phenomenon involves the formation, growth and collapse of microbubbles in solution. The cavitation threshold, the resonant size of the bubble, the ratio of stable to transient cavities produced and many other bubble properties depend on the frequency of the applied l sound field. A study of the reduction of Au III to colloidal gold in the presence of alcohol at a number of frequencies: 20, 358, 500 and 1062 kHz has been undertaken to observe any differences in the chemical effects of the ultrasonic frequency. Alcohols are surface active molecules, therefore on bubble collapse the alcohol is present to scavenge some of the primary radicals before they recombine. The secondary radicals produced are more stable and hence can disperse into the bulk solution, where reaction with solute can occur

  19. Adsorption of phenanthrene, 2-naphthol, and 1-naphthylamine to colloidal oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: effects of humic acid and surfactant modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Zhu, Dongqiang; Wang, Ximeng; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Chengdong; Chen, Wei

    2013-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can exist in the form of colloidal suspension in aquatic environments, particularly in the presence of natural organic matter or surfactants, and may significantly affect the fate and transport of organic contaminants. In the present study, the authors examined the adsorption of phenanthrene, 2-naphthol, and 1-naphthylamine to three colloidal CNTs, including a stable suspension of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (O-MWNT), a humic acid (HA)-modified colloidal O-MWNT, and a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-modified colloidal O-MWNT. All three colloidal O-MWNTs exhibit strong adsorption affinities to the three test compounds (with K(OC) values orders of magnitude greater than those of natural organic matter), likely resulting from strong nonhydrophobic interactions such as π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions and Lewis acid-base interactions. When thoroughly mixed, HA (at ∼310 mg HA/g CNT) and SDS (at ∼750 mg SDS/g CNT) significantly affected the aggregation properties of O-MWNT, causing individually dispersed tubes to form a loosely entangled network. The effects of HA or SDS modification on adsorption are twofold. Adsorption of HA/SDS significantly reduces surface areas of O-MWNT; however, the entangled network allows adsorbate molecules to interact simultaneously with multiple tubes. An important implication is that humic substances and surfactant-like materials not only facilitate the formation of colloidal carbon nanoparticles but also affect how these colloidal carbon nanoparticles adsorb organic contaminants. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Gamma radiation synthesis of colloidal AgNPs for its potential application in antimicrobial fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Anuradha; Garai, Purabi; Singh, Rita; Prakash Gupta, P.; Malav, Shatrughan; Singh, Durgeshwer; Kumar, Devendra; Tiwari, B. L.; Vaijapurkar, S. G.

    2015-10-01

    Highly stable colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles in a water-isopropanol-polyvinyl alcohol system was prepared through 60Co-gamma radiation at total dose of 35 kGy at dose rate of 5.67 kGy/h under nitrogen atmosphere. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the obtained colloidal solution indicated the formation of spherical shaped well mono dispersed silver nanoparticles with average diameter about 30 nm having very narrow size distribution. The radiolytically obtained nanosilver colloid was coated onto cotton fabrics by a simple industrial screen printing method and its adhesion with the fabric was found out by leaching studies using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Good adhesion was achieved by the adopted method wherein 89.5% of the coated nanosilver was retained in the fabric even after keeping the fabrics soaked in water for more than 60 h. Antimicrobial efficacy tests of the nanosilver coated cotton fabric showed that nanosilver coating is effective in killing both bacterial and fungal strains even at very low nanosilver loading (21.81 μgm/cm2). Nanosilver coating on the cotton fabric did not allow microbes (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans) to adhere and proliferate on fabric surface. Staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus) and Yeast (Candida albicans) showed inhibition zones in presence of these nanosilver coated fabrics while no inhibition zone was observed with the uncoated control fabric.

  1. Dispersing powders in liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  2. Transport of Intrinsic Plutonium Colloids in Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Boukhalfa, H.; Ware, S. D.; Tarimala, S.; Keller, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Actinide contaminants were introduced to the subsurface environment as a result of nuclear weapons development and testing, as well as for nuclear power generation and related research activities for defense and civilian applications. Even though most actinide species were believed to be fairly immobile once in the subsurface, recent studies have shown the transport of actinides kilometers away from their disposal sites. For example, the treated liquid wastes released into Mortandad Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory were predicted to travel less than a few meters; however, plutonium and americium have been detected 3.4 km away from the waste outfall. A colloid-facilitated mechanism has been suggested to account for this unexpected transport of these radioactive wastes. Clays, oxides, organic matters, and actinide hydroxides have all been proposed as the possible mobile phase. Pu ions associated with natural colloids are often referred to as pseudo-Pu colloids, in contrast with the intrinsic Pu colloids that consist of Pu oxides. Significant efforts have been made to investigate the role of pseudo-Pu colloids, while few studies have evaluated the environmental behavior of the intrinsic Pu colloids. Given the fact that Pu (IV) has extremely low solubility product constant, it can be inferred that the transport of Pu in the intrinsic form is highly likely at suitable environmental conditions. This study investigates the transport of intrinsic Pu colloids in a saturated alluvium material packed in a cylindrical column (2.5-cm Dia. x 30-cm high) and compares the results to previous data on the transport of pseudo Pu colloids in the same material. A procedure to prepare a stable intrinsic Pu colloid suspension that produced consistent and reproducible electrokinetic and stability data was developed. Electrokinetic properties and aggregation stability were characterized. The Pu colloids, together with trillium as a conservative tracer, were injected into the

  3. Anomalous interactions in confined charge-stabilized colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, D G; Han, Y

    2004-01-01

    Charge-stabilized colloidal spheres dispersed in weak 1:1 electrolytes are supposed to repel each other. Consequently, experimental evidence for anomalous long-ranged like-charged attractions induced by geometric confinement inspired a burst of activity. This has largely subsided because of nagging doubts regarding the experiments' reliability and interpretation. We describe a new class of thermodynamically self-consistent colloidal interaction measurements that confirm the appearance of pairwise attractions among colloidal spheres confined by one or two bounding walls. In addition to supporting previous claims for this as-yet unexplained effect, these measurements also cast new light on its mechanism

  4. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  5. Role of Modulators in Controlling the Colloidal Stability and Polydispersity of the UiO-66 Metal–Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, William; Wang, Shunzhi; Cho, David; Auyeung, Evelyn; Li, Peng; Farha, Omar K.; Mirkin, Chad A. (King Abdulaziz); (NWU)

    2017-04-07

    Nanoscale UiO-66 Zr6(OH)4O4(C8O4H4)6 has been synthesized with a series of carboxylic acid modulators, R-COOH (where R = H, CH3, CF3, and CHCl2). The phase purity and size of each MOF was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, BET surface area analysis, and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Size control of UiO-66 crystals from 20 nm to over 1 μm was achieved, and confirmed by STEM. The colloidal stability of each MOF was evaluated by dynamic light scattering and was found to be highly dependent on the modulator conditions utilized in the synthesis, with both lower pKa and higher acid concentration resulting in more stable structures. Furthermore, STEM was carried out on both colloidally stable samples and those that exhibited a large degree of aggregation, which allowed for visualization of the different degrees of dispersion of the samples. The use of modulators at higher concentrations and with lower pKas leads to the formation of more defects, as a consequence of terephthalic acid ligands being replaced by modulator molecules, thereby enhancing the colloidal stability of the UiO-66 nanoparticles. These findings could have a significant impact on nanoscale MOF material syntheses and applications, especially in the areas of catalysis and drug delivery.

  6. Catalyst Architecture for Stable Single Atom Dispersion Enables Site-Specific Spectroscopic and Reactivity Measurements of CO Adsorbed to Pt Atoms, Oxidized Pt Clusters, and Metallic Pt Clusters on TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRita, Leo; Dai, Sheng; Lopez-Zepeda, Kimberly; Pham, Nicholas; Graham, George W; Pan, Xiaoqing; Christopher, Phillip

    2017-10-11

    Oxide-supported precious metal nanoparticles are widely used industrial catalysts. Due to expense and rarity, developing synthetic protocols that reduce precious metal nanoparticle size and stabilize dispersed species is essential. Supported atomically dispersed, single precious metal atoms represent the most efficient metal utilization geometry, although debate regarding the catalytic activity of supported single precious atom species has arisen from difficulty in synthesizing homogeneous and stable single atom dispersions, and a lack of site-specific characterization approaches. We propose a catalyst architecture and characterization approach to overcome these limitations, by depositing ∼1 precious metal atom per support particle and characterizing structures by correlating scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and CO probe molecule infrared spectroscopy. This is demonstrated for Pt supported on anatase TiO 2 . In these structures, isolated Pt atoms, Pt iso , remain stable through various conditions, and spectroscopic evidence suggests Pt iso species exist in homogeneous local environments. Comparing Pt iso to ∼1 nm preoxidized (Pt ox ) and prereduced (Pt metal ) Pt clusters on TiO 2 , we identify unique spectroscopic signatures of CO bound to each site and find CO adsorption energy is ordered: Pt iso ≪ Pt metal atoms bonded to TiO 2 and that Pt iso exhibits optimal reactivity because every atom is exposed for catalysis and forms an interfacial site with TiO 2 . This approach should be generally useful for studying the behavior of supported precious metal atoms.

  7. Growth Kinetics of Monodisperse Polystyrene Microspheres Prepared by Dispersion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion polymerization has been widely applied to the synthesis of monodisperse micron-sized polymer colloidal spheres. Many efforts have been devoted to studying the influence of initial conditions on the size and uniformity of the resultant microspheres, aiming to synthesize micron-size monodisperse colloidal spheres. However, the inner contradiction between the size and the size distribution of colloidal spheres hinders the realization of this goal. In this work, we drew our attention from the initial conditions to the growth stage of dispersion polymerization. We tracked the size evolution of colloidal sphere during the dispersion polymerization, through which we established a kinetic model that described the relationship between the monomer concentration and the reaction time. The model may provide a guideline to prepare large polymer colloidal spheres with good monodispersity by continuous monomer feeding during the growth stage to maintain the concentration of monomer at a constant value in a dispersion polymerization process.

  8. Colloidal Plasmas: Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present contribution will review the basic physics of the charging mechanism of the colloidal particles as well as the physics of the collective normal mode behavior of the general multi-ion species plasmas. Emphasis will be laid on the clarification of the prevailing confusing ideas about distinct qualities of the various ...

  9. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  10. Colloidal polymer particles as catalyst carriers and phase transfer agents in multiphasic hydroformylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, D; Stehl, D; Bibouche, B; Yu, H; Mardoukh, J; Schomäcker, R; Klitzing, R von; Vogt, D

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal particles have been used to covalently bind ligands for the heterogenization of homogeneous catalysts. The replacement of the covalent bonds by electrostatic interactions between particles and the catalyst could preserve the selectivity of a truly homogeneous catalytic process. Functionalized polymer particles with trimethylammonium moieties, dispersed in water, with a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell have been synthesized by emulsion polymerization and have been thoroughly characterized. The ability of the particles with different monomer compositions to act as catalyst carriers has been studied. Finally, the colloidal dispersions have been applied as phase transfer agents in the multiphasic rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation of 1-octene. The hydrodynamic radius of the particles has been shown to be around 100 nm, and a core-shell structure could be observed by atomic force microscopy. The polymer particles were proven to act as carriers for the water-soluble hydroformylation catalyst, due to electrostatic interaction between the functionalized particles bearing ammonium groups and the sulfonated ligands of the catalyst. The particles were stable under the hydroformylation conditions and the aqueous catalyst phase could be recycled three times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer

    2010-01-01

    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  12. Preparation and characterization of highly stable lipid nanoparticles with amorphous core of tuneable viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Thomas; Couffin, Anne-Claude; Bayle, Pierre Alain; de Crécy, François; Neumann, Emmanuelle; Vinet, Françoise; Bardet, Michel; Bibette, Jérôme; Texier, Isabelle

    2011-08-15

    Lipid nanoparticles (LNP) have been designed based on low cost and human-use approved excipients, and manufactured by an easy, robust, and up-scalable process. Fluid colloidal dispersions or gel viscous formulations of highly stable nanoparticles (more than 12 month stability is achieved for some formulations) can be obtained. Their physicochemical properties are studied by Dynamic Light Scattering, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and NMR. The results picture nanoparticles with a non-crystalline core, which viscosity can be finely tuned by the lipid composition and the temperature. A design of experiments has been used to investigate the limits of the system colloidal stability. The impact of core and surfactant weight fractions have been explored both experimentally and using the design of experiments. The versatility of this physicochemical system could open the way to a wide range of future pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetics of colloidal fractal aggregation by differential dynamic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Lee, M.; Lotti, A.; Pigazzini, M. C.; Singh, K.; Cerbino, R.

    2011-11-01

    We study the kinetics of an aggregation process induced by adding salt to a stable colloidal suspension of 73 nm (diameter) particles. Despite the subdiffraction size of the colloidal particles, the process is monitored via optical microscopy, which is used here to obtain time-resolved scattering information about the colloidal aggregates. The radius of the aggregates is determined as a function of time and their fractal dimension is extracted. Our results are compatible with a diffusion limited aggregation process, as independently confirmed by spectral turbidimetry measurements on the same sample.

  14. Fabrication of Phase-Change Polymer Colloidal Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preparation of phase-change polymer colloidal photonic crystals (PCs by assembling hollow latex spheres encapsulated with dodecanol for the first time. The monodispersed hollow latex spheres were obtained by phase reversion of monodispersed core-shell latex spheres in the n-hexane, which dissolves the PS core and retains the PMMA/PAA shell. The as-prepared phase-change colloidal PCs show stable phase-change behavior. This fabrication of phase-change colloidal PCs would be significant for PC’s applications in functional coatings and various optic devices.

  15. The Effects of Subsurface Bioremediation on Soil Structure, Colloid Formation, and Contaminant Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Liang, X.; Zhuang, J.; Radosevich, M.

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic bioremediation is widely applied to create anaerobic subsurface conditions designed to stimulate microorganisms that degrade organic contaminants and immobilize toxic metals in situ. Anaerobic conditions that accompany such techniques also promotes microbially mediated Fe(III)-oxide mineral reduction. The reduction of Fe(III) could potentially cause soil structure breakdown, formation of clay colloids, and alternation of soil surface chemical properties. These processes could then affect bioremediation and the migration of contaminants. Column experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of anaerobic bioreduction on soil structure, hydraulic properties, colloid formation, and transport of three tracers (bromide, DFBA, and silica shelled silver nanoparticles). Columns packed with inoculated water stable soil aggregates were placed in anaerobic glovebox, and artificial groundwater media was pumped into the columns to simulate anaerobic bioreduction process for four weeks. Decent amount of soluble Fe(II) accompanied by colloids were detected in the effluent from bioreduction columns a week after initiation of bioreduction treatment, which demonstrated bioreduction of Fe(III) and formation of colloids. Transport experiments were performed in the columns before and after bioreduction process to assess the changes of hydraulic and surface chemical properties through bioreduction treatment. Earlier breakthrough of bromide and DFBA after treatment indicated alterations in flow paths (formation of preferential flow paths). Less dispersion of bromide and DFBA, and less tailing of DFBA after treatment implied breakdown of soil aggregates. Dramatically enhanced transport and early breakthrough of silica shelled silver nanoparticles after treatment supported the above conclusion of alterations in flow paths, and indicated changes of soil surface chemical properties.

  16. A Novel In Situ Method for Producing a Dispersion of a Ceramic Phase into Copper That Remains Stable at 0.9 T M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellan, Enzo; Ischia, Gloria; Molinari, Alberto; Raj, Rishi

    2013-10-01

    We apply an in situ approach, whereby a polymer is incorporated into copper and evolves within the metal into the ceramic phase, to create a dispersion of hard particles in a metal. All constituents for the ceramic phase are contained within the organic polymer. The temperature for this polymer to ceramic conversion lies in the 1073 K to 1273 K (800 °C to 1000 °C) range. The process produces a nanoscale dispersion of the ceramic, which leads to high microhardness that remains unaltered at temperatures up to 1223 K (950 °C) (0.9 T M). Apparently, the introduction of the ceramic phase leads to the retention of copper crystallite size of a few hundred nm, despite exposure to heat treatments at these very high temperatures. We call these materials polymer-derived metal-matrix composites.

  17. Cracking in Drying Colloidal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karnail B.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2007-05-01

    It has long been known that thick films of colloidal dispersions such as wet clays, paints, and coatings crack under drying. Although capillary stresses generated during drying have been recently identified as the cause for cracking, the existence of a maximum crack-free film thickness that depends on particle size, rigidity, and packing has not been understood. Here, we identify two distinct regimes for crack-free films based on the magnitude of compressive strain at the maximum attainable capillary pressure and show remarkable agreement of measurements with our theory. We anticipate our results to not only form the basis for design of coating formulations for the paints, coatings, and ceramics industry but also assist in the production of crack-free photonic band gap crystals.

  18. Dispersion mechanism of polyacrylic acid-coated nanoparticle in protic ionic liquid, N,N-diethylethanolammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Ryo; Guibert, Clément; Fresnais, Jérôme; Peyre, Véronique

    2018-04-15

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are extremely concentrated electrolyte solutions. The ubiquitous presence of ions induces specific behaviors for chemical reactions compared to reactions in water solutions. This is also the case for the stability of colloidal dispersions, for which the DLVO model cannot be applied as the ionic strength is out of the model range. In a previous work, in the protic IL ethylammonium nitrate (doi: https://doi.org//10.1016/j.jcis.2015.04.059), we observed an unexpected influence of the pH on the stability of dispersion of maghemite nanoparticles coated with poly(acrylic acid) (pAA). To clarify and generalize these observations, we investigated here the pH response of the dispersion in a second protic ionic liquid with a different acid-base nature, diethylethanolammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate. pH titrations of the dispersions were achieved with an IS-FET electrode and the associated thermodynamic constants determined. The colloid structural properties were examined by small angle X-ray scattering. Under acidic or mildly basic condition, a stable dispersion was obtained, i.e., when the degree of dissociation of pAA, α, was α  0.7. Dispersions form quite dense but reversible aggregates in the intermediate α range. A model for the solvation layer around the particles is proposed and generalizes the former findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. COLLOIDAL SYSTEMS OF WASTES OF DIFFERENT PRODUCTION AND THEIR ROLE IN THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX COMPOSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2013-01-01

    Dispersed colloidal particles pertaining to positive colloids is played important role in the process of the interaction of organic wastes (sewage sludge, defeca-tion mud, chicken manure, etc.) with various wastes of mineral raw materials (phosphogypsum, lime powder, halite, etc.)

  20. Order-to-Disorder Transition in Ring-Shaped Colloidal Stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez Marin, Alvaro; Gelderblom, Hanneke; Lohse, Detlef; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    A colloidal dispersion droplet evaporating from a surface, such as a drying coffee drop, leaves a distinct ring-shaped stain. Although this mechanism is frequently used for particle self-assembly, the conditions for crystallization have remained unclear. Our experiments with monodisperse colloidal

  1. Colloids in Flatland: a perspective on 2D phase-separated systems, characterisation methods, and lineactant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardini, C.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Arnaudov, L.N.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1861 Thomas Graham gave birth to a new field of science, today known as colloid science. Nowadays, the notion “colloid” is often used referring to systems consisting of two immiscible phases, one of which is finely dispersed into the other. Research on colloids deals mostly with sols (solids

  2. Colloids or artefacts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, M.; Vuorinen, U.; Allard, B.; Pettersson, C.; Hinkkanen, H.

    1994-01-01

    TVO (Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Finland) initiated a co-operative task with SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) to critically evaluate colloid sampling methods at the test site in Olkiluoto, SW Finland. Three different colloid sampling methods were compared when sampling at 613-618 m depth. The colloid sampling consisted of ordinary filtering (cross-flow filtering, 20-450 nm) in open air, inert filtering (cross-flow filtering, prefilter=2500 nm, separate filtration to three fractions 50,200 and 400 nm) by using N 2 and ultrafiltration (tangential filtering, prefilter=1000 nm concentration to a single fraction 2-1000 nm) using N 2 . Two samples per method were taken with an interval of three weeks. For organic determination one sample was collected. Care was taken to avoid possible known artefacts in connection with the colloid sampling. (27 refs., 31 figs., 13 tabs.)

  3. Liquid crystal colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Muševič, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which de...

  4. Waveguides in colloidal nanosuspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Peña, Luis A.; Salazar-Romero, Yadira; Terborg, Roland A.; Hernández-Cordero, Juan; Torres, Juan P.; Volke-Sepúlveda, K.

    2014-09-01

    We present and discuss a set of experiments based on the application of the nonlinear properties of colloidal nanosuspensions to induce waveguides with a high-power CW laser beam (wavelength 532nm) and its use for controlling an additional probe beam. The probe is a CW laser of a different wavelength (632nm), whose power is well below the critical value to induce nonlinear effects in the colloidal medium. We also discuss a technique for the characterization of the induced waveguides.

  5. A new combined method of stable isotope-labeling derivatization-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of neurotransmitters in rat brain microdialysates by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Longfang; Zhao, Xian-En; Zhu, Shuyun; Tao, Yanduo; Ji, Wenhua; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Guang; You, Jinmao

    2017-06-01

    In this work, for the first time, a new hyphenated technique of stable isotope-labeling derivatization-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed for the simultaneous determination of monoamine neurotransmitters (MANTs) and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites. The developed method was based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection using multiple-reaction monitoring mode. A pair of mass spectrometry sensitizing reagents, d 0 -10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride and d 3 -10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride, as stable isotope probes was utilized to facilely label neurotransmitters, respectively. The heavy labeled MANTs standards were prepared and used as internal standards for quantification to minimize the matrix effects in mass spectrometry analysis. Low toxic bromobenzene (extractant) and acetonitrile (dispersant) were utilized in microextraction procedure. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was observed with the limits of detection (S/N>3) and limits of quantification (S/N>10) in the range of 0.002-0.010 and 0.015-0.040nmol/L, respectively. Meanwhile, it also brought acceptable precision (4.2-8.8%, peak area RSDs %) and accuracy (recovery, 96.9-104.1%) results. This method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites in rat brain microdialysates of Parkinson's disease and normal rats. This provided a new method for the neurotransmitters related studies in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Designing Zirconium Coated Polystyrene Colloids and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Chira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple technique has been developed to prepare core colloids that are modified using zirconium oxychloride, based on heating a solution of core colloid composites, consisting of poly (ethylenimine (PEI and zirconium oxychloride. The interaction of zirconium oxychloride with the polystyrene (PS core colloids has been investigated using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM data. FT-IR studies confirm the occurrence of amine groups present in PEI which are oxidized to carboxyl groups after the reaction. The EDX data and the SEM images confirm the presence of zirconium particles immobilized on the polystyrene surfaces. Demeton, a highly toxic nerve agent, was used due to its ability to easily bind through its organophosphate group illustrating a practical application of the PS-PEI-Zr particles. Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR Spectroscopy was used to assess the interactions between the toxic nerve agent demeton-S and the PS-PEI-Zr particles. The results show that the presented technique for coating polystyrene core colloids with zirconium was successfully accomplished, and the newly formed particles easily bond with demeton agents through the P=O functional group.

  7. An atmospheric dispersion model for linear sources in calm wind, stable conditions; Un modello di dispersione atmosferica per sorgenti lineari in condizioni di vento debole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, M. C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Buratti, D. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Facolta' di Scienze Statistiche; Metallo, M. C.; Poli, A.A. [ESA s.a.s., Bracciano, RM (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In this report a dispersion model is proposed that provides an estimate of concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted by an highway, or in general by a line source, in presence of low wind speed. This aim was pursued because available models have not a satisfactory behaviour in such conditions, which is critical for dispersion of gaseous pollutants. This lack is due to difficulty of simulating dispersion turbulent component which is determined by fluctuation of wind speed and wind direction, and in presence of calm conditions it assumes values comparable with transport component. The proposed model overcomes this difficulty, as it is shown by sensitivity analysis and comparison with experimental data. The capability of simulating dispersion eve in critical conditions, like the presence of low level inversion, and the absence of source geometrical approximations make the model a tool that, properly used, may contribute to the efficient planning and management of environmental resources. [Italian] In questo rapporto viene proposto un modello per la stima delle concentrazioni di inquinanti aeriformi emessi da un'arteria stradale, o in generale da una sorgente lineare, in presenza di vento debole. Questo scopo e' stato perseguito in quanto in questa condizione, nonostante la dispersione degli inquinanti risulti fortemente problematica, i modelli disponibili in letteratura non hanno un comportamento soddisfacente. Questa mancanca e' attribuibile alla difficolta' di simulare la componente turbolenta della dispersione, dovuta alla fluttuazione della direzione e della velocita' del vento che, in presenza di vento debole, assume valori confrontabili alla componente di trasporto. Il modello qui di seguito proposto supera questa difficolta', come dimostrano l'analisi di sensibilita' e il confronto con un caso reale; la capacita' di simulare la dispersione anche in condizioni fisicamente critiche quali la presenza di inversione a

  8. Stochastic Simulations of Colloid-Facilitated Transport for Long Time and Space Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, S.; Pickett, D.; Cvetkovic, V.

    2004-12-01

    Although it is widely recognized that naturally occurring inorganic colloids can potentially enhance the transport of radionuclides in the subsurface, comparatively few analyses have considered the long times and large travel distances associated with potential nuclear waste repositories. One-dimensional transient simulations in a stochastic Lagrangian framework are used to explore model and parameter sensitivities for colloid-facilitated transport at large scales. The model accounts for (i) advection and dispersion of radionuclides and colloids, (ii) radionuclide decay, (iii) exchange of radionuclides among colloid-bound, dissolved, and fixed substrate phases, and (iv) attachment and detachment of colloids to the fixed substrate. Kinetics of the exchanges between dissolved and colloid-bound states are addressed using linear and non-linear models. Generic sensitivity studies addressing both fractured and granular aquifers are considered, as is an example based on the groundwater transport pathway for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In the absence of mitigating factors such as permanent filtration of colloids, transport may be enhanced over the situation without colloids, but only for strongly sorbing radionuclides. Mass transfer between solution and immobilized colloids makes colloid retardation relatively ineffective at reducing facilitated transport except when the retardation factor is large. Results are particularly sensitive to the rate of desorption from colloids, a parameter that is difficult to measure with short-duration experiments. This paper is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the view or regulatory position of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  9. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1990-05-01

    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwaters is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudocolloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC project MIRAGE II, particularly, to research area: complexation and colloids. (orig.)

  10. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) for studying the morphology of colloidal drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Horst, Jennifer C; Bunjes, Heike

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has evolved into an indispensable tool for the characterization of colloidal drug delivery systems. It can be applied to study the size, shape and internal structure of nanoparticulate carrier systems as well as the overall colloidal composition...... of the corresponding dispersions. This review gives a short overview over the instrumentation used in cryo-TEM experiments and over the sample preparation procedure. Selected examples of cryo-TEM studies on colloidal drug carrier systems, including liposomes, colloidal lipid emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles...

  11. Holographic characterization of colloidal particles in turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Fook Chiong; Kasimbeg, Priya; Ruffner, David B.; Hlaing, Ei Hnin; Blusewicz, Jaroslaw M.; Philips, Laura A.; Grier, David G.

    2017-10-01

    Holographic particle characterization uses in-line holographic microscopy and the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure the diameter and the refractive index of individual colloidal particles in their native dispersions. This wealth of information has proved invaluable in fields as diverse as soft-matter physics, biopharmaceuticals, wastewater management, and food science but so far has been available only for dispersions in transparent media. Here, we demonstrate that holographic characterization can yield precise and accurate results even when the particles of interest are dispersed in turbid media. By elucidating how multiple light scattering contributes to image formation in holographic microscopy, we establish the range conditions under which holographic characterization can reliably probe turbid samples. We validate the technique with measurements on model colloidal spheres dispersed in commercial nanoparticle slurries.

  12. On the nature of fibres grown from nanodiamond colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batsanov, Stepan S.; Guriev, Dmitry L.; Gavrilkin, Sergey M.; Hamilton, Katherine A.; Lindsey, Keith; Mendis, Budhika G.; Riggs, Helen J.; Batsanov, Andrei S.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to earlier assumptions, the fibres spontaneously forming in aqueous colloids of detonation-produced nanodiamond (ND), do not consist purely of ND particles but are agglomerates of the latter with water and/or soft matter of biological (probably fungal) origin, as shown by elemental analysis, IR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical refractometry, optical and electron (TEM and ESEM)microscopy, as well as biological staining tests. - Graphical abstract: Fibres spontaneously formed in water colloids of nanodiamond, consist of diamond nanoparticles dispersed in bioorganic matter. - Highlights: • Entangled fibres slowly grow in dilute (∼0.1%) colloids of nanodiamond in water. • Refractive index (∼1.56), electron microscopy and CHN analysis indicate nanodiamond dispersed in organic matter. • Explanation: nanodiamond grains help the growth of fungi which assemble them.

  13. On the nature of fibres grown from nanodiamond colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batsanov, Stepan S., E-mail: batsanov@mail.ru [National Research Institute of Physical-Technical Measurements, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Guriev, Dmitry L.; Gavrilkin, Sergey M. [National Research Institute of Physical-Technical Measurements, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Hamilton, Katherine A.; Lindsey, Keith [School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Mendis, Budhika G. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Riggs, Helen J.; Batsanov, Andrei S. [Chemistry Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Contrary to earlier assumptions, the fibres spontaneously forming in aqueous colloids of detonation-produced nanodiamond (ND), do not consist purely of ND particles but are agglomerates of the latter with water and/or soft matter of biological (probably fungal) origin, as shown by elemental analysis, IR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical refractometry, optical and electron (TEM and ESEM)microscopy, as well as biological staining tests. - Graphical abstract: Fibres spontaneously formed in water colloids of nanodiamond, consist of diamond nanoparticles dispersed in bioorganic matter. - Highlights: • Entangled fibres slowly grow in dilute (∼0.1%) colloids of nanodiamond in water. • Refractive index (∼1.56), electron microscopy and CHN analysis indicate nanodiamond dispersed in organic matter. • Explanation: nanodiamond grains help the growth of fungi which assemble them.

  14. Fabrication of anisotropic multifunctional colloidal carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerri, Huda A.

    The field of colloidal assembly has grown tremendously in recent years, although the direct or template-assisted methods used to fabricate complex colloidal constructions from monodisperse micro- and nanoparticles have been generally demonstrated on model materials. In this work, novel core particle syntheses, particle functionalizations and bottom-up assembly techniques are presented to create functional colloidal devices. Using particle lithography, high-information colloidal vectors have been developed and modified with imaging and targeting agents. Localized nanoscale patches have been reliably positioned on microparticles to serve as foundations for further chemical or physical modifications. Site-specific placement of RGD targeting ligands has been achieved in these lithographed patches. Preferential uptake of these targeted vectors by RGD-specific 3T3 fibroblasts was verified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A transition was made from the functionalization of model imaging core particles to the lithography of colloidal cartridges, in an effort to construct colloidal syringes with specialized, programmable release profiles. A variety of functional, pH-sensitive fluorescent cores were engineered to respond to solution conditions. When triggered, the diverse composite core microparticles and reservoir microcapsules released embedded fluorescent moieties such as dye molecules, and fluorophore-conjugated nanoparticles. The microcapsules, created using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition on sacrificial templates, were selectively modified with a robust coating. The pH-responsive anisotropic reservoir microcapsules were extremely stable in solution, and exhibited a "Lazarus" functionality of rehydrating to their original state following desiccation. A snapshot of focused-release of core constituents through the lone opening in colloidal monotremes has been obtained by anisotropically-functionalizing degradable cores with barrier shells. Additionally

  15. Fluorinated colloidal gold immunolabels for imaging select proteins in parallel with lipids using high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert L; Frisz, Jessica F; Hanafin, William P; Carpenter, Kevin J; Hutcheon, Ian D; Weber, Peter K; Kraft, Mary L

    2012-03-21

    The local abundance of specific lipid species near a membrane protein is hypothesized to influence the protein's activity. The ability to simultaneously image the distributions of specific protein and lipid species in the cell membrane would facilitate testing these hypotheses. Recent advances in imaging the distribution of cell membrane lipids with mass spectrometry have created the desire for membrane protein probes that can be simultaneously imaged with isotope labeled lipids. Such probes would enable conclusive tests to determine whether specific proteins colocalize with particular lipid species. Here, we describe the development of fluorine-functionalized colloidal gold immunolabels that facilitate the detection and imaging of specific proteins in parallel with lipids in the plasma membrane using high-resolution SIMS performed with a NanoSIMS. First, we developed a method to functionalize colloidal gold nanoparticles with a partially fluorinated mixed monolayer that permitted NanoSIMS detection and rendered the functionalized nanoparticles dispersible in aqueous buffer. Then, to allow for selective protein labeling, we attached the fluorinated colloidal gold nanoparticles to the nonbinding portion of antibodies. By combining these functionalized immunolabels with metabolic incorporation of stable isotopes, we demonstrate that influenza hemagglutinin and cellular lipids can be imaged in parallel using NanoSIMS. These labels enable a general approach to simultaneously imaging specific proteins and lipids with high sensitivity and lateral resolution, which may be used to evaluate predictions of protein colocalization with specific lipid species.

  16. Fluorinated colloidal gold immunolabels for imaging select proteins in parallel with lipids using high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert L.; Frisz, Jessica F.; Hanafin, William P.; Carpenter, Kevin J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Kraft, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    The local abundance of specific lipid species near a membrane protein is hypothesized to influence the protein’s activity. The ability to simultaneously image the distributions of specific protein and lipid species in the cell membrane would facilitate testing these hypotheses. Recent advances in imaging the distribution of cell membrane lipids with mass spectrometry have created the desire for membrane protein probes that can be simultaneously imaged with isotope labeled lipids. Such probes would enable conclusive tests of whether specific proteins co-localize with particular lipid species. Here, we describe the development of fluorine-functionalized colloidal gold immunolabels that facilitate the detection and imaging of specific proteins in parallel with lipids in the plasma membrane using high-resolution SIMS performed with a NanoSIMS. First, we developed a method to functionalize colloidal gold nanoparticles with a partially fluorinated mixed monolayer that permitted NanoSIMS detection and rendered the functionalized nanoparticles dispersible in aqueous buffer. Then, to allow for selective protein labeling, we attached the fluorinated colloidal gold nanoparticles to the nonbinding portion of antibodies. By combining these functionalized immunolabels with metabolic incorporation of stable isotopes, we demonstrate that influenza hemagglutinin and cellular lipids can be imaged in parallel using NanoSIMS. These labels enable a general approach to simultaneously imaging specific proteins and lipids with high sensitivity and lateral resolution, which may be used to evaluate predictions of protein co-localization with specific lipid species. PMID:22284327

  17. Impact of Redox Reactions on Colloid Transport in Saturated Porous Media: An Example of Ferrihydrite Colloids Transport in the Presence of Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peng; Yuan, Songhu; Wang, Dengjun

    2016-10-18

    Transport of colloids in the subsurface is an important environmental process with most research interests centered on the transport in chemically stable conditions. While colloids can be formed under dynamic redox conditions, the impact of redox reactions on their transport is largely overlooked. Taking the redox reactions between ferrihydrite colloids and sulfide as an example, we investigated how and to what extent the redox reactions modulated the transport of ferrihydrite colloids in anoxic sand columns over a range of environmentally relevant conditions. Our results reveal that the presence of sulfide (7.8-46.9 μM) significantly decreased the breakthrough of ferrihydrite colloids in the sand column. The estimated travel distance of ferrihydrite colloids in the absence of sulfide was nearly 7-fold larger than that in the presence of 46.9 μM sulfide. The reduced breakthrough was primarily attributed to the reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite colloids by sulfide in parallel with formation of elemental sulfur (S(0)) particles from sulfide oxidation. Reductive dissolution decreased the total mass of ferrihydrite colloids, while the negatively charged S(0) decreased the overall zeta potential of ferrihydrite colloids by attaching onto their surfaces and thus enhanced their retention in the sand. Our findings provide novel insights into the critical role of redox reactions on the transport of redox-sensitive colloids in saturated porous media.

  18. The use of small angle neutron scattering to measure the colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles intended for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, J.; St Pierre, T.G.; Rutnakornpituk, M.; Riffle, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    The size and shape of particles in suspension and the interactions between the particles can be determined from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies. Magnetic cobalt nanoparticles have been manufactured with a view to using their unique properties for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and targetting to specific sites in the body. The nanoparticles are designed to form stable suspension and to remain isolated from one another in order to prevent formation of clusters of particles. The colloidal stability of the suspension is related to the size of the particles with larger particles being less stable than small ones in general. Electron microscopy images indicate that the cobalt nanoparticles form clusters but it is unclear if the clustering is an artifact of the specimen preparation. Small angle scattering experiments can determine if the aggregation observed on drying is the true behaviour of the nanoparticles while suspended in the carrier fluid. Cobalt nanoparticles and silica-coated cobalt nanoparticles were studied using SANS at the Australian Small Angle Neutron Scattering Facility (AUSANS) at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. Both sets of nanoparticles were coated in a silicon-based polymer and suspended in a silicon-based carrier fluid to form a stable dispersion. The SANS study points to the nanoparticles being fully dispersed and isolated when in the fluid state. Interactions between the particles may cause clustering over time. To study this, the SANS measurements were repeated after a 7 month interval. No significant changes in the particle sizes as measured by the SANS technique are observed indicating the suspensions of the particles are colloidally stable over time. Together these results indicate the nanoparticles may be candidates for biomedical applications

  19. Experimental Studies to Evaluate the Role of Colloids on the Radionuclide Migration in a Crystalline Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, Nairoby; Missana, Tiziana; Alonso, Ursula; Garcia-Gutierrez, Miguel; Mingarro, Manuel; Lopez, Trinidad [CIEMAT, Departamento de Medioambiente, Avenida Complutense, 22 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    In a deep geological repository (DGR) of high level radioactive waste, all the possible phenomena affecting radionuclide migration have to be studied to assess its security over time. Colloids can play an important role for contaminant transport if the following conditions are fulfilled: colloids exist in a non negligible concentration, they are mobile and stable in the environment of interest, and they are able to adsorb radionuclides irreversibly. In this study, different transport experiments where performed to improve the knowledge on the main mechanisms affecting the radionuclide migration in the presence of colloids in a crystalline medium. Firstly, colloid stability was analysed and then transport experiments in an artificial granite longitudinal fracture were carried out. Synthetic colloids of different size and bentonite clay colloids were used to evaluate the effects of colloid size, charge, and water flow rate on their mobility. Results showed that both major importance of the water flow rate on the mobility of colloids and their recovery and a higher interaction of smaller particles with the surface. Finally, the migration behaviour of Sr, and Sr adsorbed onto bentonite colloids was compared. The elution curves of Sr adsorbed onto colloid were significantly different from the ones of Sr alone, pointing out that sorption/desorption mechanisms must be taken into account to understand the radionuclide migration in the fracture in the presence of colloids. (authors)

  20. Synthesis of nanosized silver colloids by microwave dielectric heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silver nanosized crystallites have been synthesized in aqueous and polyols viz., ethylene glycol and glycerol, using a microwave technique. Dispersions of colloidal silver have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate both in the presence and absence of stabilizer poly(vinylpyrolidone) (PVP). It was observed that ...

  1. The effect of colloid preload versus prophylactic ephedrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: We aimed to investigate the effect of colloid infusion immediately before the spinal anesthesia, and the prophylactic intravenous (IV) infusion of ephedrine after injection of intrathecal bupivacaine on hemodynamic parameters, QT, The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc), and dispersion of QTc (QTcDisp) intervals ...

  2. Phase behaviour of rod-like colloid + flexible polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Stroobants, A.

    The effect of non-adsorbing, flexible polymer on the isotropic-nematic transition in dispersions of rod-like colloids is investigated. A widening of the biphasic gap is observed, in combination with a marked polymer partitioning between the coexisting phases. Under certain conditions, areas of

  3. Controlled assembly of jammed colloidal shells on fluid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A.

    2005-07-01

    Assembly of colloidal particles on fluid interfaces is a promising technique for synthesizing two-dimensional microcrystalline materials useful in fields as diverse as biomedicine, materials science, mineral flotation and food processing. Current approaches rely on bulk emulsification methods, require further chemical and thermal treatments, and are restrictive with respect to the materials used. The development of methods that exploit the great potential of interfacial assembly for producing tailored materials have been hampered by the lack of understanding of the assembly process. Here we report a microfluidic method that allows direct visualization and understanding of the dynamics of colloidal crystal growth on curved interfaces. The crystals are periodically ejected to form stable jammed shells, which we refer to as colloidal armour. We propose that the energetic barriers to interfacial crystal growth and organization can be overcome by targeted delivery of colloidal particles through hydrodynamic flows. Our method allows an unprecedented degree of control over armour composition, size and stability.

  4. [Factors affecting activation and transference of soil colloidal phosphorus and related analysis technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liang, Xin-qiang; Fu, Chao-dong; Zhu, Si-rui; Zhang, Yi-xiang; Ji, Yuan-jing

    2015-04-01

    Colloids play a key role in the transference process of phosphorus (P) in soil. Activation and transference of soil colloidal phosphorus have great effect on soil P pool and the surrounding water quality. This paper summarized the current studies on soil colloidal P, discussing the effects of the various factors (e. g., soil physical and chemical properties, fertilization, rainfall and soil amendments) on the transference of soil colloidal P. Some advanced analysis technologies (e.g., flow field-flow fractionation, transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and nuclear magnetic resonance) and methods of reducing soil colloidal P were also involved. This review would provide important information on the mechanism of soil colloidal P transference.

  5. Secondary and Primary Energy Minimum Interactions of Colloids in Porous Media: A Novel Binomial Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, M.; Rasmuson, J. A.; Johnson, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Aqueous transport of colloids in porous media is significantlyaffected by interactions with grain surfaces associated with theprimary and secondary energy minimum at colloid-surface separationdistances within a few to hundreds of nanometers, respectively. Nearsurface fluid domain colloids experience relatively low fluid drag andrelatively strong colloidal forces that slow their down-gradienttranslation relative to colloids in bulk fluid. Near surface fluiddomain colloids may re-enter into the bulk fluid via diffusion(nanoparticles) or expulsion at rear flow stagnation zones, or theymay immobilize (attach) via strong primary minimum interactions.Our new model accounts for all possible permutations of mass transferwithin a dual pore and grain network. The primary phenomena therebyrepresented in the model are mass transfer of colloids between thebulk and near-surface fluid domains and immobilization. A previouslydeveloped pore-scale model provides likelihoods and time scalesassociated with the above pore-scale colloid mass transfer processes,whereas the network-scale model employs fluid flow field and graintopology to determine probabilities of transfer from up-gradient bulkand near-surface fluid domains to down-gradient bulk and near-surfacefluid domains. We used the model to make predictions of colloid fateand transport at the column scale based on independently determinedpore-scale parameterizations. The models allows separating theeffects of hydrodynamic dispersion and colloid attachment anddetachment on breakthrough elution curves.

  6. Glass transition in soft-sphere dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RamIrez-Gonzalez, P E; Medina-Noyola, M

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic equivalence among mono-disperse soft-sphere fluids is employed in the framework of the self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics to calculate the ideal glass transition phase diagram of model soft-sphere colloidal dispersions in the softness-concentration state space. The slow dynamics predicted by this theory near the glass transition is compared with available experimental data for the decay of the intermediate scattering function of colloidal dispersions of soft-microgel particles. Increasing deviations from this simple scheme occur for increasingly softer potentials, and this is studied here using the Rogers-Young static structure factor of the soft-sphere systems as the input of the SCGLE theory, without assuming a priori the validity of the equivalence principle above.

  7. Colloidal attraction induced by a temperature gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leonardo, R; Ianni, F; Ruocco, G

    2009-04-21

    Colloidal crystals are of extreme importance for applied research and for fundamental studies in statistical mechanics. Long-range attractive interactions, such as capillary forces, can drive the spontaneous assembly of such mesoscopic ordered structures. However, long-range attractive forces are very rare in the colloidal realm. Here we report a novel strong, long-ranged attraction induced by a thermal gradient in the presence of a wall. By switching the thermal gradient on and off, we can rapidly and reversibly form stable hexagonal 2D crystals. We show that the observed attraction is hydrodynamic in nature and arises from thermally induced slip flow on particle surfaces. We used optical tweezers to measure the force law directly and compare it to an analytical prediction based on Stokes flow driven by Marangoni-like forces.

  8. Paclitaxel-Nanodiamond Nanocomplexes Enhance Aqueous Dispersibility and Drug Retention in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Gon; Jung, Joo Hyun; Ko, Hyuk Wan; Kang, Eunah; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2016-09-14

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) with 5 nm crystalline structures have been recognized as emerging carbon delivery vehicles due to their biocompatible inertness, high surface-to-volume ratio, and energy absorbance properties. In this study, carboxylated nanodiamond (ND-COOH) was reduced to hydroxylated nanodiamond (ND-OH) for stable and pH-independent colloidal dispersity. The poorly water-soluble paclitaxel (PTX) was physically loaded into ND-OH clusters, forming amorphous PTX nanostructure on the interparticle nanocage of the ND substrate. Stable physical PTX loading onto the ND substrate with stable colloidal stability showed enhanced PTX release. ND-OH/PTX complexes retained the sustained release of PTX by up to 97.32% at 70 h, compared with the 47.33% release of bare crystalline PTX. Enhanced PTX release from ND substrate showed low cell viability in Hela, MCF-9, and A549 cancer cells due to sustained release and stable dispersity in a biological aqueous environment. Especially, the IC50 values of ND-OH/PTX complexes and PTX in Hela cells were 0.037 μg/mL and 0.137 μg/mL, respectively. Well-dispersed cellular uptake of suprastructure ND-OH/PTX nanocomplexes was directly observed from the TEM images. ND-OH/PTX nanocomplexes assimilated into cells might provide convective diffusion with high PTX concentration, inducing initial necrosis. This study suggests that poorly water-soluble drugs can be formulated into a suprastructure with ND and acts as a highly concentrated drug reservoir directly within a cell.

  9. Medical applications of colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Matijevic, Egon

    2008-01-01

    The first book of its type on the medical and biomedical applications of colloids, although there are some related titles on different topicsDiscusses the effects of uniform particles in drug formulations and releaseEvaluates particle transport and deposition in the human body.

  10. Binary colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal

  11. Evidence of stable genetic structure across a remote island archipelago through self-recruitment in a widely dispersed coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Priest, Mark

    2012-11-19

    We used microsatellite markers to assess the population genetic structure of the scribbled rabbitfish Siganus spinus in the western Pacific. This species is a culturally important food fish in the Mariana Archipelago and subject to high fishing pressure. Our primary hypothesis was to test whether the individuals resident in the southern Mariana Island chain were genetically distinct and hence should be managed as discrete stocks. In addition to spatial sampling of adults, newly-settled individuals were sampled on Guam over four recruitment events to assess the temporal stability of the observed spatial patterns, and evidence of self-recruitment. We found significant genetic structure in S. spinus across the western Pacific, with Bayesian analyses revealing three genetically distinct clusters: the southernMariana Islands, east Micronesia, and the west Pacific; with the southern Mariana Islands beingmore strongly differentiated fromthe rest of the region. Analyses of temporal samples from Guam indicated the southern Mariana cluster was stable over time, with no genetic differentiation between adults versus recruits, or between samples collected across four separate recruitment events spanning 11 months. Subsequent assignment tests indicated seven recruits had self-recruited from within the Southern Mariana Islands population. Our results confirm the relative isolation of the southern Mariana Islands population and highlight how local processes can act to isolate populations that, by virtue of their broad-scale distribution, have been subject to traditionally high gene flows. Our results add to a growing consensus that self-recruitment is a highly significant influence on the population dynamics of tropical reef fish. 2012 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Dynamic of Faceted Colloidal Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindoro, Melinda; Jee, Ah-Young; Yu, Changqian; Granick, Steve

    2014-03-01

    We study the emulsion induced clustering of faceted metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and their dynamics. Our approach to anisotropic building block is through the rational synthesis of water stable and highly uniform MOFs. This generates colloidal-sized MOFs of defined polyhedral shape with tunable size in micrometer range that are suitable for in situ imaging. The 3D clusters formations are promoted by hydrophilic MOFs particles confined in aqueous droplets of binary water-lutidine mixture at transition temperature. Below this temperature, the water droplet decreases in volume due to one phase mixing with lutidine which forces the N-mers of faceted particles to aggregate in close contact. We compare the faceted clusters formed to those made of spherical particles in term of the building block sphericity. Other focus of our study involves the dynamic of the clusters. We found that, unlike spherical clusters, these faceted N-mers are highly stable on large scale of temperature due to their dominant capillary force on their facet-to-facet contact.

  13. Ubiquitous presence of Fe(II) in aquatic colloids and its association with organic carbon

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    von der Heyden, BP

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite being thermodynamically less stable, small ferrous colloids (60 nm to 3 µm in diameter) remain an important component of the biogeochemical cycle at the Earth’s surface, yet their composition and structure and the reasons...

  14. Silica-coated titania and zirconia colloids for subsurface transport field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph N.; Elimelech, Menachem; Baeseman, Jenny L.; Magelky, Robin D.

    2000-01-01

    Silica-coated titania (TiO2) and zirconia (ZrO2) colloids were synthesized in two sizes to provide easily traced mineral colloids for subsurface transport experiments. Electrophoretic mobility measurements showed that coating with silica imparted surface properties similar to pure silica to the titania and zirconia colloids. Measurements of steady electrophoretic mobility and size (by dynamic light scattering) over a 90-day period showed that the silica-coated colloids were stable to aggregation and loss of coating. A natural gradient field experiment conducted in an iron oxide-coated sand and gravel aquifer also showed that the surface properties of the silica-coated colloids were similar. Colloid transport was traced at μg L-1 concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy measurement of Ti and Zr in acidified samples.

  15. Nonlinear optical properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles produced by laser ablation in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavanskii, V A; Krasovskii, V I; Ivanchenko, P V; Simakin, Aleksandr V

    2004-01-01

    The optical and nonlinear optical properties of colloidal solutions of silver obtained by laser ablation in water and ethanol are studied. It is shown that freshly prepared colloids experience a full or partial sedimentation by changing their nonlinear optical properties. Aqueous colloids undergo a partial sedimentation and their nonlinear optical absorption changes to nonlinear optical transmission. The obtained results are interpreted using the Drude model for metal particles taking the particle size into account and can be explained by the sedimentation of larger silver particles accompanied by the formation of a stable colloid containing silver nanoparticles with a tentatively silver oxide shell. The characteristic size of particles forming such a stable colloid is determined and its optical nonlinearity is estimated. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. Statistical analysis of phase formation in 2D colloidal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Hauke; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Wolff, Max

    2018-01-23

    Colloidal systems offer unique opportunities for the study of phase formation and structure since their characteristic length scales are accessible to visible light. As a model system the two-dimensional assembly of colloidal magnetic and non-magnetic particles dispersed in a ferrofluid (FF) matrix is studied by transmission optical microscopy. We present a method to statistically evaluate images with thousands of particles and map phases by extraction of local variables. Different lattice structures and long-range connected branching chains are observed, when tuning the effective magnetic interaction and varying particle ratios.

  17. Enhanced transport of ferrihydrite colloid by chain-shaped humic acid colloid in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Guo, Huaming; Lei, Mei; Li, Yongtao; Weng, Liping; Chen, Yali; Ma, Yuling; Deng, Yingxuan; Feng, Xiaojuan; Xiu, Wei

    2018-04-15

    Both humic acid and colloid particle size effectively regulate colloid transport. However, little is known about effect of particle size and configuration of humic acid colloid (HA colloid ) on enhanced-transport of ferrihydrite colloid (FH colloid ) in porous media. Co-transport of HA colloid and FH colloid at different pH was systematically investigated by monitoring breakthrough curves (BTCs) in saturated sand columns. The colloid transport model and the (X)DLVO theory were used to reveal the mechanism of HA colloid -enhanced FH colloid transport in the columns. Results showed that HA colloid enhanced FH colloid transport in neutral and alkaline conditions. In neutral conditions, small HA colloid (F-HA colloid ) with chain-shaped structure enhanced FH colloid transport more prominently than pristine granular HA colloid . The chain-shaped F-HA colloid caused osmotic repulsion and elastic-steric repulsion between colloids and sand, leading to enhanced transport. However, the granular HA colloid readily occurred as deposition due to attachment and straining, which decreased the enhanced transport of FH colloid . In alkaline conditions, both HA colloid and F-HA colloid were chain-shaped, with longer chains of HA colloid than F-HA colloid . Ferrihydrite colloid transport was enhanced by HA colloid more significantly than F-HA colloid due to stronger repulsion between mixed HA colloid -FH colloid and sand. It suggested that regulation of particle size and morphology of HA colloid would enhance FH colloid transport and further help in understanding FH colloid -facilitated contaminants transport in porous media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Colloidal Behavior of Engineered NPs in Environmental Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    state of flux. 3 A common misconception • A common misconception in NP experiments is that the suspension remains stable. • This is rarely the...18 CNT with humics • 19 20 1 Ostega Lake humic More humics Summary & Conclusions • NP behavior generally follows colloidal chemistry , showing

  19. Phase diagrams of shape-anisotropic colloidal particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to predict the equilibrium phase behaviour of colloidal particles, one should first identify the “candidate” structures in which the particles may assemble. Subsequently, the free energy of the candidate structures should be determined to establish the thermodynamically stable phases and to

  20. Facile synthesis and catalytic properties of silver colloidal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. A facile method was explored to prepare stable silver colloidal nanoparticles (AgCNPs) in water. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the stabilizing agent, without addition of any co-surfactant. The reaction was rapid and the product prepared at different conditions was measured by.

  1. Micro-evaporators: a powerful tool to control the growth of dense organized colloidal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burel, Celine; Leng, Jacques; Donnio, Bertrand; Dreyfus, Remi; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste

    Latex colloids have been concentrated inside a microfluidic channel, referred to as a microevaporator, in a controlled way up to the formation of millimeter-long colloidal materials. The solvent of this colloidal dispersion is transported by pervaporation through a thin PDMS membrane sealing the channel, inducing a flow from the reservoir containing the dispersion, up to the tip of the channel. Thus, as pervaporation occurs, colloids get concentrated at the tip of the channel up to the growth of a packed bed of colloids. The frontier between the dilute dispersion and the concentrated jammed or crystalline phase is clearly delimited by a concentration front. The position of the latter was recorded by using direct videomicroscopy. We investigated the dynamics of growth of such concentrated materials by measuring the position of the concentration front as a function of time. From these data we also estimated the volume fraction of the colloids within the concentrated material using mass conservation. We found that the estimated values are much smaller than the expected volume fractions for a dense colloidal assembly. We finally propose some explanations for such a discrepancy. This work was supported by CNRS-SOLVAY-UPENN and ANRT.

  2. Synthesis of Water-Based Dispersions of Polymer/TiO2 Hybrid Nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We develop a strategy for preparing water-based dispersions of polymer/TiO2 nanospheres that can be used to form composite materials applicable in various fields. The formed hybrid nanospheres are monodisperse and possess a hierarchical structure. It starts with the primary TiO2 nanoparticles of about 5 nm, which first assemble to nanoclusters of about 30 nm and then are integrated into monomer droplets. After emulsion polymerization, one obtains the water-based dispersions of polymer/TiO2 nanospheres. To achieve universal size, it is necessary to have treatments with intense turbulent shear generated in a microchannel device at different stages. In addition, a procedure combining synergistic actions of steric and anionic surfactants has been designed to warrant the colloidal stability of the process. Since the formed polymer/TiO2 nanospheres are stable aqueous dispersions, they can be easily mixed with TiO2-free polymeric nanoparticle dispersions to form new dispersions, where TiO2-containing nanospheres are homogeneously distributed in the dispersions at the nanoscale, thus leading to various applications. As an example, the proposed strategy has been applied to generate polystyrene/TiO2 nanospheres of about 100 nm in diameter.

  3. Encapsulation of clay within polymer particles in a high-solids content aqueous dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Yuri; Peruzzo, Pablo J; Fernández, Mercedes; Paulis, Maria; Leiza, Jose R

    2013-08-06

    By using a two-step polymerization process, it was possible to encapsulate clay platelets within polymer particles dispersed in water. First, seed polymer particles with chemically bonded clay were obtained by batch miniemulsion polymerization. Then, the clay was buried within the particles by the addition of neat monomer in a second step. The final stable dispersions can have a solids content of up to 50 wt %. Transmission electron microscopy images clearly show the presence of clay platelets inside the polymer colloids, although they are not totally exfoliated. The obtained nanocomposites showed an increase in both the storage modulus in the rubbery state and the water resistance as the clay content increases. The approach presented here might be useful for encapsulating other high-aspect ratio nanofillers.

  4. Fabricating Water Dispersible Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications through Ligand Exchange and Direct Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Lam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stable superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, which can be easily dispersed in an aqueous medium and exhibit high magnetic relaxivities, are ideal candidates for biomedical applications including contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. We describe a versatile methodology to render water dispersibility to SPIONs using tetraethylene glycol (TEG-based phosphonate ligands, which are easily introduced onto SPIONs by either a ligand exchange process of surface-anchored oleic-acid (OA molecules or via direct conjugation. Both protocols confer good colloidal stability to SPIONs at different NaCl concentrations. A detailed characterization of functionalized SPIONs suggests that the ligand exchange method leads to nanoparticles with better magnetic properties but higher toxicity and cell death, than the direct conjugation methodology.

  5. Producing colloids with microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannacci, Nicolas; Willaime, Herve; Tabeling, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Submicronic emulsions are commonly used in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and material industries. Standard microfluidic tool is particularly convenient to produce in a very controlled way either droplets of typical diameter ranging from 10 to 300 microns with a perfect monodispersity (nanodrops in a way that is slightly dependent on the fluids used. The control on such a flow authorizes the adjustment of the diameter of the colloids formed. We will show brownian particles from 860 nm to 1.3 μm in diameter obtained in such way and their clustering into crystals thanks to their high monodispersity. These first experimental results are very promising and make evident the great potential of micro and nano-fluidics to produce nano-emulsions or colloids with very controlled size that metamaterials can require.

  6. Fractal nematic colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, S. M.; Jagodič, U.; Mozaffari, M. R.; Ejtehadi, M. R.; Muševič, I.; Ravnik, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fractals are remarkable examples of self-similarity where a structure or dynamic pattern is repeated over multiple spatial or time scales. However, little is known about how fractal stimuli such as fractal surfaces interact with their local environment if it exhibits order. Here we show geometry-induced formation of fractal defect states in Koch nematic colloids, exhibiting fractal self-similarity better than 90% over three orders of magnitude in the length scales, from micrometers to nanometres. We produce polymer Koch-shaped hollow colloidal prisms of three successive fractal iterations by direct laser writing, and characterize their coupling with the nematic by polarization microscopy and numerical modelling. Explicit generation of topological defect pairs is found, with the number of defects following exponential-law dependence and reaching few 100 already at fractal iteration four. This work demonstrates a route for generation of fractal topological defect states in responsive soft matter. PMID:28117325

  7. Constructing of DNA vectors with controlled nanosize and single dispersion by block copolymer coating gold nanoparticles as template assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junbo, E-mail: Lijunbo@haust.edu.cn [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China); Wu, Wenlan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Medicine (China); Gao, Jiayu; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Huiyun; Liang, Lijuan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China)

    2017-03-15

    Synthesized vectors with nanoscale size and stable colloid dispersion are highly desirable for improving gene delivery efficiency. Here, a core-shell template particle was constructed with polyethylene glycol-b-poly1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine) (PEG-b-PAMPImB) coating gold nanoparticles (PEG-b-PAMPImB-@-Au NPs) for loading DNA and delivering in vitro. Data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest that these nanoplexes, by forming an electrostatic complex with DNA at the inner PAMPImB shell, offer steric protection for the outer PEG corona leading to single dispersion and small size. Notably, higher colloid stability and lower cytotoxicity were achieved with these nanoplexes when compared with PAMPImB monolayer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and intracellular trafficking TEM further indicate that the nanoplexes can translocate across the cell membrane and partly enter the nucleus for high efficient expression. Thus, template assembly represents a promising approach to control the size and colloid stability of gene vectors and ensure safety and efficiency of DNA delivery.

  8. Strontium migration in a crystalline medium: effects of the presence of bentonite colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarran, Nairoby; Missana, Tiziana; García-Gutiérrez, Miguel; Alonso, Ursula; Mingarro, Manuel

    2011-03-25

    The effects of bentonite colloids on strontium migration in fractured crystalline medium were investigated. We analyzed first the transport behaviour of bentonite colloids alone at different flow rates; then we compared the transport behaviour of strontium as solute and of strontium previously adsorbed onto stable bentonite colloids at a water velocity of approximately 7.1·10(-6)m/s-224m/yr. Experiments with bentonite colloids alone showed that - at the lowest water flow rate used in our experiments (7.1·10(-6)m/s) - approximately 70% of the initially injected colloids were retained in the fracture. Nevertheless, the mobile colloidal fraction, moved through the fracture without retardation, at any flow rate. Bentonite colloids deposited over the fracture surface were identified during post-mortem analyses. The breakthrough curve of strontium as a solute, presented a retardation factor, R(f)~6, in agreement with its sorption onto the granite fracture surface. The breakthrough curve of strontium in the presence of bentonite colloids was much more complex, suggesting additional contributions of colloids to strontium transport. A very small fraction of strontium adsorbed on mobile colloids moved un-retarded (R(f)=1) and this fraction was much lower than the expected, considering the quantity of strontium initially adsorbed onto colloids (90%). This behaviour suggests the hypothesis of strontium sorption reversibility from colloids. On the other hand, bentonite colloids retained within the granite fracture played a major role, contributing to a slower strontium transport in comparison with strontium as a solute. This was shown by a clear peak in the breakthrough curve corresponding to a retardation factor of approximately 20. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Colloidal capsules: nano- and microcapsules with colloidal particle shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhorst, Tobias; Rezwan, Kurosch; Maas, Michael

    2017-04-18

    Utilizing colloidal particles for the assembly of the shell of nano- and microcapsules holds great promise for the tailor-made design of new functional materials. Increasing research efforts are devoted to the synthesis of such colloidal capsules, by which the integration of modular building blocks with distinct physical, chemical, or morphological characteristics in a capsule's shell can result in novel properties, not present in previous encapsulation structures. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the synthesis strategies and the progress made so far of bringing nano- and microcapsules with shells of densely packed colloidal particles closer to application in fields such as chemical engineering, materials science, or pharmaceutical and life science. The synthesis routes are categorized into the four major themes for colloidal capsule formation, i.e. the Pickering-emulsion based formation of colloidal capsules, the colloidal particle deposition on (sacrificial) templates, the amphiphilicity driven self-assembly of nanoparticle vesicles from polymer-grafted colloids, and the closely related field of nanoparticle membrane-loading of liposomes and polymersomes. The varying fields of colloidal capsule research are then further categorized and discussed for micro- and nano-scaled structures. Finally, a special section is dedicated to colloidal capsules for biological applications, as a diverse range of reports from this field aim at pharmaceutical agent encapsulation, targeted drug-delivery, and theranostics.

  10. Structure, stability, and formation pathways of colloidal gels in systems with short-range attraction and long-range repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schooneveld, Matti M; de Villeneuve, Volkert W A; Dullens, Roel P A; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Leunissen, Mirjam E; Kegel, Willem K

    2009-04-09

    We study colloidal gels formed upon centrifugation of dilute suspensions of spherical colloids (radius 446 nm) that interact through a long-range electrostatic repulsion (Debye length approximately 850 nm) and a short-range depletion attraction (approximately 12.5 nm), by means of confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). In these systems, at low colloid densities, colloidal clusters are stable. Upon increasing the density by centrifugation, at different stages of cluster formation, we show that colloidal gels are formed that significantly differ in structure. While significant single-particle displacements do not occur on the hour time scale, the different gels slowly evolve within several weeks to a similar structure that is at least stable for over a year. Furthermore, while reference systems without long-range repulsion collapse into dense glassy states, the repulsive colloidal gels are able to support external stress in the form of a centrifugal field of at least 9g.

  11. A study on the characteristics of colloid-associated radionuclide transport in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yun Chang

    1997-02-01

    Recently, the radionuclide transport in the form of colloids has been focused intensively in the safety assessment of a radioactive waste repository. As colloids are considered to be able to increase the transport rate of radionuclide through geologic media, the transport of radionuclide should be adjusted by the presence of colloids. The migration of dissolved radionuclide is expected to depend on various process such as advection, dispersion and interactions with soils, and, in addition, the transport of colloid-mediated radionuclide is considered to be more complicated because of the interactions between radionuclides and colloids. In this paper the migration behavior of colloid-associated radionuclides within subsurface are reviewed and studied in detail. The colloid-mediated transport system was modelled and simulated in order to illustrate the effects of colloids on the transport of radionuclide in the aquifer system. The transport rate of radionuclide is mainly controlled by a retardation factor which is controlled by colloidal behaviors, degree of adsorption, and the related geologic parameters. Therefore it is necessary to carefully understand the accelerating tendency of the retardation difference factor, and in this study the trends are analyzed, described and the retardation difference factor is mathematically defined, simplified and applied practically to the safety and performance assessment of a future repository

  12. Migration of radionuclides in porous rock in the presence of colloids: effects of kinetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S H; Jen, C P

    2001-01-01

    This work investigates the colloid-facilitated migration of radionuclides with radioactive decay in porous media. The sorption processes for radionuclides with both the solid matrix and colloids are treated as equilibrium or nonequilibrium. An analytical solution is obtained from a simplified linear equilibrium interaction mechanism. In addition, the adsorption processes for radionuclides with colloids and porous rock can be assumed as nonequilibrium and modeled by the linear kinetic adsorption. The numerical method is employed to solve the coupled colloid and radionuclide transport equations under nonequilibrium sorption assumption. Moreover, the reaction rates of the adsorption processes for radionuclides with the solid matrix and colloids affect the transport characteristics of radionuclides. The fast reaction rate of radionuclides with colloids causes a higher concentration of radionuclides adsorbed on colloids in a dispersed phase and enlarges acceleration caused by colloids. However, the fast reaction rate for radionuclides with solid matrix increases the retardation effect caused by the solid matrix. This work developed a predictive model for the transport of colloid-facilitated radionuclides in porous medium and to assess the importance of various phenomenological coefficients, particularly parameters for the adsorption interactions.

  13. Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) have been well developed because they are easy to prepare, cost-effective, and versatile with regards to modification and functionalization. Patterned colloidal PCs contribute a novel approach to constructing high-performance PC devices with unique structures and specific functions. In this review, an overview of the strategies for fabricating patterned colloidal PCs, including patterned substrate-induced assembly, inkjet printing, and selective immobilization and modification, is presented. The advantages of patterned PC devices are also discussed in detail, for example, improved detection sensitivity and response speed of the sensors, control over the flow direction and wicking rate of microfluidic channels, recognition of cross-reactive molecules through an array-patterned microchip, fabrication of display devices with tunable patterns, well-arranged RGB units, and wide viewing-angles, and the ability to construct anti-counterfeiting devices with different security strategies. Finally, the perspective of future developments and challenges is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Flocking ferromagnetic colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S

    2017-02-01

    Assemblages of microscopic colloidal particles exhibit fascinating collective motion when energized by electric or magnetic fields. The behaviors range from coherent vortical motion to phase separation and dynamic self-assembly. Although colloidal systems are relatively simple, understanding their collective response, especially under out-of-equilibrium conditions, remains elusive. We report on the emergence of flocking and global rotation in the system of rolling ferromagnetic microparticles energized by a vertical alternating magnetic field. By combing experiments and discrete particle simulations, we have identified primary physical mechanisms, leading to the emergence of large-scale collective motion: spontaneous symmetry breaking of the clockwise/counterclockwise particle rotation, collisional alignment of particle velocities, and random particle reorientations due to shape imperfections. We have also shown that hydrodynamic interactions between the particles do not have a qualitative effect on the collective dynamics. Our findings shed light on the onset of spatial and temporal coherence in a large class of active systems, both synthetic (colloids, swarms of robots, and biopolymers) and living (suspensions of bacteria, cell colonies, and bird flocks).

  15. Controlled reduction of LaFe xMn yMo zO3/Al2O3 composites to produce highly dispersed and stable Fe0 catalysts: a Mössbauer investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Tristão

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, controlled reduction of perovskites supported on Al2O3 was used to prepare thermally stable nanodispersed iron catalysts based on Fe0/La2O3/Al2O3. The perovskites composites LaFe0.90Mn0.08Mo0.02O3(25, 33 and 50 wt (% /Al2O3 and LaFe0.90Mn0.1O3(25 wt (% /Al2O3 were prepared and characterized by XRD, BET, TPR, SEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy. XRD for unsupported perovskite showed the formation of a single phase perovskite structure. The Mössbauer spectra of the perovskites were fitted with hyperfine field distribution model for the perovskite. Supported perovskites on Al2O3 showed a decrease of the hyperfine field in respect to unsupported perovskite, due to decrease of particle size and dispersion of the Fe3+ specimens on the support. Also showed broaden lines and relaxation effects due to the small particle size. To produce the Fe0 catalyst, the composite perovskite(25%/Al2O3 was reduced with H2 at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C for 1 hour. XRD data indicated the formation of Fe0 catalyst with particles sizes of ca. 35 nm. The Mössbauer spectrum showed the formation of metallic iron and doublets corresponding to species of octahedric Fe2+ and Fe3+ sites dispersed on Al2O3. These catalysts showed improved stability towards sintering even upon treatment at 1000 and 1100 °C under H2.

  16. Colloid migration in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, J.R. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1989-09-15

    Field studies at the Nevada Test Site by researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have demonstrated that radionuclides are being transported by colloidal material suspended in groundwater. This observation is counter to most predictions from contaminant transport models because the models assume adsorbed species are immobile. The purpose of this research is to quantify the transport processes for colloidal materials and develop the mechanistic understanding necessary to predict radionuclide transport in fractured media. There were three areas of investigation during this year that have addressed these issues: chemical control of colloid deposition on clean mineral surfaces, colloid accumulation on fracture surfaces, and the influence of deposited colloids on colloid and tracer migration. 7 refs.

  17. Self-Supporting Nanodiamond Gels: Elucidating Colloidal Interactions Through Rheology_

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prajesh; Tripathi, Anurodh; Vogel, Nancy A.; Rojas, Orlando J.; Raghavan, Sriunivasa R.; Khan, Saad A.

    This work investigates the colloidal interactions and rheological behavior of nanodiamond (ND) dispersions. While ND represents a promising class of nanofiller due to its high surface area, superior mechanical strength, tailorable surface functionality and biocompatibility, much remains unknown about the behavior of ND dispersions. We hypothesize that controlling interactions in ND dispersions will lead to highly functional systems with tunable modulus and shear response. Steady and dynamic rheology techniques are thus employed to systematically investigate nanodiamonds dispersed in model polar and non-polar media. We find that low concentrations of ND form gels almost instantaneously in a non-polar media. In contrast, ND's in polar media show a time-dependent behavior with the modulus increasing with time. We attribute the difference in behavior to variations in inter-particle interactions as well as the interaction of the ND with the media. Large steady and oscillatory strains are applied to ND colloidal gels to investigate the role of shear in gel microstructure breakdown and recovery. For colloidal gels in non-polar medium, the incomplete recovery of elastic modulus at high strain amplitudes indicates dominance of particle-particle interactions; however, in polar media the complete recovery of elastic modulus even at high strain amplitudes indicates dominance of particle-solvent interactions. These results taken together provide a platform to develop self-supporting gels with tunable properties in terms of ND concentration, and solvent type.

  18. A new method to prepare colloids of size-controlled clusters from a matrix assembly cluster source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rongsheng; Jian, Nan; Murphy, Shane; Bauer, Karl; Palmer, Richard E.

    2017-05-01

    A new method for the production of colloidal suspensions of physically deposited clusters is demonstrated. A cluster source has been used to deposit size-controlled clusters onto water-soluble polymer films, which are then dissolved to produce colloidal suspensions of clusters encapsulated with polymer molecules. This process has been demonstrated using different cluster materials (Au and Ag) and polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, and polyethylene glycol). Scanning transmission electron microscopy of the clusters before and after colloidal dispersion confirms that the polymers act as stabilizing agents. We propose that this method is suitable for the production of biocompatible colloids of ultraprecise clusters.

  19. The origin of flow-induced alignment of spherical colloids in shear-thinning viscoelastic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos de Oliveira, I S; den Otter, W K; Briels, W J

    2012-11-28

    We have studied the poorly understood process of flow-induced structure formation by colloids suspended in shear-thinning fluids. These viscoelastic fluids contain long flexible chains whose entanglements appear and disappear continuously as a result of brownian motion and the applied shear flow. Responsive particle dynamics simulates each chain as a single smooth brownian particle, with slowly evolving inter-particle degrees of freedom accounting for the entanglements. The colloids mixed homogeneously in all simulated quiescent dispersions and they remain dispersed under slow shear flow. Beyond a critical shear rate, which varies depending on the fluid, the colloids aggregate and form flow-aligned strings in the bulk of the fluid. In this work we explore the physical origins of this hitherto unexplained ordering phenomena, both by systematically varying the parameters of the simulated fluids and by analyzing the flow-induced effective colloidal interactions. We also present an expression for the critical shear rate of the studied fluids.

  20. Stabilized super-thermite colloids: A new generation of advanced highly energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif; Gaber Zaky, M.; Radwan, Mostafa; Mostafa, Sherif F.

    2017-10-01

    One of the great impetus of nanotechnology on energetic materials is the achievement of nanothermites (metal-oxide/metal) which are characterized by massive heat output. Yet, full exploitation of super-thermites in highly energetic systems has not been achieved. This manuscript reports on the sustainable fabrication of colloidal Fe2O3 and CuO nanoparticles for thermite applications. TEM micrographs demonstrated mono-dispersed Fe2O3 and CuO with an average particle size of 3 and 15 nm respectively. XRD diffractograms demonstrated highly crystalline materials. SEM micrographs demonstrated a great tendency of the developed oxides to aggregate over drying process. The effective integration and dispersion of mono-dispersed colloidal thermite particles into energetic systems are vital for enhanced performance. Aluminum is of interest as highly energetic metal fuel. In this paper, synthesized Fe2O3 and CuO nanoparticles were re-dispersed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with aluminum nanoparticles using ultrasonic prope homogenizer. The colloidal thermite peraticles can be intgegrated into highly energetic system for subsequent nanocomposite development. Thanks to stabilization of colloidal CuO nanoparticles in IPA which could offer intimate mixing between oxidizer and metal fuel. The stabilization mechanism of CuO in IPA was correlated to steric stabilization with solvent molecules. This approach eliminated nanoparticle drying and the re-dispersion of dry aggregates into energetic materials. This manuscript shaded the light on the real development of colloidal thermite mixtures and their integration into highly energetic systems.

  1. A rapid, accurate and sensitive method with the new stable isotopic tags based on microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and its application to the determination of hydroxyl UV filters in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Yuxia; Zhao, Xianen; Cao, Ziping; Xia, Lian; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; Wang, Hua; You, Jinmao

    2017-05-15

    A rapid, accurate and sensitive method, using the stable isotope labeling (SIL), microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (MADLLME) and the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), was developed and validated for the determination of hydroxyl UV Filters in environmental water samples. A pair of new isotopic tags D 0 -/D 3 -1-methylindole-3-acetic acid (D 0 -/D 3 -MIAA) is synthesized, with which a simple yet efficient pretreatment MADLLME-SIL is developed. Under the optimized conditions (80℃, 240W, 180s), the sample pretreatment including analyte extraction, pre-concentration and isotope labeling can be finished conveniently in only 9min. D 0 -/D 3 -MIAA labeling improves the chromatographic retention by strengthening the hydrophobicity and enhances the MS response for 3-4 orders of magnitude. Excellent linearity is established by the H/D ratios of 1/10-10/1 with the correlation coefficients >0.9990. The quite low detection limits (0.54-1.79ng/L) are achieved, ensuring the trace detection. This method is successfully applied to a series of environmental water samples. The recoveries (93.2%~103.5%) are significantly improved and the analysis time is largely reduced (UV filters in water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SANS observations on weakly flocculated dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Ourieva, G.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Structural changes occurring in colloidal dispersions of poly-(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) particles, sterically stabilized with poly-(12-hydroxystearic acid) (PHSA), while varying the solvent quality, temperature and shear rate, are investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS......). For a moderately concentrated dispersion in a marginal solvent the transition on cooling from the effective stability to a weak attraction is monitored, The degree of attraction is determined in the framework of the sticky spheres model (SSM), SANS and rheological results are correlated....

  3. Studied of actinide colloids in high-ionic strength groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadkhodayan, B.; Zhao, P.; Marquez, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed plans for permanent disposal of transuranic wastes in geologic repositories require the development of an actinide source-term model that predicts the total concentrations of mobile actinides both near field and far-field environments. An actinide source-term model must quantify mobile actinide-bearing species, which may be present as dissolved species in several possible oxidation states or as suspended colloidal particles. In this presentation, we describe results of experiments with several actinides in Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO 4 brines with ionic strengths ranging from 0.8 to 8 molal, designed to assess the formation of intrinsic colloids (Eigenkollide or real colloids), and their temporal behavior e.g., changes in concentration and size. We have implemented a test matrix that provides us with the basis to understand the behavior of actinides with +3, +4, +5, and +6 oxidation states, as a function of pH (3 to 11) and actinide concentration (10 -8 - 10 -4 molar). Colloid sizes were estimated using sequential filtration and ultrafiltration techniques. Colloidal particles were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The oxidation states of the actinides were investigated with absorption spectroscopy

  4. Colloid-facilitated transport of lead in natural discrete fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiang-Yu; Weisbrod, Noam

    2009-01-01

    Colloid-facilitated transport of lead (Pb) was explored in a natural chalk fracture with an average equivalent hydraulic aperture of 139 microm. Tracer solution was prepared by adding montmorillonite (100 mg L(-1)) and/or humic acid (HA) (10 mg L(-1)) to modified artificial rainwater containing dissolved Pb (21.4 mg Pb L(-1)), naturally precipitated PbCO(3) particles (16.4 mg Pb L(-1)) and LiBr (39.0 mg L(-1)). We found that Pb is only mobile when associated with colloids. PbCO(3) particles were not mobile in the fracture. The addition of HA to the montmorillonite suspension increased the suspension's mobility and therefore promoted the colloid-facilitated transport of Pb. The increases in pH and sodium absorption ratio induced by the chalk-tracer solution interactions appeared to increase the dispersion and mobilization of colloids entering the fracture. The dominant colloid-facilitated transport of Pb reported in this study has significant implications for risk assessment of Pb mobility in fractured rocks.

  5. Influences of magnetic particle-particle interactions on orientational distributions and rheological properties for a colloidal dispersion composed of rod-like particle with a magnetic moment normal to the particle axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Ryo; Aoshima, Masayuki; Satoh, Akira

    We have investigated mainly the influences of magnetic particle-particle interactions on the orientational distribution and viscosity of a semi-dense dispersion, which is composed of rod-like particles with a magnetic moment magnetized normal to the particle axis. In addition, the influences of the magnetic field strength, shear rate, and random forces on the orientational distribution and rheological properties have been clarified. The mean field approximation has been applied to take into account magnetic interactions between rod-like particles. The basic equation of the orientational distribution function has been derived from the balance of torques and solved by the numerical analysis method. The results obtained here are summarized as follows. For a strong magnetic field, the rotational motion of the rod-like particle is restricted in a plane normal to the shearing plane since the magnetic moment of the particle is restricted in the magnetic field direction. Under circumstances of a very strong magnetic interaction between particles, the magnetic moment is strongly restricted in the magnetic field direction, so that the particle has a tendency to incline in the flow direction with the magnetic moment pointing to the magnetic field direction. For a strong shear flow, a directional characteristic of rod-like particles is enhanced, and this leads to a more significant one-peak-type distribution of the orientational distribution function. Magnetic interactions between particles do not contribute to the increase in the viscosity because the mean-field vector has only a component along the magnetic field direction.

  6. Polymers and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schurtenberger, P. [ETH Zurich, Inst. fuer Polymere, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs.

  7. Neutron scattering from colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, D.J.; Thomas, R.K.; Harris, N.M.; Tabony, J.; White, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper appraises the usefulness of neutron diffraction and small angle scattering for determining the structure of dilute and concentrated sols. For monodisperse polystyrene latex, the particle size and density can be readily determined and an upper limit to density fluctuations within the colloid particle set. For the polystyrene latex peptized by the adsorption of laurate, the physical dimensions and packing density of the adsorbed phase can be determined. The effects of polydispersity for unpeptized and peptized graphite sols, and the effects of extreme particle anisotropy using sols of montmorillonite clay minerals have been studied. (author)

  8. Liquid Crystalline Behavior and Related Properties of Colloidal Systems of Inorganic Oxide Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi Miyamoto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic layered crystals exemplified by clay minerals can be exfoliated in solvents to form colloidal dispersions of extremely thin inorganic layers that are called nanosheets. The obtained “nanosheet colloids” form lyotropic liquid crystals because of the highly anisotropic shape of the nanosheets. This system is a rare example of liquid crystals consisting of inorganic crystalline mesogens. Nanosheet colloids of photocatalytically active semiconducting oxides can exhibit unusual photoresponses that are not observed for organic liquid crystals. This review summarizes experimental work on the phase behavior of the nanosheet colloids as well as photochemical reactions observed in the clay and semiconducting nanosheets system.

  9. Photophysical effects between spirobenzopyran-methylmethacrylate functionalized colloidal particles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piech, Marcin; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2005-06-01

    Colloidal particles were derivatized with end-grafted polymethylmethacryate polymer brushes containing varying concentrations of spirobenzopyran photochromic molecules. The polymers were grown from initiator-functionalized silica partilces by an atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). These core-shell colloids formed stable suspensions in toluene with the spirobenzopyran in its closed, nonpolar form. However, UV-induced photoswitching of the photochrome to its open, polar merocyanine isomer caused rapid aggregation. The nature of this colloidal stability transition was examined with respect to the spirobenzopyran content in the polymeric brush and solvent polarity. Turbidimetry, wettability studies, UV-vis spectroscopy, suspension rheology, SEM, and visual inspection were utilized to characterize the system photoswitchability. It was found that the system exhibiting the greatest transition in toluene was the copolymer brush composed of 20% spirobenzopyran and 80% methyl methacrylate.

  10. Study on Colloidal Model of Petroleum Residues through the Attraction Potential between Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-li Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples of DaGang atmospheric residue (DG-AR, Middle East atmospheric residue (ME-AR, TaHe atmospheric residue (TH-AR, and their thermal reaction samples were chosen for study. All the samples were fractioned into six components separately, including saturates plus light aromatics, heavy aromatics, light resins, middle resins, heavy resins, and asphaltenes. The dielectric permittivity of the solutions of these components was measured, and the dielectric permittivity values of the components can be determined by extrapolation, which increased steadily from saturates plus light aromatics to asphaltenes. Moreover, the Hamaker constants of the components were calculated from their dielectric permittivity values. The Van der Waals attractive potential energy between colloids corresponding to various models could be calculated from the fractional composition and the Hamaker constants of every component. It was assumed that the cores of colloidal particles were formed by asphaltenes and heavy resins mainly; the other fractions acted as dispersion medium. For the three serials of thermal reaction samples, the Van der Waals attraction potential energy between colloids for this kind of model was calculated. For TH-AR thermal reaction samples, the Van der Waals attraction potential energy presented the maximum as thermal reaction is going on, which was near to the end of coke induction period.

  11. Room temperature synthesis of colloidal platinum nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Efficient preparation of stable dispersions of platinum nanoparticles from platinous chloride. (K2PtCl4) was achieved by simultaneous addition of capping polymer material. The size of platinum nanoparti- cles was controlled by changing the ratio of concentration of capping polymer material to the concentration of.

  12. A binomial modeling approach for upscaling colloid transport under unfavorable conditions: Emergent prediction of extended tailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, Markus; Rasmuson, Anna; Johnson, William P.

    2017-07-01

    Colloid transport in saturated porous media is significantly influenced by colloidal interactions with grain surfaces. Near-surface fluid domain colloids experience relatively low fluid drag and relatively strong colloidal forces that slow their downgradient translation relative to colloids in bulk fluid. Near-surface fluid domain colloids may reenter into the bulk fluid via diffusion (nanoparticles) or expulsion at rear flow stagnation zones, they may immobilize (attach) via primary minimum interactions, or they may move along a grain-to-grain contact to the near-surface fluid domain of an adjacent grain. We introduce a simple model that accounts for all possible permutations of mass transfer within a dual pore and grain network. The primary phenomena thereby represented in the model are mass transfer of colloids between the bulk and near-surface fluid domains and immobilization. Colloid movement is described by a Markov chain, i.e., a sequence of trials in a 1-D network of unit cells, which contain a pore and a grain. Using combinatorial analysis, which utilizes the binomial coefficient, we derive the residence time distribution, i.e., an inventory of the discrete colloid travel times through the network and of their probabilities to occur. To parameterize the network model, we performed mechanistic pore-scale simulations in a single unit cell that determined the likelihoods and timescales associated with the above colloid mass transfer processes. We found that intergrain transport of colloids in the near-surface fluid domain can cause extended tailing, which has traditionally been attributed to hydrodynamic dispersion emanating from flow tortuosity of solute trajectories.

  13. Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state, variably saturated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrey, Kelly D.; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.

    2003-06-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation, colloid-facilitated transport is a potential mechanism for accelerated movement of radionuclides like Cs-137. Here we investigate the transport of colloids through Hanford sediments under steady state, unsaturated flow conditions. We isolated colloids from Hanford sediments by dispersion and sedimentation and determined colloid breakthrough curves in packed sediment columns. A column system was developed with which we could control volumetric water contents with accuracy better than 0.01 effective saturation and the water potentials to better than 0.06 cm-H2O. Inflow and outflow boundary conditions had to be meticulously controlled to ensure uniformity of water contents and water potentials inside the column. Colloid breakthrough curves were determined under a series of water contents ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 effective saturation. Colloids were mobile under all water saturations, but the total amount of colloids transported decreased with decreasing water saturation. Colloid behavior was described with the mobile-immobile model concept, including first-order deposition from the mobile phase only.

  14. Magnetically actuated and controlled colloidal sphere-pair swimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, Sijie; Guez, Allon; Friedman, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically actuated swimming of microscopic objects has been attracting attention partly due to its promising applications in the bio-medical field and partly due to interesting physics of swimming in general. While colloidal particles that are free to move in fluid can be an attractive swimming system due it its simplicity and ability to assemble in situ , stability of their dynamics and the possibility of stable swimming behavior in periodically varying magnetic fields has not been considered. Dynamic behavior of two magnetically interacting colloidal particles subjected to rotating magnetic field of switching frequency is analyzed here and is shown to result in stable swimming without any stabilizing feedback. A new mechanism of swimming that relies only on rotations of the particles themselves and of the particle pair axis is found to dominate the swimming dynamics of the colloidal particle pair. Simulation results and analytical arguments demonstrate that this swimming strategy compares favorably to dragging the particles with an external magnetic force when colloidal particle sizes are reduced. (paper)

  15. Microrheology of colloidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas, A M; Voigtmann, T

    2014-01-01

    Microrheology was proposed almost twenty years ago as a technique to obtain rheological properties in soft matter from the microscopic motion of colloidal tracers used as probes, either freely diffusing in the host medium, or subjected to external forces. The former case is known as passive microrheology, and is based on generalizations of the Stokes–Einstein relation between the friction experienced by the probe and the host-fluid viscosity. The latter is termed active microrheology, and extends the measurement of the friction coefficient to the nonlinear-response regime of strongly driven probes. In this review article, we discuss theoretical models available in the literature for both passive and active microrheology, focusing on the case of single-probe motion in model colloidal host media. A brief overview of the theory of passive microrheology is given, starting from the work of Mason and Weitz. Further developments include refined models of the host suspension beyond that of a Newtonian-fluid continuum, and the investigation of probe-size effects. Active microrheology is described starting from microscopic equations of motion for the whole system including both the host-fluid particles and the tracer; the many-body Smoluchowski equation for the case of colloidal suspensions. At low fluid densities, this can be simplified to a two-particle equation that allows the calculation of the friction coefficient with the input of the density distribution around the tracer, as shown by Brady and coworkers. The results need to be upscaled to agree with simulations at moderate density, in both the case of pulling the tracer with a constant force or dragging it at a constant velocity. The full many-particle equation has been tackled by Fuchs and coworkers, using a mode-coupling approximation and the scheme of integration through transients, valid at high densities. A localization transition is predicted for a probe embedded in a glass-forming host suspension. The

  16. Colloids in Flatland: a perspective on 2D phase-separated systems, characterisation methods, and lineactant design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, C; Stoyanov, S D; Arnaudov, L N; Cohen Stuart, M A

    2013-03-07

    In 1861 Thomas Graham gave birth to a new field of science, today known as colloid science. Nowadays, the notion "colloid" is often used referring to systems consisting of two immiscible phases, one of which is finely dispersed into the other. Research on colloids deals mostly with sols (solids dispersed in a liquid), emulsions (liquids dispersed in liquid), and foams (gas dispersed in a liquid). Because the dispersed particles are small, there is a lot of interface per unit mass. Not surprisingly, therefore, the properties of the interface have often a decisive effect on the behaviour of colloids. Water-air interfaces have a special relevance in this field: many water-insoluble molecules can be spread on water and, given the right spreading conditions and enough available surface area, their spreading proceeds until a monolayer (a one-molecule thick layer) eventually remains. Several 2D phases have been identified for such monolayers, like "gas", "liquid expanded", "liquid condensed", and "solid". The central question of this review is whether these 2D phases can also exist as colloidal systems, and what stabilizes the dispersed state in such systems. We shall present several systems capable of yielding 2D phase separation, from those based on either natural or fluorinated amphiphiles, to polymer-based ones. We shall seek for analogies in 3D and we shall try to clarify if the lines between these 2D objects play a similar role as the interfaces between 3D colloidal systems. In particular, we shall consider the special role of molecules that tend to accumulate at the phase boundaries, that is, at the contact lines, which will therefore be denoted "line-actants" (molecules that adsorb at a 1D interface, separating two 2D colloidal entities), by analogy to the term "surfactant" (which indicates a molecule that adsorbs at a 2D interface separating two 3D colloidal entities).

  17. Colloids and composite materials Au/Pvp and Ag/Pvp generated by laser ablation in polymeric liquid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larez, J.; Rojas, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Faculty of Science, Center of Experimental Solid State Physics, Paseo Los Ilustres, Los Chaguaramos, Apdo. Postal 20513, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Castell, R., E-mail: jlarez@fisica.ciens.ucv.ve [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Department of Physics, Plasma and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Valle de Sartenejas, Baruta, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of silver and gold targets, immersed in a polymeric solution of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Pvp), is used to generate colloids and composite metal-polymer. Solutions of Pvp in deionized water at different concentrations are employed. Two Pvp number average molecular weights were considered, 10000 g/mol and 55000 g/mol. The high purity targets are irradiated between 20 min and 40 min with the third harmonic (Thg) (λ = 335 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser operating at a rate of 10 Hz with pulses of 8 ns. Optical spectroscopy in UV and vis regions, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy and X-ray are used to identify and determine the shape and size of the produced particles. Very stable sub-micrometric spherical particles for Au/Pvp and Ag/Pvp samples are obtained with diameters of 0.72 μm and 0.40 μm, respectively. The preparation of colloids is performed in one step and no surfactant or dispersing agent is used in this process. (Author)

  18. One pot synthesis of water-dispersible dehydroascorbic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles under atmospheric air: blood cell compatibility and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hariom; Paul, P; Kumar, Naresh; Baxi, Seema; Das, Dipti P

    2014-09-15

    Water dispersible and biologically important molecule dehydroascorbic acid (DHA, capable to cross the blood brain barrier) coated Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles having an average size of ∼6 nm were synthesized through one pot aqueous coprecipitation method under atmospheric air. An antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) used in the synthesis oxidized itself to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) to consume dissolved or available oxygen in reaction mixture which died away the oxidative impact of atmospheric air and formed DHA encapsulated the Fe3O4 nanoparticles which stabilized the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and significantly enhanced their colloidal solubility in water. Fe3O4 phase, superparamagnetic property, DHA coating and stable colloidal solubility in water were confirmed by means of XPS, VSM, IR and zeta potential analysis respectively. T1, T2 and T2(∗) weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and corresponding relaxivity (r1=0.416, r2=50.28 and r2(∗)=123.65 mM(-1) and r2/r1=120.86, r2(∗)r1=297.23) of colloidally dispersed DHA-coated nanoparticle water phantom revealed a strong contrast enhancement in T2 and T2(∗) weighted images. The compatibility of DHA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles toward human blood cells was examined by means of cell counting and cell morphological analysis with the use of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Organic nature of colloidal actinides transported in surface water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santschi, Peter H; Roberts, Kimberly A; Guo, Laodong

    2002-09-01

    Elevated levels of (239,240)Pu and 241Am have been present in surficial soils of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), CO, since the 1960s, when soils were locally contaminated in the 1960s by leaking drums stored on the 903 Pad. Further dispersion of contaminated soil particles was by wind and water. From 1998 until 2001, we examined actinide ((239,240)Pu and 241Am) concentrations and phase speciation in the surface environment at RFETS through field studies and laboratory experiments. Measurements of total (239,240)Pu and 241Am concentrations in storm runoff and pond discharge samples, collected during spring and summer times in 1998-2000, demonstrate that most of the (239,240)Pu and 241Am transported from contaminated soils to streams occurred in the particulate (> or = 0.45 microm; 40-90%) and colloidal (approximately 2 nm or 3 kDa to 0.45 microm; 10-60%) phases. Controlled laboratory investigations of soil resuspension, which simulated storm and erosion events, confirmed that most of the Pu in the 0.45 microm filter-passing phase was in the colloidal phase (> or = 80%) and that remobilization of colloid-bound Pu during soil erosion events can be greatly enhanced by humic and fulvic acids present in these soils. Most importantly, isoelectric focusing experiments of radiolabeled colloidal matter extracted from RFETS soils revealed that colloidal Pu is in the four-valent state and is mostly associated with a negatively charged organic macromolecule with a pH(IEP) of 3.1 and a molecular weight of 10-15 kDa, rather than with the more abundant inorganic (iron oxide and clay) colloids. This finding has important ramifications for possible remediation, erosion controls, and land-management strategies.

  20. Colloid transport in a geochemically heterogeneous porous medium: aquifer tank experiment and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Jonathan P; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Ryan, Joseph N; Elimelech, Menachem

    2003-09-01

    To examine colloid transport in geochemically heterogeneous porous media at a scale comparable to field experiments, we monitored the migration of silica-coated zirconia colloids in a two-dimensional layered porous media containing sand coated to three different extents by ferric oxyhydroxides. Transport of the colloids was measured over 1.65 m and 95 days. Colloid transport was modeled by an advection-dispersion-deposition equation incorporating geochemical heterogeneity and colloid deposition dynamics (blocking). Geochemical heterogeneity was represented as favorable (ferric oxyhydroxide-coated) and unfavorable (uncoated sand) deposition surface areas. Blocking was modeled as random sequential adsorption (RSA). Release of deposited colloids was negligible. The time to colloid breakthrough after the onset of blocking increased with increasing ferric oxyhydroxide-coated surface area. As the ferric oxyhydroxide surface area increased, the concentration of colloids in the breakthrough decreased. Model-fits to the experimental data were made by inverse solutions to determine the fraction of surface area favorable for deposition and the deposition rate coefficients for the favorable (ferric oxyhydroxide-coated) and unfavorable sites. The favorable deposition rate coefficient was also calculated by colloid filtration theory. The model described the time to colloid breakthrough and the blocking effect reasonably well and estimated the favorable surface area fraction very well for the two layers with more than 1% ferric oxyhydroxide coating. If mica edges in the uncoated sand were considered as favorable surface area in addition to the ferric oxyhydroxide coatings, the model predicted the favorable surface area fraction accurately for the layer with less than 1% ferric oxyhydroxide coating.

  1. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  2. Characterization of colloids in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.; Klenze, R.

    1987-07-01

    Natural colloids in the Gorleben aquifer systems have been investigated as for their chemical composition, quantification and size distribution. Humic substances appear to be the major organic materials in these groundwaters, generating humic colloids which are analysed to be humic acid (and fulvic acid) loaded with a large number of trace heavy metal ions. These metal ions include natural homologues of actinides and some fission products in trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent state. Concentrations of trivalent and tetravalent heavy metal ions are linearly correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DDC) concentration in different groundwaters. The DOC is found to be present as humic colloids. The Am 3+ ions introduced in such a groundwater readily undergo the generation of its pseudocolloids through sorption or ion exchange reactions with humic colloids. The chemical behaviour of Am(III), being similar to the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe 3+ , REE etc. found in natural colloids, has been investigated by laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). Groundwaters from Ispra, Markham Clinton and Felslabor Grimsel. Bidistilled water and one of Gorleben groundwaters, Gohy 1011, are taken for the purpose of comparison. This groundwater contains the least amount of natural colloids of all Gorleben groundwaters hitherto investigated. An indirect quantification is made by comparison of the LPAS results with experiment from Latex solution. (orig./IRB)

  3. STAR-POLYMER -- COLLOID MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Dzubiella

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results in theory and simulation of star-polymer--colloid mixtures are reviewed. We present the effective interaction between hard, colloidal particles and star polymers in a good solvent derived by monomer-resolved Molecular Dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments. The relevant parameters are the size ratio q between the stars and the colloids, as well as the number of polymeric arms f (functionality attached to the common center of the star. By covering a wide range of q's ranging from zero (star against a flat wall up to about 0.5, we establish analytical forms for the star-colloid interaction which are in excellent agreement with simulation results. By employing this cross interaction and the effective interactions between stars and colloids themselves, a demixing transition in the fluid phase is observed and systematically investigated for different arm numbers and size ratios. The demixing binodals are compared with experimental observations and found to be consistent. Furthermore, we map the full two-component system on an effective one-component description for the colloids, by inverting the two-component Ornstein-Zernike equations. Some recent results for the depletion interaction and freezing transitions are shown.

  4. Simultaneous transport of synthetic colloids and a nonsorbing solute through single saturated natural fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.; Robinson, B.A.; Nuttall, H.E.; Kale, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tracer transport experiments involving colloids that showed little tendency to attach to rock surfaces and a nonsorbing solute (iodide) -were conducted in three different well-characterized natural fractures in tuff. The colloids always arrived earlier in the effluent than the iodide, which we believe is evidence of (1) hydrodynamic chromatography and/or (2) the fact that the colloids experience a smaller effective volume in the fracture because they diffuse too slowly to enter low-velocity regions (dead zones) along the rough fracture walls. The iodide also approached the inlet concentration in the effluent more slowly than the colloids, with the concentration at a given elution volume being greater at higher flow rates. By contrast, the rate of approach of the colloid concentration to the inlet concentration did not vary with flow rate. We attribute this behavior to matrix diffusion of the iodide, with the colloids being too large/nondiffusive to experience this phenomenon. Dispersion of all tracers was greatest in the fracture of widest average aperture and least in the fracture of narrowest aperture, which is consistent with Taylor dispersion theory. The tracer experiments were modeled/interpreted using a three-step approach that involved (1) estimating the aperture distribution in each fracture using surface profiling techniques, (2) predicting the flow field in the fractures using a localized parallel-plate approximation, and (3) predicting tracer transport in the fractures using particle-tracking techniques. Although considered preliminary at this time, the model results were in qualitative agreement with the experiments

  5. Magnetoresponsive conductive colloidal suspensions with magnetized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, Ahmed M. [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Abdel Fattah, Abdel Rahman [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Ghosh, Suvojit [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Puri, Ishwar K., E-mail: ikpuri@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    We synthesize a novel and hitherto unreported class of colloidal suspensions for which the dispersed phase, which consists of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) decorated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), is both magnetoresponsive and electrically conductive. Synthesis of the dispersed phase merges processes for producing ferrofluids and magnetic MWNTs (mMWNTs). We explore means to tune the properties of these magnetic conductive colloids (MCCs) by varying the (1) MNP material composition, and (2) MNP:MWNT (w/w) magnetization weight ratio (γ). The mMWNTs are examined using XRD, TEM, EDX and SQUID and MCCs are by measuring their zeta potential and electric conductivity. Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) MNPs, which possess a high Curie temperature, produce mMWNTs with high saturation magnetization that respond relatively weakly to temperature variations. Mn{sub 0.2}Cu{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Cu{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} MNPs with lower Curie temperatures are more sensitive to changing temperature. Increasing the MNP Cu content improves the electric conductivity of the corresponding MCC while increasing γ enhances its magnetic response. After γ is raised above a threshold value, mMWNT decoration on the CNT surface becomes nonuniform since the MNPs now agglomerate perpendicular to the nanotube surface. These colloidal suspensions are a promising new class of material that can be manipulated with a magnetic field to tune their electrical conductivity. - Highlights: ●We synthesize a novel and hitherto unreported class of colloidal suspensions. ●These colloidal suspensions are both magnetoresponsive and electrically conductive. ●The dispersed phase consists of MWNTs decorated with different magnetic nanoparticles. ●These colloids have enhanced magnetic response and electric conductivity (up to 169.5 mS cm{sup −1}). ●It is a promising new class of material that can be manipulated with a magnetic field.

  6. Preliminary 3-D site-scale studies of radioactive colloid transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G J; Hu, Q; Wu, Y-S; Bodvarsson, G S

    2003-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is actively investigating the technical feasibility of permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. In this study we investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the transport of radioactive colloids under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table. The site hydrology and the effects of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered. The study of migration and retardation of colloids accounts for the complex processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, and includes advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, kinetic colloid filtration, colloid straining, and radioactive decay. The results of the study indicate that the most important factors affecting colloid transport are the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The transport of colloids is strongly influenced by their size (as it affects diffusion into the matrix, straining at hydrogeologic unit interfaces, and transport velocity) and by the parameters of the kinetic-filtration model used for the simulations. Arrival times at the water table decrease with an increasing colloid size because of smaller diffusion, increased straining, and higher transport velocities. The importance of diffusion as a retardation mechanism increases with a decreasing colloid size, but appears to be minimal in large colloids.

  7. Colloid remediation in groundwater by polyelectrolyte capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Rao, S.; Jain, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study to characterize groundwater colloids, to understand the geochemical factors affecting colloid transport in groundwater, and to develop an in-situ colloid remediation process. The colloids and suspended particulate matter used in this study were collected from a perched aquifer site that has radiation levels several hundred times the natural background and where previous researchers have measured and reported the presence of radiocolloids containing plutonium and americium. At this site, radionuclides have spread over several kilometers. Inorganic colloids collected from water samples are characterized with respect to concentration, mineralogy, size distribution, electrophoretic mobility (zeta potential), and radioactivity levels. Presented are the methods used to investigate the physiochemical factors affecting colloid transport and the preliminary analytical results. Included below are a description of a colloid transport model and the corresponding computational code, water analyses, characterization of the inorganic colloids, and a conceptual description of a process for in-situ colloid remediation using the phenomenon of polyelectrolyte capture

  8. Phospholipid stabilized gold nanorods: towards improved colloidal stability and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Thomas, Neethu; Sudhakar, Swathi; Chadha, Anju; Mani, Ethayaraja

    2017-07-19

    Biocompatible and colloidally stable gold nanorods (GNRs) with well-defined plasmonic properties are essential for biomedical and theranostic applications. The as-synthesized GNRs using the seed-mediated method are stabilized by the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which is known for its cytotoxicity in many cell lines. Biocompatible GNRs synthesized using known protocols exhibit some extent of cytotoxicity and colloidal instability because of the incomplete removal of CTAB. We report a facile method for the efficient removal of CTAB molecules with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) phospholipid molecules, which are naturally present in cell membranes. The kinetics of the ligand exchange process is studied using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and corroborated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. From colloidal stability studies using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, the optimal lipid concentration and duration required for the successful ligand exchange of CTAB by DMPC are reported. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the surface concentration of DMPC on colloidally stable GNRs is found to be approximately 9 molecules per nm 2 . The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays show that the surface-modified DMPC-GNRs have significantly better biocompatibility than those of CTAB-GNRs. Studies on the ligand exchange, colloidal stability and biocompatibility of DMPC-GNRs with aspect ratios ranging from 2.2 to 4.2 demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method. The results provide insights into the important factors to be considered while designing biocompatible GNRs suitable for applications in nanomedicine.

  9. Room temperature stable CO x -free H2production from methanol with magnesium oxide nanophotocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengqing; Yin, Zongyou; Cox, Casandra; Bosman, Michel; Qian, Xiaofeng; Li, Na; Zhao, Hongyang; Du, Yaping; Li, Ju; Nocera, Daniel G

    2016-09-01

    Methanol, which contains 12.6 weight percent hydrogen, is a good hydrogen storage medium because it is a liquid at room temperature. However, by releasing the hydrogen, undesirable CO and/or CO 2 byproducts are formed during catalytic fuel reforming. We show that alkaline earth metal oxides, in our case MgO nanocrystals, exhibit stable photocatalytic activity for CO/CO 2 -free H 2 production from liquid methanol at room temperature. The performance of MgO nanocrystals toward methanol dehydrogenation increases with time and approaches ~320 μmol g -1 hour -1 after a 2-day photocatalytic reaction. The CO x -free H 2 production is attributed to methanol photodecomposition to formaldehyde, photocatalyzed by surface electronic states of unique monodispersed, porous MgO nanocrystals, which were synthesized with a novel facile colloidal chemical strategy. An oxygen plasma treatment allows for the removal of organic surfactants, producing MgO nanocrystals that are well dispersible in methanol.

  10. Anti-iridescent colloidal photonic nanostructure from thermal gradients and polymeric brush effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Hyoungsoo; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Stone, Howard

    2017-11-01

    Colloidal nanostructures induced by self-assembly are important in reflective displays, plasmonic or photonic sensors, and color pigments. During the evaporation of droplets of colloidal suspension, due to the non-uniform evaporation rate along the droplet interface, a radially outward flow is created and it carries colloidal particles to the pinned contact line of the droplet. We document that the packing at the contact line is a face-center-cubic (fcc) colloidal nanostructure in a ring shape. The fcc structure of the colloidal nanoparticles exhibits angle-dependent color. In particular, we introduce a novel method to suppress the familiar coffee-ring effect and modify colloidal nanostructures to exhibit angle-independent optical properties. A suspension of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-coated silica nanoparticles dispersed in ethanol-water mixture is prepared. The droplet containing the nanoparticles dries on a heated substrate, which creates a thermal gradient along the interface of the droplet. This thermal gradient induces thermal-Marangoni stresses that suppress the coffee-ring effects. PEO adsorbed on the surface of silica nanoparticles produces an additional interaction between colloidal nanoparticles, which makes the final structure disordered. The disordered photonic nanostructures in our experiments exhibit angle-independent structural color. This technique can be applied to printing or optical filtering systems.

  11. Interaction of Myoglobin colloids with BSA in solution: Insights into complex formation and elastic compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumitha, D; Dhathathreyan, Aruna

    2017-12-01

    This work focusses on the supramolecular complex formed between Myoglobin (Mb) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) at colloids/solution interface at pH 4.0 and pH 7.5. Electrostatic interactions between Mb as colloids and BSA solution (pH=7.5 and 4.0) have been confirmed by Zeta potential that suggest that while Mb has a narrow interaction range, BSA has a wider interaction space. The organization of Mb colloids in BSA characterized using dilational rheological parameters show that the Mb colloids are elastic and the strong adsorbed water layers on the surface restrict the deformation, regulated by the viscoelastic surface layer. Stability of the complexes analyzed using UV-vis, Fluorescence and Circular dichroic spectroscopy indicate that there is a 1:1 interaction between Mb and BSA with a binding constant of about 10 5 M -1 . Quartz Crystal microbalance with dissipation has been used to evaluate the elastic compliance of the complexes of Mb colloids dispersed in very dilute BSA solution. The higher elastic compliance at pH=4.0 (than at pH=7.5) and the complex sizes correlate with changes in zeta potential suggesting that the mechanical properties of the protein in colloids are dependent on both the electrostatic interaction as well as the degree of hydration of the colloids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Colloidal approach to prepare colour blends from colourants with different solubility profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A R; Heussen, P C M; Dorst, E; Hazekamp, J; Velikov, K P

    2013-11-15

    Food colouring plays a vital and a determining role in the processing and the manufacturing of food products because the appearance of products is critical for attracting consumers and influencing their food choices. However, factors such as legislative restrictions, limited number of approved colourants and the processing, formulation and stability issues of the natural colourants severely limits the application of food colouring in actual product formats. Hence, finding alternatives to the currently utilised formulation practises, represents an important area of research. Here, we report a simple colloidal approach to prepare colour blends by co-incorporating colourants with contrasting aqueous solubility profiles in composite colloidal particles. Curcumin and indigocarmine were selected as water insoluble and water soluble food-grade colourants respectively and incorporated in the colloidal particles prepared from food protein-zein. Composite particles obtained by loading of curcumin and indigocarmine (at different ratios) had mean particle size ranging from 76 to 300nm. The spherical shape of the colloidal particles was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and the colloidal dispersions were further characterised using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The incorporation of colourants in colloidal particles led to the generation of different shade of colour in yellow-green-blue range. The encapsulation also led to the stabilization of individual pigments against photodegradation. Such composite colloidal particles could potentially serve as an approach for developing tuneable colouring system for food and nutraceutical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of particle shape on colloid retention and release in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Lazouskaya, Volha; He, Qingxiang; Jin, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal particles of environmental concern often have nonspherical shapes. However, theories and models such as the classical filtration theory have been developed based on the behavior of spherical particles. This study examined the effect of particle shape on colloid retention (e.g., attachment and straining) and release in saturated porous media. Two- and three-step transport experiments were conducted in water-saturated glass bead columns using colloids dispersed in deionized water and an electrolyte solution. The particles used in the experiments were carboxylate-modified latex colloids of spherical (500 nm diam.) and rod (aspect ratio, 7.0) shapes. The rod-like particles were prepared by stretching the spherical particles. Analysis of the colloid breakthrough curves indicates that particle shape affected transport behavior, but retention did not increase with increasing aspect ratio. Retention of the spherical particles occurred mainly in the secondary energy minimum, whereas retention of rod-like particles occurred in primary and secondary energy minima. There was less straining of rod-like particles compared with spherical ones, indicating that the minor axis was the critical dimension controlling the process. Release of spherical particles on elution was instantaneous, whereas release of rod-like particles was rate limited, giving rise to long tails, implying an orientation effect for rod-like colloids. The results suggest that the differences in electrostatic properties and shape contributed to the observed different retention and release behaviors of the two colloids.

  14. Transport of europium colloids in vadose zone lysimeters at the semiarid Hanford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziru; Flury, Markus; Zhang, Z Fred; Harsh, James B; Gee, Glendon W; Strickland, Chris E; Clayton, Ray E

    2013-03-05

    The objective of this study was to quantify transport of Eu colloids in the vadose zone at the semiarid Hanford site. Eu-hydroxy-carbonate colloids, Eu(OH)(CO3), were applied to the surface of field lysimeters, and migration of the colloids through the sediments was monitored using wick samplers. The lysimeters were exposed to natural precipitation (145-231 mm/year) or artificial irrigation (124-348 mm/year). Wick outflow was analyzed for Eu concentrations, supplemented by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Small amounts of Eu colloids (transport of Eu colloids under both natural precipitation and artificial irrigation; that is, the leading edge of the Eu colloids moved at a velocity of 3 cm/day within the first 2 months after application. Episodic infiltration (e.g., Chinook snowmelt events) caused peaks of Eu in the wick outflow. While a fraction of Eu moved consistent with long-term recharge estimates at the site, the main mass of Eu remained in the top 30 cm of the sediments. This study illustrates that, under field conditions, near-surface colloid mobilization and transport occurred in Hanford sediments.

  15. Colloidal polyaniline dispersions: Antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and neutrophil oxidative burst

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuceková, Z.; Humpolíček, P.; Kašpárková, V.; Perečko, Tomáš; Lehocký, M.; Hauerlandova, I.; Saha, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 116, APR 2014 (2014), s. 411-417 ISSN 0927-7765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Cytotoxicity * Apoptosis * Necrosis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.152, year: 2014

  16. Hard sphere colloidal dispersions: Mechanical relaxation pertaining to thermodynamic forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, J.; de Kruif, C.G.; Blom, C.; Vrij, A.

    1987-01-01

    The complex viscosity of sterically stabilized (hard) silica spheres in cyclohexane has been measured between 80 Hz and 170 kHz with torsion pendulums and a nickel tube resonator. The observed relaxation behaviour can be attributed to the interplay of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic forces. The

  17. Colloid electrochemistry of conducting polymer: towards potential-induced in-situ drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankoh, Supannee; Vagin, Mikhail Yu.; Sekretaryova, Alina N.; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Mak, Wing Cheung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed electrode potential induced an in-situ drug release from dispersion of conducting polymer microcapsules. • Fast detection of the released drug within the colloid microenvironment. • Improved the efficiency of localized drug release at the electrode interface. - Abstract: Over the past decades, controlled drug delivery system remains as one of the most important area in medicine for various diseases. We have developed a new electrochemically controlled drug release system by combining colloid electrochemistry and electro-responsive microcapsules. The pulsed electrode potential modulation led to the appearance of two processes available for the time-resolved registration in colloid microenvironment: change of the electronic charge of microparticles (from 0.5 ms to 0.1 s) followed by the drug release associated with ionic equilibration (1–10 s). The dynamic electrochemical measurements allow the distinction of drug release associated with ionic relaxation and the change of electronic charge of conducting polymer colloid microparticles. The amount of released drug (methylene blue) could be controlled by modulating the applied potential. Our study demonstrated a surface-potential driven controlled drug release of dispersion of conducting polymer carrier at the electrode interfaces, while the bulk colloids dispersion away from the electrode remains as a reservoir to improve the efficiency of localized drug release. The developed new methodology creates a model platform for the investigations of surface potential-induced in-situ electrochemical drug release mechanism.

  18. Long-term kinetic effects and colloid formations in dissolution of LWR spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    This report evaluates continuous dissolution and colloid formation during spent-fuel performance under repository conditions in high-level waste disposal. Various observations suggest that reprecipitated layers formed on spent-fuel surfaces may not be protective. This situation may lead to continuous dissolution of highly soluble radionuclides such as C-14, Cl-36, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135. However, the diffusion limits of various species involved may retard dissolution significantly. For low-solubility actinides such as Pu-(239+240) or Am-(241+243), various processes regarding colloid formation have been analyzed. The processes analyzed are condensation, dispersion, and sorption. Colloid formation may lead to significant releases of low-solubility actinides. However, because there are only limited data available on matrix dissolution, colloid formation, and solubility limits, many uncertainties still exist. These uncertainties must be addressed before the significance of radionuclide releases can be determined. 118 refs

  19. N -Sm A -Sm C phase transitions probed by a pair of elastically bound colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Muhammed Rasi; Zuhail, K. P.; Roy, Arun; Dhara, Surajit

    2018-03-01

    The competing effect of surface anchoring of dispersed microparticles and elasticity of nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals has been shown to stabilize a variety of topological defects. Here we study a pair of colloidal microparticles with homeotropic and planar surface anchoring across N -Sm A -Sm C phase transitions. We show that below the Sm A -Sm C phase transition the temperature dependence of interparticle separation (D ) of colloids with homeotropic anchoring shows a power-law behavior; D ˜(1-T /TA C) α , with an exponent α ≈0.5 . For colloids with planar surface anchoring the angle between the joining line of the centers of the two colloids and the far field director shows characteristic variation elucidating the phase transitions.

  20. Microgels: Novel Colloidal Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Nieves, A.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Microgels are novel colloidal gels widely used because of the swelling or de-swelling exhibited under specific external conditions. In this work, the swelling and de-swelling of microgel particles is experimentally described. The medium pH, salt concentration and osmotic stress, are the three variables with which the change of phase has been realised. All transitions are found to occur well above the critical point of the system. Additionally, the basic applications in which the given transition is employed are described.

    Los microgeles son geles coloidales que se emplean por el inflado y/o desinflado que manifiestan ante ciertas condiciones externas. En este trabajo, se describe experimentalmente el inflado y el desinflado de partículas de gel. El pH del medio, su concentración iónica y el esfuerzo osmótico externo son las variables externas que se emplean para provocar el cambio de fase en las partículas. Todas las transiciones ocurren por encima del punto crítico del sistema. Adicionalmente, se presentan algunas de las aplicaciones en donde se emplea la transición provocada por la variable externa concreta.

  1. Hydrodynamic disperser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, A.I.; Chernov, V.S.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1980-01-15

    A hydrodynamic disperser is suggested which contains a housing, slit nozzles installed on a circular base arranged opposite from each other, resonators secured opposite the nozzle and outlet sleeve. In order to improve the effectiveness of dispersion by throttling the flow, each resonator is made in the form of a crimped plate with crimpings that decrease in height in a direction towards the nozzle.

  2. Experimental studies on the inventory of cement-derived colloids in the pore water of a cementitious backfill material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, E

    2001-06-01

    The potential role of near-field colloids for the colloid-facilitated migration of radionuclides has stimulated investigations concerning the generation and presence of colloids in the near-field of a repository for low- and intermediate level waste (L/ILW). The highly gas permeable mortar (Nagra designation: mortar M1) is currently favoured as backfill material for the engineered barrier of the planned Swiss L/ILW repository. The cementitious backfill is considered to be a chemical environment with some potential for colloid generation. In a series of batch-style laboratory experiments the physico-chemical processes controlling the inventory of colloids in cement pore water of the backfill were assessed for chemical conditions prevailing in the initial stage of the cement degradation. In these experiments, backfill mortar M1 or quartz, respectively, which may be used as aggregate material for the backfill, were immersed in artificial cement pore water (a NaOH/KOH rich cement fluid). Colloid concentrations in the cement pore water were recorded as a function of time for different experimental settings. The results indicate that a colloid-colloid interaction process (coagulation) controlled the colloid inventory. The mass concentration of dispersed colloids was found to be typically lower than 0.02 ppm in undisturbed batch systems. An upper-bound value was estimated to be 0.1 ppm taking into account uncertainties on the measurements. To assess the potential for colloid generation in a dynamic system, colloid concentrations were determined in the pore water of a column filled with backfill mortar. The chemical conditions established in the mortar column corresponded to conditions observed in the second stage of the cement degradation (a Ca(OH){sub 2{sup -}} controlled cement system). In this dynamic system, the upper-bound value for the colloid mass concentration was estimated to be 0.1 ppm. Implications for radionuclide mobility were deduced taking into account the

  3. Colloidal processing and rapid prototyping of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liwu Wang

    1998-12-01

    Some progresses have been made in the wet shaping of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} based on a better understanding of the colloidal behavior of suspensions and by improved pressure casting with porous polystyrene (PS) molds. This work illustrated that the combination of proper colloidal processing and rapid prototyping is an effective way to fabricate high-performance ceramics with complex shapes. In colloidal processing the packing density and microstructure of green bodies can be controlled if the interaction between ceramic particles in suspensions and the conditions under which the suspensions are consolidated are understood. Therefore, detailed studies on the surface chemistry of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder, the dispersing behavior of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} suspensions, the influence of dispersants and the mechanism during powder consolidation into complex-shaped green bodies are performed. (orig.)

  4. Entropy Stabilizes Floppy Crystals of Mobile DNA-Coated Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Ruiz, Pablo Sampedro; Ni, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Grafting linkers with open ends of complementary single-stranded DNA makes a flexible tool to tune interactions between colloids, which facilitates the design of complex self-assembly structures. Recently, it has been proposed to coat colloids with mobile DNA linkers, which alleviates kinetic barriers without high-density grafting, and also allows the design of valency without patches. However, the self-assembly mechanism of this novel system is poorly understood. Using a combination of theory and simulation, we obtain phase diagrams for the system in both two and three dimensional spaces, and find stable floppy square and CsCl crystals when the binding strength is strong, even in the infinite binding strength limit. We demonstrate that these floppy phases are stabilized by vibrational entropy, and "floppy" modes play an important role in stabilizing the floppy phases for the infinite binding strength limit. This special entropic effect in the self-assembly of mobile DNA-coated colloids is very different from conventional molecular self-assembly, and it offers a new axis to help design novel functional materials using mobile DNA-coated colloids.

  5. Building micro-soccer-balls with evaporating colloidal fakir drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Hanneke; Marín, Álvaro G.; Susarrey-Arce, Arturo; van Housselt, Arie; Lefferts, Leon; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2013-11-01

    Drop evaporation can be used to self-assemble particles into three-dimensional microstructures on a scale where direct manipulation is impossible. We present a unique method to create highly-ordered colloidal microstructures in which we can control the amount of particles and their packing fraction. To this end, we evaporate colloidal dispersion drops from a special type of superhydrophobic microstructured surface, on which the drop remains in Cassie-Baxter state during the entire evaporative process. The remainders of the drop consist of a massive spherical cluster of the microspheres, with diameters ranging from a few tens up to several hundreds of microns. We present scaling arguments to show how the final particle packing fraction of these balls depends on the drop evaporation dynamics, particle size, and number of particles in the system.

  6. The radiation chemistry of colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, R.M.

    1976-08-01

    One of the most important problems associated with water cooled reactors is the accumulation on the pipework of radio-active deposits. These are formed from corrosion products which become activated during their passage through the reactor core. The first step of the activation process involves the deposition of the corrosion products, which are present as either colloidal or particulate matter, onto surfaces in the reactor core, i.e. within the radiation zone. A review of the literature on the effect of radiation on colloids is presented. Particular emphasis is given to the dependence of colloidal parameters such as particle size, turbidity and electrophoretic mobility on radiation dose. Most of the data available is of a qualitative nature only. Evidence is presented that colloids of iron are affected (in some cases precipitated) by radiation, and it is suggested that this process plays a part in the deposition of corrosion products in nuclear reactor cores. The bulk of the information available can be rationalized in terms of the radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions, and the interaction of the radicals produced with the atoms or molecules at the surface of the colloidal particles. This approach is very successful in explaining the variation of the mean particle size of monodisperse sulphur hydrosols with dose, for which quantitative experimental data are available. (author)

  7. Injectable PLGA based Colloidal Gels for Zero-order Dexamethasone Release in Cranial Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Wang, Jinxi; Lu, Qinghua; Detamore, Michael S.; Berkland, Cory

    2010-01-01

    Bone fillers have emerged as an alternative to the invasive surgery often required to repair skeletal defects. Achieving controlled release from these materials is desired for accelerating healing. Here, oppositely-charged Poly (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were used to create a cohesive colloidal gel as an injectable drug-loaded filler to promote healing in bone defects. The colloid self-assembled through electrostatic forces resulting in a stable 3-D network that may be extruded or molded to the desired shape. The colloidal gel demonstrated shear-thinning behavior due to the disruption of interparticle interactions as the applied shear force was increased. Once the external force was removed, the cohesive property of the colloidal gel was recovered. Similar reversibility and shear-thinning behavior were also observed in colloidal gels loaded with dexamethasone. Near zero-order dexamethasone release was observed over two months when the drug was encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles and simply blending the drug with the colloidal gel showed similar kinetics for one month. Surgical placement was facilitated by the pseudoplastic material properties and in vivo observations demonstrated that the PLGA colloidal gels stimulated osteoconductive bone formation in rat cranial bone defects. PMID:20303585

  8. Agglomeration, colloidal stability, and magnetic separation of magnetic nanoparticles: collective influences on environmental engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Swee Pin; Lim, JitKang; Ooi, Boon Seng; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) which exhibit magnetic and catalytic bifunctionalities have been widely accepted as one of the most promising nanoagents used in water purification processes. However, due to the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, MNPs can easily lose their colloidal stability and tend to agglomerate. Thus, it is necessary to enhance their colloidal stability in order to maintain the desired high specific surface area. Meanwhile, in order to successfully utilize MNPs for environmental engineering applications, an effective magnetic separation technology has to be developed. This step is to ensure the MNPs that have been used for pollutant removal can be fully reharvested back. Unfortunately, it was recently highlighted that there exists a conflicting role between colloidal stability and magnetic separability of the MNPs, whereby the more colloidally stable the particle is, the harder for it to be magnetically separated. In other words, attaining a win-win scenario in which the MNPs possess both good colloidal stability and fast magnetic separation rate becomes challenging. Such phenomenon has to be thoroughly understood as the colloidal stability and the magnetic separability of MNPs play a pivotal role on affecting their effective implementation in water purification processes. Accordingly, it is the aim of this paper to provide reviews on (i) the colloidal stability and (ii) the magnetic separation of MNPs, as well as to provide insights on (iii) their conflicting relationship based on recent research findings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. A stochastic model for colloid transport and deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, S A; Toride, N

    2007-01-01

    Profiles of retained colloids in porous media have frequently been observed to be hyper-exponential or non-monotonic with transport depth under unfavorable attachment conditions, whereas filtration theory predicts an exponential profile. In this work we present a stochastic model for colloid transport and deposition that allows various hypotheses for such deviations to be tested. The model is based on the conventional advective dispersion equation that accounts for first-order kinetic deposition and release of colloids. One or two stochastic parameters can be considered in this model, including the deposition coefficient, the release coefficient, and the average pore water velocity. In the case of one stochastic parameter, the probability density function (PDF) is characterized using log-normal, bimodal log-normal, or a simple two species/region formulation. When two stochastic parameters are considered, then a joint log-normal PDF is employed. Simulation results indicated that variations in the deposition coefficient and the average pore water velocity can both produce hyper-exponential deposition profiles. Bimodal formulations for the PDF were also able to produce hyper-exponential profiles, but with much lower variances in the deposition coefficient. The shape of the deposition profile was found to be very sensitive to the correlation of deposition and release coefficients, and to the correlation of pore water velocity and deposition coefficient. Application of the developed stochastic model to a particular set of colloid transport and deposition data indicated that chemical heterogeneity of the colloid population could not fully explain the observed behavior. Alternative interpretations were therefore proposed based on variability of the pore size and the water velocity distributions.

  10. Characterization of proton exchange membrane fuel cell anode catalysts prepared by colloid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, E.G.; Dantas-Filho, P.L.; Burani, G.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Anode catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) were synthesized by the colloid method and their structure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analyses (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical behavior of the anode catalyst was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and polarization curves (UxI). (author)

  11. Adsorption of polyelectrolytes and charged block copolymers on oxides consequences for colloidal stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, N.G.

    1996-01-01


    The aim of the study described in this thesis was to examine the adsorption properties of polyelectrolytes and charged block copolymers on oxides, and the effect of these polymers on the colloidal stability of oxidic dispersions. For this purpose the interaction of some well-characterised

  12. Two-fluid model for the simultaneous flow of colloids and fluids in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    To describe the velocities of particles such as ions, protein molecules and colloids dispersed or dissolved in a fluid, it is important to also describe the forces acting on the fluid, including pressure gradients and friction of the fluid with the particles and with the porous media through which

  13. Colloid Thrusters, Physics, Fabrication and Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Akinwande, Akintunde I

    2005-01-01

    ... discovered pure ionic mode, the microfabrication in Silicon of two types of arrays of colloid or electrospray emitters, and the development of a quantitative theory for the colloidal regime (no ions...

  14. Crack formation and prevention in colloidal drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-08-01

    Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.

  15. Phytosterol colloidal particles as Pickering stabilizers for emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu; Tang, Chuan-He

    2014-06-04

    Water-insoluble phytosterols were developed into a kind of colloidal particle as Pickering stabilizers for emulsions by a classic anti-solvent method using 100% ethanol as the organic phase to solubilize the phytosterols and whey protein concentrate (WPC) as the emulsifier. The colloidal particles in the dispersion, with morphology of stacked platelet-like sheets, had a mean diameter of 44.7 and 24.7 μm for the volume- and surface-averaged sizes, respectively. The properties and stability of the emulsions stabilized by these colloidal particles were highly dependent upon the applied total solid concentration (c; in the dispersion) and oil fraction (ø). The results indicated that (1) at a low c value (emulsions were susceptible to phase separation, even at a low ø of 0.2, (2) at low ø values (e.g., 0.2 or 0.3) and a relatively high c value (1.0%, w/v, or above), a severe droplet flocculation occurred for the emulsions, and (3) when both c and ø were appropriately high, a kind of self-supporting gel-like emulsions could be formed. More interestingly, a phase inversion of the emulsions from the oil-in-water to water-in-oil type was observed, upon the ø increasing from 0.2 to 0.6 (especially at high c values, e.g., 3.0%, w/v). The elaborated Pickering emulsions stabilized by the phytosterol colloidal particles with a gel-like behavior would provide a candidate to act as a novel delivery system for active ingredients.

  16. Colloidal transport by active filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Raj Kumar; Kumar, P B Sunil; Adhikari, R

    2017-01-14

    Enhanced colloidal transport beyond the limit imposed by diffusion is usually achieved through external fields. Here, we demonstrate the ballistic transport of a colloidal sphere using internal sources of energy provided by an attached active filament. The latter is modeled as a chain of chemo-mechanically active beads connected by potentials that enforce semi-flexibility and self-avoidance. The fluid flow produced by the active beads and the forces they mediate are explicitly taken into account in the overdamped equations of motion describing the colloid-filament assembly. The speed and efficiency of transport depend on the dynamical conformational states of the filament. We characterize these states using filament writhe as an order parameter and identify ones yielding maxima in speed and efficiency of transport. The transport mechanism reported here has a remarkable resemblance to the flagellar propulsion of microorganisms which suggests its utility in biomimetic systems.

  17. Colloidal transport by active filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Raj Kumar; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Adhikari, R.

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced colloidal transport beyond the limit imposed by diffusion is usually achieved through external fields. Here, we demonstrate the ballistic transport of a colloidal sphere using internal sources of energy provided by an attached active filament. The latter is modeled as a chain of chemo-mechanically active beads connected by potentials that enforce semi-flexibility and self-avoidance. The fluid flow produced by the active beads and the forces they mediate are explicitly taken into account in the overdamped equations of motion describing the colloid-filament assembly. The speed and efficiency of transport depend on the dynamical conformational states of the filament. We characterize these states using filament writhe as an order parameter and identify ones yielding maxima in speed and efficiency of transport. The transport mechanism reported here has a remarkable resemblance to the flagellar propulsion of microorganisms which suggests its utility in biomimetic systems.

  18. COLLOID RELEASE FROM DIFFERENT SOIL DEPTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring clay colloidal particles are heavily involved in sediment processes in the subsurface soil. Due to the import ance of these processes in the subsurface environment, the transport of clay colloidal particles has been studied in several disciplines, including soil sciences, petr ology, hydrology, etc. Specifically, in environmental engineering, clay colloid re lease and transport in the sediments have been extensively investigated, which are motiv ated by environmental concerns such as colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in groundwater and the subsurface soil. Clay colloid release is resulted from physical alteration of subsurface sediments. Despite the potential importance of clay colloid activiti es, the detailed mechanisms of release and transport of clay colloidal particles with in natural sediments are poorly understood. Pore medium structure, properties and flow dynamics, etc. are factors that affect clay colloid generation, mobilization, and subse quent transport. Possible mechanisms of clay colloid generation in the sediments in clude precipitation, erosion and mobilization by changes in pore water chemistry and clay colloid release depends on a balance of applied hydrodynamic and resisting adhesive torques and forces. The coupled role of pore water chemistry and fluid hydrodynamics thus play key roles in controlling clay colloid release and transport in the sediment s. This paper investigated clay colloidal particle release and transport, especially th e colloidal particle release mechanisms as well as the process modeling in the sediments. In this research, colloidal particle release from intact sediment columns with variable length was examined and colloidal particle release curves were simulated using an im plicit, finite-difference scheme. Colloidal particle release rate coefficient was found to be an exponential function of the sediment depth. The simulated results demonstrated that transport parameters were

  19. Sampling and physical and actinide characterization of colloids from the Grimsel test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, G.; Ivanovich, M.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of groundwater from a granite fracture at the Grimsel test site in Switzerland have been collected as part of a second intercomparison of groundwater colloid sampling and characterization techniques carried out by members of the Coco Club (colloids and complexes) sponsored by the CEC. This report describes the Harwell contribution to this exercise. The bulk of naturally occurring actinides were found to reside in solution with 10 particles/I (detection limit ∼50 nm) for samples determined by three laboratories. The colloids were shown to be negatively charged using microelectrophoresis and to be relatively stable. There was evidence of a reduction in the pH of the water after storage due to air contamination. This work has served to identify the problems associated with colloid sampling and characterization techniques

  20. Colloid mobilization in an undisturbed sediment core under semiarid recharge rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziru; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Mathison, Jon B.; Vogs, Carolina

    2013-08-01

    The semiarid US Department of Energy Hanford site has a deep vadose zone with low recharge rates. Contaminants originating from nuclear waste processing are expected to move slowly through the vadose zone. The movement of certain contaminants can be facilitated by colloids. We hypothesized that the low recharge rates and low water contents in semiarid regions, however, tend to inhibit movement of colloidal particles, thereby reducing the risk for colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. The goal of this study was to investigate whether in situ natural colloids can be mobilized and transported in undisturbed, deep vadose zone sediments at the Hanford site under typical, semiarid recharge rates. We sampled an undisturbed sediment core (i.d. 50 cm, 59.5 cm height) from a depth of 17 m below ground at the Hanford 200 Area. The core was set up as a laboratory lysimeter and exposed to an infiltration rate of 18 mm/yr by applying simulated pore water onto the surface. Particle concentrations were quantified in the column outflow, and selected samples were examined microscopically and for elemental composition (transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray). Measured water contents and potentials were used to calibrate a numerical model (HYDRUS-1D), which was then applied to simulate colloid mobilization from the sediment core. During 5.3 years of monitoring, natural colloids like silicates, aluminosilicates, and Fe-oxides were observed in the core outflow, indicating the continuous mobilization of in situ colloids. The total amount of particles mobilized during 5.3 years corresponded to 1.1% of the total dispersible colloids inside the core. Comparison of the amounts of colloids released with weathering rates suggests that mineral weathering can be a major source of the mobilized colloids. The fitted colloid release rate coefficient was 6 to 7 orders of magnitude smaller than coefficients reported from previous studies, where disturbed Hanford sediments

  1. Colloid formation during waste glass corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, C.J.; Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-05-01

    The long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass in a geologic repository may require a technical consideration of the role of colloids in the release and transport of radionuclides. The neglect of colloidal properties in assessing the near- and far-field migration behavior of actinides may lead to significant underestimates and poor predictions of biosphere exposure from high-level waste (HLW) disposal. Existing data on colloid-facilitated transport suggests that radionuclide migration may be enhanced, but the importance of colloids is not adequately assessed. Indeed, the occurrence of radionuclide transport, attributed to colloidal species, has been reported at Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos and at the Nevada Test Site; both unsaturated regions are similar to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain. Although some developments have been made on understanding the transport characteristics of colloids, the characterization of colloids generated from the corrosion of the waste form has been limited. Colloids are known to incorporate radionuclides either from hydrolysis of dissolved species (real colloids) or from adsorption of dissolved species onto existing groundwater colloids (pseudocolloids); however, these colloids may be considered secondary and solubility limited when compared to the colloids generated during glass alteration.

  2. Sensitivity analyses of a colloid-facilitated contaminant transport model for unsaturated heterogeneous soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, Yann; José Gumiere, Silvio; Rousseau, Alain N.; Caron, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Certain contaminants may travel faster through soils when they are sorbed to subsurface colloidal particles. Indeed, subsurface colloids may act as carriers of some contaminants accelerating their translocation through the soil into the water table. This phenomenon is known as colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. It plays a significant role in contaminant transport in soils and has been recognized as a source of groundwater contamination. From a mechanistic point of view, the attachment/detachment of the colloidal particles from the soil matrix or from the air-water interface and the straining process may modify the hydraulic properties of the porous media. Šimůnek et al. (2006) developed a model that can simulate the colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in variably saturated porous media. The model is based on the solution of a modified advection-dispersion equation that accounts for several processes, namely: straining, exclusion and attachement/detachement kinetics of colloids through the soil matrix. The solutions of these governing, partial differential equations are obtained using a standard Galerkin-type, linear finite element scheme, implemented in the HYDRUS-2D/3D software (Šimůnek et al., 2012). Modeling colloid transport through the soil and the interaction of colloids with the soil matrix and other contaminants is complex and requires the characterization of many model parameters. In practice, it is very difficult to assess actual transport parameter values, so they are often calibrated. However, before calibration, one needs to know which parameters have the greatest impact on output variables. This kind of information can be obtained through a sensitivity analysis of the model. The main objective of this work is to perform local and global sensitivity analyses of the colloid-facilitated contaminant transport module of HYDRUS. Sensitivity analysis was performed in two steps: (i) we applied a screening method based on Morris' elementary

  3. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  4. Bonding assembled colloids without loss of colloidal stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vutukuri, H.R.; Stiefelhagen, J.C.P.; Vissers, T; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the diversity of self-assembled colloidal structures has strongly increased, as it is fueled by a wide range of applications in materials science and also in soft condensed-matter physics.[1–4] Some potential applications include photonic bandgap (PBG) crystals, materials for

  5. COLLAGE 2: a numerical code for radionuclide migration through a fractured geosphere in aqueous and colloidal phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindrod, P.; Cooper, N.

    1993-05-01

    In previous work, the COLLAGE code was developed to model the impacts of mobile and immobile colloidal material upon the dispersal and migration of a radionuclide species within a saturated planer fracture surrounded by porous media. The adsorption of radionuclides to colloid surfaces was treated as instantaneous and reversible. In this report we present a new version of the code, COLLAGE 2. Here the adsorption of radionuclides to the colloidal material is treated via first order kinetics. The flow and geometry of the fracture remain as in the previous model. The major effect of colloids upon the radionuclide species is to adsorb them within the fracture space and thus exclude them from the surrounding porous medium. Thus the matrix diffusion process, a strongly retarding effect, is exchanged for a colloid capture/release process by which adsorbed nuclides are also retarded. The effects of having a colloid-radionuclide kinetic interaction include the phenomena of double pulse breakthrough (the pseudo colloid population followed by the solute plume) in cases where the desorption process is slow and the pseudo colloids are highly mobile. Some example calculations are given and some verification examples are discussed. Finally a complete listing of the code is presented as an appendix, including the subroutines allowing for the numerical inversion of the Laplace transformed solution via Talbot's method. 6 figs

  6. COLLAGE 2: a numerical code for radionuclide migration through a fractured geosphere in aqueous and colloidal phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindrod, P.; Cooper, N. [Intera Information Technologies Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1993-05-01

    In previous work, the COLLAGE code was developed to model the impacts of mobile and immobile colloidal material upon the dispersal and migration of a radionuclide species within a saturated planer fracture surrounded by porous media. The adsorption of radionuclides to colloid surfaces was treated as instantaneous and reversible. In this report we present a new version of the code, COLLAGE 2. Here the adsorption of radionuclides to the colloidal material is treated via first order kinetics. The flow and geometry of the fracture remain as in the previous model. The major effect of colloids upon the radionuclide species is to adsorb them within the fracture space and thus exclude them from the surrounding porous medium. Thus the matrix diffusion process, a strongly retarding effect, is exchanged for a colloid capture/release process by which adsorbed nuclides are also retarded. The effects of having a colloid-radionuclide kinetic interaction include the phenomena of double pulse breakthrough (the pseudo colloid population followed by the solute plume) in cases where the desorption process is slow and the pseudo colloids are highly mobile. Some example calculations are given and some verification examples are discussed. Finally a complete listing of the code is presented as an appendix, including the subroutines allowing for the numerical inversion of the Laplace transformed solution via Talbot`s method. 6 figs.

  7. Colloid properties in groundwaters from crystalline formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Colloids are present in all groundwaters. The role they may play in the migration of safety-relevant radionuclides in the geosphere therefore must be studied. Colloid sampling and characterisation campaigns have been carried out in Switzerland. On the bases of the results from studies in the Grimsel area, Northern Switzerland and the Black Forest, as well as those obtained by other groups concerned with crystalline waters, a consistent picture is emerging. The groundwater colloids in crystalline formations are predominantly comprised of phyllosilicates and silica originating from the aquifer rock. Under constant hydrogeochemical conditions, the colloid concentration is not expected to exceed 100 ng.ml -1 when the calcium concentration is greater than 10 -4 . However, under transient chemical or physical conditions, such as geothermal or tectonic activity, colloid generation may be enhanced and the colloid concentration may reach 10 μg.ml -1 or more, if both the calcium and sodium concentrations are low. In the Nagra Crystalline Reference Water the expected colloid concentration is -1 . This can be compared, for example, to a colloid concentration of about 10 ng.ml -1 found in Zurzach water. The small colloid concentration in the reference water is a consequence of an attachment factor for clay colloids (monmorillonite) close to 1. A model indicates that at pH 8, the nuclide partition coefficients between water and colloid (K p ) must be smaller than 10 7 ml.g -1 if sorption takes place by surface complexation on colloids, = AIOH active groups forming the dominant sorption sites. This pragmatic model is based on the competition between the formation of nuclide hydroxo complexes in solution and their sorption on colloids. Experimental nuclide sorption data on colloids are compared with those obtained by applying this model. For a low colloid concentration, a sorption capacity of the order of 10 -9 M and reversible surface complexation, their presence in the

  8. Lanthanum chromite colloidal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setz, Luiz Fernando Grespan

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO 3 ) is currently the most studied material for applications such as solid oxide fuel cell inter connector (HTSOFC). The complexity of microstructures and geometries of HTSOFC devices, require a precise control of processing parameters to get the desired combination of properties and this, the use of techniques involving concentrated ceramic slips conformation are appropriate, therefore, is well controlled, assist in obtaining homogeneous parts, reproductive and complex geometries. Thus, studies involving the surface chemistry, the stability conditions and slips flow behaviour in the forming conditions, provide important elements for processes control in the inter connectors manufacture, where more applied settings have slots and channels for the gases passage. Thus, surface chemistry, stability and rheological behaviour of strontium and cobalt doped LaCrO 3 (La) 0.80 Sr 0. 2 0 Cr 0.92 Co 0.08 O 3 ) slips prepared with ethanol and water, were studied. The doped lanthanum chromite was produced by combustion synthesis in the IPEN/SP labs. The influence of parameters: pH (water), dispersant concentration, homogenization times and conditions, solid concentration, different ratios binder:plasticizer in the stability and the flow behavior of ceramic suspensions prepared were evaluated. The La) 0.80 Sr 0. 2 0 Cr 0.92 Co 0.08 O 3 products obtained by casting aqueous slips in a plaster mould, using alkaline pH and anionic polyelectrolyte and tapes obtained by using ethanol as a dispersant medium, after sintering at 1600 degree C/4 hours presented theoretical density > 94%, suitable for use as HTSOFC inter connector. (author)

  9. Inner Phases of Colloidal Hexagonal Spin Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libál, A.; Nisoli, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. O.; Reichhardt, C.

    2018-01-01

    Using numerical simulations that mimic recent experiments on hexagonal colloidal ice, we show that colloidal hexagonal artificial spin ice exhibits an inner phase within its ice state that has not been observed previously. Under increasing colloid-colloid repulsion, the initially paramagnetic system crosses into a disordered ice regime, then forms a topologically charge ordered state with disordered colloids, and finally reaches a threefold degenerate, ordered ferromagnetic state. This is reminiscent of, yet distinct from, the inner phases of the magnetic kagome spin ice analog. The difference in the inner phases of the two systems is explained by their difference in energetics and frustration.

  10. A short textbook of colloid chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jirgensons, B

    1962-01-01

    A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry, Second Revised Edition details the factual aspect of colloid chemistry that includes the basic facts, established empirical and mathematical relationships, and practical applications. The chapters of the title are organized into two parts. In the first part, the text discusses the general concepts of colloid chemistry, such as the history and scope, basic terms, and basic methods in experiment with colloids. Part Two covers the technical aspect of colloid chemistry, such as the optical properties, electrical properties, and viscosity. The book will be of

  11. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, L.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs

  12. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.

    2010-01-01

    The perception of complex textures in food is strongly related to the way food is processed during eating, and is modulated by other basic characteristics, such as taste and aroma. An understanding at the colloidal level of the basic processes in the mouth is essential in order to link the

  13. Characterization of Complex Colloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, J. C.; Guerin, M.; Jackson, B. P.; Ranville, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Surface chemical reactions play a major role in controlling contaminant fate and transport in the subsurface environment. Recent field and laboratory evidence suggests that mobile soil and groundwater colloids may facilitate the migration of sparingly soluble groundwater contaminants. Colloidal suspensions collected in the field or generated in laboratory column experiments tend to be fairly dilute in nature and comprised of relatively small particulates (reserved for studying ideal systems to the characterization of mobile colloids. However, many of these analytical techniques, including total/selective dissolution methods, dynamic light scattering, micro-electrophoresis, streaming potential, and even scanning electron microscopy (SEM), can be biased in of larger size fractions, and therefore, extremely sensitive to sampling, storage, and fractionation artifacts. In addition, surface modifiers such as sorbed oxides or organics can alter particulate appearance, composition, and behavior when compared to synthetic analogues or mineral standards. The current presentation will discuss the limitations and inherent biases associated with a number of analytical characterization techniques that are commonly applied to the study of mobile soil and groundwater colloids, including field flow fractionation (FFF) and acoustic based methods that have only recently become available.

  14. New Insights into Stability of Plutonium Intrinsic Colloids in the Presence of Clay at Elevated Temperatures: Experimental and Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P.; Sun, Y.; Zavarin, M.; Dai, Z.; Carroll, S.; Kersting, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    Colloid-facilitated plutonium transport is often found to be the dominant mechanism controlling its migration in the environment. However, the form of Pu (intrinsic versus pseudo-colloid) and its stability is not well understood. Accurate prediction of colloid-facilitated transport requires a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms and rates that control the stability of colloidal plutonium. In the present study, we examine the stability of Pu intrinsic colloids relative to Pu-montmorillonite pseudo colloids using a novel experimental design and modeling approaches. We gain new insights into mechanisms of interactions between Pu intrinsic colloids and montmorrilonite clay colloids. The results of these efforts provide a clearer understanding of how Pu can migrate over significant temporal and spatial scales. We employ dialysis membranes in an effort to completely segregate Pu intrinsic colloids (2-5 nm) from montmorillonite clay colloids (>100 nm) and allow aqueous Pu to establish equilibrium between both colloidal phases. Using the dialysis membrane approach, we are able to isolate multiple processes, including hydrolysis/precipitation of Pu(IV, aq), dissolution of PuO2 intrinsic colloids in the absence and presence of the clay, and formation of Pu/clay pseudo-colloids. Therefore, the kinetics of these multiple processes that take place either sequentially or simultaneously in our systems can be examined individually. Experiments are conducted in pH 8 solution of 5 mM NaCl/0.7 mM NaHCO3 at both 25 and 80 °C. Pu intrinsic colloids dissolve at a moderate rate in the absence of the clay, and the dissolution is enhanced in the presence of clay. Furthermore, an elevated temperature will increase the solubility of Pu intrinsic colloids. The formation of Pu intrinsic colloid is reversible, though dissolution is kinetically limited. In contrast, Pu pseudo colloids (sorbed Pu on clay) are more stable than Pu intrinsic colloids at both temperatures, and the

  15. Collective hypersonic excitations in strongly multiple scattering colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, T; Gantzounis, G; Kiefer, D; Hellmann, G; Sainidou, R; Fytas, G; Stefanou, N

    2011-04-29

    Unprecedented low-dispersion high-frequency acoustic excitations are observed in dense suspensions of elastically hard colloids. The experimental phononic band structure for SiO(2) particles with different sizes and volume fractions is well represented by rigorous full-elastodynamic multiple-scattering calculations. The slow phonons, which do not relate to particle resonances, are localized in the surrounding liquid medium and stem from coherent multiple scattering that becomes strong in the close-packing regime. Such rich phonon-matter interactions in nanostructures, being still unexplored, can open new opportunities in phononics.

  16. Colloidal characterization of ultrafine silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of various powder treatment strategies on the colloid chemistry of aqueous dispersions of silicon carbide and silicon nitride are examined using a surface titration methodology. Pretreatments are used to differentiate between the true surface chemistry of the powders and artifacts resulting from exposure history. Silicon nitride powders require more extensive pretreatment to reveal consistent surface chemistry than do silicon carbide powders. As measured by titration, the degree of proton adsorption from the suspending fluid by pretreated silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders can both be made similar to that of silica.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Colloid-facilitated Plutonium Reactive Transport in Fractured Tuffaceous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Wolfsberg, A. V.; Zhu, L.; Reimus, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    Colloids have the potential to enhance mobility of strongly sorbing radionuclide contaminants in fractured rocks at underground nuclear test sites. This study presents an experimental and numerical investigation of colloid-facilitated plutonium reactive transport in fractured porous media for identifying plutonium sorption/filtration processes. The transport parameters for dispersion, diffusion, sorption, and filtration are estimated with inverse modeling for minimizing the least squares objective function of multicomponent concentration data from multiple transport experiments with the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (SCEM). Capitalizing on an unplanned experimental artifact that led to colloid formation and migration, we adopt a stepwise strategy to first interpret the data from each experiment separately and then to incorporate multiple experiments simultaneously to identify a suite of plutonium-colloid transport processes. Nonequilibrium or kinetic attachment and detachment of plutonium-colloid in fractures was clearly demonstrated and captured in the inverted modeling parameters along with estimates of the source plutonium fraction that formed plutonium-colloids. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding the transport mechanisms and environmental impacts of plutonium in fractured formations and groundwater aquifers.

  18. Glass/Jamming Transition in Colloidal Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Philip N.; Prasad, Vikram; Weitz, David A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have studied colloidal aggregation in a model colloid plus polymer system with short-range attractive interactions. By varying the colloid concentration and the strength of the attraction, we explored regions where the equilibrium phase is expected to consist of colloidal crystallites in coexistance with colloidal gas (i.e. monomers). This occurs for moderate values of the potential depth, U approximately equal to 2-5 kT. Crystallization was not always observed. Rather, over an extended sub-region two new metastable phases appear, one fluid-like and one solid-like. These were examined in detail with light scattering and microscopy techniques. Both phases consist of a near uniform distribution of small irregular shaped clusters of colloidal particles. The dynamical and structural characteristics of the ergodic-nonergodic transition between the two phases share much in common with the colloidal hard sphere glass transition.

  19. Purification technologies for colloidal nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Gee, Megan Y; Greytak, A B

    2017-01-10

    Almost all applications of colloidal nanocrystals require some type of purification or surface modification process following nanocrystal growth. Nanocrystal purification - the separation of nanocrystals from undesired solution components - can perturb the surface chemistry and thereby the physical properties of colloidal nanocrystals due to changes in solvent, solute concentrations, and exposure of the nanocrystal surface to oxidation or hydrolysis. For example, nanocrystal quantum dots frequently exhibit decreased photoluminescence brightness after precipitation from the growth solvent and subsequent redissolution. Consequently, purification is an integral part of the synthetic chemistry of colloidal nanocrystals, and the effect of purification methods must be considered in order to accurately compare and predict the behavior of otherwise similar nanocrystal samples. In this Feature Article we examine established and emerging approaches to the purification of colloidal nanoparticles from a nanocrystal surface chemistry viewpoint. Purification is generally achieved by exploiting differences in properties between the impurities and the nanoparticles. Three distinct properties are typically manipulated: polarity (relative solubility), electrophoretic mobility, and size. We discuss precipitation, extraction, electrophoretic methods, and size-based methods including ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, diafiltration, and size-exclusion chromatography. The susceptibility of quantum dots to changes in surface chemistry, with changes in photoluminescence decay associated with surface chemical changes, extends even into the case of core/shell structures. Accordingly, the goal of a more complete description of quantum dot surface chemistry has been a driver of innovation in colloidal nanocrystal purification methods. We specifically examine the effect of purification on surface chemistry and photoluminescence in quantum dots as an example of the challenges associated with

  20. Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, Methods Of Making Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, And Methods Of Using Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2015-04-09

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.

  1. Two-dimensional modeling of contaminant transport in porous media in the presence of colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhit, Hesham M.; Hassan, Ahmed E.

    2005-12-01

    It has long been known that colloids can facilitate the transport of contaminants in groundwater systems by reducing the effective retardation factor. A significant effort has been devoted to study colloid-facilitated contaminant transport during the past decade. Many of the previous studies were restricted to one-dimensional analyses and comparisons with finite-column experiments. In this work, a two-dimensional numerical model is developed and used to study the different interactions between colloids, contaminants, and porous media under homogeneous conditions. The numerical formulation of the model is based on discretizing mass balance equations and reaction equations using finite differences having a third-order, total variance-diminishing scheme for the advection terms. This scheme significantly reduces numerical dispersion and leads to greater accuracy compared to the standard central-differencing scheme. The model is tested against analytical solutions under simplified conditions as well as against experimental data, and the results are favorable. The model is used to investigate the impact of the various reaction rates and parameter values on the movement of contaminant plumes in two dimensions. The model is also used to investigate the hypothesis that colloids may increase the effective retardation factor of contaminant plumes. The analysis shows that assuming kinetic mass exchange between contaminant and colloids with constant reaction rate coefficients that are not related to the concentrations may lead to inaccurate results. These inaccurate results are exemplified in the finding that under the kinetic assumption the ratio of the initial concentration of colloids to the initial concentration of contaminant does not affect the amount of facilitation or retardation that occurs in the system. It is also found that colloids can increase the effective retardation factor for the contaminant under certain combinations of reaction rates and distribution

  2. Poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) microspheres by dispersion polymerization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šponarová, Daniela; Horák, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 18 (2008), s. 6263-6271 ISSN 0887-624X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA AV ČR KAN201110651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : colloids * crosslinking * dispersion polymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.821, year: 2008

  3. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  4. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  5. Dynamical heterogeneities and defects in two-dimensional soft colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Van Der B.; Qi, W.; Sprakel, J.; Filion, L.; Dijkstra, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study a two-dimensional system of charged colloidal particles using Brownian dynamics simulations. We determine the phase diagram and investigate the dynamics of this system in the density regime where hexatic and solid phases are stable. We find that the dynamics in these phases

  6. What happens when pharmaceuticals meet colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingna; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals (PCs) have been widely detected in natural environment due to agricultural application of reclaimed water, sludge and animal wastes. Their potential risks to various ecosystems and even to human health have caused great concern; however, little was known about their environmental behaviors. Colloids (such as clays, metal oxides, and particulate organics) are kind of substances that are active and widespread in the environment. When PCs meet colloids, their interaction may influence the fate, transport, and toxicity of PCs. This review summarizes the progress of studies on the role of colloids in mediating the environmental behaviors of PCs. Synthesized results showed that colloids can adsorb PCs mainly through ion exchange, complexation and non-electrostatic interactions. During this process the structure of colloids and the stability of PCs may be changed. The adsorbed PCs may have higher risks to induce antibiotic resistance; besides, their transport may also be altered considering they have great chance to move with colloids. Solution conditions (such as pH, ionic strength, and cations) could influence these interactions between PCs and colloids, as they can change the forms of PCs and alter the primary forces between PCs and colloids in the solution. It could be concluded that PCs in natural soils could bind with colloids and then co-transport during the processes of irrigation, leaching, and erosion. Therefore, colloid-PC interactions need to be understood for risk assessment of PCs and the best management practices of various ecosystems (such as agricultural and wetland systems).

  7. Electro-optical determination of the constant electric dipole of disperse particles by the method of crossed electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitylov, V.V.; Spartakov, A.A.; Tolstoi, N.A.; Trusov, A.A.; Boitsova, I.N. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    An electro-optical method of crossed electric fields is proposed for determining constant dipole colloidal particles moments of colloidal particles. Fields of this type make it possible to study the motion of colloidal particles determined exclusively by their constant moments, which substantially improves the measurement accuracy of these moments. This is of particular importance for the investigation of colloidal particles with constant dipole moments less than or comparable to induced dipole moments. For a number of disperse systems, the constant dipole moments per unit area of particles are determined. It is shown that the values of these specific moments are close to each other.

  8. Tuning the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystal colloids by tungsten doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haiping; Liao, Jianhua; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Wang, Zhuyi; Shi, Liyi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were prepared by hydrothermal methods. • The properties of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids can be tuned by tungsten doping. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher stability and dispersity. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The effects of tungsten doping on the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were investigated. The nanostructure, chemical state of Ti, W, O, and the properties of tungsten doped TiO 2 samples were investigated carefully by TEM, XRD, XPS, UV–vis, PL and photocatalytic degradation experiments. And the structure–activity relationship was discussed according to the analysis and measurement results. The analysis results reveal that the morphology, zeta potential and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystals can be easily tuned by changing the tungsten doping concentration. The tungsten doped TiO 2 colloid combines the characters of high dispersity and high photocatalytic activity

  9. Maximizing Exosome Colloidal Stability Following Electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L.; Scott, Michael J.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Development of exosome based semi-synthetic nanovesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes requires novel approaches to load exosomes with cargo. Electroporation has previously been used to load exosomes with RNA. However, investigations into exosome colloidal stability following electroporation have not been considered. Herein, we report the development of a unique trehalose pulse media (TPM) that minimizes exosome aggregation following electroporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and RNA absorbance were employed to determine the extent of exosome aggregation and electroextraction post electroporation in TPM compared to common PBS pulse media or sucrose pulse media (SPM). Use of TPM to disaggregate melanoma exosomes post electroporation was dependent on both exosome concentration and electric field strength. TPM maximized exosome dispersal post electroporation for both homogenous B16 melanoma and heterogeneous human serum derived populations of exosomes. Moreover, TPM enabled heavy cargo loading of melanoma exosomes with 5 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION5) while maintaining original exosome size and minimizing exosome aggregation as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Loading exosomes with SPION5 increased exosome density on sucrose gradients. This provides a simple, label free means to enrich exogenously modified exosomes and introduces the potential for MRI driven theranostic exosome investigations in vivo. PMID:24333249

  10. Efficient Carrier Multiplication in Colloidal Silicon Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Carl Jackson; Lu, Xiaotang; Yu, Yixuan; Schaller, Richard D; Korgel, Brian A

    2017-09-13

    Auger recombination lifetimes, absorption cross sections, and the quantum yields of carrier multiplication (CM), or multiexciton generation (MEG), were determined for solvent-dispersed silicon (Si) nanorods using transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). Nanorods with an average diameter of 7.5 nm and aspect ratios of 6.1, 19.3, and 33.2 were examined. Colloidal Si nanocrystals of similar diameters were also studied for comparison. The nanocrystals and nanorods were passivated with organic ligands by hydrosilylation to prevent surface oxidation and limit the effects of surface trapping of photoexcited carriers. All samples used in the study exhibited relatively efficient photoluminescence. The Auger lifetimes increased with nanorod length, and the nanorods exhibited higher CM quantum yield and efficiency than the nanocrystals with a similar band gap energy E g . Beyond a critical length, the CM quantum yield decreases. Nanorods with the aspect ratio of 19.3 had the highest CM quantum yield of 1.6 ± 0.2 at 2.9E g , which corresponded to a multiexciton yield that was twice as high as observed for the spherical nanocrystals.

  11. THE COLLOIDAL BEHAVIOR OF EDESTIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, David I.

    1922-01-01

    1. It has been shown by titration experiments that the globulin edestin behaves like an amphoteric electrolyte, reacting stoichiometrically with acids and bases. 2. The potential difference developed between a solution of edestin chloride or acetate separated by a collodion membrane from an acid solution free from protein was found to be influenced by salt concentration and hydrogen ion concentration in the way predicted by Donnan's theory of membrane equilibrium. 3. The osmotic pressure of such edestin-acid salt solutions was found to be influenced by salt concentration and by hydrogen ion concentration in the same way as is the potential difference. 4. The colloidal behavior of edestin is thus completely analogous to that observed by Loeb with gelatin, casein, and egg albumin, and may be explained by Loeb's theory of colloidal behavior, which is based on the idea that proteins react stoichiometrically as amphoteric electrolytes and on Donnan's theory of membrane equilibrium. PMID:19871959

  12. Physico-chemical characterisation and biological evaluation of 188-Rhenium colloids for radiosynovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures, Ma Cristina; Savio, Eduardo; Malanga, Antonio; Fernández, Marcelo; Paolino, Andrea; Gaudiano, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Radiosynovectomy is a type of radiotherapy used to relieve pain and inflammation from rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, 188-Rhenium ( 188 Re) colloids were characterized by physical and biological methodologies. This was used to assess which parameters of the kit formulation would be the basis in the development of a more effective radiopharmaceutical for synovectomy. Intraarticular injection in knees of rabbits assessed cavity leakage of activity. The physical characteristics of tin (Sn) and sulphur (S) colloids were determined to assess the formulation with suitable properties. Particles were grouped in three ranges for analyzing their distribution according to their number, volume and surface. The ideal particle size range was considered to be from 2 to 10 microns. Membrane filtration and laser diffraction characterization methodologies were used. While membrane filtration could give misleading data, laser diffraction proportions more reliable results. The Sn colloid showed a better distribution of particle volume and surface than S colloid, in the 2 to 10 microns range. The 188 Re-Sn colloid was obtained with a radiochemical purity higher than 95% after 30 minutes of autoclaving. While Sn colloid kit stability was verified for 60 days, the 188 Re-Sn preparation was stable in the first 24 hrs. No significant intrabatch variability (n = 3) was detected. Biodistribution and scintigraphic studies in rabbits after intraarticular injection showed relevant activity only in knee, being 90% at 48 hours. The 188 Re-Sn colloid is easy to prepare, is stable for 24 hours and shows minimal cavity leakage after intraarticular injection into rabbit knees, suggesting this radiotherapeutical agent has suitable physical properties for evaluation for joint treatment in humans

  13. Glass transition of soft colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Adrian-Marie; Truzzolillo, Domenico; Galvan-Myoshi, Julian; Dieudonné-George, Philippe; Trappe, Véronique; Berthier, Ludovic; Cipelletti, Luca

    2018-04-01

    We explore the glassy dynamics of soft colloids using microgels and charged particles interacting by steric and screened Coulomb interactions, respectively. In the supercooled regime, the structural relaxation time τα of both systems grows steeply with volume fraction, reminiscent of the behavior of colloidal hard spheres. Computer simulations confirm that the growth of τα on approaching the glass transition is independent of particle softness. By contrast, softness becomes relevant at very large packing fractions when the system falls out of equilibrium. In this nonequilibrium regime, τα depends surprisingly weakly on packing fraction, and time correlation functions exhibit a compressed exponential decay consistent with stress-driven relaxation. The transition to this novel regime coincides with the onset of an anomalous decrease in local order with increasing density typical of ultrasoft systems. We propose that these peculiar dynamics results from the combination of the nonequilibrium aging dynamics expected in the glassy state and the tendency of colloids interacting through soft potentials to refluidize at high packing fractions.

  14. Heteroaggregation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with natural clay colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labille, Jérôme; Harns, Carrie; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Brant, Jonathan

    2015-06-02

    To better understand and predict the fate of engineered nanoparticles in the water column, we assessed the heteroaggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles with a smectite clay as analogues for natural colloids. Heteroaggregation was evaluated as a function of water salinity (10(-3) and 10(-1) M NaCl), pH (5 and 8), and selected nanoparticle concentration (0-4 mg/L). Time-resolved laser diffraction was used, coupled to an aggregation model, to identify the key mechanisms and variables that drive the heteroaggregation of the nanoparticles with colloids. Our data show that, at a relevant concentration, nanoparticle behavior is mainly driven by heteroaggregation with colloids, while homoaggregation remains negligible. The affinity of TiO2 nanoparticles for clay is driven by electrostatic interactions. Opposite surface charges and/or high ionic strength favored the formation of primary heteroaggregates via the attachment of nanoparticles to the clay. The initial shape and dispersion state of the clay as well as the nanoparticle/clay concentration ratio also affected the nature of the heteroaggregation mechanism. With dispersed clay platelets (10(-3) M NaCl), secondary heteroaggregation driven by bridging nanoparticles occurred at a nanoparticle/clay number ratio of greater than 0.5. In 10(-1) M NaCl, the clay was preaggregated into larger and more spherical units. This favored secondary heteroaggregation at lower nanoparticle concentration that correlated to the nanoparticle/clay surface area ratio. In this latter case, a nanoparticle to clay sticking efficiency could be determined.

  15. Electronically Active Impurities in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Carey, Graham H.

    2014-11-25

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dot films have seen rapid progress as active materials in photodetection, light emission, and photovoltaics. Their processing from the solution phase makes them an attractive option for these applications due to the expected cost reductions associated with liquid-phase material deposition. Colloidally stable nanoparticles capped using long, insulating aliphatic ligands are used to form semiconducting, insoluble films via a solid-state ligand exchange in which the original ligands are replaced with short bifunctional ligands. Here we show that this ligand exchange can have unintended and undesired side effects: a high molecular weight complex can form, containing both lead oleate and the shorter conductive ligand, and this poorly soluble complex can end up embedded within the colloidal quantum dot (CQD) active layer. We further show that, by adding an acidic treatment during film processing, we can break up and wash away these complexes, producing a higher quality CQD solid. The improved material leads to photovoltaic devices with reduced series resistance and enhanced fill factor relative to controls employing previously reported CQD solids. (Figure Presented).

  16. Preparation of radioactive colloidal gold 198Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarosano, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation with simple equipment of radioactive colloidal gold of particle size about approximately 300 A from seed colloid stabilized by gelatine is described. Some physico-chemical parameters which can affect the process of formation of these colloidal particles are analysed; particle size has been meassured with an electron microscope. The colloid stability has been studied as a function of dilution, age and pH. Nucleation and growth of radioactive colloidal gold have been studied using spectrophotometry. Absorption spectra of the two ones are presented and compared. Quality control of the production process is verified through measurement of parameters, such as radioactive and radiochemical purity and biological distribution in laboratorial animals. This distribution was evalusted for rats injected endovenously with the gold colloidal solution.(Author) [pt

  17. Size-Controlled Synthesis of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles at Room Temperature Under the Influence of Glow Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Highly dispersed colloidal gold (Au nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature using glow discharge plasma within only 5 min. The prepared Au colloids were characterized with UV–visible absorption spectra (UV–vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM equipped with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrometer (EDX. UV–vis, XPS and EDX results confirmed that Au3+ ions in HAuCl4 solution could be effectively reduced into the metallic state at room temperature with the glow discharge plasma. TEM images showed that Au nanoparticles were highly dispersed. The size of colloidal Au nanoparticles could be easily tuned in the nanometer range by adjusting the initial concentration of HAuCl4 solution. Moreover, the as-synthesized Au colloids (d av = 3.64 nm exhibited good catalytic activity for glucose oxidation. The nucleation and growth of colloidal Au particles under the influence of the plasma was closely related with the high-energy electrons generated by glow discharge plasma.

  18. Does colloid shape affect detachment of colloids by a moving air-water interface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L; Davis, Howard P

    2013-05-14

    Air-water interfaces interact strongly with colloidal particles by capillary forces. The magnitude of the interaction force depends on, among other things, the particle shape. Here, we investigate the effects of particle shape on colloid detachment by a moving air-water interface. We used hydrophilic polystyrene colloids with four different shapes (spheres, barrels, rods, and oblong disks), but otherwise identical surface properties. The nonspherical shapes were created by stretching spherical microspheres on a film of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The colloids were then deposited onto the inner surface of a glass channel. An air bubble was introduced into the channel and passed through, thereby generating a receding followed by an advancing air-water interface. The detachment of colloids by the air-water interfaces was visualized with a confocal microscope, quantified by image analysis, and analyzed statistically to determine significant differences. For all colloid shapes, the advancing air-water interface caused pronounced colloid detachment (>63%), whereas the receding interface was ineffective in colloid detachment (colloid shapes, the barrels were most readily removed (94%) by the advancing interface, followed by the spheres and oblong disks (80%) and the rods (63%). Colloid detachment was significantly affected by colloid shape. The presence of an edge, as it occurs in a barrel-shaped colloid, promoted colloid detachment because the air-water interface is being pinned at the edge of the colloid. This suggests that the magnitude of colloid mobilization and transport in porous media is underestimated for edged particles and overestimated for rodlike particles when a sphere is used as a model colloid.

  19. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  20. Self-Assembly of Ternary Particles for Tough Colloidal Crystals with Vivid Structure Colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binfu Bao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly of colloidal spheres is the most frequently used method for structural colors, but the chroma of the structural colors is usually so low that people cannot observe it under natural conditions. This paper presents a facile method for fabrications of vivid structural colors by doping carbon black into the self-assembly of colloidal polymer spheres and nanosilica particles. This approach can generate very gorgeous structural colors which can be very easily seen under natural conditions. The fabrication conditions for the self-assembly of composite dispersions of polymer/silica/carbon black were optimized to obtain colloidal crystals with vivid colors. Thus, robust mechanical properties, large-scale, and brilliant structural colors can guarantee the obtained crystal films to find practical applications, which are demonstrated by the fact that the successful applications of structural colors beautify the original simple and tedious surface of bamboo strand board (BSB.

  1. Modelling critical Casimir force induced self-assembly experiments on patchy colloidal dumbbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Arthur C; Nguyen, T Anh; Veen, Sandra J; Kraft, Daniela J; Schall, Peter; Bolhuis, Peter G

    2017-07-19

    Colloidal particles suspended in a binary liquid mixture can interact via solvent mediated interactions, known as critical Casimir forces. For anisotropic colloids this interaction becomes directional, which leads to rich phase behavior. While experimental imaging and particle tracking techniques allow determination of isotropic effective potentials via Boltzmann inversion, the modeling of effective interaction in anisotropic systems is non-trivial precisely because of this directionality. Here we extract effective interaction potentials for non-spherical dumbbell particles from observed radial and angular distributions, by employing reference interaction site model (RISM) theory and direct Monte Carlo simulations. For colloidal dumbbell particles dispersed in a binary liquid mixture and interacting via induced critical Casimir forces, we determine the effective site-site potentials for a range of experimental temperatures. Using these potentials to simulate the system for strong Casimir forces, we reproduce the experimentally observed collapse, and provide a qualitative explanation for this behavior.

  2. Effect of different-sized colloids on the transport and deposition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in quartz sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Peng, Shengnan; Wu, Dan; Tong, Meiping

    2016-01-01

    Colloids (non-biological and biological) with different sizes are ubiquitous in natural environment. The investigations regarding the influence of different-sized colloids on the transport and deposition behaviors of engineered-nanoparticles in porous media yet are still largely lacking. This study investigated the effects of different-sized non-biological and biological colloids on the transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) in quartz sand under both electrostatically favorable and unfavorable conditions. Fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene latex microspheres (CML) with sizes of 0.2-2 μm were utilized as model non-biological colloids, while Gram-negative Escherichia coli (∼ 1 μm) and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (∼ 2 μm) were employed as model biological colloids. Under the examined solution conditions, both breakthrough curves and retained profiles of nTiO2 with different-sized CML particles/bacteria were similar as those without colloids under favorable conditions, indicating that the copresence of model colloids in suspensions had negligible effects on the transport and deposition of nTiO2 under favorable conditions. In contrast, higher breakthrough curves and lower retained profiles of nTiO2 with CML particles/bacteria relative to those without copresent colloids were observed under unfavorable conditions. Clearly, the copresence of model colloids increased the transport and decreased the deposition of nTiO2 in quartz sand under unfavorable conditions (solution conditions examined in present study). Both competition of deposition sites on quartz sand surfaces and the enhanced stability/dispersion of nTiO2 induced by copresent colloids were found to be responsible for the increased nTiO2 transport with colloids under unfavorable conditions. Moreover, the smallest colloids had the highest coverage on sand surface and most significant dispersion effect on nTiO2, resulting in the greatest nTiO2 transport. Copyright © 2015. Published

  3. Colloid Titration--A Rapid Method for the Determination of Charged Colloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Keihei; Kina, Ken'yu

    1985-01-01

    "Colloid titration" is a volumetric method for determining charged polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions. The principle of colloid titration, reagents used in the procedure, methods of endpoint detection, preparation of reagent solutions, general procedure used, results obtained, and pH profile of colloid titration are considered. (JN)

  4. Physical aging and structural recovery in a colloidal glass subjected to volume-fraction jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoguang; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2016-04-01

    Three important kinetic phenomena have been cataloged by Kovacs in the investigation of molecular glasses during structural recovery or physical aging. These are responses to temperature-jump histories referred to as intrinsic isotherms, asymmetry of approach, and memory effect. Here we use a thermosensitive polystyrene-poly (N -isopropylacrylamide)-poly (acrylic acid) core-shell particle-based dispersion as a colloidal model and by working at a constant number concentration of particles we use temperature changes to create volume-fraction changes. This imposes conditions similar to those defined by Kovacs on the colloidal system. We use creep experiments to probe the physical aging and structural recovery behavior of colloidal glasses in the Kovacs-type histories and compare the results with those seen in molecular glasses. We find that there are similarities in aging dynamics between molecular glasses and colloidal glasses, but differences also persist. For the intrinsic isotherms, the times teq needed for relaxing or evolving into the equilibrium (or stationary) state are relatively insensitive to the volume fraction and the values of teq are longer than the α -relaxation time τα at the same volume fraction. On the other hand, both of these times grow at least exponentially with decreasing temperature in molecular glasses. For the asymmetry of approach, similar nonlinear behavior is observed for both colloidal and molecular glasses. However, the equilibration time teq is the same for both volume-fraction up-jump and down-jump experiments, different from the finding in molecular glasses that it takes longer for the structure to evolve into equilibrium for the temperature up-jump condition than for the temperature down-jump condition. For the two-step volume-fraction jumps, a memory response is observed that is different from observations of structural recovery in two-step temperature histories in molecular glasses. The concentration dependence of the dynamics

  5. Colloidal paradigm in supercapattery electrode systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage systems are now sorely in need of a new design paradigm at the nano size and ion level to satisfy the higher energy and power demands. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery that integrates multiple-scale forms of matter, i.e. ion clusters, colloidal ions, and nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e. electrostatic, van der Waals forces, and chemical bonding, thus leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers. This colloidal electrode not only keeps the original ionic nature in colloidal materials, but also creates a new attribute of high electroactivity. Colloidal supercapattery is a perfect application example of the novel colloidal electrode, leading to higher specific capacitance than traditional electrode materials. The high electroactivity of the colloidal electrode mainly comes from the contribution of exposed reactive centers, owing to the confinement effect of carbon and a binder matrix. Systematic and thorough research on the colloidal system will significantly promote the development of fundamental science and the progress of advanced energy storage technology.

  6. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  7. Nonequilibrium forces between dragged ultrasoft colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil P; Winkler, Roland G; Gompper, Gerhard

    2011-10-07

    The dynamical deformation of ultrasoft colloids as well as their dynamic frictional forces are numerically investigated, when one colloid is dragged past another at constant velocity. Hydrodynamic interactions are captured by a particle-based mesoscopic simulation method. At vanishing relative velocity, the equilibrium repulsive force-distance curve is obtained. At large drag velocities, in contrast, we find an apparent attractive force for departing colloids along the dragging direction. The deformation, in the close encounter of colloids, and the energy dissipation are examined as a function of the drag velocity and their separation.

  8. Transport of a Two-Member Decay Chain of Radionuclides Through a Discrete Fracture in a Porous Rock Matrix in the Presence of Colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, N.-C.; Li Shihhai

    2002-01-01

    Many physical and chemical processes dominate the transport of radionuclides in groundwater. Among these processes, the decay chain process of radionuclides was frequently disregarded in previous research. However, the daughter products may travel much farther than their parents along the fracture. Therefore, some models neglecting the effect of the decay chain may underestimate the transport radionuclide concentration in geological media. The transport of radionuclides in groundwater is also controlled by colloidal particles. The radionuclides may be enhanced or retarded by the colloids, according to the mobility of these colloidal particles. This work describes a novel model of the transport of a two-member decay chain of radionuclides through a discrete fracture in a porous rock matrix in the presence of colloids. The model addresses the following processes: (a) advective transport in the fracture, (b) mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion along the fracture, (c) molecular diffusion from the fracture to the rock matrix, (d) adsorption onto the fracture wall, (e) adsorption in the rock matrix, and (f) radioactive decay. Furthermore, colloids are assumed to be excluded from the matrix pores because of their size. A fully developed concentration profile system with nonreactive colloids is used to understand the effect of colloidal sizes by using hydrodynamic chromatography. The external forces acting on the colloid surface, such as the inertial, the van der Waals attractive force, the double layer force, and the gravitational force are accounted for. The parameters, the average velocity of the colloid, the dispersion coefficient of the colloid, and the distribution coefficient of radionuclides with colloids are modified according to the colloidal size. The transport equations for the parent radionuclides are solved analytically using the Laplace transformation and inversion method. However, for the transformed solution of the daughter products along the

  9. Fabrication of robust crystal balls from the electrospray of soft polymer spheres/silica dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhehong; Zhu, Yue; Wu, Limin; You, Bo; Zi, Jian

    2010-05-04

    This paper presents a novel and facile approach to fabricate robust crystal balls directly through the self-assembly of soft colloidal polymer spheres by the aid of nano silica using an electrospraying technique. In this approach, soft colloidal polymer spheres are synthesized by emulsion polymerization and then blended with colloidal silica to obtain nanocomposite dispersion. When this dispersion is loaded into an injector and forced to flow through the nozzle under direct electric field, the detached droplets are collected by an oil solvent. As water and solvent evaporate, the colloidal polymer spheres and silica beads can directly self-assemble into robust crystal balls. Neither soft matrix nor post-treatment is needed. The obtained crystal balls have not only excellent mechanical properties to withstand external forces such as cutting, puckering, and bending, but also reversible deformation.

  10. Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wood

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI. We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs – optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection – that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt. We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs.

  11. Silver nanoparticle colloids with γ-cyclodextrin: enhanced stability and Gibbs–Marangoni flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, Setareh; Duroux, Laurent; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen, E-mail: kll@bio.aau.dk [Aalborg University, Department of Chemistry and Bioscience (Denmark)

    2015-01-15

    Although cyclodextrins (CD) are effective stabilizers for metal nanoparticle colloids, differences between α-, β- and γ-CD in stabilizing such colloids have not been previously reported. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesized using NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agent and cyclodextrins as stabilizers. Long-term stability of AgNP colloids in equilibrium conditions showed no marked differences between CD types. Transmission electron microscopy and quantitative image analysis revealed only marginal differences in particle sizes for CD-AgNP, although statistically significant. CD-AgNP colloids showed dispersed particles with average diameters of 7.3 ± 2.2, 6.3 ± 2.9 and 4.9 ± 1.9 nm for α-, β- and γ-CD, respectively, and with similar ζ-potentials about −25 to −30 mV. AgNP without CD showed bigger and aggregated particles of 15.0 ± 2.0 nm with lower ζ-potentials of about −40 mV. When subjected to centrifugal forces, i.e. non-equilibrium conditions, γ-CD was markedly more efficient than α- and β-CD in stabilizing the colloids. Drying patterns of colloid droplets showed a typical self-pinned coffee ring for all but the colloid stabilized by γ-CD, which showed a pattern resulting from a dominant Gibbs–Marangoni flow inside the drying droplet. Calculations using the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO) theory supported the stabilizing effect of CD in equilibrium conditions; it however did not provide clues for the superior stabilization by γ-CD in conditions of hydrodynamic stress.

  12. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF RENAL LITHIASIS—Increasing the Protective Urinary Colloids with Hyaluronidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Arthur J.; Hauser, Ernst A.; Seifter, Joseph

    1952-01-01

    Urine is a highly saturated solution due to the presence of certain colloids. The protective action of urinary colloids is of major importance in preventing precipitation, agglomeration and conglomeration of crystalloids from a super-saturated solution. If the concentration of such protective colloids is insufficient, stone formation begins or is accelerated. In 680 human subjects, the incidence of stone was found to be almost inversely proportional to the degree of protective urinary colloids present. Urine specimens were subjected to ultramicroscopic examination, determination of electric charge carried by the colloidal particles, determination of the surface tension, and photo-ultramicrographic studies. Subcutaneous injection of hyaluronidase mixed with physiologic saline solution greatly increases the content of protective colloids in the urine. The colloids are caused to set up to a gel, thereby preventing electrolytes present from crystallizing. They act as excellent dispersing agents and prevent the formation of stone. Hyaluronidase therapy, using 150 turbidity reducing units every 24 to 72 hours, was effective in preventing calculous formation or reformation during a period of 11 to 14 months in 18 of 20 patients in whom, previously, stones formed rapidly. In a second series of ten patients in whom stones formed rapidly, larger doses of hyaluronidase, averaging 300 turbidity reducing units every 24 to 48 hours, were given. The period of observation at the time of report was from six to ten months. In this group, there was no new stone formation or enlargement of existing stones as evidenced by x-ray studies at 30- to 60-day intervals. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:14905291

  13. Monodisperse conjugated polymer particles by Suzuki-Miyaura dispersion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Alexander J C; Gather, Malte C; Sprakel, Joris

    2012-01-01

    The self-assembly of colloidal building blocks into complex and hierarchical structures offers a versatile and powerful toolbox for the creation of new photonic and optoelectronic materials. However, well-defined and monodisperse colloids of semiconducting polymers, which would form excellent building blocks for such self-assembled materials, are not readily available. Here we report the first demonstration of a Suzuki-Miyaura dispersion polymerization; this method produces highly monodisperse submicrometer particles of a variety of semiconducting polymers. Moreover, we show that these monodisperse particles readily self-assemble into photonic crystals that exhibit a pronounced photonic stopgap.

  14. Fabricating colloidal crystals and construction of ordered nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractColloidal crystals of polymeric or inorganic microspheres are of extensive interest due to their potential applications in such as sensing, optics, photonic bandgap and surface patterning. The article highlights a set of approaches developed in our group, which are efficient to prepare colloidal crystals with ordered voids, patterned colloidal crystals on non-planar surfaces, heterogeneous colloidal crystals of different building blocks, colloidal crystals composed of non-spherical polyhedrons, and colloidal crystals of non-close-packed colloidal microspheres in particular. The use of these colloidal crystals as templates for different microstructures range from nanoscale to micron-scale is also summarized.

  15. Multi-scale kinetics of a field-directed colloidal phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Paula A.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Fincke, E. Michael; Wakata, Koichi; Magnus, Sandra H.; Winne, Frank De; Barratt, Michael R.; Agui, Juan H.; Green, Robert D.; Hall, Nancy R.; Bohman, Donna Y.; Bunnell, Charles T.; Gast, Alice P.; Furst, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Polarizable colloids are expected to form crystalline equilibrium phases when exposed to a steady, uniform field. However, when colloids become localized this field-induced phase transition arrests and the suspension persists indefinitely as a kinetically trapped, percolated structure. We anneal such gels formed from magneto-rheological fluids by toggling the field strength at varied frequencies. This processing allows the arrested structure to relax periodically to equilibrium—colloid-rich, cylindrical columns. Two distinct growth regimes are observed: one in which particle domains ripen through diffusive relaxation of the gel, and the other where the system-spanning structure collapses and columnar domains coalesce apparently through field-driven interactions. There is a stark boundary as a function of magnetic field strength and toggle frequency distinguishing the two regimes. These results demonstrate how kinetic barriers to a colloidal phase transition are subverted through measured, periodic variation of driving forces. Such directed assembly may be harnessed to create unique materials from dispersions of colloids. PMID:22988079

  16. Two-Dimensional Modeling of Contaminant Transport in Homogeneous Porous Media in the Presence of Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhit, H. B.; Hassan, A. E.

    2002-12-01

    It has long been known that colloids can facilitate the transport of contaminants in groundwater systems by reducing the effective retardation factor. A significant effort has been devoted to study colloid-facilitated contaminant transport during the past decade. Most of the previous studies were restricted to one-dimensional analysis and comparison with finite column experiments. Little attention was paid to the interaction between colloids and contaminant plumes in multi-dimensional domains, which are more realistic than one-dimensional domains. The main objective of the present work is to develop a two-dimensional numerical model to investigate the effect of different interactions between colloids, contaminants and porous media under homogeneous conditions. The numerical formulation of the model is based on discretizing the mass balance equations and the reaction equations using finite differences with a third-order total variance-diminishing (TVD) scheme for the advection terms. This latter scheme significantly reduces numerical dispersion and leads to more accurate results as compared to the standard central differencing scheme. The model was tested against a number of analytical solutions under simplified conditions and the results were favorable. The model is used to investigate the impact of different reaction rates and parameter values on the movement of contaminant plumes in two dimensions. The results of these investigations will be discussed and the cases under which colloids may act as a movement-retarding agent as opposed movement-facilitating agent are investigated and discussed.

  17. Modeling in-situ transport of uranine and colloids in the fracture network in KURT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Woo; Lee, Jae-Kwang; Baik, Min-Hoon; Jeong, Jongtae

    2015-02-01

    An in-situ dipole migration experiment was conducted using the conservative tracer uranine and latex colloids in KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) Underground Research Tunnel (KURT). The location and dimensions of the fractures between the two boreholes were estimated using the results of a borehole image processing system (BIPS) investigation, and the connectivity of the fractures was evaluated by a packer test. To investigate the flow and transport of uranine and colloids through an in-situ fracture network, a fracture network transport model was newly developed. The model consists of a series of one-dimensional advection-dispersion-matrix diffusion equations for each channel of the fracture network. Using the fracture network transport model, the most probable representation and the hydrologic parameters of the fracture network can be estimated by fitting the breakthrough of uranine. While the fracture network might not be unique, the representation chosen was adequate to describe the breakthrough of uranine and it represents a reasonable approach to modeling transport in the fracture network. An additional evaluation showed that the colloid transport in this study was influenced by filtration on the fracture surface rather than the enhancement of the colloid velocity. Overall, the model can explain successfully the in-situ experimental results of uranine and colloid transports through the fracture network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of Ag-coated polystyrene colloids by an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chungui; Wang Enbo; Kang Zhenhui; Mao Baodong; Zhang Chao; Lan Yang; Wang Chunlei; Song Yanli

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) could act as the linker between Ag ions (Ag nanoparticles) and polystyrene (PS) colloids and the reducing agent in the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Due to the multi-functional characteristic of PEI, Ag seeds formed in-situ and were immobilized on the surface of PEI-modified PS colloids and no free Ag clusters coexist with the Ag 'seeding' PS colloids in the system. Then, the additional agents could be added into the resulting dispersions straightly to produce a thick Ag nanoshell. The Ag nanoshell with controllable thickness was formed on the surface of PS by the 'one-pot' surface seeding and shell growth method. The Ag-coverage increased gradually with the increasing of mass ratio of AgNO 3 /PS. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. - Graphical abstract: An improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. Display Omitted

  19. Shape-Selection of Thermodynamically Stabilized Colloidal Pd and Pt Nanoparticles Controlled via Support Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, M.; Behafarid, F.; Holse, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal chemistry, in combination with nanoparticle (NP)/support epitaxial interactions is used here to synthesize shape-selected and thermodynamically stable metallic NPs over a broad range of NP sizes. The morphology of three-dimensional palladium and platinum NPs supported on TiO2(110) was i......Colloidal chemistry, in combination with nanoparticle (NP)/support epitaxial interactions is used here to synthesize shape-selected and thermodynamically stable metallic NPs over a broad range of NP sizes. The morphology of three-dimensional palladium and platinum NPs supported on TiO2...... rows and was found to be responsible for the shape control. The ability of synthesizing thermally stable shape-selected metal NPs demonstrated here is expected to be of relevance for applications in the field of catalysis, since the activity and selectivity of NP catalysts has been shown to strongly...

  20. Harnessing the advantages of hard and soft colloids by the use of core-shell particles as interfacial stabilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchcic, C.; Tromp, R.H.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of colloidal particles to penetrate fluid interfaces is a crucial factor in the preparation of particle stabilized disperse systems such as foams and emulsions. For hard micron-sized particles the insertion into fluid interfaces requires substantial energy input, but soft particles

  1. Experimental investigation on the use of highly charged nanoparticles to improve the stability of weakly charged colloidal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd; Badarudin, A; Kazi, S N; Misran, Misni; Amiri, Ahmad; Sadri, Rad; Khalid, Solangi

    2015-09-15

    The present work highlighted on the implementation of a unique concept for stabilizing colloids at their incipiently low charge potential. A highly charged nanoparticle was introduced within a coagulated prone colloidal system, serving as stabilizer to resist otherwise rapid flocculation and sedimentation process. A low size asymmetry of nanoparticle/colloid serves as the new topic of investigation in addition to the well-established large size ratio nanoparticle/microparticle study. Highly charged Al2O3 nanoparticles were used within the present research context to stabilize TiO2 and Fe3O4 based colloids via the formation of composite structures. It was believed, based on the experimental evidence, that Al2O3 nanoparticle interact with the weakly charged TiO2 and Fe3O4 colloids within the binary system via absorption and/or haloing modes to increase the overall charge potential of the respective colloids, thus preventing further surface contact via van der Waal's attraction. Series of experimental results strongly suggest the presence of weakly charged colloids in the studied bimodal system where, in the absence of highly charged nanoparticle, experience rapid instability. Absorbance measurement indicated that the colloidal stability drops in accordance to the highly charged nanoparticle sedimentation rate, suggesting the dominant influence of nanoparticles to attain a well-dispersed binary system. Further, it was found that the level of colloidal stability was enhanced with increasing nanoparticle fraction within the mixture. Rheological observation revealed that each hybrid complexes demonstrated behavior reminiscence to water with negligible increase in viscosity which serves as highly favorable condition particularly in thermal transport applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural color from colloidal glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkiriadou, Sofia

    When a material has inhomogeneities at a lengthscale comparable to the wavelength of light, interference can give rise to structural colors: colors that originate from the interaction of the material's microstructure with light and do not require absorbing dyes. In this thesis we study a class of these materials, called photonic glasses, where the inhomogeneities form a dense and random arrangement. Photonic glasses have angle-independent structural colors that look like those of conventional dyes. However, when this work started, there was only a handful of colors accessible with photonic glasses, mostly hues of blue. We use various types of colloidal particles to make photonic glasses, and we study, both theoretically and experimentally, how the optical properties of these glasses relate to their structure and constituent particles. Based on our observations from glasses of conventional particles, we construct a theoretical model that explains the scarcity of yellow, orange, and red photonic glasses. Guided by this model, we develop novel colloidal systems that allow a higher degree of control over structural color. We assemble glasses of soft, core-shell particles with scattering cores and transparent shells, where the resonant wavelength can be tuned independently of the reflectivity. We then encapsulate glasses of these core-shell particles into emulsion droplets of tunable size; in this system, we observe, for the first time, angle-independent structural colors that cover the entire visible spectrum. To enhance color saturation, we begin experimenting with inverse glasses, where the refractive index of the particles is lower than the refractive index of the medium, with promising results. Finally, based on our theoretical model for scattering from colloidal glasses, we begin an exploration of the color gamut that could be achieved with this technique, and we find that photonic glasses are a promising approach to a new type of long-lasting, non-toxic, and

  3. A colloid-facilitated transport model with variable colloid transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bruce A.; Wolfsberg, Andrew V.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Reimus, Paul W.

    2007-05-01

    Anomalous contaminant transport velocities in groundwater for species generally considered to be immobile are often attributed to the mechanism of colloid-facilitated transport. In some of the field observations attributed to colloid facilitation, an extremely small fraction of the total contaminant mass introduced to the groundwater is detected downstream. In this study, a new model of colloid-facilitated contaminant transport is proposed that explains this phenomenon as the variability of mobility of individual colloids in the population. The process of retardation via attachment and detachment of colloids on immobile surfaces is often modeled with time and space invariant parameters; here it is modeled assuming a diverse population of transport properties that account for the inherent variability of colloid size, surface charge and chemical properties, mineralogy, and the concomitant impact on colloid mobility. When the contaminant is assumed to irreversibly attach to or form colloids, the migration of the contaminant plume exhibits extremely non-Fickian behavior. The plume's center of mass travels with a velocity governed by the groundwater velocity divided by the mean colloid retardation factor. However, small quantities of contaminant attached to a few highly mobile colloids travel at velocities up to the groundwater velocity, far exceeding the velocity of the centroid of the plume. This paper introduces the colloid diversity model, presents some sensitivity calculations for an idealized case, and discusses the implications of such a model on data needs, simulation of field observations, and model scaling.

  4. Frost Heave in Colloidal Soils

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of frost heave in colloidal soils. The theory accountsfor heave and consolidation while not requiring a frozen fringe assumption. Two solidificationregimes occur: a compaction regime in which the soil consolidates to accommodate the ice lenses, and a heave regime during which liquid is sucked into the consolidated soil from an external reservoir, and the added volume causes the soil to heave. The ice fraction is found to vary inversely with thefreezing velocity V , while the rate of heave is independent of V , consistent with field and laboratoryobservations. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  5. Colloidal discs in nematic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, N M; Patricio, P; Tasinkevych, M; Andrienko, D; Gama, M M Telo da

    2004-01-01

    We use adaptive finite elements methods to investigate a variety of structures in inverted nematic emulsions numerically. In particular, we study dipolar and quadrupolar interactions between colloidal discs in two-dimensional nematics. The behaviour of colloidal particles near a substrate and at a nematic-isotropic interface are also considered

  6. Colloidal Electrolytes and the Critical Micelle Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, L. G.

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods for determining the Critical Micelle Concentration of Colloidal Electrolytes; methods described are: (1) methods based on Colligative Properties, (2) methods based on the Electrical Conductivity of Colloidal Electrolytic Solutions, (3) Dye Method, (4) Dye Solubilization Method, and (5) Surface Tension Method. (BR)

  7. Manipulating colloids with charges and electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of experimental investigations on a variety of colloidal suspensions. Colloidal particles are at least a hundred times larger than atoms or molecules, but suspended in a liquid they display the same phase behavior, including fluid and crystalline phases. Due to their

  8. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films.

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jin Young

    2015-07-13

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector.

  9. Preparation of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-stabilized ZnO colloid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Gutul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for the synthesis of a colloidal ZnO solution with poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP as stabilizer. Stable colloidal solutions with good luminescence properties are obtained by using PVP as stabilizer in the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by a sol–gel method assisted by ultrasound. Nanoparticles with sizes of 30–40 nm in a PVP matrix are produced as a solid product. The colloidal ZnO/PVP/methanol solution, apart from the most intense PL band at 356 nm coming from the PVP, exhibits a strong PL band at 376 nm (3.30 eV which corresponds to the emission of the free exciton recombination in ZnO nanoparticles.

  10. Facile route of biopolymer mediated ferrocene (FO) nanoparticles in aqueous dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaus, Noor Haida Mohd., E-mail: noorhaida@usm.my [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia and Centre for Organized Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Cantock' s Close, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom); Collins, A. M.; Mann, S. [Centre for Organized Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Cantock' s Close, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-24

    In this paper, we present a facile method for production stable aqueous dispersion of ferrocene (FO) nanoparticles. Ferrocene compounds were employed to achieve stable nanodispersions, stabilized with three different biopolymers namely, alginate, CM-dextran and chitosan. The nanoparticles produce are spherical, less than 10 nm in mean diameter and highly stable without any sedimentation. Fourier infrared transform (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed the purity of ferrocene nanoparticles there is no modifications occur during the preparation route. FTIR spectra results were consistent with the presence of absorption band of cyclopentadienyl ring (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}{sup −} ion) which assigned to ν(C-C) vibrations (1409 cm-1), δ(C-H) stretching at 1001 cm{sup −1} and π(C-H) vibrations at 812 cm{sup −1}. Furthermore, all functional group for biopolymers such as CO from carboxyl group of CM-dextran and sodium alginate appears at 1712 cm{sup −1} and 1709 cm{sup −1} respectively, indicating there are steric repulsion interactions for particles stabilization. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of sedimented samples of the biopolymers-stabilized ferrocene (FO) showed all reflections which were indexed respectively to the (−110), (001), (−201), (−111), (200), (−211), (210), (120) and (111) according to the monoclinic phase ferrocene. This confirmed that the products obtained were of high purity of Fe and EDAX analysis also suggests that the presence of the Fe element in the colloidal dispersion.

  11. Biocompatible Amphiphilic Hydrogel-Solid Dimer Particles as Colloidal Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Amstad, Esther; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Cai, Liheng; Fan, Jing; Chen, Qiushui; Hai, Mingtan; Koehler, Stephan; Zhang, Huidan; Liang, Fuxin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Weitz, David A

    2017-12-26

    Emulsions of two immiscible liquids can slowly coalesce over time when stabilized by surfactant molecules. Pickering emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles can be much more stable. Here, we fabricate biocompatible amphiphilic dimer particles using a hydrogel, a strongly hydrophilic material, and achieve large contrast in the wetting properties of the two bulbs, resulting in enhanced stabilization of emulsions. We generate monodisperse single emulsions of alginate and shellac solution in oil using a flow-focusing microfluidics device. Shellac precipitates from water and forms a solid bulb at the periphery of the droplet when the emulsion is exposed to acid. Molecular interactions result in amphiphilic dimer particles that consist of two joined bulbs: one hydrogel bulb of alginate in water and the other hydrophobic bulb of shellac. Alginate in the hydrogel compartment can be cross-linked using calcium cations to obtain stable particles. Analogous to surfactant molecules at the interface, the resultant amphiphilic particles stand at the water/oil interface with the hydrogel bulb submerged in water and the hydrophobic bulb in oil and are thus able to stabilize both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions, making these amphiphilic hydrogel-solid particles ideal colloidal surfactants for various applications.

  12. Role of particle shape anisotropy on crack formation in drying of colloidal suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugyala, Venkateshwar Rao; Lama, Hisay; Satapathy, Dillip K; Basavaraj, Madivala G

    2016-08-01

    Cracks in a colloidal film formed by evaporation induced drying can be controlled by changing drying conditions. We show, for the first time that the crack morphologies in colloidal films are dependent on shape of constituting particles apart from the microstructure and particle assembly. In order to investigate the particle shape effect on crack patterns, monodispered spherical and ellipsoidal particles are used in sessile drop experiments. On observing the dried sessile drop we found cracks along the radial direction for spherical particle dispersions and circular crack patterns for ellipsoidal particle dispersions. The change in crack pattern is a result of self assembly of shape anisotropic particles and their ordering. The ordering of particles dictate the crack direction and the cracks follow the path of least resistance to release the excess stress stored in the particle film. Ellipsoids having different aspect ratio (~3 to 7) are used and circular crack patterns are repeatedly observed in all experiments.

  13. Colloidal processing of Fe-based metal ceramic composites with high content of ceramic reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escribano, J. A.; Ferrari, B.; Alvaredo, P.; Gordo, E.; Sanchez-Herencia, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    Major difficulties of processing metal-matrix composites by means of conventional powder metallurgy techniques are the lack of dispersion of the phases within the final microstructure. In this work, processing through colloidal techniques of the Fe-based metal-matrix composites, with a high content of a ceramic reinforcement (Ti(C,N) ), is presented for the first time in the literature. The colloidal approach allows a higher control of the powders packing and a better homogenization of phases since powders are mixed in a liquid medium. The chemical stability of Fe in aqueous medium determines the dispersion conditions of the mixture. The Fe slurries were formulated by optimising their zeta potential and their rheology, in order to shape bulk pieces by slip-casting. Preliminary results demonstrate the viability of this procedure, also opening new paths to the microstructural design of fully sintered Fe-based hard metal, with 50 vol. % of Ti(C,N) in its composition. (Author)

  14. Study of colloids transport during two-phase flow using a novel polydimethylsiloxane micro-model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiulan; Karadimitriou, N K; Hassanizadeh, S M; Kleingeld, P J; Imhof, A

    2013-07-01

    As a representation of a porous medium, a closed micro-fluidic device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), with uniform wettability and stable hydrophobic properties, was designed and fabricated. A flow network, with a mean pore size of 30 μm, was formed in a PDMS slab, covering an area of 1 mm × 10 mm. The PDMS slab was covered and bonded with a 120-μm-thick glass plate to seal the model. The glass plate was first spin-coated with a thin layer, roughly 10 μm, of PDMS. The micro-model was treated with silane in order to make it uniformly and stably hydrophobic. Fluorescent particles of 300 μm in diameter were used as colloids. It is known that more removal of colloids occurs under unsaturated conditions, compared to saturated flow in soil. At the same time, the change of saturation has been observed to cause remobilization of attached colloids. The mechanisms for these phenomena are not well understood. This is the first time that a closed micro-model, made of PDMS with uniform and stable wettability, has been used in combination with confocal microscopy to study colloid transport under transient two-phase flow conditions. With confocal microscopy, the movement of fluorescent particles and flow of two liquids within the pores can be studied. One can focus at different depths within the pores and thus determine where the particles exactly are. Thus, remobilization of attached colloids by moving fluid-fluid interfaces was visualized. In order to allow for the deposition and subsequent remobilization of colloids during two-phase flow, three micro-channels for the injection of liquids with and without colloids were constructed. An outlet channel was designed where effluent concentration breakthrough curves can be quantified by measuring the fluorescence intensity. A peak concentration also indicated in the breakthrough curve with the drainage event. The acquired images and breakthrough curve successfully confirmed the utility of the combination of such a PDMS

  15. Analytical phase diagrams for colloids and non-adsorbing polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Gerard J; Tuinier, Remco

    2008-11-04

    We review the free-volume theory (FVT) of Lekkerkerker et al. [Europhys. Lett. 20 (1992) 559] for the phase behavior of colloids in the presence of non-adsorbing polymer and we extend this theory in several aspects: (i) We take the solvent into account as a separate component and show that the natural thermodynamic parameter for the polymer properties is the insertion work Pi(v), where Pi is the osmotic pressure of the (external) polymer solution and v the volume of a colloid particle. (ii) Curvature effects are included along the lines of Aarts et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matt. 14 (2002) 7551] but we find accurate simple power laws which simplify the mathematical procedure considerably. (iii) We find analytical forms for the first, second, and third derivatives of the grand potential, needed for the calculation of the colloid chemical potential, the pressure, gas-liquid critical points and the critical endpoint (cep), where the (stable) critical line ends and then coincides with the triple point. This cep determines the boundary condition for a stable liquid. We first apply these modifications to the so-called colloid limit, where the size ratio q(R)=R/a between the radius of gyration R of the polymer and the particle radius a is small. In this limit the binodal polymer concentrations are below overlap: the depletion thickness delta is nearly equal to R, and Pi can be approximated by the ideal (van't Hoff) law Pi=Pi(0)=phi/N, where phi is the polymer volume fraction and N the number of segments per chain. The results are close to those of the original Lekkerkerker theory. However, our analysis enables very simple analytical expressions for the polymer and colloid concentrations in the critical and triple points and along the binodals as a function of q(R). Also the position of the cep is found analytically. In order to make the model applicable to higher size ratio's q(R) (including the so-called protein limit where q(R)>1) further extensions are needed. We

  16. Optical trapping of colloidal particles and measurement of the defect line tension and colloidal forces in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalyukh, I.I.; Kuzmin, A.N.; Kachynski, A.V.; Prasad, P.N.; Lavrentovich, O.D.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate optical trapping and manipulation of transparent microparticles suspended in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal with low birefringence. We employ the particle manipulation to measure line tension of a topologically stable disclination line and to determine colloidal interaction of particles with perpendicular surface anchoring of the director. The three-dimensional director fields and positions of the particles manipulated by laser tweezers are visualized by fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

  17. Stability and minimum size of colloidal clusters on a liquid-air interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergamenshchik, V M

    2012-02-01

    A vertical force applied to each of two colloids, trapped at a liquid-air interface, induces their logarithmic pairwise attraction. I recently showed [Phys. Rev. E 79, 011407 (2009)] that in clusters of size R much larger than the capillary length λ, the attraction changes to that of a power law and is much stronger due to a many-body effect, and I derived two equations that describe the equilibrium coarse-grained meniscus profile and colloid density in such clusters. In this paper, this theory is shown also to describe small clusters with R≪ λ provided the number N of colloids therein is sufficiently large. An analytical solution for a small circular cluster with an arbitrary short-range power-law pairwise repulsion is found. The energy of a cluster is obtained as a function of its radius R and colloid number N. As in large clusters, the attraction force and energy universally scale with the distance L between colloids as L(-3) and L(-2), respectively, for any repulsion forces. The states of an equilibrium cluster, predicted by the theory, are shown to be stable with respect to small perturbations of the meniscus profile and colloid density. The minimum number of colloids in a circular cluster, which sustains the thermal motion, is estimated. For standard parameters, it can be very modest, e.g., in the range 20-200, which is in line with experimental findings on reversible clusterization on a liquid-air interface. © 2012 American Physical Society

  18. Sorption of prioritized elements on montmorillonite colloids and their potential to transport radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wold, Susanna

    2010-04-01

    Due to colloids potential to bind radionuclides (RN) and even mobilise sorbed RN, colloid transport of RN should be taken into account when modeling radionuclide transport in the scenario of a leaking canister in a deep bedrock repository of spent nuclear fuel. Colloids are always present in natural waters and the concentrations are controlled by the groundwater chemistry where specifically the ionic strength is of major importance. In many deep bedrock groundwaters, the ionic strength is fairly high (above the Critical Coagulation Concentration) and therefore colloids are not likely to be stable. In these types of groundwaters colloid concentrations up to 100 μg/l could be expected, and clay colloids organic degradation products and bacteria and viruses represent can be found. In a long time perspective cycles of glaciations can be expected in Sweden as in other Nordic countries. It can not be excluded that glacial melt water can intrude to repository depth with high flows. In this scenario the groundwater conditions may drastically change. In contact with dilute groundwater the bentonite barrier can start to propagate a bentonite gel and further release montmorillonite colloids into water bearing fractures. The concentration of colloids in vicinity of the bentonite barrier can then increase drastically. In contact with Grimsel groundwater types with [Na] and [Ca] of 0.001 and 0.0001 M respectively a montmorillonite concentration of a maximum of 20 mg/l is expected. Further, the groundwater chemistry of Grimsel seems to be representative for glacial meltwater when comparing with the water chemistry data on meltwaters from existing glaciers. A key to be able to model colloid transport of radionuclides is the sorption strength and the sorption reversibility. To facilitate this, a compilation of literature K d -values and an inventory of available sorption kinetic data has been composed for the prioritized elements Pu, Th, Am, Pb, Pa, Ra, Np, Cm, Ac, Tc, Cs, Nb, Ni

  19. Synthesis and characterization of InP and InN colloidal quantum dots.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Osinski, Marek (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico); Greenberg, Melisa (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico); Bunge, Scott D.; Chen, Weiliang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico); Smolyakov, G. A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico); Pulford, B. N. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico); Jiang, Ying-Bing (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico)

    2005-04-01

    InP quantum dots (QDs) with zinc blende structure and InN QDs with hexagonal structure were synthesized from appropriate organometallic precursors in a noncoordinating solvent using myristic acid as a ligand. The QDs were characterized by TEM, the associated energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron diffraction, and steady state UV-VIS optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. To our best knowledge, this paper reports synthesis of InN colloidal quantum dots for the first time.

  20. Laccase-Assisted Rapid Synthesis of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles for the Catalytic Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fang; Li, Zheng; Zeng, Chang; Hu, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    A green method for the rapid preparation of uniform-sized colloidal gold nanoparticles under ambient conditions was presented and validated using laccase as a reduction agent in alkaline medium. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, zetasizer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the gold nanoparticles. The gold nanopart...

  1. Colloid centrifugation of boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Wallgren, M

    2011-09-01

    Colloid centrifugation of boar semen has been reported sporadically for at least the last two decades, beginning with density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and progressing more recently to single layer centrifugation (SLC). Single layer centrifugation through a species-specific colloid has been shown to be effective in selecting the best spermatozoa (spermatozoa with good motility and normal morphology) from boar sperm samples. The method is easier to use and less time-consuming than DGC and has been scaled-up to allow whole ejaculates from other species, e.g. stallions, to be processed in a practical manner. The SLC technique is described, and various scale-up versions are presented. The potential applications for SLC in boar semen preservation are as follows: to improve sperm quality in artificial insemination (AI) doses for 'problem' boars; to increase the shelf-life of normal stored sperm samples, either by processing the fresh semen before preparing AI doses or by processing the stored semen dose to extract the best spermatozoa; to remove pathogens (viruses, bacteria), thus improving biosecurity of semen doses and potentially reducing the use of antibiotics; to improve cryosurvival by removing dead and dying spermatozoa prior to cryopreservation; to select spermatozoa for in vitro fertilization. These applications are discussed and practical examples are provided. Finally, a few thoughts about the economic value of the technique to the boar semen industry are presented. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. An alkali treating strategy for the colloidization of graphitic carbon nitride and its excellent photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fuxing; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Chenjuan; Chen, Binhe; Li, Peiran; Chen, Zhi; Dong, Xiaoping

    2016-04-15

    The colloid of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was of great importance for practical application. Herein we introduced an alkali treatment route to efficiently colloidize g-C3N4 under mild conditions by destroying the hydrogen bonds between linearly polymeric melon chains and hydrolyzing partial C−NH−C bonds linked two tri-s-triazine units. The obtained colloidal suspension was extremely stable due to its negative charges on surface, and the particle size of several hundred nanometers and the nanobelt-like morphology were revealed by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering technologies. The structural, optical and functional group analysis demonstrated that the structure of CN heterocycles was preserved after the alkali treatment, and the produced colloidal g-C3N4 can be re-assembled by an electrostatic interaction. Moreover, contributing to the reduced electron-hole recombination, the photocatalytic performance of restacked carbon nitride colloids had more enhanced photocatalytic performance than bulk g-C3N4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation and study of properties of dispersed graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Seliverstova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ability of graphene oxide to form stable dispersion in organic solvents was studied in this work. As it was shown, sonication of graphene leads to the decreas of the particle size. Stability of prepared graphene dispersions was studied upon measurements of distribution of number of the particles via size and change of optical density of the solutions with time. It was found that graphene oxide forms a more stable dispersion in tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide than in chloroform and acetone.

  4. Polymer-Induced Depletion Interaction and Its Effect on Colloidal Sedimentation in Colloid-Polymer Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Penger

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the polymer-induced depletion attraction and its effect on colloidal sedimentation in colloid-polymer mixtures. We first report a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of the depletion effect in a mixture of hard-sphere-like colloid and non-adsorbing polymer. Then we present results of our recent sedimentation measurements in the same colloid-polymer mixture. A key parameter in controlling the sedimentation of heavy colloidal particles is the interparticle potential U(tau), which is the work required to bring two colloidal particles from infinity to a distance tau under a give solvent condition. This potential is known to affect the average settling velocity of the particles and experimentally one needs to have a way to continuously vary U(tau) in order to test the theory. The interaction potential U(tau) can be altered by adding polymer molecules into the colloidal suspension. In a mixture of colloid and non-adsorbing polymer, the potential U(tau) can develop an attractive well because of the depletion effect, in that the polymer chains are expelled from the region between two colloidal particles when their surface separation becomes smaller than the size of the polymer chains. The exclusion of polymer molecules from the space between the colloidal particles leads to an unbalanced osmotic pressure difference pushing the colloidal particles together, which results in an effective attraction between the two colloidal particles. The polymer-induced depletion attraction controls the phase stability of many colloid-polymer mixtures, which are directly of interest to industry.

  5. Colloid transport and retention in unsaturated porous media: effect of colloid input concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Morales, Verónica L; Cakmak, M Ekrem; Salvucci, Anthony E; Geohring, Larry D; Hay, Anthony G; Parlange, Jean-Yves; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2010-07-01

    Colloids play an important role in facilitating transport of adsorbed contaminants in soils. Recent studies showed that under saturated conditions colloid retention was a function of its concentration. It is unknown if this is the case under unsaturated conditions. In this study, the effect of colloid concentration on colloid retention was investigated in unsaturated columns by increasing concentrations of colloid influents with varying ionic strength. Colloid retention was observed in situ by bright field microscopy and quantified by measuring colloid breakthrough curves. In our unsaturated experiments, greater input concentrations resulted in increased colloid retention at ionic strength above 0.1 mM, but not in deionized water (i.e., 0 mM ionic strength). Bright field microscope images showed that colloid retention mainly occurred at the solid-water interface and wedge-shaped air-water-solid interfaces, whereas the retention at the grain-grain contacts was minor. Some colloids at the air-water-solid interfaces were rotating and oscillating and thus trapped. Computational hydrodynamic simulation confirmed that the wedge-shaped air-water-solid interface could form a "hydrodynamic trap" by retaining colloids in its low velocity vortices. Direct visualization also revealed that colloids once retained acted as new retention sites for other suspended colloids at ionic strength greater than 0.1 mM and thereby could explain the greater retention with increased input concentrations. Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) energy calculations support this concept. Finally, the results of unsaturated experiments were in agreement with limited saturated experiments under otherwise the same conditions.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Colloid Transport in Volcanic Ash Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H.; Kawamoto, K.; Komatsu, T.; Moldrup, P.; Simunek, J.

    2006-12-01

    Many studies have been conducted to investigate colloid-facilitated transport of organic or inorganic contaminants in soils. Because many contaminants, even non-soluble contaminants, can sorb onto colloids, failure to account for colloid-facilitated transport may lead to significant errors in predicting movement of contaminants in soils. Volcanic ash soils usually contain a considerable amount of soil particles smaller than 1 micrometer that are considered to have colloidal properties. This study investigated experimentally and numerically the transport of such colloidal particles in a volcanic ash soil called Tachikawa loam under simulated rainfall conditions. Disturbed soil columns were irrigated by controlled rainfall events using artificial rain water (ARW) and colloid solution extracted from Tachikawa loam soil (soil particles smaller than 1 micrometer). There was a continuous leaching of natural colloids with an initial increase in concentrations followed by a long tailing even when irrigated only by ARW. When colloid solution was applied, the breakthrough curve of the applied colloid showed no tailing and least time lag. HYDRUS-1D was used to obtain transport parameters of natural and applied colloids from breakthrough curves using a standard colloid transport model with the first-order deposition and entrainment coefficients (i.e., attachment and detachment terms) to account for kinetic sorption. The estimated distribution coefficient of natural colloids was an order of magnitude larger than that of applied colloids. While the estimated attachment coefficient of natural colloids was negligible, that of applied colloids led to a high retention of applied colloids in soils. The estimated detachment coefficient of natural colloids was three to four orders of magnitude greater than that of applied colloids. One possible explanation is that the estimated attachment coefficient for applied colloids may account for so-called straining that is a physical filtration

  7. Formation of aquatic actinide(IV) colloid and stabilization via interaction with An(III)/Ln(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.I.; Panak, P.J.; Kim, J.I.; Kim, M.A.; Fanghaenel, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Aquatic actinide colloids are attracting increasingly attention in the long-term safety assessment of nuclear waste disposal, since the colloid-facilitated migration of actinides in groundwater systems has been widely recognized. However, their provenance is rarely understood in detail. Aquatic actinide colloids are present either as real colloids (actinide oxides/hydroxides) or as pseudocolloids (actinides imbedded in natural aquatic colloids). Of particular interest is whether or not the actinide(IV) ion forms its stable 'real colloids' as assumed generally in the literature. Answering this question is the main objective of the present work. As a representative tetravalent actinide ion, Th(IV) is chosen for investigation. A dilute Th(IV) solution (10 -4 or 10 -6 M) in 0.5 M HCl/NaCl is examined by coulometric pH change from 3 to 7 at 0.1 pH unit to ascertain the colloid formation at the pH edge of its solubility and beyond by laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD). Conversion of Th(IV) colloids to precipitation upon its over-saturation at given pH is followed by aging. Similar experiments are carried out in parallel with a pure dilute Eu(III) solution and a mixture of Th and Eu, both in dilute concentrations. All solutions are submitted to ultracentrifugation prior to each experiment to remove latent colloidal impurities. Replacing Eu by Cm, a mixture solution of Th and Cm is pH titrated from 2 to 9 while analyzing the resulting species by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Th(IV) colloids formed initially at its solubility pH edge or beyond undergo precipitation by aging, whereas the Eu(III) ion does not form colloids under the given conditions. Stable colloids are observed only in mixture solution of Th and Eu, suggesting that the mutual oxo-bridging of tetravalent and trivalent metal ions results in colloids with a well-polarized surface for hydration, thus stabilized in water. The spectroscopic

  8. Programmable colloidal molecules from sequential capillarity-assisted particle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Songbo; Leemann, Jessica; Buttinoni, Ivo; Isa, Lucio; Wolf, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    The assembly of artificial nanostructured and microstructured materials which display structures and functionalities that mimic nature's complexity requires building blocks with specific and directional interactions, analogous to those displayed at the molecular level. Despite remarkable progress in synthesizing "patchy" particles encoding anisotropic interactions, most current methods are restricted to integrating up to two compositional patches on a single "molecule" and to objects with simple shapes. Currently, decoupling functionality and shape to achieve full compositional and geometrical programmability remains an elusive task. We use sequential capillarity-assisted particle assembly which uniquely fulfills the demands described above. This is a new method based on simple, yet essential, adaptations to the well-known capillary assembly of particles over topographical templates. Tuning the depth of the assembly sites (traps) and the surface tension of moving droplets of colloidal suspensions enables controlled stepwise filling of traps to "synthesize" colloidal molecules. After deposition and mechanical linkage, the colloidal molecules can be dispersed in a solvent. The template's shape solely controls the molecule's geometry, whereas the filling sequence independently determines its composition. No specific surface chemistry is required, and multifunctional molecules with organic and inorganic moieties can be fabricated. We demonstrate the "synthesis" of a library of structures, ranging from dumbbells and triangles to units resembling bar codes, block copolymers, surfactants, and three-dimensional chiral objects. The full programmability of our approach opens up new directions not only for assembling and studying complex materials with single-particle-level control but also for fabricating new microscale devices for sensing, patterning, and delivery applications.

  9. Programmable colloidal molecules from sequential capillarity-assisted particle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Songbo; Leemann, Jessica; Buttinoni, Ivo; Isa, Lucio; Wolf, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of artificial nanostructured and microstructured materials which display structures and functionalities that mimic nature’s complexity requires building blocks with specific and directional interactions, analogous to those displayed at the molecular level. Despite remarkable progress in synthesizing “patchy” particles encoding anisotropic interactions, most current methods are restricted to integrating up to two compositional patches on a single “molecule” and to objects with simple shapes. Currently, decoupling functionality and shape to achieve full compositional and geometrical programmability remains an elusive task. We use sequential capillarity-assisted particle assembly which uniquely fulfills the demands described above. This is a new method based on simple, yet essential, adaptations to the well-known capillary assembly of particles over topographical templates. Tuning the depth of the assembly sites (traps) and the surface tension of moving droplets of colloidal suspensions enables controlled stepwise filling of traps to “synthesize” colloidal molecules. After deposition and mechanical linkage, the colloidal molecules can be dispersed in a solvent. The template’s shape solely controls the molecule’s geometry, whereas the filling sequence independently determines its composition. No specific surface chemistry is required, and multifunctional molecules with organic and inorganic moieties can be fabricated. We demonstrate the “synthesis” of a library of structures, ranging from dumbbells and triangles to units resembling bar codes, block copolymers, surfactants, and three-dimensional chiral objects. The full programmability of our approach opens up new directions not only for assembling and studying complex materials with single-particle-level control but also for fabricating new microscale devices for sensing, patterning, and delivery applications. PMID:27051882

  10. Phosphate binding by natural iron-rich colloids in streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baken, S.; Moens, C.; Griffioen, J.J.; Smolders, E.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in natural waters may be bound to iron (Fe) bearing colloids. However, the natural variation in composition and P binding strength of these colloids remain unclear. We related the composition of "coarse colloids" (colloids in the 0.1-1.2 μm size range) in 47 Belgian streams to the

  11. Synthesis and Analytical Centrifugation of Magnetic Model Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luigjes, B.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the preparation and thermodynamic properties of magnetic colloids. First, two types of magnetic model colloids are investigated: composite colloids and single-domain nanoparticles. Thermodynamics of magnetic colloids is studied using analytical centrifugation, including a

  12. Multidentate block-copolymer-stabilized ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with enhanced colloidal stability for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Nicky; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Chevallier, Pascale; Bianchi, Andrea; Fortin, Marc-André; Oh, Jung Kwon

    2014-06-09

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) with diameters chemistry of USPIOs to ensure individual colloidal USPIOs with a ligand monolayer and to impart biocompatibility and enhanced colloidal stability is essential for successful clinical applications. Herein, an effective and versatile strategy enabling the development of aqueous colloidal USPIOs stabilized with well-defined multidentate block copolymers (MDBCs) is reported. The multifunctional MDBCs are designed to consist of an anchoring block possessing pendant carboxylates as multidentate anchoring groups strongly bound to USPIO surfaces and a hydrophilic block having pendant hydrophilic oligo(ethylene oxide) chains to confer water dispersibility and biocompatibility. The surface of USPIOs is saturated with multiple anchoring groups of MDBCs, thus exhibiting excellent long-term colloidal stability as well as enhanced colloidal stability at biologically relevant electrolyte, pH, and temperature conditions. Furthermore, relaxometric properties as well as in vitro and in vivo MR imaging results demonstrate that the MDBC-stabilized USPIO colloids hold great potential as an effective T1 contrast agent.

  13. The physics of the colloidal glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary L; Weeks, Eric R

    2012-06-01

    As one increases the concentration of a colloidal suspension, the system exhibits a dramatic increase in viscosity. Beyond a certain concentration, the system is said to be a colloidal glass; structurally, the system resembles a liquid, yet motions within the suspension are slow enough that it can be considered essentially frozen. For several decades, colloids have served as a valuable model system for understanding the glass transition in molecular systems. The spatial and temporal scales involved allow these systems to be studied by a wide variety of experimental techniques. The focus of this review is the current state of understanding of the colloidal glass transition, with an emphasis on experimental observations. A brief introduction is given to important experimental techniques used to study the glass transition in colloids. We describe features of colloidal systems near and in glassy states, including increases in viscosity and relaxation times, dynamical heterogeneity and ageing, among others. We also compare and contrast the glass transition in colloids to that in molecular liquids. Other glassy systems are briefly discussed, as well as recently developed synthesis techniques that will keep these systems rich with interesting physics for years to come.

  14. The physics of the colloidal glass transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Gary L; Weeks, Eric R

    2012-01-01

    As one increases the concentration of a colloidal suspension, the system exhibits a dramatic increase in viscosity. Beyond a certain concentration, the system is said to be a colloidal glass; structurally, the system resembles a liquid, yet motions within the suspension are slow enough that it can be considered essentially frozen. For several decades, colloids have served as a valuable model system for understanding the glass transition in molecular systems. The spatial and temporal scales involved allow these systems to be studied by a wide variety of experimental techniques. The focus of this review is the current state of understanding of the colloidal glass transition, with an emphasis on experimental observations. A brief introduction is given to important experimental techniques used to study the glass transition in colloids. We describe features of colloidal systems near and in glassy states, including increases in viscosity and relaxation times, dynamical heterogeneity and ageing, among others. We also compare and contrast the glass transition in colloids to that in molecular liquids. Other glassy systems are briefly discussed, as well as recently developed synthesis techniques that will keep these systems rich with interesting physics for years to come. (review article)

  15. Direct visualization of colloidal liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Richard Vernon

    We have investigated various colloidal systems consisting of aqueous suspensions of micron sized polystyrene particles. These systems are appealing because they provide a fertile testing ground for theories of both the liquid and solid states, as well as for theories describing hydrodynamic interactions. Our first study of colloidal systems was motivated by some interesting observations we made while looking at a suspension under a light microscope. We, as well as other workers, noticed that particles undergoing Brownian motion can appear to linger around each other for long periods of time. The question arose as to whether this lingering was a product of interparticle interactions, or was an artifact due to random thermal motion and projection onto a two dimensional image plane. We found that the latter was true, which drove home the idea that we must be wary of our own biases when making scientific observations. During the course of the research on this lingering behavior, we developed a mathematical technique for generating successively more accurate approximate analytical solutions to initial value linear partial differential equations which are first order in time and have no mixing of spatial and time derivatives. This formalism is especially useful for diffusion problems, since the analytical approximation conserves probability at each order of approximation. Our next experimental effort involved colloidal systems in which the suspending medium was carefully prepared to promote long ranged electrostatic interactions between the particles. The interaction potential in such a suspension has been the topic of much research recently. Using digital video microscopy, as well as techniques we developed allowing the proper analysis of two dimensional data, we found that the interaction length in our samples was surprisingly short ranged compared to what we expected based on our water purification experiments. The problems with projection effects associated with two

  16. Characterization of Metal Ion ­ Colloid Interaction: Impact On Colloid-facilitated Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, C. H.; Schmitt, D.; Kaulisch, E.-M.; Frimmel, F. H.

    It is generally accepted, that metal transport in natural aquatic systems strongly de- pends on the metal binding form. Besides complex formation with well defined inor- ganic and organic ligands, the interaction with colloidal particles and soil material is one of the most important reactions of metal ions in aquatic systems. Mobile colloids compete with the stationary soil matrix for binding of metal ions and might facili- tate their transport. Important representatives for mineral and organic colloids are clay minerals and natural organic matter (NOM), respectively. In this work, the interaction of metal ions with clay minerals and NOM is characterized by coupling of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation AF4 to inductively coupled plasma ­ mass spectrometry (ICPMS). A method for separating mineral from organic colloids is presented, which allows to quantify the amount of metals being bound to either colloid. For different metal ions (Cu, Zn, Pb, Pt) and a metalloid (As) a different extent of binding to either colloid was found.The information obtained from the AF4-ICPMS measurements was useful for the understanding of the observations from column experiments which were conducted to quantify the colloid-facilitated metal transport. In column experiments, the transport of the mineral colloids itself and the influence of NOM onto the colloid transport were investigated. Furthermore, the dependance of colloid transport from the ionic strength and the pH value was elucidated. In order to get information about the co-transport of metal ions by organic and mineral colloids, metal ions were adsorbed onto the colloidal material and a distribution coef- ficient of the metal ions between the colloidal phase and the solution was determined. The colloidal suspension containing both, "free" and adsorbed metal ions were then injected onto the column. The direct metal breakthrough caused by colloidal trans- port was detected at the column outlet. The results clearly

  17. Colloid-facilitated metal transport in peat filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Rauch, Sebastien; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Morrison, Greg; Stolpe, Björn; Hasselliöv, Martin

    2010-06-01

    The effect of colloids on metal retention in peat columns was studied, with the focus on colloids from two sources-organic matter leached from peat, and introduced organic and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) colloids. A significant fraction of metals was found to be associated with peat-produced organic colloids; however the concentrations of organic colloids leached are low (trace concentrations) and temporal and have a limited effect on the efficiency of peat filters. In contrast, the presence of organic and HFO colloids in the input water causes a significant decrease in the performance of peat filters. Organic colloids were identified as the main vector of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc, while lead is transported by both organic and HFO colloids. The colloidal distribution of metals obtained in this study has important implications for the mobility of trace metals in porous media. The occurrence of colloids in the input waters and their characteristics must be considered when designing water treatment facilities.

  18. Hydrodynamic dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryce, M.H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A dominant mechanism contributing to hydrodynamic dispersion in fluid flow through rocks is variation of travel speeds within the channels carrying the fluid, whether these be interstices between grains, in granular rocks, or cracks in fractured crystalline rocks. The complex interconnections of the channels ensure a mixing of those parts of the fluid which travel more slowly and those which travel faster. On a macroscopic scale this can be treated statistically in terms of the distribution of times taken by a particle of fluid to move from one surface of constant hydraulic potential to another, lower, potential. The distributions in the individual channels are such that very long travel times make a very important contribution. Indeed, while the mean travel time is related to distance by a well-defined transport speed, the mean square is effectively infinite. This results in an asymmetrical plume which differs markedly from a gaussian shape. The distribution of microscopic travel times is related to the distribution of apertures in the interstices, or in the microcracks, which in turn are affected in a complex way by the stresses acting on the rock matrix

  19. Transport of manure-borne bacteria and colloids in a stony soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Y.; Shelton, D.; Sadeghi, A.; Stout, W.

    2003-04-01

    Manure is a source of several microorganisms that can potentially contribute to surface and ground water contamination. As manure dissolves, microorganisms are released along with manure colloids. We hypothesized that transport of manure-borne bacteria in soils can be viewed as the colloid-facilitated transport. To test this hypothesis, we simulated rainfall of 7.1 cm h-1 to the surface of 90 cm-long lysimeters filled with the undisturbed stony soil. Bovine manure mixed from potassium bromide solution was placed on the soil surface, rainfall continued for about five hours after manure application, and effluent collected each 10 min was analyzed for turbidity, bromide-ion, and fecal coliform (FC) content. FC and turbidity had similar breakthrough curves with low dispersion. The convective-dispersive equation with linear adsorption/exclusion and the first-order removal/re-growth terms could be used as a model of the FC transport in soil, whereas the mobile-immobile zone model had to be used for the bromide transport. The average velocity of bacteria and manure colloids was about seven times larger than the average pore water velocity. Porosity available for FC and manure particulate transport was close to the water content in the mobile zone as determined from the bromide breakthrough. The regression line of reduced coliform concentrations on reduced turbidity values was not significantly different from the "one-to-one" line. Average values for the release rate constants were not significantly different for FC and manure colloids. Data of this work support the hypothesis that transport of manure-borne microorganisms has to be studied and mitigated as a colloid-facilitated transport.

  20. Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: The effect of polydispersity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David

    2012-02-08

    The size-effect tunability of colloidal quantum dots enables facile engineering of the bandgap at the time of nanoparticle synthesis. The dependence of effective bandgap on nanoparticle size also presents a challenge if the size dispersion, hence bandgap variability, is not well-controlled within a given quantum dot solid. The impact of this polydispersity is well-studied in luminescent devices as well as in unipolar electronic transport; however, the requirements on monodispersity have yet to be quantified in photovoltaics. Here we carry out a series of combined experimental and model-based studies aimed at clarifying, and quantifying, the importance of quantum dot monodispersity in photovoltaics. We successfully predict, using a simple model, the dependence of both open-circuit voltage and photoluminescence behavior on the density of small-bandgap (large-diameter) quantum dot inclusions. The model requires inclusion of trap states to explain the experimental data quantitatively. We then explore using this same experimentally tested model the implications of a broadened quantum dot population on device performance. We report that present-day colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic devices with typical inhomogeneous linewidths of 100-150 meV are dominated by surface traps, and it is for this reason that they see marginal benefit from reduction in polydispersity. Upon eliminating surface traps, achieving inhomogeneous broadening of 50 meV or less will lead to device performance that sees very little deleterious impact from polydispersity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Stabilising emulsion-based colloidal structures with mixed food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Eric

    2013-03-15

    The physical scientist views food as a complex form of soft matter. The complexity has its origin in the numerous ingredients that are typically mixed together and the subtle variations in microstructure and texture induced by thermal and mechanical processing. The colloid science approach to food product formulation is based on the assumption that the major product attributes such as appearance, rheology and physical stability are determined by the spatial distribution and interactions of a small number of generic structural entities (biopolymers, particles, droplets, bubbles, crystals) organised in various kinds of structural arrangements (layers, complexes, aggregates, networks). This review describes some recent advances in this field with reference to three discrete classes of dispersed systems: particle-stabilised emulsions, emulsion gels and aerated emulsions. Particular attention is directed towards explaining the crucial role of the macromolecular ingredients (proteins and polysaccharides) in controlling the formation and stabilisation of the colloidal structures. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide the basic physicochemical insight required for the reliable manufacture of novel structured foods with an appealing taste and texture, whilst incorporating a more healthy set of ingredients than those found in many existing traditional products. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Modeling Evaporation and Particle Assembly in Colloidal Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingfei; Yong, Xin

    2017-06-13

    Evaporation-induced assembly of nanoparticles in a drying droplet is of great importance in many engineering applications, including printing, coating, and thin film processing. The investigation of particle dynamics in evaporating droplets can provide fundamental hydrodynamic insight for revealing the processing-structure relationship in the particle self-organization induced by solvent evaporation. We develop a free-energy-based multiphase lattice Boltzmann method coupled with Brownian dynamics to simulate evaporating colloidal droplets on solid substrates with specified wetting properties. The influence of interface-bound nanoparticles on the surface tension and evaporation of a flat liquid-vapor interface is first quantified. The results indicate that the particles at the interface reduce surface tension and enhance evaporation flux. For evaporating particle-covered droplets on substrates with different wetting properties, we characterize the increase of evaporate rate via measuring droplet volume. We find that droplet evaporation is determined by the number density and circumferential distribution of interfacial particles. We further correlate particle dynamics and assembly to the evaporation-induced convection in the bulk and on the surface of droplet. Finally, we observe distinct final deposits from evaporating colloidal droplets with bulk-dispersed and interface-bound particles. In addition, the deposit pattern is also influenced by the equilibrium contact angle of droplet.

  3. Carbon Nanomaterials as Antibacterial Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and the various forms of diamond have attracted great attention for their vast potential regarding applications in electrical engineering and as biomaterials. The study of the antibacterial properties of carbon nanomaterials provides fundamental information on the possible toxicity and environmental impact of these materials. Furthermore, as a result of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria strains, the development of novel antibacterial materials is of great importance. This article reviews current research efforts on characterizing the antibacterial activity of carbon nanomaterials from the perspective of colloid and interface science. Building on these fundamental findings, recent functionalization strategies for enhancing the antibacterial effect of carbon nanomaterials are described. The review concludes with a comprehensive outlook that summarizes the most important discoveries and trends regarding antibacterial carbon nanomaterials.

  4. Colloidal QDs-polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, H.; Suárez, I.; Rodríguez-Cantó, P.; Abargues, R.; García-Calzada, R.; Chyrvony, V.; Albert, S.; Martínez-Pastor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nanometer-size colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, or Quantum Dots (NQD), are very prospective active centers because their light emission is highly efficient and temperature-independent. Nanocomposites based on the incorporation of QDs inside a polymer matrix are very promising materials for application in future photonic devices because they combine the properties of QDs with the technological feasibility of polymers. In the present work some basic applications of these new materials have been studied. Firstly, the fabrication of planar and linear waveguides based on the incorporation of CdS, CdSe and CdTe in PMMA and SU-8 are demonstrated. As a result, photoluminescence (PL) of the QDs are coupled to a waveguide mode, being it able to obtain multicolor waveguiding. Secondly, nanocomposite films have been evaluated as photon energy down-shifting converters to improve the efficiency of solar cells.

  5. Optimizing colloidal nanocrystals for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sytnyk, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature colloidal nanocrystals are presented as promising materials for multiple applications, in areas covering optoelectronics, photovoltaics, spintronics, catalysis, and bio-medicine. On the marked are, however, only a very limited number of examples found, indeed implementing colloidal nanocrystals. Thus the scope of this thesis was to modify nanocrystals and to tune their properties to fulfill specific demands. While some modifications could be achieved by post synthetic treatments, one key problem of colloidal nanocrystals, hampering there widespread application is the toxicity of their constituents. To develop nanocrystals from non-toxic materials has been a major goal of this thesis as well. Roughly, the results in this thesis could be subdivided into three parts: (i) the development of ion exchange methods to tailor the properties of metallic and metal-oxide based nanocrystal heterostructures, (ii), the synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals from non-toxic materials, and (iii) the characterization of the nanocrystals by measurements of their morphology, chemical composition, magnetic-, optical-, and electronic properties. In detail, the thesis is subdivided into an introductory chapter, 4 chapters reporting on scientific results, a chapter reporting the used methods, and the conclusions. The 4 chapters devoted to the scientific results correspond to manuscripts, which are either currently in preparation, or have been published in highly ranked scientific journals such as NanoLetters (chapter 2), ACS Nano (chapter 4), or JACS (chapter 5). Thus, these chapters provide also an extra introduction and conclusion section, as well as separate reference lists. Chapter 2 describes a cation exchange process which is used to tune and improve the magnetic properties of different iron-oxide based colloidal nanocrystal-heterostructures. The superparamagnetic blocking temperature, magnetic remanence, and coercivity is tuned by replacing Fe2+ by Co2

  6. Combined time-lapse magnetic resonance imaging and modeling to investigate colloid deposition and transport in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Faure, Pamela; Lafolie, François; Rodts, Stéphane; Courtier-Murias, Denis; Coussot, Philippe; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-15

    Colloidal particles can act as vectors of adsorbed pollutants in the subsurface, or be themselves pollutants. They can reach the aquifer and impair groundwater quality. The mechanisms of colloid transport and deposition are often studied in columns filled with saturated porous media. Time-lapse profiles of colloid concentration inside the columns have occasionally been derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data recorded in transport experiments. These profiles are valuable, in addition to particle breakthrough curves (BTCs), for testing and improving colloid transport models. We show that concentrations could not be simply computed from MRI data when both deposited and suspended colloids contributed to the signal. We propose a generic method whereby these data can still be used to quantitatively appraise colloid transport models. It uses the modeled suspended and deposited particle concentrations to compute modeled MRI data that are compared to the experimental data. We tested this method by performing transport experiments with sorbing colloids in sand, and assessed for the first time the capacity of the model calibrated from BTCs to reproduce the MRI data. Interestingly, the dispersion coefficient and deposition rate calibrated from the BTC were respectively overestimated and underestimated compared with those calibrated from the MRI data, suggesting that these quantities, when determined from BTCs, need to be interpreted with care. In a broader perspective, we consider that combining MRI and modeling offers great potential for the quantitative analysis of complex MRI data recorded during transport experiments in complex environmentally relevant porous media, and can help improve our understanding of the fate of colloids and solutes, first in these media, and later in soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Full Alignment of Colloidal Objects by Programed Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, T. A.

    2013-01-01

    By analysis and simulation, we demonstrate two methods for achieving complete orientational alignment of a set of identical asymmetric colloidal objects dispersed randomly in a fluid. Sedimentation or electrophoresis in a constant field can lead to partial alignment, in which the objects rotate about a common body axis, but the phases of rotation for these objects are random. We show that this phase disorder can be removed by two forms of programed forcing. First, simply alternating the forcing between two directions reduces the statistical entropy of the orientation arbitrarily. Second, the addition of a small rotating component to the applied field in analogy to magnetic resonance can lead to phase locking of the objects’ orientation. We identify conditions for alignment of a broad class of generic objects and discuss practical limitations.

  8. Optical detection of magnetic nanoparticles in colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, Alejandro J.; Ramirez-Wong, Diana G.; Favela-Camacho, Sarai E.; Sanchez, Isaac C.; Yáñez-Limón, J.M.; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the change of light transmittance and light scattering dispersion by colloidal suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles. Optical changes were observed during the application of transversal magnetic fields to magnetic nanoparticles and nanowires at concentrations spanning from 20 µg/mL to 2 ng/mL. Results show that light scattering modulation is a simple, fast and inexpensive method for detection of magnetic nanoparticles at low concentrations. Frequency and time response of the optical modulation strongly depends on the geometry of the particles. In this regard, light transmittance and scattering measurements may prove useful in characterizing the morphology of suspended nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A simple route to characterize magnetic nanowire suspension is proposed. • Studied concentration as low as 2 ng/mL compares with more complex techniques. • Transmission and scattering modes allow full characterization of nanoparticles.

  9. Extraordinary Hall-effect in colloidal magnetic nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Gur, Leah; Tirosh, Einat [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Segal, Amir [School of Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Markovich, Gil, E-mail: gilmar@post.tau.ac.il [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Gerber, Alexander, E-mail: gerber@post.tau.ac.il [School of Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel)

    2017-03-15

    Colloidal nickel nanoparticles (NPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized. The nanoparticle dispersions were deposited on substrates and dried under mild heating to form conductive films. The films exhibited very small coercivity, nearly metallic conductivity, and a significant extraordinary Hall effect signal. This method could be useful for preparing simple, printed magnetic field sensors with the advantage of relatively high sensitivity around zero magnetic field, in contrast to magnetoresistive sensors, which have maximal field sensitivity away from zero magnetic field. - Highlights: • Ni nanoparticle ink capable of forming conductive films on drying. • The Ni nanoparticle films exhibit significant extraordinary Hall effect. • This system could be used for preparing printed magnetic field sensors integrated in 3D printed structures.

  10. Effect of desorption kinetics on colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants: Cesium, strontium, and illite colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ned B.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Saiers, James E.

    2006-12-01

    To examine the importance of desorption kinetics to colloid-facilitated transport, we conducted column experiments comparing the transport of cesium and strontium through a saturated quartz sand porous medium in the absence and presence of illite colloids at two ionic strengths. Because cesium desorption from illite was anticipated to be slower than that of strontium, we expected to see a contrast in the colloid-facilitated transport of the cations. A model of colloid-facilitated transport accounting for second-order cation adsorption to and desorption from the quartz, second-order cation adsorption to and desorption from fast and slow sites on the illite colloids, and second-order colloid deposition to and release from the quartz accurately simulated the cation transport in the absence and presence of the illite colloids. The column results and model simulations revealed that cesium desorption was indeed slower than strontium desorption and that this contrast in desorption kinetics resulted in greater colloid-facilitated transport of the cesium. The desorption of both cations was slow relative to the rate of advection. The fast and slow sites on the illite colloids behaved like planar and frayed edge sites typically identified for cesium adsorption to illite. The amount of cesium adsorbed to the slow, or frayed edge, sites was similar to the frayed edge site density of illite estimated by other researchers.

  11. On adiabatic pair potentials of highly charged colloid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogami, Ikuo S.

    2018-03-01

    Generalizing the Debye-Hückel formalism, we develop a new mean field theory for adiabatic pair potentials of highly charged particles in colloid dispersions. The unoccupied volume and the osmotic pressure are the key concepts to describe the chemical and thermodynamical equilibrium of the gas of small ions in the outside region of all of the colloid particles. To define the proper thermodynamic quantities, it is postulated to take an ensemble averaging with respect to the particle configurations in the integrals for their densities consisting of the electric potential satisfying a set of equations that are derived by linearizing the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. With the Fourier integral representation of the electric potential, we calculate first the internal electric energy of the system from which the Helmholtz free energy is obtained through the Legendre transformation. Then, the Gibbs free energy is calculated using both ways of the Legendre transformation with respect to the unoccupied volume and the summation of chemical potentials. The thermodynamic functions provide three types of pair potentials, all of which are inversely proportional to the fraction of the unoccupied volume. At the limit when the fraction factor reduces to unity, the Helmholtz pair potential turns exactly into the well known Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek repulsive potential. The Gibbs pair potential possessing a medium-range strong repulsive part and a long-range weak attractive tail can explain the Schulze-Hardy rule for coagulation in combination with the van der Waals-London potential and describes a rich variety of phenomena of phase transitions observed in the dilute dispersions of highly charged particles.

  12. Colloidal Mineral Liquid Crystals. Formation & Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink op Reinink, A.B.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The central topic of this thesis is the formation, manipulation and characterization of colloidal mineral liquid crystals. Liquid crystals are liquids containing ordered anisometric particles. A range of liquid crystalline phases exists, from solely orientationally ordered nematic phases to

  13. Hemorrhagic Colloid Cyst Presenting with Acute Hydrocephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akhavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloid cysts are benign slow-growing cystic lesions located on the roof of the third ventricle that usually present with symptoms related to gradual rise of intracranial pressure. They mostly remain asymptomatic and sometimes grow progressively and cause diverse symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure such as headache, diplopia, and sixth cranial nerve palsy. Here we report a 47-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with acute severe headache and nausea/vomiting. On MRI examination acute hydrocephaly due to hemorrhagic colloid cyst was detected. Acute hemorrhage in colloid cysts is extremely rare and may present with symptoms of acute increase in the intracranial pressure. Intracystic hemorrhage is very rarely reported as a complication of colloid cyst presenting with paroxysmal symptoms of acute hydrocephaly.

  14. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  15. Transformative Colloidal Nanomaterials for Mid- Infrared Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    conductivity in monodispersed colloidal nanocrystal films was observed first nearly a decade ago, 7 field-effect transistors achieve ever increasing...mobilities,8 there are reports of high sensitivity photoconduction,9 and photovoltaic performance is improving with already ~100% quantum efficiency.2 The...446 (2005) [2] Hillhouse, H.W., Beard, M.C., “Solar cells from colloidal nanocrystals: Fundamentals, materials, devices, and economics,” Curr. Op

  16. Dispersion of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Polymers with Carbazole Pendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Caizhen; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jianjun; Yong, Qiwen; Huang, Yuewen; Liao, Bing

    2017-09-07

    For various applications, it is essential to enhance the colloidal stabilization of carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersions. Here, the polymers with carbazole pendants of poly(4-(N-carbazolyl)methylstyrene-bl-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PCMS 5 -b-PAPEG 73 and PCMS 16 -b-PAPEG 43 ) and PCMS 30 , synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, were used for noncovalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in tetrahydrofuran (THF), offering efficient colloidal stabilization. Meanwhile, the adsorption of polymers onto MWCNTs was investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs decorated with these three polymers in THF exhibited different colloidal stabilization and adsorption capacity. Moreover, the MWCNT dispersions could be stabilized for days and their colloidal stabilization elevated with the increase of polymer concentrations. The block copolymer PCMS 16 -b-PAPEG 43 exhibited the optimal adsorption and dispersion capability for MWCNTs. These findings imply that PCMS m -b-PAPEG n will be a desirable dispersant for optimizing the stabilization of CNT dispersion, making carbon nanotubes (CNTs) achievable in different applications.

  17. Tunable Time-Dependent Colloidal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Andrew M.; Rogers, W. Benjamin; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

    Self-assembly of colloidal particles can be driven by changes in temperature, density, or the concentration of solutes, and it is even possible to program the thermal response and equilibrium phase transitions of such systems. It is still difficult, however, to tune how the self-assembly process varies in time. We demonstrate control over the time-dependence of colloidal interactions, using DNA-functionalized colloidal particles with binding energies that are set by the concentration of a free linker strand in solution. We control the rate at which this free strand is consumed using a catalytic DNA reaction, whose rate is governed by the concentration of a catalyst strand. Varying the concentration of the linker, its competitor, and the catalyst at a fixed temperature, we can tune the rate and degree of the formation of colloidal aggregates and their following disassembly. Close to the colloidal melting point, the timescales of these out-of-equilibrium assembly and disassembly processes are determined by the rate of the catalytic reaction. Far below the colloidal melting point, however, the effects from varying our linker and competitor concentrations dominate.

  18. Inventions Utilizing Microfluidics and Colloidal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, David W.; Gong, Tieying; Oakey, John; Terray, Alexander V.; Wu, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Several related inventions pertain to families of devices that utilize microfluidics and/or colloidal particles to obtain useful physical effects. The families of devices can be summarized as follows: (1) Microfluidic pumps and/or valves wherein colloidal-size particles driven by electrical, magnetic, or optical fields serve as the principal moving parts that propel and/or direct the affected flows. (2) Devices that are similar to the aforementioned pumps and/or valves except that they are used to manipulate light instead of fluids. The colloidal particles in these devices are substantially constrained to move in a plane and are driven to spatially order them into arrays that function, variously, as waveguides, filters, or switches for optical signals. (3) Devices wherein the ultra-laminar nature of microfluidic flows is exploited to effect separation, sorting, or filtering of colloidal particles or biological cells in suspension. (4) Devices wherein a combination of confinement and applied electrical and/or optical fields forces the colloidal particles to become arranged into three-dimensional crystal lattices. Control of the colloidal crystalline structures could be exploited to control diffraction of light. (5) Microfluidic devices, incorporating fluid waveguides, wherein switching of flows among different paths would be accompanied by switching of optical signals.

  19. Liquid phase deposition of silica: Thin films, colloids and fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsitt, Elizabeth A.

    Little research has been done to explore liquid phase deposition (LPD) of silica on non-planar substrates. This thesis proves that the seeded growth of silica colloids from fullerene and surfactant micelles is possible via LPD, as is the coating of individual single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and carbon fibers. Working on the premise that a molecular growth mechanism (versus colloidal/gel deposition) is valid for LPD, nanostructured substrates and specific chemical functional groups should act as "seeds," or templates, for silica growth. Seeded growth is confirmed by reactions of the growth solution with a range of surfactants and with materials with distinctive surface moieties. LPD promises lower production costs and environmental impact as compared to present methods of coating technology, because it is an inherently simple process, using low temperatures and inexpensive air-stable reactants. Silica is ubiquitous in materials science. Its applications range from thixotropic additives for paint to gate dielectrics in the semiconductor industry. Nano-structured coatings and thin films are integral in today's electronics industry and will become more vital as the size of electronics shrinks. With the incorporation of nanoparticles in future devices, the ability to deposit quality coatings with finely tuned properties becomes paramount. The methods developed herein have applications in fabricating insulators for use in the future molecular scale electronics industry. Additionally, these silica nanoparticles have applications as templates for use in photonics and fuel cell membrane production and lend strength and durability to composites.

  20. Shear Thickening Electrolyte Built from Sterically Stabilized Colloidal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Brian H; Armstrong, Beth L; Doucet, Mathieu; Heroux, Luke; Browning, James F; Agamalian, Michael; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Veith, Gabriel M

    2018-03-21

    We present a method to prepare shear thickening electrolytes consisting of silica nanoparticles in conventional liquid electrolytes with limited flocculation. These electrolytes rapidly and reversibly stiffen to solidlike behaviors in the presence of external shear or high impact, which is promising for improved lithium ion battery safety, especially in electric vehicles. However, in initial chemistries the silica nanoparticles aggregate and/or sediment in solution over time. Here, we demonstrate steric stabilization of silica colloids in conventional liquid electrolyte via surface-tethered PMMA brushes, synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. The PMMA increases the magnitude of the shear thickening response, compared to the uncoated particles, from 0.311 to 2.25 Pa s. Ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering revealed a reduction in aggregation of PMMA-coated silica nanoparticles compared to bare silica nanoparticles in solution under shear and at rest, suggesting good stabilization. Conductivity tests of shear thickening electrolytes (30 wt % solids in electrolyte) at rest were performed with interdigitated electrodes positioned near the meniscus of electrolytes over the course of 24 h to track supernatant formation. Conductivity of electrolytes with bare silica increased from 10.1 to 11.6 mS cm -1 over 24 h due to flocculation. In contrast, conductivity of electrolytes with PMMA-coated silica remained stable at 6.1 mS cm -1 over the same time period, suggesting good colloid stability.

  1. Observation particle morphology of colloidal system by conventional SEM with an improved specimen preparation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Zhaosheng; Yuan, Xiaojiao; Guo, Hong

    2011-08-01

    On the basis of our previous report that polymer emulsion with different viscosity can be investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we have developed an improved specimen preparation technique for obtaining particle morphology and size of colloidal silver, collagen, glutin, and polymer microspheres. In this study, we expect to provide a means for charactering the three-dimensional surface microstructure of colloidal particles. Dilution of the samples with appropriate volatile solvent like ethanol is effective for SEM specimen preparation. At a proper ratio between sample and ethanol, the colloidal particles are dispersed uniformly in ethanol and then deposited evenly on the substrate. Different drying methods are studied to search a proper drying condition, in which the small molecule solvent is removed without destroying the natural particle morphology. And the effects of ethanol in the specimen preparation process are described by analyzing the physicochemical properties of ethanol. The specimen preparation technique is simple and can be achieved in common laboratory for charactering the particle morphology of colloidal system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Electrochemically Synthesized Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles Against Hospital-Acquired Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuc, Dao Tri; Huy, Tran Quang; Hoang, Luc Huy; Hoang, Tran Huy; Le, Anh-Tuan; Anh, Dang Duc

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of electrochemically synthesized colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against hospital-acquired infections. Colloidal AgNPs were synthesized via a single process using bulk silver bars, bi-distilled water, trisodium citrate, and direct current voltage at room temperature. Colloidal AgNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray analyses. The antibacterial activity of colloidal AgNPs against four bacterial strains isolated from clinical samples, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia, was evaluated by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and ultrathin sectioning electron microscopy. The results showed that the prepared AgNPs were 19.7 ± 4.3 nm in size, quasi-spherical, and of high purity. Zones of inhibition approximately 6-10 mm in diameter were found, corresponding to AgNPs concentrations of 50 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL. The MIC results revealed that the antibacterial activity of the prepared AgNPs was strongly dependent on the concentration and strain of the tested bacteria.

  3. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    'Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes is a major remediation problem for the Department of Energy (DOE). Although radionuclides are the most hazardous waste constituents. the components of greatest concern from a waste processing standpoint are insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerate networks that could clog transfer lines or interfere with solid-liquid separations such as settle-decant operations. Under different conditions, the particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that will not create sediment in settle- decant steps and that can foul and contaminate downstream treatment components including ion exchangers or filtrations systems. Given the wide range of tank chemistries present at Hanford and other DOE sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all potential processing conditions to design effective treatment procedures. Instead. a framework needs to be established to allow sludge property trends to be predicted on a sound scientific basis. The scientific principles of greatest utility in characterizing, understanding, and controlling the physical properties of sludge fall in the realm of colloid chemistry. The objectives of this work are to accomplish the following: understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation. and filtration develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena.'

  4. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides Through The Vadose Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; John F. McCarthy' Peter C. Lichtner; John M. Zachara

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this project was to advance the basic scientific understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated Cs transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone. We focused our research on the hydrological and geochemical conditions beneath the leaking waste tanks at the USDOE Hanford reservation. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the lability and thermodynamic stability of colloidal materials, which form after reacting Hanford sediments with simulated Hanford Tank Waste, (2) to characterize the interactions between colloidal particles and contaminants, i.e., Cs and Eu, (3) to determine the potential of Hanford sediments for in situ mobilization of colloids, (4) to evaluate colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through sediments under unsaturated flow, (5) to implement colloid-facilitated contaminant transport mechanisms into a transport model, and (6) to improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facilitated transport for clean-up procedures and long-term risk assessment

  5. Preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A.; Aneman, A.; Guttormsen, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    trials of ICU patients showing changes in mortality or renal function, respectively. CONCLUSION: Most Scandinavian ICUs use both synthetic and natural colloids, but HES 130/0.4 is by far the preferred colloid. Few units have protocols for colloid use, but most use them for hypovolaemia, and the majority......BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation is a frequent intervention in intensive care. Colloids are widely used, but recent data suggest harm by some of these solutions. This calls for more clinical studies on this matter, but the current preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units...... the questionnaire. Most ICUs used both synthetic and natural colloids, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 was the preferred colloid in 59 units. Eleven ICUs had protocols for colloid use. The most frequent indication was second-line fluid for hypovolaemia, but one in three ICUs used colloids as first-line fluid...

  6. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Lori [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Arunachalam, J., E-mail: aruncccm@rediffmail.com [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. {yields} Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. {yields} Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. {yields} The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. {yields} Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 {+-} 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for

  7. Colloidal Gelation-2 and Colloidal Disorder-Order Transition-2 Investigations Conducted on STS-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Monica T.

    2000-01-01

    The Colloidal Gelation-2 (CGEL 2) and Colloidal Disorder-Order Transition-2 (CDOT 2) investigations flew on Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-95 (also known as the John Glenn Mission). These investigations were part of a series of colloid experiments designed to help scientists answer fundamental science questions and reduce the trial and error involved in developing new and better materials. Industries dealing with semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. The goal of the CGEL 2 investigation was to study the fundamental properties of colloids to help scientists better understand their nature and make them more useful for technology. Colloids consist of very small (submicron) particles suspended in a fluid. They play a critical role in the technology of this country, finding uses in materials ranging from paints and coatings to drugs, cosmetics, food, and drink. Although these products are routinely produced and used, there are still many aspects of their behavior about which scientists know little. Understanding their structures may allow scientists to manipulate the physical properties of colloids (a process called "colloidal engineering") to produce new materials and products. Colloid research may even improve the processing of known products to enhance their desirable properties.

  8. Functional Nanofibers and Colloidal Gels: Key Elements to Enhance Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nancy Amanda

    material so that prolonged release can be readily achieved from highly water soluble nanofibers. The final research theme focuses on gaining a fundamental understanding of a new class of materials, nanodiamond, so that a desired microstructure can be achieved via functionalization or manipulating processing parameters. In particular, we utilize both steady and dynamic rheology techniques to systematically investigate systems of nanodiamonds dispersed in model nonpolar (mineral oil) and polar (glycerol) media. In both cases, selfsupporting colloidal gels form at relatively low nanodiamond content; however, the gel behavior is highly dependent on the type of media used. Nanodiamonds dispersed in mineral oil exhibit characteristic colloidal gel behavior, with a rheological response that is independent of both frequency and time. However, nanodiamonds dispersed in glycerol exhibit a time dependent response, with the strength of the colloidal gels increasing several orders of magnitude. We attribute these rheological differences to changes in solvent complexity, where new particle-solvent and particle-particle interactions have the potential to delay optimal gel formation. In addition to colloidal gel formation, we use large oscillatory strains to probe the effect of processing parameters on microstructure disruption and recovery. The results indicate that the formation and rearrangement of the nanodiamond microstructures are concentration dependent for both media types; however, the recovery after breakdown is different for each system. Recovery of the nanodiamond/mineral oil gels is incomplete, with the strength of the recovered gel being significantly reduced. In contrast, the original strength of the nanodiamond/glycerol gels is recoverable as the system restructures with time. The practical implications of these results are significant as it suggest that shear history and solvent polarity play a dominant role in nanodiamond processing.

  9. Polymer depletion-driven cluster aggregation and initial phase separation in charged nanosized colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögelein, Christoph; Nägele, Gerhard; Buitenhuis, Johan; Tuinier, Remco; Dhont, Jan K. G.

    2009-05-01

    We study polymer depletion-driven cluster aggregation and initial phase separation in aqueous dispersions of charge-stabilized silica spheres, where the ionic strength and polymer (dextran) concentration are systematically varied, using dynamic light scattering and visual observation. Without polymers and for increasing salt and colloid content, the dispersions become increasingly unstable against irreversible cluster formation. By adding nonadsorbing polymers, a depletion-driven attraction is induced, which lowers the stabilizing Coulomb barrier and enhances the cluster growth rate. The initial growth rate increases with increasing polymer concentration and decreases with increasing polymer molar mass. These observations can be quantitatively understood by an irreversible dimer formation theory based on the classical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek pair potential, with the depletion attraction modeled by the Asakura-Oosawa-Vrij potential. At low colloid concentration, we observe an exponential cluster growth rate for all polymer concentrations considered, indicating a reaction-limited aggregation mechanism. At sufficiently high polymer and colloid concentrations, and lower salt content, a gas-liquidlike demixing is observed initially. Later on, the system separates into a gel and fluidlike phase. The experimental time-dependent state diagram is compared to the theoretical equilibrium phase diagram obtained from a generalized free-volume theory and is discussed in terms of an initial reversible phase separation process in combination with irreversible aggregation at later times.

  10. Molecular Recognition in the Colloidal World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Elizabeth; Zheng, Xiaolong; Shillingford, Cicely; Liu, Mingzhu; Weck, Marcus

    2017-11-21

    Colloidal self-assembly is a bottom-up technique to fabricate functional nanomaterials, with paramount interest stemming from programmable assembly of smaller building blocks into dynamic crystalline domains and photonic materials. Multiple established colloidal platforms feature diverse shapes and bonding interactions, while achieving specific orientations along with short- and long-range order. A major impediment to their universal use as building blocks for predesigned architectures is the inability to precisely dictate and control particle functionalization and concomitant reversible self-assembly. Progress in colloidal self-assembly necessitates the development of strategies that endow bonding specificity and directionality within assemblies. Methodologies that emulate molecular and polymeric three-dimensional (3D) architectures feature elements of covalent bonding, while high-fidelity molecular recognition events have been installed to realize responsive reconfigurable assemblies. The emergence of anisotropic 'colloidal molecules', coupled with the ability to site-specifically decorate particle surfaces with supramolecular recognition motifs, has facilitated the formation of superstructures via directional interactions and shape recognition. In this Account, we describe supramolecular assembly routes to drive colloidal particles into precisely assembled architectures or crystalline lattices via directional noncovalent molecular interactions. The design principles are based upon the fabrication of colloidal particles bearing surface-exposed functional groups that can undergo programmable conjugation to install recognition motifs with high fidelity. Modular and versatile by design, our strategy allows for the introduction and integration of molecular recognition principles into the colloidal world. We define noncovalent molecular interactions as site-specific forces that are predictable (i.e., feature selective and controllable complementary bonding partners

  11. Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huan

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum junction solar cell that leverages an improved aluminum zinc oxide electrode for a stable contact to the n-side of the quantum junction and silver doping of the p-layer that greatly enhances the photocurrent by expanding the depletion region in the n-side of the device. These improvements result in greater stability and a power conversion efficiency of 6.1 under AM1.5 simulated solar illumination. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Dynamic Trap Formation and Elimination in Colloidal Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Voznyy, O.

    2013-03-21

    Using first-principles simulations on PbS and CdSe colloidal quantum dots, we find that surface defects form in response to electronic doping and charging of the nanoparticles. We show that electronic trap states in nanocrystals are dynamic entities, in contrast with the conventional picture wherein traps are viewed as stable electronic states that can be filled or emptied, but not created or destroyed. These traps arise from the formation or breaking of atomic dimers at the nanoparticle surface. The dimers\\' energy levels can reside within the bandgap, in which case a trap is formed. Fortunately, we are also able to identify a number of shallow-electron-affinity cations that stabilize the surface, working to counter dynamic trap formation and allowing for trap-free doping. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  14. Characterization of PEI-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for transfection: Size distribution, colloidal properties and DNA interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steitz, Benedikt [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hofmann, Heinrich [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Kamau, Sarah W. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Hassa, Paul O. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Hottiger, Michael O. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Rechenberg, Brigitte von [Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 260, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Magarethe [MatSearch, Chemin Jean Pavillard 14, 1009 Pully (Switzerland); Petri-Fink, Alke [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: alke.fink@epfl.ch

    2007-04-15

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were coated with polyethylenimine. Here, we briefly describe the synthesis as well as DNA:PEI:SPION complexes and the characterization of the compounds according to their particle size, {zeta}-potential, morphology, DNA complexing ability, magnetic sedimentation, and colloidal stability. PEI coating of SPIONs led to colloidally stable beads even in high salt concentrations over a wide pH range. DNA plasmids and PCR products encoding for green fluorescent protein were associated with the described beads. The complexes were added to cells and exposed to permanent and pulsating magnetic fields. Presence of these magnetic fields significantly increased the transfection efficiency.

  15. Colloidal 2D nanosheets of MoS2 and other transition metal dichalcogenides through liquid-phase exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayfer, Ekaterina D; Kozlova, Mariia N; Fedorov, Vladimir E

    2017-07-01

    This review focuses on the exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides MQ 2 (TMD, M=Mo, W, etc., Q=S, Se, Te) in liquid media, leading to the formation of 2D nanosheets dispersed in colloids. Nowadays, colloidal dispersions of MoS 2 , MoSe 2 , WS 2 and other related materials are considered for a wide range of applications, including electronic and optoelectronic devices, energy storage and conversion, sensors for gases, catalysts and catalyst supports, biomedicine, etc. We address various methods developed so far for transferring these materials from bulk to nanoscale thickness, and discuss their stabilization and factors influencing it. Long-time known exfoliation through Li intercalation has received renewed attention in recent years, and is recognized as a method yielding highest dispersed concentrations of single-layer MoS 2 and related materials. Latest trends in the intercalation/exfoliation approach include electrochemical lithium intercalation, experimenting with various intercalating agents, multi-step intercalation, etc. On the other hand, direct sonication in solvents is a much simpler technique that allows one to avoid dangerous reagents, long reaction times and purifying steps. The influence of the solvent characteristics on the colloid formation was closely investigated in numerous recent studies. Moreover, it is being recognized that, besides solvent properties, sonication parameters and solvent transformations may affect the process in a crucial way. The latest data on the interaction of MoS 2 with solvents evidence that not only solution thermodynamics should be employed to understand the formation and stabilization of such colloids, but also general and organic chemistry. It appears that due to the sonolysis of the solvents and cutting of the MoS 2 layers in various directions, the reactive edges of the colloidal nanosheets may bear various functionalities, which participate in their stabilization in the colloidal state. In most cases, direct

  16. 90Y-labeled antimony trisulfide colloid as promising therapeutic agent: Physicochemical characterization and biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Drina Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The suitability of 90Y-labeled antimony trisulfide colloid (ATC for the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceutical was studied taking into accounts its physicochemical properties and biological behavior in rats. Material and methods The labeling efficiency of 90Y- and 99mTc-labeled colloid particles was investigated by ITLC-SG and paper chromatography, the in vitro stability of the colloid was tested in human serum, while in vivo experiments were performed on healthy Wistar rats. Analysis of the particles enclosed the size (TEM, determination of the zeta potential (Zetasizer Nano as well as radioactivity particle size distribution (filtration analysis. Results 90Y-labeled ATC can be prepared in high yield under investigated conditions Labeling efficiency was >95% and filtration analysis showed that more than 90% of radioactive particles were smaller than 20 nm. The particles with the size range of 6-22 nm were achieved by using polyvinyipyrrolidone (mol wt ~44,000. The 90Y-ATC was quite stable in vitro in human serum. Tissue distribution studies in rats confirmed that the liver and spleen uptake of 90Y-labeled colloid was three-fold lower in comparison with 99mTc-ATC, although the bone uptake was five-fold higher at 20 min post injection. Conclusions 90Y-labeled ATC showed high labeling efficiency and good stability, and might be well suited for therapeutic application in nuclear medicine.

  17. Dynamics of fractal cluster colloidal gels with embedded active Janus particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Michael; Szakasits, Megan; Zhang, Wenxuan

    We find that fractal cluster gels of colloids in which platinum-coated Janus particles have been embedded exhibit enhanced mobility when the Janus particles are made active by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. Gelation is induced through addition of a divalent salt, magnesium chloride, to an initially stable suspension of Janus and polystyrene colloids, each of size about 1 micron. After the gels have been created, the embedded Janus colloids are activated by hydrogen peroxide, which is delivered to the system through a porous hydrogel membrane. We vary the ratio of active to passive colloids in the gels from about 1:20 to 1:8. Changes in structure and dynamics are visualized by two channel confocal laser scanning microscopy. By image analysis, we determine the particle positions and compute the mean squared displacement (MSD) of all particles in the gel. We measure the mobility enhancement in the fractal gels as a function of hydrogen peroxide concentration and Janus particle concentration and discuss the results in terms of the force provided by each active particle to the fractal gel network.

  18. Quantifying particulate and colloidal release of radionuclides in waste-weathered hanford sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdrial, Nicolas; Thompson, Aaron; LaSharr, Kelsie; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Chorover, Jon

    2015-05-01

    At the Hanford Site in the state of Washington, leakage of hyperalkaline, high ionic strength wastewater from underground storage tanks into the vadose zone has induced mineral transformations and changes in radionuclide speciation. Remediation of this wastewater will decrease the ionic strength of water infiltrating to the vadose zone and could affect the fate of the radionuclides. Although it was shown that radionuclide host phases are thermodynamically stable in the presence of waste fluids, a decrease in solution ionic strength and pH could alter aggregate stability and remobilize radionuclide-bearing colloids and particulate matter. We quantified the release of particulate, colloidal, and truly dissolved Sr, Cs, and I from hyperalkaline-weathered Hanford sediments during a low ionic strength pore water leach and characterized the released particles and colloids using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Although most of the Sr, Cs, and I was released in dissolved form, between 3 and 30% of the Sr and 4 to 18% of the Cs was associated with a dominantly zeolitic mobile particulate fraction. Thus, the removal of hyperalkaline wastewater will likely induce Sr and Cs mobilization that will be augmented by particulate- and colloid-facilitated transport. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Heavy metal geochemistry and dispersion pattern in coastal sediments, soil, and water of Kedron Brook floodplain area, Brisbane, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakel, A.V.; Hongjun, T. (AWT Science Environment, Sydney (Australia))

    Hydrochemical monitoring and heavy metal speciation by sequential extraction techniques indicate direct relationships among enrichment of the heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, and cadmium), soil acidification, and salinization in Kedron Brook floodplain area of Brisbane, Australia. Assessment of modes of occurrence and distribution pattern of the heavy metals in soil, sediment, and water environments of this coastal plain indicates that the total concentrations and reactive fractions of these metals are elevated in soil and channel bed sediments. Such geochemical signatures reflect complex sources and a combination of natural and anthropogenic processes on concentration and dispersion within the coastal zone. According to a working model presented, the enrichment of the heavy metals, in the soil and sediment profiles is triggered by capillary pumping during low groundwater standing levels, when the metals are in a stable form associated with dry gels. During higher groundwater levels and occasional flood events, these metals become mobilized when the gel material is transformed into soluble colloidal phase. This study indicates that the potential impacts of heavy metal pollution on the coastal ecosystems can not be assessed and managed in isolation solely by considering the natural cause-effect relationships. The complex nature of sediment-soil-water interactions can produce effects which include mobilization, concentration, and/or dispersion of heavy metals at both short and longer time scales. Therefore, a sound understanding of the prevailing hydrogeochemical processes is essential for prediction of the fate of heavy metals and establishment of meaningful coastal zone management strategies.

  20. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data